Science.gov

Sample records for horse chestnut aesculus

  1. Somatic Embryogenesis in Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.).

    PubMed

    Capuana, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Embryogenic cultures of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) can be obtained from different organs and tissues. We describe here the induction from stamen filaments and the procedures applied for the successive phases of somatic embryo development and maturation. Embryogenic tissues are obtained on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 9.0 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Somatic embryos develop after transfer to hormone-free medium enriched with glutamine. Maturation and germination of isolated embryos are achieved by transfer to medium containing polyethylene glycol 4000 and activated charcoal, successive desiccation treatment, and cold storage at 4 °C for 8 weeks. PMID:26619878

  2. Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

  3. Horse chestnut

    MedlinePLUS

    Horse chestnut is a plant. Its seed, bark, flower, and leaves are used to make medicine. Horse ... upset, and itching. Pollen from the horse chestnut flower can cause allergic reactions. Rectal (suppository) use of ...

  4. Horse Chestnut

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not the same species. For centuries, horse chestnut seeds, leaves, bark, and flowers were used for a variety of conditions and diseases. Today, horse chestnut seed extract is used primarily as a folk or ...

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Esters of Indole-3-Acetic Acid from the Liquid Endosperm of the Horse Chestnut (Aesculus species) 1

    PubMed Central

    Domagalski, Wojciech; Schulze, Aga; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A.pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose. PMID:11539676

  6. Horse Chestnut

    MedlinePLUS

    ... preparations have also been used. Top What the Science Says Studies have found that horse chestnut seed extract is beneficial in treating chronic venous insufficiency. There is also preliminary ... is not enough scientific evidence to support the use of horse chestnut ...

  7. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) starch: Basic physico-chemical characteristics and use as thermoplastic material.

    PubMed

    Castaño, J; Rodríguez-Llamazares, S; Contreras, K; Carrasco, C; Pozo, C; Bouza, R; Franco, C M L; Giraldo, D

    2014-11-01

    Starch isolated from non-edible Aesculus hippocastanum seeds was characterized and used for preparing starch-based materials. The apparent amylose content of the isolated starch was 33.1%. The size of starch granules ranged from 0.7 to 35 ?m, and correlated with the shape of granules (spherical, oval and irregular). The chain length distribution profile of amylopectin showed two peaks, at polymerization degree (DP) of 12 and 41-43. Around 53% of branch unit chains had DP in the range of 11-20. A. hippocastanum starch displayed a typical C-type pattern and the maximum decomposition temperature was 317 °C. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) prepared from A. hippocastanum with glycerol and processed by melt blending exhibited adequate mechanical and thermal properties. In contrast, plasticized TPS with glycerol:malic acid (1:1) showed lower thermal stability and a pasty and sticky behavior, indicating that malic acid accelerates degradation of starch during processing. PMID:25129797

  8. EXOTICPEST ALERT Horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Desch. & Dem.

    E-print Network

    EXOTICPEST ALERT Horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Desch. & Dem. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) EXOTIC The first sighting in the UK of the leaf mining moth, Cameraria ohridella, was on chestnut in the premature defoliation of many horse chestnut trees. Horse chestnuts are widely used in prominent amenity

  9. Environmental Fate of Emamectin Benzoate After Tree Micro Injection of Horse Chestnut Trees

    PubMed Central

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1–6. © 2014 The Authors. Published 2014 SETAC PMID:25363584

  10. Sarah Green, Bridget Laue, Heather Steele and Reuben Nowell July 2014 Horse chestnut bleeding canker

    E-print Network

    Sarah Green, Bridget Laue, Heather Steele and Reuben Nowell July 2014 Horse chestnut bleeding canker Horse chestnut is an important amenity tree species which has been significantly affected over in India on Indian horse chestnut. Development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction diagnostic test

  11. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Status in Androgenic Embryos of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava

    PubMed Central

    Štajner, Dubravka; Popovi?, Boris M.; ?ali?, Dušica; Štajner, Marijana

    2014-01-01

    In vivo (leaves and seed embryos) and in vitro (androgenic embryos) antioxidant scavenging activity of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava medical plants was examined. Here we report antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids, soluble protein contents, quantities of malondialdehyde, and •OH radical presence in the investigated plant samples. Total antioxidant capacity of all the samples of A. hippocastanum and A. flava was determined using FRAP, DPPH, and NO• radical scavenger capacity. The leaves of A. flava collected from the botanical garden exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (higher activities of SOD, and higher quantities of GSH, TSH, TPC, and scavenging abilities of DPPH and NO•, and higher FRAP values and lowest quantities of •OH and MDA) than in vitro obtained cultures. However, the leaves of A. flava showed higher antioxidant activity than the leaves of A. hippocastanum, and therefore they have a stronger tolerance of oxidative stress. Androgenic embryos of both species had low amount of antioxidants due to controlled in vitro environmental conditions (T, photoperiod, humidity, nutritive factors, and pathogen-free). Our results confirmed that we found optimal in vitro conditions for producing androgenic embryos of both Aesculus species. Also, we assume that horse chestnut androgenic embryos can be used as an alternative source for large-scale aescin production. PMID:24672369

  12. Report on the National Survey to Assess the Presence of Bleeding Canker of Horse Chestnut Trees

    E-print Network

    Report on the National Survey to Assess the Presence of Bleeding Canker of Horse Chestnut Trees trees from 128 rural sites and 1244 trees in 112 urban sites were inspected. All regions had some symptomatic trees and overall, 44% of the trees inspected in the rural environment and 55% of the urban trees

  13. The success of the horse-chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK revealed with hypothesis-led citizen science.

    PubMed

    Pocock, Michael J O; Evans, Darren M

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the 'Conker Tree Science' project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella) undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1) the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2) the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism) increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging many people with science. PMID:24465973

  14. Histological Examination of Horse Chestnut Infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and Non-Destructive Heat Treatment to Stop Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A. M.; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39°C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens. PMID:22808044

  15. Horse chestnut

    MedlinePLUS

    ... include alpha-lipoic acid, chromium, devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and ... some people. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, red clover, and others.

  16. In vitro permeation studies of phenolics from horse chestnut seed gels prepared with different polyacrylic acid polymer derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zelbien?, Egl?; Draksiene, Gailute; Savickas, Arunas; Kopustinskiene, Dalia; Masteikova, Ruta; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of polyacrylic acid polymers (Ultrez 10, Ultrez 20, Carbopol 980, and Carbopol 940) on the viscosity and the in vitro permeation of phenolic compounds from the gel prepared from natural horse chestnut seed extract. Experiments were performed in the presence and in the absence of peppermint oil (Mentha piperita). Our results showed that peppermint oil decreased the viscosity of the gels and permeation of phenolic compounds from all gel samples. Results show that the highest content of phenolic compounds (1.758 ?g cm(-2)) permeated in vitro from gel based on Carbopol Ultrez 20 without peppermint oil added (p<0.05 vs. other tested polymers). PMID:26011934

  17. The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time.

    PubMed

    Koskella, Britt; Parr, Nicole

    2015-08-19

    Insight to the spatial and temporal scales of coevolution is key to predicting the outcome of host-parasite interactions and spread of disease. For bacteria infecting long-lived hosts, selection to overcome host defences is just one factor shaping the course of evolution; populations will also be competing with other microbial species and will themselves be facing infection by bacteriophage viruses. Here, we examine the temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial adaptation against natural phage populations from within leaves of horse chestnut trees. Using a time-shift experiment with both sympatric and allopatric phages from either contemporary or earlier points in the season, we demonstrate that bacterial resistance is higher against phages from the past, regardless of spatial sympatry or how much earlier in the season phages were collected. Similarly, we show that future bacterial hosts are more resistant to both sympatric and allopatric phages than contemporary bacterial hosts. Together, our results suggest the evolution of relatively general bacterial resistance against phages in nature and are contrasting to previously observed patterns of phage adaptation to bacteria from the same tree hosts over the same time frame, indicating a potential asymmetry in coevolutionary dynamics. PMID:26150663

  18. The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time

    PubMed Central

    Koskella, Britt; Parr, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Insight to the spatial and temporal scales of coevolution is key to predicting the outcome of host–parasite interactions and spread of disease. For bacteria infecting long-lived hosts, selection to overcome host defences is just one factor shaping the course of evolution; populations will also be competing with other microbial species and will themselves be facing infection by bacteriophage viruses. Here, we examine the temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial adaptation against natural phage populations from within leaves of horse chestnut trees. Using a time-shift experiment with both sympatric and allopatric phages from either contemporary or earlier points in the season, we demonstrate that bacterial resistance is higher against phages from the past, regardless of spatial sympatry or how much earlier in the season phages were collected. Similarly, we show that future bacterial hosts are more resistant to both sympatric and allopatric phages than contemporary bacterial hosts. Together, our results suggest the evolution of relatively general bacterial resistance against phages in nature and are contrasting to previously observed patterns of phage adaptation to bacteria from the same tree hosts over the same time frame, indicating a potential asymmetry in coevolutionary dynamics. PMID:26150663

  19. Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of meteorological variables and parameters. In particular, more severe conditions during spring and summer are expected, especially in the Mediterranean area, with less precipitation and higher temperatures. All these changes will have impacts on chestnut fruits and wood in Europe. Dinis, L-T. J., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Peixoto, F., Costa, R. e Gomes-Laranjo, J., 2011: Study of morphological and chemical diversity in chestnut trees (var. 'Judia') as a function of temperature sum. Cyta- Journal of food, 9(3): 192-199 Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy, Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland. Proceedings of the International Chestnut Conference, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 10-14 July 1992, 175-178. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. Wilczynski, S. And Podlaski, R, 2007: The effect of climate on radial growth of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland, J.For.Res., 12, 24-23.

  20. Assessing potential changes of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Calheiros, Tomas; Pinto, Joaquim; Caramelo, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    Weather conditions play an important role during different phases of the vegetative cycle of the chestnut trees and, consequently, several meteorological parameters seem to be associated chestnut productivity (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992, Cesaraccio et al., 2001, Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007, Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008, Dinis et al., 2011, Pereira et al., 2011). Observed data from European Climate Assessment and simulated data by COSMO-CLM model for the actual (C20) and future (A1B and B1) climate scenarios were used in this study to: (i) assess the model ability to reproduce weather parameters distribution; and, (ii) to assess future changes in the distribution of meteorological parameters which play an important role in the productivity of chestnut for different future periods. Results points to statistical significant changes in the mean and in variance in the future, more prominent in temperature than in precipitation based parameters. Changes in precipitation will be more significant in Northwestern Iberian Peninsula and France in the end of the 21st century for A1B scenario conditions. As expected, more significant changes will be expected to occur during spring and summer, in the Mediterranean areas and in the later period. The number of days with Tmax<28°C will generally decrease in both scenarios, while the changes in the number of days with 24°Cchestnut in Europe, in some areas of production. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: "Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland". Proceedings of the International Chestnut Conference, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 10-14 July 1992, 175-178. Wilczynski, S. And Podlaski, R, 2007: "The effect of climate on radial growth of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland", J.For.Res., 12, 24-23. Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: "Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy", Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Dinis, L.T,Peixoto, F., Pinto, T., Costa, R.Bennett, R. N., and Gomes-Laranjo,J., 2011: "Study of morphological and phonological diversity in chestnut trees (Judia variety) as a function of temperature sum". Environ. Exp Bot., 70, 110-120. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: "Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity". Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. This work was supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692.

  1. THE WATAAH CHESTNUT! (Water Chestnut)

    E-print Network

    Berkowitz, Alan R.

    celery. The river channel trend line serves as a control or normative in the research. Our second source:03 PM (16:03). Both the water celery and water chestnuts show trends that show a decrease and increase we calculated the rate of change of D.O. percentage per hour the water celery during the first high

  2. Horses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pets Healthy People Health Benefits of Pets Pets Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard Poultry Ferrets Fish ... SLEV , and VEE are viruses carried by wild birds and transmitted by mosquitoes to horses and humans. ...

  3. Bark Activity American Chestnut

    E-print Network

    Ashline, George

    J.C. 2004 Bark Activity American Chestnut Location: Age: Seedling Materials: · Paper · Crayon What. Activity: With your piece of paper and a crayon, walk out to the tree. Look at the American Chestnut tree

  4. table of contents chestnut hill

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    #12;table of contents chestnut hill locations 1. Labyrinth Simone Weil 2. Bench on Linden Lane Arrupe 23. Residence Hall Reflection Space Rainer Maria Rilke 24. Chestnut Hill Reservoir Qur'an 3:190 25 chestnut hill map newton map table of contents nextprevioushome #12;chestnut hill locations One does

  5. 110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, WEST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  6. EXOTICPEST ALERTEXOTIC Known hosts

    E-print Network

    sylvatica (beech), Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut), Q. cerris (Turkey oak), Q. ilex (holm oak) and a single Aesculus hippocastaneum (horse chestnut) have been found in southeast England. This alert is to raise oak (Fig.2) and sweet chestnut have also been reported, but only the foliage is colonised by P

  7. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  8. Horse Center 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Eight mature Quarter Horses were exercised by simulated cutting horse training in a repeated switchback experiment. Horses were fed a control (C) and a 10% fat-supplemented (F) concentrate with bermudagrass hay in a 60:40 ...

  9. Information Files for Old Chestnuts and Chestnut Nags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetros, John G.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of an up-to-date information file is discussed, using the quest for the name of Paul Revere's horse as an example. A list of Famous Riders and Their Horses'' is included as an indication of the type material to be included in an information file. (SM)

  10. Big Tree for September 2006 American Chestnut (Casanea dentate)

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    , the Cryphonectria parasitica arrived on Chinese chestnut nursery stock about 1904. Our native chestnut bark beetleBig Tree for September 2006 American Chestnut (Casanea dentate) Anne Krantz, UNH Tree Steward and Master Gardener "Under the spreading chestnut tree, The village smithy stands," The opening line

  11. Site and substrate treatments influence American chestnut budset and survival

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    10/21/2009 1 Site and substrate treatments influence American chestnut budset and survival., 2005). Background FRA #12;10/21/2009 3 Background American chestnut Not available in the past Chestnut availabilityNutrient availability American chestnut Neoform (sustained) Objective Determine the influence

  12. Chestnut Weaver biometrics and primary moult in Namibia

    E-print Network

    de Villiers, Marienne

    Chapter 3 Chestnut Weaver biometrics and primary moult in Namibia #12;56 #12;57 Chestnut Weaver, and the onset and duration of primary moult, were investigated for Chestnut Weavers from northern Namibia. Body and females. Individual primary feathers took 11 to 18 days to grow. Introduction The Chestnut Weaver Ploceus

  13. Population Statistics and Biological Traits of Endangered Kiso Horse

    PubMed Central

    TAKASU, Masaki; HIRAMATSU, Nana; TOZAKI, Teruaki; KAKOI, Hironaga; HASEGAWA, Telhisa; MAEDA, Masami; KUSUDA, Satoshi; DOI, Osamu; MURASE, Tetsuma; MUKOYAMA, Harutaka

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the current status of endangered Kiso horse, population statistics and biological traits, in order to take a step for the conservation by scientific approach. We surveyed 125 Kiso horses (86.2% of the whole breed), analyzed the construction of the population, and calculated the coefficient of inbreeding and effective population size. Moreover, we confirmed coat color variations and the traditional traits of the Kiso horse, and measured their height at the withers and chest circumference to clarify their physical characteristics. The population pyramid of the horses was stationary or contractive, suggesting a reduction of the population in the near future. The effective population size of the horse (47.9) suggested that the diversity was much less than their census size, and the high coefficient of inbreeding, 0.11 ± 0.07 on average, suggested that the horses were surely inbred. The horses had only 4 coat colors; bay, dark bay, buckskin dun, and chestnut, and 116 horses (92.8%) were bayish color, suggesting the fixation in their coat color. Moreover, the majority of them had dorsal stripe (83 horses; 66.4%), and the average heights at withers(131.9 ± 4.4 cm) and chest circumference (167.1 ± 10.1 cm) were not significantly different between males and females. PMID:24833989

  14. 7. NORTH SIDE CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) BETWEEN THIRD (left) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NORTH SIDE CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) BETWEEN THIRD (left) AND BREAD (right) STS., SHOWING OLD BUILDINGS - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, CHESTNUT ST. (lower horizontal line) TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, CHESTNUT ST. (lower horizontal line) TO WALNUT ST. (upper horizontal line), SHOWING SECOND BANK OF U.S. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 16. INDEPENDENCE HALL LOOKING SOUTH ON CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INDEPENDENCE HALL LOOKING SOUTH ON CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) BETWEEN SIXTH (right) AND FIFTH (left) STS. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 8. CHESTNUT ST. (vertical line) LOOKING WEST BETWEEN FIFTH (upper) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CHESTNUT ST. (vertical line) LOOKING WEST BETWEEN FIFTH (upper) AND FOURTH (lower) STS., SHOWING SECOND BANK OF U.S. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. NH Big Tree of the Month Chestnut Oak, Quercus prinus

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    NH Big Tree of the Month Chestnut Oak, Quercus prinus By Anne Krantz - UNH Extension Big Tree Team of chestnut oaks growing on a dry rocky ridge top in town, their peculiarities were more evident with a deep cap, and the often gnarled, crooked trunks. Collectively, these traits make chestnut oaks easy

  19. The Role of the Horse in Mughal Miniature Paintings 

    E-print Network

    Mullins, Emily

    2012-07-11

    , but it always has black points; the points are the muzzle, the tips of the ears, the legs, the mane and the tail of the horse. A black horse is less common but has two types: non-fading, which can have an iridescent bluish shine, 10 or fading, which lacks... from light to an extremely dark reddish brown, known as a liver chestnut. The mane and tail can be the same color or lighter than the body, and if so, it is called a flaxen mane. Because the red trait is recessive, bay or black parents can have a...

  20. 59USDAForestServiceGen.Tech.Rep.PSW-GTR-166.1998. Stefan Godzik

    E-print Network

    of Poland. Introduction Leaf injury to native or introduced plant species, such as horse-chestnut (Aesculus B tobacco, and for radish (Raphanus sativa cv Cherry Bella) with and without ethylene diurea (EDU in the response of radish with no EDU treatments have shown that ozone has caused adverse effects, including

  1. Properties and substrate specificities of the phenylalanyl-transfer-ribonucleic acid synthetases of Aesculus species

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. W.; Fowden, L.

    1970-01-01

    1. Phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases have been partially purified from cotyledons of seeds of Aesculus californica, which contains 2-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid, and from four other species of Aesculus that do not contain this amino acid. The A. californica preparation was free from other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and the contaminating synthetase activity in preparations from A. hippocastanum was decreased to acceptable limits by conducting assays of pyrophosphate exchange activity in 0.5m-potassium chloride. 2. The phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase from each species activated 2-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid with Km 30–40 times that for phenylalanine. The maximum velocity for 2-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid was only 30% of that for phenylalanine with the A. californica enzyme, but the maximum velocities for the two substrates were identical for the other four species. 3. 2-Amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid was not found in the protein of A. californica, so discrimination against this amino acid probably occurs in the step of transfer to tRNA, though subcellular localization, or subsequent steps of protein synthesis could be involved. 4. Crotylglycine, methallylglycine, ethallylglycine, 2-aminohex-4,5-dienoic acid, 2-amino-5-methylhex-4-enoic acid, 2-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid, ?-(thien-2-yl)alanine, ?-(pyrazol-1-yl)alanine, phenylserine and m-fluorophenylalanine were substrates for pyrophosphate exchange catalysed by the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases of A. californica or A. hippocastanum. Allylglycine, phenylglycine and 2-amino-4-phenylbutyric acid were inactive. PMID:5493504

  2. Fossil Horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFadden, Bruce J.

    1994-06-01

    The family Equidae have an extensive fossil record spanning the past 58 million years, and the evolution of the horse has frequently been used as a classic example of long-term evolution. In recent years, however, there have been many important discoveries of fossil horses, and these, in conjunction with such new methods as cladistics, and techniques such as precise geochronology, have allowed us to achieve a much greater understanding of the evolution and biology of this important group. This book synthesizes the large body of data and research relevant to an understanding of fossil horses from several disciplines including biology, geology and paleontology. Using horses as the central theme, the author weaves together in the text such topics as modern geochronology, paleobiogeography, climate change, evolution and extinction, functional morphology, and population biology during the Cenozoic period. This book will be exciting reading for researchers and graduate students in vertebrate paleontology, evolution, and zoology.

  3. Charley horse

    MedlinePLUS

    A charley horse is the common name for a muscle spasm. Muscle spasms can occur in any muscle in the body, ... of Injury to Musculoskeletal Structures: 1. Muscle and Tendon Injury. In: DeLee JC, Drez D Jr, Miller ...

  4. Assessment of the chestnut production weather dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Caramelo, Liliana; Gouveia, Célia; Gomes-Laranjo, José

    2010-05-01

    The vegetative cycle of chestnut trees is highly dependent on weather. Photosynthesis and pollen germination are mainly conditioned by the air temperature while heavy precipitation and strong wind have significant impacts during the flushing phase period (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). In Portugal, chestnut tree orchads are located in mountainous areas of the Northeast region of Trás-os-Montes, between 600 and 1000 m of altitude. Topography controls the atmospheric environment and assures adequate conditions for the chestnut production. In the above mentioned context, remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise vegetation dynamics. A number of studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in Europe to analyse the year-to-year variations in European vegetation greenness as a function of precipitation and temperature (Gouveia et al., 2008). A previous study focusing on the relationship between meteorological variables and chestnut productivity provides indication that simulation models may benefit from the incorporation of such kind of relationships. The aim of the present work is to provide a detailed description of recent developments, in particular of the added value that may be brought by using satellite data. We have relied on regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset, at 8-km resolution, provided by the Global Inventory Monitoring and Modelling System (GIMMS) group. The data are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR), and cover the period from 1982 to 2006. Additionally we have used the chestnut productivity dataset, which includes the annual values of chestnut production and area of production provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal and the meteorological dataset which includes values of several variables from different providers (Meteorod, NCEP/NCAR, ECA&D and national Meteorological Institute). Results show that satellite and meteorological data are complementary in what respects to the evaluation of the spatial and temporal evolution of the chestnut production. The satellite data proves to be very useful to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the vegetation state in the locations of the chestnut orchads and when tested as potential predictors by means of correlation and regression analysis. Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955. Gouveia C., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C., Libonati R., Pereira J.M.C., 2008b. The North Atlantic Oscillation and European vegetation dynamics. International Journal of Climatology, vol. 28, issue 14, pp. 1835-1847, DOI: 10.1002/joc.1682.

  5. 1254 Chestnut Street Newton, MA 02464-1418

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    1254 Chestnut Street Newton, MA 02464-1418 Tel: (617) 965-5511 Fax: (617) 965-5818 MATERIAL SAFETY ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ MicroChem Corp. 1254 Chestnut Street·Newton, MA 02464-1418·Tel:(617)965-5511·Fax:(617)965-5818 SECTION 5

  6. 97. Catalog B, Higher Plants, 200 2 American Chestnut Tree, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. Catalog B, Higher Plants, 200 2 American Chestnut Tree, Negative No. 6032 (Photographer and date unknown) THIS GHOST FOREST OF BLIGHTED CHESTNUTS ONCE STOOD APPROXIMATELY AT THE LOCATION OF THE BYRD VISITOR CENTER. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  7. 6. VIEW FROM CHESTNUT ST. (upper), WALNUT ST. (lower) THIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM CHESTNUT ST. (upper), WALNUT ST. (lower) THIRD ST. (right) AND FOURTH ST. (left), SHOWING CARPENTERS HALL, FIRST BANK OF U.S. AND SECOND BANK OF U.S. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Islands of Chestnut Trees Castanea dentata (Marsh) Borkh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surrarrer, T. C.; Laurence, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to emphasize the importance of conserving the genetic pool of the American chestnut stock. Readers are encouraged to seek sprouts and plant them in islands so they can grow and survive. The authors describe the diseases that have effected the chestnut tree. (PR)

  9. Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gouveia, C.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Magalhães, M.

    2011-10-01

    Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i) a simulation model (R2-value = 87%) based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii) a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63%) with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

  10. Assessment of the potential health benefits of certain total extracts from Vitis vinifera, Aesculus hyppocastanum and Curcuma longa

    PubMed Central

    MARGIN?, DENISA; OLARU, OCTAVIAN TUDOREL; ILIE, MIHAELA; GR?DINARU, DANIELA; GU?U, CLAUDIA; VOICU, SORINA; DINISCHIOTU, ANCA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have illustrated the active role of food/natural components in the prevention of chronic diseases and in the improvement of the quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to obtain and characterize certain extracts from Vitis vinifera L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Curcuma longa L., focusing on their antioxidant effects in vitro. Three vegetal extracts were obtained for each plant: in water, 50% water-alcohol and in 96% ethanol. These extracts were then analyzed for their qualitative composition by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and total phenolic content by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-VIS). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; the effects of lipid peroxidation on the cell membrane were evaluated using Jurkat cells in two experimental models: normoglycemic and hyperglycemic medium, in order for the results to be able to be translated into clinical practice. In addition, the resistance of the extracts to acid and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated. The obtained extracts had 0.4–39 µg phenolics/mg total extract. The largest amount of phenolics was found in the Cucurma longa extracts, while the lowest was found in the Aesculus hippocastanum extacts. HPTLC analysis identified the main phenolic compounds in the extracts which were ferulic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid, as well as quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, curcumin, luteolin and esculetin. The Aesculus hippocastanum extracts had a low antioxidant efficacy, while both the Curcuma longa and Vitis vinifera extracts had a high antioxidant activity; the products resulting from alkaline hydrolisis were significantly more efficient in scavenging DPPH radicals compared to the products resulting from acid hydrolisis. The antioxidant effects of the Curcuma longa extracts exerted on the membranes of Jurkat cells were the most prominent under both normal and hyperglycemic conditions. The results of the present study may be translated into clinical practice and demonstrate that Curcuma longa extracts may be effective in both the prevention of diabetes mellitus and in attenuating the development of complications associated with the disease. PMID:26640536

  11. NH 4-H Horse Program Horse Contest Weekend Survey The NH 4-H Horse Program has four major knowledge events annually: Horse Quiz Bowl, Hippology, Horse Judging and

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    NH 4-H Horse Program ­ Horse Contest Weekend Survey The NH 4-H Horse Program has four major knowledge events annually: Horse Quiz Bowl, Hippology, Horse Judging and Communications. Currently the Horse Quiz Bowl is held in January, Hippology and Horse Judging share a March/April date and Communications

  12. Chestnut Hill Campus Map Email: theatre@bc.edu | Theatre Listserv: theatre_majors@listserv.bc.edu

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    16 Chestnut Hill Campus Map Email: theatre@bc.edu | Theatre Listserv: theatre..................................14 Ice Cream Social & Open House...15 Chestnut Hill Campus Map..........16 BC Theatre Resources

  13. Judging Team- Horses 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    An internship was performed in Gambrills, Maryland, at ics. an equine boarding facility, Equilibrium Horse Center. As Boarder Barn Manager, I was responsible for the care of 28 boarding horses, in addition to the monthly ...

  14. Freeze Branding Horses 

    E-print Network

    Householder, Doug; Webb, Gary; Wigington, Sam; Bruemmer, Jason

    2001-06-29

    Freeze branding of horses has many advantages. It is safe, economical, simple to do and relatively painless. It can be done on horses of any age and does not damage the horse's hide. This publication gives complete, step-by-step instructions...

  15. The first research plantings of blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    9/21/12 1 The first research plantings of blight- resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata, The University of Tennessee, Tree Improvement Program Fred V. Hebard, The American Chestnut Foundation Talladega National Forest Chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) Oriental Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) Lack

  16. Ecological status of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in its native range in Canada

    E-print Network

    Boland, Greg J.

    Ecological status of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in its native range in Canada Jeffrey R: American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) was once a dominant tree in eastern deciduous for of a fungal pathogen (Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr) causing chestnut blight. A recovery plan

  17. Chestnut: A GPU Programming Language for Non-Experts Andrew Stromme

    E-print Network

    Newhall, Tia

    Chestnut: A GPU Programming Language for Non-Experts Andrew Stromme Computer Science Dept users. We present Chestnut, a domain- specific GPU parallel programming language for parallel multi- dimensional grid applications. Chestnut is designed to greatly simplify the process of programming on the GPU

  18. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) to northern red oak (Quercus rubra): forest dynamics of

    E-print Network

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) to northern red oak (Quercus rubra): forest dynamics of an old.E. Barr (chestnut blight), selective logging, livestock grazing, ice storms, wind events, and fire history. (American chestnut) during the 1930s and frequent ice storms or wind events. Although we observed fire scars

  19. Pedobiologia 50 (2007) 553--562 The influence of American Chestnut

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    of deciduous forest in eastern North America, but the exotic chestnut blight almost eliminated the species from chestnuts and the surrounding mixed-species deciduous forest on fine-silt and sandy-loam soil types-species deciduous forest. The pool of total soil N beneath chestnut canopies was positively related to the silt

  20. Yoghurt with candied chestnut: freeze drying, physical, and rheological behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sakin-Yilmazer, Melike; Dirim, S Nur; Di Pinto, Davide; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2014-12-01

    As a novel product, yoghurt powder was produced by freeze drying and with added candied chestnut puree at ratios of 5, 10, and 20 % by weight. During the freeze drying process, mass loss, water activity, and the moisture content of the samples were determined and the colour (Hunter L, a, b) of the yoghurt powder products was measured. Results showed that increasing the percentage of candied chestnut puree resulted in an increase in water activity, moisture content, and colour change values of the end product. The drying behaviour, drying rate versus free moisture content, was also investigated. It was observed that yoghurt with or without added candied chestnut puree could be satisfactorily freeze-dried. Moreover, the performance of the dried product was observed in a ready-to-use, reconstituted form. For this purpose, the obtained powders were reconstituted to their original moisture contents. Shear stress and apparent viscosity against shear rate in a range of 1-1,000 (1/sec) was then measured by a Haake-Mars rotary viscometer. According to the results, the apparent viscosities of reconstituted products, as plain yoghurt and the one with an added 5 % chestnut puree were lower than that of fresh yoghurt. However, reconstituted yoghurts containing 10 % and 20 % chestnut puree had apparent viscosities higher than fresh yoghurt. Power Law explained well the rheological behaviour of reconstituted yoghurt samples for the applied shear rate range. Based on rheological data and sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freeze dried yoghurt containing 10 % (w/w) candied chestnut puree was an acceptable novel product. PMID:25477665

  1. Carts Before Horses 1 Carts Before Horses:Carts Before Horses

    E-print Network

    C Carts Before Horses 1 Carts Before Horses:Carts Before Horses: Using Preparatory Exercises on Teaching Software Testing Melbourne, FL January, 2004 #12;C Carts Before Horses 2 Rationale present a solution or (preferably) enable them to develop their own solution. #12;C Carts Before Horses 3

  2. Betaines and related ammonium compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    PubMed

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Cautela, Domenico; Paolucci, Marina; Siano, Francesco; Volpe, Maria Grazia; Castaldo, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Chestnut fruits, being poor of simple sugars and consisting mainly of fibers and starch, are among the constituents of Mediterranean diet. While numerous studies report on content of proteins and amino acids in chestnut, no one has appeared so far on betaines, an important class of nitrogen compounds ubiquitous in plants for their protective action in response to abiotic stress. In this study, we analyzed by HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry, in fruits and flours of varieties of chestnut cultivated in Italy, the composition of betaines and ammonium compounds intermediates of their biosynthesis. Besides the parent amino acids, the compounds quantified were choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, glycine betaine, N-methylproline, proline betaine (stachydrine), ?-alanine betaine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, trigonelline, N,N,N-trimethyllysine. Interestingly, some uncommon derivatives of pipecolic acid, such as N-methylpipecolic acid, 4-hydroxypipecolic acid and 4-hydroxy-N-methylpipecolic acid were identified for the first time in chestnut samples and characterized by MS(n) tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:26593620

  3. Nondestructive detection of infested chestnuts based on NIR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect feeding is a significant postharvest problem for processors of Chestnuts (Castanea sativa, Miller). In most cases, damage from insects is 'hidden', i.e. not visually detectable on the fruit surface. Consequently, traditional sorting techniques, including manual sorting, are generally inadequa...

  4. Horse Nutrition and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...

  5. Electroantennographic responses of the lesser chestnut weevil curculio sayi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to volatile organic compounds identified from chestnut reproductive plant tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary insect pest of the developing chestnut industry in the central United States is the lesser chestnut weevil, Curculio sayi (Gyllenhal), which is a specialist on only Castanea trees. Recent research has shown this insect is attracted to and feeds upon the reproductive tissues of the chestn...

  6. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. ?-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

  7. Horse Barn - 4 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of forage CP level on intake and digestion of Coastal bermudagrass hay by horses. Four cecally fistulated geldings were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with four treatments ...

  8. 82 Field Artillery Horses 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    The objective of this study was to monitor the effects on physical and reproductive parameters in mares supplemented with Ractopamine HCl (RAC), in an effort to provide some insight concerning the use of RAC in horse diets. Physical deviation...

  9. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  10. Interaction between two invasive organisms on the European chestnut: does the chestnut blight fungus benefit from the presence of the gall wasp?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joana B; Gallien, Laure; Prospero, Simone

    2015-11-01

    The impact of invasive fungal pathogens and pests on trees is often studied individually, thereby omitting possible interactions. In this study the ecological interaction between the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was investigated. We determined if abandoned galls could be colonized by C. parasitica and thereby act as an entry point and a source of pathogen inoculum. Moreover we assessed the identity and diversity of other gall-colonizing fungal species. A total of 1973 galls were randomly sampled from 200 chestnut trees in eight Swiss stands. In a stand C. parasitica was isolated from 0.4-19.2% of the galls. The incidence of C. parasitica on the galls and the fungal diversity significantly increased with the residence time of D. kuriphilus in a stand. All but one C. parasitica cultures were virulent. The predominant fungus isolated from galls was Gnomoniopsis castanea whose abundance influenced negatively that of C. parasitica. This study shows that D. kuriphilus galls can be colonized by virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus C. parasitica. This can have effects on the chestnut blight incidence even in chestnut stands where the disease is successfully controlled by hypovirulence. The gall wasp presence influences also the fungal species composition on chestnut trees. PMID:26472577

  11. Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pridnya, M.V.; Cherpakov, V.V.; Paillet, F.L.

    1996-01-01

    Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

  12. horse racing 11/13/2007 1 Horse Racing

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Peter

    horse racing 11/13/2007 1 Horse Racing Danny and I were at the "Ex" the other evening, and we came across a game of chance known (for reasons that are not clear to me) as horse racing. There are 13 pads dollar back plus 2 dollars. Etc. #12;horse racing 11/13/2007 2 The 2-pad 1-pointer game. There are only

  13. Resource limitation in natural populations of phytophagous insects. A long-term study case with the chestnut weevil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debouzie, Domitien; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Oberli, Frantz; Menu, Frédéric

    2002-03-01

    The chestnut weevil, Curculio elephas (Gyll.), is a non-outbreaking species whose populations and food resources, the European chestnut, Castanea sativa, can be precisely defined. Thirteen and 17 generations of this insect were studied in two isolated sites. Field observations and experiments allowed us to estimate the absolute abundance, availability and use of chestnuts for weevil oviposition, and the number of weevil females emerging per site. Unavailable chestnuts were defined as the fruits either infested first by the chestnut moth ( Cydia splendana) larvae (because of competition between the two species) or those avoided by chestnut weevil females when selecting their egg-laying sites, independently of chestnut moth presence. From a third to a half of the chestnuts were not available on the average for weevil infestation. Only one-fourth, on the average, of those available for oviposition were actually used by chestnut weevil females. Regardless of year and site, the number of available chestnuts per weevil female was higher than that of weevil-infested fruits per female, considering global food resources independently of their temporal variation in quality. However, realized fecundity of weevil females was positively correlated with the mean number of available chestnuts per female. We concluded that food resources can be limiting without being fully exploited by females because of temporal variation in chestnut quality.

  14. Detection of mold-damaged chestnuts by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mold infection is a significant postharvest problem for processors of chestnuts (Castanea sativa, Miller).Fungal disease causes direct loss of product or reduced value due to the lower-quality grade of the chest-nut lot. In most cases, fungal infection is not detectable using traditional sorting tec...

  15. Welfare in horse breeding

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. L. H.; Sandøe, P.

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  16. Replacement of native oak and hickory tree species by the introduced American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.; Rutter, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    American chestnut was introduced at West Salem, Wisconsin, about 1880 and had begun to replace native tree species in adjacent oak-hickory woodland before 1930. Chestnut is now an important canopy species over c20 ha of forested ridge extending N and S of the original plantation. A smaller area of <5 ha is dominated by chestnut in both canopy and understory. Chestnut seedlings and small saplings are more numerous along woodland edges and in recently disturbed soil, they are rare in the interior of ungrazed pasture and entirely absent from intensively grazed areas adjacent to chestnut-dominated woodland. Random sampling of recently established seedlings indicates that 1-5 seedlings/(yr.ha) became established in undisturbed woodland between 1986-1988. The general pattern of chestnut distribution indicates the importance of woodland edges in chestnut propagation and the effects of livestock grazing in excluding chestnut. Replacement of native species by chestnut appears to have occurred in 2 steps: isolated groups of trees become established at favorable locations, after which many additional chestnut stems became established in the understory. The West Salem site may not be available for study of blight-free chestnut in the future. -from Authors

  17. Aesculus pavia (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    lipase; IDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein; LCAT, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LDL-R, low-density lipoprotein receptor; LDL-RRP, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein; Lyso PC... apolipoprotein E (apoE) from VLDL and IDL and thereby decreases their clearance from plasma. [11] ApoC-1decreases the binding of B- VLDL to its remnant receptor (LDLR)?LDL receptor related protein?and apoE mediated binding of VLDL and IDL to the LDLR...

  18. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ...Docket No. APHIS-2011-0030] RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse protection regulations to require horse...

  19. Transgenic American chestnuts show enhanced blight resistance and transmit the trait to T1 progeny.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Polin-McGuigan, Linda D; Baier, Kathleen A; Valletta, Kristia E R; Rottmann, William H; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2014-11-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is a classic example of a native keystone species that was nearly eradicated by an introduced fungal pathogen. This report describes progress made toward producing a fully American chestnut tree with enhanced resistance to the blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica). The transgenic American chestnut 'Darling4,' produced through an Agrobacterium co-transformation procedure to express a wheat oxalate oxidase gene driven by the VspB vascular promoter, shows enhanced blight resistance at a level intermediate between susceptible American chestnut and resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima). Enhanced resistance was identified first with a leaf-inoculation assay using young chestnuts grown indoors, and confirmed with traditional stem inoculations on 3- and 4-year-old field-grown trees. Pollen from 'Darling4' and other events was used to produce transgenic T1 seedlings, which also expressed the enhanced resistance trait in leaf assays. Outcrossed transgenic seedlings have several advantages over tissue-cultured plantlets, including increased genetic diversity and faster initial growth. This represents a major step toward the restoration of the majestic American chestnut. PMID:25438789

  20. Paraguayan Horse Tack

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Paraguayan cowboys use a version of the typical saddle from southern South America. The core of the saddle consists of two leather rolls that are filled with a sedge (Piri, Cyperus giganteus) for cushioning, these are laid along the horse's spine and sandwiched between several layers of wool and cot...

  1. Hyperelastosis in the Horse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine hyperelastosis cutis, also known as dermatosporaxis and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (HERDA), is an autosomal recessive inheritable disease and has been reported in Thoroughbreds, Morgans, Haflingers , Hanoverians, a Swiss Warmblood, a mule and several Arabian cross horses in the United Kingdom, U...

  2. Hay Days: The Horse in Iowa History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    "The Goldfinch" introduces young children to various facets of Iowa history. Each issue has a specific topic, and a number of articles covering different aspects of the topic being addressed. This particular issue focuses on horses. Featured articles discuss historical uses of horses, an Iowa child who owns a quarter horse, show horses, and horses

  3. Periurban Pleasure Horses: A Land Use Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Charles O.

    1978-01-01

    Traces the upsurge of the horse population in the United States during the last two decades. Included are the psychological and recreational aspects of horse ownership; the redistribution of the horse population from farm to suburb; horses as an industry; and the land use problems and potentials attributed to the horse. (JK)

  4. Texas 4-H Horse Project Teaching Outlines 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.; Johnson, Ken; Mason, Vanessa; Mitchell, Julianne

    2000-06-15

    This publication contains outlines, study questions and worksheets for 31 lessons on horses and horse care. Topics include feeding management, reproductive systems, marketing, preventing horse theft, and buying and selling ...

  5. Horse madness (hippomania) and hippophobia.

    PubMed

    Papakostas, Yiannis G; Daras, Michael D; Liappas, Ioannis A; Markianos, Manolis

    2005-12-01

    Anthropophagic horses have been described in classical mythology. From a current perspective, two such instances are worth mentioning and describing: Glaucus of Potniae, King of Efyra, and Diomedes, King of Thrace, who were both devoured by their horses. In both cases, the horses' extreme aggression and their subsequent anthropophagic behaviour were attributed to their madness (hippomania) induced by the custom of feeding them with flesh. The current problem of 'mad cow' disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is apparently related to a similar feed pattern. Aggressive behaviour in horses can be triggered by both biological and psychological factors. In the cases cited here, it is rather unlikely that the former were the cause. On the other hand, the multiple abuses imposed on the horses, coupled with people's fantasies and largely unconscious fears (hippophobia), may possibly explain these mythological descriptions of 'horse-monsters'. PMID:16482685

  6. Feeding the Arena Performance Horse 

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.; Scott, Brett D.

    2003-11-04

    the Arena Performance Horse P.G. Gibbs, G.D. Potter and B.D. Scott* *Professor and Extension Horse Specialist; Professor and Equine Science Section Leader, Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University; Assistant Professor and Extension Horse Specialist.... Potter, J. L. Kreider and C. C. Courtney. 1983. Digestible energy require- ments for exercising horses. Journal of Animal Science. 56:91. 2) Comben, N., R. J. Clark and D. J. B Sutherland. 1984. Clinical observations on the response of equine hoof defects...

  7. CHAPTER 16: HORSE SAFETY GUIDELINES Approaching a horse

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    rubbing a hand on its shoulder or neck. Don't "dab" at the end of a horse's nose. · Always walk around it. · Use a long lead strap and fold the excess strap in a figure-eight style in your left hand when leading. It is customary to lead from the horse's left, or near side, by using the right hand to hold

  8. Horse sense: social status of horses (Equus caballus) affects their likelihood of copying other horses' behavior.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Konstanze; Heinze, Jürgen

    2008-07-01

    Animals that live in stable social groups need to gather information on their own relative position in the group's social hierarchy, by either directly threatening or by challenging others, or indirectly and in a less perilous manner , by observing interactions among others. Indirect inference of dominance relationships has previously been reported from primates, rats, birds, and fish. Here, we show that domestic horses, Equus caballus, are similarly capable of social cognition. Taking advantage of a specific "following behavior" that horses show towards humans in a riding arena, we investigated whether bystander horses adjust their response to an experimenter according to the observed interaction and their own dominance relationship with the horse whose reaction to the experimenter they had observed before. Horses copied the "following behavior" towards an experimenter after watching a dominant horse following but did not follow after observing a subordinate horse or a horse from another social group doing so. The "following behavior," which horses show towards an experimenter, therefore appears to be affected by the demonstrator's behavior and social status relative to the observer. PMID:18183432

  9. Stocking Rates for Horse Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decision on which stocking rate to graze a horse pasture is critical, particularly if the forage is expected to meet the nutrient needs of the horses. Challenges and management for targeting the optimum stocking rate, defined as the stocking rate that allows forage consumption to approximately equ...

  10. Evaluation of thin-layer chromatography methods for quality control of commercial products containing Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Durón, Rosalba; Ceniceros-Almaguer, Lucía; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Salazar-Cavazos, Ma de la Luz; Waksman de Torres, Noemi

    2007-01-01

    In Mexico, plant-derived products with health claims are sold as herbal dietary supplements, and there are no rules for their legal quality control. Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis are some of the major commercial products obtained from plants used in this region. In this paper, we describe the effectiveness of thin-layer chromatography methods to provide for the quality control of several commercial products containing these plants. Standardized extracts were used. Of the 49 commercial products analyzed, only 32.65% matched the chromatographic characteristic of standardized extracts. A significant number of commercial products did not match their label, indicating a problem resulting from the lack of regulation for these products. The proposed methods are simple, sensitive, and specific and can be used for routine quality control of raw herbals and formulations of the tested plants. The results obtained show the need to develop simple and reliable analytical methods that can be performed in any laboratory for the purpose of quality control of dietary supplements or commercial herbal products sold in Mexico. PMID:17760328

  11. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... having custody of, or responsibility for, any horse at any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or... stabled, loaded on a trailer, being prepared for show, exhibition, or sale or auction, being exercised or otherwise on the grounds of, or present at, any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or...

  12. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... having custody of, or responsibility for, any horse at any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or... stabled, loaded on a trailer, being prepared for show, exhibition, or sale or auction, being exercised or otherwise on the grounds of, or present at, any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or...

  13. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... having custody of, or responsibility for, any horse at any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or... stabled, loaded on a trailer, being prepared for show, exhibition, or sale or auction, being exercised or otherwise on the grounds of, or present at, any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or...

  14. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... having custody of, or responsibility for, any horse at any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or... stabled, loaded on a trailer, being prepared for show, exhibition, or sale or auction, being exercised or otherwise on the grounds of, or present at, any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or...

  15. Connecticut 4-H Horse Judging By Margaret I. Rausch

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Connecticut 4-H Horse Judging Guide By Margaret I. Rausch #12;1 Connecticut 4-H Horse Judging Guide Margaret I. Rausch Why Horse Judging? Horse judging is a useful skill for many people, not just those in the horse industry. Horse judging will help a 4-H'er recognize desirable and undesirable qualities in horses

  16. New Hampshire "4-H Horse of the Year" Peter Stone Model Horse Contest

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    New Hampshire "4-H Horse of the Year" Peter Stone Model Horse® Contest Current and former 4-H members are invited to submit nominations for the New Hampshire "4- H Horse of the Year" award. The focus of this award is not on the number of blue ribbons the horse has won, but on how the horse has helped the 4-Her

  17. OKLAHOMA STATE 4-H HORSE JUDGING GUIDE

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    OKLAHOMA STATE 4-H HORSE JUDGING GUIDE OKLAHOMA STATE 4-H HORSE JUDGING GUIDE Oklahoma Cooperative State University Katie Snyder 2006-2007 Horse Program Aide Department of Animal Science Oklahoma State process of youth involved in the horse industry. Youth, parents, and volunteer leaders are interested

  18. Flood injury in horses.

    PubMed

    McConnico, Rebecca S

    2007-05-01

    There is no way to prepare for every situation that arises in a disaster. By working closely with other producers and agricultural leaders, however, horse owners can lessen the impact of a disaster on their operation. Preparation and detailed planning are the most important aspects of flood-related injury prevention. Encouraging animal owners and caretakers to have an evacuation plan and dispersing knowledge about local and regional disaster authorities are critical for a successful disaster response. Educational programs on future disaster response empower communities to care for their people and animals responsibly. PMID:17379106

  19. Horse Hoof Protectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Power Pads, shown here, were designed to support and cushion horses' hooves while walking, rurning, and jumping, thus reducing the risk of injury. The pads utilize magnets implanted in the pads to increase blood circulation, not only reducing the chance of injury, but also speeding up the healing process if an injury does occur. Marshall Space Flight Center materials engineer Deborah Dianne Schmidt and materials technician Anthony Schaffer contributed to the design by providing fatigue stress analysis to the prototypes, thus helping determine the best configuration and maximum durability.

  20. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  1. Natural biosorbents (garlic stem and horse chesnut shell) for removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Parlay?c?, ?erife; Pehlivan, Erol

    2015-12-01

    The biosorption of Cr(VI) by the garlic stem (GS)-Allium sativum L. and horse chesnut shell (HCS)-Aesculus hippocastanum plant residues in a batch type reactor was studied in detail for the purpose of wastewater treatment. The influence of initial Cr(VI) concentration, time, and pH was investigated to optimize Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions and equilibrium isotherms and kinetic data. This influence was evaluated. The adsorption capacity of the GS and the HCS for Cr(VI) was determined with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, and the data was fitted to the Langmuir. The adsorption capacity of the GS and the HCS was found to be 103.09 and 142.85 mg/g of adsorbent from a solution containing 3000 ppm of Cr(VI), respectively. The GS's capacity was considerably lower than that of the HCS in its natural form. Gibbs free energy was spontaneous for all interactions, and the adsorption process exhibited exothermic enthalpy values. The HCS was shown to be a promising biosorbent for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:26581609

  2. Haemotrophic Mycoplasma infection in horses.

    PubMed

    Dieckmann, Sarah M; Winkler, Margit; Groebel, Katrin; Dieckmann, Michael P; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Hoelzle, Katharina; Wittenbrink, Max M; Hoelzle, Ludwig E

    2010-10-26

    Haemotrophic mycoplasmas (HM) are parasites on the surface of red blood cells and known to infect a wide range of animals. However, there are no previous evidences of HM infections in horses. In this study HM were detected for the first time in the blood of two horses suffering from poor performance, apathy, weight loss, and anaemia. Using a HM specific PCR assay and subsequent sequencing the infective agents isolated from the blood of said horses were confirmed as closely related to the HM species Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos'. PMID:20452151

  3. Response of St. Ignatius Parish, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA, to the Questionnaire in Preparation for the Bishops' Extraordinary Assembly, October 2014 Page 1 of 53

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    Response of St. Ignatius Parish, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA, to the Questionnaire in Preparation for the Bishops' Extraordinary Assembly, October 2014 Page 1 of 53 Response of St. Ignatius Parish, Chestnut Hill, 46, married) #12;Response of St. Ignatius Parish, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA, to the Questionnaire

  4. Survey of the incidence of chestnut rot in south-eastern L. A. Shuttleworth & E. C. Y. Liew & D. I. Guest

    E-print Network

    Survey of the incidence of chestnut rot in south-eastern Australia L. A. Shuttleworth & E. C. Y # Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc. 2012 Abstract Chestnut rot of Castanea sativa (European chest- nut) and C. crenata (Japanese chestnut) × C. sativa hybrids is a significant problem facing the Australian

  5. Horse Theft Awareness and Prevention - Identification of Horses 

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Wall, Leman H.; Householder, Doug

    1998-08-12

    Permanently identifying horses can deter theft and help prove ownership. This publication discusses hot-iron branding, freeze branding, electronic identification, lip tattoos, and using photographs, illustrations, parentage verification and brand...

  6. 75 FR 59258 - Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC's application for market-based...

  7. 78 FR 36769 - Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  8. Assessing the effects of gamma irradiation and storage time in energetic value and in major individual nutrients of chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is an important food resource all over the world. In the present study, it is intended to evaluate if the application of gamma irradiation doses ? 3 kGy maintain chestnuts chemical and nutritional profiles unaffected. Furthermore, possible interactions among irradiation dose and storage time were accessed using linear discriminate analysis (LDA). The nutritional composition was evaluated through determination of proteins, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. The chemical composition was focused in the main nutrients found in chestnuts: sugars - sucrose, fatty acids - palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, tocopherols - ?-tocopherol. The obtained results seem to indicate that the irradiation treatment did not affect the nutritional and chemical quality of chestnut fruits. Otherwise, storage time exerted more evident influence in those parameters. The application of gamma irradiation emerges as a promising technology for chestnuts chemical quality, but food safety issues have to be evaluated in order to recommend its application as a useful conservation alternative. PMID:21740949

  9. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311 Section 93.311 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses...

  10. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93.325 ...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry...

  11. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311 Section 93.311 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses...

  12. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93.325 ...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry...

  13. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311 Section 93.311 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses...

  14. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311 Section 93.311 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses...

  15. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311 Section 93.311 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses...

  16. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section 93.322 Animals...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

  17. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section 93.322 Animals...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

  18. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93.325 ...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry...

  19. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93.325 ...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry...

  20. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section 93.322 Animals...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

  1. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section 93.322 Animals...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

  2. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section 93.322 Animals...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

  3. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93.325 ...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry...

  4. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the biosorption of Cu(II) onto chestnut shell.

    PubMed

    Yao, Z-Y; Qi, J-H; Wang, L-H

    2010-02-15

    The biosorption of Cu(II) onto chestnut shell, a residue of the food processing industry, in a batch adsorber has been studied. Equilibrium isotherms, kinetic data, and thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated. Equilibrium data agreed well with Langmuir isotherm and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. The adsorption capacity of chestnut shell for Cu(II) was determined with the Langmuir model and was found to be 12.56 mg g(-1) at 293K. The kinetic data were found to follow the pseudo-second-order model. Intra-particle diffusion is not the sole rate-controlling factor. Gibbs free energy was spontaneous for all interactions, and the adsorption process exhibited exothermic enthalpy values. Chestnut shell was shown to be a promising biosorbent for Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:19800169

  5. Man on a Horse

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    The prevalence of gastric ulceration in horses is high, often reaching 90% depending on population and level of training. Endoscopic examination is the only means of definitive diagnosis. The hypothesis of this study was that urinary sucrose...

  6. My Kingdom for a Horse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Judith

    2004-01-01

    The "Heavenly Horse" is a work of art revered for its spirit, strength, and beauty. It is a symbol of military might and political power. The size of the object suggests that it was made for an important person. Impressive as he is, this horse was not created as an art object. He was found in the tomb of an influential person. Scholars do not know…

  7. [American Quarter Horses and HYPP].

    PubMed

    Duyn, R J; van Haeringen, H

    1995-01-15

    Hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis is a genetic disease that affects the American Quarter Horse population and is caused by a mutation. As a result of this mutation in a gene which codes for the sodium channel in muscle cells, severe muscle weakness can appear. Reliable DNA-tests can establish whether a horse is homozygous negative, heterozygous, or homozygous positive for this mutation. Therapy and prevention are discussed. PMID:7839340

  8. Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use

    PubMed Central

    Gounga, Mahamadou E.; Xu, Shi-ying; Wang, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption. Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample’s protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal. PMID:18763299

  9. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10...Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned;...

  10. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10...Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned;...

  11. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10...Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned;...

  12. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10...Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned;...

  13. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10...Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned;...

  14. A High Density SNP Array for the Domestic Horse and Extant Perissodactyla: Utility for Association Mapping, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeny Studies

    PubMed Central

    McCue, Molly E.; Bannasch, Danika L.; Petersen, Jessica L.; Gurr, Jessica; Bailey, Ernie; Binns, Matthew M.; Distl, Ottmar; Guérin, Gérard; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hill, Emmeline W.; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Røed, Knut H.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Swinburne, June E.; Tozaki, Teruaki; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Vaudin, Mark; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    An equine SNP genotyping array was developed and evaluated on a panel of samples representing 14 domestic horse breeds and 18 evolutionarily related species. More than 54,000 polymorphic SNPs provided an average inter-SNP spacing of ?43 kb. The mean minor allele frequency across domestic horse breeds was 0.23, and the number of polymorphic SNPs within breeds ranged from 43,287 to 52,085. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) in most breeds declined rapidly over the first 50–100 kb and reached background levels within 1–2 Mb. The extent of LD and the level of inbreeding were highest in the Thoroughbred and lowest in the Mongolian and Quarter Horse. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses demonstrated the tight grouping of individuals within most breeds, close proximity of related breeds, and less tight grouping in admixed breeds. The close relationship between the Przewalski's Horse and the domestic horse was demonstrated by pair-wise genetic distance and MDS. Genotyping of other Perissodactyla (zebras, asses, tapirs, and rhinoceros) was variably successful, with call rates and the number of polymorphic loci varying across taxa. Parsimony analysis placed the modern horse as sister taxa to Equus przewalski. The utility of the SNP array in genome-wide association was confirmed by mapping the known recessive chestnut coat color locus (MC1R) and defining a conserved haplotype of ?750 kb across all breeds. These results demonstrate the high quality of this SNP genotyping resource, its usefulness in diverse genome analyses of the horse, and potential use in related species. PMID:22253606

  15. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  16. Distortion Effects on Trojan Horse Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Irgaziev, B. F.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.

    2011-05-01

    The widths of the spectator momentum distributions in several nuclei, which have been used as Trojan Horses, have been obtained as a function of the transferred momentum. Applications of Trojan Horse method will also be discussed.

  17. Novel insights into the emergence of pathogens: the case of chestnut blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic, invasive pathogens have emerged repeatedly and continue to emerge to threaten the world’s forests. Ecosystem structure and function can be permanently changed when keystone tree species such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) are eliminated from a whole range by disease. The fungal ...

  18. Sporulation capacity of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Branches from six 2 to 3-year old northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with ca. 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum isolate Pr-6 and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia produ...

  19. The American Chestnut Blight: An Agent of Biological and Cultural Catastrophe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Eddie

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the history and habits of the fungus commonly referred to as the "chestnut blight." Considers the impact of the blight and efforts to control it, offers personal and cultural reflections on the blight, and gives tips for incorporating the information into cross-disciplinary lessons. Contains 17 references. (WRM)

  20. Infectivity and sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Branches from northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia production, while the other three plants w...

  1. Influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and skins.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Amilcar L; Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-01

    As seasonal products chestnuts have to be post-harvest treated to increase their shelf-life. The most common preservation method for chestnuts is the chemical fumigation with methyl bromide, a toxic agent that is under strictly Montreal Protocol due to its adverse effects on human health and environment. Food irradiation is a possible feasible alternative to substitute the traditional quarantine chemical fumigation treatment. This preliminary study evaluated the influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnut fruits and skins, through several chemical and biochemical parameters. The bioactive compounds (phenolics and flavonoids) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of ?-carotene bleaching capacity were determined. The obtained results seem to indicate that the storage favoured chestnuts antioxidant potential. Furthermore, the application of gamma irradiation also seems to be advantageous for antioxidant activity, independently of the dose used (0.27 ± 0.04 kGy or 0.54 ± 0.04 kGy). PMID:21371520

  2. Feeding Young Horses For Sound Development 

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.

    2005-05-25

    Horse owners must decide whether their young horses will be fed for moderate or rapid growth. One concern is the occurrence of bone and joint disorders in young horses that develop rapidly. Research has shown that this and other problems can...

  3. Serum cortisol concentrations in horses with colic.

    PubMed

    Mair, T S; Sherlock, C E; Boden, L A

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated cortisol concentrations in horses with colic. In humans with septic shock, high cortisol levels are associated with an increased risk of death. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum total cortisol concentrations (STCCs) in horses with colic to those without colic, and to assess whether the STCC relates to the pathological nature or outcome of the disease. STCCs were determined at presentation in horses with colic and in systemically healthy 'control' horses. Horses with colic were grouped based on clinical and clinico-pathological parameters at admission, treatment, lesion type and location, and outcome. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed using two different outcome measures: (a) whether the horse had colic or not (yes vs. no), and (b) horse STCC (?200?nmol/L vs.?<200?nmol/L). Horses were more likely to have colic if they presented with high STCCs (?200?nmol/L compared with <200?nmol/L). Horses with colic and with STCCs??200nmol/L were more likely to have moderate or severe colic signs (compared with mild colic) and heart rates?>45 beats per min (compared with ?45 beats per min). It was concluded that colic in horses is associated with elevated STCCs, and increased STCC in horses with colic appears to relate to the severity of the disease. STCCs may provide additional decision-making and prognostic information in horses with colic but further studies are required to avoid misinterpretations associated with the wide variation in STCCs. PMID:24986316

  4. Urethrolithiasis and nephrolithiasis in a horse.

    PubMed Central

    Saam, D

    2001-01-01

    A 9-year-old, quarter horse gelding with obstructive urethrolithiasis was treated with a perineal urethrostomy. The horse's condition deteriorated and abdominocentesis confirmed septic uroperitonitis. The horse was euthanized and postmortem examination revealed peritonitis, a tear in the lateral wall of the bladder, and a nephrolith within the left renal pelvis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:11708209

  5. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  6. New England 4-H Horse Show

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    New England 4-H Horse Show Rules and Guidelines Basic guide to local, county, and state/regional 4-H Horse shows as well as for those classes in open shows limited to 4-H membership entry. This rules-H Rule Book Page 2 Revised April 2014 All revisions of the New England 4-H Horse Show Rules

  7. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    PubMed

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and ?-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to improve the fitness of agricultural plants. PMID:26496847

  8. Effects of electron-beam radiation on nutritional parameters of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-08-01

    Chestnuts are a widely consumed fruit around the world, with Portugal being the fourth biggest producer in Europe. Storage of these nuts is an important step during processing, and the most widely used fumigant was banned in the European Union under the Montreal Protocol because of its toxicity. Recently, radiation has been introduced as a cheap and clean conservation method. Previous studies of our research group proved that ? radiation had no negative effect on the nutritional value of chestnuts; in fact, storage time had a much bigger influence on the chestnut quality. In the present study, we report the effect of a less ionizing radiation, electron beam, with doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 kGy in the nutritional value of chestnuts (ash, energy, fatty acids, sugars, and tocopherols), previously stored at 4 °C for 0, 30, and 60 days. The storage time seemed to reduce fat and energetic values but reported a tendency for higher values of dry matter. With regard to fatty acids, there was a higher detected quantity of C20:2 in non-irradiated samples and four fatty acids were only detected in trace quantities (C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, and C12:0). ?-Tocopherol decreased during storage time but did not alter its quantity for all of the radiation doses (as like ?-, ?-, and ?-tocopherol); in fact, these compounds were present in higher concentrations in the irradiated samples. Sucrose and total sugars were lower in non-irradiated samples, and raffinose was only detected in irradiated samples. Electron-beam irradiation seems to be a suitable methodology, because the effects on chemical and nutritional composition are very low, while storage time seems to be quite important in chestnut deterioration. PMID:22809396

  9. Esophageal Dysfunction in Friesian Horses: Morphological Features.

    PubMed

    Ploeg, M; Gröne, A; Saey, V; de Bruijn, C M; Back, W; van Weeren, P R; Scheideman, W; Picavet, T; Ducro, B J; Wijnberg, I; Delesalle, C

    2015-11-01

    Megaesophagus appears to be more common in Friesian horses than in other breeds. A prevalence of approximately 2% was observed among Friesian horses presented to the Wolvega Equine Clinic and the Utrecht University Equine Clinic. In this study, morphologic changes in the esophagi of Friesian horses with megaesophagus were compared with those of 6 control horses. Of 18 horses with clinically observed megaesophagus, only 12 animals had esophageal dilation at necropsy, usually involving the thoracic portion. Muscular hypertrophy of the distal esophagus was present in only one-third of the affected horses, indicating that this change is not the most relevant cause of megaesophagus in Friesians. Increased deposition of clumped and disorganized collagen was present in these clinically affected horses mainly in the non-dilated portion of the esophagus. At necropsy, a decrease in neural elements and elastin was present principally in horses with megaesophagus. Mild degeneration and necrosis of the tunica muscularis along the entire length of the esophagus were present in clinically affected horses and encountered only rarely in control animals. There were no significant differences among affected and control horses with respect to inflammation, mineralization, or the number of cells of Cajal. The increased occurrence of megaesophagus in the Friesian breed compared with other horse breeds, together with the presence of abnormal collagen in very young foals, supports the hypothesis that megaesophagus is hereditary in Friesians. PMID:25367366

  10. 75 FR 76453 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...-000; EG10-70-000; EG10-71-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco Wind, LLC; Arizona Solar One LLC; Criterion Power Partners, LLC; Sundevil...

  11. Genetic Variation and Differentiation in Mexican Populations of Common Bush-Tanagers and Chestnut-Capped Brush-Finches

    E-print Network

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Escalante P., Patricia; Navarro-Sigü enza, Adolfo G.

    1992-02-01

    Genetic differentiation among four Mexican populations each of Common Bush-tanagers (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus) and Chestnut-capped Brush-finches (Atlapetes brunneinucha) was evaluated using allozyme electrophoresis. In both species, although...

  12. Cattle Tyrant Perched on Horse

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Cattle tyrant perched on horse near Asuncion Bay, Paraguay. Cattle tyrants feed on parasitic arthropods on mammals, an example of mutualism. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Palm Savanna, Pas...

  13. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  14. Visual Disability and Horse Riding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Diana

    2005-01-01

    It is now commonplace for horse riding to be included in the extra-curricular activities of students with physical disabilities. In this article an account is given of how visually impaired people can derive physical, mental, and emotional benefits from this supervised activity. It is argued that the rider, in learning to exercise self-control and…

  15. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  16. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  17. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  18. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  19. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  20. Biodegradation of chestnut shell and lignin-modifying enzymes production by the white-rot fungi Dichomitus squalens, Phlebia radiata.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ya-Chen; Dai, Yi-Ning; Xu, Teng-Yang; Cai, Jin; Chen, Qi-He

    2014-05-01

    As a discarded lignocellulosic biomass, chestnut shell is of great potential economic value, thus a sustainable strategy is needed and valuable for utilization of this resource. Herein, the feasibility of biological processes of chestnut shell with Dichomitus squalens, Phlebia radiata and their co-cultivation for lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs) production and biodegradation of this lignocellulosic biomass was investigated under submerged cultivation. The treatment with D. squalens alone at 12 days gained the highest laccase activity (9.42 ± 0.73 U mg(-1)). Combined with the data of laccase and manganese peroxidase, oxalate and H2O2 were found to participate in chestnut shell degradation, accompanied by a rapid consumption of reducing sugar. Furthermore, specific surface area of chestnut shell was increased by 77.6-114.1 % with the selected fungi, and total pore volume was improved by 90.2 % with D. squalens. Meanwhile, the surface morphology was observably modified by this fungus. Overall, D. squalens was considered as a suitable fungus for degradation of chestnut shell and laccase production. The presence of LMEs, H2O2 and oxalate provided more understanding for decomposition of chestnut shell by the white-rot fungi. PMID:24013443

  1. Volatile fingerprinting of chestnut flours from traditional Emilia Romagna (Italy) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Cirlini, M; Dall'asta, C; Silvanini, A; Beghè, D; Fabbri, A; Galaverna, G; Ganino, T

    2012-09-15

    The volatile profile of nine monocultivar chestnut flours, obtained from fruits grown in Italy (Parma province), was characterised by a head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with GC-MS technique. The volatile fraction was composed of 44 main compounds belonging to different classes, mainly aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, furans and terpenes. Aldehydes, in particular hexanal, are the most abundant components. In order to better understand the origin of the different volatile compounds during the drying and milling processes, samples of fresh fruit were also analysed by the same technique and the data obtained were statistically and critically compared in order to get a picture of the volatile evolution in chestnut from fresh fruit to flour. Finally, the nine monocultivar flours were chemometrically classified on the basis of the main odour descriptors associated with the volatile fingerprinting. PMID:23107676

  2. Chestnut flowers as functionalizing agents to enhance the antioxidant properties of highly appreciated traditional pastry.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-11-01

    Some studies have proven the antioxidant and antimicrobial potency of chestnut flowers both in the raw matrix and after extraction, and the consumption of their decoctions has been related to beneficial effects towards health. In recent years, due to controversy and ambiguous legislation of chemical conservatives, plant extracts have been successfully used as functionalizing agents in different matrixes by displaying their various beneficial effects towards the foodstuff and/or the consumer. In this paper, decoctions of chestnut flowers as well as the dried flower were added to Portuguese traditional cakes that were then stored for 15 and 30 days, after which they were analysed for their antioxidant potential. The results were analysed by means of a 2 way ANOVA and a linear discriminant analysis, concluding that storage time had a slightly higher influence on alteration of the antioxidant activity. DPPH and TBARS were the most improved parameters, regardless of the concentration added. PMID:25255210

  3. On the origin and spread of horse domestication

    E-print Network

    Warmuth, Vera

    2012-04-10

    autosomal genetic datasets from horses sampled across Eurasia to investigate the origin and spread of horse domestication. I begin by characterising genetic diversity of horses from the Eurasian steppes and neighbouring regions, thus laying the groundwork...

  4. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Inspection and detention of horses. 11.4 Section 11.4 Animals...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective...

  5. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312 Section 93.312 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the...

  6. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312 Section 93.312 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the...

  7. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment information. 93...REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities; payment information....

  8. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No litter or manure, fodder or...

  9. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122 ...122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on farms for racing purposes...

  10. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No litter or manure, fodder or...

  11. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122 ...122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on farms for racing purposes...

  12. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment information. 93...REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities; payment information....

  13. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No litter or manure, fodder or...

  14. 7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  15. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No litter or manure, fodder or...

  16. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment information. 93...REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities; payment information....

  17. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment information. 93...REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities; payment information....

  18. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Inspection and detention of horses. 11.4 Section 11.4 Animals...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective...

  19. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122 ...122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on farms for racing purposes...

  20. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312 Section 93.312 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the...

  1. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment information. 93...REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities; payment information....

  2. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No litter or manure, fodder or...

  3. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122 ...122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on farms for racing purposes...

  4. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312 Section 93.312 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the...

  5. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122 ...122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on farms for racing purposes...

  6. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312 Section 93.312 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the...

  7. Antioxidant potential of chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) and almond (Prunus dulcis L.) by-products.

    PubMed

    Barreira, J C M; Ferreira, I C F R; Oliveira, M B P P; Pereira, J A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant properties of almond green husks (Cvs. Duro Italiano, Ferraduel, Ferranhês, Ferrastar and Orelha de Mula), chestnut skins and chestnut leaves (Cvs. Aveleira, Boa Ventura, Judia and Longal) were evaluated through several chemical and biochemical assays in order to provide a novel strategy to stimulate the application of waste products as new suppliers of useful bioactive compounds, namely antioxidants. All the assayed by-products revealed good antioxidant properties, with very low EC(50) values (lower than 380 ?g/mL), particularly for lipid peroxidation inhibition (lower than 140 ?g/mL). The total phenols and flavonoids contents were also determined. The correlation between these bioactive compounds and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of ?-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in pig brain tissue through formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was also obtained. Although, all the assayed by-products proved to have a high potential of application in new antioxidants formulations, chestnut skins and leaves demonstrated better results. PMID:21339136

  8. Preparation and characterisation of the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnut polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Jun; Yu, Lin

    2015-08-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a strong oxidant that cleaves glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides. In this study, the oligosaccharides were prepared by removing the starch from Chinese water chestnuts through hydrolysis using ?-amylase and then hydrolysing the remaining polysaccharides with H2O2, during which the oligosaccharide yield was monitored. The yield of oligosaccharide was affected by reaction time, temperature, and H2O2 concentration. Extended reaction times, high temperatures, and high H2O2 concentrations decreased oligosaccharide yield. Under optimum conditions (i.e., reaction time of 4h, reaction temperature of 80°C, and 2.5% H2O2 concentration), the maximum oligosaccharide yield was 3.91%. The oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides exhibited strong hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity when applied at a concentration of 100 ?g/mL. The results indicate that the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides possessed good antioxidant properties and can be developed as a new dietary supplement and functional food. PMID:25794714

  9. Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

  10. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

  11. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

  12. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

  13. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

  14. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

  15. Generalized sarcoidosis in two horses.

    PubMed

    Reijerkerk, E P R; Veldhuis Kroeze, E J B; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    2008-08-15

    Equine sarcoidosis is a rare disorder usually characterized by exfoliative dermatitis, moderate to severe wasting, and sarcoidal granulomatous inflammation of multiple organ systems. It has an unknown aetiopathogenesis. The condition is not related to equine sarcoid. This case report describes generalized cutaneous and systemic sarcoidosis in an 11-year-old Trakehner mare (case A) and in a 7-year-old Dutch Warmblood gelding (case B). Case A was presented with cutaneous sarcoidosis on the head and body and was diagnosed on the basis of histological examination of skin. Case B presented with multiple subcutaneous nodules (2-15 cm in diameter) and the diagnosis was established at postmortem examination. Both horses showed distinctive histology of the skin with extensive lymphohistiocytic infiltration and Langhans-type multinucleated giant cells. Haematology and biochemistry revealed a normal total white blood cell count with a right shift in both horses. Case B was anaemic and had a slightly elevated total protein concentration with hyperglobulinaemia. Both horses were unresponsive to corticosteroids and were euthanized. PMID:18788186

  16. Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-11-01

    In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

  17. Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in Icelandic horses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA) syndrome is a hereditary congenital eye defect that was first described in Silver colored Rocky Mountain horses. The mutation causing this disease is located within a defined chromosomal interval, which also contains the gene and mutation that is associated with the Silver coat color (PMEL17, exon 11). Horses that are homozygous for the disease-causing allele have multiple defects (MCOA-phenotype), whilst the heterozygous horses predominantly have cysts of the iris, ciliary body or retina (Cyst-phenotype). It has been argued that these ocular defects are caused by a recent mutation that is restricted to horses that are related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. For that reason we have examined another horse breed, the Icelandic horse, which is historically quite divergent from Rocky Mountain horses. Results We examined 24 Icelandic horses and established that the MCOA syndrome is present in this breed. Four of these horses were categorised as having the MCOA-phenotype and were genotyped as being homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation. The most common clinical signs included megaloglobus, iris stromal hypoplasia, abnormal pectinate ligaments, iridociliary cysts occasionally extending into the peripheral retina and cataracts. The cysts and pectinate ligament abnormalities were observed in the temporal quadrant of the eyes. Fourteen horses were heterozygous for the PMEL17 mutation and were characterized as having the Cyst-phenotype with cysts and occasionally curvilinear streaks in the peripheral retina. Three additional horses were genotyped as PMEL17 heterozygotes, but in these horses we were unable to detect cysts or other forms of anomalies. One eye of a severely vision-impaired 18 month-old stallion, homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation was examined by light microscopy. Redundant duplication of non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium, sometimes forming cysts bulging into the posterior chamber and localized areas of atrophy in the peripheral retina were seen. Conclusions The MCOA syndrome is segregating with the PMEL17 mutation in the Icelandic Horse population. This needs to be taken into consideration in breeding decisions and highlights the fact that MCOA syndrome is present in a breed that are more ancient and not closely related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. PMID:21615885

  18. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    PubMed

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general. PMID:26569319

  19. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables

    PubMed Central

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary A new web tool for equine activities, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. The aim of the safety section of the web tool was to raise awareness of safety issues in daily horse stable activities. This section contains a safety checklist, stable safety map and good practices to support human health and horse welfare and to prevent injuries in horse-related activities. Reviews of the literature and statistics, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were utilized in designing the web tool. Abstract Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general. PMID:26569319

  20. Chestnut Chocolate Torte Though sinfully rich, the torte is not overly sweet. It can be made in stages: the cake one

    E-print Network

    Ulmer, Melville P.

    Chestnut Chocolate Torte Though sinfully rich, the torte is not overly sweet. It can be made and rum extract ffl 6 squares (6 ounces) semisweet chocolate ffl 1 tablespoon shortening Cake: ffl 1 2. Using 1 tablespoon for each, shape into 8 chestnuts. Put chocolate and shortening in the top of a double

  1. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry.

  2. Social feeding decisions in horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Krüger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit

    2008-05-01

    Like many other herbivores, in a natural environment equids feed on rather evenly distributed resources. However, the vegetation in their vast habitats constantly changes. If food is plentiful only little competition occurs over food, and in non-competitive situations domestic horses tend to return to the same feeding site until it is overgrazed. In contrast, they compete over limited food for which the social status of the individuals appears to be important. Especially in ruminants several studies have proved an influence of social organisations, rank, sex and the depletion of feeding sites on the feeding behaviour of individuals. However, it is not yet understood whether and how social aspects affect horses' feeding decisions. Curiosity about the influence of social rank on the horses' feeding decisions between two, equally with high-quality surplus food-filled buckets placed in different social feeding conditions, led us to create the test below. The observer horses were alternately tested with a dominant and a subordinate demonstrator placed in one of the three different positions. We conclude that domestic horses use social cognition and strategic decision making in order to decide where to feed in a social feeding situation. When possible they tend to return to the same, continuously supplied feeding site and switch to an "avoidance tendency" in the presence of dominant horses or when another horse is already feeding there. Thus, the social rank and the position of conspecifics affect the feeding strategy of horses. PMID:18313236

  3. Liver fluke infection in horses and ponies.

    PubMed

    Owen, J M

    1977-01-01

    Thirty eight cases of Fasciola hepatica infection in horses with associated clinical signs are reported. A method of examining large amounts of faeces for fluke is described. A safe method of treatment for infected horses is given which involves oral medication with oxyclozanide at a dose rate of 15 ml/50 kg body weight. PMID:837900

  4. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  5. 9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... which sponsors, or which sanctions any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction, shall... regulations, applicable to such horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction. Rulebooks and... should be readily available to all exhibitors, trainers, and owners of horses at such show,...

  6. 9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... which sponsors, or which sanctions any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction, shall... regulations, applicable to such horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction. Rulebooks and... should be readily available to all exhibitors, trainers, and owners of horses at such show,...

  7. 9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... which sponsors, or which sanctions any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction, shall... regulations, applicable to such horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction. Rulebooks and... should be readily available to all exhibitors, trainers, and owners of horses at such show,...

  8. 9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... which sponsors, or which sanctions any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction, shall... regulations, applicable to such horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction. Rulebooks and... should be readily available to all exhibitors, trainers, and owners of horses at such show,...

  9. CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS THE HORSE Basic Requirements of the New Hampshire

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS THE HORSE PROJECT? 4 Basic Requirements of the New Hampshire 4-H Horse Program* · Own or lease one or more horses (light horse, pony, draft horse or mule). (See lease agreement details in the 4-H Rule Book.) Horses must be identified with the 4-H Horse Approval Form by April 1 or May 1

  10. Population genetics of Great Basin feral horses.

    PubMed

    Bowling, A T

    1994-06-01

    The genetic make-up of Great Basin wild (feral) horses was investigated by blood typing studies. Blood samples of 975 feral horses from seven trap sites in Nevada and Oregon were tested by serological and electrophoretic techniques for genetic markers at 19 polymorphic loci. The average number of variants for the seven feral populations [72.1 +/- 3.2 (SEM), range 62-85] was not significantly different from that of 16 domestic breeds (75.0 +/- 11.5, range 58-105). The expected average frequency of heterozygotes per locus (average heterozygosity) for the feral populations (0.402 +/- 0.009, range 0.368-0.442) was not significantly different from the domestic breeds (0.389 +/- 0.045, range 0.295-0.443). Dendrograms constructed using pairwise comparisons of Nei's distance measurements substantiated anecdotal accounts of the origins of Great Basin horses from Iberian, American saddle horse and draft horse breeds. PMID:7943986

  11. Pleiotropic effects of pigmentation genes in horses.

    PubMed

    Bellone, R R

    2010-12-01

    Horses are valued for the beauty and variety of colouration and coat patterning. To date, eleven different genes have been characterized that contribute to the variation observed in the horse. Unfortunately, mutations involving pigmentation often lead to deleterious effects in other systems, some of which have been described in the horse. This review focuses on six such pleiotropic effects or associations with pigmentation genes. These include neurological defects (lethal white foal syndrome and lavender foal syndrome), hearing defects, eye disorders (congenital stationary night blindness and multiple congenital ocular anomalies), as well as horse-specific melanoma. The pigmentation phenotype, disorder phenotype, mode of inheritance, genetic or genomic methods utilized to identify the genes involved and, if known, the causative mutations, molecular interactions and other susceptibility loci are discussed. As our understanding of pigmentation in the horse increases, through the use of novel genomic tools, we are likely to unravel yet unknown pleiotropic effects and determine additional interactions between previously discovered loci. PMID:21070283

  12. Exploring the virome of diseased horses.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; Giannitti, Federico; Low, Jason; Keyes, Casey; Ullmann, Leila S; Deng, Xutao; Aleman, Monica; Pesavento, Patricia A; Pusterla, Nicola; Delwart, Eric

    2015-09-01

    Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases. PMID:26044792

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Water Chestnut Extract on Cytokine Responses via Nuclear Factor-?B-signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Choi, Byung-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa japonica Flerov.) is an annual aquatic plant. In the present study, we showed that the treatment of water chestnut extracted with boiling water resulted in a significant increase 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and decrease the intracellular H2O2-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, water chestnut extract (WCE) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production and suppressed mRNA and protein expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. The cytokine array results showed that WCE inhibited inflammatory cytokine secretion. Also, WCE reduced tumor necrosis factor-?-and interleukin-6-induced nuclear factor-?B activity. Furthermore, during sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritation of human skin, WCE reduced SLS-induced skin erythema and improved barrier regeneration. These results indicate that WCE may be a promising topical anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25593649

  14. Isolation, purification and identification of etiolation substrate from fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa).

    PubMed

    Pan, Yong-Gui; Li, Yi-Xiao; Yuan, Meng-Qi

    2015-11-01

    Fresh cut Chinese water-chestnut is a popular ready-to-eat fresh-cut fruit in China. However, it is prone to etiolation and the chemicals responsible for this process are not known yet. To address this problem, we extracted phytochemicals from etiolated Chinese water-chestnut and separated them using MPLC and column chromatography. Four compounds were obtained and their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, TLC, HPLC and NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. We identified these compounds as eriodictyol, naringenin, sucrose and ethyl D-glucoside. Among those, eriodictyol and naringenin were both isolated for the first time in fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut and are responsible for the yellowing of this fruit cutting. PMID:25976800

  15. [Doping control in race horses].

    PubMed

    Ungemach, F R

    1985-01-01

    Doping in performance horses is defined as the "illegal application of any substance, except normal diet, that might modify the natural and present capacities of the horse at the time of the race." The prohibition of doping is mainly based on the protection of animals. Doping can be performed with various aims: "doping to win" can be regarded as the classical method by mobilization of overphysiological capacities. Such positive doping may be classified as an acute form using psychomotoric stimulants, as a chronic form using anabolic hormones, and as a paradoxical form using small doses of neuroleptics or tranquilizers in excitable horses. In larger doses these sedatives are acting for "doping to loose" in a more subtle manner as compared to hypnotics. According to the doping regulations there is no difference between therapy and doping at the time of the race. Thus at the race all medications to restore normal performance have to be regarded as doping. This fact especially concerns the therapy of lamenesses with non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs or local anesthetics. A particular problem is "inadvertent" doping due to unknown side effects, combinations of drugs, galenic supplements or food additives. Accidental doping may further be caused by the unawareness of elimination times. At the moment no exact withdrawing times can be defined due to the manifold interindividual variations at different levels of the pharmacokinetics. As a border-line case of doping the application of endogenous substances, like electrolytes or glucose, may be regarded. Though their parenteral application is prohibited prior to the race, only bicarbonate or "blood doping" may be considered to be effective as positive doping. Special doping methods are the use of "masking" substances or diuretics in order to make more difficult the detection of illegal drugs as well as physical doping procedures which are often hardly to define and which thus are only in part included in the doping regulations. PMID:2859671

  16. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by...

  17. Knowledge is key to safety; Plants that poison horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally they are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However, there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Other plants may be eaten by some horses even though they are unpalatable...

  18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel.

    PubMed

    Weese, J Scott

    2004-12-01

    Fortunately, MRSA infection and colonization are currently uncommon in veterinary medicine. Nevertheless, the increasing reports of the occurrence of MRSA infection in horses, veterinarians, and equine personnel dictate that serious consideration be given to the control of this pathogen in veterinary hospitals as well as in the equine community. It is unclear whether extrapolation from human hospitals and people in the community is appropriate; however, given the rapid increase in nosocomial MRSA in human hospitals and the recent shift of certain clones of MRSA into the community, it would be unwise to ignore this potential pathogen. If equine MRSA did, indeed, originate in the human population, complete eradication in the equine population is unlikely, regardless of the prevalence of infection in horses and the intensity of infection control measures, without concurrent eradication of MRSA in the human population, which is surely an impossible feat. Early institution of appropriate surveillance and other infection control measures should be used to attempt to limit the impact of MRSA in veterinary medicine, however. It has been stated, "The time to act is now, before the prevalence of MRSA in the community begins to rise and we end up with 50% of the community strains becoming methicillin-resistant". This statement was directed at control of MRSA in people; however, it is equally relevant in the veterinary context and should receive strong consideration. PMID:15519821

  19. Laryngeal reinnervation in the horse.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Ian C; Stick, John A; Derksen, Fredrik J

    2003-04-01

    Left laryngeal hemiplegia is a frustrating condition for the equine athlete and equine veterinarian. Treatment for the past 30 years has centered on the prosthetic laryngoplasty ("tie-back") with or without ventriculectomy. Laryngeal reinnervation has been used successfully in people and has been shown experimentally to benefit affected horses. This article reviews equine laryngeal reinnervation using the nerve muscle pedicle graft and describes the surgical technique, its complications, and the follow-up in 146 cases treated over the past 10 years. Also discussed is ongoing research into stimulation studies to improve the success of equine laryngeal reinnervation. PMID:12747668

  20. Nutraceutical properties of chestnut flours: beneficial effects on skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Frati, Alessia; Landi, Debora; Marinelli, Cristian; Gianni, Giacomo; Fontana, Lucia; Migliorini, Marzia; Pierucci, Federica; Garcia-Gil, Mercedes; Meacci, Elisabetta

    2014-11-01

    Plants contain a wide range of non-nutritive phytochemicals, many of which have protective or preventive properties for human diseases. The aim of the present work has been to investigate the nutraceutical properties of sweet chestnut flour extracts obtained from fruits collected from 7 geographic areas of Tuscany (Italy), and their ability in modulating skeletal muscle atrophy. We found that the cultivars from different geographic areas are characterized by the composition and quantity of various nutrients and specific bioactive components, such as tocopherols, polyphenols and sphingolipids. The nutraceutical properties of chestnut sweet flours have been evaluated in C2C12 myotubes induced to atrophy by serum deprivation or dexamethasone. We found that the pretreatment with both total extracts of tocopherols and sphingolipids is able to counterbalance cell atrophy, reducing the decrease in myotube size and myonuclei number, and attenuating protein degradation and the increase in expression of MAFbx/atrogin-1 (a muscle-specific atrophy marker). By contrast, polyphenol extracts were not able to prevent atrophy. Since we also found that ?-tocopherol is the major form of tocopherol in sweet flour and its content differs depending on the procedure of sweet flour preparation, the mechanisms by which ?-tocopherol as well as sphingolipids affect skeletal muscle cell atrophy have been also investigated. This is the first evidence that chestnut sweet flour is a natural source of specific bioactive components with a relevant role in the prevention of cell degeneration and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass, opening important implications in designing appropriate nutritional therapeutic approaches to skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:25183412

  1. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents. The role of the cotyledonary petiole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Steele, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak ( Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ?6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to produce seedlings suggests a far greater resilience of white oaks to seed predation than previously anticipated.

  2. Synthesis of chestnut-bur-like palladium nanostructures and their enhanced electrocatalytic activities for ethanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Seong Ji; Kim, Do Youb; Kang, Shin Wook; Choi, Kyeong Woo; Han, Sang Woo; Park, O. Ok

    2014-03-01

    We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pd nanostructures with highly open structure and huge surface area by reducing Na2PdCl4 with ascorbic acid and using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a surfactant in an aqueous solution. The prepared Pd nanostructures had an average overall size of 70 nm and were composed of dozens of needle-like thin arms, originating from the same core, with an average thickness of 2.3 nm; the arms looked like chestnut-burs. Time evolution of Pd nanostructures implied that small Pd particles generated at the early stage of the reaction by fast reduction grew via the particle attachment growth mechanism. The morphology and size of the Pd nanostructures could be readily controlled by varying the concentration of CPC; depending on the amount of CPC, the reduction rates varied the morphology of the Pd nanostructures. Because of the huge surface area and possible catalytically active sites, the prepared chestnut-bur-like Pd nanostructures exhibited greater electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation compared to other Pd nanocatalysts, including cubic and octahedral Pd nanocrystals, and even commercial Pd/C.We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pd nanostructures with highly open structure and huge surface area by reducing Na2PdCl4 with ascorbic acid and using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a surfactant in an aqueous solution. The prepared Pd nanostructures had an average overall size of 70 nm and were composed of dozens of needle-like thin arms, originating from the same core, with an average thickness of 2.3 nm; the arms looked like chestnut-burs. Time evolution of Pd nanostructures implied that small Pd particles generated at the early stage of the reaction by fast reduction grew via the particle attachment growth mechanism. The morphology and size of the Pd nanostructures could be readily controlled by varying the concentration of CPC; depending on the amount of CPC, the reduction rates varied the morphology of the Pd nanostructures. Because of the huge surface area and possible catalytically active sites, the prepared chestnut-bur-like Pd nanostructures exhibited greater electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation compared to other Pd nanocatalysts, including cubic and octahedral Pd nanocrystals, and even commercial Pd/C. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional TEM images of Pd nanostructures (Fig. S1-S4). See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06410g

  3. Horse Theft Awareness and Prevention - 15 Steps to Minimizing Theft of Horses and Equipment 

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.

    2003-09-26

    tack. Horses and equipment are sto- len from barns, farms, pastures, boarding and training facilities, competitive events?even from backyards. Tracking stolen horses can be dif_f_icult because theft re- ports are often delayed and stolen horses can... of your trailer. Use signs and warning post- ers where ap- propriate. To signal to potential thieves that the owner is informed, active and aware, post such notices as: ? No trespassing signs; ? Security system signs; and ? Farm or livestock association...

  4. [HYPP: hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in the horse].

    PubMed

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    1999-03-15

    Hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis(HYPP) is characterized by intermittent episodes of muscular tremor, weakness, and collapse, and is probably caused by abnormal electrolyte transport in the muscle cell membrane. During an episode of HYPP, most animals are severely hyperkalaemic. HYPP is a hereditary disease and occurs only in American Quarter horses or crossbreds. Because these horses are now being imported into the Netherlands, HYPP should be included in the differential diagnosis of horses showing signs of muscle tremor, paresis, or paralysis. The present article reviews the literature on HYPP and describes a case showing typical signs of the disease. PMID:10188180

  5. Chestnut cultivar diversification process in the Iberian Peninsula, Canary Islands, and Azores.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Lorenzo, Santiago; Costa, Rita Maria Lourenço; Ramos-Cabrer, Ana María; Ciordia-Ara, Marta; Ribeiro, Carla Alexandra Marques; Borges, Olga; Barreneche, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    This is a large-scale molecular study based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci of the diversification process in chestnut cultivars from Portugal and Spain, from the northern Iberian Peninsula to the Canary Islands and the Azores. A total of 593 grafted chestnut trees (Castanea sativa Mill.) were analysed with 10 SSRs: 292 from Portugal and 301 from Spain. Some of the trees studied were more than 300 years old. Accessions were analysed using a model-based Bayesian procedure to assess the geographical structure and to assign individuals to reconstructed populations based on the SSR genotypes. We found 356 different genotypes with a mean value of clonality of 33% owing to grafting. Mutations accounted for 6%, with hybridization being the main diversification process that can explain the great diversity found. Ten main cultivar groups were detected: four in northern Spain, five in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, and one in southern Spain related to the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This work demonstrated that cultivar origin and the diversification process was a combination of clonal propagation of selected seedlings, hybridization, and mutations, which allowed high levels of diversity to be maintained with respect to selected clones for fruit production. Furthermore, seedlings and graft sticks facilitated the transport to new destinations in the colonization process, transporting sometimes more than 3000 km if we consider the Azores and the Canary Islands. PMID:21491973

  6. Biological control of chestnut blight: an example of virus-mediated attenuation of fungal pathogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, D L

    1992-01-01

    Environmental concerns have focused attention on natural forms of disease control as potentially safe and effective alternatives to chemical pesticides. This has led to increased efforts to develop control strategies that rely on natural predators and parasites or that involve genetically engineered microbial pest control agents. This review deals with a natural form of biological control in which the virulence of a fungal pathogen is attenuated by an endogenous viral RNA genetic element: the phenomenon of transmissible hypovirulence in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Recent progress in the molecular characterization of a hypovirulence-associated viral RNA has provided an emerging view of the genetic organization and basic expression strategy of this class of genetic elements. Several lines of evidence now suggest that specific hypovirulence-associated virus-encoded gene products selectively modulate the expression of subsets of fungal genes and the activity of specific regulatory pathways. The construction of an infectious cDNA clone of a hypovirulence-associated viral RNA represents a major advancement that provides exciting new opportunities for examining the molecular basis of transmissible hypovirulence and for engineering hypovirulent strains for improved biocontrol. These developments have significantly improved the prospects of using this system to identify molecular determinants of virulence and elucidate signal transduction pathways involved in pathogenic responses. In addition, novel approaches are now available for extending the application of transmissible hypovirulence for management of chestnut blight and possibly other fungal diseases. Images PMID:1480109

  7. Complex of solonetzes and vertic chestnut soils in the manych-gudilo depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovda, I. V.; Morgun, E. P.; Il'ina, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological, physicochemical, and isotopic properties of a two-member soil complex developed under dry steppe have been studied in the central part of the Manych Depression. The soils are formed on chocolate-colored clayey sediments, and have pronounced microrelief and the complex vegetation pattern. A specific feature of the studied soil complex is the inverse position of its components: vertic chestnut soil occupies the microhigh, while solonetz is in the microlow. The formation of such complexes is explained by the biological factor, i.e., by the destruction of the solonetzic horizon under the impact of vegetation and earth-burrowing animals with further transformation under steppe plants and dealkalinization of the soil in the microhighs. The manifestation of vertic features and shrink-swell process in soils of the complex developing in dry steppe are compared with those in the vertic soils of the Central Pre-Caucasus formed under more humid environment. It is supposed that slickensides in the investigated vertic chestnut soil are relict feature inherited from the former wetter stage of the soil development and are subjected to a gradual degradation at present. In the modern period, vertic processes are weak and cannot be distinctly diagnosed. However, their activation may take place upon an increase of precipitation or the rise in the groundwater level.

  8. Synthesis of chestnut-bur-like palladium nanostructures and their enhanced electrocatalytic activities for ethanol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Seong Ji; Kim, Do Youb; Kang, Shin Wook; Choi, Kyeong Woo; Han, Sang Woo; Park, O Ok

    2014-04-21

    We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pd nanostructures with highly open structure and huge surface area by reducing Na?PdCl? with ascorbic acid and using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a surfactant in an aqueous solution. The prepared Pd nanostructures had an average overall size of 70 nm and were composed of dozens of needle-like thin arms, originating from the same core, with an average thickness of 2.3 nm; the arms looked like chestnut-burs. Time evolution of Pd nanostructures implied that small Pd particles generated at the early stage of the reaction by fast reduction grew via the particle attachment growth mechanism. The morphology and size of the Pd nanostructures could be readily controlled by varying the concentration of CPC; depending on the amount of CPC, the reduction rates varied the morphology of the Pd nanostructures. Because of the huge surface area and possible catalytically active sites, the prepared chestnut-bur-like Pd nanostructures exhibited greater electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation compared to other Pd nanocatalysts, including cubic and octahedral Pd nanocrystals, and even commercial Pd/C. PMID:24608517

  9. Species-specific duplications of NBS-encoding genes in Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yan; Li, Yingjun; Huang, Kaihui; Cheng, Zong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The disease resistance (R) genes play an important role in protecting plants from infection by diverse pathogens in the environment. The nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) class of genes is one of the largest R gene families. Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is resistant to Chestnut Blight Disease, but relatively little is known about the resistance mechanism. We identified 519 NBS-encoding genes, including 374 NBS-LRR genes and 145 NBS-only genes. The majority of Ka/Ks were less than 1, suggesting the purifying selection operated during the evolutionary history of NBS-encoding genes. A minority (4/34) of Ka/Ks in non-TIR gene families were greater than 1, showing that some genes were under positive selection pressure. Furthermore, Ks peaked at a range of 0.4 to 0.5, indicating that ancient duplications arose during the evolution. The relationship between Ka/Ks and Ks indicated greater selective pressure on the newer and older genes with the critical value of Ks?=?0.4-0.5. Notably, species-specific duplications were detected in NBS-encoding genes. In addition, the group of RPW8-NBS-encoding genes clustered together as an independent clade located at a relatively basal position in the phylogenetic tree. Many cis-acting elements related to plant defense responses were detected in promoters of NBS-encoding genes. PMID:26559332

  10. Chestnut shell as heavy metal adsorbent: optimization study of lead, copper and zinc cations removal.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Gonzalo; Calvo, Marcos; Sonia Freire, M; González-Alvarez, Julia; Antorrena, Gervasio

    2009-12-30

    The influence of initial cation concentration, temperature and pH was investigated to optimize Pb(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) removal from aqueous solutions using acid formaldehyde pre-treated chestnut shell as adsorbent. Experiments were planned according to an incomplete 3(3) factorial experimental design. Under the optimal conditions selected, the metal ion adsorption equilibrium was satisfactorily described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum pre-treated chestnut shell adsorption capacity was obtained for Pb(2+) ions, 8.5 mg g(-1), and the order of cation affinity was Pb(2+)>Cu(2+)>Zn(2+). A model that considered the effect of axial dispersion was successfully used to describe the fixed-bed adsorption behaviour of Pb(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions at the flow rates essayed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies showed that the functional groups involved in metal ions binding included carboxyl, hydroxyl, ether, alcoholic and amino groups. PMID:19716655

  11. Pyrosequencing of environmental soil samples reveals biodiversity of the Phytophthora resident community in chestnut forests.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Andrea; Bruni, Natalia; Tomassini, Alessia; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria

    2013-09-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis was performed on soils from Italian chestnut groves to evaluate the diversity of the resident Phytophthora community. Sequences analysed with a custom database discriminated 15 pathogenic Phytophthoras including species common to chestnut soils, while a total of nine species were detected with baiting. The two sites studied differed in Phytophthora diversity and the presence of specific taxa responded to specific ecological traits of the sites. Furthermore, some species not previously recorded were represented by a discrete number of reads; among these species, Phytophthora ramorum was detected at both sites. Pyrosequencing was demonstrated to be a very sensitive technique to describe the Phytophthora community in soil and was able to detect species not easy to be isolated from soil with standard baiting techniques. In particular, pyrosequencing is an highly efficient tool for investigating the colonization of new environments by alien species, and for ecological and adaptive studies coupled with biological detection methods. This study represents the first application of pyrosequencing for describing Phytophthoras in environmental soil samples. PMID:23560715

  12. Species-specific duplications of NBS-encoding genes in Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yan; Li, Yingjun; Huang, Kaihui; Cheng, Zong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The disease resistance (R) genes play an important role in protecting plants from infection by diverse pathogens in the environment. The nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) class of genes is one of the largest R gene families. Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is resistant to Chestnut Blight Disease, but relatively little is known about the resistance mechanism. We identified 519 NBS-encoding genes, including 374 NBS-LRR genes and 145 NBS-only genes. The majority of Ka/Ks were less than 1, suggesting the purifying selection operated during the evolutionary history of NBS-encoding genes. A minority (4/34) of Ka/Ks in non-TIR gene families were greater than 1, showing that some genes were under positive selection pressure. Furthermore, Ks peaked at a range of 0.4 to 0.5, indicating that ancient duplications arose during the evolution. The relationship between Ka/Ks and Ks indicated greater selective pressure on the newer and older genes with the critical value of Ks?=?0.4–0.5. Notably, species-specific duplications were detected in NBS-encoding genes. In addition, the group of RPW8-NBS-encoding genes clustered together as an independent clade located at a relatively basal position in the phylogenetic tree. Many cis-acting elements related to plant defense responses were detected in promoters of NBS-encoding genes. PMID:26559332

  13. Transcriptomic identification and expression of starch and sucrose metabolism genes in the seeds of chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) seed provides a rich source of carbohydrates as food and feed. However, little is known about starch biosynthesis in the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine seed composition profiles and identify genes involved in starch and sucrose metabo...

  14. Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (D-025): Summary of closure under Rules Governing Hazardous Waste Management in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.E.

    1989-07-01

    On February 29, 1988, the Revised Closure Plan for Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin,'' Y/TS-390 (Reference 1) was submitted to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for review and transmittal to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE). The closure activities described in the closure plan have been performed. The purpose of this document is to summarize the closure activities for the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal (CRSDB). The closure of CRSDB is a final closure. The Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB), Unit D-025, was an unlined, man-made sediment disposal facility on Chestnut Ridge, south of New Hope Pond (NHP). The CRSDB was constructed during 1972--73 for the disposal of sediments hydraulically dredged from NHP. It was designed to hold approximately 30,000 cubic yards of sediments. Since 1973, the basin had been used for the periodic disposal of sediments excavated from NHP and its appurtenant structures. NHP has previously received discharges form RCRA-related waste streams. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 9 CFR 11.40 - Prohibitions and requirements concerning persons involved in transportation of certain horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction, shall allow and assist in the inspection of such horse at any such show, exhibition, sale, or auction to determine compliance with the Act as provided...

  16. 9 CFR 11.40 - Prohibitions and requirements concerning persons involved in transportation of certain horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction, shall allow and assist in the inspection of such horse at any such show, exhibition, sale, or auction to determine compliance with the Act as provided...

  17. 9 CFR 11.40 - Prohibitions and requirements concerning persons involved in transportation of certain horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction, shall allow and assist in the inspection of such horse at any such show, exhibition, sale, or auction to determine compliance with the Act as provided...

  18. 9 CFR 11.40 - Prohibitions and requirements concerning persons involved in transportation of certain horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction, shall allow and assist in the inspection of such horse at any such show, exhibition, sale, or auction to determine compliance with the Act as provided...

  19. 9 CFR 93.315 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Import permit and declaration for horses. 93.315 Section 93.315 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.315 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

  20. 9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Import permit and declaration for horses. 93.319 Section 93.319 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies...319 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

  1. 9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Import permit and declaration for horses. 93.319 Section 93.319 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies...319 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

  2. 9 CFR 93.315 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Import permit and declaration for horses. 93.315 Section 93.315 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.315 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

  3. 9 CFR 93.321 - Import permits and applications for inspection for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...permits and applications for inspection for horses. 93.321 Section 93.321 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.321 Import permits and applications for inspection for horses. For horses intended for...

  4. 9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Import permit and declaration for horses. 93.319 Section 93.319 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies...319 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

  5. 9 CFR 93.321 - Import permits and applications for inspection for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...permits and applications for inspection for horses. 93.321 Section 93.321 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.321 Import permits and applications for inspection for horses. For horses intended for...

  6. 9 CFR 93.315 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Import permit and declaration for horses. 93.315 Section 93.315 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.315 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

  7. 9 CFR 93.315 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Import permit and declaration for horses. 93.315 Section 93.315 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.315 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

  8. 9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Import permit and declaration for horses. 93.319 Section 93.319 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies...319 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

  9. 9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Import permit and declaration for horses. 93.319 Section 93.319 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies...319 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

  10. 9 CFR 93.321 - Import permits and applications for inspection for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...permits and applications for inspection for horses. 93.321 Section 93.321 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.321 Import permits and applications for inspection for horses. For horses intended for...

  11. 9 CFR 93.321 - Import permits and applications for inspection for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...permits and applications for inspection for horses. 93.321 Section 93.321 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.321 Import permits and applications for inspection for horses. For horses intended for...

  12. 9 CFR 93.315 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Import permit and declaration for horses. 93.315 Section 93.315 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.315 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

  13. 9 CFR 93.321 - Import permits and applications for inspection for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...permits and applications for inspection for horses. 93.321 Section 93.321 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.321 Import permits and applications for inspection for horses. For horses intended for...

  14. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

  15. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

  16. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

  17. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

  18. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

  19. Texas 4-H Horse Quiz Bowl Supplement 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    1999-09-28

    , body brush, mane and tail comb, hoof pick (also allow other items not listed) Source: ?Horses and Horsemanship? Page number: 23 Division: Junior F. Management Question: What is the term for an acquired habit that is annoying, or may interfere...

  20. Distortion effects in Trojan Horse applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Irgaziev, B.; Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C.

    2012-11-20

    Deuteron induced quasi-free scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades. This was done not only for nuclear structure and processes study but also for the important astrophysical implication (Trojan Horse Method, THM). In particular the width of the neutron momentum distribution in deuteron will be studied as a function of the transferred momentum. The same will be done for other nuclides of possible use as Trojan Horse particles. Trojan horse method applications will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the Trojan horse nucleus is a necessary input for this method. The impact of the width (FWHM) variation on the extraction of the astrophysical S(E)-factor is discussed.

  1. Paraguayan Horse Tack and Ranch Hand

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Paraguayan cowboys often make their own rawhide tack. The cowboy in this picture is braiding rawhide tied to a tree. The cowboys' quarters can be seen in the background. The typical ranch horse in Paraguay is the

  2. West Nile Encephalitis in Humans and Horses 

    E-print Network

    Lawhorn, D. Bruce

    2000-08-25

    Humans and horses are infected with West Nile Encephalitis after being bitten by mosquitoes that transmit the virus. Migratory birds are thought to be responsible for the introduction of the virus into new areas. This publication explains...

  3. Genetic Evaluation of Sport Horses in Britain 

    E-print Network

    Kearsley, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    The genetic evaluation of sport horses is common practice on the Continent and in Ireland but, until now, has not been carried out in Great Britain. The aim of this project was to derive models for predicting breeding ...

  4. Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

  5. Identification of copy number variants in horses

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Ryan; Cohen, Noah; Harrington, Jessica; Veazy, Kylee; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Gus; McCue, Molly E.; Skow, Loren; Dindot, Scott V.

    2012-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds. PMID:22383489

  6. Antifeedants and feeding stimulants in bark extracts of ten woody non-host species of the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Carina; Månsson, Per E; Sjödin, Kristina; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2008-10-01

    Bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a Soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. Species were alder (Alnus glutinosa), aspen (Populus tremula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), holly (Ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (Evonymus europaeus), walnut (Juglans regia), and yew (Taxus baccata). Bark of each species was collected in southern Scandinavia during the summer. Resulting extracts were tested for antifeedant activity against the pine weevil by a micro-feeding choice assay. At a dose corresponding to that in the bark, methanol extracts from Aesculus, Taxus, Ilex, and Populus were antifeedant active, while pentane extracts of Aesculus, Fagus, Syringa, and Viburnum were stimulatory. Four known antifeedants against H. abietis, the straight-chained carboxylic acids, hexanoic and nonanoic acid (C6 and C9), carvone, and carvacrol were identified by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in several extracts. The major constituents were identified and tested for feeding deterrence. The aromatic compounds benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol are new non-host plant-derived feeding deterrents for the pine weevil. Additionally, two feeding stimulants, beta-sitosterol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, were identified. One active methanol extract of Aesculus bark was sequentially fractionated by liquid chromatography, and major compounds were tentatively identified as branched alcohols and esters of hexanoic acid. Five commercially available hexanoate esters and two commercially available branched alcohols were identified as new active antifeedants. Both stimulatory and inhibiting compounds were found in the same extracts and co-eluted in the same or adjacent fractions. The mix of semiochemicals of opposite activity in each extract or fraction could explain the stimulatory-, inhibitory-, or sometimes neutral activity. Generally, such co-occurrence confounds the isolation of antifeedants. PMID:18719963

  7. 9 CFR 11.40 - Prohibitions and requirements concerning persons involved in transportation of certain horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE... movement, any horse with reason to believe such horse may be shown, exhibited, sold or auctioned at any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction, shall allow and assist in the inspection of...

  8. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2012 (77 FR 33607-33619, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0030), and... / Thursday, May 9, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry...

  9. Total monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition by chestnut honey, pollen and propolis.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, O; Karahalil, F; Can, Z; Sahin, H; Kolayli, S

    2014-10-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors are generally used in the treatment of depressive disorders and some neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the MAO [MAO (E.C.1.4.3.4)] inhibiting effect of various apitherapeutic products, such as chestnut honey, pollen and propolis. Extracts' MAO inhibition was measured using peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay in enzyme isolated from rat liver microsomes, and the values are expressed as the inhibition concentration (IC50) causing 50% inhibition of MAO. The antioxidant activity of the bee products was also determined in terms of total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power in aquatic extracts. All samples exhibited substantial inhibition of MAO, propolis having the highest. Inhibition was related to samples' TPCs and antioxidant capacities. These results show that bee products possess a sedative effect and may be effective in protecting humans against depression and similar diseases. PMID:24156742

  10. Identification of major phenolic compounds of Chinese water chestnut and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    You, Yanli; Duan, Xuewu; Wei, Xiaoyi; Su, Xinguo; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Jian; Ruenroengklin, Neungnapa; Jiang, Yueming

    2007-01-01

    Chinese water chestnut (CWC) is one of the most popular foods among Asian people due to its special taste and medical function. Experiments were conducted to test the antioxidant activity and then determine the major phenolic compound components present in CWC. CWC phenolic extract strongly inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and exhibited a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which was superior to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), two commercial used antioxidants. Furthermore, the CWC extract was found to have a relatively higher reducing power, compared with BHT. The major phenolic compounds present in CWC tissues were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) as (-)-gallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate and (+)-catechin gallate. This study suggests that CWC tissues exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions. PMID:17851436

  11. The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

    2013-04-01

    Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results, as expected, show that management didn't affect root mechanical properties, whereas root distribution within the soil profile did. In terms of additional root cohesion, values are higher in the managed stand, and lower in the abandoned one, at least in the first 50 cm of soil. In the abandoned stand, in fact, roots reach deeper layers of soil (100 cm) than the managed one (50 cm), mainly because of an unexpected greater soil depth. To assess the implication of such results in terms of slope stability, a simple infinite slope model was applied to the two conditions. The results showed that the abandoned stand is prone to instability also with a low level of saturation. On the contrary, by applying the additional root cohesion profile obtained in the managed stand to the steeper slopes, stability should be guaranteed, except in the case of total saturation. In conclusion, although more investigations are required especially to extend the number of stands, coppicing practice seem to be fundamental to prevent shallow landsliding in sweet chestnut forests over cohesionless slopes.

  12. East Chestnut Ridge hydrogeologic characterization: A geophysical study of two karst features

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Permitting and site selection activities for the proposed East Chestnut Ridge landfill, located on the Oak Ridge Reservation, have required additional hydrogeologic studies of two karst features. Geophysical testing methods were utilized for investigating these karst features. The objectives of the geophysical testing was to determine the feasibility of geophysical techniques for locating subsurface karst features and to determine if subsurface anomalies exist at the proposed landfill site. Two karst features, one lacking surface expression (sinkhole) but with a known solution cavity at depth (from previous hydrologic studies), and the other with surface expression were tested with surface geophysical methods. Four geophysical profiles, two crossing and centered over each karst feature were collected using both gravimetric and electrical resistivity techniques.

  13. 5. Log draft horse barn. Detail of west side showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log draft horse barn. Detail of west side showing Dutch door and square notching at wall corner. View to east. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Draft Horse Barn, 290 feet southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  14. Activity of group-transported horses during onboard rest stops 

    E-print Network

    Keen, Heidi A.

    2007-04-25

    Activity of group-transported horses was evaluated during onboard rest stops to determine if horses derive meaningful rest. A single-deck semi-trailer separated into three compartments was used for all shipments. In Experiment One, twelve video...

  15. 6. VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING CONCRETE BEING PLACED. PENSTOCK OPENINGS ARE VISIBLE AT CENTER LEFT. August 24, 1926 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 22. VIEW SHOWING THE COMPLETED HORSE MESA DAM, EXCEPT FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SHOWING THE COMPLETED HORSE MESA DAM, EXCEPT FOR TRANSFORMER EQUIPMENT BEING INSTALLED ABOVE THE POWER PLANT 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. Detail, drivethrough under hoppers, view to southeast. Hungry Horse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, drive-through under hoppers, view to southeast. - Hungry Horse Village, Timber Sand Bunker, Approximately 1 mile south of Highway 2 East & 1/4 mile east of Colorado Boulevard, Hungry Horse, Flathead County, MT

  18. Context with Building 18, view to northwest. Hungry Horse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context with Building 18, view to northwest. - Hungry Horse Village, Maintenance Shop, Approximately 1 mile south of Highway 2 East & 1/4 mile east of Colorado Boulevard, Hungry Horse, Flathead County, MT

  19. 36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER PLANT, LOOKING NORTH. ONLY TWO OF THE THREE UNITS ARE VISIBLE - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; U.S. Highway 58 (toward Martinsville) is in the foreground - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  1. 24. CLOSEUP VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM. HEFU PENSTOCK IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM. HEFU PENSTOCK IS AT CENTER RIGHT, AND LEFT (OR SOUTH) SPILLWAY CHUTE IS AT UPPER RIGHT - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 23. VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM, SHOWING SPILLWAY DISCHARGE TUNNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM, SHOWING SPILLWAY DISCHARGE TUNNEL AT LEFT, RIGHT (OR NORTH) SPILLWAY, HEFU POWER UNIT, AND ORIGINAL POWER PLANT - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE AND CONCRETE PLACEMENT LINES August 2, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. Bone growth and development in weanling horses given forced exercise 

    E-print Network

    Williams, Jessica Leah

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of different management techniques to grow weanling horses, focusing on bone growth and development. Horses were put into two management regimens, the first in semi-confinement in a dry lot paddock...

  5. Genetic evaluation of traits recorded in sport horses in GB 

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Isobel Dorothea

    2012-06-22

    Genetic evaluations for sport horses are performed by many Northern European studbooks, and estimated breeding values - which aid the selection of horses for breeding progeny with good competing ability - are routinely ...

  6. Trypanosoma evansi control and horse mortality in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Seidl, A F; Moraes, A S; Silva, R A

    2001-07-01

    The impact of three treatment strategies for Trypanosoma evansi control on horse mortality in the Brazilian Pantanal based on four size categories of cattle ranches is explored. The region's 49,000 horses are indispensable to traditional extensive cattle ranching and T. evansi kills horses. About 13% of these horses would be lost, annually, due to T. evansi if no control were undertaken. One preventive and two curative treatment strategies are financially justifiable in the Pantanal. The best available technology for the treatment of T. evansi from a horse mortality perspective is the preventive strategy, which spares 6,462 horses, annually. The year-round cure spares 5,783 horses, and the seasonal cure saves 5,204 horses on a regional basis relative to no control strategy. Regardless of the strategy adopted, 39% of the costs or benefits fall to the largest ranches, while 18% fall to the smallest ranches. PMID:11500755

  7. The Hypersensitivity of Horses to Culicoides Bites in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gail S.; Belton, Peter; Kleider, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Culicoides hypersensitivity is a chronic, recurrent, seasonal dermatitis of horses that has a worldwide distribution, but has only recently been reported in Canada. It is characterized by intense pruritus resulting in lesions associated with self-induced trauma. A survey of veterinarians and horse-owners in British Columbia showed no differences in susceptibility due to the sex, color, breed, or height of the horses. The prevalence of the disease in the 209 horses surveyed was 26%. Horses sharing the same pasture could be unaffected. The disease was reported primarily from southwestern British Columbia; it occurred between April and October and usually affected the ventral midline, mane, and tail. Horses were generally less than nine years old when the clinical signs first appeared ([unk]=5.9 yr). Culicoides hypersensitivity was common in the lineage of several affected horses, possibly indicating a genetic susceptibility. Most cases were severe enough to require veterinary attention and some horses were euthanized. PMID:17423117

  8. Structure of Oxalacetate Acetylhydrolase, a Virulence Factor of the Chestnut Blight Fungus

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nuss, Donald L.; Herzberg, Osnat

    2010-11-15

    Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxalacetate is the main OAH substrate, but the enzyme also acts as a lyase of (2R,3S)-dimethyl malate with {approx}1000-fold lower efficacy. The crystal structure of OAH was determined alone, in complex with a mechanism-based inhibitor, 3,3-difluorooxalacetate (DFOA), and in complex with the reaction product, oxalate, to a resolution limit of 1.30, 1.55, and 1.65 {angstrom}, respectively. OAH assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit exhibiting an ({alpha}/{beta})8 barrel fold and each pair swapping the 8th {alpha}-helix. An active site 'gating loop' exhibits conformational disorder in the ligand-free structure. To obtain the structures of the OAH {center_dot} ligand complexes, the ligand-free OAH crystals were soaked briefly with DFOA or oxalacetate. DFOA binding leads to ordering of the gating loop in a conformation that sequesters the ligand from the solvent. DFOA binds in a gem-diol form analogous to the oxalacetate intermediate/transition state. Oxalate binds in a planar conformation, but the gating loop is largely disordered. Comparison between the OAH structure and that of the closely related enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, suggests potential determinants of substrate preference.

  9. 4-H Horse Leader Volunteer Service Description As a 4-H Horse Leader you are responsible for working with youth in a variety of meetings, from

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    4-H Horse Leader Volunteer Service Description As a 4-H Horse Leader you are responsible for working with youth in a variety of meetings, from club meetings, to field trips and horse shows. Horses are large animals and can be unpredictable. Youth and adults working with horses must be very aware

  10. Comparisons of Ectomycorrhizal Colonization of Transgenic American Chestnut with Those of the Wild Type, a Conventionally Bred Hybrid, and Related Fagaceae Species

    PubMed Central

    D'Amico, Katherine M.; Horton, Thomas R.; Maynard, Charles A.; Stehman, Stephen V.; Oakes, Allison D.

    2014-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) dominated the eastern forests of North America, serving as a keystone species both ecologically and economically until the introduction of the chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica, functionally eradicated the species. Restoration efforts include genetic transformation utilizing genes such as oxalate oxidase to produce potentially blight-resistant chestnut trees that could be released back into the native range. However, before such a release can be undertaken, it is necessary to assess nontarget impacts. Since oxalate oxidase is meant to combat a fungal pathogen, we are particularly interested in potential impacts of this transgene on beneficial fungi. This study compares ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization on a transgenic American chestnut clone expressing enhanced blight resistance to a wild-type American chestnut, a conventionally bred American-Chinese hybrid chestnut, and other Fagaceae species. A greenhouse bioassay used soil from two field sites with different soil types and land use histories. The number of colonized root tips was counted, and fungal species were identified using morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and DNA sequencing. Results showed that total ectomycorrhizal colonization varied more by soil type than by tree species. Individual fungal species varied in their colonization rates, but there were no significant differences between colonization on transgenic and wild-type chestnuts. This study shows that the oxalate oxidase gene can increase resistance against Cryphonectria parasitica without changing the colonization rate for ectomycorrhizal species. These findings will be crucial for a potential deregulation of blight-resistant American chestnuts containing the oxalate oxidase gene. PMID:25326296

  11. Primary and secondary metabolite composition of kernels from three cultivars of Portuguese chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) at different stages of industrial transformation.

    PubMed

    Do Carmo Barbosa Mendes De Vasconcelos, Maria; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira Cardoso, Jorge Ventura

    2007-05-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa) is an important basic food in rural diets and a major starch crop used in a similar way to potatoes. Chestnuts are a fundamental economic resource in the "chestnut regions" not only for the fruit but also for the chestnut wood. Chestnuts have become increasingly important with respect to human health, for example, as an alternative gluten-free flour source. Chestnuts are also a rich source of other beneficial compounds, but there have been few studies on the composition during processing. In this study, we analyzed the chemical composition of three Portuguese cultivars at different stages of industrial processing. The chestnut cultivars were Longal, Judia, and Martaínha. All three cultivars had high moisture contents but were low in ash, crude fat, and crude protein contents, with high starch and low fiber contents. The free amino acid contents, including various essential amino acids, varied depending on the cultivar. All three cultivars also had a significant content of polyphenolics with gallic acid; ellagic acid was predominant among hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Many of these compounds are known to exert significant positive effects on human health. The one-way analysis of variance for fresh chestnut shows significant differences among the three cultivars for most of the studied parameters. The same statistical analysis applied to each one of the two cultivars (Judia and Longal) sampled for the four processing steps analyzed indicates a significant effect of this factor in practically all of the constituents. On the other hand, the two-way analysis of variance shows that, besides the residual, the processing step and the interaction cultivar x processing step were the factors that more contributed for the total variation observed in the constituents analyzed, while the contribution of cultivar was much less significant. PMID:17407304

  12. Effect of whey protein isolate-pullulan edible coatings on the quality and shelf life of freshly roasted and freeze-dried Chinese chestnut.

    PubMed

    Gounga, M E; Xu, S-Y; Wang, Z; Yang, W G

    2008-05-01

    Harvested chestnut is characterized by a short shelf life, exposing many Chinese producers to a storage problem as product losses are very high. The objective of this study was to develop a suitable technology to extend the shelf life of harvested chestnut fruits for commercial use. The effect of whey protein isolate-pullulan (WPI-Pul) coating on fresh-roasted chestnuts (FRC) and roasted freeze-dried chestnut (RFDC) quality and shelf life was studied under 2 different storage temperature (4 and 20 degrees C) conditions. Coatings were formed directly onto the surface of the fruits by dipping them into a film solution. SEM micrographs showed homogeneous WPI-Pul to cover the whole surface of chestnut with good adherence and perfect integrity. Moisture loss or gain, fruit quality, and shelf life were evaluated by weight loss or gain, surface color development, and visible decay during the storage period of 15 to 120 d at 4 and 20 degrees C, respectively. WPI-Pul coating had a low, yet significant effect on reducing moisture loss and decay incidence of FRC, hence delaying changes in their external color. The results were satisfactory when the coating was done with freeze-drying at low temperature storage, thus improving the quality and increasing the shelf life. This provides an alternative strategy to minimize the significant losses in harvested chestnut. PMID:18460124

  13. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-0324) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 93.304, see the List of CFR Sections... susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse...

  14. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-0324) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 93.304, see the List of CFR Sections... susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse...

  15. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-0324) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 93.304, see the List of CFR Sections... susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse...

  16. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-0324) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 93.304, see the List of CFR Sections... susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse...

  17. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-0324) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 93.304, see the List of CFR Sections... susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse...

  18. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO ENCEPHALITOZOON CUNICULI IN HORSES IN BRAZIL.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi has been associated with natural cases of abortion and still-birth in horses. However, little is known abut the prevalence of this parasite in horses. We examined serva from 559 horses from Brazil for antibodies to E. cuniculi using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody ...

  19. Impacts of feral horse use on rangelands and riparian areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feral (wild) horse impacts on rangelands and riparian areas are largely unknown. The impacts of feral horses are often indistinguishable from domestic livestock impacts because livestock grazing occurs across most horse herd management areas. However, the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge has a large...

  20. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  1. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  2. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  3. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  4. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  5. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses....

  6. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses....

  7. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses....

  8. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses....

  9. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses....

  10. Passive surveillance for ticks on horses in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Schvartz, Gili; Epp, Tasha; Burgess, Hilary J.; Chilton, Neil B.; Armstrong, James S.; Lohmann, Katharina L.

    2015-01-01

    Passive surveillance of ticks on horses in Saskatchewan revealed that the horses were parasitized by 3 species, Dermacentor albipictus, D. andersoni, and D. variabilis. The nymphs and adults of D. albipictus occurred on horses earlier in the year than did adults of the 2 other species. PMID:25969582

  11. Trojan Horse particle invariance for 2 H reaction: a detailed

    E-print Network

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    Trojan Horse particle invariance for 2 H(d,p)3 H reaction: a detailed study R.G. Pizzone1 , C decades the Trojan Horse method has played a crucial role for the measurement of several charged particle perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance for the binary d(d,p)t reaction was therefore tested using

  12. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124 Section 9.124 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.124 Wild Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map....

  13. University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Horse Judging CLASS DESCRIPTION

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    University of Arkansas ­ Division of Agriculture Horse Judging Halter CLASS DESCRIPTION The halter class is a class where the horse is judged based upon its conformation, overall appearance, and usefulness. Conformation is defined as the physical appearance of a horse due to the arrangement of muscle

  14. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5 Section... SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement...a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to all...

  15. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5 Section... SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement...a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to all...

  16. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124 Section 9.124 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.124 Wild Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map....

  17. 2004 EASTERN NATIONAL 4-H HORSE BOWL ONE ON ONE

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    2004 EASTERN NATIONAL 4-H HORSE BOWL ROUND ONE ONE ­ ON ­ ONE 1. Q. What is the name. In reference to motion, what is an "acquired gait"? A. Gait that a horse must be taught. S. IDET, p. 3 3. Q. What breed of horse would you find in the "American Studbook"? A. Thoroughbred S. IDET, p. 10 4. Q

  18. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16 Section...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are...transporting equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails,...

  19. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124 Section 9.124 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.124 Wild Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map....

  20. Towards testing of identity concepts in horses: conditional discrimination learning

    E-print Network

    Samuelsson, Björn

    Towards testing of identity concepts in horses: conditional discrimination learning Bj¨orn Samuelsson bjorn.samuelsson@gmail.com June 5, 2008 Experiments have shown that horses are capable of some- known whether horses can select a test stimulus by similarity to a sample stimulus. In this project

  1. Impacts of feral horse use on rangelands and riparian areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feral (wild) horse impacts on rangelands and riparian areas are largely unknown. The impacts of feral horses are often indistinguishable from domestic livestock impacts because livestock grazing occurs across most horse herd management areas. However, the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge has a lar...

  2. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124 Section 9.124 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.124 Wild Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map....

  3. Trojan Horse particle invariance:the impact on nuclear astrophysics

    E-print Network

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    Trojan Horse particle invariance:the impact on nuclear astrophysics R.G.Pizzone , C.Spitaleri , C, in particular, the Trojan Horse Method cover a crucial role for the measurement of charged particle induced, the Trojan Horse nucleus invariance will be studied and previous studies will be extended to the cases

  4. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002.16 Section...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are...transporting equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails,...

  5. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002.16 Section...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are...transporting equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails,...

  6. 75 FR 26990 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board (Board) will...meeting on the BLM's management of wild horses and burros. This will be a two day...

  7. NEW HAMPSHIRE 4-H HORSE PROGRAM Cover Design Contest 2015

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    ` NEW HAMPSHIRE 4-H HORSE PROGRAM Cover Design Contest 2015 All 4-H youth have the opportunity to participate in the contest to design the cover of the 4-H Horse Program Book. This is also the design that will be used on the State 4-H Horse Show T-shirt. Designs are due at the State 4-H Office on Wednesday

  8. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16 Section...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are...transporting equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails,...

  9. 78 FR 46599 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...meeting can be mailed to National Wild Horse and Burro Program, WO-260,...

  10. Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Examination of Horse Apomyoglobin Acid Unfolding Intermediates

    E-print Network

    Asher, Sanford A.

    Articles Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Examination of Horse Apomyoglobin Acid Unfolding Intermediates of horse apomyoglobin (apoMb) between pH 7.0 and 1.8. The 206.5 nm excited Raman spectra are dominated). In the present study, we examine the acid denaturation of horse apoMb by monitoring the 206 nm UV Raman spectral

  11. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002.16 Section...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are...transporting equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails,...

  12. Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, David

    2014-05-01

    Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

  13. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16 Section...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are...transporting equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails,...

  14. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002.16 Section...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are...transporting equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails,...

  15. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5 Section... SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement...a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to all...

  16. Hardware Trojan Horse Detection Using Gate-Level Characterization

    E-print Network

    Potkonjak, Miodrag

    Hardware Trojan Horse Detection Using Gate-Level Characterization Miodrag Potkonjak Ani Nahapetian Angeles, CA 90095 {miodrag, ani, tmassey}@cs.ucla.edu ABSTRACT Hardware Trojan horses (HTHs been a huge research and development effort for detecting software Trojan horses, surprisingly, HTHs

  17. 76 FR 55107 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public...

  18. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16 Section...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are...transporting equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails,...

  19. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5 Section... SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement...a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to all...

  20. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16 Section...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are...transporting equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails,...

  1. 76 FR 7231 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public...

  2. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Horses and pack animals. 1002.16 Section...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are...transporting equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails,...

  3. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124 Section 9.124 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.124 Wild Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map....

  4. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5 Section... SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement...a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to all...

  5. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to...

  6. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to...

  7. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to...

  8. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to...

  9. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to...

  10. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment information. 93.309 Section 93.309 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine...

  11. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....4 Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  12. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  13. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-03-14

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases. PMID:25619169

  14. Application of a new purification method of West-Kazakhstan chestnut soil microbiota DNA for metagenomic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergaliev, N. Kh.; Kakishev, M. G.; Zhiengaliev, A. T.; Volodin, M. A.; Andronov, E. E.; Pinaev, A. G.

    2015-04-01

    A method for the extraction of soil microbial DNA has been tested on chestnut soils (Kastanozems) of the West Kazakhstan region. The taxonomic analysis of soil microbiome libraries has shown that the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria constitute the largest part of microbial communities in the analyzed soils. The Archaea form an appreciable part of the microbiome in the studied samples. In the underdeveloped dark chestnut soil, their portion is higher than 11%. This is of interest, as the proportion of Archaea in the soil communities of virgin lands usually does not exceed 5%. In addition to the phyla mentioned above, there are representatives of the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadales, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia, which are all fairly common in soil communities.

  15. Y-Chromosome Analysis in Retuertas Horses

    PubMed Central

    Brandariz-Fontes, Claudia; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vega-Pla, José Luis; Backström, Niclas; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lippold, Sebastian; Rico, Ciro

    2013-01-01

    Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France) or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY) and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects. PMID:23741439

  16. The human-horse relationship: how much do we know?

    PubMed

    Robinson, I H

    1999-04-01

    Human relationships or interactions with horses have varied throughout history depending on human needs, but it is horses' ability to carry a human individual that has had perhaps the greatest impact on their relationship with man. Despite our long association with the horse, there have been few studies on human-horse relationships. There is little historical evidence on individual relationships with horses but indications of strong human-horse relationships have been noted in mounted societies, such as North American Plains Indians. Riding a horse has traditionally been associated with power, and was reserved for the ruling elite in many areas. Demographic data suggest that human relationships with horses may have changed in recent times. Although the lack of land and the relatively high cost of horse care may reduce the possibility of ownership for many people, the availability of riding establishments and increases in leisure time mean that riding is no longer restricted to the upper classes. There is a wide range in type and intensity of potential interactions with horses, indicating that human-horse relationships are likely to vary considerably. Some people appear to sacrifice a great deal in order to own a horse. However, the motivation behind these activities and the process by which an individual assesses personal costs of ownership versus their perceived benefits remains to be studied. Future research should focus on characterising the human-horse relationship, and the degree of individual and cultural variation. A greater understanding of horse owner perceptions of 'costs' versus 'benefits' may also increase our understanding of the relationship and the economic importance of horses in society. PMID:11314234

  17. Reducing pawing in horses using positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Fox, Adam E; Belding, Devon L

    2015-12-01

    Aversive control is a common method to reduce undesirable behavior in horses. However, it often results in unintended negative side effects, including potential abuse of the animal. Procedures based on positive reinforcement, such as differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), may reduce undesirable behaviors with fewer negative consequences. The current study used DRO schedules to reduce pawing using a multiple baseline design across 3 horses. Results indicated that DRO schedules were effective at reducing pawing. However, individual differences in sensitivity to DRO and reinforcer efficacy may be important considerations. PMID:26282112

  18. Exploration of a rare population of Chinese chestnut in North America: stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Miller, Amy C; Woeste, Keith E; Anagnostakis, Sandra L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2014-01-01

    With the transport of plants around the globe, exotic species can readily spread disease to their native relatives; however, they can also provide genetic resistance to those relatives through hybrid breeding programmes. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was an abundant tree species in North America until its decimation by introduced chestnut blight. To restore chestnut in North America, efforts are ongoing to test putative blight-resistant hybrids of Castanea dentata and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima), but little is known about the ecology of C. mollissima. In a forest in northeastern USA in which C. mollissima has become established, we explored questions of stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships of C. mollissima offspring to an adjacent parent orchard. We found that C. mollissima was adapted and randomly distributed among native species in this relatively young forest. The genetics of the C. mollissima population compared with its parents indicated little effect of selection pressure as each of the parent trees contributed at least one offspring. The ease with which this exotic species proliferated calls to question why C. mollissima is rare elsewhere in forests of North America. It is likely that a time window of low animal predation allowed seedlings to establish, and the shallow soil at this site limited the maximum forest canopy height, permitting the characteristically short-statured C. mollissima to avoid suppression. Our results indicate that because C. mollissima exhibited pioneer species characteristics, hybrids between C. mollissima and C. dentata have the potential to be successful pioneer species of future forests in North America, and we challenge the paradigm that exotic tree species are wholly detrimental to native biodiversity. We contend that exotic tree species should be assessed not only by their level of threat to native species, but also by their potential positive impacts on ecosystems via hybrid breeding programmes. PMID:25336337

  19. Exploration of a rare population of Chinese chestnut in North America: stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Amy C.; Woeste, Keith E.; Anagnostakis, Sandra L.; Jacobs, Douglass F.

    2014-01-01

    With the transport of plants around the globe, exotic species can readily spread disease to their native relatives; however, they can also provide genetic resistance to those relatives through hybrid breeding programmes. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was an abundant tree species in North America until its decimation by introduced chestnut blight. To restore chestnut in North America, efforts are ongoing to test putative blight-resistant hybrids of Castanea dentata and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima), but little is known about the ecology of C. mollissima. In a forest in northeastern USA in which C. mollissima has become established, we explored questions of stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships of C. mollissima offspring to an adjacent parent orchard. We found that C. mollissima was adapted and randomly distributed among native species in this relatively young forest. The genetics of the C. mollissima population compared with its parents indicated little effect of selection pressure as each of the parent trees contributed at least one offspring. The ease with which this exotic species proliferated calls to question why C. mollissima is rare elsewhere in forests of North America. It is likely that a time window of low animal predation allowed seedlings to establish, and the shallow soil at this site limited the maximum forest canopy height, permitting the characteristically short-statured C. mollissima to avoid suppression. Our results indicate that because C. mollissima exhibited pioneer species characteristics, hybrids between C. mollissima and C. dentata have the potential to be successful pioneer species of future forests in North America, and we challenge the paradigm that exotic tree species are wholly detrimental to native biodiversity. We contend that exotic tree species should be assessed not only by their level of threat to native species, but also by their potential positive impacts on ecosystems via hybrid breeding programmes. PMID:25336337

  20. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). These sites lie within the boundaries of the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant (Figure 2). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to protect local groundwater resources in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with reporting requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY); Energy Systems submitted the 1994 Part 1 GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime to the TDEC in February 1995 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1995a).

  1. Multiple introductions and recombination in Cryphonectria hypovirus 1: perspective for a sustainable biological control of chestnut blight

    PubMed Central

    Feau, Nicolas; Dutech, Cyril; Brusini, Jérémie; Rigling, Daniel; Robin, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) is a mycovirus which decreases the virulence of its fungal host Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight recently introduced in Europe. The understanding of the evolutionary processes which have shaped CHV1 populations in Europe is required to develop a sustainable biocontrol strategy targeting chestnut blight and effective in European chestnut forests. To retrace the evolutionary history of CHV1, we analyzed sequences from two genomic regions on a collection of 55 CHV1 strains from France and northern Spain, two countries where multiple introductions of C. parasitica occurred. Several recombination events and variable selection pressures contributed to CHV1 evolution, agreeing with a non-clock-like diversification rate. These two mechanisms may be at the origin of CHV1 population diversity observed in western Europe. Considering the actual prevalence of CHV1 and its association with host genotypes, multiple introductions of CHV1 may have occurred in Europe, some of them directly from Asia and some of them through North America. Although some viral strains remained with low frequency in their introduction area, multiple infections might have allowed homologous recombination within parental sequences. Some of these recombinant lineages are associated with the spread of CHV1 in European regions. PMID:24944571

  2. Leaf physiology and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedlings in response to light and water availability.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caleb E; Mickelbart, Michael V; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2014-12-01

    Partial canopy cover promotes regeneration of many temperate forest trees, but the consequences of shading on seedling drought resistance are unclear. Reintroduction of blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) into eastern North American forests will often occur on water-limited sites and under partial canopy cover. We measured leaf pre-dawn water potential (?pd), leaf gas exchange, and growth and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut seedlings from three orchard sources grown under different light intensities (76, 26 and 8% full photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)) and subjected to well-watered or mid-season water-stressed conditions. Seedlings in the water-stress treatment were returned to well-watered conditions after wilting to examine recovery. Seedlings growing under medium- and high-light conditions wilted at lower leaf ?pd than low-light seedlings. Recovery of net photosynthesis (Anet) and stomatal conductance (gs) was greater in low and medium light than in high light. Seed source did not affect the response to water stress or light level in most cases. Between 26 and 8% full PAR, light became limiting to the extent that the effects of water stress had no impact on some growth and morphological traits. We conclude that positive and negative aspects of shading on seedling drought tolerance and recovery are not mutually exclusive. Partial shade may help American chestnut tolerate drought during early establishment through effects on physiological conditioning. PMID:25428828

  3. [Effects of different water-saving irrigation modes on chestnut growth and fruiting in drought hilly land].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shou-Le; Shen, Guang-Ning; Xu, Lin; Sun, Xiao-Li

    2012-03-01

    Taking the chestnut trees in a semi-arid and semi-humid hilly orchard of Tai' an, Shandong Province of East China as test objects, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different water-saving irrigation modes (pottery jar storing water, small hole storing water, and border irrigation with covering) on the soil moisture characteristics and the growth, fruiting, and development of chestnut roots. Comparing with the control (border irrigation), all the three water-saving irrigation modes could prolong the period of soil keeping moist, and the best effect came from pottery, jar treatment, with the soil keeping moist for 32 days, 13 days longer than the control. Under water-saving irrigations, the bearing branches length and number, leaf area and mass, and shoot mixed buds all increased obviously. Both pottery jar storing water and small hole storing water could irrigate deeper roots and induce root growth in deeper soil layers, and thus, relieve the drought stress on superficial roots. The three water-saving irrigation modes could increase chestnut yield markedly, with an increment of 18.8%, 16.5%, and 14.2%, respectively, as compared with the control. PMID:22720605

  4. Multiple introductions and recombination in Cryphonectria hypovirus 1: perspective for a sustainable biological control of chestnut blight.

    PubMed

    Feau, Nicolas; Dutech, Cyril; Brusini, Jérémie; Rigling, Daniel; Robin, Cécile

    2014-05-01

    Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) is a mycovirus which decreases the virulence of its fungal host Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight recently introduced in Europe. The understanding of the evolutionary processes which have shaped CHV1 populations in Europe is required to develop a sustainable biocontrol strategy targeting chestnut blight and effective in European chestnut forests. To retrace the evolutionary history of CHV1, we analyzed sequences from two genomic regions on a collection of 55 CHV1 strains from France and northern Spain, two countries where multiple introductions of C. parasitica occurred. Several recombination events and variable selection pressures contributed to CHV1 evolution, agreeing with a non-clock-like diversification rate. These two mechanisms may be at the origin of CHV1 population diversity observed in western Europe. Considering the actual prevalence of CHV1 and its association with host genotypes, multiple introductions of CHV1 may have occurred in Europe, some of them directly from Asia and some of them through North America. Although some viral strains remained with low frequency in their introduction area, multiple infections might have allowed homologous recombination within parental sequences. Some of these recombinant lineages are associated with the spread of CHV1 in European regions. PMID:24944571

  5. New Gall Wasp Species Attacking Chestnut Trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from Southeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new gall wasp species, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new species induces galls on trees of Henry’s chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic species. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new species based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new species is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two species can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new species to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this species into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new species in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW. PMID:26516167

  6. New gall wasp species attacking chestnut trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new gall wasp species, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new species induces galls on trees of Henry's chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic species. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new species based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new species is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two species can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new species to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this species into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new species in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW. PMID:26516167

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on the biological, physico-chemical, nutritional and antioxidant parameters of chestnuts - a review.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Amilcar L; Carocho, Márcio; Bento, Albino; Quintana, Begoña; Luisa Botelho, M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-09-01

    Gamma radiation has been used as a post-harvest food preservation process for many years. Chestnuts are a seasonal product consumed fresh or processed, and gamma irradiation emerged recently as a possible alternative technology for their post-harvest processing, to fulfil the requirements of international phytosanitary trade laws. After harvest and storage, several problems may occur, such as the presence of infestations and development of microorganisms, namely rotting and fungi. These diminish the quality and safety of the product, decreasing the yield along the production chain. In fruits, gamma irradiation treatment is for two main purposes: conservation (ripening delay) and insect disinfestation (phytosanitary treatment). In this review, the application of gamma irradiation to chestnuts is discussed, including production data, the irradiated species and the effects on biological (sprouting, rotting, respiration rate, insects, worms and fungi), physico-chemical (color, texture, and drying rate), nutritional (energetic value, proteins, sugars and fatty acids) and antioxidant (tocopherols, ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) parameters. These changes are the basis for detecting if the food product has been irradiated or not. The validation of standards used for detection of food irradiation, as applied to chestnuts, is also discussed. PMID:22735498

  8. Low dose ?-irradiation as a suitable solution for chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) conservation: effects on sugars, fatty acids, and tocopherols.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-28

    Along with dehydration, the development of insects and microorganisms is the major drawback in chestnut conservation. Irradiation has been regaining interest as an alternative technology to increase food product shelf life. In the present work, the effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the sugar, fatty acid, and tocopherol composition of chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different storage periods (0, 30, and 60 days) was evaluated. The irradiations were performed in a 60Co experimental equipment, for 1 h (0.27±0.04 kGy) and 2 h (0.54±0.04 kGy). Changes in sugars and tocopherols were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index and fluorescence detections, respectively, while changes in fatty acids were analyzed by gas-chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection. Regarding sugar composition, storage time proved to have a higher effect than irradiation treatment. Fructose and glucose increased after storage, with the corresponding decrease of sucrose. Otherwise, the tocopherol content was lower in nonirradiated samples, without a significant influence of storage. Saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected, either by storage or irradiation. Nevertheless, some individual fatty acid concentrations were influenced by one of two factors, such as the increase of palmitic acid in irradiated samples or the decrease of oleic acid after 60 days of storage. Overall, the assayed irradiation doses seem to be a promising alternative treatment to increase chestnut shelf life, without affecting the profile and composition in important nutrients. PMID:21823582

  9. Analysis of organic acids in electron beam irradiated chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.): Effects of radiation dose and storage time.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-05-01

    Since 2010, methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant was banned from the European Union under the Montreal Protocol guidelines, due to its deleterious effects on health and risk to the environment. Since then, many alternatives for chestnut conservation have been studied (hot water dip treatment being the most common), among them, electron beam irradiation has been proposed as being a safe, clean and cheap alternative. Herein, the effects of this radiation at different doses up to 6kGy and over storage up to 60days in the amounts and profile of nutritionally important organic acids were evaluated. Chestnuts contained important organic acids with quinic and citric acids as main compounds. Storage time, which is traditionally well accepted by consumers, caused a slight decrease on quinic (13-9mg/g), ascorbic (1.2-0.8mg/g), malic (5-4mg/g), fumaric (0.4-0.3mg/g) and total organic (33-26mg/g) acids content. Otherwise, irradiation dose did not cause appreciable changes, either individually or in total (28-27mg/g) organic acid contents. Electron beam irradiation might constitute a valuable alternative for chestnut conservation. PMID:23376134

  10. Invasion history and demographic pattern of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 across European populations of the chestnut blight fungus.

    PubMed

    Bryner, Sarah F; Rigling, Daniel; Brunner, Patrick C

    2012-12-01

    We reconstructed the invasion history of the fungal virus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1) in Europe, which infects the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. The pattern of virus evolution was inferred based on nucleotide sequence variation from isolates sampled across a wide area in Europe at different points in time. Phylogeny and time estimates suggested that CHV-1 was introduced together with its fungal host to Europe and that it rapidly colonized the central range along the south facing slopes of the Alps and the north-east facing slopes of the Dinaric Alps. These central populations were the source for two waves of simultaneous invasions toward the southern Balkans and Turkey, as indicated by migration rates. Our results showed that the evolutionary scenarios for CHV-1 and C. parasitica were spatially congruent. As infection with CHV-1 reduces the pathogenicity of C. parasitica toward the chestnut tree, CHV-1 invasions of the newly established C. parasitica populations probably prevented the development of devastating chestnut blight epidemics in Europe. We propose that in this, and supposedly in other pathosystems, geographic, vegetation-related, demographic, economic, and political factors may help explain the correlated invasion pattern of a parasite and its host. PMID:23301186

  11. European Domestic Horses Originated in Two Holocene Refugia

    PubMed Central

    Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim A.; Cañon, Javier; Cothran, Gus; Distl, Ottmar; Glowatzki-Mullis, Marie-Louise; Hunt, Harriet; Luís, Cristina; do Mar Oom, Maria; Yupanqui, Isabel Tupac; Z?bek, Tomasz; Manica, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both. PMID:21479181

  12. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Korting, Hans Christian; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    This paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. After plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. There is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (Pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. Plant extracts from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), green tea (Camellia sinensis), the fern Polypodium leucotomos and others contain antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that may protect the skin from sunburn and photoaging when administered topically or systemically. Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies. Some plant extracts have also been investigated in the treatment of vitiligo, various forms of hair loss and pigmentation disorders, and in aesthetic dermatology. PMID:20707877

  13. Science Education as South Africa's Trojan Horse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, John M.; Gray, Brian V.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the story of one nongovernmental organization (NGO) and the role it played in reconceptualizing science education in South Africa. Describes the success of the Science Education Project (SEP) in confronting authoritarian practices of government organizations and those within its own ranks. Science education can become the Trojan horse of…

  14. Investigating the origins of horse domestication.

    PubMed

    Levine, M A

    1999-04-01

    Before the development of firearms, the horse was crucial to warfare and, before the invention of the steam engine, it was the fastest and most reliable form of land transport. It is crucial to the life of nomadic pastoralists on the Eurasian steppe and played a major role in the evolution of human society during the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Understanding the human past requires knowledge of the origins and development of horse husbandry. The problem of being able to identify the early stages of horse domestication is one that many researchers have grappled with for the most part unsuccessfully. Until recently the most important criteria used had been that of increased relative abundance. That is, around 3500 BC, in some parts of Eurasia, there was an apparent increase in the proportions of horse bones and teeth found in archaeological deposits by comparison with preceding periods. However, other evidence suggests that the observed increase during the Copper Age could be explained as well, or even better, by increased hunting rather than by domestication. PMID:11314236

  15. Horsing Around on Saturn Robert J. Vanderbei

    E-print Network

    Vanderbei, Robert J.

    Horsing Around on Saturn Robert J. Vanderbei Operations Research and Financial Engineering recently. In this paper, we argue that Saturn's rings and inner moons are in much more stable orbits than and show that this horseshoeing phenomenon greatly stabilizes the rings of Saturn. This paper is part

  16. It's Time to Get Another Horse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Josue

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author comments on Peter Roos's article (this issue). The author sees a strong need to clarify whether the horse that is to be remounted is more and better English-as-a-second-language (ESL) programs or the goal of promoting bilingual education as a positive practice in the nation's schools or something else altogether. If the…

  17. The pharmacokinetics of glycopyrrolate in Standardbred horses.

    PubMed

    Rumpler, M J; Colahan, P; Sams, R A

    2014-06-01

    The disposition of plasma glycopyrrolate (GLY) is characterized by a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model after a 1-mg bolus intravenous dose to Standardbred horses. The median (range) plasma clearance (Clp), volume of distribution of the central compartment (V1 ), volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss), and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-inf ) were 16.7 (13.6-21.7) mL/min/kg, 0.167 (0.103-0.215) L/kg, 3.69 (0.640-38.73) L/kg, and 2.58 (2.28-2.88) ng*h/mL, respectively. Renal clearance of GLY was characterized by a median (range) of 2.65 (1.92-3.59) mL/min/kg and represented approximately 11.3-24.7% of the total plasma clearance. As a result of these studies, we conclude that the majority of GLY is cleared through hepatic mechanisms because of the limited extent of renal clearance of GLY and absence of plasma esterase activity on GLY metabolism. Although the disposition of GLY after intravenous administration to Standardbred horses was similar to that in Thoroughbred horses, differences in some pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were evident. Such differences could be attributed to breed differences or study conditions. The research could provide valuable data to support regulatory guidelines for GLY in Standardbred horses. PMID:24325462

  18. Horse Calls On the road with the

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    at the Blacksburg offices of cloud-computing compa- ny Rackspace, offering an insider's perspective on what makesHorse Calls On the road with the Equine Field Service Welcome to Racksburg Why open-cloud company to the editor 2 Virginia Tech Magazine winter 2012­13 The life-saving infant respirator The article was very

  19. People and Horses: The Risks of Riding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBenedette, Valerie

    1989-01-01

    The article looks at risks and benefits of horseback riding. Several risks can be minimized if riders take lessons, check riding equipment before each ride, wear proper headgear and footgear, and respect the horse's size and will. Medical guidelines for equestrian sports could help reduce injuries. (SM)

  20. Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symington, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

  1. Inflammatory aural polyp in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Daniel G.; Rodriguez-Palacios, Alexander; Keller, Sonya; Stalker, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Abstract An inflammatory aural polyp was identified in a 1-year-old standardbred filly, which presented with otorrhea and head rubbing. The polyp was removed by traction-avulsion, and the filly showed no subsequent signs of otorrhea. Aural polyps have not been reported in horses, but they are commonly seen in companion animals and humans. PMID:16536231

  2. 1 Responsibilities as a 4-H Horse Leader HorLdrRe.doc.indd.pdf

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    1 Responsibilities as a 4-H Horse Leader HorLdrRe.doc.indd.pdf Reviewed and Revised May 2009 RESPONSIBILITIES AS A 4-H HORSE LEADER Lisa Townson, Extension Specialist, 4-H Youth Development As a 4-H Horse, to field trips and horse shows. Horses are large animals and can be unpredictable. Youth and adults working

  3. Page 1 of 10 2014 NH 4-H HORSE AD PROGRAM PACKET

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Page 1 of 10 2014 NH 4-H HORSE AD PROGRAM PACKET Dear 4-H Horse Members, Parents and Leaders: Each year the State 4-H Horse Advisory Council publishes a State 4-H Horse Program Ad Book that is available at the State Show. The book not only lists the show schedule but also features other state 4-H horse activities

  4. Influence of 4-H Horse Project Involvement on Development of Life Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, K. P.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.

    2011-01-01

    Four-H horse project members who competed in non-riding horse contests were surveyed to evaluate the influence of their horse project participation on life-skill development. Contests in which youth competed included Horse Bowl, Demonstrations, Public Speaking, and Art. Youth indicated a positive influence on both life-skill development and horse

  5. Page 1 of 2 2013 NEW ENGLAND 4-H HORSE EDUCATION POSTER CONTEST

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Page 1 of 2 2013 NEW ENGLAND 4-H HORSE EDUCATION POSTER CONTEST Situation: 4-H members procedures around horses and general horse knowledge. How: A Horse Safety Poster Display in the horse barn. Who: Any 4-H member is invited to submit annually a new poster for the contest. When: Posters must

  6. This book describes the responsibilities of show personnel and outlines the job descriptions of various positions for the NH 4-H State Horse Show (or any other 4-H horse show).

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    of various positions for the NH 4-H State Horse Show (or any other 4-H horse show). June 2013 #12;Table of Contents Organizing a 4-H Horse Show ........................................................................................... 1 State 4-H Horse Show Philosophy................................................................ 1

  7. A zoonotic genotype of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in horses.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Vecino, Jesús A Cortés; Fayer, Ronald

    2010-02-01

    This is the first report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in an equid species. Feces from 195 horses from 4 locations in Colombia were examined for E. bieneusi by polymerase chain reaction. Of these, 21 horses (10.8%) were found positive for E. bieneusi . The prevalence of E. bieneusi in horses <1 yr of age was significantly higher (23.7%) than in horses >1 yr of age (2.5%). No significant differences in prevalence were observed between male (13.7%) and female horses (9%). Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the SSUrRNA locus identified 3 genotypes. Two genotypes appear to be unique to horses and were named Horse 1 and Horse 2. A third genotype, identified as genotype D, was detected in 4 horses. This genotype, previously reported to infect humans, beaver, cattle, dogs, falcons, foxes, macaques, muskrats, pigs, and raccoons, is the most ubiquitous of the E. bieneusi zoonotic genotypes. Our findings indicate that E. bieneusi from horses can be a potential source of infection for humans. PMID:19799490

  8. Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus) in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Results Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Conclusion Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that < 30 horses used > 25 km2 of trails in our study area. PMID:19903355

  9. Characterization and antimicrobial properties of water chestnut starch-chitosan edible films.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun; Yuan, Yilin; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei; Yu, Huaning

    2013-10-01

    The characterization and antimicrobial properties of water chestnut starch-chitosan (WSC) films containing Cornus officinalis fruit extract (COE 1% w/w), glycerol monolaurate (GML 1% w/w), nisin (10,000 IU/g), pine needle essential oil (PNEO 0.35% v/v), and their combinations were evaluated. Incorporation of COE decreased pH value of the film-forming solution, the moisture content and the water absorption expansion ability (WAEA). GML-incorporated film had lower WAEA, tensile strength, elongation and puncture strength. However, films with nisin displayed good mechanical properties. All the treated films were less transparent and higher in water vapour permeability values. For film microstructure, the presence of PNEO caused discontinuities with lipid droplets or holes embedded in a continuous network and the incorporation of GML led to abaisse-like structures. The COE, GML, nisin, PNEO and their combinations incorporated in the WSC films are effective in inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes at different levels. The results showed that WSC films containing COE and GML, GML and nisin, COE and nisin were able to reduce the number of E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. This research has potential applications to the extension of the shelf life of food products. PMID:23831899

  10. Genetic diversification of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and its associated hypovirus in Germany.

    PubMed

    Peters, Franziska S; Busskamp, Johanna; Prospero, Simone; Rigling, Daniel; Metzler, Berthold

    2014-02-01

    Chestnut blight in south-western Germany was first reported in 1992 and is since expanding in distribution. Here we investigated the invasion history of Cryphonectria parasitica and its associated hypovirus. For this, we characterized 284 isolates collected between 1992 and 2012 for hypovirulence, vegetative compatibility (vc), mating type, and microsatellite haplotype. A total of 27 haplotypes and 15 vc types were observed, although the C. parasitica population analyzed is currently dominated to 50 % by one haplotype and to 64 % by the vc type EU-2. Structure analysis indicated two divergent genetic pools. Over 66 % of the haplotypes belonged to a pool probably originating from northern Italy. Further diversification is expected due to ongoing sexual recombination, but also to new migration and additional introductions. Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1) was found in four of five C. parasitica populations from Baden-Württemberg. Genetic analysis of the 35 CHV-1 isolates obtained revealed that they all belong to the German subtype, although they have clearly diverged from the first German hypovirus isolated in 1992. Our study suggests that C. parasitica has been introduced into Germany several times from two different gene pools, whereas the hypovirus most probably has a single origin. PMID:24528641

  11. [Accelerated senescence of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut tissues in relation to hydrogen peroxide accumulation].

    PubMed

    Peng, Li-Tao; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Yang, Shu-Zhen; Pan, Si-Yi

    2005-10-01

    Accelerated senescence of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut (CWC) tissues in relation to active oxygen species (AOS) metabolism was investigated. Fresh-cut CWC (2 mm thick) and intact CWC were stored at 4 degrees C in trays wrapped with plastic films. Changes in superoxide anion production rate, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were monitored, while contents of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid, MDA as well as electrolyte leakage were measured. Fresh-cutting of CWC induced activities of SOD, CAT and APX to a certain extent (Fig. 2B and Fig. 3), but simultaneously stimulated superoxide anion production markedly (Fig. 2A), enhanced hydrogen peroxide accumulation and accelerated loss in ascorbic acid (Figs. 4 and 5), which resulted in increased lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage (Fig. 1). Statistics analysis indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation among hydrogen peroxide accumulation, MDA content and electrolyte leakage (Table 1). Histochemical detection with 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine further demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide accumulation increased in fresh-cut CWC during storage (Fig. 5). AOS production rate and activities of SOD, CAT and APX changed little while no obvious hydrogen peroxide accumulation was observed, in intact CWC during storage. PMID:16222096

  12. Specific features of oil biodegradation in meadow-chestnut soils of the Stavropol region (model experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibatullina, I. Z.; Semenova, T. A.; Yakovlev, A. S.

    2012-03-01

    Oil biodegradation in oil-contaminated meadow-chestnut soils under the impact of different biological preparations was studied in a model experiment. The soils differed from one another in the age of contamination and in the presence/absence of the stage of preliminary biological remediation. Background uncontaminated soils served as the control. To characterize oil degradation, the indices of basal respiration (BR) and dehydrogenase activity (DA) and data on oil concentrations in the soil were applied. It was shown that the most complete biodegradation of oil takes place in the soils with recent oil contamination in comparison with the soils contaminated with oil for 6.5 and 19.5 months. Maximum BR values were observed in the soils contaminated with oil for 19.5 months, whereas maximum DA values were observed in the soils contaminated with oil for 6.5 months. According to the multivariate analysis of variance, the major factors affecting the rate of oil biodegradation were the age of oil contamination, the biological preparation applied, and the presence (or absence) of the stage of preliminary biological remediation. These factors specified 18, 72, and 3% of the total variance of the residual oil content in the samples, respectively. The type of the applied biological preparations had the major effect on the BR and DA indices specifying 63 and 53% of their total variances, respectively. The results obtained in this study can be used as recommendations for remediation of oil-contaminated soils in the Stavropol region.

  13. Phosphatase activity in the surface and buried chestnut soils of the Volga-Don interfluve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomutova, T. E.; Demkina, T. S.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkin, V. A.

    2012-04-01

    The phosphatase activity (PA) was studied in the chestnut paleosols buried in 1718-1720 under the Anna Ivanovna rampart in the southern part of the Privolzhskaya Upland and in the middle of the third millennium BC under the burial mound of the Bronze Age on the Northern Yergeni Upland; the background analogues of these soils were also examined. The PA values in the fresh soil samples varied from 2.5 to 37 mg of P2O5/10 g of soil per h with maximums in the A1 horizon of the surface soils and in the B1 horizon of the paleosols. The PA values depended on the time of storage of the samples: with time, they increased by 2.6-2.9 times in the A1 horizon of the background surface soil and decreased by 20-60% in the other soil samples. The specific distribution patterns of the PA values in the soil profiles remained the same independently of the time of storage of the samples. Relatively small amounts of the soil samples were sufficient for the reliable determination of the PA: 1-2 g for the A1 horizon and 3-5 g for the B1 and B2 horizons. The time of incubation with the substrate had to be increased up to 4 h for the long-stored samples.

  14. Chestnut shell as unexploited source of fermentable sugars: effect of different pretreatment methods on enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Maurelli, Luisa; Ionata, Elena; La Cara, Francesco; Morana, Alessandra

    2013-07-01

    Chestnut shell (CS) is an agronomic residue mainly used for extraction of antioxidants or as adsorbent of metal ions. It also contains some polysaccharide that has not been considered as potential source of fermentable sugars for biofuel production until now. In this study, the effect of different pretreatment methods on CS was evaluated in order to obtain the greatest conversion of cellulose and xylan into fermentable sugars. Hot acid impregnation, steam explosion (acid-catalysed or not), and aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) were selected as pretreatments. The pretreated biomass was subjected to saccharification with two enzyme cocktails prepared from commercial preparations, and evaluation of the best pretreatment and enzyme cocktail was based on the yield of fermentable sugars produced. As AAS provided the best result after preliminary experiments, enhancement of sugar production was attempted by changing the concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, enzymes, and CS. The optimal pretreatment condition was 10 % ammonium hydroxide, 70 °C, 22 h with CS at 5 % solid loading. After saccharification of the pretreated CS for 72 h at 50 °C and pH 5.0 with a cocktail containing cellulase (Accellerase 1500), beta-glucosidase (Accellerase BG), and xylanase (Accellerase XY), glucose and xylose yields were 67.8 and 92.7 %, respectively. PMID:23640265

  15. Differential accumulation of Phytophthora cambivora cox II gene transcripts in infected chestnut tissue.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Andrea; Tomassini, Alessia; Bruni, Natalia; Vettraino, Anna M

    2014-04-01

    This study provides a novel qRT-PCR protocol for specific detection and proof of viability of Phytophthora in environmental samples based on differential accumulation of cox II transcripts. Chemical and physical treatments were tested for their ability to induce in vitro the accumulation of cytochrome oxidase genes encoding subunits II (cox II) transcripts in Phytophthora cambivora. Glucose 170 mM, KNO3 0.25 mM and K3 PO3 0.5 and 0.8 mM induced the transcription of cox II in P. cambivora living mycelium while no transcription was observed in mycelium previously killed with 0.5% (p/v) RidomilGold(®) R WG. Living chestnut tissue was artificially infected with P. cambivora and treated with inducers. In vivo experiments confirmed the ability of glucose to induce the accumulation of P. cambivora cox II transcripts. Based on these results, pretreatment of environmental samples with glucose prior to nucleic acid extraction increased the accumulation of specific cox II transcripts, and therefore the sensitivity of qRT-PCR assay for detection of P. cambivora in living tissues. Furthermore, differential accumulation of transcripts between treated and untreated samples represents an unequivocal proof of inoculum viability. PMID:24527950

  16. Invasion genetics of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Prospero, S; Rigling, D

    2012-01-01

    Cryphonectria parasitica is the best-known example of an invasive forest pathogen in Europe. In southern Switzerland, chestnut blight was first reported in 1948 whereas, north of the Alps, it did not appear until the 1980s. Between 1995 and 2008, we sampled 640 C. parasitica isolates from nine populations south of the Alps and nine north of the Alps. Twelve historical isolates, collected between 1950 and 1972 in the south, were obtained from our collection. All 652 isolates were screened at 10 microsatellite loci to test for the existence of divergent genetic pools and to infer possible origins of haplotypes. In total, 52 haplotypes were identified. Structure software analysis indicated that 43 haplotypes (including all historical haplotypes) belonged to a main cluster, 6 haplotypes belonged to a different cluster, and 3 haplotypes had an intermediate allele pattern. All newly founded populations in northern Switzerland were initiated by one or just a few haplotypes from the main cluster, which probably came directly from the populations south of the Alps. Subsequently, genetic diversity increased through mutations, sexual reproduction, or new migrations. The highest increase in diversity was observed in populations where haplotypes from different genetic pools were encountered. PMID:21848397

  17. Aphelenchoides hylurgi as a Carrier of White, Hypovirulent Cryphonectria parasitica and its Possible Role in Hypovirulence Spread on Blight-Controlled American Chestnut Trees

    PubMed Central

    Eisenback, J. D.; Yancey, M. M.; Templeton, J.

    2009-01-01

    Individual nematodes were isolated from American chestnut blight-controlled cankers to determine if they were carriers of biocontrol (hypovirulent) isolates of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. These hypovirulent isolates have a white fungal colony phenotype due to infection by the virus CHV1. Of 1,620 individual Aphelenchoides hylurgi isolated, 29.4% carried propagules of the blight fungus and 8.2% of these yielded white hypovirulent isolates. In attraction and movement tests in Petri plates, A. hylurgi moved 2 cm over 24 hr to mycelial discs of white hypovirulent C. parasitica and pigmented C. parasitica strains in nearly equal numbers. After 2 days of nematode movement to fungal colonies on agar in Petri plates and 21 days of nematode growth, large numbers of A. hylurgi were extracted from both white hypovirulent and pigmented C. parasitica strain colonies. Lower numbers of A. hylurgi were extracted from excised young American chestnut blight cankers that were inoculated with A. hylurgi and incubated for 22 days. A. hylurgi inoculated on the surface of an excised American chestnut canker moved within 24 hr to the small, spore-bearing C. parasitica reproductive structures (stromata) on the canker surface. The results indicate that A. hylurgi may play a role in the spread of hypovirulence on American chestnut trees. PMID:22736825

  18. 77 FR 43046 - Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Forest Service Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS AGENCY: Forest.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to: Center Horse Landscape Restoration Project Leader, USDA Forest Service..., Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose and Need for Action The Center Horse...

  19. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

  20. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  1. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  2. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

  3. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

  4. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  5. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  6. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

  7. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

  8. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

  9. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

  10. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

  11. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

  12. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  13. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

  14. 9 CFR 93.303 - Ports designated for the importation of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Ports designated for the importation of horses. 93.303 Section 93.303 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.303 Ports designated for the importation of horses. (a) Air and ocean ports....

  15. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. 93.316...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter....

  16. 9 CFR 93.305 - Declaration and other documents for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Declaration and other documents for horses. 93.305 Section 93.305 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.305 Declaration and other documents for horses. (a) The certificates,...

  17. 43 CFR 4710.7 - Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled...AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.7 Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately...

  18. 19 CFR 148.32 - Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. 148.32 Section 148...Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. (a) Admission free...vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses, together with their...

  19. 19 CFR 148.32 - Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. 148.32 Section 148...Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. (a) Admission free...vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses, together with their...

  20. 9 CFR 93.305 - Declaration and other documents for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Declaration and other documents for horses. 93.305 Section 93.305 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.305 Declaration and other documents for horses. (a) The certificates,...

  1. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. 93.316...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter....

  2. 9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.41 Reporting required of horse industry organizations or...

  3. 9 CFR 93.303 - Ports designated for the importation of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Ports designated for the importation of horses. 93.303 Section 93.303 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.303 Ports designated for the importation of horses. (a) Air and ocean ports....

  4. 43 CFR 4710.7 - Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled...AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.7 Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately...

  5. 9 CFR 93.305 - Declaration and other documents for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Declaration and other documents for horses. 93.305 Section 93.305 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.305 Declaration and other documents for horses. (a) The certificates,...

  6. 19 CFR 148.32 - Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. 148.32 Section 148...Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. (a) Admission free...vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses, together with their...

  7. 9 CFR 11.40 - Prohibitions and requirements concerning persons involved in transportation of certain horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...persons involved in transportation of certain horses. 11.40 Section 11.40 Animals...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.40 ...persons involved in transportation of certain horses. (a) Each person who ships,...

  8. 43 CFR 4710.7 - Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled...AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.7 Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately...

  9. 33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. 147... SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description . Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi...

  10. 9 CFR 11.40 - Prohibitions and requirements concerning persons involved in transportation of certain horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...persons involved in transportation of certain horses. 11.40 Section 11.40 Animals...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.40 ...persons involved in transportation of certain horses. (a) Each person who ships,...

  11. 9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.41 Reporting required of horse industry organizations or...

  12. 9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.41 Reporting required of horse industry organizations or...

  13. 77 FR 47589 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Horse Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ...Approval of an Information Collection; Horse Protection Regulations AGENCY: Animal...information collection associated with the Horse Protection Program. DATES: We will consider...For information on regulations for the Horse Protection Program, contact Dr....

  14. 76 FR 78692 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northeast California Resource Advisory Council Wild Horse and Burro...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ...California Resource Advisory Council Wild Horse and Burro Management Subcommittee AGENCY...California Resource Advisory Council's wild horse and burro management subcommittee will...issues associated with management of wild horses and burros on public lands managed by...

  15. 43 CFR 4750.3-1 - Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros. 4750.3-1 Section...MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750...Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros. An individual...

  16. 33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. 147... SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description . Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi...

  17. 9 CFR 11.40 - Prohibitions and requirements concerning persons involved in transportation of certain horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...persons involved in transportation of certain horses. 11.40 Section 11.40 Animals...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.40 ...persons involved in transportation of certain horses. (a) Each person who ships,...

  18. 33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. 147... SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description . Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi...

  19. 19 CFR 148.32 - Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. 148.32 Section 148...Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. (a) Admission free...vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses, together with their...

  20. 19 CFR 148.32 - Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. 148.32 Section 148...Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. (a) Admission free...vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses, together with their...

  1. 33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. 147... SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description . Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi...

  2. 43 CFR 4750.3-1 - Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros. 4750.3-1 Section...MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750...Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros. An individual...

  3. 9 CFR 93.305 - Declaration and other documents for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Declaration and other documents for horses. 93.305 Section 93.305 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.305 Declaration and other documents for horses. (a) The certificates,...

  4. 9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.41 Reporting required of horse industry organizations or...

  5. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. 93.316...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter....

  6. 9 CFR 93.305 - Declaration and other documents for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Declaration and other documents for horses. 93.305 Section 93.305 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.305 Declaration and other documents for horses. (a) The certificates,...

  7. 43 CFR 4710.7 - Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled...AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.7 Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately...

  8. 43 CFR 4750.3-1 - Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros. 4750.3-1 Section...MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750...Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros. An individual...

  9. 9 CFR 93.303 - Ports designated for the importation of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Ports designated for the importation of horses. 93.303 Section 93.303 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.303 Ports designated for the importation of horses. (a) Air and ocean ports....

  10. 9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.41 Reporting required of horse industry organizations or...

  11. 9 CFR 11.40 - Prohibitions and requirements concerning persons involved in transportation of certain horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...persons involved in transportation of certain horses. 11.40 Section 11.40 Animals...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.40 ...persons involved in transportation of certain horses. (a) Each person who ships,...

  12. 33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. 147... SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description . Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi...

  13. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. 93.316...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter....

  14. 9 CFR 11.40 - Prohibitions and requirements concerning persons involved in transportation of certain horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...persons involved in transportation of certain horses. 11.40 Section 11.40 Animals...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.40 ...persons involved in transportation of certain horses. (a) Each person who ships,...

  15. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. 93.316...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter....

  16. 9 CFR 93.303 - Ports designated for the importation of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Ports designated for the importation of horses. 93.303 Section 93.303 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.303 Ports designated for the importation of horses. (a) Air and ocean ports....

  17. 43 CFR 4750.3-1 - Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros. 4750.3-1 Section...MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750...Application for private maintenance of wild horses and burros. An individual...

  18. 9 CFR 93.303 - Ports designated for the importation of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Ports designated for the importation of horses. 93.303 Section 93.303 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.303 Ports designated for the importation of horses. (a) Air and ocean ports....

  19. A comprehensive phylogeny of extant horses, rhinos and tapirs (Perissodactyla) through data combination

    E-print Network

    Mouritsen, Henrik

    A comprehensive phylogeny of extant horses, rhinos and tapirs (Perissodactyla) through data included four extant families: Rhinocerotidae (rhinos), Tapiridae (tapirs), Equidae (horses, asses traditionally into the two suborders Ceratomorpha (rhi- nos and tapirs) and Hippomorpha (horses, assess

  20. Clive Brasier, Forest Research Flaws in international protocols

    E-print Network

    chestnut bleeding canker, Plane wilt, Ash dieback, Pine wood nematode, Asian longhorn beetle, Pine lappet moth, Oak processionary moth, Chestnut gall wasp... Especially Phytophthora pathogens ­ eg Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi. Horse chestnut Phytophthora kernoviae. Beech, rhododendron etc Phytophthora

  1. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cañón, Javier; Cortés, Óscar

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino. PMID:23271940

  2. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cañón, Javier; Cortés, Oscar

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino. PMID:23271940

  3. Immunodiffusion test for diagnosing and monitoring pythiosis in horses.

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, L; Kaufman, L; Standard, P G

    1986-01-01

    A practical, sensitive, and specific immunodiffusion test was developed for diagnosing and monitoring pythiosis in horses. Culture filtrates, a soluble cell mass, and trypsinized Pythium sp. antigens were evaluated against prepared rabbit anti-Pythium sp. serum and pythiosis horse case sera. The culture filtrate antigens demonstrated the greatest capacity for detecting precipitins and the greatest stability during storage. In contrast, the trypsinized antigens had the weakest capability for detecting multiple precipitins and the poorest stability. The 13 sera from horses with proven active pythiosis were positive in immunodiffusion tests with the culture filtrate antigens. Each serum contained from three to six precipitins. Treated horses lost precipitins, and some became antibody negative. No false-positive reactions were noted in tests with sera from normal horses and humans or with sera from a variety of heterologous horse and human infections. Images PMID:3086368

  4. Europe's Horse Meat Scandal Casts Light on Food Taboo1 Horse meat is taboo in some cultures, standard in others.2

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    Europe's Horse Meat Scandal Casts Light on Food Taboo1 Horse meat is taboo in some cultures about horse meat. A scandal has erupted in Europe because some products labeled as5 beef--including Burger King hamburgers and frozen lasagna--were recently found to contain various amounts of horse6 meat

  5. [HYPP--hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in horses].

    PubMed

    Zeilmann, M

    1993-12-01

    A literature review of the clinical syndrome HYPP (Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis) affecting Quarter Horses is given. HYPP is characterized by sporadic attacks of muscle tremors, weakness and/or collapse, lasting for variable periods of time. Diagnosis is based on physical findings in association with hyperkalemia. In horses with HYPP, the regulation of ion transport through the sodium channels in the muscle cells occasionally fails, causing uncontrollable muscle twitching. Further investigations into molecular genetics reveals a mutation in the gene responsible for sodium and potassium regulation. The identification of this gene mutation is the basis for the blood test used to diagnose HYPP. HYPP is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Treatment of HYPP attacks by intravenous application of calcium gluconate, bicarbonate and glucose results in rapid recovery. Consequent dietary management and daily administration of acetazolamide effectively controls the disease. PMID:8122239

  6. Staggers in horses grazing paspalum infected with Claviceps paspali.

    PubMed

    Cawdell-Smith, A J; Scrivener, C J; Bryden, W L

    2010-10-01

    Invasion of the flowering heads of grasses by Claviceps spp. can produce sclerotia (ergots) containing several toxins. Ingestion of these toxins, through the consumption of paspalum (Paspalum dilatatum), can induce a range of clinical symptoms, including staggers. Cattle are the most commonly affected species, but although sheep and horses have been reported affected there are no published descriptions of paspalum staggers in horses. We describe two occurrences of paspalum staggers, the first in three Australian Stockhorse foals and the second in mature Standardbred horses. All three foals presented with ataxia in all limbs after consuming infected paspalum. One foal died from misadventure and the other two recovered within 1 week of removal from the infected paddock. In the second case, two of eight mares and geldings grazing in an irrigation channel developed hindquarter paresis. After removal of all horses from the area, one of the affected horses continued to deteriorate. Both horses were treated with antibiotics. The more severely affected horse was also treated with fluids and electrolytes, but had to be euthanased. The second affected horse recovered after 2 days. Paspalum pastures should inspected for Claviceps paspali infection before the introduction of horses. PMID:20854295

  7. Laryngeal hemiplegia in draft horses. A review of 27 cases.

    PubMed

    Bohanon, T C; Beard, W L; Robertson, J T

    1990-01-01

    Case records of 27 draft horses with laryngeal hemiplegia were reviewed. Twenty-one horses were treated by ventriculectomy with or without prosthetic laryngoplasty, and 17 owners were contacted to determine the results. Fifteen horses improved after surgery and were able to perform to the owners' expectations. Performance improved significantly and hospitalization was shorter after ventriculectomy alone. Results of this study indicate that the clinical signs of exercise intolerance and excessive inspiratory noise associated with left laryngeal hemiplegia in draft horses can be treated successfully by ventriculectomy without prosthetic laryngoplasty. PMID:2264284

  8. Plant-calf, Egg-head and Horse-neck

    E-print Network

    Rdo rje don 'grub

    2011-01-01

    stream_source_info Plant-calf, Egg-head and Horse-neck.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 8698 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Plant-calf, Egg-head and Horse-neck.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... (Video) Plant-calf, Egg-head and Horse-neck ‘Plant-calf, Egg-head and Horse-neck’ was told by Don drug in A mdo Tibetan. Rta rgyugs, a subdivision of Rka phug Administrative Village, is a farming village located in Khams ra Town, Gcan tsa County...

  9. Impaired instrumental choice in crib-biting horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew; Redhead, Edward S; Goodwin, Deborah; McBride, Sebastian D

    2008-08-01

    Horses displaying an oral stereotypy were tested on an instrumental choice paradigm to examine differences in learning from non-stereotypic counterparts. Stereotypic horses are known to have dysfunction of the dorsomedial striatum, and lesion studies have shown that this region may mediate response-outcome learning. The paradigm was specifically applied in order to examine learning that requires maintenance of response-outcome judgements. The non-stereotypic horses learned, over three sessions, to choose a more immediate reinforcer, whereas the stereotypic horses failed to do so. This suggests an initial behavioural correlate for dorsomedial striatum dysregulation in the stereotypy phenotype. PMID:18430476

  10. Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

  11. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in horses.

    PubMed

    Galli, Cesare; Lagutina, Irina; Duchi, Roberto; Colleoni, Silvia; Lazzari, Giovanna

    2008-07-01

    The cloning of equids was achieved in 2003, several years after the birth of Dolly the sheep and also after the cloning of numerous other laboratory and farm animal species. The delay was because of the limited development in the horse of more classical-assisted reproductive techniques required for successful cloning, such as oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo production. When these technologies were developed, the application of cloning also became possible and cloned horse offspring were obtained. This review summarizes the main technical procedures that are required for cloning equids and the present status of this technique. The first step is competent oocyte maturation, this is followed by oocyte enucleation and reconstruction, using either zona-enclosed or zona-free oocytes, by efficient activation to allow high cleavage rates and finally by a suitable in vitro embryo culture technique. Cloning of the first equid, a mule, was achieved using an in vivo-matured oocytes and immediate transfer of the reconstructed embryo, i.e. at the one cell stage, to the recipient oviduct. In contrast, the first horse offspring was obtained using a complete in vitro procedure from oocyte maturation to embryo culture to the blastocyst stage, followed by non-surgical transfer. Later studies on equine cloning report high efficiency relative to that for other species. Cloned equid offspring reported to date appear to be normal and those that have reached puberty have been confirmed to be fertile. In summary, horse cloning is now a reproducible technique that offers the opportunity to preserve valuable genetics and notably to generate copies of castrated champions and therefore, offspring from those champions that would be impossible to obtain otherwise. PMID:18638143

  12. Feeding management of elite endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patricia

    2009-04-01

    This article reviews the principles of feeding management for endurance horses. The amount and type of dietary energy (calories) are key considerations in dietary management, because (1) there is evidence that the body condition score, an indicator of overall energy balance, influences endurance exercise performance, and (2) the source of dietary energy (ie, carbohydrate versus fat calories) impacts health, metabolism, and athletic performance. Optimal performance is also dependent on provision of adequate feed, water, and electrolytes on race day. PMID:19303556

  13. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Horse Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.

  14. Trojan Horse particle invariance in fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleril, C.; Bertulani, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Blokhintsev, L.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Spartá, R.; Tumino, A.

    2015-01-01

    Trojan Horse method plays an important part for the measurement of several charged particle induced reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest. In order to better understand its cornerstones and the related applications to different astrophysical scenarios several tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance for the binary reactions d(d,p)t, 6,7Li(p,?)3,4He was therefore tested using the appropriate quasi free break- ups, respectively. In the first cases results from 6Li and 3He break up were used, while for the lithium fusion reactions break-ups of 2H and 3He were compared. The astrophysical S(E)-factors for the different processes were then extracted in the framework of the PlaneWave Approximation applied to the different break-up schemes. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement between data coming from different break-up schemes confirms the applicability of the plane wave approximation and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nucleus also for the present cases. Moreover the astrophysical implications of the results will also be discussed in details.

  15. Stimulus discrimination by horses under scotopic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

    2009-09-01

    Scotopic vision in horses (Equus caballus) was investigated using behavioral measurements for the first time. Four horses were tested for the ability to make simple visual discriminations of geometric figures (circles and triangles) under various brightness levels within an enclosed building. Measurements of brightness ranging from 10.37 to 24.12 magnitudes per square arcsecond (mag/arcsec(2); in candelas per square meter-7.70 to 2.43E-05cd/m(2)) were taken using a Sky Quality Meter. These values approximated outdoor conditions ranging from twilight in open country to a dark moonless night in dense forest. The horses were able to solve the discrimination problems in all brightness settings up to 23.77mag/arcsec(2) (3.35E-05cd/m(2)). Moreover, they easily navigated their way around obstacles located within the testing area in extremely dim light (>23.50mag/arcsec(2); 4.30E-05cd/m(2)), which were in conditions too dark for the human experimenters to see. These findings support physiological data that reveal a rod-dominated visual system as well as observations of equine activity at night. PMID:19389464

  16. Therapeutics of musculoskeletal disease in the horse.

    PubMed

    Kollias-Baker, C

    1999-12-01

    Therapeutic medications play a crucial role in the successful therapy of many musculoskeletal diseases that occur in horses. For example, appropriate antibiotic therapy is extremely important in the treatment of diseases caused by infections with microorganisms such as botulism, tetanus, osteomyelitis, and muscle abscesses. In addition, numerous prescription medications and nutritional supplements are available for the treatment of osteoarthritis in horses. Many of these agents currently on the market fall into a new class of drugs called SADMO agents. Unfortunately, the efficacy and mechanism(s) of action for many of these agents have not been well defined. There does exist a fair amount of data indicating that the parenterally administered compounds HA and PSGAGs, commonly used to treat osteoarthritis, can decrease the severity of clinical signs and perhaps slow the progression of disease. Although there are fewer data available to support the efficacy of orally administered SADMO agents, these compounds are used commonly by lay people as osteoarthritis therapies. Finally, pharmaceutical agents such as acetozolamide can play an important role in the management of the inherited HYPP condition in horses. PMID:10589469

  17. Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area

    SciTech Connect

    Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

  18. Plant growth-promoting and antifungal activity of yeasts from dark chestnut soil.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Lyudmila V; Brazhnikova, Yelena V; Berzhanova, Ramza Z; Mukasheva, Togzhan D

    2015-06-01

    538 yeast strains were isolated from dark chestnut soil collected from under the plants of the legume family (Fabaceae). The greatest number of microorganisms is found at soil depth 10-20 cm. Among the 538 strains of yeast 77 (14.3%) strains demonstrated the ability to synthesize IAA. 15 strains were attributed to high IAA-producing yeasts (above 10 ?g/ml). The most active strains were YA05 with 51.7 ± 2.1 ?g/ml of IAA and YR07 with 45.3 ± 1.5 ?g/ml. In the study of effect of incubation time on IAA production the maximum accumulation of IAA coincided with maximum rates of biomass: at 120 h for YR07 and at 144 h for strain YA05. IAA production increased when medium was supplemented with the L-tryptophan. 400 ?g/ml of L-tryptophan showed maximum IAA production. 10 strains demonstrated the ability to inhibit the growth and development of phytopathogenic fungi. YA05 and YR07 strains formed the largest zones of inhibition compared to the other strains--from 21.6 ± 0.3 to 30.6 ± 0.5 mm. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed for YA05 against Phytophtora infestans and YR07 strains against Fusarium graminearum. YA05 and YR07 strains were identified as Aureobasidium pullulans YA05 (GenBank accession No JF160955) and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa YR07 (GenBank accession No JF160956). PMID:25843007

  19. Differences in salt sensitivity of four deciduous tree species to soil or airborne salt.

    PubMed

    Paludan-Müller, Georg; Saxe, Henrik; Pedersen, Lars Bo; Randrup, Thomas Barfoed

    2002-02-01

    Seedlings of four deciduous tree species maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) and lime (Tilia cordata) were exposed to de-icing salt (NaCl) either through the soil or applied to the above ground plant parts. A soil solution of 1.65 g l-1 NaCl was maintained from the start of the experiment in January 1999 until termination in June 1999. The main effects caused by salt treatment through the soil were a reduction in photosynthesis of up to 50% and the development of leaf chlorosis or necrosis covering up to 50% of the total leaf area for the most sensitive species (lime and beech); maple and horse chestnut were relatively tolerant. There was no significant correlation between Cl or Na concentration in leaves and the relative sensitivity of the species. Saturated salt solution was applied to bark, buds or leaf scars on two occasions three weeks apart during the winter season. This affected the timing of bud break with delays of up to eight days compared with the controls. In the most sensitive species the above ground salt treatments partly prevented bud break (beech) or reduced photosynthesis (lime). Uptake through the bark was most important for the development of stress effects, compared with uptake through the other above ground plant parts. PMID:11903969

  20. Corneal cross-linking in 9 horses with ulcerative keratitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Corneal ulcers are one of the most common eye problems in the horse and can cause varying degrees of visual impairment. Secondary infection and protease activity causing melting of the corneal stroma are always concerns in patients with corneal ulcers. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), induced by illumination of the corneal stroma with ultraviolet light (UVA) after instillation of riboflavin (vitamin B2) eye drops, introduces crosslinks which stabilize melting corneas, and has been used to successfully treat infectious ulcerative keratitis in human patients. Therefore we decided to study if CXL can be performed in sedated, standing horses with ulcerative keratitis with or without stromal melting. Results Nine horses, aged 1 month to 16 years (median 5 years) were treated with a combination of CXL and medical therapy. Two horses were diagnosed with mycotic, 5 with bacterial and 2 with aseptic ulcerative keratitis. A modified Dresden-protocol for CXL could readily be performed in all 9 horses after sedation. Stromal melting, diagnosed in 4 horses, stopped within 24 h. Eight of nine eyes became fluorescein negative in 13.5 days (median time; range 4–26 days) days after CXL. One horse developed a bacterial conjunctivitis the day after CXL, which was successfully treated with topical antibiotics. One horse with fungal ulcerative keratitis and severe uveitis was enucleated 4 days after treatment due to panophthalmitis. Conclusions CXL can be performed in standing, sedated horses. We did not observe any deleterious effects attributed to riboflavin or UVA irradiation per se during the follow-up, neither in horses with infectious nor aseptic ulcerative keratitis. These data support that CXL can be performed in the standing horse, but further studies are required to compare CXL to conventional medical treatment in equine keratitis and to optimize the CXL protocol in this species. PMID:23803176

  1. Compositional analysis of Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) cell-wall material from parenchyma, epidermis, and subepidermal tissues.

    PubMed

    Grassby, Terri; Jay, Andrew J; Merali, Zara; Parker, Mary L; Parr, Adrian J; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2013-10-01

    Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis (Burman f.) Trin ex Henschel) is a corm consumed globally in Oriental-style cuisine. The corm consists of three main tissues, the epidermis, subepidermis, and parenchyma; the cell walls of which were analyzed for sugar, phenolic, and lignin content. Sugar content, measured by gas chromatography, was higher in the parenchyma cell walls (931 ?g/mg) than in the subepidermis (775 ?g/mg) or epidermis (685 ?g/mg). The alkali-extractable phenolic content, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, was greater in the epidermal (32.4 ?g/mg) and subepidermal cell walls (21.7 ?g/mg) than in the cell walls of the parenchyma (12.3 ?g/mg). The proportion of diferulic acids was higher in the parenchyma. The Klason lignin content of epidermal and subepidermal cell walls was ~15%. Methylation analysis of Chinese water chestnut cell-wall polysaccharides identified xyloglucan as the predominant hemicellulose in the parenchyma for the first time, and also a significant pectin component, similar to other nongraminaceous monocots. PMID:24066627

  2. Comparative effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-10-01

    Chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been recently studied for their antioxidant potential. The present study reports the effect of e-beam and gamma radiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 1 and 3 kGy) on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts. Irradiation might be an alternative preservation method, since Methyl Bromide, a widely used fumigant, was banished by the European Union in 2010 due to its toxicity. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay, reducing power by the Ferricyanide/Prussian blue assay, and lipid peroxidation inhibition by ?-carotene/linoleate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. The analysis of total phenolics and flavonoids was performed by spectrophotometric assays. Irradiated samples preserved total phenolics content (but not flavonoids) and revealed higher antioxidant activity (lower EC50 values) than the control samples. The most indicated doses to maintain antioxidants content, and to increase antioxidant activity were 1 and 3 kGy for electron beam and gamma radiation, respectively. PMID:22847131

  3. Sinusitis associated with nasogastric intubation in 3 horses

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Jorge E.; Yamout, Sawsan; Dechant, Julie E.

    2014-01-01

    Sinusitis has not been reported as a complication of long-term nasogastric intubation in horses. We describe 3 horses that developed nosocomial sinusitis following abdominal surgery with associated perioperative nasogastric intubation. Sinusitis was suspected by the presence of malodorous discharge and confirmed by percussion, upper airway endoscopy, radiographs (n = 3), and bacterial culture (n = 1). PMID:24891638

  4. Appendix 64 Excerpt from Hungry Horse Scientific Framework (Marotz 2002)

    E-print Network

    Appendix 64 Excerpt from Hungry Horse Scientific Framework (Marotz 2002) Hungry Horse Scientific scientific framework, then designed our program to address fisheries issues in varying levels of scope community downstream of the dam. The instream flow study (IFIM) recommended dam operations to balance

  5. Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, John R.

    A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski's…

  6. Influenza Virus Transmission from Horses to Dogs, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Finlaison, Deborah S.; Crispe, Ellie; Hurt, Aeron C.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia, respiratory disease in dogs in close contact with infected horses was noted; influenza (H3N8) virus infection was confirmed. Nucleotide sequence of the virus from dogs was identical to that from horses. No evidence of dog-to-dog transmission or virus persistence in dogs was found. PMID:20350392

  7. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of...

  8. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of...

  9. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use...

  10. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of...

  11. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use...

  12. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use...

  13. Pharmacokinetics of ranitidine HCL in horses and foals 

    E-print Network

    Holland, Patricia Susan

    1995-01-01

    were: Vdss, 1.07 L/kg; AUC, 231,126 ng-min/ml; AUMC, 26,970,792 ng-min2/ml; MRT, 112.6 min; and Cl, 9.8 ml/min/kg. Following PO administration, a two-exponent equation, [] best described the data for five horses; data for the remaining horse were best...

  14. 4. West and south elevations of the horse pasture store, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. West and south elevations of the horse pasture store, looking northeast; a "Greenhouse" structure can be seen extending to the west of the store at the left of the view - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  15. 5. East and north (rear) elevations of the horse pasture ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East and north (rear) elevations of the horse pasture store, looking southwest; the store's two outbuildings can ben seen at the right of the view - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  16. 2. Overall view of the horse pasture store from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overall view of the horse pasture store from the east; U.S. Highway 58 runs from left to right across the view, while Route 687 rices into the distance at the left - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  17. 14. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF HORSE MESA. TRACK FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF HORSE MESA. TRACK FROM AGGREGATE BARGES TO MIXING PLANT IS AT LOWER LEFT, RIGHT SPILLWAY CHUTE IS TAKING FORM AT UPPER RIGHT April 29, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ARE AT CENTER AND CONCRETE TOWER LINES. AGGREGATE OPERATION IS VISIBLE ABOVE CONSTRUCTION SITE July 22, 1926 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 17. VIEW SHOWING CAPTION AT UPPER RIGHT THAT READS, 'HORSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW SHOWING CAPTION AT UPPER RIGHT THAT READS, 'HORSE MESA DAM -5/15/27FLOATING 2-YD. ELECTRICALLY-OPERATED CLAM-SHELL DERRICK UNLOADING GRAVEL SCOWS' May 15, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. Thoroughbred Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database: HSDB.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Ho; Lee, Taeheon; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Cho, Byung-Wook; Shin, Dong-Hyun; Do, Kyoung-Tag; Sung, Samsun; Kwak, Woori; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Park, Kyung-Do

    2014-09-01

    Genetics is important for breeding and selection of horses but there is a lack of well-established horse-related browsers or databases. In order to better understand horses, more variants and other integrated information are needed. Thus, we construct a horse genomic variants database including expression and other information. Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database (HSDB) (http://snugenome2.snu.ac.kr/HSDB) provides the number of unexplored genomic variants still remaining to be identified in the horse genome including rare variants by using population genome sequences of eighteen horses and RNA-seq of four horses. The identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were confirmed by comparing them with SNP chip data and variants of RNA-seq, which showed a concordance level of 99.02% and 96.6%, respectively. Moreover, the database provides the genomic variants with their corresponding transcriptional profiles from the same individuals to help understand the functional aspects of these variants. The database will contribute to genetic improvement and breeding strategies of Thoroughbreds. PMID:25178365