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1

Residues of diflubenzuron on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) leaves and their efficacy against the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella.  

PubMed

Residues of the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron were quantified on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) leaves treated with a diflubenzuron 480 g litre(-1) SC, Dimilin. To analyse the samples, an analytical procedure was developed involving a simple extraction step followed by high-performance liquid chromatography on an octadecyl-modified silica column with methanol + 0.01 M ammonium acetate mobile phase. The results showed diflubenzuron to be highly stable on horse chestnut leaves; more than 4 months (127 days) after application, 38% (on average) of the insecticide still remained on/in the leaves. The data confirmed biological observations showing diflubenzuron's long-term efficacy against the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimi?, which is the most important pest of the horse chestnut in Europe. The hypothesis of possible penetration of diflubenzuron into the leaf mass is explored and discussed. PMID:16475222

Nejmanová, Jana; Cvacka, Josef; Hrdý, Ivan; Kuldová, Jelena; Mertelík, Josef; Muck, Alexander; Nesnerová, Petra; Svatos, Ales

2006-03-01

2

Steroidal constituents and anti-inflammatory activity of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) bark.  

PubMed

The content and the composition of sterols in the bark of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L., have been examined. Stigmasterol and alpha-spinasterol were, with the beta-sitosterol, the most abundant sterols. The petrol extract from bark shows anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:2751881

Senatore, F; M?cisz, A; Mrugasiewicz, K; Gorecki, P

1989-02-01

3

Horse Chestnut - Aesculus Hippocastanum: Potential Applications in Cosmetic Skin-care Products.  

PubMed

In addition to the well reported beneficial effects of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) extracts on venous insufficiency and associated conditions, such preparations also have many potential positive pharmacological effects on the skin. Extracts from this species, and in particular, those based on horse chestnut seeds, contain saponins, known collectively as 'aescin', which have a gentle soapy feel, and are potent anti-inflammatory compounds. Saponins, such as escin, also reduce capillary fragility, and therefore help to prevent leakage of fluids into surrounding tissues, which can cause swelling. An extract of horse chestnut has recently been shown to have one of the highest 'active-oxygen' scavenging abilities of 65 different plant extracts tested. Such extracts are more powerful anti-oxidants than vitamin E, and also exhibit potent cell-protective effects, which are linked to the well-known anti-ageing properties of anti-oxidants. The extract is also rich in a number of flavonoids, such as derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol. Flavonoids also have protective effects on blood vessels, and are well-known, powerful anti-oxidants. PMID:18503457

Wilkinson, J A; Brown, A M

1999-12-01

4

Bioactive saponins and glycosides. XII. Horse chestnut. (2): Structures of escins IIIb, IV, V, and VI and isoescins Ia, Ib, and V, acylated polyhydroxyoleanene triterpene oligoglycosides, from the seeds of horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae).  

PubMed

New acylated polyhydroxyoleanene triterpene oligoglycosides, escins IIIb, IV, V, and VI and isoescins Ia, Ib, and V, were isolated from the seeds of horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum L.). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. PMID:9845957

Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Yamahara, J; Matsuda, H

1998-11-01

5

Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) pollen: a frequent cause of allergic sensitization in urban children.  

PubMed

We investigated the incidence of allergic sensitization and the risk factors underlying sensitization in 214 urban children exposed to horse chestnut pollen. By means of the Phadezym RAST, we found IgE specific to horse chestnut pollen in 12.6% of the urban children, whereas it occurred in only 1.9% of control subjects recruited from a rural area. Reports of allergic symptoms in spring during the horse chestnut pollen load coincided with the presence of specific IgE in 5.1% of the urban group as against 1.4% of the recruited from the rural area. Environmental factors other than those related to urban living and higher horse chestnut pollen counts had no significant impact on allergic sensitization. Increased total IgE levels (greater than 100 kU/l), however, and the sensitization to pollen of other species significantly raised the odds for sensitization to chestnut pollen. They were highest in highly atopic children with sensitization to pollen, especially to that of plane trees (OR = 73.9). These results suggest the relevance of horse chestnut pollen because of the high allergic sensitization rate among urban children, and they should also be borne in mind when it comes to the planting of trees in urban areas. PMID:1456408

Popp, W; Horak, F; Jäger, S; Reiser, K; Wagner, C; Zwick, H

1992-08-01

6

Flavonoids in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds and powdered waste water byproducts.  

PubMed

Horse chestnut extracts are widely used in pharmacy and cosmetic industries. The main active constituents are saponins of oleane type, but seeds of horse chestnut also contain flavonoids, being glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Their contribution to the overall activity of the extracts was not clear. In the present work, the main flavonoids from horse chestnut seeds were isolated and their structures established with spectral methods. Seven glycosides were isolated, out of which six ( 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 13) were previously reported and one ( 9) was identified as a new tamarixetin 3- O- [beta- d-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)]- O-beta- d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)- O-beta- d-glucopyranoside. The structures of three additional compounds 1, 10, and 12, not previously reported, were deduced on the basis of their LC-ESI/MS/MS fragmentation characteristics. A new ultraperformance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method has been developed for profiling and quantitation of horse chestnut flavonoids. The method allowed good separation over 4.5 min. Thirteen compounds could be identified in the profile, out of which di- and triglycoisdes of quercetin and kaempferol were the dominant forms and their acylated forms occurred in just trace amounts. The total concentration of flavonoids in the powdered horse chestnut seed was 0.88% of dry matter. The alcohol extract contained 3.46%, and after purification on C18 solid phase, this concentration increased to 9.40% of dry matter. The flavonoid profile and their content were also measured in the horse chestnut wastewater obtained as byproduct in industrial processing of horse chestnut seeds. The total flavonoid concentration in the powder obtained after evaporation of water was 2.58%, while after purification on solid phase, this increased to 11.23% dry matter. It was concluded that flavonoids are present in a horse chestnut extract in a relatively high amount and have the potential to contribute to the overall activity of these extracts. Industrial horse chestnut wastewater can be used to obtain quercetine and kaempferol glycosides for cosmetic, nutraceutical, and food supplement industries. PMID:17867637

Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo; Franceschi, Federico; Franz, Chlodwig; Oleszek, Wieslaw

2007-10-17

7

The characterization and properties of castaprenol-11, -12 and -13 from the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut)  

PubMed Central

The isolation and purification of a mixture of cis–trans-polyprenols from the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut) are described. Results of studies involving mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, micro-hydrogenation and ozonolytic degradation show the mixture to be made up of undecaprenol, dodecaprenol and tridecaprenol with dodecaprenol predominating. Each of the prenols contains three trans internal isoprene residues and a cis `OH-terminal' isoprene residue. They differ from each other only in the number of cis internal isoprene residues. The trivial names castaprenol-11, castaprenol-12 and castaprenol-13 are proposed to describe these compounds. Gas–liquid-chromatographic and reversed-phase partition thin-layer chromatographic evidence suggest the presence in the mixture of small quantities of castaprenol-10 also. PMID:6067665

Wellburn, A. R.; Stevenson, J.; Hemming, F. W.; Morton, R. A.

1967-01-01

8

The characterization and properties of castaprenol-11, -12 and -13 from the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut).  

PubMed

The isolation and purification of a mixture of cis-trans-polyprenols from the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut) are described. Results of studies involving mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, micro-hydrogenation and ozonolytic degradation show the mixture to be made up of undecaprenol, dodecaprenol and tridecaprenol with dodecaprenol predominating. Each of the prenols contains three trans internal isoprene residues and a cis ;OH-terminal' isoprene residue. They differ from each other only in the number of cis internal isoprene residues. The trivial names castaprenol-11, castaprenol-12 and castaprenol-13 are proposed to describe these compounds. Gas-liquid-chromatographic and reversed-phase partition thin-layer chromatographic evidence suggest the presence in the mixture of small quantities of castaprenol-10 also. PMID:6067665

Wellburn, A R; Stevenson, J; Hemming, F W; Morton, R A

1967-01-01

9

Horse Chestnut  

MedlinePLUS

... cautions, and resources for more information. Horse chestnut trees are native to the Balkan Peninsula (for example, ... be confused with the Ohio or California buckeye trees, which are related but not the same species. ...

10

Isolation and Characterization of Esters of Indole-3-Acetic Acid from the Liquid Endosperm of the Horse Chestnut (Aesculus species) 1  

PubMed Central

Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A.pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose. PMID:11539676

Domagalski, Wojciech; Schulze, Aga; Bandurski, Robert S.

1987-01-01

11

Effects of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb from horse chestnut, the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L., on acute inflammation in animals.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of escins Ia, Ib, and IIb isolated from horse chestnut, the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L., and desacylescins I and II obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of escins on acute inflammation in animals (p.o.). Escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb (50-200 mg/kg) inhibited the increase of vascular permeability induced by both acetic acid in mice and histamine in rats. Escins Ib, IIa, and IIb (50-200 mg/kg) also inhibited that induced by serotonin in rats, but escin Ia didn't. Escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb (200 mg/kg) inhibited the hind paw edema induced by carrageenin at the first phase in rats. Escin Ia (200 mg/kg) and escins Ib, IIa, and IIb (50-200 mg/kg) inhibited the scratching behavior induced by compound 48/80 in mice, but escin Ia was weakest. Desacylescins I and II (200 mg/kg) showed no effect. With regard to the relationship between their chemical structures and activities, the acyl groups in escins were essential. Escins Ib, IIa, and IIb with either the 21-angeloyl group or the 2'-O-xylopyranosyl moiety showed more potent activities than escin Ia which had both the 21-tigloyl group and the 2'-O-glucopyranosyl moiety. PMID:9353571

Matsuda, H; Li, Y; Murakami, T; Ninomiya, K; Yamahara, J; Yoshikawa, M

1997-10-01

12

[Isolation of lectin from horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) seeds and study of its interaction with carbohydrates and glycoproteins].  

PubMed

The lectin from horse chestnut seeds was obtained by affinity chromatography on a sorbent prepared from the egg white, 95 mg of lectin per 1 kg of fresh seeds being obtained. Molecular weight was determined by gel-filtration on tojopearl HW-55 and it composed 132 kDa. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of one component with molecular weight of 33 kDa. One band has been revealed by means of disc-electrophoresis in acidic (pH 4.5) and alkaline system (pH 8.9). Sugar was not detected in the lectin. Amino acid composition of the lectin has been determined. The lectin agglutinated horse erythrocytes in minimal concentration of 9.5 ngml, to the less extent rabbit (4.9 mkg/ml), rat (62 mkg/ml), human (73 mkg/ml), but did not agglutinate erythrocytes of a sheep and cow. Purified lectin did not interact with monosaccharides, but interacted with O-glycans. PMID:1462370

Antoniuk, V O

1992-01-01

13

Bioactive saponins and glycosides. III. Horse chestnut. (1): The structures, inhibitory effects on ethanol absorption, and hypoglycemic activity of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L.  

PubMed

Five bioactive triterpene oligoglycosides named escins, Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa were isolated from the seeds of horse chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae). The chemical structures of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa were determine on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, which included selective cleavage of the glucuronide linkage using photochemical reaction and lead tetraacetate decarboxylation reaction. Escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb were found to exhibit an ethanol absorption-inhibitory effect and hypoglycemic activity in the oral glucose tolerance test in rats. Some structure-activity relationships are reported. PMID:8795266

Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Matsuda, H; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N; Kitagawa, I

1996-08-01

14

Transient etiolation: protochlorophyll(ide) and chlorophyll forms in differentiating plastids of closed and breaking leaf buds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum).  

PubMed

An accompanying paper reports the accumulation of photoactive protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) in the innermost leaf primordia of buds of many tree species. In this paper, we describe plastid differentiation, changes in pigment concentrations and spectral properties of bud scales and leaf primordia of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) from January until the end of bud break in April. The bud scales contained plastids with grana, stroma thylakoids characteristic of chloroplasts and large dense bodies within the stroma. In January, proplastids and young chloroplasts were present in the leaf primordia, and the fluorescence spectra of the primordia were similar to those of green leaves except for a minor band at 630 nm, indicative of a protochlorophyll(ide). During bud break, the pigment concentrations of the green bud scales and the outermost leaf primordia increased, and Pchlide forms with emission maxima at 633, 644 and 655 nm accumulated in the middle and innermost leaf primordia. Depending on the position of the leaf primordia within the bud, their plastids and their pigment concentrations varied. Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and prothylakoids with developing grana were observed in the innermost leaves. Besides the above-mentioned Pchlide forms, the middle and innnermost leaf primordia contained only a Chl band with an emission maximum at 686 nm. The outermost leaf primordia contained etio-chloroplasts with well-developed grana and small, narrow-type PLBs. These outermost leaves contained only chlorophyll forms like the mature green leaves. No Pchlide accumulation was observed after bud break, indicating that etiolation of the innermost and middle leaves is transient. The Pchlide forms and the plastid types of the primordia in buds grown in nature were similar to those of leaves of dark-germinated seedlings and to those of the leaf primordia of dark-forced buds. We conclude that transient etiolation occurs under natural conditions. The formation of PLBs and etio-chloroplasts and the accumulation of the light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase are involved in the natural greening process and ontogenesis of young leaf primordia of horse chestnut buds. PMID:16651258

Solymosi, Katalin; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

2006-08-01

15

Growth Capacity of Embryo Axes Excised from Dormant and Germinating Horse Chestnut Seeds and Their Response to Exogenous Abscisic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In embryo axes excised from mature horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) seeds, both freshly-fallen and subjected to cold stratification, the ability for growth was studied. While excised axes were kept on water at 28°C for 3 days, their fresh weight and length increased, the polypeptide composition of soluble proteins changed, the content of some heat-stable polypeptides decreased, and the capacity

N. A. Gumilevskaya; M. I. Azarkovich

2004-01-01

16

Seasonal variations in the concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in leaves of the horse chesnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.).  

PubMed

The concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc have been measured in the leaves of a deciduous tree the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) over the period of their lifetime (7 months). The average concentrations for the total sample based on ash weight are: (microg g(-1)) cadmium, 0.197; copper, 129; lead, 294; and zinc, 299. The temporal trends in the concentrations of the metals can be related to their dominant source. Copper and zinc concentrations are highest in the new leaves and decrease with time, suggesting the main source of the elements are uptake from the soil. The decrease occurs partly because of dilution by leaf material as it increases over the growing period. In the case of zinc, however, aerial deposits appear to be also a significant source. Lead concentrations, on the other hand, show an increase with time, which can be related to increasing deposits from aerosol lead arising from the combustion of petrol lead. The increase is enough to offset the dilution effect. For cadmium there is no significant trend, but the tendency is a decrease with time. It is not possible, however, to distinguish between soil uptake and aerial deposit as both are small compared with increase in leaf material. PMID:15091650

Kim, N D; Fergusson, J E

1994-01-01

17

Sequential sampling plan for Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnut tree.  

PubMed

A fixed precision sequential sampling plan for estimating the density of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L., leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was developed. Data were collected from 2002 to 2004 in Turin, northwestern Italy, with the aim of developing a sampling strategy for estimating populations of C. ohridella mines. Taylor's power law was used as a regression model. Sampling parameters were estimated from 216 data sets, and an additional 110 independent data sets were used to validate the fixed precision sequential sampling plan with resampling software. Covariance analysis indicated that there were not significant differences in the coefficient of Taylor's power law between heights of the foliage, months, and years. Dispersion patterns of C. ohridella were determined to be aggregated. The parameters of the Taylor's power law were used to calculate minimum sample sizes and sampling stop lines for different precision levels. Considering a mean density value of five mines per leaf, an average sample number of only 49 leaves was necessary to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, the average sample size increased to 303 leaves. The sequential sampling plan should provide an effective management of C. ohridella in the urban areas, minimizing sampling time and cost, and at the same should be an effective tool to reduce insecticide applications and prevent the esthetic damage. PMID:18232410

Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

2007-12-01

18

A Comparative Study of the Constituents of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus indica.  

PubMed

This work compared the phytochemical composition of two species, of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut) and Aesculus indica grown under comparable conditions. Thin-layer chromatography zone profiles of the constituents in methanol extracts from leaves, seeds, and husks indicated differences within and between the two species. Similar profiles were observed for seeds and leaves from the two species but not for the husks. Aesculin and its aglycone, aesculetin, were not detected in leaves, husks, or seeds of the two species. The content of aescin found in A. indica seeds (13.4% weight/weight) was higher than in A. hippocastanum (9.5%). Laurie acid, palmitic acid, myristic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, and oleic acid were detected, by capillary gas chromatography, in the saponified extracts of the seeds, leaves, and husks of the two species. PMID:19281348

Srijayanta, S; Raman, A; Goodwin, B L

1999-01-01

19

Aescin formation in calli and embryoids from cotyledon and stem explants of Aesculus hippocastanum L.  

PubMed

Aescin in calli and embryoids obtained from both cotyledon and stem explants of Aesculus hippocastanum were investigated by HPLC. Determinations were carried out on tissues cultured in agarized medium supplemented with growth substances (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; kinetin; 1-naphthaleneacetic acid). The results indicate that aescin was produced in all the analysed samples. The amount of active principle present in some samples was higher than that found in horse-chestnut seeds. PMID:7897601

Profumo, P; Caviglia, A M; Gastaldo, P

1994-11-01

20

Aescin Content in Embryogenic Callus and in Embryoids from Leaf Explants of Aesculus hippocastanum.  

PubMed

HPLC determinations of the aescin contents in calli and embryoids from leaf explants of AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. were carried out in order to determine whether it was possible to obtain aescin-forming proliferations IN VITRO. The results indicate that embryogenic calli and embryoids derived from them produce an amount of active principle higher than that of horse-chestnut seeds. The data are discussed in terms of the relation between tissue differentiation and secondary metabolites biosynthesis. PMID:17226120

Profumo, P; Caviglia, A M; Gastaldo, P; Dameri, R M

1991-02-01

21

How to safely compost Cameraria ohridella-infested horse chestnut leaf litter on private compost heaps  

E-print Network

How to safely compost Cameraria ohridella-infested horse chestnut leaf litter on private compost the deposition of pest-infested litter on private compost heaps was dissuaded because of the risk of leafminer emergence in the following spring. Thus, the aim of this study was to test safe ways to compost pest

Richner, Heinz

22

Common white facial markings in bay and chestnut Arabian horses and their hybrids.  

PubMed

Common white facial and leg markings have a multifactorial mode of inheritance in Equus caballus. Evidence for the complexity of the genetic component is the observation that chestnut (e/e) horses have more extensive white markings than do bay (E/-) horses. Computerized records obtained from the Arabian Horse Registry of America, Inc., were used to determine if heterozygous (E/e) bay horses have more extensive white facial markings than do homozygous (E/E) bay horses. Thirty-five sire families were analyzed. Each sire family consists of a sire, his foals, and the dams of those foals. The facial region was divided into five areas, and each horse was given a score from 0 to 5 according to the number of areas with whiteness. Since dams and foals with E/E genotypes cannot be identified in these sire families, mean facial scores were compared in dams and foals that were E/e and E/-. It was assumed that if a difference exists between E/e and E/E horses, the presence of E/E horses in the E/- group would reduce the mean of the E/- group. The results show that Arabian horses with the genotype E/e have more white markings than do horses with the genotype E/-, leading to the conclusion that horses with the genotypes e/e, E/e, and E/E vary as to the quantitative expression of white facial markings, with heterozygotes having an intermediate expression. PMID:2013690

Woolf, C M

1991-01-01

23

The Success of the Horse-Chestnut Leaf-Miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK Revealed with Hypothesis-Led Citizen Science  

PubMed Central

Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the ‘Conker Tree Science’ project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella) undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1) the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2) the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism) increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging many people with science. PMID:24465973

Pocock, Michael J. O.; Evans, Darren M.

2014-01-01

24

Comparative study of antioxidant status in androgenic embryos of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava.  

PubMed

In vivo (leaves and seed embryos) and in vitro (androgenic embryos) antioxidant scavenging activity of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava medical plants was examined. Here we report antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids, soluble protein contents, quantities of malondialdehyde, and (•)OH radical presence in the investigated plant samples. Total antioxidant capacity of all the samples of A. hippocastanum and A. flava was determined using FRAP, DPPH, and NO(•) radical scavenger capacity. The leaves of A. flava collected from the botanical garden exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (higher activities of SOD, and higher quantities of GSH, TSH, TPC, and scavenging abilities of DPPH and NO(•), and higher FRAP values and lowest quantities of (•)OH and MDA) than in vitro obtained cultures. However, the leaves of A. flava showed higher antioxidant activity than the leaves of A. hippocastanum, and therefore they have a stronger tolerance of oxidative stress. Androgenic embryos of both species had low amount of antioxidants due to controlled in vitro environmental conditions (T, photoperiod, humidity, nutritive factors, and pathogen-free). Our results confirmed that we found optimal in vitro conditions for producing androgenic embryos of both Aesculus species. Also, we assume that horse chestnut androgenic embryos can be used as an alternative source for large-scale aescin production. PMID:24672369

Štajner, Dubravka; Popovi?, Boris M; ?ali?, Dušica; Št, Marijana

2014-01-01

25

Comparative Study of Antioxidant Status in Androgenic Embryos of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava  

PubMed Central

In vivo (leaves and seed embryos) and in vitro (androgenic embryos) antioxidant scavenging activity of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava medical plants was examined. Here we report antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids, soluble protein contents, quantities of malondialdehyde, and •OH radical presence in the investigated plant samples. Total antioxidant capacity of all the samples of A. hippocastanum and A. flava was determined using FRAP, DPPH, and NO• radical scavenger capacity. The leaves of A. flava collected from the botanical garden exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (higher activities of SOD, and higher quantities of GSH, TSH, TPC, and scavenging abilities of DPPH and NO•, and higher FRAP values and lowest quantities of •OH and MDA) than in vitro obtained cultures. However, the leaves of A. flava showed higher antioxidant activity than the leaves of A. hippocastanum, and therefore they have a stronger tolerance of oxidative stress. Androgenic embryos of both species had low amount of antioxidants due to controlled in vitro environmental conditions (T, photoperiod, humidity, nutritive factors, and pathogen-free). Our results confirmed that we found optimal in vitro conditions for producing androgenic embryos of both Aesculus species. Also, we assume that horse chestnut androgenic embryos can be used as an alternative source for large-scale aescin production. PMID:24672369

Štajner, Dubravka; Popovi?, Boris M.; ?ali?, Dušica; Štajner, Marijana

2014-01-01

26

Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated DNA transfer to Aesculus hippocastanum L. and the regeneration of transformed plants.  

PubMed

Hairy roots were induced from androgenic embryos of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4GUS. Single roots were selected according to their morphology in the absence of antibiotic or herbicide resistance markers. Seventy-one putative transformed hairy root lines from independent transformation events were established. Regeneration was induced in MS liquid medium supplemented with 30 microM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), and the regenerants were multiplied on MS solid medium containing 10 microM BA. Following elongation on MS medium supplemented with 1 microM BA and 500 mg/l polyvinylpyrrolidone, the shoots were subjected to a root-inducing treatment. Stable integration of TL-DNA within the horse chestnut genome was confirmed by Southern hybridization. The copy number of transgenes was estimated to be from two to four. PMID:14745503

Zdravkovi?-Kora?, S; Muhovski, Y; Druart, P; Cali?, D; Radojevi?, L

2004-04-01

27

Digestive enzymes activity in subsequent generations of Cameraria ohridella larvae harvested from horse chestnut trees after treatment with imidacloprid.  

PubMed

In the present study we describe the effect of chloronicotinoid pesticide (imidacloprid) on the digestive enzymes activity of the Cameraria ohridella larvae after lasting 1 year sublethal exposure to imidacloprid pesticide. Caterpillars - L4 stage (fourth instar, hyperphagic tissue-feeding phase) - were collected from chemically protected white horse chestnut trees 1 year after imidacloprid treatment, and compared with caterpillars collected from non-treated trees in a previous study. Enzymes activity of ?-amylase, disaccharidases, glycosidases and proteases was assayed. The presence of pesticide in ingested food changed the digestive enzymes profile of caterpillars. The analysis of correlations between different digestive enzymes showed many significant correlations (P<0.05) among glycolytic activities like ?-glucosidase and ?-galactosidase activities. Statistically significant correlations for proteolytic activity were found between trypsin and chymotrypsin activity and aminopeptidase activity that occurred only in the 1st generation. PCA distinguished five primary components with eigenvalues higher than 1, from which the first two explain almost 59% of analyzed results. Surprisingly, in the pesticide treated groups significantly higher activities of sucrase and lactase in relation to control were found. In general, glycosidase (?-glucosidase, ?-glucosidase and ?-galactosidase) activities showed a similar pattern of activity in different generations. These results contrast with those obtained with control larvae, where significant differences in activities of ?-glucosidase, ?-glucosidase and ?-galactosidase may result from the different quantity and quality food intake by subsequent generations of larvae. No inter-generation differences in total proteolytic activity were observed in treated larvae. The absolute value of total proteolytic activity was higher than that in the control group. The pesticide present in the vascular system of the horse chestnut tree significantly affected some of the digestive enzymes activities and - in consequence - also interrelationships between enzymes, what may affect the food digestion. PMID:24238283

Stygar, Dominika; Michalczyk, Katarzyna; Dolezych, Bogdan; Nakonieczny, Miroslaw; Migula, Pawel; Zaak, Maria; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Karcz-Socha, Iwona; Kukla, Michal; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Buldak, Rafal

2013-01-01

28

Cryopreservation of embryogenic callus of Aesculus hippocastanum L. by vitrification or one-step freezing.  

PubMed

An effective procedure for the cryopreservation of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) embryogenic callus by vitrification/one-step freezing is described here. In particular, the study focused on the possibility of recovering the full proliferation potential of the embryogenic lines after storage in liquid nitrogen. The developmental stage of the embryogenic lines was shown to play an important role. Ninety-min incubation in PVS2 and preservation at -196 degrees C of callus samples, containing a prevalence of embryogenic masses at an advanced stage of somatic embryo maturation (i.e., the torpedo stage), gave optimum regrowth of healthy and proliferating embryogenic callus. Moreover, raising the thawing temperature to 45 degrees C yielded the maximum survival (94%) of torpedo-stage embryogenic samples, recovery of proliferation and, in more than 70% of cases, maturation to the cotyledonary stage. This study opens the way to the possibility of safe, long-term storage in liquid nitrogen of valuable embryogenic lines of horse chestnut, avoiding repeated subculturing. PMID:16082444

Lambardi, Maurizio; De Carlo, Anna; Capuana, Maurizio

2005-01-01

29

Determination of escin content in androgenic embryos and hairy root culture of Aesculus hippocastanum.  

PubMed

Escin, a group of chemically related triterpenic glycosides, is widely used in commercial preparations for the treatment of venous insufficiency. Since the zygotic embryo cotyledons accumulate the highest amount of escin, it is currently extracted from the seeds of horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae), on a large scale. As this material is available during only short period of the year, we studied the possibility of using plant tissue culture to obtain escin. For this purpose, the content of escin in androgenic embryos and hairy root cultures of horse chestnut was studied. Escin content was found to be dependent on the stage of androgenic embryo development and the type of phytoregulator supplemented to the nutritive medium. In the absence of phytoregulators, androgenic embryos at the globular stage of development contained approximately four times less escin than those at the cotyledonary stage. Inclusion of various phytoregulators in the nutritive media stimulated escin production. Among them, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) showed the most pronounced effect, with escin content almost reaching that found in zygotic embryos (6.77% versus 6.96%). Two hairy root clones produced substantial amounts of escin (3.57% and 4.09%), less than zygotic embryos, but higher than cotyledonary embryos on phytoregulator-free medium. PMID:20645800

Cali?-Dragosavac, Dusica; Zdravkovi?-Kora?, Snezana; Savikin-Fodulovi?, Katarina; Radojevi?, Ljiljana; Vinterhalter, Branka

2010-05-01

30

Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of meteorological variables and parameters. In particular, more severe conditions during spring and summer are expected, especially in the Mediterranean area, with less precipitation and higher temperatures. All these changes will have impacts on chestnut fruits and wood in Europe. Dinis, L-T. J., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Peixoto, F., Costa, R. e Gomes-Laranjo, J., 2011: Study of morphological and chemical diversity in chestnut trees (var. 'Judia') as a function of temperature sum. Cyta- Journal of food, 9(3): 192-199 Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy, Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland. Proceedings of the International Chestnut Conference, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 10-14 July 1992, 175-178. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. Wilczynski, S. And Podlaski, R, 2007: The effect of climate on radial growth of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland, J.For.Res., 12, 24-23.

Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

2012-04-01

31

Vacuolar status and water relations in embryonic axes of recalcitrant Aesculus hippocastanum seeds during stratification and early germination  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds and aims In tropical recalcitrant seeds, their rapid transition from shedding to germination at high hydration level is of physiological interest but difficult to study because of the time constraint. In recalcitrant horse chestnut seeds produced in central Russia, this transition is much longer and extends through dormancy and dormancy release. This extended time period permits studies of the water relations in embryonic axes during the long recalcitrant period in terms of vacuolar status and water transport. Methodology Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds sampled in Moscow were stratified in cold wet sand for 4 months. Vacuole presence and development in embryonic axes were examined by vital staining, light and electron microscopy. Aquaporins and vacuolar H+-ATPase were identified immunochemically. Water channel operation was tested by water inflow rate. Vacuolar acid invertase was estimated in terms of activity and electrophoretic properties. Principal results Throughout the long recalcitrant period after seed shedding, cells of embryonic axes maintained active vacuoles and a high water content. Preservation of enzyme machinery in vacuoles was evident from retention of invertase activity, substrate specificity, molecular mass and subunit composition. Plasmalemma and tonoplast aquaporins and the E subunit of vacuolar H+-ATPase were also present. In non-dormant seeds prior to growth initiation, vacuoles enlarged at first in hypocotyls, and then in radicles, with their biogenesis being similar. Vacuolation was accompanied by increasing invertase activity, leading to sugar accumulation and active osmotic functioning. After growth initiation, vacuole enlargement was favoured by enhanced water inflow through water channels formed by aquaporins. Conclusions Maintenance of high water content and desiccation sensitivity, as well as preservation of active vacuoles in embryonic axes after shedding, can be considered a specific feature of recalcitrant seeds, overlooked when studying tropical recalcitrants due to the short duration. The retained physiological activity of vacuoles allows them to function rapidly as dormancy is lost and when external conditions permit. Cell vacuolation precedes cell elongation in both hypocotyl and radicle, and provides impetus for rapid germination. PMID:22593822

Obroucheva, Natalie V.; Lityagina, Snezhana V.; Novikova, Galina V.; Sin'kevich, Irina A.

2012-01-01

32

Volatile emissions from Aesculus hippocastanum induced by mining of larval stages of Cameraria ohridella influence oviposition by conspecific females.  

PubMed

Larval stages of the horse chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella can completely destroy the surface of horse chestnut leaves, Aesculus hippocastanum. This study investigated the effect of the degree of leaf browning caused by the insect's larvae on olfactory detection, aggregation, and oviposition of C. ohridella adults. The influence of A. hippocastanum flower scent on oviposition of the first generation was also evaluated. Utilizing gas chromatography coupled with parallel detection by mass spectrometry and electroantennography (GC-MS/EAD), more than 30 compounds eliciting responses from antennae of C. ohridella were detected. Oviposition and mining by C. ohridella caused significant changes in the profile of leaf volatiles of A. hippocastanum. After oviposition and subsequent mining by early larval stages (L1-L3), substances such as benzaldehyde, 1,8-cineole, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, methyl salicylate, (E)-beta-caryophyllene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene were emitted in addition to the compounds emitted by uninfested leaves. Insects were able to detect these compounds. The emitted amount of these substances increased with progressive larval development. During late larval stages (L4, L5) and severe loss of green leaf area, (E,E)-2,4-hexadienal, (E/Z)-linalool oxide (furanoid), nonanal, and decanal were also released by leaves. These alterations of the profile of volatiles caused modifications in aggregation of C. ohridella on leaves. In choice tests, leaves in early infestation stages showed no significant effect on aggregation, whereas insects avoided leaves in late infestation stages. Further choice tests with leaves treated with single compounds led to the identification of substances mediating an increase or decrease in oviposition. PMID:17001531

Johne, A Bettina; Weissbecker, Bernhard; Schütz, Stefan

2006-10-01

33

Host tracking or cryptic adaptation? Phylogeography of Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the highly invasive horse-chestnut leafminer  

PubMed Central

Classical biological control is often advocated as a tool for managing invasive species. However, accurate evaluations of parasitoid species complexes and assessment of host specificity are impeded by the lack of morphological variation. Here, we study the possibility of host races/species within the eulophid wasp Pediobius saulius, a pupal generalist parasitoid that parasitize the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella. We analysed the population genetic structure, host associations and phylogeographic patterns of P. saulius in Europe using the COI mitochondrial gene. This marker strongly supports a division into at least five highly differentiated parasitoid complexes, within two of which clades with differing degrees of host specialization were found: a Balkan clade that mainly (but not only) attacks C. ohridella and a more generalist European group that attacks many hosts, including C. ohridella. The divergence in COI (up to 7.6%) suggests the existence of cryptic species, although this is neither confirmed by nuclear divergence nor morphology. We do not find evidence of host tracking. The higher parasitism rates observed in the Balkans and the scarcity of the Balkan–Cameraria haplotypes out of the Balkans open the possibility of using these Balkan haplotypes as biological control agents of C. ohridella elsewhere in Europe.

Hernández-López, Antonio; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Augustin, Sylvie; Lees, David C; Tomov, Rumen; Kenis, Marc; Çota, Ejup; Kullaj, Endrit; Hansson, Christer; Grabenweger, Giselher; Roques, Alain; López-Vaamonde, Carlos

2012-01-01

34

Assessing potential changes of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather conditions play an important role during different phases of the vegetative cycle of the chestnut trees and, consequently, several meteorological parameters seem to be associated chestnut productivity (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992, Cesaraccio et al., 2001, Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007, Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008, Dinis et al., 2011, Pereira et al., 2011). Observed data from European Climate Assessment and simulated data by COSMO-CLM model for the actual (C20) and future (A1B and B1) climate scenarios were used in this study to: (i) assess the model ability to reproduce weather parameters distribution; and, (ii) to assess future changes in the distribution of meteorological parameters which play an important role in the productivity of chestnut for different future periods. Results points to statistical significant changes in the mean and in variance in the future, more prominent in temperature than in precipitation based parameters. Changes in precipitation will be more significant in Northwestern Iberian Peninsula and France in the end of the 21st century for A1B scenario conditions. As expected, more significant changes will be expected to occur during spring and summer, in the Mediterranean areas and in the later period. The number of days with Tmax<28°C will generally decrease in both scenarios, while the changes in the number of days with 24°Cchestnut in Europe, in some areas of production. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: "Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland". Proceedings of the International Chestnut Conference, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 10-14 July 1992, 175-178. Wilczynski, S. And Podlaski, R, 2007: "The effect of climate on radial growth of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland", J.For.Res., 12, 24-23. Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: "Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy", Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Dinis, L.T,Peixoto, F., Pinto, T., Costa, R.Bennett, R. N., and Gomes-Laranjo,J., 2011: "Study of morphological and phonological diversity in chestnut trees (Judia variety) as a function of temperature sum". Environ. Exp Bot., 70, 110-120. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: "Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity". Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. This work was supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692.

Pereira, Mário; Calheiros, Tomas; Pinto, Joaquim; Caramelo, Liliana

2013-04-01

35

Structure-function relationships during secondary phloem development in an angiosperm tree, Aesculus hippocastanum: microtubules and cell walls.  

PubMed

We studied the dynamics of the cortical microtubule (CMT) cytoskeleton during differentiation of axial secondary phloem elements in taproots and epicotyls of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse-chestnut) saplings. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of alpha-tubulin and transmission electron microscopy revealed that fusiform cambial cells possessed a reticulum of CMTs in which individual microtubules were randomly arranged. During differentiation of these cambial cell derivatives into secondary phloem cells, the CMTs were rearranged to become helically oriented, regardless of phloem cell type. Although helical CMTs were a persistent feature of all axial elements of the secondary phloem (sieve elements, companion cells, phloem parenchyma, and fiber-sclereids), some modifications of this arrangement occurred as cells differentiated. Thus, at late stages of cell differentiation, sieve elements possessed nearly transverse CMTs, pronounced bundling of CMTs was seen in phloem parenchyma, and the density of CMTs in the helical arrays of fibers increased markedly. Additionally, phloem parenchyma possessed rings of CMTs in association with developing pit areas. Aspects of the development and chemistry of cell walls were also examined during phloem cytodifferentiation. PMID:12651498

Chaffey, Nigel; Barlow, Peter; Barnett, John

2000-06-01

36

The three-dimensional solution structure of Aesculus hippocastanum antimicrobial protein 1 determined by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance.  

PubMed

Aesculus hippocastanum antimicrobial protein 1 (Ah-AMP1) is a plant defensin isolated from horse chestnuts. The plant defensins have been divided in several subfamilies according to their amino acid sequence homology. Ah-AMP1, belonging to subfamily A2, inhibits growth of a broad range of fungi. So far, a three-dimensional structure has been determined only for members of subfamilies A3 and B2. In order to understand activity and specificity of these plant defensins, the structure of a protein belonging to subfamily A2 is needed. We report the three-dimensional solution structure of Ah-AMP1 as determined from two-dimensional 1H nuclear magnetic resonance data. The structure features all the characteristics of the "cysteine-stabilized alpha beta-motif." A comparison of the structure, the electrostatic potential surface and regions important for interaction with the fungal receptor, is made with Rs-AFP1 (plant defensin of subfamily A3). Thus, residues important for activity and specificity have been assigned. PMID:10591099

Fant, F; Vranken, W F; Borremans, F A

1999-11-15

37

Removal of water turbidity by natural coagulants obtained from chestnut and acorn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of seed extracts of several species of chestnut and acorn to act as natural coagulants was tested using a synthetic turbid water. Active components were extracted from ground seeds of Horse chestnut and acorns of some species of family Fagaceae: Common oak, Turkey oak, Northern red oak and European chestnut. All investigated extracts had coagulation capabilities and their

Marina Š?iban; Mile Klašnja; Mirjana Antov; Biljana Škrbi?

2009-01-01

38

American Chestnut Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annotated slideshow adapted from KET's Electronic Field Trip to the Forest illustrates how blight decimated the American chestnut tree and the methods scientists use to identify and pollinate the remaining trees to create blight-resistant trees.

Ket

2008-09-02

39

Flavonoids from the flowers of Aesculus hippocastanum.  

PubMed

The flavonoids, kaempferol derivatives: 3-O-alpha-arabinofuranoside, 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-O-beta-glucopyranoside and quercetin derivatives: 3-O-alpha-arabinofuranoside, 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-O-beta-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the flowers of Aesculus hippocastanum and identified. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a chemical analysis and spectrophotometric methods (UV, 1H-, 13C-NMR, ESI-MS). The presence of free aglycones: kaempferol and quercetin was confirmed chromatographically by comparison with standards. PMID:21648195

Dudek-Makuch, Marlena; Mat?awska, Irena

2011-01-01

40

Flavonol oligosaccharides from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum.  

PubMed

Nine flavonol oligosides of quercetin and kaempferol with glucose, xylose, and rhamnose as sugars were isolated from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae). Five of them are new compounds (2 trisaccharides, 1 bisdesmoside, a nicotinic and a indolinone hydroxyacetic acid ester of the bisdesmoside). Their structures were elucidated mainly using (1)H- and (13)C-NMR techniques. PMID:17260289

Hübner, G; Wray, V; Nahrstedt, A

1999-10-01

41

Antitumor agents, 82. Cytotoxic sapogenols from Aesculus hippocastanum.  

PubMed

Two cytotoxic sapogenols, the new hippocaesculin (1) and the known barringtogenol-C 21-angelate (2), were isolated from the acid hydrolysis product of a crude saponin fraction that was obtained from the fruits of Aesculus hippocastanum. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined from their chemical transformations and spectral data. Compound 1 is either 21-O-angeloyl, 22-O-tigloyl R1-barrigenol, or 21-O-tigloyl, 22-O-angeloyl R1-barrigenol. PMID:3783160

Konoshima, T; Lee, K H

1986-01-01

42

Frost damage and its cascading negative effects on Aesculus glabra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frost damage and re-foliation are seldom quantified for forest species, but are of ecological and evolutionary importance.\\u000a This study of Aesculus glabra (Ohio buckeye) in a deciduous forest remnant in Illinois, USA, quantified frost damage to leaves and flowers after sub-freezing\\u000a temperatures in April 2007. It also documented re-foliation and later growth, reproduction, and survival in 2007–2009 for\\u000a the 355

Carol K. Augspurger

2011-01-01

43

Comparative Genome Analysis Provides Insights into the Evolution and Adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum  

PubMed Central

A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae), is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae). On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae), isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree. PMID:20419105

Green, Sarah; Studholme, David J.; Laue, Bridget E.; Dorati, Federico; Lovell, Helen; Arnold, Dawn; Cottrell, Joan E.; Bridgett, Stephen; Blaxter, Mark; Huitema, Edgar; Thwaites, Richard; Sharp, Paul M.

2010-01-01

44

Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum.  

PubMed

A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae), is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae). On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae), isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree. PMID:20419105

Green, Sarah; Studholme, David J; Laue, Bridget E; Dorati, Federico; Lovell, Helen; Arnold, Dawn; Cottrell, Joan E; Bridgett, Stephen; Blaxter, Mark; Huitema, Edgar; Thwaites, Richard; Sharp, Paul M; Jackson, Robert W; Kamoun, Sophien

2010-01-01

45

The subcellular distribution and biosynthesis of castaprenols and plastoquinone in the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum.  

PubMed

Intact chloroplasts and cell walls were prepared from horse-chestnut leaves that had previously metabolized [2-(14)C]mevalonate. The bulk of the castaprenols and plastoquinone-9 was found within the chloroplasts. The remaining portion of the castaprenols was associated with the cell-wall preparation whereas that of the plastoquinone-9 was probably localized in the soluble fraction of the plant cell. The (14)C content of these compounds of different cell fractions indicated the presence of polyisoprenoid-synthesizing activity both inside and outside the chloroplasts. This was confirmed by the relative incorporation of (14)C when ultrasonically treated and intact chloroplasts were incubated with [2-(14)C]mevalonate. As the leaves aged (on the tree) an increase in extraplastidic castaprenols and plastoquinone-9, together with associated synthesizing activities, was observed. PMID:6068175

Wellburn, A R; Hemming, F W

1967-07-01

46

The subcellular distribution and biosynthesis of castaprenols and plastoquinone in the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum  

PubMed Central

Intact chloroplasts and cell walls were prepared from horse-chestnut leaves that had previously metabolized [2-14C]mevalonate. The bulk of the castaprenols and plastoquinone-9 was found within the chloroplasts. The remaining portion of the castaprenols was associated with the cell-wall preparation whereas that of the plastoquinone-9 was probably localized in the soluble fraction of the plant cell. The 14C content of these compounds of different cell fractions indicated the presence of polyisoprenoid-synthesizing activity both inside and outside the chloroplasts. This was confirmed by the relative incorporation of 14C when ultrasonically treated and intact chloroplasts were incubated with [2-14C]mevalonate. As the leaves aged (on the tree) an increase in extraplastidic castaprenols and plastoquinone-9, together with associated synthesizing activities, was observed. PMID:6068175

Wellburn, A. R.; Hemming, F. W.

1967-01-01

47

Preliminary Report on the Segregation of Resistance in Chestnuts to Infestation by Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, hybrid chestnuts were planted in North Carolina, (southern U.S.A.), where the introduced insect Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) is present. Of the 93 trees planted, 53 survived 12 years and were evaluated for the presence of Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp infestation. Among the survivors, 11 had no wasp galls and 25 had few galls. Because the female

S. Anagnostakis; S. Clark; H. McNab

48

Information Files for Old Chestnuts and Chestnut Nags  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of an up-to-date information file is discussed, using the quest for the name of Paul Revere's horse as an example. A list of Famous Riders and Their Horses'' is included as an indication of the type material to be included in an information file. (SM)

Fetros, John G.

1973-01-01

49

EXOTICPEST ALERT Horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Desch. & Dem.  

E-print Network

together. This leads to browning and drying of the leaves, which eventually curl upwards and inwards, competition for space and food can be great and many larvae fail to survive. Life Cycle of Cameraria ohridella

50

Horse Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Horse racing, the so-called "sport of kings," has captivated fans for centuries. One reason is the grace and agility of the horses themselves -- when they're running at top speed, they look as if they're flying down the track. In this Science Update, you'll hear how studying horses may help engineers improve human flight in air and space.

Science Update;

2003-05-27

51

Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological conditions play a fundamental role during entire chestnut tree vegetative cycle. Chestnut trees are well adapted to mean year temperatures of 8-15°C, requires monthly mean temperatures greater than 10°C during 6 months (Gomes-Laranjo et al. 2008) and its pollen only germinates at relatively high temperatures of 27-30°C (Bounous, 2002). Photosynthesis of an adult tree is highly dependent of temperature. Photosynthesis is maximal at 24-28°C but it is inhibited for temperatures greater than 32°C (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). Furthermore, there are significant differences between chestnut trees cultivated in northfaced orchads in relation to those cultivated in the southfaced and between leaves from different sides of the chestnut canopy because they receive different amounts of radiant energy and consequently they grow under different mean daily air temperature. The objective of this work was to assess the role of weather on chestnut production variability. This study was performed for the 28 years period defined between 1980 and 2007 and it was based on annual values of chestnut production and total area of production, at national level, provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal. The meteorological data used was provided by Meteored (http://www.meteored.com/) and includes daily values of precipitation, wind speed, and mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. All meteorological variables were tested as potential predictors by means of a simple correlation analysis. Multiple time intervals were considered in this the analysis, which consist in moving intervals of constant length and forward and backward evolutionary intervals. Results show that some meteorological variables present significant correlation with chestnut productivity particularly in the most relevant periods of the chestnut tree cycle, like the previous winter, the flushing phase and the maturation period. A regression model based on the winter (January to March) precipitation, the number of days with maximum temperature between 24°C and 28°C and the number of days of May with minimum temperature below 0°C is able to model the chestnut productivity with r2 equal to 0.79. It should be pointed out that the relation between weather/climate and chestnut productivity may change over time. Finally, it is important to express objectively the effects of temperature and precipitation extremes on the chestnut productivity since temperature is one of the global circulation models predicted variables with less uncertainty. With these tools will be possible to assess the weather related risk on chestnut production as well as infer about evolution of the adequate conditions to the chestnut trees in the actual plantations and about the expansion of this specie. Bounous, G. (2002) "Il castagno" [Chestnut.] - Edagricole, Bologna. [In Ital.] Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955.

Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

2009-04-01

52

Dendroecology of American chestnut in a disjunct stand of oak–chestnut forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) was once an important hardwood species in the for- ests of eastern North America. Following the chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr) pandemic of the early 20th century, C. dentata remains only as sprouts throughout much of its range. We conducted a dendroecological analysis of a large naturalized stand of mature C. dentata

Ryan W. McEwan; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Brian C. McCarthy

2006-01-01

53

Multifactorial inheritance of common white markings in the Arabian horse.  

PubMed

The results of a previous study were compatible with the hypothesis that common white facial markings in the Arabian horse have a multifactorial mode of inheritance. I expanded that study to (1) include the legs and therefore obtain insight into the heritability of common white markings in all peripheral regions (face and legs) of the Arabian horse and (2) investigate the influence of sex and the genotypes that produce the bay and chestnut phenotypes on the variation in common white markings. Both studies were based on computerized data obtained from the Arabian Horse Registry of America, Inc. Each leg of a horse was scored from 0 to 5 depending on the amount of whiteness present, and the four leg scores were added to obtain the total leg score for each horse. The facial region was divided into five areas, and each horse was given a score from 0 to 5 according to the number of areas with whiteness. Sire families were analyzed in which each sire family consisted of a sire, his foals, and the dams of those foals. There was a correlation between white facial scores and white leg scores, suggesting that both types of white markings are influenced by the same genetic mechanism. Sire-foal and dam-foal regression analyses were compatible with the hypothesis that common white leg markings also show multifactorial inheritance. Although the results support the model that additively acting genes (polygenes) influence the presence and extent of common white markings, the results also show that males are slightly more marked than are females and that chestnut horses are more heavily marked than are bay horses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2273238

Woolf, C M

1990-01-01

54

Two methods of assessing the mortality factors affecting the larvae and pupae of Cameraria ohridella in the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum in Switzerland and Bulgaria.  

PubMed

The horse-chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella, is an invasive alien species defoliating horse-chestnut, a popular ornamental tree in Europe. This paper presents quantitative data on mortality factors affecting larvae and pupae of the leaf miner in Switzerland and Bulgaria, both in urban and forest environments. Two sampling methods were used and compared: a cohort method, consisting of the surveying of pre-selected mines throughout their development, and a grab sampling method, consisting of single sets of leaves collected and dissected at regular intervals. The total mortality per generation varied between 14 and 99%. Mortality was caused by a variety of factors, including parasitism, host feeding, predation by birds and arthropods, plant defence reaction, leaf senescence, intra-specific competition and inter-specific competition with a fungal disease. Significant interactions were found between mortality factors and sampling methods, countries, environments and generation. No mortality factor was dominant throughout the sites, generations and methods tested. Plant defence reactions constituted the main mortality factor for the first two larval stages, whereas predation by birds and arthropods and parasitism were more important in older larvae and pupae. Mortality caused by leaf senescence was often the dominant mortality factor in the last annual generation. The cohort method detected higher mortality rates than the grab sampling method. In particular, mortality by plant defence reaction and leaf senescence were better assessed using the cohort method, which is, therefore, recommended for life table studies on leaf miners. PMID:17916263

Girardoz, S; Tomov, R; Eschen, R; Quicke, D L J; Kenis, M

2007-10-01

55

Antifeedants and Feeding Stimulants in Bark Extracts of Ten Woody Non-host Species of the Pine Weevil, Hylobius abietis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a Soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. Species were alder (Alnus glutinosa), aspen (Populus tremula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), holly (Ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (Evonymus europaeus),

Carina Eriksson; Per E. Månsson; Kristina Sjödin; Fredrik Schlyter

2008-01-01

56

Investigation of the photosynthetic activity of bark phelloderm of arboreous plants using the fluorescent method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal changes in the characteristics of chlorophyll fluorescence were studied in the bark of several species of trees originating\\u000a in various climatic zones: Siberian cedar (Pinus sibirica), larch (Larix sibirica), eastern arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis), pendent white birch (Betula pendula), wild black cherry (Padus virginiana), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), red oak (Quercus rubra), Manchurian catalpa (Catalpa bungei), linden (Tilia cordata), goat

A. A. Alekseev; D. N. Matorin; V. A. Osipov; P. S. Venediktov

2007-01-01

57

1. Deodar Cedar (Cedrus deodara)  

E-print Network

f. purpurea) 26. Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) 27. Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera) 28. Swedish. Weeping European White Birch (Betula pendula 'Tristis') 32. English Maple (Acer campestre) 33. Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) 34. Japanese Maple (Acer palmatum) 35. Yoshino Cherry (Prunus x yedoensis

Borenstein, Elhanan

58

The expression of dehydrin proteins in desiccation-sensitive (recalcitrant) seeds of temperate trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins that have homology with dehydrins have been identified immunologically in the desiccationsensitive (recalcitrant)\\u000a seeds of English oak (Quercus robur L.), European chestnut (Castanea sativa L.), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), sycamore (Acer psuedoplatanus L.) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.), and in the desiccation-tolerant seeds of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.). The mRNA for a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA)

W. E. Finch-Savage; S. K. Pramanik; J. D. Bewley

1994-01-01

59

Assessment of the chestnut production weather dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vegetative cycle of chestnut trees is highly dependent on weather. Photosynthesis and pollen germination are mainly conditioned by the air temperature while heavy precipitation and strong wind have significant impacts during the flushing phase period (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). In Portugal, chestnut tree orchads are located in mountainous areas of the Northeast region of Trás-os-Montes, between 600 and 1000 m of altitude. Topography controls the atmospheric environment and assures adequate conditions for the chestnut production. In the above mentioned context, remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise vegetation dynamics. A number of studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in Europe to analyse the year-to-year variations in European vegetation greenness as a function of precipitation and temperature (Gouveia et al., 2008). A previous study focusing on the relationship between meteorological variables and chestnut productivity provides indication that simulation models may benefit from the incorporation of such kind of relationships. The aim of the present work is to provide a detailed description of recent developments, in particular of the added value that may be brought by using satellite data. We have relied on regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset, at 8-km resolution, provided by the Global Inventory Monitoring and Modelling System (GIMMS) group. The data are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR), and cover the period from 1982 to 2006. Additionally we have used the chestnut productivity dataset, which includes the annual values of chestnut production and area of production provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal and the meteorological dataset which includes values of several variables from different providers (Meteorod, NCEP/NCAR, ECA&D and national Meteorological Institute). Results show that satellite and meteorological data are complementary in what respects to the evaluation of the spatial and temporal evolution of the chestnut production. The satellite data proves to be very useful to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the vegetation state in the locations of the chestnut orchads and when tested as potential predictors by means of correlation and regression analysis. Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955. Gouveia C., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C., Libonati R., Pereira J.M.C., 2008b. The North Atlantic Oscillation and European vegetation dynamics. International Journal of Climatology, vol. 28, issue 14, pp. 1835-1847, DOI: 10.1002/joc.1682.

Pereira, Mário; Caramelo, Liliana; Gouveia, Célia; Gomes-Laranjo, José

2010-05-01

60

Trojan Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A Trojan horse is a common type of rogue software. Such a program hides in a computer and has some malicious function. In\\u000a contrast to viruses and worms, Trojans do not replicate. This chapter summarizes the main features of Trojans and also discusses\\u000a how to modify a compiler in a devious way, to make it plant Trojans in programs that

David Salomon

61

Islands of Chestnut Trees Castanea dentata (Marsh) Borkh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to emphasize the importance of conserving the genetic pool of the American chestnut stock. Readers are encouraged to seek sprouts and plant them in islands so they can grow and survive. The authors describe the diseases that have effected the chestnut tree. (PR)

Surrarrer, T. C.; Laurence, J. C.

1992-01-01

62

NH Big Tree of the Month Chestnut Oak, Quercus prinus  

E-print Network

NH Big Tree of the Month Chestnut Oak, Quercus prinus By Anne Krantz - UNH Extension Big Tree Team of white oak. It has taken years to figure out this tree species, as oaks can hybridize or cross pollinate on the Hillsborough Big Tree Team. Recently, I made arrangements to re-measure a chestnut oak growing nearby

New Hampshire, University of

63

97. Catalog B, Higher Plants, 200 2 American Chestnut Tree, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. Catalog B, Higher Plants, 200 2 American Chestnut Tree, Negative No. 6032 (Photographer and date unknown) THIS GHOST FOREST OF BLIGHTED CHESTNUTS ONCE STOOD APPROXIMATELY AT THE LOCATION OF THE BYRD VISITOR CENTER. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

64

Freeze Branding Horses  

E-print Network

Freeze branding of horses has many advantages. It is safe, economical, simple to do and relatively painless. It can be done on horses of any age and does not damage the horse's hide. This publication gives complete, step-by-step instructions...

Householder, Doug; Webb, Gary; Wigington, Sam; Bruemmer, Jason

2001-06-29

65

A modified version of fluctuating asymmetry, potential for the analysis of Aesculus hippocastanum L. compound leaves.  

PubMed

My research interest was to create a new, simple and tractable mathematical framework for analyzing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in Aesculus hippocastanum L. palmately compound leaves (each compound leaf with 7 obviate, serrate leaflets). FA, being random differences in the development of both sides of a bilaterally symmetrical character, has been proposed as an indicator of environmental and genetic stress. In the present paper the well-established Palmer's procedure for FA has been modified to improve the suitability of the chosen index (FA1) to be used in compound leaf asymmetry analysis. The processing steps are described in detail, allowing us to apply these modifications for the other Palmer's indices of FA as well as for the compound leaves of other plant species. PMID:18604782

Velickovic, Miroslava

2008-01-01

66

Horse Genome Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's in a horse? As it turns out, what's in a horse is quite important, and the Horse Genome Project at the University of Kentucky is currently defining the genome of this animal. The Project is a cooperative international effort which involves some 100 scientists working in 20 countries. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors can make their way through five sections, including "The People", "The Horses", "Genomics 101", and "Applications of Genome Study". "The Horses" area is a good place to start, as it gives an overview of the animals being used in the project. In "Genomics 101", interested parties will find an overview of some basic terms used in the field, such as gene, allele, and mutation. The "Applications of Genome Study" area focuses in on how their work will be used to benefit the health and welfare of horses.

67

Male genotype influences seed set and seed size in controlled crosses of American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh] Borhk)  

E-print Network

The fruit of a chestnut tree, a chestnut, is composed of a maternally derived pellicle enclosing a seed trees are resulting in the creation of seed orchards that will produce American chestnut hybrid seed for outplanting (Burnham et al. 1986). Chestnut seed orchards must efficiently produce high-quality seed to meet

68

Chestnuts and Light The Rise and Fall of Champion Chestnut Extract  

E-print Network

This year, your gift to TACF is more important than ever. And this year you can direct your gift into a specific area that you feel is important. Do you have a favorite goal that you want to help TACF achieve? Just indicate on your response envelope that you want your gift to go toward that program. 1 Expanding our Science “The new Price Lab at Meadowview Research Farms will allow us to utilize techniques of modern biology to more quickly and accurately identify superior chestnut genotypes. Our research will also help us answer fundamental questions about how the blight fungus attacks and kills chestnuts, as well as offering us a window into how blight resistance functions. Exploring the molecular genetics of the blight fungus and integrating it with similar data on the host can help us to identify the specific genes for resistance, which would represent a huge step forward in our understanding. Our needs this year include $107,000 to fund ongoing research.” – Dr. Fred Hebard Dr. Fred Hebard is TACF’s chief scientist and is responsible for the breeding and science programs carried out at

unknown authors

69

Evaluation of secondary dispersal in a large-seeded tree Aesculus turbinata: a test of directed dispersal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the several hypotheses on selective advantage of seed dispersal, the directed dispersal hypothesis explains the advantage of non-random seed transportation by animals to particular patch type suitable for offspring establishment. We tested this hypothesis in dispersal of a large-seeded, rodent-dispersed tree (Aesculus turbinata) in a temperate forest. We investigated the change in location of seeds through secondary dispersal, and

Kazuhiko Hoshizaki; Wajirou Suzuki; Tohru Nakashizuka

1999-01-01

70

2006 Eastern National 4-H Horse Bowl 1 C1 Q. At what age do the permanent 3rd or corner incisors erupt?  

E-print Network

rd or corner incisors erupt? A. 4 1/2 years S. HIH 240-1 430/2 2 C2 Q. Night eyes are a common name Attached 20 Q. (Two Part) When considering vision, where are the horse's two blind spots? A. Directly of the medieval charger breed, its color is all shades of chestnut, and it originated in Suffolk County, England

New Hampshire, University of

71

NATURE: Horse and Rider  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site is the online companion to the recent PBS NATURE documentary "Horse and Rider," which "explores a fascinating partnership between animal and human." Click on For Teachers on the main Web page to find an interdisciplinary lesson plan for grades 9-12. The lesson, titled Creating the "Perfect" Horse, has students study horse biology and behavior, explore the reasons why different horse breeds were developed, and analyze research findings to determine if breeding an all-purpose horse is practical or even possible. The lesson plan provides downloadable worksheets, and the main Web page contains some fun special features, including video clips. This site is also reviewed in the September 19, 2003 NSDL Life Sciences Report.

72

Dynamics of Cryphonectria hypovirus infection in chestnut blight cankers.  

PubMed

Virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica cause lethal bark cankers on chestnut trees. Infection of C. parasitica with Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Europe biologically controls this disease, leading to nonlethal and inactive cankers. Unexpectedly, virus-free C. parasitica strains have been isolated from inactive cankers. In this study, we compared the virulence of virus-infected and virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from either inactive or active cankers on chestnut seedlings and sprouts. In the seedling experiment, we assessed canker growth and seedling mortality. In the sprout experiment, we also assessed canker growth and made fungal reisolations to determine virus infection and immigration of foreign vegetative compatibility (vc) types over a period of 13 years in a coppice forest. Overall, the virulence of virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from inactive versus active cankers did not differ. Significant differences were only attributed to virus infection. Virus infection and fungal strain composition in cankers changed over time. Foreign vc types immigrated into cankers and virus-free cankers became virus-infected within a few years. Most of the cankers were callused over time and became inactive. However, we observed that the virus did not always persist in these cankers. This study demonstrates that virus spread occurs effectively in European chestnut forests and that this biocontrol system is highly dynamic. PMID:24601984

Bryner, Sarah Franziska; Prospero, Simone; Rigling, Daniel

2014-09-01

73

American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) Response to Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands Inoculation Under Varying Substrate pH and Potential Methods to Enhance Resistance Upon Outplanting  

E-print Network

American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) Response to Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands The pending reintroduction of American chestnut poses numerous challenges due to limitations in the knowledge as potential sites for deployment of blight- resistant American chestnut hybrids, specific knowledge

74

ANTIPROTEINS IN HORSE SERA  

PubMed Central

1. Two horses were injected subcutaneously with alum-precipitated rabbit serum albumin. 2. The resulting antibody resembled diphtheria antitoxin and anti-egg albumin in the horse in giving a sharp zone of flocculation with antigen, in being water-soluble, in reactivity toward an anti-antibody rabbit serum, and in its electrophoretic properties. 3. The effect of continued immunization, and of variation in volume and temperature on the reactivity of the antibody are discussed. 4. Intravenous injection of the same antigen into horses did not give rise to detectable amounts of antibody of the same type. PMID:19871668

Treffers, Henry P.; Heidelberger, Michael; Freund, Jules

1947-01-01

75

Hoof Comfort for Horses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

2002-01-01

76

Discrimination learning in horses  

E-print Network

foot preference to initiate the walk and 235 showed lead preference at the gallop. However, gei ral preferences between r'. ght or left for all behaviors were inconsistent. Grzimek (1968) also trained horses to select the correct goal box... foot preference to initiate the walk and 235 showed lead preference at the gallop. However, gei ral preferences between r'. ght or left for all behaviors were inconsistent. Grzimek (1968) also trained horses to select the correct goal box...

Yeates, B. F

2012-06-07

77

Observational learning in horses  

E-print Network

OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING IN HORSES A Thesis by KATHERINE LOUISE BAER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Animal... Science OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING IN HORSES A Thesis by KATHERINE LOUISE BAER Approved as to style and content by: L7 . 5+~ (Chairma of . C mmittee) ) c r (Mem ) YiNicc CJ ~- (Membeh) (Head of Department May 1979 ABSTRACT Observational...

Baer, Katherine Louise

2012-06-07

78

Ectomycorrhizal characterization of an American chestnut ( Castanea dentata ) -dominated community in Western Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circa 1900, a farmer from the eastern US planted 11 American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seeds on a newly established farm near West Salem in western Wisconsin. These trees were very successful, producing a large\\u000a stand of over 6,000 trees. Since this area is well outside the natural range of chestnut, these trees remained free from chestnut\\u000a blight until 1987. In

Jonathan M. Palmer; Daniel L. Lindner; Thomas J. Volk

2008-01-01

79

75 FR 59258 - Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2568-000] Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate...

2010-09-27

80

78 FR 36769 - Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1641-000] Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC's application for market-based...

2013-06-19

81

Chestnut Species and Jasmonic Acid Treatment Influence Development and Community Interactions of Galls Produced by the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus  

PubMed Central

Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant—signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA– inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses. PMID:22233098

Cooper, William R.; Rieske, Lynne K.

2011-01-01

82

Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.  

PubMed

Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses. PMID:22233098

Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

2011-01-01

83

Pneumocephalus in five horses.  

PubMed

Pneumocephalus is occasionally encountered in horses but poorly described in the literature. The study aimed to describe historical, clinical and diagnostic imaging findings and outcome in horses to increase the awareness and recognition of the condition amongst equine practitioners, allowing appropriate management of these cases. Cases of pneumocephalus from 4 participating institutions were identified and case details extracted from the medical records. Five cases of pneumocephalus were identified. Head trauma with suspected or confirmed fractures of the sinuses was the underlying cause in 4 cases, while the remaining horse was thought to have developed pneumocephalus secondary to sinusitis or trauma. Diagnosis was established radiographically in 4 cases and by computed tomography in a fifth. Gas was noted between the cranial vault and the brain, in the lateral ventricles, in the brain parenchyma and within the cranial cervical canal. The gas accumulation resolved gradually in all horses and did not appear independently to result in neurological compromise. Long-term outcome was available for 3 cases, 2 of which were ultimately subjected to euthanasia due to neurological deficits. Pneumocephalus is a possible consequence of head trauma or sinusitis in horses; although the finding is frequently incidental, it has the potential to develop into a life-threatening complication. Imaging the complete skull and cranial cervical spine is important to allow identification and appropriate management of these cases. The use of computed tomography enables easier identification and localisation of the gas accumulation within the central nervous system. PMID:23094967

Dunkel, B; Corley, K T T; Johnson, A L; Witte, T H; Leitch, M; Marr, C M; Weller, R

2013-05-01

84

Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

Pridnya, M. V.; Cherpakov, V. V.; Paillet, F. L.

1996-01-01

85

Artificially dehydrated lucerne for horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificially dehydrated lucerne produced in the United Kingdom has been shown to be a better source of nutrients for horses than grass hay. Horses eat more lucerne when it is pelleted, and the processing has little effect on its nutritive value. Lucerne does not appear to contain any antinutritional factors of significance to horses. Lucerne contains readily available calcium and

D Cuddeford

1994-01-01

86

Feeding the Arena Performance Horse  

E-print Network

..............................................................................8 Vitamins ............................................................................8 Minerals ............................................................................11 How to feed for best performance............12 Balanced rations...; The Texas A&M University System. a73 Workloads required of timed-event horses, hunters, jumpers and many cattle-working events can be characterized as ?moderate? work. These horses may require 50 percent more energy than idle horses. a73 Workloads required...

Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.; Scott, Brett D.

2003-11-04

87

Ectomycorrhizal inoculum potential of northeastern U.S. forest soils for American chestnut: results from field and laboratory bioassays  

EPA Science Inventory

American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once a dominant overstory tree in the eastern United States but was decimated by chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica). Blight resistant chestnut is being developed as part of a concerted restoration effort to bring this heritage tree...

88

Resource limitation in natural populations of phytophagous insects. A long-term study case with the chestnut weevil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chestnut weevil, Curculio elephas (Gyll.), is a non-outbreaking species whose populations and food resources, the European chestnut, Castanea sativa, can be precisely defined. Thirteen and 17 generations of this insect were studied in two isolated sites. Field observations and experiments allowed us to estimate the absolute abundance, availability and use of chestnuts for weevil oviposition, and the number of weevil females emerging per site. Unavailable chestnuts were defined as the fruits either infested first by the chestnut moth ( Cydia splendana) larvae (because of competition between the two species) or those avoided by chestnut weevil females when selecting their egg-laying sites, independently of chestnut moth presence. From a third to a half of the chestnuts were not available on the average for weevil infestation. Only one-fourth, on the average, of those available for oviposition were actually used by chestnut weevil females. Regardless of year and site, the number of available chestnuts per weevil female was higher than that of weevil-infested fruits per female, considering global food resources independently of their temporal variation in quality. However, realized fecundity of weevil females was positively correlated with the mean number of available chestnuts per female. We concluded that food resources can be limiting without being fully exploited by females because of temporal variation in chestnut quality.

Debouzie, Domitien; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Oberli, Frantz; Menu, Frédéric

2002-03-01

89

Chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus): spreading in Italy and new records in Bologna province  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu poses one of the most serious threats to chestnut cultivation in the world. After Asia and North America this pest may be spreading throughout Europe. In Italy, as a result of the movement of in- fested plant material, the natural ability of the species in spreading, and due to the uninterrupted continuity of

Ignazio GRAZIOSI; Fabrizio SANTI

90

Composition of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and association with health effects: fresh and processed products.  

PubMed

Chestnut fruits are highly regarded and widely consumed throughout Europe, America and Asia. Various commercial forms are available, e.g. fresh and industrially processed. There have been various reviews on the composition of chestnut fruits but there has not been a comprehensive review of the different health benefits that this fruit can provide. This review is focused on the composition and associated health effects of European fresh chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and their home-processed and industrial products, e.g. boiled, roasted, frozen, and 'marron glacées'. We also expand the knowledge of chestnut uses by presenting data for other chestnut materials that have potential applications as new foods, as sources of antioxidants, and as sources of other useful bioactives. There is considerable literature data on nutrients in fresh chestnut fruits but less information on bioactive non-nutrients such as phenolics. Chestnuts are mostly consumed as processed forms, and the different types of processing clearly affect the nutrient and non-nutrient composition of the fruits. The benefits that this fruit can provide for human and animal health are numerous, but it is clear that improvements can be made for both production and quality of chestnut products, e.g. genetic selection and optimizing industrial processing. PMID:20564434

De Vasconcelos, Maria C B M; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira-Cardoso, Jorge V

2010-08-15

91

Survey of the incidence of chestnut rot in south-eastern L. A. Shuttleworth & E. C. Y. Liew & D. I. Guest  

E-print Network

) and C. crenata (Japanese chestnut) Ã? C. sativa hybrids is a significant problem facing the Australian) and hybrids of C. cren- ata Ã? C. sativa (Japanese chestnut Ã? European chestnut). Chestnut rot is a significant. Shuttleworth (*) :E. C. Y. Liew The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, Mrs Macquaries Rd, Sydney, NSW 2000

92

Vitamin E profile as a reliable authenticity discrimination factor between chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars.  

PubMed

In this study, the profile of tocopherols and tocotrienols in chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill.) kernel oil was evaluated. Four Portuguese chestnut varieties were selected: Aveleira, Boaventura, Judia, and Longal. The vitamin E determination had already been applied to similar matrices, but, to the authors' knowledge, it is the first time that chestnut kernel oil has been evaluated. The prevalent vitamer was gamma-tocopherol, often present in trace amounts in other natural products. Due to the high commercial value of chestnut, a statistical analysis of the obtained results was also conducted to define the tocopherol and tocotrienol profile as a reliable indicator of a specific chestnut variety. To achieve this objective, an analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the method as well as the uniformity of results for each variety. A discriminant analysis was also carried out revealing quite satisfactory results. Four varieties were clustered in four individual groups through the definition of two discriminant analysis dimensions. PMID:19489539

Barreira, João C M; Alves, Rita C; Casal, Susana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto

2009-06-24

93

Hay Days: The Horse in Iowa History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Goldfinch" introduces young children to various facets of Iowa history. Each issue has a specific topic, and a number of articles covering different aspects of the topic being addressed. This particular issue focuses on horses. Featured articles discuss historical uses of horses, an Iowa child who owns a quarter horse, show horses, and horses

Frese, Millie K., Ed.

1998-01-01

94

A missense mutation in PMEL17 is associated with the Silver coat color in the horse  

PubMed Central

Background The Silver coat color, also called Silver dapple, in the horse is characterized by dilution of the black pigment in the hair. This phenotype shows an autosomal dominant inheritance. The effect of the mutation is most visible in the long hairs of the mane and tail, which are diluted to a mixture of white and gray hairs. Herein we describe the identification of the responsible gene and a missense mutation associated with the Silver phenotype. Results Segregation data on the Silver locus (Z) were obtained within one half-sib family that consisted of a heterozygous Silver colored stallion with 34 offspring and their 29 non-Silver dams. We typed 41 genetic markers well spread over the horse genome, including one single microsatellite marker (TKY284) close to the candidate gene PMEL17 on horse chromosome 6 (ECA6q23). Significant linkage was found between the Silver phenotype and TKY284 (? = 0, z = 9.0). DNA sequencing of PMEL17 in Silver and non-Silver horses revealed a missense mutation in exon 11 changing the second amino acid in the cytoplasmic region from arginine to cysteine (Arg618Cys). This mutation showed complete association with the Silver phenotype across multiple horse breeds, and was not found among non-Silver horses with one clear exception; a chestnut colored individual that had several Silver offspring when mated to different non-Silver stallions also carried the exon 11 mutation. In total, 64 Silver horses from six breeds and 85 non-Silver horses from 14 breeds were tested for the exon 11 mutation. One additional mutation located in intron 9, only 759 bases from the missense mutation, also showed complete association with the Silver phenotype. However, as one could expect to find several non-causative mutations completely associated with the Silver mutation, we argue that the missense mutation is more likely to be causative. Conclusion The present study shows that PMEL17 causes the Silver coat color in the horse and enable genetic testing for this trait. PMID:17029645

Brunberg, Emma; Andersson, Leif; Cothran, Gus; Sandberg, Kaj; Mikko, Sofia; Lindgren, Gabriella

2006-01-01

95

Horse madness (hippomania) and hippophobia.  

PubMed

Anthropophagic horses have been described in classical mythology. From a current perspective, two such instances are worth mentioning and describing: Glaucus of Potniae, King of Efyra, and Diomedes, King of Thrace, who were both devoured by their horses. In both cases, the horses' extreme aggression and their subsequent anthropophagic behaviour were attributed to their madness (hippomania) induced by the custom of feeding them with flesh. The current problem of 'mad cow' disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is apparently related to a similar feed pattern. Aggressive behaviour in horses can be triggered by both biological and psychological factors. In the cases cited here, it is rather unlikely that the former were the cause. On the other hand, the multiple abuses imposed on the horses, coupled with people's fantasies and largely unconscious fears (hippophobia), may possibly explain these mythological descriptions of 'horse-monsters'. PMID:16482685

Papakostas, Yiannis G; Daras, Michael D; Liappas, Ioannis A; Markianos, Manolis

2005-12-01

96

Effects of escin mixture from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum on obesity in mice fed a high fat diet.  

PubMed

Escins, a triterpene glycoside mixture obtained from the ethanol extract of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae) seed, was evaluated for its in vivo effects on the plasma levels of some hormones (leptin, insulin, FT(3), FT(4)) and biochemical parameters (glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C concentrations) in mice fed with a high fat diet for 5 weeks. A high fat diet induced a remarkable increment in the plasma leptin (p <0.01), total cholesterol (p <0.01) and LDL-C (p <0.001) concentrations compared to control group animals. Combined administration of a high-fat diet with escins decreased leptin (31.6%) (p<0.05) and FT(4) (36.0%) (p<0.05) levels, increased HDL-C concentration (17.0%), while remained ineffective on LDL-C concentration in mice. Results have shown that escins may have beneficial effects in the understanding of obesity. PMID:20645808

Avci, Gülcan; Küçükkurt, Ismail; Küpeli Akkol, Esra; Ye?ilada, Erdem

2010-03-01

97

The Trojan Horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Doureios Hippos or the Trojan Horse was the huge wooden structure, built by the Achaeans on Odysseus’ suggestion, hiding a\\u000a number of fully armed select warriors inside. The Greeks, pretending to depart and give up Troy’s siege, left it before the\\u000a city walls as offering to the gods. The Trojans, discovering the “offering”, had intense arguments: the suspicious ones maintained

S. A. Paipetis

98

Coagulopathies in horses.  

PubMed

Although primary coagulopathies are rare in horses, changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis are commonly associated with inflammatory diseases. A clear understanding of the pathophysiology of normal and abnormal hemostasis is required to be able to choose and interpret diagnostic tests evaluating coagulation and fibrinolysis. After diagnosis, treatment of the underlying disease must occur regardless of whether clinical manifestations (excessive bleeding or thrombosis) of the coagulopathy are present or not. Specific treatment may be initiated if there are clinical signs of coagulopathy. PMID:25016501

Epstein, Kira L

2014-08-01

99

Tannin analysis of chestnut bark samples (Castanea sativa Mill.) by HPLC-DAD-MS.  

PubMed

In the present investigation, an HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS method for the complete analysis of tannins and other phenolic compounds of different commercial chestnut bark samples was developed. A total of seven compounds (vescalin, castalin, gallic acid, vescalagin, 1-O-galloyl castalagin, castalagin and ellagic acid) were separated and quantified, being 1-O-galloyl castalagin tentatively identified and found for the first time in chestnut bark samples. Thus, this method provided information regarding the composition and quality of chestnut bark samples, which is required since these samples are commercialised due to their biochemical properties as ingredients of food supplements. PMID:24679783

Comandini, Patrizia; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

2014-08-15

100

[Prevalence of hereditary diseases in three-year-old horses of the Freiberger breed].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate clinical signs indicating diseases with known or suspected hereditary components like equine sarcoid, insect bite hypersensitivity, osteochondrosis, allergic airway diseases, podotrochleosis, prognatism and wind-sucking in the franches-montagnes horse. We performed a clinical examination on 702 three-year-old, privately owned franches-montagnes horses, which were shown at the Swiss-Field-Tests in 2004. With the help of the owners a questionnaire on health, environment and feeding habits of the animals was completed. In 11.9% of the horses, sarcoids were detected, 6.2% carried one tumor and 5.7% had several. The prevalence was higher in chestnuts (16.6%) than in bays (10.1%). The prevalence of sarcoids in offspring from sires with known sarcoids (data from Station-Tests 1994-2005) was not significantly higher than in descendants from stallions without a known history of sarcoids. Clinical signs of insect bite hypersensitivity were only found in six horses (0.9%). In 12.0% hoof abnormalities like brittle horn, ring hoofs or hoof cracks of different degrees were recorded. The angle between hoof base and hoof wall was 56.7 +/- 0.1 degrees, the average hoof width was 13.7 +/- 0.3 cm in the front feet. For both of these measures we found no significant difference between left and right feet. With the exception of a high sarcoid prevalence, our results indicate that the franches-montagnes horse is a healthy breed overall. PMID:17461390

Mele, M; Gerber, V; Straub, R; Gaillard, C; Jallon, L; Burger, D

2007-04-01

101

Annual Report, September 2013 27 How a Flower Becomes a Chestnut  

E-print Network

ecologi- cal, economic, and cultural importance in southern Europe, Anatolia, the Caucasus Mountains and Korea, European or Sweet chestnut (C. sativa Mill.) is found in Europe, Anatolia, and the Caucasus

102

Venous aneurysm in a horse.  

PubMed

Venous aneurysm was diagnosed in a 3-year-old horse, using contrast radiography and acid-base analysis of blood samples taken simultaneously from the right jugular vein and a swelling in the right mandibular angle. Attempted surgical correction was followed by rupture of the right maxillary vein. Hemorrhagic shock developed, and the horse died. PMID:1158779

Hilbert, B J; Rendano, V T

1975-09-01

103

Optimal clutch size of the chestnut gall-wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Optimal clutch size of the chestnut gall-wasp,Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), was examined in galls on wild and resistant chestnut trees in 1988 and 1989. The rate\\u000a of escape success of newly-emerged adults from galls was an average of 60%, irrespective of cell numbers per gall. Dry mass\\u000a per cell of a gall (as an index of nutritive condition) decreased

Kazutaka Kato; Naoki Hijii

1993-01-01

104

Parasitoid Recruitment to the Globally Invasive Chestnut Gall Wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a global pest of chestnut (Castanea). Established as a pest in the mid 20th century in Japan, Korea and the USA, this species has now reached Europe. Successful\\u000a deployment of a biocontrol agent, Torymus sinensis, in Japan has led to its early release in Italy. Here we provide the first overview of the

Alexandra Aebi; Karsten Schönrogge; George Melika; Alberto Alma; Giovanni Bosio; Ambra Quacchia; Luca Picciau; Yoshihisa Abe; Seichii Moriya; Kaori Yara; Gabrijel Seljak; Graham N. Stone

105

Volatile composition of oak and chestnut woods used in brandy ageing: Modification induced by heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile composition (26 compounds) of seven different types of wood (6 oaks and 1 chestnut), used in brandy ageing, were studied by GC–MS and the modification induced by the heat treatment, that occurs during the barrel making, was evaluated. Some of these compounds are identified for the first time, namely the 4-hydroxy-2-butenoic acid lactone in oak and chestnut wood,

Ilda Caldeira; M. C. Clímaco; R. Bruno de Sousa; A. P. Belchior

2006-01-01

106

Non-target effects of transgenic blight-resistant American chestnut (Fagales: Fagaceae) on insect herbivores.  

PubMed

American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen], a canopy dominant species across wide swaths of eastern North America, was reduced to an understory shrub after introduction of the blight fungus [Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr] in the early 1900s. Restoration of American chestnut by using biotechnology is promising, but the imprecise nature of transgenesis may inadvertently alter tree phenotype, thus potentially impacting ecologically dependent organisms. We quantified effects of genetic engineering and fungal inoculation of trees on insect herbivores by using transgenic American chestnuts expressing an oxalate oxidase gene and wild-type American and Chinese (C. mollissima Blume) chestnuts. Of three generalist folivores bioassayed, only gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] was affected by genetic modification, exhibiting faster growth on transgenic than on wild-type chestnuts, whereas growth of polyphemus moth [Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer)] differed between wild-type species, and fall webworm [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)] performed equally on all trees. Inoculation of chestnuts with blight fungus had no effect on the growth of two herbivores assayed (polyphemus moth and fall webworm). Enhanced fitness of gypsy moth on genetically modified trees may hinder restoration efforts if this invasive herbivore's growth is improved because of transgene expression. PMID:22251697

Post, K H; Parry, D

2011-08-01

107

Horse Pastures For Texas.  

E-print Network

of annual warm?season pastures is they produce a large volume of high quality forage over a short period. Perennial Cool-Season Pastures Only a limited variety of perennial or permanent cool? season grasses can be utilized in Texas. In the west... and northwest section of the state, tall wheat grass is forage that can provide high quality pastures for horses. While this is a cool-season perennial grass, the extremely low temperatures of mid-winter make it a major producer during the late winter...

Dorsett, Donald J.; Householder, D. Douglas

1986-01-01

108

Horse Hoof Protectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power Pads, shown here, were designed to support and cushion horses' hooves while walking, rurning, and jumping, thus reducing the risk of injury. The pads utilize magnets implanted in the pads to increase blood circulation, not only reducing the chance of injury, but also speeding up the healing process if an injury does occur. Marshall Space Flight Center materials engineer Deborah Dianne Schmidt and materials technician Anthony Schaffer contributed to the design by providing fatigue stress analysis to the prototypes, thus helping determine the best configuration and maximum durability.

2004-01-01

109

Mushroom toxicity in a horse with meningioangiomatosis.  

PubMed

We describe a fatal case of mushroom intoxication in an 18-y-o horse presumably due to Amanita verna. Horses are normally regarded as too fastidious to eat the ill-flavored toadstools. In this case, the horse had a rare benign brain tumor, meningioangiomatosis, which may have altered the horse's normal eating behavior resulting in consumption of the mushrooms. PMID:10839323

Frazier, K; Liggett, A; Hines, M; Styer, E

2000-06-01

110

Horse Evolution Geology 331Geology 331  

E-print Network

Horse Evolution Geology 331Geology 331 Paleontology #12;Horses #12;Equus caballus #12;#12;Equus;EquusMerychippusMiohippusHyracotherium Hind feet left, front feet right. #12;Hyracotherium or Eohippus;MerychippusMerychippus from the MioceneMiocene, a plains grazer #12;The modern horseThe modern horse Equus

Kammer, Thomas

111

Texas 4-H Horse Quiz Bowl Supplement  

E-print Network

Texas 4-H HORSE Quiz Bowl Supplement 4-H 3-2.031 8-99 A. Nutrition Question: What are feces? Answer: The waste matter of digestion Source: ?Horse Science? Page number: 25 Division: Both A. Nutrition Question: Name three of the five types... of nutrients a horse needs. Answer: Energy nutrients, proteins, vitamins, min- erals and water Source: ?Horse Science? Page number: 26 Division: Senior A. Nutrition Question: What is the main energy nutrient? Answer: Carbohydrate Source: ?Horse Science? Page...

Howard, Jeff W.

1999-09-28

112

78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the Horse Protection Act. This document corrects...National Coordinator, Animal Care, APHIS, 4700 River...of the Horse Protection Act. We established the minimum...Subjects in 9 CFR Part 11 Animal welfare, Horses, Reporting...

2013-05-09

113

Horse Theft Awareness and Prevention - Identification of Horses  

E-print Network

Permanently identifying horses can deter theft and help prove ownership. This publication discusses hot-iron branding, freeze branding, electronic identification, lip tattoos, and using photographs, illustrations, parentage verification and brand...

Gibbs, Pete G.; Wall, Leman H.; Householder, Doug

1998-08-12

114

Effect of cooking on total vitamin C contents and antioxidant activity of sweet chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).  

PubMed

In this work the total vitamin C contents (ascorbic acid+dehydroascorbic acid) and antioxidant activity of raw and cooked chestnuts was evaluated. The vitamin C contents of raw chestnuts varied significantly between the different cultivars (cv) studied and it varied from 400mg/kg dry weight (cv Lada) to 693mg/kg dry weight (cv Martaínha). The different cultivars behave differently during the cooking process concerning the loss of vitamin C. A significant decrease in the vitamin C content of the chestnuts was observed, 25-54% for the boiling process and 2-77% for the roasting process. Boiled and roasted chestnuts can be good sources of vitamin C since it may represent 22.4%, 16.2%, 26.8% and 19.4%, respectively, of the recommended dietary intake for an adult man and woman. The cooking process significantly changed the antioxidant activity of the chestnuts. A difference was observed between the cultivars during the cooking processes, concerning the antioxidant activity. For the raw chestnuts the variation in vitamin C content of the chestnuts explains 99% of the antioxidant activity variation but for the roasted and boiled chestnuts this percentage significantly decreases to 51% and 88%, respectively. Although a high antioxidant activity is still present in the cooked chestnuts, the cause for this antioxidant activity is less dependent on the vitamin C content of the chestnuts, probably due to the conversion of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. The increase in gallic acid during the cooking process, presumably transferred from the peels to the fruit, also contributes to the high antioxidant activity observed for the cooked chestnuts. PMID:25214344

Barros, Ana I R N A; Nunes, Fernando M; Gonçalves, Berta; Bennett, Richard N; Silva, Ana Paula

2011-09-01

115

Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

Not Available

1993-09-01

116

Artificially dehydrated lucerne for horses.  

PubMed

Artificially dehydrated lucerne produced in the United Kingdom has been shown to be a better source of nutrients for horses than grass hay. Horses eat more lucerne when it is pelleted, and the processing has little effect on its nutritive value. Lucerne does not appear to contain any antinutritional factors of significance to horses. Lucerne contains readily available calcium and protein and can thus be used as a cereal-balancer or to upgrade poor quality roughages. Because lucerne is a good source of digestible nutrients it has therapeutic applications, including the correction of electrolyte imbalances and hoof horn problems, and it can be used for intragastric nutrition and for feeding old horses. PMID:7846834

Cuddeford, D

1994-10-29

117

9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93.325 ...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry...

2010-01-01

118

9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311 Section 93.311 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses...

2010-01-01

119

9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section 93.322 Animals...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

2010-01-01

120

Displacement of Torymus beneficus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) by T. sinensis, an indigenous and introduced parasitoid of the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), in Japanese chestnut fields: Possible involvement in hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is empirical knowledge to suggest the displacement of Torymus beneficus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) by Torymus sinensis, an indigenous and introduced parasitoid of the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), respectively, in Japanese chestnut fields, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, the displacement of the early-spring strain of T. beneficus by T. sinensis was surveyed in a

Kaori Yara; Terunori Sasawaki; Yasuhisa Kunimi

2007-01-01

121

My Kingdom for a Horse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Heavenly Horse" is a work of art revered for its spirit, strength, and beauty. It is a symbol of military might and political power. The size of the object suggests that it was made for an important person. Impressive as he is, this horse was not created as an art object. He was found in the tomb of an influential person. Scholars do not know…

King, Judith

2004-01-01

122

19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10...Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned;...

2010-04-01

123

Toward development of silvical strategies for forest restoration of American chestnut ( Castanea dentata) using blight-resistant hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backcross breeding has provided a viable means to restore American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) to eastern North American forests, where the foundation species was essentially extirpated by an introduced pathogen. With the prospect of American chestnut reintroduction imminent, it is critical to formulate restoration strategies based on the ecology and silvics of the species, operational confines, social or policy

Douglass F. Jacobs

2007-01-01

124

Mature, Senior and Geriatric Horses: Management, Care and Use  

E-print Network

Texas is home to about 1 million horses, the majority of them working horses, competitive event horses and pleasure/recreational riding horses. For owners of horses that have completed their growth, knowing how to take care of their older horses can...

Martin, M. T.; Scrutchfield, W. L.; Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.

2005-04-18

125

Salicylic acid inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) by competitively inhibiting polyphenol oxidase.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of salicylic acid (SA) on the browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut were investigated. Shelled and sliced chestnuts were immersed in different concentrations of an SA solution, and the browning of the chestnut surface and interior were inhibited. The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) extracted from chestnuts were measured in the presence and absence of SA. SA at concentrations higher than 0.3g/L delayed chestnut browning by significantly inhibiting the PPO activity (P<0.01), and the POD activity was not significantly affected (P>0.05). The binding and inhibition modes of SA with PPO and POD, determined by AUTODOCK 4.2 and Lineweaver-Burk plots, respectively, established SA as a competitive inhibitor of PPO. PMID:25308637

Zhou, Dan; Li, Lin; Wu, Yanwen; Fan, Junfeng; Ouyang, Jie

2015-03-15

126

Assessing the effects of gamma irradiation and storage time in energetic value and in major individual nutrients of chestnuts.  

PubMed

Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is an important food resource all over the world. In the present study, it is intended to evaluate if the application of gamma irradiation doses ? 3 kGy maintain chestnuts chemical and nutritional profiles unaffected. Furthermore, possible interactions among irradiation dose and storage time were accessed using linear discriminate analysis (LDA). The nutritional composition was evaluated through determination of proteins, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. The chemical composition was focused in the main nutrients found in chestnuts: sugars - sucrose, fatty acids - palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, tocopherols - ?-tocopherol. The obtained results seem to indicate that the irradiation treatment did not affect the nutritional and chemical quality of chestnut fruits. Otherwise, storage time exerted more evident influence in those parameters. The application of gamma irradiation emerges as a promising technology for chestnuts chemical quality, but food safety issues have to be evaluated in order to recommend its application as a useful conservation alternative. PMID:21740949

Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-09-01

127

American Museum of Natural History: The Horse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online exhibit that accompanied "The Horse" at American Museum of Natural History is quite informative and useful. Visitors who are not necessarily that interested in horses, may just be won over by this beautiful and educational online exhibit. The "Evolution of Horses" link explains how horses evolved from being multi-toed to single-toed, and how horses as small as a dog, and larger horses, coexisted. Visitors will find the "Horses and Hunters" link dispels the myth about the hunting tactic of Ice Age people that involved corralling the horses to the edge of a cliff and forcing them to jump off to their deaths. Visitors shouldn't miss the subcategories of "Horses and Hunters", as there is much information here, along with great photos of European cave paintings depicting horses. Horses appear more often than any other animal in European cave paintings. The "Epilogue" shows the influence of horses around the world, by showing toy horses from Afghanistan, India, Japan, Italy, Canada, and North America.

128

Dispersion of Horse Allergen from Stables and Areas with Horses into Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: To protect susceptible subjects from exposure to horse allergen, a Swedish national report recommended a distance of at least 500 m between homes and stables and other areas with horses. The aim of this project was to study indoor and outdoor levels of horse allergen in relation to distance from stables and horse tracks. Methods: Indoor and outdoorsamples were

G. Emenius; A.-S. Merritt; B. Härfast

2009-01-01

129

Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use  

PubMed Central

In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption. Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample’s protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal. PMID:18763299

Gounga, Mahamadou E.; Xu, Shi-ying; Wang, Zhang

2008-01-01

130

Behavioral problems in Italian saddle horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out in 25 riding centers to evaluate the prevalence of behavioral problems among saddle horses and to investigate the relationship between these and individual traits, training and management of the affected horses. Seven percent of the 650 horses examined had some kind of behavioral problems, and crib-biting was the most frequent. These behavioral problems seemed to

Simona Normando; Elisabetta Canali; Valentina Ferrante; Marina Verga

2002-01-01

131

Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses.  

PubMed

Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses. PMID:24489393

Ohmes, Cameon M; Davis, Elizabeth G; Beard, Laurie A; Vander Werf, Karie A; Bianco, Alex W; Giger, Urs

2014-02-01

132

Feeding Young Horses For Sound Development  

E-print Network

Horse owners must decide whether their young horses will be fed for moderate or rapid growth. One concern is the occurrence of bone and joint disorders in young horses that develop rapidly. Research has shown that this and other problems can...

Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.

2005-05-25

133

Grazing -Simulator for horses kept in stalls  

E-print Network

Grazing - Simulator for horses kept in stalls key words: keeping horses stabling movement apparatus floor-treadmill moving platens The Grazing Simulator, as developed by Vienna University, it enables a horse confined to stables to simulate its natural behaviour, ie grazing in the fields, whereby

Szmolyan, Peter

134

An open study to assess the safety and efficacy of Aesculus hippocastanum tablets (Aesculaforce 50mg) in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency.  

PubMed

An open study was carried out to assess, primarily, the safety and tolerability of Aesculus hippocastanum in the treatment of CVI. Patients underwent 8 consecutive weeks of treatment and were asked to take one 50 mg Aesculus hippocastanum tablet, twice daily. In total, 91 adverse events were reported, of which only 4 were rated as probably related to the study drug. Patients judged the tolerability of the study medication in the majority of the cases at visits 2 and 3 (90 and 95%, respectively) to be "good" or "fairly good." Only 2 patients rated tolerability as poor at visit 3. For each of the symptoms investigated the difference in the median value between baseline and visit 3 was found to be statistically significant and both the ankle and lower leg circumference decreased. The PPG measurements were rejected after analysis since validation measurements carried out after the trial showed that the PPG technique had an internal error of around 30%. Nevertheless, the majority of patients rated efficacy to be "very good" or "good," with only 10 patients reporting no effect by the end of the study. The results of this study indicate that Aesculaforce 50 mg tablets are a safe, well-tolerated and efficacious treatment for Widmer stage I and II CVI. PMID:15364642

Dickson, Sylvia; Gallagher, Julie; McIntyre, Lorna; Suter, Andy; Tan, Jen

2004-01-01

135

Soils and geomorphology of the East Chestnut Ridge site  

SciTech Connect

Soil mapping of the East Chestnut Ridge site in conjunction with subsurface soil and rock coring provides an in-depth evaluation of the site and its suitability for disposal of wastes. Landforms and surface and subsurface hydrology, the natural, undisturbed, soil-saprolite-geohydrology system beneath the zone of engineering modifications provides for the ultimate containment of wastes and a means for the filtration and purification of any leachate before it reaches the aquifer. The surface location and extent of each geologic formation on the site were mapped. These locations correlated well with projections of subsurface contacts to the surface even through the criteria used by the pedologist and geologist to identify soil and rock from the same formation may be different. Soil thickness over bedrock of the Copper Ridge, Chepultepec, Longview, and Kingsport Formations is sufficient to provide considerable buffering between trench bottoms and groundwater or rock. Soil thickness over the Mascot Formation is comparatively thin, and pinnacles and ledges exposed on steeper sideslopes are common. Soil underlain by the Mascot Formation is not suited for a trench landfill. According to soil coring and active borrow pit observations, chert beds in the soil and saprolite are preferred zones of water flow. Construction of adequate clay liners beneath disposal units sited on the Longview dolomite may require placement and compaction of other native soils to achieve sufficiently low soil permeabilities. Karst geomorphic processes that initiated the formation of dolines evidently started several million years ago. Doline formation and enlargement is episodic, with short periods of activity followed by long periods of stability. Analysis of doline soil stratigraphy suggests that most of the large dolines on the site have been stable for most of the past 10,000 to 1000,000 years. 8 refs., 9 figs.

Lietzke, D.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R. (Lietzke (D.A.), Rutledge, TN (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-10-01

136

Ectomycorrhizal inoculum potential of northeastern US forest soils for American chestnut restoration: results from field and laboratory bioassays.  

PubMed

American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once a dominant overstory tree in eastern USA but was decimated by chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica). Blight-resistant chestnut is being developed as part of a concerted restoration effort to bring this heritage tree back. Here, we evaluate the potential of field soils in the northern portion of the chestnut's former range to provide ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungus inoculum for American chestnut. In our first study, chestnut seedlings were grown in a growth chamber using soil collected from three sites dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra) as inoculum and harvested after 5 months. Of the 14 EM fungi recovered on these seedlings, four species dominated in soils from all three sites: Laccaria laccata, a Tuber sp., Cenococcum geophilum, and a thelephoroid type. Seedlings grown in the nonsterilized soils were smaller than those growing in sterilized soils. In the second study, chestnut seedlings were grown from seed planted directly into soils at the same three sites. Seedlings with intermingling roots of established trees of various species were harvested after 5 months. Seventy-one EM fungi were found on the root tips of the hosts, with 38 occurring on chestnut seedlings. Multiple versus single host EM fungi were significantly more abundant and frequently encountered. The fungi observed dominating on seedlings in the laboratory bioassay were not frequently encountered in the field bioassay, suggesting that they may not have been active in mycelial networks in the field setting but were in the soils as resistant propagules that became active in the bioassay. These results show that soil from red oak stands can be used to inoculate American chestnut with locally adapted ectomycorrhizal fungi prior to outplanting, a relatively cost effective approach for restoration efforts. PMID:23857395

Dulmer, Kristopher M; Leduc, Stephen D; Horton, Thomas R

2014-01-01

137

Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

Not Available

1994-03-01

138

Efficacy of biofungicides Supresivit and Polyversum against Phytophthora root pathogens on European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of two commercially produced biopreparations on the originators of chestnut ink disease in Slovakia - soil fungi Phytophthora cambivora and Phytophthora cinnamomi was tested in laboratory conditions. Investigations of interrelations between Trichoderma harzianum (Pythium oligandrum) and isolates of Phytophthora sp. obtained from infected tissues of Casta- nea sativa Mill. proved more important inhibitive effects for Pythium oligandrum (biopreparation

G. JUHÁSOVÁ; S. BERNADOVI?OVÁ

139

Subsurface structure of the north Summit gas field, Chestnut Ridge anticline of the Appalachian Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chestnut Ridge anticline is the westernmost of the High Plateau folds in southwestern Pennsylvania and north-central West Virginia that are detached primarily in the Marcellus Shale, and the Martinsburg, Salina, and Rome Formations. The primary, basal detachment at the Summit field occurs in the Salina salt. Production from fracture porosity in the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone commenced in 1936. During

G. Zhou; R. C. Shumaker; W. K. Staub

1996-01-01

140

The American Chestnut Blight: An Agent of Biological and Cultural Catastrophe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history and habits of the fungus commonly referred to as the "chestnut blight." Considers the impact of the blight and efforts to control it, offers personal and cultural reflections on the blight, and gives tips for incorporating the information into cross-disciplinary lessons. Contains 17 references. (WRM)

Lunsford, Eddie

1999-01-01

141

Effects of Pleistocene glaciations on population structure of North American chestnut-backed chickadees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postglacial recolonization of northern North America was heavily influenced by the Pleistocene glaciation. In the Pacific Northwest, there are two disjunct regions of mesic temperate forest, one coastal and the other interior. The chestnut-backed chickadee is one of the species associated with this distinctive ecosystem. Using seven microsatellite markers we found evidence of population structure among nine populations of

THERESA M. B URG; ANTHONY J. G ASTON; KEVIN WINKER; VICKI L. F RIESEN

2006-01-01

142

Antioxidative and gastroprotective activities of anti-inflammatory formulations derived from chestnut honey in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug formulations Alimento Supervis (AS) and Alimento Mieleucalipto (AM), which are derived from chestnut honey, have been used as vehicle and supplemented with ginseng, propolis, royal jelly and propolis, and eucalyptus, respectively. These substances are traditionally used as anti-inflammatory medicine and were commercialized before conducting preclinical studies on their efficacy. The antioxidant properties of AS, AM, honey, and their respective

Cinzia Nasuti; Rosita Gabbianelli; Giancarlo Falcioni; Franco Cantalamessa

2006-01-01

143

Galerucella birmanica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a promising potential biological control agent of water chestnut, Trapa natans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water chestnut, Trapa natans, has become a major invasive plant in shallow water bodies in the northeastern United States. The failure of chemical and mechanical means to provide long-term and economically sustainable suppression of the species resulted in interest in the development of biological control. Field surveys in Asia and Europe identified a number of potential biological control agents in

Jianqing Ding; Bernd Blossey; Yuzhou Du; Fushan Zheng

2006-01-01

144

PennState LIVE Blight-resistant American chestnut trees nearing reality  

E-print Network

being grown don't produce satisfactory blight- resistant seed, Fitzsimmons is confident that blight American chestnut form and traits, seems to be close to bearing fruit. "We have a six-generation breeding in southwestern Virginia. We collected seed from those trees last year and we actually have sixth

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

145

American chestnut (Castanea dentata) to northern red oak (Quercus rubra): forest dynamics of  

E-print Network

.E. Barr (chestnut blight), selective logging, livestock grazing, ice storms, wind events, and fire history dendroecological history (1671­2009) in North America. Several living Q. rubra individuals were more than 250 years Acer saccharum Marsh. (sugar maple) component during the next 50 years. This study provides

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

146

The first research plantings of blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea  

E-print Network

) in the southeastern United States Stacy L. Clark, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station Scott E. Schlarbaum National Forest Chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) Oriental Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) Lack and Restoration Occupied up to 50% of basal area in eastern hardwood forest; used for wood, food, tannin, cattle

Gray, Matthew

147

Influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and skins.  

PubMed

As seasonal products chestnuts have to be post-harvest treated to increase their shelf-life. The most common preservation method for chestnuts is the chemical fumigation with methyl bromide, a toxic agent that is under strictly Montreal Protocol due to its adverse effects on human health and environment. Food irradiation is a possible feasible alternative to substitute the traditional quarantine chemical fumigation treatment. This preliminary study evaluated the influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnut fruits and skins, through several chemical and biochemical parameters. The bioactive compounds (phenolics and flavonoids) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of ?-carotene bleaching capacity were determined. The obtained results seem to indicate that the storage favoured chestnuts antioxidant potential. Furthermore, the application of gamma irradiation also seems to be advantageous for antioxidant activity, independently of the dose used (0.27 ± 0.04 kGy or 0.54 ± 0.04 kGy). PMID:21371520

Antonio, Amilcar L; Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-09-01

148

Thyreophagus corticalis as a vector of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica in chestnut stands.  

PubMed

The natural spread of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. occurs in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) stands and orchards in Italy and other European countries, leading to spontaneous recovery of the diseased trees. Little is known about how hypovirulence spreads in chestnut stands but various corticolous mite species frequently detected on chestnut cankers could be one of the many factors playing a role in the spread. Artificial virulent cankers created in inoculation field tests and treated with Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Sarcoptiformes, Acaridae) raised on hypovirulent cultures showed similar growth to those treated with mycelia of the hypovirulent strain over 18 months of inoculation. Cultures re-isolated from virulent cankers treated with mites were found to contain hypovirus like those derived from pairings of virulent and hypovirulent strains. Viral dsRNA could be carried externally and/or ingested by mites from the hypovirulent mycelia and then transmitted to the mycelia of virulent strains, causing their conversion. In a laboratory study, all fecal pellets collected from mites reared on hypovirulent and virulent strains grown on semi-selective media gave rise to colonies of C. parasitica with similar morphological characters and virulence to the original cultures. Field inoculation of stump sprouts with the resulting colonies revealed that mite digestive tract passage did not alter the virulence of the studied strains. These results are of interest for the biological control of chestnut blight. PMID:24114335

Simoni, Sauro; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Turchetti, Tullio; Bouneb, Mabrouk

2014-03-01

149

Chemical composition and functional properties of native chestnut starch (Castanea sativa Mill).  

PubMed

Starch isolation methods can change their physico-chemical and functional characteristics hindering the establishment of a starch-food functionality relation. A simple high yield and soft isolation method was applied for chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) starch consisting in steeping and fruit disintegration in a 25 mM sodium bisulfite solution and purification by sedimentation. Starch integrity, physico-chemical composition, morphology and functional properties were determined, being observed significant differences from previous described methods for chestnut starch isolation. The X-ray pattern was of B-type, with a degree of crystallinity ranging from 51% to 9%, dependent on the starch moisture content. The onset, peak, and conclusion gelatinization temperatures were 57.1°C, 61.9°C and 67.9°C, respectively. Total amylose content was 26.6%, and there was not found any evidence for lipid complexed amylose. Swelling power at 90°C was 19 g/g starch, and the amount of leached amylose was 78% of the total amylose content. Native chestnut starch presents a type B pasting profile similar to corn starch but with a lower gelatinization (56.1°C) and peak viscosity (79.5°C) temperatures, making native chestnut starch a potential technological alternative to corn starch, especially in application where lower processing temperatures are needed. PMID:23544579

Cruz, Bruno R; Abraão, Ana S; Lemos, André M; Nunes, Fernando M

2013-04-15

150

Visual Disability and Horse Riding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is now commonplace for horse riding to be included in the extra-curricular activities of students with physical disabilities. In this article an account is given of how visually impaired people can derive physical, mental, and emotional benefits from this supervised activity. It is argued that the rider, in learning to exercise self-control and…

Brickell, Diana

2005-01-01

151

Hepatoprotective Potential of Chestnut Bee Pollen on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Damages in Rats  

PubMed Central

Bee pollen has been used as an apitherapy agent for several centuries to treat burns, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, and various other diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of chestnut bee pollen against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4)-induced liver damage. Total phenolic content, flavonoid, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and DPPH radical activity measurements were used as antioxidant capacity determinants of the pollen. The study was conducted in rats as seven groups. Two different concentrations of chestnut bee pollens (200 and 400?mg/kg/day) were given orally and one group was administered with silibinin (50?mg/kg/day, i.p.) for seven days to the rats following the CCI4 treatment. The protective effect of the bee pollen was monitored by aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (AST) activities, histopathological imaging, and antioxidant parameters from the blood and liver samples of the rats. The results were compared with the silibinin-treated and untreated groups. We detected that CCI4 treatment induced liver damage and both the bee pollen and silibinin-treated groups reversed the damage; however, silibinin caused significant weight loss and mortality due, severe diarrhea in the rats. The chestnut pollen had showed 28.87?mg GAE/g DW of total phenolic substance, 8.07?mg QUE/g DW of total flavonoid, 92.71?mg Cyn-3-glu/kg DW of total anthocyanins, and 9?mg ?-carotene/100?g DW of total carotenoid and substantial amount of antioxidant power according to FRAP and DPPH activity. The results demonstrated that the chestnut bee pollen protects the hepatocytes from the oxidative stress and promotes the healing of the liver damage induced by CCI4 toxicity. Our findings suggest that chestnut bee pollen can be used as a safe alternative to the silibinin in the treatment of liver injuries. PMID:24250716

Y?ld?z, Oktay; Can, Zehra; Saral, Ozlem; Yulug, Esin; Ozturk, Ferhat; Aliyaz?c?oglu, Rezzan; Canpolat, Sinan; Kolayl?, Sevgi

2013-01-01

152

Effects of electron-beam radiation on nutritional parameters of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).  

PubMed

Chestnuts are a widely consumed fruit around the world, with Portugal being the fourth biggest producer in Europe. Storage of these nuts is an important step during processing, and the most widely used fumigant was banned in the European Union under the Montreal Protocol because of its toxicity. Recently, radiation has been introduced as a cheap and clean conservation method. Previous studies of our research group proved that ? radiation had no negative effect on the nutritional value of chestnuts; in fact, storage time had a much bigger influence on the chestnut quality. In the present study, we report the effect of a less ionizing radiation, electron beam, with doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 kGy in the nutritional value of chestnuts (ash, energy, fatty acids, sugars, and tocopherols), previously stored at 4 °C for 0, 30, and 60 days. The storage time seemed to reduce fat and energetic values but reported a tendency for higher values of dry matter. With regard to fatty acids, there was a higher detected quantity of C20:2 in non-irradiated samples and four fatty acids were only detected in trace quantities (C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, and C12:0). ?-Tocopherol decreased during storage time but did not alter its quantity for all of the radiation doses (as like ?-, ?-, and ?-tocopherol); in fact, these compounds were present in higher concentrations in the irradiated samples. Sucrose and total sugars were lower in non-irradiated samples, and raffinose was only detected in irradiated samples. Electron-beam irradiation seems to be a suitable methodology, because the effects on chemical and nutritional composition are very low, while storage time seems to be quite important in chestnut deterioration. PMID:22809396

Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2012-08-01

153

Purpura haemorrhagica in 53 horses.  

PubMed

The medical records of 53 horses with purpura haemorrhagica were reviewed. Seventeen of them had been exposed to or infected with Streptococcus equi, nine had been infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, five had been vaccinated with S. equi M protein, five had had a respiratory infection of unknown aetiology, and two had open wounds; the other 15 cases had no history of recent viral or bacterial infection. The horses were between six months and 19 years of age (mean 8.4 years). The predominant clinical signs were well demarcated subcutaneous oedema of all four limbs and haemorrhages on the visible mucous membranes; other signs included depression, anorexia, fever, tachycardia, tachypnoea, reluctance to move, drainage from lymph nodes, exudation of serum from the skin, colic, epistaxis and weight loss. Haematological and biochemical abnormalities commonly detected were anaemia, neutrophilia, hyperproteinaemia, hyperfibrinogenaemia, hyperglobulinaemia and high activities of muscle enzymes. All of the horses were treated with corticosteroids; 42 also received non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and 26 received antimicrobial drugs. Selected cases received special nursing care, including hydrotherapy and bandaging of the limbs. Most of the horses were treated for more than seven days and none of them relapsed. Forty-nine of the horses survived, one died and three were euthanased, either because their severe clinical disease failed to respond to treatment or because they developed secondary complications. Two of the four non-survivors had been vaccinated against S. equi with a product containing the M protein, one had a S. equi infection and the other had a respiratory infection of undetermined aetiology. PMID:12918829

Pusterla, N; Watson, J L; Affolter, V K; Magdesian, K G; Wilson, W D; Carlson, G P

2003-07-26

154

9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312 Section 93.312 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the...

2010-01-01

155

9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment information. 93...REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities; payment information....

2010-01-01

156

9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No litter or manure, fodder or...

2010-01-01

157

7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

158

[Salinomycin poisoning in a Polish stud horse].  

PubMed

24 cases of salinomycin poisoning in horses occurring recently in Silesia are discussed. All of these horses, used for riding-purposes, were fed with concentrate containing 61 mg/kg salinomycin as faulty prepared by the manufacturer. Each horse received approximately two to three kilograms of this forage. All horses developed severe clinical signs of intoxication. Despite therapy eight horses died within three to six days. Ten others became recumbent and had to be euthanased. Only six horses survived. Clinical and laboratory examinations were performed and are discussed. Laboratory examination of blood included red blood cell count, haematocrit, concentration of haemoglobin, enzyme activities of ASAT, ALAT and AP, also levels of urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and inorganic phosphor. Blood gas was also analysed. The dominating laboratory results were very high enzyme levels and alkalosis. The most characteristic clinical change appeared as paralysis of the hindlimbs. PMID:9441047

Nicpon, J; Czerw, P; Harps, O; Deegen, E

1997-08-01

159

Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome  

PubMed Central

We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

2014-01-01

160

Thiamin supplementation for exercising horses  

E-print Network

was represented. Chromic oxide was used as an external indicator to determine total fecal output. At iv the end of each experimental period horses were subjected to an exercise tolerance test on an equine treadmill. Heart and respiration rates and blood... treadmill which allows measurement of physiological parameters under a standardized workload. Among parameters most commonly used are heart rate, respi- ration rate and venous blood lactic acid concentration. While resting heart rate is generally...

Topliff, Donald Ray

2012-06-07

161

Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.  

PubMed

In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

2013-11-01

162

Horse Theft Awareness and Prevention - 15 Steps to Minimizing Theft of Horses and Equipment  

E-print Network

); ? Hot iron brand; ? Microchip (implant); and/or ? Lip tattoo. For detailed information on methods of identif_ication, see Extension publications L-5084, ?Freeze Branding Horses,? and L-5211, ?Permanent Identif_ica- tion of Horses.? Photograph horses... and ke ep photos current. ? Photograph both sides of the horse as close as possible, being sure to get the entire horse in the frame. A lthough saddles, blankets, leg wraps and people may look good in a photo, they often impair the photo?s useful- ness...

Gibbs, Pete G.

2003-09-26

163

Alcoholic chestnut fermentation in mixed culture. Compatibility criteria between Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

PubMed

The main objective of the present work consisted in the transfer to the case of the chestnut of a rice fermentative process that carried out to the Japanese traditional way to lead to an alcoholic bagasse, the moromi, capable of obtaining distilled. This way, selection assays of amylolitic Aspergillus oryzae strains and studies of compatibility between microfungi and yeast were carried out. These mixed cultivations were performed operating in batch submerged culture. Later on, using solid state system (chestnut, microfungi, yeast), a fermentative fed-batch process (koji, moto, moromi) was defined. By means of this approach a yield of 70% was reached in the conversion of total carbohydrates in ethanol. Also, the time required by the traditional operation was reduced in half. PMID:18289846

Murado, Miguel Anxo; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Vázquez, José Antonio; Mirón, Jesús; González, María Pilar

2008-10-01

164

Chestnut flowers as functionalizing agents to enhance the antioxidant properties of highly appreciated traditional pastry.  

PubMed

Some studies have proven the antioxidant and antimicrobial potency of chestnut flowers both in the raw matrix and after extraction, and the consumption of their decoctions has been related to beneficial effects towards health. In recent years, due to controversy and ambiguous legislation of chemical conservatives, plant extracts have been successfully used as functionalizing agents in different matrixes by displaying their various beneficial effects towards the foodstuff and/or the consumer. In this paper, decoctions of chestnut flowers as well as the dried flower were added to Portuguese traditional cakes that were then stored for 15 and 30 days, after which they were analysed for their antioxidant potential. The results were analysed by means of a 2 way ANOVA and a linear discriminant analysis, concluding that storage time had a slightly higher influence on alteration of the antioxidant activity. DPPH and TBARS were the most improved parameters, regardless of the concentration added. PMID:25255210

Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2014-10-22

165

Overall alteration of circadian clock gene expression in the chestnut cold response.  

PubMed

Cold acclimation in woody plants may have special features compared to similar processes in herbaceous plants. Recent studies have shown that circadian clock behavior in the chestnut tree (Castanea sativa) is disrupted by cold temperatures and that the primary oscillator feedback loop is not functional at 4 degrees C or in winter. In these conditions, CsTOC1 and CsLHY genes are constantly expressed. Here, we show that this alteration also affects CsPRR5, CsPRR7 and CsPRR9. These genes are homologous to the corresponding Arabidopsis PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR genes, which are also components of the circadian oscillator feedback network. The practically constant presence of mRNAs of the 5 chestnut genes at low temperature reveals an unknown aspect of clock regulation and suggests a mechanism regulating the transcription of oscillator genes as a whole. PMID:18958171

Ibañez, Cristian; Ramos, Alberto; Acebo, Paloma; Contreras, Angela; Casado, Rosa; Allona, Isabel; Aragoncillo, Cipriano

2008-01-01

166

Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in Icelandic horses  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA) syndrome is a hereditary congenital eye defect that was first described in Silver colored Rocky Mountain horses. The mutation causing this disease is located within a defined chromosomal interval, which also contains the gene and mutation that is associated with the Silver coat color (PMEL17, exon 11). Horses that are homozygous for the disease-causing allele have multiple defects (MCOA-phenotype), whilst the heterozygous horses predominantly have cysts of the iris, ciliary body or retina (Cyst-phenotype). It has been argued that these ocular defects are caused by a recent mutation that is restricted to horses that are related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. For that reason we have examined another horse breed, the Icelandic horse, which is historically quite divergent from Rocky Mountain horses. Results We examined 24 Icelandic horses and established that the MCOA syndrome is present in this breed. Four of these horses were categorised as having the MCOA-phenotype and were genotyped as being homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation. The most common clinical signs included megaloglobus, iris stromal hypoplasia, abnormal pectinate ligaments, iridociliary cysts occasionally extending into the peripheral retina and cataracts. The cysts and pectinate ligament abnormalities were observed in the temporal quadrant of the eyes. Fourteen horses were heterozygous for the PMEL17 mutation and were characterized as having the Cyst-phenotype with cysts and occasionally curvilinear streaks in the peripheral retina. Three additional horses were genotyped as PMEL17 heterozygotes, but in these horses we were unable to detect cysts or other forms of anomalies. One eye of a severely vision-impaired 18 month-old stallion, homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation was examined by light microscopy. Redundant duplication of non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium, sometimes forming cysts bulging into the posterior chamber and localized areas of atrophy in the peripheral retina were seen. Conclusions The MCOA syndrome is segregating with the PMEL17 mutation in the Icelandic Horse population. This needs to be taken into consideration in breeding decisions and highlights the fact that MCOA syndrome is present in a breed that are more ancient and not closely related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. PMID:21615885

2011-01-01

167

The Chestnut-banded Plover is an overlooked globally Near Threatened Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Species that show obvious population declines are relatively easy to categorize as globally threatened under IUCN Red List criteria. However, species whose populations are highly concentrated at a few inaccessible sites that are unprotected or habitat-threatened and then disperse are more difficult to pigeon-hole. Here we re-assess the conservation status of one such species - the Chestnut-banded Plover Charadrius

Rob Simmons; Neil Baker; Rod Braby; Tim Dodman; Oliver Nasirwa; Stephanie Tyler; Wilferd Versfeld; Keith Wearne; Marius Wheeler

2007-01-01

168

Population dynamics of the chestnut gall-wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  As a part of serial study on population dynamics of the chestnut gall-wasp,Dryocosmus kuriphilus, analyses of the distribution of eggs, gall-cells and emergent holes were made from the statistical point of view. Many of\\u000a distributions of the eggs per bud could be described by the truncated Poisson, but some cases showed slight overdispersion\\u000a than expected by chance. Because of no

Yosiaki Itô; Masako Nakamura; Masaki Kondo; Kazuyoshi Miyashita; Kazuo Nakamura

1962-01-01

169

Technological Assessment of Chestnut Flour Doughs Regarding to Doughs from Other Commercial Flours and Formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological assessment of chestnut flour doughs was studied using Mixolab® apparatus, establishing a comparison with\\u000a gluten (soft, hard and whole wheat) and gluten-free (rice and yellow corn) flour doughs as well as corn starch pastrymaking\\u000a and breadmaking formulations. This equipment measures the torque in function of temperature and time, firstly at 30 °C (mixing\\u000a curve) and secondly the mixing during

Ramón Moreira; Francisco Chenlo; María D. Torres; Diego M. Prieto

170

Antioxidant potential of chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) and almond (Prunus dulcis L.) by-products.  

PubMed

The antioxidant properties of almond green husks (Cvs. Duro Italiano, Ferraduel, Ferranhês, Ferrastar and Orelha de Mula), chestnut skins and chestnut leaves (Cvs. Aveleira, Boa Ventura, Judia and Longal) were evaluated through several chemical and biochemical assays in order to provide a novel strategy to stimulate the application of waste products as new suppliers of useful bioactive compounds, namely antioxidants. All the assayed by-products revealed good antioxidant properties, with very low EC(50) values (lower than 380 ?g/mL), particularly for lipid peroxidation inhibition (lower than 140 ?g/mL). The total phenols and flavonoids contents were also determined. The correlation between these bioactive compounds and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of ?-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in pig brain tissue through formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was also obtained. Although, all the assayed by-products proved to have a high potential of application in new antioxidants formulations, chestnut skins and leaves demonstrated better results. PMID:21339136

Barreira, J C M; Ferreira, I C F R; Oliveira, M B P P; Pereira, J A

2010-06-01

171

Effects of Pleistocene glaciations on population structure of North American chestnut-backed chickadees.  

PubMed

The postglacial recolonization of northern North America was heavily influenced by the Pleistocene glaciation. In the Pacific Northwest, there are two disjunct regions of mesic temperate forest, one coastal and the other interior. The chestnut-backed chickadee is one of the species associated with this distinctive ecosystem. Using seven microsatellite markers we found evidence of population structure among nine populations of chestnut-backed chickadees. High levels of allelic variation were found in each of the populations. Northern British Columbia and central Alaska populations contained a large number of private alleles compared to other populations, including those from unglaciated regions. The disjunct population in the interior was genetically distinct from the coastal population. Genetic and historical records indicate that the interior population originated from postglacial inland dispersal. Population structuring was found within the continuous coastal population, among which the peripheral populations, specifically those on the Queen Charlotte Islands and the central Alaska mainland, were genetically distinct. The pattern of population structure among contemporary chickadee populations is consistent with a pioneer model of recolonization. The persistence of genetic structure in western North American chestnut-backed chickadees may be aided by their sedentary behaviour, linear distribution, and dependence on cedar-hemlock forests. PMID:16842415

Burg, Theresa M; Gaston, Anthony J; Winker, Kevin; Friesen, Vicki L

2006-08-01

172

May the Horse Be With You  

E-print Network

, for example, 1951, they're asking for an animal, more specifically, one of the 12 animals of the Chinese zodiac. And they are, in order of appearance: Rat, Ox, Tiger, Rabbit, Dragon, Snake, Horse, Goat, Monkey, Rooster, Dog and Pig. The Year of the Horse...

Hacker, Randi

2014-01-08

173

Feeding value of pastures for horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding value of fresh pasture grazed in situ is determined by animal performance or productivity and could be relatively easily established for growing and lactating horses. Despite this, there is a lack of published information on the relative feeding value of different pastures and forages grazed by horses in New Zealand and the world. In addition, for adult breeding

SO Hoskin; EK Gee

2004-01-01

174

Idiosyncratic motor laterality in the horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiosyncratic motor behaviour was investigated during four experimental procedures in 40 horses (males=20, females=20) to establish if horses revealed evidence of significant right or left laterality. The experimental procedures included (1) detection of the preferred foreleg to initiate movement (walk or trot), (2) obstacle avoidance within a passageway (right or left), (3) obstacle avoidance when ridden and (4) idiosyncratic motor

J. Murphy; A. Sutherland; S. Arkins

2005-01-01

175

Anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppressive anthelmintic treatment strategies originally designed to control Strongylus vulgaris in horses were extremely successful in reducing morbidity and mortality from parasitic dis- ease. Unfortunately, this strategy has inadvertently resulted in the selection of drug-resistant cyathostomes (Cyathostominea), which are now considered the principal parasitic pathogens of horses. Resistance in the cyathostomes to benzimidazole drugs is highly prevalent throughout the world,

Ray M. Kaplan

2002-01-01

176

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel.  

PubMed

Fortunately, MRSA infection and colonization are currently uncommon in veterinary medicine. Nevertheless, the increasing reports of the occurrence of MRSA infection in horses, veterinarians, and equine personnel dictate that serious consideration be given to the control of this pathogen in veterinary hospitals as well as in the equine community. It is unclear whether extrapolation from human hospitals and people in the community is appropriate; however, given the rapid increase in nosocomial MRSA in human hospitals and the recent shift of certain clones of MRSA into the community, it would be unwise to ignore this potential pathogen. If equine MRSA did, indeed, originate in the human population, complete eradication in the equine population is unlikely, regardless of the prevalence of infection in horses and the intensity of infection control measures, without concurrent eradication of MRSA in the human population, which is surely an impossible feat. Early institution of appropriate surveillance and other infection control measures should be used to attempt to limit the impact of MRSA in veterinary medicine, however. It has been stated, "The time to act is now, before the prevalence of MRSA in the community begins to rise and we end up with 50% of the community strains becoming methicillin-resistant". This statement was directed at control of MRSA in people; however, it is equally relevant in the veterinary context and should receive strong consideration. PMID:15519821

Weese, J Scott

2004-12-01

177

Warfarin anticoagulation in the horse.  

PubMed

The hematologic and clinical effects of anticoagulation with warfarin were documented in 4 horses. All of the animals had thrombophlebitis (external jugular vein). Measures of coagulation were monitored, with a prothrombin time of 1.5 to 2.5 x base-line value being used as the effective range of anticoagulation. Recanalization was achieved in 2 of 4 cases. Hemorrhage, both subcutaneous and through a surgical incision, was a complication. Vitamin K1, an antidote to warfarin toxicosis, was administered intravenously to reverse anticoagulation and to control hemorrhage. PMID:7440316

Scott, E A; Byars, T D; Lamar, A M

1980-12-01

178

Postanesthetic brachial triceps myonecrosis in a Spanish-bred horse  

PubMed Central

This report describes a case of postanesthetic brachial triceps myonecrosis affecting only the left forelimb of a horse. A fatal unilateral postanesthetic myonecrosis has not been previously reported in the horse. This article describes the factors in the horse’s history, the anesthetic protocol, and the treatment that may have led to this condition. PMID:19412400

Ayala, Ignacio; Rodriguez, M. Jesus; Aguirre, Carla; Buendia, Antonio J.; Belda, Eliseo; Laredo, Francisco G.

2009-01-01

179

Feeding and Caring for a Yearling 4-H Futurity Horse  

E-print Network

In a 4-H yearling futurity project, a 4-H club member trains and cares for a yearling horse for the purpose of entering that horse into competition. This publication explains how to care for a yearling horse and have a successful horse project...

Antilley, Teri J.; Sigler, Dennis

2009-04-23

180

Identification of Torymus sinensis and T. beneficus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), introduced and indigenous parasitoids of the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), using the ribosomal ITS2 region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasitoid wasps Torymus sinensis and T. beneficus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) are introduced and indigenous natural enemies, respectively, of the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), an invasive pest of chestnuts in Japan. T. beneficus has two emergence types in spring, here tentatively designated as the early-spring strain and late-spring strain. It is very difficult to distinguish these two Torymus

Kaori Yara

2006-01-01

181

Protopine alkaloids in horse urine.  

PubMed

Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9-hydroxy-10-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-l][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, chelianthifoline, isochelianthifoline and 2-O-desmethylchelianthifoline. The metabolic formation of the tetrahydroprotoberberines by closure of the bridge across N5 and C13 is rate limited and protopine-like metabolites accumulate only when the route is overloaded. Metabolism was qualitatively similar in the horse and human. PMID:15458726

Wynne, Paul M; Vine, John H; Amiet, R Gary

2004-11-01

182

Human facial discrimination in horses: can they tell us apart?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human–horse relationship has a long evolutionary history. Horses continue to play a pivotal role in the lives of humans\\u000a and it is common for humans to think their horses recognize them by face. If a horse can distinguish his\\/her human companion\\u000a from other humans, then evolution has supplied the horse with a very adaptive cognitive ability. The current study

Sherril M. Stone

2010-01-01

183

Horse-rider interaction in dressage riding.  

PubMed

In dressage riding the pelvis of the rider interacts with the horse physically. However, there is little information about the influence of riding skill on the interaction of the human pelvis with the horse. Therefore this paper aims to study the interaction between horse and rider in professional riders (PRO) and beginners (BEG). Twenty riders rode in walk, trot, and canter in an indoor riding hall with inertial sensors attached to their pelvis and to the horses' trunk. Statistical analysis of waveform parameters, qualitative interpretation of angle-angle plots, and cross-correlation of horse and rider were applied to the data. Significant differences between PRO and BEG could be found for specific waveform parameters. Over all gaits PRO kept their pelvis closer to the mid-position and further forward whereas BEG tilted their pelvis further to the right and more backwards. The coupling intensity of horse and rider revealed differences between the gaits. Furthermore phase shifts were found between PRO and BEG. This paper describes a sensor-based approach for the investigation of interactions of the human pelvis with the trunk of a horse under in-field conditions. First the results show that the riding level influences the posture of a rider and secondly that differences can be detected with contemporary available sensor technology and methods. PMID:24290612

Münz, Andreas; Eckardt, Falko; Witte, Kerstin

2014-02-01

184

Microsatellite Variation in Japanese and Asian Horses and Their Phylogenetic Relationship Using a European Horse Outgroup  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic relationships of seven Japanese and four mainland-Asian horse populations, as well as two European horse populations, were estimated using data for 20 microsatellite loci. Mongolian horses showed the highest average heterozygosities (0.75-0.77) in all populations. Phylogenetic analysis showed the existence of three distinct clusters supported by high bootstrap values: the European cluster (Anglo-Arab and thoroughbreds), the Hokkaido-Kiso cluster,

T. Tozaki; N. TAKEZAKI; T. HASEGAWA; N. ISHIDA; M. KUROSAWA; M. TOMITA; N. SAITOU

2003-01-01

185

Nutraceutical properties of chestnut flours: beneficial effects on skeletal muscle atrophy.  

PubMed

Plants contain a wide range of non-nutritive phytochemicals, many of which have protective or preventive properties for human diseases. The aim of the present work has been to investigate the nutraceutical properties of sweet chestnut flour extracts obtained from fruits collected from 7 geographic areas of Tuscany (Italy), and their ability in modulating skeletal muscle atrophy. We found that the cultivars from different geographic areas are characterized by the composition and quantity of various nutrients and specific bioactive components, such as tocopherols, polyphenols and sphingolipids. The nutraceutical properties of chestnut sweet flours have been evaluated in C2C12 myotubes induced to atrophy by serum deprivation or dexamethasone. We found that the pretreatment with both total extracts of tocopherols and sphingolipids is able to counterbalance cell atrophy, reducing the decrease in myotube size and myonuclei number, and attenuating protein degradation and the increase in expression of MAFbx/atrogin-1 (a muscle-specific atrophy marker). By contrast, polyphenol extracts were not able to prevent atrophy. Since we also found that ?-tocopherol is the major form of tocopherol in sweet flour and its content differs depending on the procedure of sweet flour preparation, the mechanisms by which ?-tocopherol as well as sphingolipids affect skeletal muscle cell atrophy have been also investigated. This is the first evidence that chestnut sweet flour is a natural source of specific bioactive components with a relevant role in the prevention of cell degeneration and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass, opening important implications in designing appropriate nutritional therapeutic approaches to skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:25183412

Frati, Alessia; Landi, Debora; Marinelli, Cristian; Gianni, Giacomo; Fontana, Lucia; Migliorini, Marzia; Pierucci, Federica; Garcia-Gil, Mercedes; Meacci, Elisabetta

2014-10-22

186

Horses  

MedlinePLUS

... likely than others to develop severe illness. More Ringworm ( Trichophyton and Microsporum spp.) Ringworm is a condition caused by a fungus that ... hair, and nails of both humans and animals. Ringworm is spread from animals to humans through direct ...

187

Protopine alkaloids in horse urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and

Paul M Wynne; John H Vine; R Gary Amiet

2004-01-01

188

West Nile Encephalitis in Humans and Horses  

E-print Network

Humans and horses are infected with West Nile Encephalitis after being bitten by mosquitoes that transmit the virus. Migratory birds are thought to be responsible for the introduction of the virus into new areas. This publication explains...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2000-08-25

189

Toxicological effects of aflatoxins in horses.  

PubMed

Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins principally produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, which are both natural contaminants of food and feedstuff. Aflatoxin B(1) is the most prevalent member of this group that is normally detected and is the most powerful hepatocarcinogen known. Few naturally occurring episodes of aflatoxicosis in horses have been reported in the literature. Indeed, the published information about aflatoxin exposure, metabolism and the effects on horses is limited and controversial, possibly indicating a lack of awareness rather than the rarity of the occurrence. The target organ in horses, as in other animal species, is the liver and horses suffering from aflatoxicosis show signs of inappetence, depression, fever, tremor, ataxia and cough. Necropsy findings include a yellow-brown liver with centrilobular necrosis, icterus, haemorrhage, tracheal exudates and brown urine. A possible link between aflatoxin exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been hypothesised. PMID:20619706

Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina

2011-06-01

190

A Song for the Horse Nation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website accompanies an exhibition at the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) George Gustav Heye Center in New York City, and presents "the epic story of the horse's influence on American Indian tribes from the 1600s to the present." Divided into five thematic sections, the exhibition draws on the riches of NMAI, using both historical objects, such as drawings, hoof ornaments, beaded bags, hide robes, and paintings, as well as new pieces by contemporary Native artists. For example, in the "Native Arts & the Horse", 1840-1900 section, visitors can see images of bridles, saddles and saddle blankets, and other clothing, along with photos of these being used and worn. The section "The Horse Nation Lives On" includes works by contemporary Native American artists, such as a painting by Jim Yellowhawk (Cheyenne River Lakota, b. 1958), Lakota Horse Mask, 2008, and beaded rawhide bags made by Jackie Bread (Piikuni, b. 1960) in 2009.

191

Synthesis of chestnut-bur-like palladium nanostructures and their enhanced electrocatalytic activities for ethanol oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pd nanostructures with highly open structure and huge surface area by reducing Na2PdCl4 with ascorbic acid and using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a surfactant in an aqueous solution. The prepared Pd nanostructures had an average overall size of 70 nm and were composed of dozens of needle-like thin arms, originating from the same core, with an average thickness of 2.3 nm; the arms looked like chestnut-burs. Time evolution of Pd nanostructures implied that small Pd particles generated at the early stage of the reaction by fast reduction grew via the particle attachment growth mechanism. The morphology and size of the Pd nanostructures could be readily controlled by varying the concentration of CPC; depending on the amount of CPC, the reduction rates varied the morphology of the Pd nanostructures. Because of the huge surface area and possible catalytically active sites, the prepared chestnut-bur-like Pd nanostructures exhibited greater electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation compared to other Pd nanocatalysts, including cubic and octahedral Pd nanocrystals, and even commercial Pd/C.We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pd nanostructures with highly open structure and huge surface area by reducing Na2PdCl4 with ascorbic acid and using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a surfactant in an aqueous solution. The prepared Pd nanostructures had an average overall size of 70 nm and were composed of dozens of needle-like thin arms, originating from the same core, with an average thickness of 2.3 nm; the arms looked like chestnut-burs. Time evolution of Pd nanostructures implied that small Pd particles generated at the early stage of the reaction by fast reduction grew via the particle attachment growth mechanism. The morphology and size of the Pd nanostructures could be readily controlled by varying the concentration of CPC; depending on the amount of CPC, the reduction rates varied the morphology of the Pd nanostructures. Because of the huge surface area and possible catalytically active sites, the prepared chestnut-bur-like Pd nanostructures exhibited greater electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation compared to other Pd nanocatalysts, including cubic and octahedral Pd nanocrystals, and even commercial Pd/C. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional TEM images of Pd nanostructures (Fig. S1-S4). See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06410g

Ye, Seong Ji; Kim, Do Youb; Kang, Shin Wook; Choi, Kyeong Woo; Han, Sang Woo; Park, O. Ok

2014-03-01

192

9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Import permit and declaration for horses. 93.319 Section 93.319 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies...319 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

2010-01-01

193

9 CFR 93.315 - Import permit and declaration for horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Import permit and declaration for horses. 93.315 Section 93.315 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.315 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for...

2010-01-01

194

9 CFR 93.321 - Import permits and applications for inspection for horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...permits and applications for inspection for horses. 93.321 Section 93.321 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.321 Import permits and applications for inspection for horses. For horses intended for...

2010-01-01

195

9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

2011-01-01

196

Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

McIntosh, Phyllis

2014-01-01

197

Evaluation of thin-layer chromatography methods for quality control of commercial products containing Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis.  

PubMed

In Mexico, plant-derived products with health claims are sold as herbal dietary supplements, and there are no rules for their legal quality control. Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis are some of the major commercial products obtained from plants used in this region. In this paper, we describe the effectiveness of thin-layer chromatography methods to provide for the quality control of several commercial products containing these plants. Standardized extracts were used. Of the 49 commercial products analyzed, only 32.65% matched the chromatographic characteristic of standardized extracts. A significant number of commercial products did not match their label, indicating a problem resulting from the lack of regulation for these products. The proposed methods are simple, sensitive, and specific and can be used for routine quality control of raw herbals and formulations of the tested plants. The results obtained show the need to develop simple and reliable analytical methods that can be performed in any laboratory for the purpose of quality control of dietary supplements or commercial herbal products sold in Mexico. PMID:17760328

Ramírez-Durón, Rosalba; Ceniceros-Almaguer, Lucía; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Salazar-Cavazos, Ma de la Luz; Waksman de Torres, Noemi

2007-01-01

198

Identification of copy number variants in horses.  

PubMed

Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds. PMID:22383489

Doan, Ryan; Cohen, Noah; Harrington, Jessica; Veazey, Kylee; Veazy, Kylee; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Gus; McCue, Molly E; Skow, Loren; Dindot, Scott V

2012-05-01

199

Lateral vision in horses: a behavioral investigation.  

PubMed

This study investigated lateral vision in horses (Equus caballus) for the first time from a behavioral point of view. Three horses were tested using a novel experimental design to determine the range of their lateral and caudolateral vision with respect to stimulus detection and discrimination. Real-life stimuli were presented along a curvilinear wall in one of four different positions (A, B, C, D) and one of two height locations (Top, Bottom) on both sides of the horse. To test for stimulus detection, the correct stimulus was paired against a control; for stimulus discrimination, the correct stimulus was paired against another object. To indicate that the correct stimulus was detected or discriminated, the horses pushed one of two paddles. All horses scored significantly above chance on stimulus detection trials regardless of stimulus position or location. They also accurately discriminated between stimuli when objects appeared in positions A, B, and C for the top or bottom locations; however, they failed to discriminate these stimuli at position D. This study supports physiological descriptions of the equine eye and provides new behavioral data showing that horses can detect the appearance of objects within an almost fully encompassing circle and are able to identify objects within most but not all of their panoramic field of view. PMID:22698758

Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

2012-09-01

200

Virginia 4-H Horse Activities for K-3 Youth Do You Have Horse Sense!  

E-print Network

to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs Horse ears picture Crayons or colored pencils, bendy straws Pictures of horses: angry (ears pinned), scared (throwing head up), interested (ears perked), sleepy (drowsy expression) Pictures of people

Liskiewicz, Maciej

201

Environmental Assessment Wild Horse Gathering for the Fifteenmile Wild Horse Herd Management Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Worland Field Office (WFO), proposes to gather excess wild horses in the Fifteenmile Wild Horse Herd Management Area (HMA), during the fall of 2000. This action would be implemented under the authority of the Wild Free...

2000-01-01

202

HorsesHorses Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette IN, 47907  

E-print Network

have a tremendous capacity for exercise and activity for long periods of time and quickly recover from exercise when they are healthy and fit. The spleen of the horse can hold new red blood cells and the horse excessive sweating, muscle stiffness, stiffness of gait, dehydration, overall dullness, depression

203

Quality of fresh and seasoned fat of Cinta Senese pigs as affected by fattening with chestnut.  

PubMed

This trial was aimed to verify the effect of fattening with chestnut on carcass characteristics and on quality traits of products of Cinta Senese breed. Thirty-three Cinta Senese pigs were allotted into three groups. One group was fed a commercial feedstuff (0-CH), the other two groups were fed chestnut for one (1-CH) or three (3-CH) months. Pigs were slaughtered at 130 kg of live weight. The 1-CH group showed significantly lower pH value at 24h (P<0.05). For sample joint dissection a significant effect (P<0.05) of feeding system was found only on intermuscular fat, highest in 1-CH. A significant effect of feeding system (P<0.05) was found on physical and chemical parameters of Longissimus lumborum: the 3-CH group showed the highest values (P<0.05) of L, a, b, drip loss, cooking loss, shear force and intramuscular fat on raw meat. The 3-CH showed significantly higher level (P<0.05) of unsaturation for the highest percentage of MUFA and PUFA. PMID:22950977

Pugliese, C; Sirtori, F; Acciaioli, A; Bozzi, R; Campodoni, G; Franci, O

2013-01-01

204

[Effects of volatiles from chestnut on host preference of adult Conogethes punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)].  

PubMed

Through field survey and the tests of behavioral response, EAG response, and multiple-choice oviposition, this paper studied the effects of volatiles from Nongda No. 1 chestnut (NC) and Heyuan oil chestnut (HC) on the host-selection behavior of adult Conogethes punctiferalis. The field survey in 2004-2008 showed that the moth-eaten rate of NC fruits by adult C. punctiferalis was 16.1%-25.3%, while that of HC fruits was less than 5%. The volatiles from NC fruits and leaves were more attractive to female than to male moths, and the fruit volatiles were more attractive than leaf volatiles. However, the volatiles from HC fruits and leaves were not attractive to both female and male moths. The EAG response showed that female moths had significantly higher response to NC fruit volatiles than to HC's, but male moths had no significant difference in this response. For both NC and HC, the EAG responses of female and male moths to fruit volatiles were higher than those to leaf volatiles. The number of eggs laid by female moths was much greater on NC fruits than on NC leaves and on HC fruits and leaves, but had no significant differences on the latter three. PMID:20462021

Chen, Bing-Xu; Dong, Yi-Zhi; Liang, Guang-Wen; Lu, Heng

2010-02-01

205

Phenols, lignans and antioxidant properties of legume and sweet chestnut flours.  

PubMed

Total phenols (TPC) and antioxidant properties were determined in chick-pea, green and red lentils and sweet chestnut flours, in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues, by the Folin Ciocalteau method and by the FRAP assay, respectively. Plant lignans were quantified in flours by means of HPLC. In addition, the FRAP of plant lignans (secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol, matairesinol), their mixture and enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) were determined. In all flours, the highest TPC values were found in the residue. Specific and varietal significant differences were observed in all parameters. The highest TPC (737.32 and 1492.93mg/100gd.w.) and FRAP (140.32 and 101.25?mol/gd.w.) values were reached by green lentils in both aqueous-organic extract and residue, respectively. Sweet chestnuts had the highest total lignans (980.03?g/100gd.w.). It was also found that the plant lignans standards have a higher antioxidant activity than enterolignans standards and that matairesinol has the highest activity. PMID:23692751

Durazzo, Alessandra; Turfani, Valeria; Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Carcea, Marina

2013-10-15

206

Quick detection of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in chestnut dormant buds by nested PCR.  

PubMed

Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) develops in chestnut buds that remain asymptomatic from oviposition (June-July) until budburst; it is, thus, easily spread by plant material used in propagation. Therefore, it is particularly interesting to identify infested plant batches before their movement. Unfortunately, a non-destructive method for checking buds has not yet been developed, and the only technique available is the screening of a bud sample. The visual investigation is long and requires highly skilled and trained staff. The purpose of this work was to set up an effective and fast method able to identify the presence of first instar larvae of D. kuriphilus in a large number of chestnut buds by PCR. Four primer pairs were designed on nuclear and mitochondrial sequences of a set of seven gall wasp taxa and tested on five different cynipid's DNA. Nested diagnostic PCR was carried out on DNA extracted from samples of 2 g buds simulating four levels of infestation (larvae were added to uninfested buds); 320 bp amplicon of 28S sequence was chosen as a marker to detect one larva out of 2 g buds. The method showed a potential efficiency of 5000 to 15,000 buds per week, depending on bud size. PMID:22280881

Sartor, C; Marinoni, D Torello; Quacchia, A; Botta, R

2012-06-01

207

Enzymatic hydrolysis of chestnut purée: process optimization using mixtures of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase.  

PubMed

The enzymatic hydrolysis of starch present in chestnut purée was performed through a one-step treatment with a mixture of a commercial thermostable alpha-amylase (Termamyl 120 L, type S) and glucoamylase (AMG 300 L) at 70 degrees C. The effect of the enzyme concentration and the ratio of both amylases in the reaction mixture was studied by means of a factorial second-order rotatable design, which allowed conditions to be set leading to the total conversion of starch to glucose after 15 min of incubation (60 total enzymatic units g(-1) of chestnut; ratio of alpha-amylase/glucoamylase enzymatic units, 0.35:0.65). At lower enzyme concentration, the delay in the addition of the glucoamylase with regard to the addition of the alpha-amylase allowed a slightly higher hydrolysis percentage to be reached when compared to the simultaneous addition of both amylases at the same low enzyme concentration. The kinetics of liberation of glucose supports the existence of a synergistic effect between these two enzymes only in the first moments of the reaction. Finally, a sequential one-step hydrolysis was assayed, and more concentrated glucose syrups were thus obtained. PMID:15137834

López, Cristina; Torrado, Ana; Fuciños, Pablo; Guerra, Nelson P; Pastrana, Lorenzo

2004-05-19

208

A Hydrophobin of the Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, Is Required for Stromal Pustule Eruption  

PubMed Central

Hydrophobins are abundant small hydrophobic proteins that are present on the surfaces of many filamentous fungi. The chestnut blight pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica was shown to produce a class II hydrophobin, cryparin. Cryparin is the most abundant protein produced by this fungus when grown in liquid culture. When the fungus is growing on chestnut trees, cryparin is found only in the fungal fruiting body walls. Deletion of the gene encoding cryparin resulted in a culture phenotype typical of hydrophobin deletion mutants of other fungi, i.e., easily wettable (nonhydrophobic) hyphae. When grown on the natural substrate of the fungus, however, cryparin-null mutation strains were unable to normally produce its fungal fruiting bodies. Although the stromal pustules showed normal development initially, they were unable to erupt through the bark of the tree. The hydrophobin cryparin thus plays an essential role in the fitness of this important plant pathogen by facilitating the eruption of the fungal fruiting bodies through the bark of its host tree. PMID:15879527

Kazmierczak, Pam; Kim, Dae Hyuk; Turina, Massimo; Van Alfen, Neal K.

2005-01-01

209

Pyrosequencing of environmental soil samples reveals biodiversity of the Phytophthora resident community in chestnut forests.  

PubMed

Pyrosequencing analysis was performed on soils from Italian chestnut groves to evaluate the diversity of the resident Phytophthora community. Sequences analysed with a custom database discriminated 15 pathogenic Phytophthoras including species common to chestnut soils, while a total of nine species were detected with baiting. The two sites studied differed in Phytophthora diversity and the presence of specific taxa responded to specific ecological traits of the sites. Furthermore, some species not previously recorded were represented by a discrete number of reads; among these species, Phytophthora ramorum was detected at both sites. Pyrosequencing was demonstrated to be a very sensitive technique to describe the Phytophthora community in soil and was able to detect species not easy to be isolated from soil with standard baiting techniques. In particular, pyrosequencing is an highly efficient tool for investigating the colonization of new environments by alien species, and for ecological and adaptive studies coupled with biological detection methods. This study represents the first application of pyrosequencing for describing Phytophthoras in environmental soil samples. PMID:23560715

Vannini, Andrea; Bruni, Natalia; Tomassini, Alessia; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria

2013-09-01

210

Chestnut cultivar diversification process in the Iberian Peninsula, Canary Islands, and Azores.  

PubMed

This is a large-scale molecular study based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci of the diversification process in chestnut cultivars from Portugal and Spain, from the northern Iberian Peninsula to the Canary Islands and the Azores. A total of 593 grafted chestnut trees (Castanea sativa Mill.) were analysed with 10 SSRs: 292 from Portugal and 301 from Spain. Some of the trees studied were more than 300 years old. Accessions were analysed using a model-based Bayesian procedure to assess the geographical structure and to assign individuals to reconstructed populations based on the SSR genotypes. We found 356 different genotypes with a mean value of clonality of 33% owing to grafting. Mutations accounted for 6%, with hybridization being the main diversification process that can explain the great diversity found. Ten main cultivar groups were detected: four in northern Spain, five in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, and one in southern Spain related to the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This work demonstrated that cultivar origin and the diversification process was a combination of clonal propagation of selected seedlings, hybridization, and mutations, which allowed high levels of diversity to be maintained with respect to selected clones for fruit production. Furthermore, seedlings and graft sticks facilitated the transport to new destinations in the colonization process, transporting sometimes more than 3000 km if we consider the Azores and the Canary Islands. PMID:21491973

Pereira-Lorenzo, Santiago; Costa, Rita Maria Lourenço; Ramos-Cabrer, Ana María; Ciordia-Ara, Marta; Ribeiro, Carla Alexandra Marques; Borges, Olga; Barreneche, Teresa

2011-04-01

211

Escins-Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa, bioactive triterpene oligoglycosides from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L.: their inhibitory effects on ethanol absorption and hypoglycemic activity on glucose tolerance test.  

PubMed

Five triterpene oligoglycosides named escins-Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa were isolated from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L. and their chemical structures were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Escins-Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb were found to exhibit inhibitory effect on ethanol absorption and hypoglycemic activity on oral glucose tolerance test in rats. Among them, escins-IIa and IIb showed the higher activities for both bioassays, while desacylescins-I and II had no activity. PMID:8069982

Yoshikawa, M; Harada, E; Murakami, T; Matsuda, H; Wariishi, N; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N; Kitagawa, I

1994-06-01

212

Chestnut wood in compression perpendicular to the grain: Non-destructive correlations for test results in new and old wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the evaluation of the compressive properties of chestnut wood under compression perpendicular to the grain, using destructive and non-destructive methods. Three non-destructive methods (ultrasonic testing, Resistograph and Pilodyn) are proposed and the possibility of their application is discussed based on the application of simple linear regression models. Timber specimens were tested up to failure, divided in two

Paulo B. Lourenço; Artur O. Feio; José S. Machado

2007-01-01

213

ABUNDANCE OF NON-BREEDING HORNED LARKS AND CHESTNUT-COLLARED LONGSPURS ON GRAZED AND RESTED SEMIARID GRASSLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

We counted birds monthly from October through April of 1999-2000 and 2000- 2001 on regularly grazed and rested (since 1973) semiarid grassland of central New Mexico. Horned larks (Eremophila alpestris) and chestnut-collared longspurs (Calcarius ornatus) accounted for 66% and 10% of all birds detected, respectively. We examined variation in counts of these species relative to grazing history, site, and vegetation

Jeffrey F. Kelly; David L. Hawksworth; Raymond A. Meyer; Timothy Brush

2006-01-01

214

Stop Fitan: antispasmodic effect of natural extract of chestnut wood in guinea pig ileum and proximal colon smooth muscle.  

PubMed

Abstract Stop Fitan® [manufactured by Demar Snc, Cesena (FC), Italy, on behalf of Geosilva, Cesena] is a dietary supplement proposed as a co-adjuvant in the therapy of diarrhea. It is based on the bioactive purified natural extract of chestnut (Castanea sativa) wood and Saccharomyces boulardii, a nonpathogenic yeast strain that has been used for treatment and prevention of diarrhea. The effects of Stop Fitan and the purified natural extract of chestnut wood were assessed in vitro using guinea pig ileum and proximal colon tissues. In order to explain their effects on intestinal smooth muscle contraction, a series of pathways implicated in intestinal motility have been investigated. In particular, the antispasmodic effect of natural extract of chestnut wood, containing hydrolyzable tannins, was tested against the spasmodic effects induced by carbachol, histamine, potassium chloride, and barium chloride in guinea pig ileum and by carbachol or serotonin in guinea pig proximal colon. The data show that natural extract of chestnut wood exerts spasmolytic effects in ileum and proximal colon, by a mechanism perhaps involving unspecific cellular pathways. These findings, taken together with the antibacterial, antiviral, and antispasmodic properties of tannins, suggest that the combination of tannins and S. boulardii may be relevant to treat diarrhea by Stop Fitan. PMID:20626243

Budriesi, Roberta; Ioan, Pierfranco; Micucci, Matteo; Micucci, Ermanno; Limongelli, Vittorio; Chiarini, Alberto

2010-10-01

215

The horse-human dyad: can we align horse training and handling activities with the equid social ethogram?  

PubMed

This article examines the recently completed equid ethogram and shows how analogues of social interactions between horses may occur in various human-horse interactions. It discusses how some specific horse-horse interactions have a corresponding horse-human interaction - some of which may be directly beneficial for the horse while others may be unusual or even abnormal. It also shows how correspondent behaviours sometimes become inappropriate because of their duration, consistency or context. One analogue is unlikely to hold true for all horse-human contexts, so when applying any model from horse-horse interactions to human-horse interactions, the limitations of the model may eclipse the intended outcome of the intervention. These limitations are especially likely when the horse is being ridden. Such analyses may help to determine the validity of extrapolating intra-specific interactions to the inter-specific setting, as is advocated by some popular horse-training methods, and highlight the subsequent limitations where humans play the role of the 'alpha mare' or leader in horse handling and training. This examination provides a constructive framework for further informed debate and empirical investigation of the critical features of successful intra-specific interactions. PMID:19375965

McGreevy, P D; Oddie, C; Burton, F L; McLean, A N

2009-07-01

216

Serum hepatitis associated with commercial plasma transfusion in horses.  

PubMed

This report describes 4 fatal cases of serum hepatitis associated with the administration of commercial plasma in the horse. Serum hepatitis in the horse is characterized by acute hepatic central lobular necrosis, and it has been associated with the administration of biological products of equine origin. None of these horses had a recent history of equine biologic-origin vaccination; however, they had received 1.5-5 L of commercial plasma, and in I horse, an additional 8 L of fresh blood. Acute, severe colic unresponsive to medical therapy, lethargy, or sudden death developed in these 4 horses 41 to 60 days later. Two of the horses developed encephalopathy, confirmed in 1 horse by the presence of severe diffuse Alzheimer type II astrocytes in the brain. Although the prevalence of serum hepatitis associated with the administration of commercial plasma appears to be low in the horse, it should be considered an uncommon but potentially fatal risk factor. PMID:15715060

Aleman, Monica; Nieto, Jorge E; Carr, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Gary P

2005-01-01

217

Rupture of the peroneus tertius tendon in 27 horses  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing the outcome and prognosis of rupture of the tendon of the peroneus tertius muscle in 27 horses. Information on history, physical examination findings, diagnosis, treatment, and final outcome was summarized from medical records. Long-term follow-up information on horses was obtained by telephone survey. A stepwise logistic regression model was used to analyze factors influencing the outcome. Rupture occurred in the midbody of the tendon in 11 horses, at the insertion site in 11 horses, and at the origin in 2 horses. Overall, 18/23 (78.3%) horses returned to their previous level of exercise, 5/23 (21.7%) horses were euthanized due to persistent lameness. If the horse was racing at the time of injury or had an additional structure injured besides the peroneus tertius tendon, it was less likely to return to its intended use. PMID:16048009

2005-01-01

218

Wild, Free-Roaming Horses - An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this bibliography is to provide a comprehensive annotated list of articles, books, manuscripts, etc. on Wild Horses. Because of the limited information available specifically on Wild Horses, much of the information included in the bibliogra...

M. Zarn, T. Heller, K. Collins

1977-01-01

219

Activity of group-transported horses during onboard rest stops  

E-print Network

Activity of group-transported horses was evaluated during onboard rest stops to determine if horses derive meaningful rest. A single-deck semi-trailer separated into three compartments was used for all shipments. In Experiment One, twelve video...

Keen, Heidi A.

2007-04-25

220

Effect of Concentrate Form on Gastric Ulcer Syndrome in Horses  

E-print Network

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is common amongst equine athletes of various disciplines and linked to decreased performance. Prevalence among racehorses has been reported to be over 90%, performance horses at 60%, and endurances horses...

Huth, Lindsey

2012-02-14

221

Exercise performance of horses fed added dietary fat  

E-print Network

of 14 d was conducted to acquaint the horses with the treadmill and collection apparatus. Exercise was limited to that required to accustom the horses to the experimental equipment. The horses were individually fed a diet consisting of a 14. 5... Exercise Tolerance Test initially and at the end of each period, each horse was subjected to a standard exercise tolerance test (SET) on an equine treadmill using slight modifications of procedures reported by Pearson (1980). The treadmi 1 1 was set...

Meyers, Michael Clinton

2012-06-07

222

Atypical myopathy in grazing horses: A first exploratory data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, atypical myopathy (AM) in grazing horses has emerged in several European countries. An exploratory analysis was conducted to determine horse- and pasture-level indicators or factors associated with AM in Belgium. Belgian cases of AM confirmed by histology (n=57) were compared to their healthy co-grazing horses (n=77) and to pastured horses not involved with AM as controls

Dominique-M. Votion; Annick Linden; Catherine Delguste; Hélène Amory; Etienne Thiry; Patrick Engels; Gaby van Galen; Rachel Navet; Francis Sluse; Didier Serteyn; Claude Saegerman

2009-01-01

223

Continuing prevalence of African horse sickness in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Equine sera collected from 10 widely separated regions throughout Nigeria were tested for antibodies against African horse sickness viruses (AHSV) using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The animals sampled included imported, exotic horses, indigenous and locally cross-bred (local) horses and African donkeys. A high percentage of the sera (79.8%) were positive, confirming the continued prevalence of AHSV antibodies in Nigerian horses and donkeys. PMID:7569227

Adeyefa, C A; Hamblin, C

1995-01-01

224

Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.  

PubMed

In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all. PMID:22767092

Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

2012-12-01

225

9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for...Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable...of evidence of communicable disease, and that, so far as it...not been exposed to any such disease common to animals of...

2010-01-01

226

Influence of Acute Exercise on Serum Homocysteine in Horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acute exercise on serum homocysteine (sHCy) concentration was examined in 10 horses; five Sella Italiana and five Thoroughbreds. All horses underwent standard training before the study (show jumping for Sella Italiana horses and gallop racing for Thoroughbreds). For the study, blood samples were taken at rest, immediately after exercise, and during a recovery period (30 and 60minutes

Francesco Fazio; Giuseppe Piccione; Stefania Casella; Anna Assenza; Vanessa Messina; Giovanni Caola

2010-01-01

227

Uneven feet limit performance of a warmblood horse population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warmblood horses scored by the jury as having uneven feet will never pass yearly selection sales of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN).To evaluate whether the undesired trait ‘uneven feet’ influences performance, databases of KWPN (n = 62234 horses) and KNHS (n = 16015 show jumpers, n = 24269 dressage horses) were linked through the unique number of each registered

B. M. C. Gorissen; B. J. Ducro; Tartwijk van H; G. Naber; Eldik van P; W. Back

2006-01-01

228

FIELD STUDY OF HOOF WALL PROBLEMS IN UNSHOD WORKING HORSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of 100 native breed unshod working horses was examined for hoof wall problems. The diagnosis of hoof wall defects was performed by close visual observation and via physical examina- tion. The location, extent and types of defects were then determined and recorded. Out of 100 horses, 124 hoof wall defects were noted in ninety working horses. The number

A. S. BIGHAM; A. N. TABATABAEI

229

Techniques and Technology Immunocontraception in Wild Horses: One Inoculation  

E-print Network

-injection, 2-year-duration PZP vaccine in free-roaming wild horses (Equus caballus) in Nevada, USA adjuvant, controlled-release vaccine contraception, Equus caballus, field study, free-roaming wild horse Protection Act in 1971, management of wild horses (Equus caballus) on public lands has proven biologically

Abraham, Nader G.

230

76 FR 55107 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public...

2011-09-06

231

36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16 Section...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are...transporting equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails,...

2010-07-01

232

78 FR 46599 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...meeting can be mailed to National Wild Horse and Burro Program, WO-260,...

2013-08-01

233

27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188 Section 9...American Viticultural Areas § 9.188 Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name...viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4...

2010-04-01

234

Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

Tahmoush, David

2014-05-01

235

27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124 Section 9.124 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.124 Wild Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the...area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map....

2010-04-01

236

9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93.317 ...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in...

2010-01-01

237

75 FR 26990 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board (Board) will...meeting on the BLM's management of wild horses and burros. This will be a two day...

2010-05-13

238

76 FR 7231 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management [LLWO2600000 L10600000 XQ0000] Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY...Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a...and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public...

2011-02-09

239

36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002.16 Section...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are...transporting equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails,...

2010-07-01

240

15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5 Section... SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement...a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to all...

2010-01-01

241

36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

...of horses or pack animals on trails, except...Allowing horses or pack animals to proceed in excess of a slow walk when passing in the immediate vicinity...considering the nature and purpose of...while horses or pack animals are passing....

2014-07-01

242

36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of horses or pack animals on trails, except...Allowing horses or pack animals to proceed in excess of a slow walk when passing in the immediate vicinity...considering the nature and purpose of...while horses or pack animals are passing....

2012-07-01

243

36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of horses or pack animals on trails, except...Allowing horses or pack animals to proceed in excess of a slow walk when passing in the immediate vicinity...considering the nature and purpose of...while horses or pack animals are passing....

2013-07-01

244

36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of horses or pack animals on trails, except...Allowing horses or pack animals to proceed in excess of a slow walk when passing in the immediate vicinity...considering the nature and purpose of...while horses or pack animals are passing....

2011-07-01

245

36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of horses or pack animals on trails, except...Allowing horses or pack animals to proceed in excess of a slow walk when passing in the immediate vicinity...considering the nature and purpose of...while horses or pack animals are passing....

2013-07-01

246

36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of horses or pack animals on trails, except...Allowing horses or pack animals to proceed in excess of a slow walk when passing in the immediate vicinity...considering the nature and purpose of...while horses or pack animals are passing....

2012-07-01

247

36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of horses or pack animals on trails, except...Allowing horses or pack animals to proceed in excess of a slow walk when passing in the immediate vicinity...considering the nature and purpose of...while horses or pack animals are passing....

2011-07-01

248

Interactions among water content, rapid (nonequilibrium) cooling to -196 degrees C, and survival of embryonic axes of Aesculus hippocastanum L. seeds.  

PubMed

This study investigated the interactions among water content, rapid (nonequilibrium) cooling to -196 degrees C using isopentane or subcooled nitrogen, and survival of embryonic axes of Aesculus hippocastanum. Average cooling rates in either cryogen did not exceed 60 degrees C s(-1) for axes containing more than 1.0 g H(2)O g(-1)dw (g g(-1)). Partial dehydration below 0.5 g gg(-1) facilitated faster cooling, averaging about 200 and 580 degrees C s(-1) in subcooled nitrogen and isopentane, respectively. The combination of partial drying and rapid cooling led to increased survival and reduced cellular damage in axes. Electrolyte leakage was 10-fold higher from fully hydrated axes cooled in either cryogen than from control axes that were not cooled. Drying of axes to 0.5 g g(-1), reduced electrolyte leakage of cryopreserved axes to levels similar to those of control material. Axis survival was assayed by germination in vitro. Axes with water contents greater than 1.0 g g(-1), did not survive cryogenic cooling. Between 1.0 and 0.75 g g(-1), axes survived cryogenic exposure but developed abnormally. The proportion of axes developing normally after being cooled in isopentane increased with increasing dehydration below 0.75 g g(-1), reaching a maximum between 0.5 and 0.25 g g(-1) after being cooled at > or =300 degrees C s(-1). Cooling rates attained in subcooled nitrogen did not exceed 250 degrees C s(-1), and normal development of axes was observed only at < or =0.4 g g(-1). These results support the hypothesis that rapid cooling enhances the feasibility of cryopreservation of desiccation-sensitive embryonic axes by increasing the upper limit of allowable water contents and overall survival. PMID:11578119

Wesley-Smith, J; Walters, C; Pammenter, N W; Berjak, P

2001-05-01

249

Primary and secondary metabolite composition of kernels from three cultivars of Portuguese chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) at different stages of industrial transformation.  

PubMed

Chestnut (Castanea sativa) is an important basic food in rural diets and a major starch crop used in a similar way to potatoes. Chestnuts are a fundamental economic resource in the "chestnut regions" not only for the fruit but also for the chestnut wood. Chestnuts have become increasingly important with respect to human health, for example, as an alternative gluten-free flour source. Chestnuts are also a rich source of other beneficial compounds, but there have been few studies on the composition during processing. In this study, we analyzed the chemical composition of three Portuguese cultivars at different stages of industrial processing. The chestnut cultivars were Longal, Judia, and Martaínha. All three cultivars had high moisture contents but were low in ash, crude fat, and crude protein contents, with high starch and low fiber contents. The free amino acid contents, including various essential amino acids, varied depending on the cultivar. All three cultivars also had a significant content of polyphenolics with gallic acid; ellagic acid was predominant among hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Many of these compounds are known to exert significant positive effects on human health. The one-way analysis of variance for fresh chestnut shows significant differences among the three cultivars for most of the studied parameters. The same statistical analysis applied to each one of the two cultivars (Judia and Longal) sampled for the four processing steps analyzed indicates a significant effect of this factor in practically all of the constituents. On the other hand, the two-way analysis of variance shows that, besides the residual, the processing step and the interaction cultivar x processing step were the factors that more contributed for the total variation observed in the constituents analyzed, while the contribution of cultivar was much less significant. PMID:17407304

Do Carmo Barbosa Mendes De Vasconcelos, Maria; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira Cardoso, Jorge Ventura

2007-05-01

250

Basic farriery for the performance horse.  

PubMed

Proper farriery promotes a healthy functional foot and biomechanical efficiency and prevents lameness. Because the equine veterinarian is responsible for the soundness of the horse, a working knowledge of farriery becomes essential. A thorough knowledge of traditional horseshoeing enables the veterinarian to interact with the farrier at the farrier's level; this ultimately enhances and promotes quality hoof care. This article focuses on fundamental farriery and recognizing subtle changes in hoof conformation that can be used to preserve the integrity of the hoof capsule, along with the structures enclosed within, and thus prevent lameness in the performance horse. PMID:18314044

O'Grady, Stephen E

2008-04-01

251

Rapid diagnosis of African horse sickness.  

PubMed

The rapid diagnosis of African horse sickness (AHS) during the incubation period using virus antigens in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and red blood cells (RBC) in a sandwich indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is reported. PMBC consistently gave higher positive ELISA results than RBC from blood collected during viraemia from clinically affected horses. The potential of the method described for wider application in rapid diagnosis and virus surveillance in susceptible equine populations, particularly in AHS-free and in enzootic areas, for effective control strategies is highlighted. PMID:9239936

Adeyefa, C A

1996-01-01

252

Texas 4-H Horse Project Teaching Outlines  

E-print Network

and the hindgut. II. Compartments and functions A. The foregut has four components: the mouth, esopha- gus, stomach and small intestine. 1. In the mouth, digestion begins, and feeds are chewed and wetted with saliva. a. Chewing reduces particle size and increases... sur- face area of the feed. b. A horse?s teeth may need to be floated if it holds its head sideways, drops grain and salivates ex- cessively when it is chewing. 2. The esophagus is a muscular tube leading from the pharynx to the stomach. 3...

Howard, Jeff W.; Johnson, Ken; Mason, Vanessa; Mitchell, Julianne

2000-06-15

253

Effect of whey protein isolate-pullulan edible coatings on the quality and shelf life of freshly roasted and freeze-dried Chinese chestnut.  

PubMed

Harvested chestnut is characterized by a short shelf life, exposing many Chinese producers to a storage problem as product losses are very high. The objective of this study was to develop a suitable technology to extend the shelf life of harvested chestnut fruits for commercial use. The effect of whey protein isolate-pullulan (WPI-Pul) coating on fresh-roasted chestnuts (FRC) and roasted freeze-dried chestnut (RFDC) quality and shelf life was studied under 2 different storage temperature (4 and 20 degrees C) conditions. Coatings were formed directly onto the surface of the fruits by dipping them into a film solution. SEM micrographs showed homogeneous WPI-Pul to cover the whole surface of chestnut with good adherence and perfect integrity. Moisture loss or gain, fruit quality, and shelf life were evaluated by weight loss or gain, surface color development, and visible decay during the storage period of 15 to 120 d at 4 and 20 degrees C, respectively. WPI-Pul coating had a low, yet significant effect on reducing moisture loss and decay incidence of FRC, hence delaying changes in their external color. The results were satisfactory when the coating was done with freeze-drying at low temperature storage, thus improving the quality and increasing the shelf life. This provides an alternative strategy to minimize the significant losses in harvested chestnut. PMID:18460124

Gounga, M E; Xu, S-Y; Wang, Z; Yang, W G

2008-05-01

254

Influence of inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on fatty acid profile of dry-cured ham from Celta pig breed.  

PubMed

The effect of the inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on fatty acid profile of dry-cured Celta ham was studied. Twelve hams of each type (from three different diets: concentrate, mixed and chestnut) were used. Significant differences between treatments (P<0.001) were found regarding total saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Ham samples from the mixed and chestnut groups had less SFA (35.57% and 35.63%, respectively) with respect to ham samples from the concentrate group (40.33%), while hams from the mixed and chestnut batches showed higher values of MUFA than hams from the concentrate group (50.70 vs. 49.79 vs. 43.85, P<0.001, respectively). From a nutritional point of view, Celta hams from chestnut diets could be considered as healthier regarding their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/Hypercholesterolemic ratio). Discriminant analysis selected five variables (C(16:0), C(16:1cis-9), C(20:2), C(20:3n-6) and C(20:4n-6)) and calculated two discriminating functions which verifies the presence of chestnut in the finishing diet. PMID:22682688

Bermúdez, Roberto; Franco, Inmaculada; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier; Lorenzo, José M

2012-12-01

255

Wolbachia Infections and Mitochondrial Diversity of Two Chestnut Feeding Cydia Species  

PubMed Central

Cydia splendana and C. fagiglandana are two closely related chestnut feeding lepidopteran moth species. In this study, we surveyed the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia in these two species. Infection rates were 31% in C. splendana and 77% in C. fagiglandana. MLST analysis showed that these two species are infected with two quite diverse Wolbachia strains. C. splendana with Sequence Type (ST) 409 from the A-supergroup and C. fagiglandana with ST 150 from the B-supergroup. One individual of C. splendana was infected with ST 150, indicating horizontal transfer between these sister species. The mitochondrial DNA of the two Cydia species showed a significantly different mtDNA diversity, which was inversely proportional to their infection rates. PMID:25405506

Bourtzis, Kostas

2014-01-01

256

The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results, as expected, show that management didn't affect root mechanical properties, whereas root distribution within the soil profile did. In terms of additional root cohesion, values are higher in the managed stand, and lower in the abandoned one, at least in the first 50 cm of soil. In the abandoned stand, in fact, roots reach deeper layers of soil (100 cm) than the managed one (50 cm), mainly because of an unexpected greater soil depth. To assess the implication of such results in terms of slope stability, a simple infinite slope model was applied to the two conditions. The results showed that the abandoned stand is prone to instability also with a low level of saturation. On the contrary, by applying the additional root cohesion profile obtained in the managed stand to the steeper slopes, stability should be guaranteed, except in the case of total saturation. In conclusion, although more investigations are required especially to extend the number of stands, coppicing practice seem to be fundamental to prevent shallow landsliding in sweet chestnut forests over cohesionless slopes.

Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

2013-04-01

257

Volatile compounds and bacterial community dynamics of chestnut-flour-based sourdoughs.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were the monitoring of the microbial dynamics by means of a polyphasic approach based on conventional isolation techniques and PCR-DGGE-based methods in different chestnut-based sourdoughs and the evaluation of the impact of fermentation on volatile organic compounds formation during sourdoughs ripening. Members of the Lactobacillus plantarum group and Pediococcus pentosaceous dominated the sourdough ecosystems. Nevertheless, RAPD-PCR allowed recording a relevant genotypic biodiversity among strains coming from gluten-free flour combinations. Volatile compounds were characterised by GC/MS. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified, mainly alcohols, esters, acids, aldehydes and ketones. Principal component analysis of samples at the beginning and at the end of ripening offered a good separation of the samples and highlighted the effect of fermentation on the sensorial profile. PMID:23870973

Aponte, M; Boscaino, F; Sorrentino, A; Coppola, R; Masi, P; Romano, A

2013-12-01

258

Structure of Oxalacetate Acetylhydrolase, a Virulence Factor of the Chestnut Blight Fungus  

SciTech Connect

Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxalacetate is the main OAH substrate, but the enzyme also acts as a lyase of (2R,3S)-dimethyl malate with {approx}1000-fold lower efficacy. The crystal structure of OAH was determined alone, in complex with a mechanism-based inhibitor, 3,3-difluorooxalacetate (DFOA), and in complex with the reaction product, oxalate, to a resolution limit of 1.30, 1.55, and 1.65 {angstrom}, respectively. OAH assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit exhibiting an ({alpha}/{beta})8 barrel fold and each pair swapping the 8th {alpha}-helix. An active site 'gating loop' exhibits conformational disorder in the ligand-free structure. To obtain the structures of the OAH {center_dot} ligand complexes, the ligand-free OAH crystals were soaked briefly with DFOA or oxalacetate. DFOA binding leads to ordering of the gating loop in a conformation that sequesters the ligand from the solvent. DFOA binds in a gem-diol form analogous to the oxalacetate intermediate/transition state. Oxalate binds in a planar conformation, but the gating loop is largely disordered. Comparison between the OAH structure and that of the closely related enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, suggests potential determinants of substrate preference.

Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nuss, Donald L.; Herzberg, Osnat (UMBI)

2010-11-15

259

Phenolic compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) heartwood. Effect of toasting at cooperage.  

PubMed

The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Castanea sativa Mill., before and after toasting in cooperage, were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS, and some low molecular weight phenolic compounds and hydrolyzable tannins were found. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds were lignin constituents as the acids gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, ferulic, and ellagic, the aldehydes protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, coniferylic, and sinapic, and the coumarin scopoletin. Their patterns were somewhat different those of oak because oak does not contain compounds such protocatechuic acid and aldehyde and is composed of much lower amounts of gallic acid than chestnut. Vescalagin and castalagin were the main ellagitannins, and acutissimin was tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. Moreover, some gallotannins were tentatively identified, including different isomers of di, tri, tetra, and pentagalloyl glucopyranose, and di and trigalloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucopyranose, comprising 20 different compounds, as well as some ellagic derivatives such as ellagic acid deoxyhexose, ellagic acid dimer dehydrated, and valoneic acid dilactone. These ellagic derivatives as well as some galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl derivatives were tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. The profile of tannins was therefore different from that of oak wood because oak only contains tannins of the ellagitannins type. Seasoned and toasted chestnut wood showed a very different balance between lignin derivatives and tannins because toasting resulted in the degradation of tannins and the formation of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignin degradation. Moreover, the different toasting levels provoked different balances between tannins and lignin constituents because the intensity of lignin and tannin degradation was in relation to the intensity of toasting. PMID:20687564

Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

2010-09-01

260

Antifeedants and feeding stimulants in bark extracts of ten woody non-host species of the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.  

PubMed

Bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a Soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. Species were alder (Alnus glutinosa), aspen (Populus tremula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), holly (Ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (Evonymus europaeus), walnut (Juglans regia), and yew (Taxus baccata). Bark of each species was collected in southern Scandinavia during the summer. Resulting extracts were tested for antifeedant activity against the pine weevil by a micro-feeding choice assay. At a dose corresponding to that in the bark, methanol extracts from Aesculus, Taxus, Ilex, and Populus were antifeedant active, while pentane extracts of Aesculus, Fagus, Syringa, and Viburnum were stimulatory. Four known antifeedants against H. abietis, the straight-chained carboxylic acids, hexanoic and nonanoic acid (C6 and C9), carvone, and carvacrol were identified by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in several extracts. The major constituents were identified and tested for feeding deterrence. The aromatic compounds benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol are new non-host plant-derived feeding deterrents for the pine weevil. Additionally, two feeding stimulants, beta-sitosterol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, were identified. One active methanol extract of Aesculus bark was sequentially fractionated by liquid chromatography, and major compounds were tentatively identified as branched alcohols and esters of hexanoic acid. Five commercially available hexanoate esters and two commercially available branched alcohols were identified as new active antifeedants. Both stimulatory and inhibiting compounds were found in the same extracts and co-eluted in the same or adjacent fractions. The mix of semiochemicals of opposite activity in each extract or fraction could explain the stimulatory-, inhibitory-, or sometimes neutral activity. Generally, such co-occurrence confounds the isolation of antifeedants. PMID:18719963

Eriksson, Carina; Månsson, Per E; Sjödin, Kristina; Schlyter, Fredrik

2008-10-01

261

Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities  

PubMed Central

The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m3). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority—80%–90%—detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

2014-01-01

262

Genomic analysis of the horse Y chromosome  

E-print Network

% of cases, male infertility is associated with deletions/rearrangements in the Y chromosome. Presently there is no gene map for the Y chromosome in the horse. Therefore, the primary aim of this study is to build a detailed physical map of the chromosome...

Santani, Avni Bhawan

2005-02-17

263

The Trojan Horse Method in Nuclear Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic features of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed together with a review of recent applications aimed to extract the bare Sb(E) astrophysical factor for several two body processes. In this framework information on electron screening potential Ue was obtained from comparison with the direct experiments of fusion reactions.

Spitaleri, C.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Romano, S.; Tumino, A.; Figuera, P.; Pizzone, R. G.; Cherubini, S.

2005-12-01

264

Proximal interphalangeal arthrodesis in 22 horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new method of internal fixation technique for pastern arthrodesis. Pastern arthrodeses are performed commonly in horses with chronic osteoarthritis of the pastern joint or, in cases of acute traumatic injury to the pastern, in which the weightbearing bony column must be restored. Chronic osteoarthritis of the pastern is a frequent

T. P. SCHAER; L. R. BRAMLAGE; R. M. EMBERTSON; S. HANCE

2010-01-01

265

Infarctive purpura hemorrhagica in five horses.  

PubMed

Five horses were examined because of signs of muscle stiffness, colic, or both. All 5 had been exposed to Streptococcus equi within 3 weeks prior to examination or had high serum titers of antibodies against the M protein of S equi. Horses had signs of unrelenting colic-like pain and focal areas of muscle swelling. Four horses were euthanatized. The fifth responded to treatment with penicillin and dexamethasone; after 3 weeks of treatment with dexamethasone, prednisolone was administered for an additional 10 weeks. Common hematologic and serum biochemical abnormalities included neutrophilia with a left shift and toxic changes, hyperproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and high serum creatine kinase and aspartate transferase activities. Necropsy revealed extensive infarction of the skeletal musculature, skin, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and lungs. Histologic lesions included leukocytoclastic vasculitis in numerous tissues and acute coagulative necrosis resembling infarction. These horses appeared to have a severe form of purpura hemorrhagica resembling Henoch-Schönlein purpura in humans and characterized by infarction of skeletal muscles. Early recognition of focal muscle swelling, abdominal discomfort, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, and high serum creatine kinase activity combined with antimicrobial and corticosteroid treatment may enhance the likelihood of a successful outcome. PMID:15934258

Kaese, Heather J; Valberg, Stephanie J; Hayden, David W; Wilson, Julia H; Charlton, Patricia; Ames, Trevor R; Al-Ghamdi, Ghanem M

2005-06-01

266

Stretching Exercises for Horses: Are They Effective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to present research in both animals and humans that support the use of stretching exercises in horses as a means of increasing range of motion, improving body flexibility and posture, and preventing injury by strengthening the supportive tissues. Too often veterinarians may overlook the importance of stretch exercises. This could partially be due to a lack of

Ava Frick

2010-01-01

267

Understanding the perceptual world of horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the viewpoint of experimental psychology, there are two problems with our current knowledge of equine perception. The first is that the behavioral and neurophysiological research in this area has enormous gaps, reflecting that this animal is not a convenient laboratory subject. The second is that the horse, having been a close companion to humans for many millennia, entrenched anecdotal

Carol A Saslow

2002-01-01

268

Prepurchase Examination of Jumpers and Dressage Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rigorous examination aided by a check list, careful recording of findings, knowledge of the horse's discipline and awareness of legal liability are necessary for a satisfactory prepurchase examina- tion. Clear communications with all parties can help avoid misunderstandings and upsets. Au- thor's address: 59 Winding Rd., Santa Fe, NM 87505. r 1999 AAEP.

Daniel Marks

269

Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

Symington, Ashley

2012-01-01

270

Trojan Horse Particle Invariance: An Extensive Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decades, the Trojan Horse method (THM) has played a crucial role for the measurement of several particle (both neutron and charged one) induced cross sections for reactions of astrophysical interest. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases, many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance proves the relatively simple approach allowed by the pole approximation and sheds light in the involved reaction mechanisms. Here we shortly review the complete work for the binary 2H(d,p)3H, 6Li(d, ?)4He, 6Li(p, ?)3He, 7Li(p, ?)4He reactions, by using the quasi free reactions after break-ups of different nuclides. Results are compared assuming the 6Li and 3He break-up in the case of the d(d,p)t, 6Li(d, ?)4He reactions and considering the 2H and 3He break-up for 6Li(p, ?)3He, 7Li(p, ?)4He reactions. These results, regardless of the Trojan Horse particle or the break-up scheme, confirms the applicability of the standard description of the THM and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nuclei for a whole spectra of different cases. This gives a strong basis for the understanding of the quasi-free mechanism which is the foundation on which the THM lies.

Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M. L.; Lamia, L.; Tumino, A.; Bertulani, C. A.; Blokhintsev, L.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; La Cognata, M.; Mrazek, J.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spartá, R.

2014-08-01

271

It's Time to Get Another Horse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author comments on Peter Roos's article (this issue). The author sees a strong need to clarify whether the horse that is to be remounted is more and better English-as-a-second-language (ESL) programs or the goal of promoting bilingual education as a positive practice in the nation's schools or something else altogether. If the…

Gonzalez, Josue

2007-01-01

272

Horse Creek Restoration Project 1994-95.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This letter is to document completion of Interagency Agreement No. 14-48-001-94539, Project No. 94-HR-10, Horse Creek Restoration Project. The contract specified a target of five W.I.N. sites rehabilitated. The authors exceeded that target by three sites ...

1995-01-01

273

Idiopathic granulomatous pneumonia in seven horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history, clinical signs and pathological findings in seven adult horses with histologically confirmed idiopathic granulomatous disease, primarily of the lungs, are reviewed. They ranged in age from eight to 21 years, five were geldings and two were females, they belonged to five breeds and there were no seasonal or geographical associations. The primary clinical signs were chronic weight loss,

N. Pusterla; P. A. Pesavento; P. Smith; M. M. Durando; K. G. Magdesian; W. D. Wilson

2003-01-01

274

Of Prancing Horses and Bolted Stable Doors  

E-print Network

Of Prancing Horses and Bolted Stable Doors: Financial Crisis Recession and PolicyFinancial Crisis The evolution of economic thinking can be illustrated through the experience of successive generations: · Today's young adults "the return of depression economics" (2007??) · Their parents "the end of history" (1979

Kim, Tae-Kyun

275

Changes in chemical composition of a red wine aged in acacia, cherry, chestnut, mulberry, and oak wood barrels.  

PubMed

Aging in wooden barrels is a process used to stabilize the color and enrich the sensorial characteristics of wine. Many compounds are released from wood into the wine; oxygen permeation through the wood favors formation of new anthocyanin and tannin derivatives. Recently, polyphenols and volatile compounds released from acacia, chestnut, cherry, mulberry, and oak wood used in making barrels for spirits and wine aging were studied. Here, changes in volatile and polyphenolic compositions of a red wine aged for 9 months in acacia, cherry, chestnut, mulberry, and oak barrels are studied. Mulberry showed significant decreases of fruity-note ethyl esters and ethylguaiacol and a great cession of ethylphenol (horsey-odor defect). Cherry promoted the highest polyphenol oxidation, making it less suitable for long aging. LC/ESI-MS(n) showed the relevant presence of cis- and trans-piceatannol in mulberry-aged wine, a phytoalexin with antileukemia and antimelanoma activities. PMID:19196157

De Rosso, Mirko; Panighel, Annarita; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Stella, Laura; Flamini, Riccardo

2009-03-11

276

Polyphenolic compounds as chemical markers of wine ageing in contact with cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood.  

PubMed

The nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of four red wines, one white, and one rosé aged using barrels and chips of cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS, to identify the phenolic compounds that woods other than oak contribute to wines, and if some of them can be used as chemical markers of ageing with them. A total of 68 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were identified, 15 found only in wines aged with acacia wood, 6 with cherry wood, and 1 with chestnut wood. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify wines aged in contact with these woods. In addition, some differences in the nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of wines were detected related to both the levels of compounds provided by each wood species and the different evolution of flavonols and flavanols in wines during ageing in barrels or in contact with chips. PMID:24054214

Fernández de Simón, B; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Martínez, J; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

2014-01-15

277

Optimization of solid-state enzymatic hydrolysis of chestnut using mixtures of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase.  

PubMed

Solid-state hydrolysis of starch present in chestnut was assayed in a single step with a mixture of a thermostable alpha-amylase and glucoamylase at three temperatures: 17 and 30 degrees C, for simultaneous hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation, and 70 degrees C, the optimal temperature for these enzymes. Total hydrolysis was only reached at the highest temperature, leading to a more concentrated hydrolysate than in submerged hydrolysis. Mass transfer limitations and starch retrogradation appear as the main causes for the incomplete hydrolysis of chestnut starch in solid-state operation at 17 and 30 degrees C. Even accepting that this limitation causes a 15% reduction of the yield of the hydrolysis with respect to the submerged process or the solid process at high temperature, solid-state hydrolysis at low temperatures seems to be adequate for simultaneous solid-state hydrolysis and fermentation processes. PMID:15713010

López, Cristina; Torrado, Ana; Guerra, Nelson P; Pastrana, Lorenzo

2005-02-23

278

Pulmonary artery wedge pressure during treadmill exercise in warmblood horses with atrial fibrillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heart rate and the pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PWP) was measured in 10 healthy warmblood horses and in six warmblood horses with atrial fibrillation (AF) at rest and during standardised treadmill exercise.During treadmill exercise, the increase in heart rate was significantly higher in the horses with AF than in the healthy horses.Horses with AF showed a significantly higher increase

Heidrun Gehlen; Kirstin Bubeck; Karl Rohn; Peter Stadler

2006-01-01

279

Influence of 4-H Horse Project Involvement on Development of Life Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four-H horse project members who competed in non-riding horse contests were surveyed to evaluate the influence of their horse project participation on life-skill development. Contests in which youth competed included Horse Bowl, Demonstrations, Public Speaking, and Art. Youth indicated a positive influence on both life-skill development and horse

Anderson, K. P.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.

2011-01-01

280

Discovered for the first time in the UK in July 2002, the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella is now spreading rapidly from its first known location in  

E-print Network

its rate of spread will help us to assess potential control strategies. Reports of any new infestation the underside of the leaf remains green. Fungal lesions in contrast are brown (see below) and affect both

281

Isolation of a large thaumatin-like antifungal protein from seeds of the Kweilin chestnut Castanopsis chinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protein with an N-terminal sequence showing a much lesser extent of homology than French bean and kiwi fruit thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) to other TLPs, and possessing a molecular mass of 30kDa which is considerably higher than those of previously reported TLPs, has been purified from the seeds of the chestnut Castanopsis chinensis Hance. The protein was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose

K. T. Chu; T. B. Ng

2003-01-01

282

Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). These sites lie within the boundaries of the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant (Figure 2). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to protect local groundwater resources in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with reporting requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY); Energy Systems submitted the 1994 Part 1 GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime to the TDEC in February 1995 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1995a).

NONE

1995-09-01

283

Multiple introductions and recombination in Cryphonectria hypovirus 1: perspective for a sustainable biological control of chestnut blight  

PubMed Central

Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) is a mycovirus which decreases the virulence of its fungal host Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight recently introduced in Europe. The understanding of the evolutionary processes which have shaped CHV1 populations in Europe is required to develop a sustainable biocontrol strategy targeting chestnut blight and effective in European chestnut forests. To retrace the evolutionary history of CHV1, we analyzed sequences from two genomic regions on a collection of 55 CHV1 strains from France and northern Spain, two countries where multiple introductions of C. parasitica occurred. Several recombination events and variable selection pressures contributed to CHV1 evolution, agreeing with a non-clock-like diversification rate. These two mechanisms may be at the origin of CHV1 population diversity observed in western Europe. Considering the actual prevalence of CHV1 and its association with host genotypes, multiple introductions of CHV1 may have occurred in Europe, some of them directly from Asia and some of them through North America. Although some viral strains remained with low frequency in their introduction area, multiple infections might have allowed homologous recombination within parental sequences. Some of these recombinant lineages are associated with the spread of CHV1 in European regions. PMID:24944571

Feau, Nicolas; Dutech, Cyril; Brusini, Jeremie; Rigling, Daniel; Robin, Cecile

2014-01-01

284

Invasion history and demographic pattern of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 across European populations of the chestnut blight fungus.  

PubMed

We reconstructed the invasion history of the fungal virus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1) in Europe, which infects the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. The pattern of virus evolution was inferred based on nucleotide sequence variation from isolates sampled across a wide area in Europe at different points in time. Phylogeny and time estimates suggested that CHV-1 was introduced together with its fungal host to Europe and that it rapidly colonized the central range along the south facing slopes of the Alps and the north-east facing slopes of the Dinaric Alps. These central populations were the source for two waves of simultaneous invasions toward the southern Balkans and Turkey, as indicated by migration rates. Our results showed that the evolutionary scenarios for CHV-1 and C. parasitica were spatially congruent. As infection with CHV-1 reduces the pathogenicity of C. parasitica toward the chestnut tree, CHV-1 invasions of the newly established C. parasitica populations probably prevented the development of devastating chestnut blight epidemics in Europe. We propose that in this, and supposedly in other pathosystems, geographic, vegetation-related, demographic, economic, and political factors may help explain the correlated invasion pattern of a parasite and its host. PMID:23301186

Bryner, Sarah F; Rigling, Daniel; Brunner, Patrick C

2012-12-01

285

Multiple introductions and recombination in Cryphonectria hypovirus 1: perspective for a sustainable biological control of chestnut blight.  

PubMed

Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) is a mycovirus which decreases the virulence of its fungal host Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight recently introduced in Europe. The understanding of the evolutionary processes which have shaped CHV1 populations in Europe is required to develop a sustainable biocontrol strategy targeting chestnut blight and effective in European chestnut forests. To retrace the evolutionary history of CHV1, we analyzed sequences from two genomic regions on a collection of 55 CHV1 strains from France and northern Spain, two countries where multiple introductions of C. parasitica occurred. Several recombination events and variable selection pressures contributed to CHV1 evolution, agreeing with a non-clock-like diversification rate. These two mechanisms may be at the origin of CHV1 population diversity observed in western Europe. Considering the actual prevalence of CHV1 and its association with host genotypes, multiple introductions of CHV1 may have occurred in Europe, some of them directly from Asia and some of them through North America. Although some viral strains remained with low frequency in their introduction area, multiple infections might have allowed homologous recombination within parental sequences. Some of these recombinant lineages are associated with the spread of CHV1 in European regions. PMID:24944571

Feau, Nicolas; Dutech, Cyril; Brusini, Jérémie; Rigling, Daniel; Robin, Cécile

2014-05-01

286

Low dose ?-irradiation as a suitable solution for chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) conservation: effects on sugars, fatty acids, and tocopherols.  

PubMed

Along with dehydration, the development of insects and microorganisms is the major drawback in chestnut conservation. Irradiation has been regaining interest as an alternative technology to increase food product shelf life. In the present work, the effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the sugar, fatty acid, and tocopherol composition of chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different storage periods (0, 30, and 60 days) was evaluated. The irradiations were performed in a 60Co experimental equipment, for 1 h (0.27±0.04 kGy) and 2 h (0.54±0.04 kGy). Changes in sugars and tocopherols were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index and fluorescence detections, respectively, while changes in fatty acids were analyzed by gas-chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection. Regarding sugar composition, storage time proved to have a higher effect than irradiation treatment. Fructose and glucose increased after storage, with the corresponding decrease of sucrose. Otherwise, the tocopherol content was lower in nonirradiated samples, without a significant influence of storage. Saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected, either by storage or irradiation. Nevertheless, some individual fatty acid concentrations were influenced by one of two factors, such as the increase of palmitic acid in irradiated samples or the decrease of oleic acid after 60 days of storage. Overall, the assayed irradiation doses seem to be a promising alternative treatment to increase chestnut shelf life, without affecting the profile and composition in important nutrients. PMID:21823582

Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-09-28

287

Analysis of organic acids in electron beam irradiated chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.): Effects of radiation dose and storage time.  

PubMed

Since 2010, methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant was banned from the European Union under the Montreal Protocol guidelines, due to its deleterious effects on health and risk to the environment. Since then, many alternatives for chestnut conservation have been studied (hot water dip treatment being the most common), among them, electron beam irradiation has been proposed as being a safe, clean and cheap alternative. Herein, the effects of this radiation at different doses up to 6kGy and over storage up to 60days in the amounts and profile of nutritionally important organic acids were evaluated. Chestnuts contained important organic acids with quinic and citric acids as main compounds. Storage time, which is traditionally well accepted by consumers, caused a slight decrease on quinic (13-9mg/g), ascorbic (1.2-0.8mg/g), malic (5-4mg/g), fumaric (0.4-0.3mg/g) and total organic (33-26mg/g) acids content. Otherwise, irradiation dose did not cause appreciable changes, either individually or in total (28-27mg/g) organic acid contents. Electron beam irradiation might constitute a valuable alternative for chestnut conservation. PMID:23376134

Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2013-05-01

288

Plasma adrenocorticotropin concentration in healthy horses and in horses with clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism.  

PubMed

Pituitary adenomas are commonly reported in older horses. The typical clinical signs associated with this condition, also known as equine Cushing's disease (ECD), are related to increased adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) production resulting in hyperadrenocorticism. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether plasma ACTH concentrations differed between cushingoid and healthy horses. The second objective was to determine the effects of blood sample handling techniques on ACTH concentrations. A commercial human ACTH radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to quantify equine plasma ACTH. Intra-assay and interassay variations, as well as dilutional parallelism were determined during the RIA validation. Plasma ACTH concentrations were evaluated in a group of healthy equids composed of 18 horses and 9 ponies, and in 22 equids with a clinical diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism (11 horses and 11 ponies). The mean plasma ACTH concentrations in healthy horses and ponies, (18.68 +/- 6.79 pg/mL (mean +/- SD) and 8.35 +/- 2.92 pg/mL, respectively), were significantly different (P = .009). The mean plasma ACTH concentration in horses and ponies with ECD, (199.18 +/- 182.82 pg/mL and 206.21 +/- 319.56 pg/mL, respectively), were significantly higher than the mean ACTH concentration in the control animals (P < .001). Plasma ACTH concentrations appeared to be a sensitive and specific indicator of ECD in horses and ponies. ACTH concentrations measured in plasma samples kept at room temperature (19 degrees C) as long as 3 hours after blood collection were not statistically different from those of samples kept at 1 degree C. PMID:8965262

Couëtil, L; Paradis, M R; Knoll, J

1996-01-01

289

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51...BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must...

2010-01-01

290

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22...BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The...

2010-01-01

291

19 CFR 148.32 - Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. 148.32 Section 148...Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. (a) Admission free...vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses, together with their...

2010-04-01

292

9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313 Section 93...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious...

2010-01-01

293

33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. 147... SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description . Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi...

2010-07-01

294

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28 Section 51...BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep,...

2010-01-01

295

77 FR 47589 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Horse Protection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Approval of an Information Collection; Horse Protection Regulations AGENCY: Animal...information collection associated with the Horse Protection Program. DATES: We will consider...For information on regulations for the Horse Protection Program, contact Dr....

2012-08-09

296

9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. 93.316...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter....

2010-01-01

297

76 FR 78692 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northeast California Resource Advisory Council Wild Horse and Burro...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...California Resource Advisory Council Wild Horse and Burro Management Subcommittee AGENCY...California Resource Advisory Council's wild horse and burro management subcommittee will...issues associated with management of wild horses and burros on public lands managed by...

2011-12-19

298

9 CFR 93.305 - Declaration and other documents for horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Declaration and other documents for horses. 93.305 Section 93.305 Animals...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.305 Declaration and other documents for horses. (a) The certificates,...

2010-01-01

299

Gastric ulcer syndrome in exercising horses fed different types of hay  

E-print Network

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is highly prevalent in horses and most commonly found in racing and performance horses. This condition may negatively impact the health and athletic performance of affected horses (Vatistas et al. 1999). Proton...

Lybbert, Travis Craig

2009-05-15

300

Myopathy in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (Cushing's disease).  

PubMed

Fifteen horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction were studied. The horses were of various breeds and between 15 and 28 years of age. Control horses matched for breed and age were studied for comparison. Evaluations included complete blood cell count and serum biochemical analysis, electromyography, and gluteus medius muscle biopsies for histochemical, morphometric, and ultrastructural analysis. No differences were found between groups of horses on routine laboratory analysis or electromyography. We demonstrated that muscle wasting in diseased horses was the result of atrophy of types 2A and 2B muscle fibers and loss of type 2B myofibers. Mild non-specific non-inflammatory myopathic alterations such as myofiber size variation, internal nuclei, perimysial, endomysial and sarcoplasmic fat accumulation were observed. At the ultrastructural level, subsarcolemmal mitochondrial accumulation and increased lipid droplets were evident. Similar to other species, this study confirmed atrophy of type 2 fibers as the cause of muscle mass loss in horses with Cushing's disease. PMID:17005399

Aleman, M; Watson, J L; Williams, D C; LeCouteur, R A; Nieto, J E; Shelton, G D

2006-11-01

301

Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues.  

PubMed

The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference "Twilight". In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms. PMID:24860704

Moreton, Joanna; Malla, Sunir; Aboobaker, A Aziz; Tarlinton, Rachael E; Emes, Richard D

2014-01-01

302

Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues  

PubMed Central

The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference “Twilight”. In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms. PMID:24860704

Malla, Sunir; Aboobaker, A. Aziz; Tarlinton, Rachael E.; Emes, Richard D.

2014-01-01

303

Acquired Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia: A Review of 13 Horses  

PubMed Central

The case records of 13 horses with acquired incarcerated inguinal hernia in January-August 1983, were reviewed. Nine cases were in stallions. The remaining four involved eventration 5-48 hours following castration. Ages ranged from 1-17 years. Horses showed a variable degree of colic. Bowel was felt to pass through the internal inguinal ring on rectal examination in most cases. The physical features of the scrotum varied considerably. Resection of ischemic jejunum and/or ileum was necessary in three horses. Two horses were euthanized at surgery (one with bilateral ischemic jejunum, one with bowel perforation), and a further horse on day 16 postsurgery following development of multiple adhesions. All stallions were castrated. Follow-up for 6-24 months (mean 12.7) disclosed that all ten discharged horses were alive and healthy (recovery rate 77%). PMID:17422760

Weaver, A. David

1987-01-01

304

The horse as a potential reservoir of salmonella  

E-print Network

Horses at Necropsy? 20 Salmonella Serotyp s Isolated from 75 Horses Following Post-Mortem Examination-- 25 Frequency of Isolation of Salmonella Serotypes from Various Areas of the Intestinal Tract from Normal Horses at N ecropsy 29 Periodic~ ty...-Month Period- 42 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Areas o' the intestinal tract from which Samples were obtained 12 Percent isolation of individual salmonella serotypes recovered from various areas of the intestinal tract following post-mortem sampling of 75...

Silverthorne, Carol Ann

2012-06-07

305

Evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses.  

PubMed

Influenza A viruses are characterized by their ability to evade host immunity, even in vaccinated individuals. To determine how prior immunity shapes viral diversity in vivo, we studied the intra- and interhost evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses. Although the level and structure of genetic diversity were similar to those in naïve horses, intrahost bottlenecks may be more stringent in vaccinated animals, and mutations shared among horses often fall close to putative antigenic sites. PMID:23388708

Murcia, Pablo R; Baillie, Gregory J; Stack, J Conrad; Jervis, Carley; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A; Daly, Janet; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T; Holmes, Edward C; Wood, James L N

2013-04-01

306

Experimental inoculation of equine coronavirus into Japanese draft horses.  

PubMed

Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrheic fecal sample to confirm infection after inoculation and to investigate the clinical course and virus shedding patterns of ECoV. Virus neutralization tests showed that all three horses became infected with ECoV. Two of the three horses developed clinical signs similar to those observed during ECoV outbreaks, including fever, anorexia, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. All horses excreted a large amount of virus into their feces for more than 9 days after inoculation regardless of the presence or absence of clinical signs, which suggests that feces are an important source of ECoV infection. ECoV was also detected in nasal swabs from all horses, suggesting that respiratory transmission of ECoV may occur. Both symptomatic horses developed viremia, while the asymptomatic horse did not. White blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentrations changed relative to the clinical condition of the inoculated horses; these may be useful markers for monitoring the clinical status of horses infected with ECoV. This is the first report of induction of clinical signs of ECoV infection in horses by experimental inoculation. These clinical and virological findings should aid further investigation of the pathogenesis of ECoV. PMID:25139547

Nemoto, Manabu; Oue, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yoshinori; Kanno, Toru; Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Ueno, Takanori; Katayama, Yoshinari; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

2014-12-01

307

Conditioning taste aversions to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) in horses.  

PubMed

Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) is a serious poisoning problem for horses grazing on infested rangelands in the western United States. Our objectives were to determine 1) whether lithium chloride or apomorphine would condition aversions to palatable foods, and at what doses, and 2) whether horses could be averted to fresh locoweed in a pen and grazing situation. Apomorphine was not an acceptable aversive agent because at the dose required to condition an aversion (> or = 0.17 mg/kg BW), apomorphine induced unacceptable behavioral effects. Lithium chloride given via stomach tube at 190 mg/kg BW conditioned strong and persistent aversions to palatable feeds with minor signs of distress. Pen and grazing tests were conducted in Colorado to determine if horses could be averted to fresh locoweed. Pen tests indicated that most horses (5/6) were completely averted from locoweed. Treated horses ate 34 g of fresh locoweed compared to 135 g for controls (P < 0.01) during three pen tests when offered 150 g per test. One horse (T) in the treatment group ate locoweed each time it was offered in the pen, but ate no locoweed while grazing. In the grazing trial, control horses averaged 8.6% of bites of locoweed (P < 0.01) during the grazing portion of the study, whereas treated horses averaged <0.5%. One treated horse (S) accounted for all consumption; he consumed 15% of his bites as locoweed in a grazing bout on d 2 of the field study. Thereafter, he was dosed a second time with lithium chloride and ate no locoweed in the subsequent 5 d. Three of six horses required two pairings of lithium chloride with fresh locoweed to condition a complete aversion. The results of this study indicate that horses can be averted from locoweed using lithium chloride as an aversive agent, and this may provide a management tool to reduce the risk of intoxication for horses grazing locoweed-infested rangeland. PMID:11831531

Pfister, J A; Stegelmeier, B L; Cheney, C D; Ralphs, M H; Gardner, D R

2002-01-01

308

Pharmacokinetics of ranitidine HCL in horses and foals  

E-print Network

of ranitidine HCI in adult horses 58 INTRODUCTION Histamine-2 (HZ) receptor antagonists are used in veterinary medicine for the prophylactic, short-term, and maintenance therapy of equine gastric ulcer disease (Becht and Byars, 1986; Duran and Ravis, 1993... senunal concentrations of ranitidine with the resultant gastric pH are lacking. First described by Rooney (1964), gastric ulcers are recognized as an important clinical disease of horses. Although they may affect adult horses as well as foals, certain...

Holland, Patricia Susan

2012-06-07

309

Modern riding style improves horse racing times.  

PubMed

When animals carry loads, there is a proportionate increase in metabolic cost, and in humans this increase in cost is reduced when the load is elastically coupled to the load bearer. Major horse race times and records improved by 5 to 7% around 1900 when jockeys adopted a crouched posture. We show that jockeys move to isolate themselves from the movement of their mount. This would be difficult or impossible with a seated or upright, straight-legged posture. This isolation means that the horse supports the jockey's body weight but does not have to move the jockey through each cyclical stride path. This posture requires substantial work by jockeys, who have near-maximum heart rates during racing. PMID:19608909

Pfau, Thilo; Spence, Andrew; Starke, Sandra; Ferrari, Marta; Wilson, Alan

2009-07-17

310

Acute hemorrhage and blood transfusions in horses.  

PubMed

Treatment of acute hemorrhage in the horse involves targeted medical management and also may involve surgical stabilization. This article provides an approach to the initial stabilization and information on available topical hemostats. The practice of blood collection and transfusion is also described, with attention to new information on viability of transfused equine blood, potential negative effects of blood transfusion, and methods of cell salvage. PMID:25016500

Mudge, Margaret C

2014-08-01

311

Metabolic studies of mesterolone in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesterolone (1?-methyl-5?-androstan-17?-ol-3-one) is a synthetic anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) with reported abuses in human sports. As for other AAS, mesterolone is also a potential doping agent in equine sports. Metabolic studies on mesterolone have been reported for humans, whereas little is known about its metabolic fate in horses. This paper describes the studies of both the in vitro and in

Emmie N. M. Ho; David K. K. Leung; Gary N. W. Leung; Terence S. M. Wan; Henry N. C. Wong; Xiaohua Xu; John H. K. Yeung

2007-01-01

312

Proton resonance assignments of horse ferricytochrome c  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D NMR) was used to obtain extensive resonance assignments in the ¹H NMR spectrum of horse ferricytochrome c. Assignments were made for the main-chain and C{sub β} protons of 102 residues (all except Pro-44 and Gly-84) and the majority of side-chain protons. As starting points for the assignment of the oxidized protein, a limited set

A. Joshua Wand; Deena L. Di Stefano; S. W. Englander

1989-01-01

313

[Ciliates from the intestine of Yakut horse (Equus caballus)].  

PubMed

Endobiotic ciliates of native Yakut horse are investigated. 57 ciliate species have been found. From 17 up to 43 species of ciliates have been revealed in each host specimen. The specimens of Alloiozona trizona Hsiung, 1930 and Triadinium caudatum Fiorentini, 1890 were present in 100 % of the horses. The endemic genus and species of allantosomides, Strelkowella urunbasiensis Kornilova, 2004, has been found in 11 horses. Allantoxena japonensis (Imai, 1979) and Cycloposthium ishikawai Gassovsky, 1919 being recorded previously in Japan only were found for the first time in Russia. The species Cycloposthium ponomarevi Kornilova, 2001 peculiar to the Turkmenistan koulan has been found in the Yakut horses. PMID:17144407

Kornilova, O A

2006-01-01

314

Summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis) poisoning in three horses.  

PubMed

Three horses died as a result of eating grass hay containing summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis L.), a plant containing cardenolides similar to oleander and foxglove. A 9-year-old thoroughbred gelding, a 20-year-old appaloosa gelding, and a 5-year-old quarter horse gelding initially presented with signs of colic 24-48 hours after first exposure to the hay. Gastrointestinal gaseous distension was the primary finding on clinical examination of all three horses. Two horses became moribund and were euthanatized 1 day after first showing clinical signs, and the third horse was euthanatized after 4 days of medical therapy. Endocardial hemorrhage and gaseous distension of the gastrointestinal tract were the only necropsy findings in the first two horses. On microscopic examination, both horses had scattered foci of mild, acute myocardial necrosis and neutrophilic inflammation associated with endocardial and epicardial hemorrhage. The third horse that survived for 4 days had multifocal to coalescing, irregular foci of acute, subacute, and chronic myocardial degeneration and necrosis. A. aestivalis (pheasant's eye, summer adonis) was identified in the hay. Strophanthidin, the aglycone of several cardenolides present in Adonis spp., was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry in gastrointestinal contents from all three horses. Although Adonis spp. contain cardiac glycosides, cardiac lesions have not previously been described in livestock associated with consumption of adonis, and this is the first report of adonis toxicosis in North America. PMID:15133169

Woods, L W; Filigenzi, M S; Booth, M C; Rodger, L D; Arnold, J S; Puschner, B

2004-05-01

315

Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses.  

PubMed

Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehydrotremetone, 6-hydroxytremetone, and 3-oxyangeloyl-tremetone) are responsible for the toxicity of rayless goldenrod. However, experimental reproduction of rayless goldenrod-induced disease and detailed descriptions of poisoning in horses with known concentrations of tremetone and other BFK has not been documented. In this study four horses were fed increasing amounts of rayless goldenrod to obtain doses of approximately 0, 10, 30, and 60 mg BFK/kg BW for 14 days. After seven days of dosing the horse dosed with 60 mg BFK/kg BW horse developed depression, reluctance to eat, dehydration, trembling, and muscle fatigue. Biochemical alterations including increases in the serum enzyme activities of CK, AST, ALT, and LDH, and increased cardiac troponin I concentration, were also identified. Physiologically the clinically poisoned horse had decreased endurance seen as reluctance to perform on the treadmill with increased resting heart rate and a prolonged recovery of heart rate following treadmill exercise. The condition of the horse continued to decline and it was euthanized and necropsied on day 10. At necropsy the myocardium was pale and soft and many of the appendicular and large apical muscles were pale and moist. Histologically, the myocardium had extensive myocardial degeneration and necrosis with extensive fibrosis and multifocal mineralization. Several of the large appendicular muscles in this horse also had small foci of skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. Less severe myocardial changes were also identified in the horse dosed with 30 mg BFK/kg BW after 14 days of dosing. No clinical, biochemical or histologic changes were identified in the control horse and the horse dosed with 10 mg BFK/kg BW. These results suggest that doses of 60 mg BFK/kg BW for seven days produce extensive myocardial lesions in horses. The horse dosed with 30 mg BFK/kg BW developed less severe, but similar myocardial lesions over a longer duration, this suggests that poisoning may be cumulative and lower doses of longer duration are also toxic. Horses seem to be uniquely sensitive to rayless goldenrod-induced myocardial disease, therefore cardiac troponin I may be a useful marker of rayless goldenrod poisoning in horses. More work is needed to determine which BFK produce myocardial toxicity and better determine the effects of dose and duration on poisoning in horses. PMID:23831837

Davis, T Z; Stegelmeier, B L; Lee, S T; Green, B T; Hall, J O

2013-10-01

316

6. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; SECOND FLOOR: STONE FLOOR, HOPPER, HORSE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; SECOND FLOOR: STONE FLOOR, HOPPER, HORSE, AND HOOP ARRANGEMENTS, CRANE WITH RUNNER STONE - Lefferts Tide Mill, Huntington Harbor, Southdown Road, Huntington, Suffolk County, NY

317

Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses  

E-print Network

Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses The NYS Veterinary Diagnostic for identification. Since no commercially available vaccine exists against Salmonella, disinfection and other

Keinan, Alon

318

Mycoplasma felis pleuritis in two show-jumper horses.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma felis was identified as the cause of acute pleuritis in 2 show-jumping horses. The pleural exudate was proteinaceous, contained large numbers of neutrophils, and had a markedly increased lactate concentration. M. felis was isolated in pure culture from pleural fluid. Rising serum antibody titers to M. felis as well as a precipitous decline in titers to equine influenza virus were demonstrated in both horses. Pleural effusion in both horses and a pneumothorax detected in one of the horses resolved following a single drainage of pleural fluid and intravenous fluid, antibiotic, and analgesic therapy. PMID:1623728

Hoffman, A M; Baird, J D; Kloeze, H J; Rosendal, S; Bell, M

1992-04-01

319

Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda

2005-01-01

320

[Use of the immunoenzyme test ELISA-NS3 to distinguish horses infected by African horsesickness virus from vaccinated horses].  

PubMed

A vaccination protocol involving three horses, with five repeated injections of inactivated serotype 4 African horse sickness virus, was undertaken to determine a possible threshold for the appearance of antibodies against the non-structural protein NS3. Using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with the recombinant NS3 protein as an antigen, the authors detected a response to NS3 as of the second injection for the first horse and after four injections for the second horse. No response to NS3 was detected for the third horse. The results show that the inactivated vaccine is insufficiently purified to eliminate the non-structural protein NS3. Therefore using the NS3 protein as a marker did not enable differentiation between vaccinated and infected horses. PMID:10588005

Idrissi Bougrine, S; Fassi Fihri, O; el Harrak, M; Fassi Fehri, M M

1999-12-01

321

Anti-elastase and anti-hyaluronidase activities of saponins and sapogenins from Hedera helix, Aesculus hippocastanum, and Ruscus aculeatus: factors contributing to their efficacy in the treatment of venous insufficiency.  

PubMed

Triterpene and steroid saponins and sapogenins of medicinal plants (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hedera helix L., Ruscus aculeatus L.) are claimed to be effective for the treatment/prevention of venous insufficiency. In this work we evaluated the inhibitory effects of these plant constituents on the activity of elastase and hyaluronidase, the enzyme systems involved in the turnover of the main components of the perivascular amorphous substance. The results evidence that for Hedera helix L., the sapogenins only non-competitively inhibit hyaluronidase activity in a dose-dependent fashion, showing comparable IC50 values (hederagenin IC50 = 280.4 microM; oleanolic acid IC50 = 300.2 microM); both the saponins hederacoside C and alpha-hederin are very weak inhibitors. The same behaviour is observed for serine protease porcine pancreatic elastase: the glycosides are devoid of inhibitory action, while genins are potent competitive inhibitors (oleanolic acid IC50 = 5.1 microM; hederagenin IC50 = 40.6 microM). Constituents from Aesculus hippocastanum L. show inhibitory effects only on hyaluronidase, and this activity is mainly linked to the saponin escin (IC50 = 149.9 microM), less to its genin escinol (IC50 = 1.65 mM). By contrast, ruscogenins from Ruscus aculeatus L., ineffective on hyaluronidase activity, exhibit remarkable anti-elastase activity (IC50 = 119.9 microM; competitive inhibition). The mechanism of elastase inhibition by triterpene and steroid aglycones, with a nitroanilide derivative as substrate, is discussed. PMID:8554461

Facino, R M; Carini, M; Stefani, R; Aldini, G; Saibene, L

1995-10-01

322

Multicentric mast cell tumors in a horse.  

PubMed

A 6-year-old female Rocky Mountain horse was presented for evaluation of draining tracts and distal limb subcutaneous edema on the left front and left hind limbs that had been present for 2 weeks. Direct smears of fluid collected by fine-needle aspiration of subcutaneous fluid from both limbs were highly cellular with a predominance of eosinophils accompanied by numerous, moderately atypical, variably granulated mast cells. The cytologic diagnosis was mast cell tumor (MCT) with prominent eosinophilic infiltration with a differential diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma. Histologic evaluation of surgical biopsies of lesions from both limbs was performed on sections stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and Luna stains. The histologic diagnosis was MCT, and staining with toluidine blue and Luna stains confirmed the presence of mast cells and eosinophils, respectively. In addition, the mast cells strongly expressed CD117. This is the first reported case of cutaneous mast cell neoplasia in a horse in which primary presenting complaints were draining tracts and distal limb subcutaneous edema involving multiple limbs. This case illustrates the utility of staining for CD117 expression in combination with traditional stains, such as toluidine blue and Luna, in differentiating MCTs from other eosinophilic lesions in horses. PMID:20412546

Millward, Laurie M; Hamberg, Alex; Mathews, Jennifer; Machado-Parrula, Cecilia; Premanandan, Christopher; Hurcombe, Samuel D A; Radin, M Judith; Wellman, Maxey L

2010-09-01

323

Australian bat lyssavirus infection in two horses.  

PubMed

In May 2013, the first cases of Australian bat lyssavirus infections in domestic animals were identified in Australia. Two horses (filly-H1 and gelding-H2) were infected with the Yellow-bellied sheathtail bat (YBST) variant of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). The horses presented with neurological signs, pyrexia and progressing ataxia. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Negri bodies) were detected in some Purkinje neurons in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections from the brain of one of the two infected horses (H2) by histological examination. A morphological diagnosis of sub-acute moderate non-suppurative, predominantly angiocentric, meningo-encephalomyelitis of viral aetiology was made. The presumptive diagnosis of ABLV infection was confirmed by the positive testing of the affected brain tissue from (H2) in a range of laboratory tests including fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and real-time PCR targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Retrospective testing of the oral swab from (H1) in the real-time PCR also returned a positive result. The FAT and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed an abundance of ABLV antigen throughout the examined brain sections. ABLV was isolated from the brain (H2) and oral swab/saliva (H1) in the neuroblastoma cell line (MNA). Alignment of the genome sequence revealed a 97.7% identity with the YBST ABLV strain. PMID:25195190

Shinwari, Mustaghfira Wafa; Annand, Edward J; Driver, Luke; Warrilow, David; Harrower, Bruce; Allcock, Richard J N; Pukallus, Dennis; Harper, Jennifer; Bingham, John; Kung, Nina; Diallo, Ibrahim S

2014-10-10

324

Bilateral nodular lymphocytic conjunctivitis in a horse.  

PubMed

A Russian jumper horse presented because of an ocular perilimbal conjunctival mass and, on clinical examination, two bilateral conjunctival masses were found, of different size and conformation. Attempts at complete excision of the left eye mass and excisional biopsy of the right eye mass were performed. The left eye mass recurred rapidly, but resolved completely after topical corticosteroid therapy. The two lesions had similar histopathologic features, characterized by focal, chronic, primarily lymphocytic conjunctivitis with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia. Special histopathologic staining techniques (Gomori methenamine silver and acid fast stains) and immunohistochemistry (for CD3, BLA36 and lysozyme) failed to reveal any etiologic agents and indicated an inflammatory lesion composed of a heterogeneous population of lymphocytes and macrophages (nodular lymphocytic conjunctivitis). The lesions were indistinguishable, clinically and behaviorally, from what has been reported as 'conjunctival pseudotumor' in the horse. Equine conjunctival pseudotumor/nodular lymphocytic conjunctivitis has been reported to be unilateral and have a good prognosis after partial or complete surgical excision. This is the first reported case of bilateral nodular lymphocytic conjunctivitis in a horse and for which surgical excision alone was not curative. PMID:15762926

Stoppini, Riccardo; Gilger, Brian C; Malarkey, David E; Ratto, Alessandra; Brigati, Giampiero

2005-01-01

325

Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.  

PubMed

This paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. After plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. There is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (Pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. Plant extracts from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), green tea (Camellia sinensis), the fern Polypodium leucotomos and others contain antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that may protect the skin from sunburn and photoaging when administered topically or systemically. Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies. Some plant extracts have also been investigated in the treatment of vitiligo, various forms of hair loss and pigmentation disorders, and in aesthetic dermatology. PMID:20707877

Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Korting, Hans Christian; Schempp, Christoph

2010-11-01

326

Subsurface structure of the north Summit gas field, Chestnut Ridge anticline of the Appalachian Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Chestnut Ridge anticline is the westernmost of the High Plateau folds in southwestern Pennsylvania and north-central West Virginia that are detached primarily in the Marcellus Shale, and the Martinsburg, Salina, and Rome Formations. The primary, basal detachment at the Summit field occurs in the Salina salt. Production from fracture porosity in the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone commenced in 1936. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, 14 wells were drilled preparatory to conversion of the reservoir to gas storage. Schlumberger`s Formation MicroScanner (FMS) logs were run in each of these wells to provide information on the structural configuration and fracture patterns of the reservoir. These data indicate that two inward-facing, tight folds at the Oriskany level form the upper flanks and core of the anticline at the northern end of the field, whereas the main part of the field to the south is a comparatively simple, broad closure at the Oriskany level. The structure is a broad, slightly asymmetric open fold in the Mississippian Greenbrier Formation at the surface. Fracture patterns mapped using FMS logs indicate a complex fracture system which varies slightly along the trend of the fold and among the units analyzed, including the Helderberg Formation, Huntersville Chert, Oriskany Sandstone, and Onondaga Formation. An orthogonal joint system strikes toward the northwest and northeast slightly askew to the trend of the fold`s crestal trace. A similar, but more complex fracture pattern is found in an oriented core of these units.

Zhou, G.; Shumaker, R.C. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Staub, W.K. [Consolidated Gas Transmission Co., Clarksburg, WV (United States)

1996-09-01

327

Evidence for reversible change in intensity of prolonged diapause in the chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis.  

PubMed

The chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis undergoes a prolonged larval diapause that is completed by repeated exposure to chilling and warming. We examined the possible reversibility of diapause intensity in response to temperature changes. All larvae were subjected to an initial chilling followed by incubation at 20°C to force pupation of the 1-year-type larvae that require only one winter for diapause completion. We then exposed the larvae remaining in prolonged diapause to a second chilling at 5°C for different lengths of time, preceded or not preceded by incubation at 20°C (moderately high) and/or 25°C (high) and followed by a final post-chilling reincubation at 20°C. Many of the prolonged-diapausing larvae subjected only to a brief second chilling were re-activated upon reincubation. However, short exposure to 25°C before this second chilling dramatically decreased the percentage of larvae completing diapause. When larvae were exposed to 25°C for a short period, then incubated at 20°C and subjected to the brief second chilling, many were re-activated during reincubation. The chilling time required for most of the larvae to complete diapause decreased after pre-chilling incubation at 20°C and increased after incubation at 25°C. These results demonstrate that diapause intensity in C. sikkimensis changes reversibly in response to changes in ambient temperature. PMID:22001599

Higaki, Morio; Toyama, Masatoshi

2012-01-01

328

Invasion genetics of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica in Switzerland.  

PubMed

Cryphonectria parasitica is the best-known example of an invasive forest pathogen in Europe. In southern Switzerland, chestnut blight was first reported in 1948 whereas, north of the Alps, it did not appear until the 1980s. Between 1995 and 2008, we sampled 640 C. parasitica isolates from nine populations south of the Alps and nine north of the Alps. Twelve historical isolates, collected between 1950 and 1972 in the south, were obtained from our collection. All 652 isolates were screened at 10 microsatellite loci to test for the existence of divergent genetic pools and to infer possible origins of haplotypes. In total, 52 haplotypes were identified. Structure software analysis indicated that 43 haplotypes (including all historical haplotypes) belonged to a main cluster, 6 haplotypes belonged to a different cluster, and 3 haplotypes had an intermediate allele pattern. All newly founded populations in northern Switzerland were initiated by one or just a few haplotypes from the main cluster, which probably came directly from the populations south of the Alps. Subsequently, genetic diversity increased through mutations, sexual reproduction, or new migrations. The highest increase in diversity was observed in populations where haplotypes from different genetic pools were encountered. PMID:21848397

Prospero, S; Rigling, D

2012-01-01

329

Chestnut shell as unexploited source of fermentable sugars: effect of different pretreatment methods on enzymatic saccharification.  

PubMed

Chestnut shell (CS) is an agronomic residue mainly used for extraction of antioxidants or as adsorbent of metal ions. It also contains some polysaccharide that has not been considered as potential source of fermentable sugars for biofuel production until now. In this study, the effect of different pretreatment methods on CS was evaluated in order to obtain the greatest conversion of cellulose and xylan into fermentable sugars. Hot acid impregnation, steam explosion (acid-catalysed or not), and aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) were selected as pretreatments. The pretreated biomass was subjected to saccharification with two enzyme cocktails prepared from commercial preparations, and evaluation of the best pretreatment and enzyme cocktail was based on the yield of fermentable sugars produced. As AAS provided the best result after preliminary experiments, enhancement of sugar production was attempted by changing the concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, enzymes, and CS. The optimal pretreatment condition was 10 % ammonium hydroxide, 70 °C, 22 h with CS at 5 % solid loading. After saccharification of the pretreated CS for 72 h at 50 °C and pH 5.0 with a cocktail containing cellulase (Accellerase 1500), beta-glucosidase (Accellerase BG), and xylanase (Accellerase XY), glucose and xylose yields were 67.8 and 92.7 %, respectively. PMID:23640265

Maurelli, Luisa; Ionata, Elena; La Cara, Francesco; Morana, Alessandra

2013-07-01

330

Characterization and antimicrobial properties of water chestnut starch-chitosan edible films.  

PubMed

The characterization and antimicrobial properties of water chestnut starch-chitosan (WSC) films containing Cornus officinalis fruit extract (COE 1% w/w), glycerol monolaurate (GML 1% w/w), nisin (10,000 IU/g), pine needle essential oil (PNEO 0.35% v/v), and their combinations were evaluated. Incorporation of COE decreased pH value of the film-forming solution, the moisture content and the water absorption expansion ability (WAEA). GML-incorporated film had lower WAEA, tensile strength, elongation and puncture strength. However, films with nisin displayed good mechanical properties. All the treated films were less transparent and higher in water vapour permeability values. For film microstructure, the presence of PNEO caused discontinuities with lipid droplets or holes embedded in a continuous network and the incorporation of GML led to abaisse-like structures. The COE, GML, nisin, PNEO and their combinations incorporated in the WSC films are effective in inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes at different levels. The results showed that WSC films containing COE and GML, GML and nisin, COE and nisin were able to reduce the number of E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. This research has potential applications to the extension of the shelf life of food products. PMID:23831899

Mei, Jun; Yuan, Yilin; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei; Yu, Huaning

2013-10-01

331

Phosphatase activity in the surface and buried chestnut soils of the Volga-Don interfluve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phosphatase activity (PA) was studied in the chestnut paleosols buried in 1718-1720 under the Anna Ivanovna rampart in the southern part of the Privolzhskaya Upland and in the middle of the third millennium BC under the burial mound of the Bronze Age on the Northern Yergeni Upland; the background analogues of these soils were also examined. The PA values in the fresh soil samples varied from 2.5 to 37 mg of P2O5/10 g of soil per h with maximums in the A1 horizon of the surface soils and in the B1 horizon of the paleosols. The PA values depended on the time of storage of the samples: with time, they increased by 2.6-2.9 times in the A1 horizon of the background surface soil and decreased by 20-60% in the other soil samples. The specific distribution patterns of the PA values in the soil profiles remained the same independently of the time of storage of the samples. Relatively small amounts of the soil samples were sufficient for the reliable determination of the PA: 1-2 g for the A1 horizon and 3-5 g for the B1 and B2 horizons. The time of incubation with the substrate had to be increased up to 4 h for the long-stored samples.

Khomutova, T. E.; Demkina, T. S.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkin, V. A.

2012-04-01

332

Study on Woody Species Diversity in the Chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) Forests, Guilan, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to study diversity of woody species in the Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) forests, Guilan, north of Iran. These forests are located in the Shafaroud and Emamzadeh Ebrahim regions. The Emamzadeh Ebrahim region is consisted of Visroud, Kishkhaleh, Askeh Koh, Male Lab, Doroudkhan, Galeroudkhan, Siahmazgy and Mali Anbar sites. Sampling was done in a selective manner in each site with a plot area of 50 m×50 m for tree and shrub layers and a circle 1000 m2 for tree saplings. In each plot, all trees ?10 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH) were identified and the DBH was measured, and shrub and tree sapling species were identified and recorded. In total, 68 sampling plots were taken using GPS device in the two regions. The results revealed that the mean richness, Simpson's index, Hill's N2, Shannon Wiener's function and N1 were higher in the Shafaroud region than other sites in tree, shrub and tree sapling layers. The highest and lowest mean values of evenness were obtained in the Kishkhaleh and Askekoh sites, respectively in tree layer, and similarly were in the Askekoh and Visroud in the shrub layer. The highest and lowest mean values of evenness were obtained in the Male Lab and Askeh Koh, respectively in the tree sapling layer.

Poorbabaei, Hassan; Faghir, Marzia B.

2008-01-01

333

Aerobiology of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in north-west Croatia.  

PubMed

The aims of the study were to analyse characteristics of the Castanea airborne pollen and to compare aeropalynological data obtained from two sampling stations in north-west Croatia. The study was conducted in Zagreb and Samobor during the 2003-2006 periods, using the seven-day volumetric samplers of the Hirst design. In both study areas, the seasons of chestnut pollination were similar and lasted from June to the end of July, which is comparable to other European cities. A general rule was noticed--the shorter the main pollen season, the higher the pollen peak concentration. Although the pollen season of Fagales pollen is prolonged to summer in the area of inland west-north Croatia due to the genus Castanea summer pollination, the number of days with pollen air concentration higher than 50 per m3 was low and was not likely to have any major effects in allergic individuals. Airborne pollen concentration of Castanea showed positive statistically significant correlation with air temperature and negative non-significant correlation with precipitation. Because of the non-significant differences between the two stations, for a possible long-term forecast model for Fagales airborne pollen for this part of north-west Croatia, aerobiological data obtained from only one station are sufficient. PMID:20698123

Hrga, Ivana; Miti?, Bozena; Alegro, Antun; Dragojlovi?, Dragoslav; Stjepanovi?, Barbara; Puntari?, Dinko

2010-06-01

334

Cryopreservation of zygotic embryonic axes and somatic embryos of European chestnut.  

PubMed

For Castanea sativa (European chestnut), a species with recalcitrant seeds that is not easily propagated vegetatively, cryopreservation is one of the most promising techniques for maintaining genetic resource diversity and for conservation of selected germplasms. Long-term conservation of selected seeds and valuable embryogenic lines can be achieved through the cryopreservation of zygotic embryonic axes and somatic embryos, respectively. This chapter describes methods for the desiccation-based cryostorage of zygotic embryonic axes, and the vitrification-based cryopreservation of somatic embryos. For zygotic embryonic axes, the highest post-thaw survival and plantlet recovery rates are obtained by desiccation in a laminar flow hood to 20-25% moisture content, followed by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. For somatic embryos, embryogenesis resumption rates of over 60% are achieved by preculture of embryo clumps for 3 days on solid medium containing 0.3 M sucrose, incubation in PVS2 vitrification solution for 60 min at 0°C, and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Plantlet recovery from cryostored embryogenic lines requires proliferation of the thawed embryos and subsequent maturation before germination and conversion into plantlets. PMID:21207271

Vieitez, Ana M; San-José, M Carmen; Corredoira, Elena

2011-01-01

335

Measurement of erythrocyte volumes in splenectomized horses and sham-operated horses at rest and during maximal exercise.  

PubMed

Erythrocyte volumes of thoroughbred horses were measured. The volumes of splenectomized horses and sham-operated horses 2 hr after injection of 50Cr-tagged erythrocytes (at rest) and during maximal exercise were measured using the non-radioactive isotope 50Cr. Because splenic erythrocytes are released into circulation during exercise, it was estimated that the erythrocyte volumes of the sham-operated horses during maximal exercise are larger than those of the horses at rest. However, the erythrocyte volumes of the sham-operated horses at rest were about equal to those during maximal exercise. In the splenectomized horses, furthermore, erythrocyte volumes at rest and those at exercise were nearly equal. From these results, blood stored in the equine spleen is gradually mixed with circulating blood, and it was clarified that the phenomenon was completed within 2 hr. Although it is basically impossible to measure the circulating erythrocyte volume at rest using the erythrocyte tagged method, we observed that it is possible to measure the total erythrocyte volume using the 50Cr method. Also, the plasma volumes of the splenectomized horses during maximal exercise were found to be slightly smaller than those at rest. On the other hand, in the sham-operated horses, the plasma was decreased by a large quantity after maximal exercise. Therefore, it was suggested that the spleen participates in the phenomenon involving the disappearance of plasma from circulation due to exercise. PMID:9342694

Kunugiyama, I; Ito, N; Narizuka, M; Kataoka, S; Furukawa, Y; Hiraga, A; Kai, M; Kubo, K

1997-09-01

336

Decomposition of chestnut litterfall and eight-year soil chemical changes under a no-tillage management system in Northern Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

– \\u000a \\u000a • Chestnut stands (Castanea sativa Mill.) for fruit production, in Northern Portugal, are subjected to frequent soil tillage operations, which is considered\\u000a a threat for the system sustainability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The effects of replacement of conventional tillage by the no-tillage system in chestnut stands on decomposition and nutrient\\u000a dynamics of leaf litter and burs were evaluated, using the litterbag

Fernando Raimundo; Afonso Martins; Manuel Madeira

2008-01-01

337

Sinusitis associated with nasogastric intubation in 3 horses.  

PubMed

Sinusitis has not been reported as a complication of long-term nasogastric intubation in horses. We describe 3 horses that developed nosocomial sinusitis following abdominal surgery with associated perioperative nasogastric intubation. Sinusitis was suspected by the presence of malodorous discharge and confirmed by percussion, upper airway endoscopy, radiographs (n = 3), and bacterial culture (n = 1). PMID:24891638

Nieto, Jorge E; Yamout, Sawsan; Dechant, Julie E

2014-06-01

338

Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland  

PubMed Central

Background In a stable of eight horses in Northern Iceland, six horses presented with clinical signs, such as ataxia and reduced appetite, leading to euthanasia of one severely affected horse. Serological investigations revealed no evidence of active equine herpes virus type 1 infection, a common source of central nervous system disease in horses, nor equine arteritis virus and West Nile virus. Another neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus, was therefore included in the differential diagnosis list. Findings Serological investigations revealed antibodies against Borna disease virus in four of five horses with neurological signs in the affected stable. One horse without clinical signs was seronegative. Four clinically healthy horses in the stable that arrived and were sampled one year after the outbreak were found seronegative, whereas one of four investigated healthy horses in an unaffected stable was seropositive. Conclusions This report contains the first evidence of antibodies to Borna disease virus in Iceland. Whether Borna disease virus was the cause of the neurological signs could however not be confirmed by pathology or molecular detection of the virus. As Iceland has very restricted legislation regarding animal imports, the questions of how this virus has entered the country and to what extent markers of Bornavirus infection can be found in humans and animals in Iceland remain to be answered. PMID:24180621

2013-01-01

339

Suspected systemic calcinosis and calciphylaxis in 5 horses  

PubMed Central

Five horses were presented with signs of myopathy along with systemic malaise, hyperfibrinogenemia, hyperphosphatemia, and an elevated calcium phosphorus product (Ca*P). Postmortem findings were consistent with systemic calcinosis, a syndrome of calcium deposition in the tissue of organs including lungs, kidneys, muscle, and heart that has not been previously described in horses. PMID:21119866

Tan, Jean-Yin; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Sebastian, Manu M.; Davis, Gordon D.; Kelly, Jenny R.; Goehring, Lutz S.; Harland, Malte M.; Kuebelbeck, K. Leann; Waldridge, Bryan M.; Newton, Joseph C.; Reimer, Johanna M.

2010-01-01

340

Transport stress in horses: Effects of two different distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the effects of 2 journeys of different lengths (50 km and 200 km) on horses. The first journey lasted about 1 hour, the second about 3 hours. Twelve Standardbred horses were used for the test. Blood samples were collected and analyzed (packed cells volume [PCV], cortisol, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides,

Alessandra Tateo; Barbara Padalino; Marianna Boccaccio; Aristide Maggiolino; Pasquale Centoducati

341

Head protection for horse riders: a cause for concern.  

PubMed Central

We report the frequency with which horse riders with a significant head injury present to a large accident and emergency department. We have also recorded details about the use of headwear and conclude that horse-riding is associated with a serious risk of head injury and 'protective' headwear may not always protect. PMID:4015803

Muwanga, L C; Dove, A F

1985-01-01

342

From kids and horses: Equine facilitated psychotherapy for children1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine facilitated psychotherapy is a developing form of animal assisted therapy, which primarily incorporates human interaction with horses as guides. The behavior of a sensitive horse, provides a vehicle by which the therapist can use to teach the patient coping skills. This theoretical study is present to reader our opinion, about the main considerations of equine facilitated psychotherapy for children.

Eugenio Quiroz Rothe; Beatriz Jiménez Vega; Rafael Mazo Torres; Silvia María; Campos Soler; Rosa María; Molina Pazos

2005-01-01

343

Towards testing of identity concepts in horses: conditional discrimination learning  

E-print Network

in learning such a task. These results point out interesting aspects of the horses' learning behaviorsTowards testing of identity concepts in horses: conditional discrimination learning Bj types of discrimination learning and that they can learn the concept of relative size, but it is un

Samuelsson, Björn

344

Adaptation to a fat-supplemented diet by cutting horses  

E-print Network

) by days. Plasma glucose concentrations on d 28 when horses were fed F were lower than when fed C at numerous sampling times. Plasma oleate concentrations appeared to be higher when horses were fed F than C at all sampling times examined on d 14 and 28...

Julen, Tiffany Rochele

2012-06-07

345

Prepurchase evaluation of horses: 134 cases (1988-1990).  

PubMed

To quantify some components of prepurchase evaluations in horses, records from 134 evaluations performed during a 2-year period were reviewed and the outcome was determined via telephone follow-up interview. Sixty-two percent of the prepurchase evaluations had been performed at the clinic and 38% had been performed in the field by the ambulatory service. All evaluations included physical and lameness examinations, whereas radiography (49%), endoscopy (15%), nerve blocking (5%), transrectal palpation (3%), hematologic analysis (2%), electrocardiography (2%), drug testing for analgesic agents (2%), and ultrasonography of the flexor tendons (1%) were not always performed. Fifty-nine percent of horses evaluated at the clinic were radiographed, compared with 33% of horses evaluated in the field (P less than 0.05). Thirty-seven percent of horses evaluated were judged serviceable for their intended use. Thirty-five percent of horses evaluated at the clinic were assessed to be serviceable, compared with 41% of those evaluated in the field (P less than 0.05). Horses used for pleasure riding (48%) tended to be considered serviceable more often than horses used for more athletic endeavors (3-day eventing, 33%; hunter/jumper, 24%; show, 31%; dressage, 30%). The most common basis for finding a horse unserviceable was lameness (88%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1429136

Dart, A J; Snyder, J R; Pascoe, J R; Meagher, D M; Wilson, W D

1992-10-01

346

HAEMATOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT WORKLOAD IN JUMPER HORSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five clinically healthy Sella Italiana horses were used in order to assess the haematological response to different workload. Blood samples were collected on each horse at rest, immediately after the exer- cise and 30 min after the end of the exercise. An automated haematology analyzer was used to assess red blood cells counts, haemglobin concentration, haematocrit (Hct) and white blood

G. PICCIONE; C. GIANNETTO; F. FAZIO; S. DI MAURO; G. CAOLA

2007-01-01

347

Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski's…

Milton, John R.

348

2004 EASTERN NATIONAL 4-H HORSE BOWL ONE ON ONE  

E-print Network

including the coronary band S. AYHCLM B101 ­ 2L 18. Q. The domestic horse belongs to which species? A. Equus Caballus S. Evans, p. 13 19. Q Which region of the horse's vertebral column is the most flexible? A

New Hampshire, University of

349

Characterization of the horse ( Equus caballus ) IGHA gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide sequences of the immunoglobulin constant heavy chain genes of the horse have been described for IGHM, IGHG and IGHE genes, but not for IGHA. Here, we provide the nucleotide sequence of the genomic IGHA gene of the horse ( Equus caballus), including its secretion region and the transmembrane exon. The equine IGHA gene shows the typical structure of a

Bettina Wagner; Irene Greiser-Wilke; Douglas F. Antczak

2003-01-01

350

A Comparative Gene Map of the Horse (Equus caballus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative gene map of the horse genome composed of 127 loci was assembled based on the new assignment of 68 equine type I loci and on data published previously. PCR primers based on consensus gene sequences conserved across mammalian species were used to amplify markers for assigning 68 equine type I loci to 27 horse synteny groups established previously

Alexandre R. Caetano; Yow-Ling Shiue; Leslie A. Lyons; Steven J. O'Brien; Thomas F. Laughlin; Ann T. Bowling; James D. Murray

1999-01-01

351

Treatment of Coccidioides immitis pneumonia in two horses with fluconazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in horses can often lead to severe systemic disease and its treatment has previously been expensive and has carried a poor prognosis. This paper describes the successful treatment of two horses with pulmonary coccidioidomycosis with a fluconazole product produced by a compounding pharmacy.

J. C. Higgins; G. S. Leith; D. Pappagianis; N. Pusterla

2006-01-01

352

Environmental Assessment Wyoming Wild Horse Pilot Project. Wyoming State Office.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The BLM is the Federal Agency within the Department of the Interior mandated to manage wild horses and burros on BLM-administrated public lands. Management of the wild horses and burros includes not only the management of the public lands which provide ha...

2001-01-01

353

Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As stated in the Wild Horse Fertility Control Field Trial Plan, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has an immediate need for a safe, effective contraceptive agent to assist in the management of the large number of wild horses on western rangelands. The BLM and the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) are testing the immunecontraceptive agent Porcine Zonae Pellucida (PZP) in field trials with three free-roaming herds of western wild horses. Extensive research has already been conducted on the safety, efficacy, and duration of the PZP applications in both domestic and feral horses on eastern barrier islands and in some select trials with wild horses in Nevada managed by the BLM. However, significant questions remain concerning the effects of PZP application at the population level in the wild, as well as effects at the individual level on behavior, social structure, and harem dynamics of free-ranging animals. These questions are best answered with field trials on wild horse herds under a tight research protocol. The ultimate goal is to provide the BLM with the protocols and information necessary to being using fertility control to regulate population growth rates in wild horse herds on a broader scale. Fertility control is intended to assist the conventional capture, removal, and adoption process as a means of controlling excess numbers of wild horses and burros, and to greatly reduce the adoption costs and numbers of animals handled. Fertility control is not intended to totally replace the removal and adoption processa?|

Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

2004-01-01

354

Systematics and distribution of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan.  

PubMed

The horse fly fauna of Jordan consists of 24 species belonging to seven genera. The present study adds two new records; Tabanus unifasciatus and Tabanus lunatus. Keys and illustrations for the horse flies of Jordan are presented based on examined materials. Distribution and geographic ranges for each species is also given. PMID:16007956

Al-Talafha, H; Amr, Z S; Baker, M Abu; Bader, A Katbeh

2005-06-01

355

Dominant black in horses DP Sponenberg MC Weise  

E-print Network

) were near black rather than completely black. The dam of this stallion was of a near black or brown, manes and tails, are consistently designated as bay in most breed registries. While such red horses. Horses with a mixture of black and reddish brown body hairs and black lower legs, manes and tails

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

Kinematics of side and cross circles on pommel horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most fundamental skills on the pommel horse is double leg circles (circles). Circles can be performed on all parts of the pommel horse. It was hypothesized that the different sets of physical constraints of the apparatus require a gymnast to adapt circles technique. The purpose of this study was to quantify how gymnasts modify their technique during

Toshiyuki Fujihara; Pierre Gervais

2010-01-01

357

Appendix 64 Excerpt from Hungry Horse Scientific Framework (Marotz 2002)  

E-print Network

their new variable flow, system flood control strategy called VARQ (ACOE 1999). The ACOE is currently Horse Dam (Marotz and Muhlfeld 2000). Thermal modeling conducted by this project resulted in the installation of selective withdrawal structures on the four penstocks on Hungry Horse Dam (Christenson et al

358

Conditioning taste aversions to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) in horses1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) is a seri- ous poisoning problem for horses grazing on infested rangelands in the western United States. Our objec- tives were to determine 1) whether lithium chloride or apomorphine would condition aversions to palatable foods, and at what doses, and 2) whether horses could be averted to fresh locoweed in a pen and grazing situa- tion. Apomorphine

J. A. Pfister; B. L. Stegelmeier; C. D. Cheney; M. H. Ralphs; D. R. Gardner

359

76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department reserves the right to inform the Attorney...to ensure that these animals are not being abused...Subjects in 9 CFR Part 11 Animal welfare, Horses...Department reserves the right to inform the Attorney...Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health...

2011-05-27

360

Immunohistochemical analysis of laryngeal muscles in normal horses and horses with subclinical recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.  

PubMed

We used immunohistochemistry to examine myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-based fiber-type profiles of the right and left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and arytenoideus transversus (TrA) muscles of six horses without laryngoscopic evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Results showed that CAD and TrA muscles have the same slow, 2a, and 2x fibers as equine limb muscles, but not the faster contracting fibers expressing extraocular and 2B MyHCs found in laryngeal muscles of small mammals. Muscles from three horses showed fiber-type grouping bilaterally in the TrA muscles, but only in the left CAD. Fiber-type grouping suggests that denervation and reinnervation of fibers had occurred, and that these horses had subclinical RLN. There was a virtual elimination of 2x fibers in these muscles, accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of 2a and slow fibers, and hypertrophy of these fiber types. The results suggest that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are at work in early RLN, including selective denervation and reinnervation of 2x muscle fibers, corruption of neural impulse traffic that regulates 2x and slow muscle fiber types, and compensatory hypertrophy of remaining fibers. We conclude that horses afflicted with mild RLN are able to remain subclinical by compensatory hypertrophy of surviving muscle fibers. PMID:19398607

Rhee, Hannah S; Steel, Catherine M; Derksen, Frederik J; Robinson, N Edward; Hoh, Joseph F Y

2009-08-01

361

Immunohistochemical Analysis of Laryngeal Muscles in Normal Horses and Horses With Subclinical Recurrent Laryngeal Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

We used immunohistochemistry to examine myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-based fiber-type profiles of the right and left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and arytenoideus transversus (TrA) muscles of six horses without laryngoscopic evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Results showed that CAD and TrA muscles have the same slow, 2a, and 2x fibers as equine limb muscles, but not the faster contracting fibers expressing extraocular and 2B MyHCs found in laryngeal muscles of small mammals. Muscles from three horses showed fiber-type grouping bilaterally in the TrA muscles, but only in the left CAD. Fiber-type grouping suggests that denervation and reinnervation of fibers had occurred, and that these horses had subclinical RLN. There was a virtual elimination of 2x fibers in these muscles, accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of 2a and slow fibers, and hypertrophy of these fiber types. The results suggest that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are at work in early RLN, including selective denervation and reinnervation of 2x muscle fibers, corruption of neural impulse traffic that regulates 2x and slow muscle fiber types, and compensatory hypertrophy of remaining fibers. We conclude that horses afflicted with mild RLN are able to remain subclinical by compensatory hypertrophy of surviving muscle fibers. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:787–800, 2009) PMID:19398607

Rhee, Hannah S.; Steel, Catherine M.; Derksen, Frederik J.; Robinson, N. Edward; Hoh, Joseph F.Y.

2009-01-01

362

HorsesHorses Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette IN, 47907  

E-print Network

should be vaccinated annually against tetanus, eastern and western encephalomyelitis himself, especially a puncture wound, it is suggested that the horse receives tetanus antitoxin, even if it was vaccinated for tetanus earlier in the year. Talk to your veterinarian to design a vaccination program

363

Nontargeted GC-MS approach for volatile profile of toasting in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, and ash wood.  

PubMed

By using a nontargeted GC-MS approach, 153 individual volatile compounds were found in extracts from untoasted, light toasted and medium-toasted cherry, chestnut, false acacia, as well as European and American ash wood, used in cooperage for aging wines, spirits and other beverages. In all wood types, the toasting provoked a progressive increase in carbohydrate derivatives, lactones and lignin constituents, along with a variety of other components, thus increasing the quantitative differences among species with the toasting intensity. The qualitative differences in the volatile profiles allow for identifying woods from cherry (being p-anisylalcohol, p-anisylaldehyde, p-anisylacetone, methyl benzoate and benzyl salicylate detected only in this wood), chestnut (cis and trans whisky lactone) and false acacia (resorcinol, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol, 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde, 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone, 2,4-dihydroxypropiophenone and 2,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone), but not those from ash, because of the fact that all compounds present in this wood are detected in at least one other. However, the quantitative differences can be clearly used to identify toasted ash wood, with tyrosol being most prominent, but 2-furanmethanol, 3- and 4-ethylcyclotene, ?-methylcrotonolactone, solerone, catechol, 3-methylcatechol and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde as well. Regarding oak wood, its qualitative volatile profile could be enough to distinguish it from cherry and acacia woods, and the quantitative differences from chestnut (vanillyl ethyl ether, isoacetovanillone, butirovanillone, 1-(5-methyl-2-furyl)-2-propanone and 4-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-(2H)-pyran-2-one) and ash toasted woods. PMID:24809897

Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel María

2014-05-01

364

Volatile compounds in acacia, chestnut, cherry, ash, and oak woods, with a view to their use in cooperage.  

PubMed

Extracts of wood from acacia, European ash, American ash, chestnut, cherry, and three oak species (Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus alba and Quercus petraea) before and after toasting in cooperage were studied by GC-MS. 110 compounds were detected, and 97 of them were identified. In general, all studied woods showed more lignin derivatives than lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, with a higher variety of compounds detected and abundance of them. The toasting led to an increase in the concentrations of most of these compounds, and this increase is especially important in acacia, chestnut and ash woods. The cis and trans isomers of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone and isobutyrovanillone were only detected in oak wood, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde only in acacia wood, and p-anisaldehyde and benzylsalicylate only in cherry wood, before and after toasting, and these compounds could be considered chemical markers for each one of these woods. Moreover, each wood has a characteristic volatile composition, from a quantitative point of view, and therefore we can expect a characteristic sensorial profile. The oak wood turned out to be the most balanced, since although it provides a lot of volatile compounds to the aroma and flavor of aged wine, it can do so without masking their primary and secondary aroma. On the whole, toasted acacia and chestnut woods showed a very high richness of studied compounds, as lignin as lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, while cherry and ash were much richer than toasted oak wood in lignin derivatives, but much poorer in lipid and carbohydrate derivatives. PMID:19290598

de Simón, Brígida Fernández; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel M; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam

2009-04-22

365

Disorders of sexual development in the domestic horse, Equus caballus.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of sexual development causing infertility in horses have been investigated since the early 1970's. Conventional cytogenetic analysis by karyotyping has been the primary tool used to investigate these horses. Abnormalities have a broad range, from a phenotypically normal mare with gonadal dysgenesis to a horse with ambiguous external genitalia and internal male and female organs. Cytogenetic analysis can determine genetic sex but cannot identify mutations or deletions of genes involved in the sex determination pathway. Molecular technologies have been developed to confirm cytogenetic results and to aid in identifying the genetic causes of abnormal sex determination in horses. In this paper, we review the historical development of methods used to understand abnormal sexual development in the horse as well as summarize cases reported over the last 40-50 years. PMID:22095202

Lear, T L; McGee, R B

2012-01-01

366

Safety and storage stability of horse meat for human consumption.  

PubMed

Most horse meat is consumed by humans and/or animals in the region where it is produced. However, horse meat for human consumption is exported in large quantities from the Americas and in lesser quantities from Eastern Europe, to Western Europe and Japan where it is often eaten raw. Horse meat prepared to a good hygienic condition should not be prone to early microbial spoilage, but contamination of the meat with Salmonella and Yersinia enterocolitica may be relatively common, and infection of the meat with Trichinella may occur occasionally. Those organisms from horse meat could cause disease when the raw meat is eaten. Moreover, accumulation of cadmium in horse liver and kidney may render those tissues unsafe for human consumption. PMID:22060926

Gill, C O

2005-11-01

367

Bit-related lesions in Icelandic competition horses  

PubMed Central

Background Oral lesions related to the use of the bit and bridle are reported to be common findings in horses worldwide and represent an important animal welfare issue. In order to provide an overview of bit-related lesions in Icelandic competition horses, a field examination of the rostral part of the oral cavity was performed in 424 competition horses coming to the two major national horse events in Iceland in 2012. Records from repeated examination of 77 horses prior to the finals were used to assess potential risk factors. Results Mild lesions were recorded in 152 horses (36%) prior to the preliminary rounds. They were most often located in the commissures of the lips and the adjacent buccal mucosa (n?=?111). Severe lesions were found in 32 (8%) horses. For 77 horses examined prior to the finals, the frequency of findings in the area of the mandibular interdental space (bars of the mandible) had increased from 8% to 31% (P?horses. The type of bits used influenced both the location and the severity of the lesions. The use of curb bits with a port was found to be a decisive risk factor for lesions on the bars of the mandible, most of which were regarded as severe. The results also raised questions about the head and neck carriage demanded for the competition horses. PMID:25116656

2014-01-01

368

Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals. PMID:25320481

Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

2014-12-01

369

MSU Horses for sale or adoption JC (Mr. Deck Cash) is a 2002 model Quarter Horse. He  

E-print Network

; grooming her and adoring her presence. She is mild mannered toward other horses and doesn't cause problems@montana.edu. All horses MSU sells or adopts out have been kept up on routine vaccinations, de-worming, and hoof

370

A Trojan Horse for Parkinson's Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pathogenic mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are common genetic causes of late-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). Initial studies indicated that the intrinsic kinase activity of LRRK2 is associated with LRRK2-mediated PD pathogenesis. However, LRRK2 kinase activity may be dispensable for neuron survival and may not be required for its protective activity against neurotoxicity. Thus, the intrinsic kinase activity of LRRK2 appears to be a Trojan horse for PD, and inhibition of its kinase activity could potentially be therapeutically beneficial.

Youren Tong (Harvard Medical School;Brigham and Women's Hospital REV); Yi Hu (Harvard Medical School;Brigham and Women's Hospital REV)

2010-04-06

371

Metabolic studies of formestane in horses.  

PubMed

Formestane (4-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione) is an irreversible steroidal aromatase inhibitor with reported abuse in human sports. In 2011, our laboratory identified the presence of formestane in a horse urine sample from an overseas jurisdiction. This was the first reported case of formestane in a racehorse. The metabolism of formestane in humans has been reported previously; however, little is known about its metabolic fate in horses. This paper describes the in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of formestane in horses, with the objective of identifying the target metabolite with the longest detection time for controlling formestane abuse. In vitro metabolic studies of formestane were performed using homogenized horse liver. Seven in vitro metabolites, namely 4-hydroxytestosterone (M1), 3?,4?-dihydroxy-5?-androstan-17-one (M2a), 3?,4?-dihydroxy-5?-androstan-17-one (M2b), 3?,4?-dihydroxy-5?-androstan-17-one (M2c), androst-4-ene-3?,4,17?-triol (M3a), androst-4-ene-3?,4,17?-triol (M3b), and 5?-androstane-3?,4?,17?-triol (M4) were identified. For the in vivo studies, two thoroughbred geldings were each administered with 800 mg of formestane (32 capsules of Formadex) by stomach tubing. The results revealed that the parent drug and seven metabolites were detected in post-administration urine. The six in vitro metabolites (M1, M2a, M2b, M2c, M3a, and M3b) identified earlier were all detected in post-administration urine samples. In addition, 3?,4?-dihydroxy-5?-androstan-17-one (M2d), a stereoisomer of M2a/M2b/M2c, was also identified. This study has shown that the detection of formestane administration would be best achieved by monitoring 4-hydroxytestosterone (M1) in the glucuronide-conjugated fraction. M1 could be detected for up to 34 h post-administration. In blood samples, the parent drug could be detected for up to 34 h post administration. PMID:23339113

Leung, Gary N W; Kwok, W H; Wan, Terence S M; Lam, Kenneth K H; Schiff, Peter J

2013-06-01

372

Fire and smoke inhalation injury in horses.  

PubMed

Although not common in horses, fire and smoke inhalation trauma may require veterinary assistance at several levels. Most commonly, the equine clinician is called on to provide care of potentially complex and emotionally charged cases. Thermal injury, along with smoke inhalation, can cause local and diffuse lesions. Massive tissue edema may occur, which can be a challenge to manage as well as creating organ dysfunction at distant sites. Further complications of severely affected patients are varied and include life-threatening sepsis. This article reviews some of the important features of this type of trauma. PMID:17379107

Marsh, Peggy S

2007-05-01

373

Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area  

SciTech Connect

This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

1980-01-01

374

Chemical characterization of chestnut cultivars from three consecutive years: chemometrics and contribution for authentication.  

PubMed

Four Castanea sativa Miller cultivars (Aveleira, Boaventura, Judia and Longal) belonging to the Protected Designation of Origin "Castanha da Terra Fria", from the Northeast of Portugal, were selected in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Their nutritional, fatty acids, triacylglycerols and tocopherols profiles were evaluated. Water was the major component, followed by carbohydrates, protein and fat, with energetic values lower than 190 kcal/100g of fresh fruit. Oleic, linoleic and palmitic were the major fatty acids, 1-oleoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol, 1-linoleoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol, 1-oleoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-oleoyl-sn-glycerol and 1-linoleoyl-2-oleoyl-3-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol were the prevalent triacylglycerols and ?-tocopherol was the most abundant tocopherol. In each parameter, differences between cultivars, harvest year and the possible cultivar × year interaction were screened through a two-way analysis of variance. Differences among cultivars have been attenuated by the variability among years, leading, in general, to a significant interaction effect, which resulted in a relative homogeneity regarding chemical parameters, showing that nutritional and chemical composition was influenced by seasonal variability. A stepwise linear discriminant model, based on 10 (?-tocopherol, ?-tocotrienol, LLL, OLLn, ?-tocopherol, ?-tocopherol, ?-tocotrienol, PLLn, protein and OOO) of the 38 initial evaluated variables was also established. The model allowed the complete discrimination of cultivars with overall sensibilities and specificities of 100%, for both original grouped data and leave-one-out cross-validation procedures. Furthermore, similar results were also obtained using only tocopherols data, showing their usefulness as a discriminant factor for chestnut cultivars. PMID:22525865

Barreira, João C M; Casal, Susana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Peres, António M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

2012-07-01

375

Metabolism before, during and after anaesthesia in colic and healthy horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many colic horses are compromised due to the disease state and from hours of starvation and sometimes long trailer rides. This could influence their muscle energy reserves and affect the horses' ability to recover. The principal aim was to follow metabolic parameter before, during, and up to 7 days after anaesthesia in healthy horses and in horses undergoing abdominal

Anna H Edner; Görel C Nyman; Birgitta Essén-Gustavsson

2007-01-01

376

36 CFR 222.23 - Removal of other horses and burros.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Removal of other horses and burros. 222.23 Section 222.23...MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.23 Removal of other horses and burros. Horses and burros not...

2010-07-01

377

Differences in salt sensitivity of four deciduous tree species to soil or airborne salt.  

PubMed

Seedlings of four deciduous tree species maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) and lime (Tilia cordata) were exposed to de-icing salt (NaCl) either through the soil or applied to the above ground plant parts. A soil solution of 1.65 g l-1 NaCl was maintained from the start of the experiment in January 1999 until termination in June 1999. The main effects caused by salt treatment through the soil were a reduction in photosynthesis of up to 50% and the development of leaf chlorosis or necrosis covering up to 50% of the total leaf area for the most sensitive species (lime and beech); maple and horse chestnut were relatively tolerant. There was no significant correlation between Cl or Na concentration in leaves and the relative sensitivity of the species. Saturated salt solution was applied to bark, buds or leaf scars on two occasions three weeks apart during the winter season. This affected the timing of bud break with delays of up to eight days compared with the controls. In the most sensitive species the above ground salt treatments partly prevented bud break (beech) or reduced photosynthesis (lime). Uptake through the bark was most important for the development of stress effects, compared with uptake through the other above ground plant parts. PMID:11903969

Paludan-Müller, Georg; Saxe, Henrik; Pedersen, Lars Bo; Randrup, Thomas Barfoed

2002-02-01

378

Antithrombotic actions of aspirin in the horse.  

PubMed

The antithrombotic effects of aspirin at two dose rates (4 mg/kg and 11 mg/kg bodyweight [bwt] were evaluated in normal, healthy ponies by measuring template bleeding time. Inhibition of platelet aggregation in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen was evaluated and cyclo-oxygenase activity was monitored by radioimmunoassay of thromboxane B2 (TXB2), the stable metabolite of thromboxane A2 (TXA2). TXB2 was measured in serum and platelet rich plasma. Bleeding time was prolonged significantly until 48 h after treatment at 12 mg/kg bwt and until 4 h at the lower dose rate. Synthesis of TXB2 and collagen induced aggregation were diminished for much greater periods with similar results at each of the dose rates. The prolonged effects of aspirin on platelet function occurred in spite of a very short plasma half-life of aspirin, because of its irreversible action on platelet cyclo-oxygenase. The results show that low dose aspirin has a potential role in antithrombotic therapy in horses although the relationship between skin bleeding time in normal horses and improvement of clinical conditions requires further research and evaluation in clinical trials. TXB2 measurement appears to overestimate the duration of antithrombotic effects of aspirin in vivo. PMID:1904347

Cambridge, H; Lees, P; Hooke, R E; Russell, C S

1991-03-01

379

Movement initiation in groups of feral horses.  

PubMed

Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often. PMID:24220794

Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

2014-03-01

380

Social and spatial structure and range use by Kaimanawa wild horses (Equus caballus: Equidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured horse density, social structure, habitat use, home ranges and altitudinal micro-climates in the south-western Kaimanawa ranges east of Waiouru, New Zealand. Horse density in the Auahitotara ecological sector averaged 3.6 horses.km-2 and ranged from 0.9 to 5.2 horses.km-2 within different zones. The population's social structure was like that of other feral horse populations with an even adult sex

Wayne L. Linklater; Elissa Z. Cameron; Kevin J. Stafford; Clare J. Veltman

2000-01-01

381

Mitochondrial D-loop sequence variation among autochthonous horse breeds in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation in three Croatian coldblood horse populations was analysed using a sequence analysis of the proximal part (nt 15 498-15 821) of the D-loop region of mtDNA. Twenty unrelated horses were chosen from the Posavina horse and the Croatian Coldblood breeds and fifteen horses from the Murinsulaner horse population. Sequencing of the proximal part of the mtDNA D-loop region

A. Ivankovi?; J. Ramljak; M. Konja?i?; N. Kelava; P. Dov?; P. Miji?

2009-01-01

382

Touchdown nested multiplex PCR detection of Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. cambivora from French and English chestnut grove soils.  

PubMed

Soil borne Phytophthora cinnamomi and Phytophthora cambivora are considered the most pathogenic species associated with chestnut (Castanea sativa) decline in Europe. Mapping their incidence and distribution from nursery and plantation soils may offer valuable information for limiting spread. As conventional biological baiting and taxonomic confirmation is generally time consuming, labour, logistically and space intensive, we have focused on the development of a specific touchdown nested multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) approach for the simultaneous detection of both species direct from soil. Pre-existing and novel primers, based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences, have been evaluated for their specificity and use in a multiplex capacity in various combinations. Coupled to this we have modified a mechanical lysis procedure for DNA extraction from up to 10 g of chestnut under storey soils (ranging from 0.5 to 25 ?g DNA g(-1)fresh soil). Using serial dilutions and/or polyvinylpolypyrrolidone chromatography purification, both species have been successfully detected, in artificially and naturally infected soils. Levels of assay detection are comparable to other Phytophthora species where PCR based diagnostic systems have been reported. A qualitative evaluation of this approach against conventional baiting is presented. PMID:21724173

Langrell, Stephen R H; Morel, Olivier; Robin, Cécile

2011-07-01

383

Comparative effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).  

PubMed

Chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been recently studied for their antioxidant potential. The present study reports the effect of e-beam and gamma radiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 1 and 3 kGy) on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts. Irradiation might be an alternative preservation method, since Methyl Bromide, a widely used fumigant, was banished by the European Union in 2010 due to its toxicity. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay, reducing power by the Ferricyanide/Prussian blue assay, and lipid peroxidation inhibition by ?-carotene/linoleate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. The analysis of total phenolics and flavonoids was performed by spectrophotometric assays. Irradiated samples preserved total phenolics content (but not flavonoids) and revealed higher antioxidant activity (lower EC50 values) than the control samples. The most indicated doses to maintain antioxidants content, and to increase antioxidant activity were 1 and 3 kGy for electron beam and gamma radiation, respectively. PMID:22847131

Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2012-10-01

384

Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.  

PubMed

A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Ko?ár, Petr; Ko?árová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybní?ek, Michal; S?vová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavr?ík, Hanuš

2014-01-01

385

Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research  

PubMed Central

A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisa, Lenka; Fisakova Nyvltova, Miriam; Bajer, Ales; Petr, Libor; Kocar, Petr; Kocarova, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybnicek, Michal; Suvova, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrcik, Hanus

2014-01-01

386

The emission of corrosive vapours by wood. Sweet-chestnut (Castanea sativa) and wychelm (Ulmus glabrau) O-acetyl-4-O-methylglucuronoxylans extracted with dimethyl sulphoxide  

PubMed Central

1. O-Acetylated 4-O-methylglucuronoxylans were isolated from sweet chestnut and wych elm, either green or incubated at 48° and 100% relative humidity for 36 weeks. 2. The chlorine–ethanolamine method of delignification resulted in a 50% loss of O-acetyl groups from green wych elm compared with an 18% loss from green sweet chestnut. 3. The acid–chlorite method gave an acceptable loss of O-acetyl groups in three cases, but incubated sweet chestnut showed a 44·6% loss. However, it is believed that this is due to the loss of simple O-acetylated xylose sugars resulting from glycosidic hydrolysis, rather than removal of O-acetyl groups by direct hydrolysis. Assuming that this occurs in a random manner, it is unlikely to have much structural significance. 4. Dimethyl sulphoxide extraction of chestnut holocellulose and elm holocellulose, green and incubated, yielded O-acetyl glucuronoxylans containing 10·2, 3·8, 13·1 and 7·7% O-acetyl groups respectively. 5. The location of these O-acetyl groups was determined by Bouveng's method in which phenyl isocyanate is used as a blocking group. PMID:5808312

Cochrane, G. C.; Gray, J. D.; Arni, P. C.

1969-01-01

387

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA DE CULTIVARES LOCALES DE CASTAÑAS DE TENERIFE: II. COMPOSICIÓN MINERAL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LOCAL CHESTNUT CULTIVARS IN TENERIFE ISLAND: II. MINERAL COMPOSITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Se were determined in 40 samples belonging to local varieties of chestnut produced in Tenerife island. The mineral concentrations arranged according to the following sequence: K > P > Mg > Ca > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu. The Se was not detected in some

J. Díaz-Gómez; M. Hernández-Suárez; C. Díaz-Romero; E. M. Rodríguez-Rodríguez

2006-01-01

388

In vitro propagation of chestnut ( Castanea sativa× C. crenata): Effects of rooting treatments on plant survival, peroxidase activity and anatomical changes during adventitious root formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve plant survival and to achieve a better understanding of the rooting process of chestnut (Castanea sativa×C. crenata) shoot cultures of mature origin, different rooting treatments were compared. For root induction, the basal ends of the shoots were dipped into 1 g l?1 IBA solution for 1 min or planted for 5 days in 3 mg l?1

José Carlos Gonçalves; Graça Diogo; Sara Amâncio

1998-01-01

389

Hybridization between introduced Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) and indigenous T. beneficus (late-spring strain), parasitoids of the Asian chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization between introduced biological control agents and native species is a nontarget effect of biological control. However, the genetic impacts related to introduced insects, especially from the viewpoint of post-release evaluation, remain largely unexplored. Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) is a parasitoid wasp introduced from China into Japan to control the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). After

Kaori Yara; Terunori Sasawaki; Yasuhisa Kunimi

2010-01-01

390

Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1997 in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). In July 1997, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved modifications to several of the permit conditions that address RCRA pow-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and RCIU4 post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin) and Kerr Hollow Quarry. This report has been prepared in accordance with these modified permit requirements. Also included in this report are the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 1997 for the purposes ofi (1) detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste disposal facilities (SWDFS) in accordance with operating permits and applicable regulations, (2) monitoring in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Recove~ Act Records of Decision (now pefiormed under the Integrated Water Quality Program for the Oak Ridge Reservation), and (3) monitoring needed to comply with U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1.

Jones, S.B.

1998-02-01

391

Best management practices plan for the Chestnut Ridge-Filled Coal Ash Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Chestnut Ridge Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP) Project has been established to satisfy Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2. FCAP is on Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant. A 62-foot high earthen dam across Upper McCoy Branch was constructed in 1955 to create a pond to serve as a settling basin for fly and bottom ashes generated by burning coal at the Y-12 Steam Plant. Ash from the steam was mixed with water to form a slurry and then pumped to the crest of Chestnut Ridge and released through a large pipe to flow across the Sluice Channel area and into the pond. The ash slurry eventually overtopped the dam and flowed along Upper McCoy Branch to Rogers Quarry. The purpose of this document is to provide a site-specific Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan for construction associated with environmental restoration activities at the FCAP Site.

NONE

1996-05-01

392

Genetic transformation of European chestnut somatic embryos with a native thaumatin-like protein (CsTL1) gene isolated from Castanea sativa seeds.  

PubMed

The availability of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) would offer an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. For the first time, a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1), isolated from chestnut cotyledons, has been overexpressed in three chestnut somatic embryogenic lines. Transformation experiments have been performed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Smith and Townsend vector harboring the neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) selectable and the green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter genes. The transformation efficiency, determined on the basis of the fluorescence of surviving explants, was clearly genotype dependent and ranged from 32.5% in the CI-9 line to 7.1% in the CI-3 line. A total of 126 independent transformed lines were obtained. The presence and integration of chestnut CsTL1 in genomic DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CsTL1 expression was up to 13.5-fold higher in a transgenic line compared with its corresponding untransformed line. In only one of the 11 transformed lines tested, expression of the CsTL1 was lower than the control. The remaining 115 transformed lines were successfully subjected to cryopreservation. Embryo proliferation was achieved in all of the transgenic lines regenerated and the transformed lines showed a higher mean number of cotyledonary stage embryos and total number of embryos per embryo clump than their corresponding untransformed lines. Transgenic plants were regenerated after maturation and germination of transformed somatic embryos. Furthermore, due to the low plantlet conversion achieved, axillary shoot proliferation cultures were established from partially germinated embryos (only shoot development), which were multiplied and rooted according to procedures already established. Transgenic plants were acclimatized and grown in a greenhouse. No phenotypic differences were found with control plants, suggesting no potential cytotoxic effects of the green fluorescent protein. The results reported in the present work could be considered as a first step toward the production of fungal-disease tolerant cisgenic chestnut plants. PMID:23086811

Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Allona, Isabel; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

2012-11-01

393

Nitrogen balance in mature horses at varying levels of work  

E-print Network

experimental periods of work, each seventeen days in length, Per1ods cons1sted of increas- ing the workload by doubling the distance galloped until the longest distance was reached in per1ods 4 and 5, and then decreasing the workloads in reverse order.... The horses were galloped on an oval track and each horse carried approximately 15% of body weight. Work- loads ranged from no forced exercise in periods 1, 8 and 9 to 6. 1 Mgkm in per1ods 4 and 5. Horses were fed bermudagrass hay at 1X of body weight per...

Freeman, David Wayne

2012-06-07

394

Osteoarthrosis of the Antebrachiocarpal Joint of 7 Riding Horses  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthrosis (OA) of the antebrachiocarpal joint from 7 riding horses is described. The horses were old mares and developed severe OA, with ankylosis in some of the joints. The lesions were bilateral, and the owners noticed the lameness in a late event. The cause of severe OA in these mares is not clear. The fact that OA was bilateral indicates that a single traumatic injury is unlikely as an etiologic factor. Considering the severe joint lesions it took long time before the horse-owners noticed the lameness. It is discussed if the threshold of pain is higher in the antebrachiocarpal joint compared with the middle carpal joint. PMID:11957370

Magnusson, L-E; Ekman, S

2001-01-01

395

Malignant melanoma in the foot of a horse.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old horse had a malignant melanoma of the right forefoot. Because surgical excision of the melanoma was incomplete, as determined by histologic examination of the excised tissue margins, the tumor margins were injected with a matrix therapeutic implant containing cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, epinephrine, and purified bovine collagen matrix. The foot healed and the horse remained clinically free of disease for 26 months before recurrence of malignant melanoma. Surgical exploration of the digit revealed extensive involvement of the foot, and the horse was euthanatized. PMID:2211329

Honnas, C M; Liskey, C C; Meagher, D M; Brown, D; Luck, E E

1990-09-15

396

An African horse sickness virus serotype 4 recombinant canarypox virus vaccine elicits specific cell-mediated immune responses in horses.  

PubMed

A recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine co-expressing synthetic genes encoding outer capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5, of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 (ALVAC(®)-AHSV4) has been demonstrated to fully protect horses against homologous challenge with virulent field virus. Guthrie et al. (2009) detected weak and variable titres of neutralizing antibody (ranging from <10 to 40) 8 weeks after vaccination leading us to hypothesize that there could be a participation of cell mediated immunity (CMI) in protection against AHSV4. The present study aimed at characterizing the CMI induced by the experimental ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccine. Six horses received two vaccinations twenty-eight days apart and three horses remained unvaccinated. The detection of VP2/VP5 specific IFN-? responses was assessed by enzyme linked immune spot (ELISpot) assay and clearly demonstrated that all ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccinated horses developed significant IFN-? production compared to unvaccinated horses. More detailed immune responses obtained by flow cytometry demonstrated that ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccinations induced immune cells, mainly CD8(+) T cells, able to recognize multiple T-epitopes through all VP2 and only the N-terminus sequence of VP5. Neither VP2 nor VP5 specific IFN-? responses were detected in unvaccinated horses. Overall, our data demonstrated that an experimental recombinant canarypox based vaccine induced significant CMI specific for both VP2 and VP5 proteins of AHSV4. PMID:22763149

El Garch, H; Crafford, J E; Amouyal, P; Durand, P Y; Edlund Toulemonde, C; Lemaitre, L; Cozette, V; Guthrie, A; Minke, J M

2012-09-15

397

Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications  

SciTech Connect

This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

NONE

1994-09-01

398

Nitric oxide and exercise in the horse.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of exercise on the production rate of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air (VNO) and the effects of inhaled NO (80 p.p.m.) on cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were investigated in five Throughbred horses. 2. The concentration of NO ([NO]) in exhaled air collected from within the nasal opening was lower when collected at a high flow rate of 80 l min-1 than at a low flow rate of 20 l min-1: when trotting at 3.7 m s-1 the values were 0.78 +/- 0.15 and 1.23 +/- 9.14 p.p.b., respectively, and when cantering at 9 m s-1 the values were 1.69 +/- 0.31 and 2.25 +/- 0.32 p.p.b., respectively. 3. Nebulized methoxamine (40 mg ml-1 for 60 s), an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist, further reduced [NO] during the 9 m s-1 canter to 1.05 +/- 0.14 and 1.99 +/- 0.41 p.p.b. when collected at 80 and 20 l min-1, respectively, and induced cyclical changes in the breathing pattern. 4. Exercise induced a linear increase in VNO with work intensity to a maximum (428.1 +/- 31.6 pmol min-1 kg-1) which coincided with the maximal oxygen uptake for the horses (138.3 +/- 11.7 ml min-1 kg-1), although a further increase in VNO (779.3 +/- 38.4 pmol min-1 kg-1) occurred immediately after exercise. The changes in VNO correlated well with the tidal volume (r = 0.968; P < 0.01) and the haematocrit (r = 0.855; P < 0.01). 5. In the first 2 min of high intensity exercise, inhaled NO (80 p.p.m.) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the pulmonary artery pressure: during the first minute, pulmonary artery pressure was 83.1 +/- 7.6 mmHg compared with a control value of 94.4 +/- 6.3 mmHg, and during the second minute, 84.2 +/- 7.1 mmHg compared with a control value of 98.4 +/- 4.7 mmHg. There were no other significant changes in cardiovascular or respiratory indices, including cardiac output, measured during exercise between control and inhaled NO tests. 6. The results show that exhaled NO is released from the airways of the horse and may contribute to the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone during exercise. PMID:8887788

Mills, P C; Marlin, D J; Demoncheaux, E; Scott, C; Casas, I; Smith, N C; Higenbottam, T

1996-01-01

399

Adrenocortical Insufficiency in Horses and Foals  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS The adrenal cortices produce a variety of steroid hormones (corticosteroids) that play vital roles in a number of physiologic processes, including: electrolyte and fluid balance; cardiovascular homeostasis; carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism; immune and inflammatory responses; and sexual development and reproductive function. While permanent adrenocortical insufficiency is rare in all species, emerging evidence in both human and equine medicine suggests that transient, reversible adrenocortical dysfunction resulting in cortisol insufficiency frequently develops during critical illness. This syndrome is termed relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) or critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI), and can contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality associated with the primary disease. Thus, this review will primarily cover the mechanisms, diagnosis and clinical consequences of adrenocortical insufficiency, with particular focus on our current understanding of RAI/CIRCI in horses and foals. PMID:21392651

Hart, Kelsey A.; Barton, Michelle H.

2010-01-01

400

View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing northwest - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

401

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...of effective enforcement of the Act: (a)...

2012-01-01

402

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...of effective enforcement of the Act: (a)...

2010-01-01

403

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...of effective enforcement of the Act: (a)...

2013-01-01

404

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...of effective enforcement of the Act: (a)...

2011-01-01

405

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

... Section 11.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...of effective enforcement of the Act: (a)...

2014-01-01

406

Epidemiology of Airborne Virulent Rhodococcus equi at Horse Breeding Farms  

E-print Network

Rhodococcus equi causes severe pneumonia, resulting in disease and sometimes death of foals. Infection is thought to occur by inhalation of dust contaminated with virulent R equi. A recent study of 3 horse breeding farms in Ireland found airborne...

Kuskie, Kyle Ryan

2012-02-14

407

2. GENERAL VIEW OF RESIDENCE (STRUCTURE 7) AND HORSE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GENERAL VIEW OF RESIDENCE (STRUCTURE 7) AND HORSE AND LIVERY STABLE (STRUCTURE 8) FROM NORTH - Twin Oaks Dairy, Northwest of Metcalfe Road, off State Route 101 (Monterey Road), Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

408

Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California  

PubMed Central

A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neurologic signs, histopathologic and serologic testing, and isolation and molecular characterization of EEEV from brain tissue. The vaccine was extensively tested for viral inactivation. Nucleotide sequences from the vaccine and the virus isolated in the affected horse were also compared. In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. This report describes the occurrence of EEEV infection in the horse and the investigation to determine the source of infection, which was not definitively identified. PMID:11927026

Kinde, Hailu; Jay, Michele T.; Kramer, Laura D.; Green, Emily-Gene N.; Chiles, Robert E.; Ostlund, Eileen; Husted, Stan; Smith, Jonathan; Parker, Michael D.

2002-01-01

409

7. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; SECOND FLOOR: HOPPER, HORSE, AND HOOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; SECOND FLOOR: HOPPER, HORSE, AND HOOP ARRANGEMENT ON LEFT, CRANE WITH STONE ON RIGHT - Lefferts Tide Mill, Huntington Harbor, Southdown Road, Huntington, Suffolk County, NY

410

8. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST: HOPPER, HORSE, AND HOOP ARRANGEMENT ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST: HOPPER, HORSE, AND HOOP ARRANGEMENT ON LEFT, GARNER IN CENTER, AND CROWN WHEEL ON RIGHT - Lefferts Tide Mill, Huntington Harbor, Southdown Road, Huntington, Suffolk County, NY

411

The horse as a model of naturally occurring osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is an important cause of pain, disability and economic loss in humans, and is similarly important in the horse. Recent knowledge on post-traumatic OA has suggested opportunities for early intervention, but it is difficult to identify the appropriate time of these interventions. The horse provides two useful mechanisms to answer these questions: 1) extensive experience with clinical OA in horses; and 2) use of a consistently predictable model of OA that can help study early pathobiological events, define targets for therapeutic intervention and then test these putative therapies. This paper summarises the syndromes of clinical OA in horses including pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, and details controlled studies of various treatment options using an equine model of clinical OA. PMID:23610661

McIlwraith, C. W.; Frisbie, D. D.; Kawcak, C. E.

2012-01-01

412

Tooth enamel biomineralization in extant horses: implications for isotopic microsampling  

E-print Network

domestic horses (Equus caballus) to document the timing of enamel mineralization in equid cheek teeth to months. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Biomineralization; Equus; Enamel; Radiography

Amundson, Ronald

413

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the...

2014-07-01

414

Metabolic studies of 1-testosterone in horses.  

PubMed

1-Testosterone (17?-hydroxy-5?-androst-1-en-3-one), a synthetic anabolic steroid, has been described as one of the most effective muscle-building supplements currently on the market. It has an anabolic potency of 200 as compared to 26 for testosterone. Apart from its abuse in human sports, it can also be a doping agent in racehorses. Metabolic studies on 1-testosterone have only been reported for human in the early seventies, whereas little is known about its metabolic fate in horses. This paper describes the studies of in vitro and in vivo metabolism of 1-testosterone in horses, with the aim of identifying the most appropriate target metabolites to be monitored for controlling the misuse or abuse of 1-testosterone in racehorses. Six in vitro metabolites, namely 5?-androst-1-ene-3?,17?-diol (T1a), 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol (T2), epiandrosterone (T3), 16,17-dihydroxy-5?-androst-1-ene-3-one (T4 & T5), and 5?-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione (T6), were identified. For the in vivo studies, two thoroughbred geldings were each administered orally with 800?mg of 1-testosterone by stomach tubing. The results revealed that the parent drug and eight metabolites were detected in urine. Besides the four in vitro metabolites (T1a, T2, T3, and T5), four other urinary metabolites, namely 5?-androst-1-ene-3?,17?-diol (T1b), 5?-androst-1-ene-3?,17?-diol (T1c), 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol (T7) and 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol (T8) were identified. This study shows that the detection of 1-testosterone administration is best achieved by monitoring the parent drug, which could be detected for up to 30?h post-administration. PMID:22715048

Kwok, W H; Ho, Emmie N M; Leung, Gary N W; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M; Wong, Henry N C; Yeung, John H K

2013-02-01

415

An online survey of horse-owners in Great Britain  

PubMed Central

Background Contingency planning for potential equine infectious disease outbreaks relies on accurate information on horse location and movements to estimate the risk of dissemination of disease(s). An online questionnaire was used to obtain unique information linking owner and horse location to characteristics of horse movements within and outwith Great Britain (GB). Results This online survey yielded a strong response, providing more than four times the target number of respondents (1000 target respondents) living in all parts of GB. Key demographic findings of this study indicated that horses which were kept on livery yards and riding schools were likely to be found in urban environments, some distance away from the owner’s home and vaccinated against influenza and herpes virus. Survey respondents were likely to travel greater than 10 miles to attend activities such as eventing or endurance but were also likely to travel and return home within a single day (58.6%, 2063/3522). This may affect the geographical extent and speed of disease spread, if large numbers of people from disparate parts of the country are attending the same event and the disease agent is highly infectious or virulent. The greatest risk for disease introduction and spread may be represented by a small proportion of people who import or travel internationally with their horses. These respondents were likely to have foreign horse passports, which were not necessarily recorded in the National Equine Database (NED), making the location of these horses untraceable. Conclusions These results illustrate the difficulties which exist with national GB horse traceability despite the existence of the NED and the horse passport system. This study also demonstrates that an online approach could be adopted to obtain important demographic data on GB horse owners on a more routine and frequent basis to inform decisions or policy pertaining to equine disease control. This represents a reasonable alternative to collection of GB horse location and movement data given that the NED no longer exists and there is no immediate plan to replace it. PMID:24074003

2013-01-01

416

A study of Streptococcus equi in the horse  

E-print Network

clinical research could provide improved treatment and manage- ment of the disease. There is a need for correlation of symptomatology, hematology, pathology, bacteriology, and internal medicine. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 27 According to Merchant.... After this, examinations were continued about every fourth day until the project was completed. The post mortem examinations were started two weeks following medication of the last horses. The horses were euthanitized by intra- venous administration...

Evers, Warren Dean

2012-06-07

417

Scientific Principles for Conditioning Race and Performance Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equine athlete undergoes significant musculo-skeletal changes during conditioning and competition. Unfortunately, lameness and losses are higher than desirable and the industry is challenged to use field-and laboratory-based principles for improving the well-being of race and performance horses. Body condition can be adjusted to delay fatigue and influence thermal regulation. Body weight estimates can aid in feeding horses more effectively.

P. G. Gibbs; G. D. Potter; B. D. Nielsen; W. Moyere

418

Toxicosis in horses after ingestion of hoary alyssum.  

PubMed

Fever, limb edema, and laminitis were observed in horses 18 to 36 hours after they consumed hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana) under field and experimental conditions. Clinical signs were not observed in all horses that had ingested the plant. Diagnosis in the field cases was limited to observation of clinical signs and evidence of plant ingestion in hay or on pasture. In most cases, clinical remission was observed 2 to 4 days after empirical treatment, removal of the plant source, or both. PMID:1644648

Geor, R J; Becker, R L; Kanara, E W; Hovda, L R; Sweeney, W H; Winter, T F; Rorick, J K; Ruth, G R; Hope, E; Murphy, M J

1992-07-01

419

Chronically starved horses: Predicting survival, economic, and ethical considerations  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nine of 45 horses subjected to prolonged malnutrition died subsequent to being placed with a responsible caregiver and being provided an appropriate diet. Initial extreme poor body condition score tended to be associated with death, although individual response to refeeding varied. The financial costs of stabilizing the group of horses significantly exceeded their free market price. Responsible management of chronically starved commercial animals should include options for immediate euthanasia. PMID:15943117

2005-01-01

420

Klossiella equi in the Kidneys of a Horse  

PubMed Central

The protozoan, Klossiella equi was found in the kidneys of an aged Shetland mare raised in the Fredericton area of New Brunswick. This is the first published report of K. equi in a horse in Canada. The microscopic appearance of the parasite in the kidney is described. A brief discussion of other conditions seen in the horse is also presented. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:7248892

Austin, R. J.; Dies, K. H.

1981-01-01

421

Clinical Problems Associated with the Intensive Management of Performance Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical as well as the behavioural requirements of the horse changed little through the process of domestication. This\\u000a means that horses kept within an intensively housed environment and used for performance, physically and behaviourally are\\u000a susceptible to specific clinical conditions, injuries and diseases. In this chapter, physiological and clinical problems such\\u000a as those causing pain related behaviours and head

R. A. Casey

422

Apparent rates of increase for two feral horse herds  

SciTech Connect

Rates of increase for 2 Oregon feral horse (Equus caballus) herds were estimated from direct aerial counts to be about 20% per year. These rates can be achieved only if survival rates are high, and reproduction exceeds that normally expected from horses. A population dynamics model suggests adult survival to be the key parameter in determining rates of increase, and there is some direct evidence of high adult survival rates. Management implications are discussed.

Eberhardt, L.L. (Battelle Memorial Inst., Richland, WA); Majorowicz, A.K.; Wilcox, J.A.

1982-01-01

423

Comprehension of human pointing gestures in horses ( Equus caballus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty domestic horses (Equus caballus) were tested for their ability to rely on different human gesticular cues in a two-way object choice task. An experimenter\\u000a hid food under one of two bowls and after baiting, indicated the location of the food to the subjects by using one of four\\u000a different cues. Horses could locate the hidden reward on the basis

Katalin Maros; Márta Gácsi; Ádám Miklósi

2008-01-01

424

On the Pleistocene extinctions of Alaskan mammoths and horses.  

PubMed

The fossil record has been used to shed light on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America and elsewhere. It is therefore important to account for variability due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and error in dating fossil remains. Here, a joint confidence region for the extinction times of horses and mammoths in Alaska is constructed. The results suggest that a prior claim that the extinction of horses preceded the arrival of humans cannot be made with confidence. PMID:16651534

Solow, Andrew R; Roberts, David L; Robbirt, Karen M

2006-05-01

425

On the Pleistocene extinctions of Alaskan mammoths and horses  

PubMed Central

The fossil record has been used to shed light on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America and elsewhere. It is therefore important to account for variability due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and error in dating fossil remains. Here, a joint confidence region for the extinction times of horses and mammoths in Alaska is constructed. The results suggest that a prior claim that the extinction of horses preceded the arrival of humans cannot be made with confidence. PMID:16651534

Solow, Andrew R.; Roberts, David L.; Robbirt, Karen M.

2006-01-01

426

Plasma Citrulline Levels in Horses at Risk of Acute Laminitis  

E-print Network

would be observed. Of these six, one was diagnosed with abortion and colic, three were diagnosed with colitis, one with colic, and one with pneumonia and lipemia. Of the 13 horses that recovered successfully, seven were diagnosed with routine, non...-surgical colic, two were diagnosed with colitis, and three were diagnosed with slight grain overload. One of the horses was diagnosed with acute unilateral laminitis with no known trigger event. Citrulline Concentrations The mean amino acid percent...

Jackson, Amy Lynn

2013-04-10

427

36 CFR 222.26 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands. 222...MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.26 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands....

2010-07-01

428

78 FR 58511 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Horses...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Importation of Horses, Ruminants, Swine, and Dogs; Inspection...the regulations for the importation of horses, ruminants, swine, and dogs from regions...the regulations for the importation of horses, ruminants, swine, and dogs from...

2013-09-24

429

75 FR 31745 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Horses...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Importation of Horses, Ruminants, Swine, and Dogs; Inspection...with regulations for the importation of horses, ruminants, swine, and dogs from regions...on regulations for the importation of horses, ruminants, swine, and dogs from...

2010-06-04

430

36 CFR 222.66 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.  

...2014-07-01 false Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private... RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.66 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from...

2014-07-01

431

36 CFR 222.26 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private... RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.26 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from...

2012-07-01

432

36 CFR 222.66 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private... RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.66 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from...

2013-07-01

433

Dynamic ventrorostral displacement of the dorsal laryngeal mucosa in horses.  

PubMed

The objectives of this report were to describe the occurrence and features of dynamic ventrorostral displacement of the dorsal laryngeal mucosa (VRDDLM) in a group of Thoroughbred horses presented for investigation of poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. Records from 600, dynamic, endoscopic examinations of the upper respiratory tract of horses were reviewed. Horses with VRDDLM were identified as those in which the dorsal laryngeal mucosa progressively obscured the interarytenoid notch and dorsoaxial portion of the corniculate processes of the arytenoid cartilages during high-speed exercise. The condition was recognised in 12 horses. Concurrent abnormalities of the respiratory tract of eight horses were also identified and included, axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds, vocal cord prolapse, unilateral and bilateral ventromedial luxation of the apex of the corniculate process of the arytenoid cartilage, and intermittent dorsal displacement of the soft palate. VRDDLM is a rare abnormality of the upper portion of the respiratory tract of horses that may be associated with abnormal respiratory noise and potentially poor performance. The significance of the condition is not known, but the presence of this condition in combination with other, obstructive diseases of the equine airway warrants further investigation. PMID:23559426

Pollock, P J; Kelly, P G; Reardon, R J M; Kelly, G M

2013-05-11

434

Correlation between dichromatic colour vision and jumping performance in horses.  

PubMed

There is general agreement that horses have dichromatic colour vision with similar capabilities to human beings with red-green colour deficiencies. However, whether colour perception has an impact on equine jumping performance and how pronounced the colour stimulus might be for a horse is unknown. The present study investigated the relationship between the colour of the fences (blue or green) and the show jumping performance of 20 horses ridden by two riders using an indoor and outdoor set of green and blue fences. In the indoor arena, significantly more touches and faults were made on blue fences in comparison to green fences (median difference of 2.5 bars). When only touched bars were included, a significant median difference of one bar was found. Mares (n?=?4) demonstrated more faults and had a significantly greater difference in touches and faults between the two colours than male horses (n?=?16). Repeating the same experiment with eight horses in an outdoor grass arena revealed no significant differences between the two colours. In order to draw any definite conclusions, more research concerning the colour perception, influence of contrast with the arena surface and sex of horse is required. PMID:25193409

Spaas, Julie; Helsen, Werner F; Adriaenssens, Maurits; Broeckx, Sarah; Duchateau, Luc; Spaas, Jan H

2014-10-01

435

Origin and History of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in Domestic Horses  

PubMed Central

Domestic horses represent a genetic paradox: although they have the greatest number of maternal lineages (mtDNA) of all domestic species, their paternal lineages are extremely homogeneous on the Y-chromosome. In order to address their huge mtDNA variation and the origin and history of maternal lineages in domestic horses, we analyzed 1961 partial d-loop sequences from 207 ancient remains and 1754 modern horses. The sample set ranged from Alaska and North East Siberia to the Iberian Peninsula and from the Late Pleistocene to modern times. We found a panmictic Late Pleistocene horse population ranging from Alaska to the Pyrenees. Later, during the Early Holocene and the Copper Age, more or less separated sub-populations are indicated for the Eurasian steppe region and Iberia. Our data suggest multiple domestications and introgressions of females especially during the Iron Age. Although all Eurasian regions contributed to the genetic pedigree of modern breeds, most haplotypes had their roots in Eastern Europe and Siberia. We found 87 ancient haplotypes (Pleistocene to Mediaeval Times); 56 of these haplotypes were also observed in domestic horses, although thus far only 39 haplotypes have been confirmed to survive in modern breeds. Thus, at least seventeen haplotypes of early domestic horses have become extinct during the last 5,500 years. It is concluded that the large diversity of mtDNA lineages is not a product of animal breeding but, in fact, represents ancestral variability. PMID:21187961

Cieslak, Michael; Pruvost, Melanie; Benecke, Norbert; Hofreiter, Michael; Morales, Arturo; Reissmann, Monika; Ludwig, Arne

2010-01-01

436

The absolute threshold of colour vision in the horse.  

PubMed

Arrhythmic mammals are active both during day and night if they are allowed. The arrhythmic horses are in possession of one of the largest terrestrial animal eyes and the purpose of this study is to reveal whether their eye is sensitive enough to see colours at night. During the day horses are known to have dichromatic colour vision. To disclose whether they can discriminate colours in dim light a behavioural dual choice experiment was performed. We started the training and testing at daylight intensities and the horses continued to choose correctly at a high frequency down to light intensities corresponding to moonlight. One Shetland pony mare, was able to discriminate colours at 0.08 cd/m(2), while a half blood gelding, still discriminated colours at 0.02 cd/m(2). For comparison, the colour vision limit for several human subjects tested in the very same experiment was also 0.02 cd/m(2). Hence, the threshold of colour vision for the horse that performed best was similar to that of the humans. The behavioural results are in line with calculations of the sensitivity of cone vision where the horse eye and human eye again are similar. The advantage of the large eye of the horse lies not in colour vision at night, but probably instead in achromatic tasks where presumably signal summation enhances sensitivity. PMID:19002261

Roth, Lina S V; Balkenius, Anna; Kelber, Almut

2008-01-01

437

Seroepidemiological study of African horse sickness virus in The Gambia.  

PubMed

An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for the screening of horse sera from The Gambia for antibodies against African horse sickness virus (AHSV). The AHSV antigen used for coating was semipurified according to the method of Manning and Chen (Curr. Microbiol. 4:381, 1980); control mock-infected Vero cell antigen was treated in the same manner. A total of 459 horse serum samples were assayed at a single dilution (1:10), and their reactivities were compared with those of reference positive anti-AHSV and reference negative horse sera. A total of 81% of the horse serum samples clearly contained antibodies against AHSV; this consisted of 18% (of the total number of serum samples) strongly positive, 46.5% moderately positive, and 16.5% weakly but still clearly positive. Such results suggest a high prevalence of AHSV in the regions from whence the samples originated. Reports from investigations in other countries in this area of West Africa have also shown a high prevalence for anti-AHSV antibodies in equids. The question is raised as to how the animals became seropositive and whether the observations represent an increased resistance of horses living in a region in which AHS is enzootic. PMID:8370760

Staeuber, N; Fye, B; Zinsstag, J; McCullough, K C

1993-08-01

438

Origin and history of mitochondrial DNA lineages in domestic horses.  

PubMed

Domestic horses represent a genetic paradox: although they have the greatest number of maternal lineages (mtDNA) of all domestic species, their paternal lineages are extremely homogeneous on the Y-chromosome. In order to address their huge mtDNA variation and the origin and history of maternal lineages in domestic horses, we analyzed 1961 partial d-loop sequences from 207 ancient remains and 1754 modern horses. The sample set ranged from Alaska and North East Siberia to the Iberian Peninsula and from the Late Pleistocene to modern times. We found a panmictic Late Pleistocene horse population ranging from Alaska to the Pyrenees. Later, during the Early Holocene and the Copper Age, more or less separated sub-populations are indicated for the Eurasian steppe region and Iberia. Our data suggest multiple domestications and introgressions of females especially during the Iron Age. Although all Eurasian regions contributed to the genetic pedigree of modern breeds, most haplotypes had their roots in Eastern Europe and Siberia. We found 87 ancient haplotypes (Pleistocene to Mediaeval Times); 56 of these haplotypes were also observed in domestic horses, although thus far only 39 haplotypes have been confirmed to survive in modern breeds. Thus, at least seventeen haplotypes of early domestic horses have become extinct during the last 5,500 years. It is concluded that the large diversity of mtDNA lineages is not a product of animal breeding but, in fact, represents ancestral variability. PMID:21187961

Cieslak, Michael; Pruvost, Melanie; Benecke, Norbert; Hofreiter, Michael; Morales, Arturo; Reissmann, Monika; Ludwig, Arne

2010-01-01

439

Mitochondrial DNA lineages of Italian Giara and Sarcidano horses.  

PubMed

Giara and Sarcidano are 2 of the 15 extant native Italian horse breeds with limited dispersal capability that originated from a larger number of individuals. The 2 breeds live in two distinct isolated locations on the island of Sardinia. To determine the genetic structure and evolutionary history of these 2 Sardinian breeds, the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced and analyzed in 40 Giara and Sarcidano horses and compared with publicly available mtDNA data from 43 Old World breeds. Four different analyses, including genetic distance, analysis of molecular variance, haplotype sharing, and clustering methods, were used to study the genetic relationships between the Sardinian and other horse breeds. The analyses yielded similar results, and the FST values indicated that a high percentage of the total genetic variation was explained by between-breed differences. Consistent with their distinct phenotypes and geographic isolation, the two Sardinian breeds were shown to consist of 2 distinct gene pools that had no gene flow between them. Giara horses were clearly separated from the other breeds examined and showed traces of ancient separation from horses of other breeds that share the same mitochondrial lineage. On the other hand, the data from the Sarcidano horses fit well with variation among breeds from the Iberian Peninsula and North-West Europe: genetic relationships among Sarcidano and the other breeds are consistent with the documented history of this breed. PMID:25366719

Morelli, L; Useli, A; Sanna, D; Barbato, M; Contu, D; Pala, M; Cancedda, M; Francalacci, P

2014-01-01

440

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...identification which includes a description of the horse, name, age, markings, if any, registration number, if any, and tattoo or eartag; the region of origin; the name and address of the exporter; the port of embarkation in the foreign...

2013-01-01

441

Evaluation of Calendar Year 1997 Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1997. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge bordered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) to the north, Scarboro Road to the eas~ Bethel Valley Road to the south, and an unnamed drainage basin southwest of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater quality monitoring is performed at hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities in the regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The CY 1997 monitoring data are presented in Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeolo~"c Regime at the US. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (MA Technical Services, Inc. 1998), which also presents results of site-specific monitoring data evaluations required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCIL4) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Regime

Jones, S.B.

1998-09-01

442

Effect of addition of green tea, chestnut and grape extract on the shelf-life of pig liver pâté.  

PubMed

The effect of the addition of natural antioxidants (tea, chestnut and grape seed extracts) on physico-chemical and oxidative stability of refrigerated stored pig pâtés was studied. This effect was compared with that showed by the synthetic antioxidant BHT. Pâté samples were analysed at 0, 4, 8 and 24 weeks of refrigerated storage (4°C). Colour parameters were affected by storage period and antioxidant extract. Samples with CHE and GRA extracts showed lower total colour difference between 0 and 24 weeks. The amount of TBARS gradually increased during refrigerated storage with the exception of pâtés that have CHE extract in composition. At the sampling end point, the lower TBARS values were obtained in samples with TEA and GRA extracts. Finally, the evolution of volatile compounds during storage showed an increase in the lipid-derived volatile values after refrigerated storage, since samples with TEA and GRA extract showed the lowest values. PMID:24206734

Pateiro, M; Lorenzo, J M; Amado, I R; Franco, D

2014-03-15

443

Influence of chestnut tannins on welfare, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and lipid oxidation in rabbits under high ambient temperature.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of chestnut tannins (CT) on welfare, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and lipid oxidation in rabbits under high ambient temperature. Rabbits in one group were raised at 20°C and fed with basal diet (N) and other three groups (33°C) were fed basal diet with 0 (C), 5 (CT5), and 10 g (CT10) of CT/kg of diet. Compared with the C group, rabbits in CT10 had higher pH(24) and lower cooking loss and thiobarbituric acid reacting substance values at 0, 30, and 60 min of forced oxidation. Rabbits in C group had higher cortisol levels, creatine kinase activities, white blood cell counts, neutrophil percentage, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and lower T(3), T(4) levels, lymphocyte percentage than N and CT10 groups. Supplementation of CT seemed to have a positive effect on growth performance, welfare, and meat quality of rabbits under high ambient temperature. PMID:21742443

Liu, Huawei; Zhou, Daowei; Tong, Jianming; Vaddella, Venkata

2012-01-01

444

Effect of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on rheological properties of gels from blends of chestnut and rice flours.  

PubMed

The development of high quality gluten-free products requires the understanding of the phenomena that dictate the ingredient interactions commonly used in foodstuff. In this work, the main objective was to develop alternative gluten-free gelled desserts from blends of chestnut flour (Cf) and whole (Rw), Agulha (Ra) or Carolino (Rc) rice flours. The impact of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on textural, rheological and structural properties of selected gels was investigated. Texture results indicated that studied gels in the presence of sucrose and xylitol decreased significantly the firmness. Rheological outcomes showed that the temperature ramps on heating of Cf/Rw gels were similar to those obtained for Cf/Ra, whereas Cf/Rc gels presented a particular pattern. The presence of sucrose resulted in a significant decrease in the values of storage and loss moduli. Confocal microscopic images showed that the sugar addition leads to a less aggregated structure with fracture lines well marked. PMID:23987342

Torres, M D; Raymundo, A; Sousa, I

2013-10-15

445

Neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)  

PubMed Central

Background Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Reduction of inflammatory cell apoptosis or a dysregulation of this process could lead to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis and necrosis of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from seven horses suffering from RAO (study group) and seven control horses. Results We demonstrated that neutrophil/macrophage apoptosis is altered in RAO-affected horses compared with the control group in the BAL fluid. We found a significant difference between the median percentage of early and late apoptosis of neutrophils between the study and control group of horses. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the rate of apoptosis and the median percentage of macrophages in RAO-affected horses. Conclusion The findings suggest that apoptosis dysregulation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAO. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of altered apoptosis in the course of equine recurrent airway obstruction. PMID:24460911

2014-01-01

446

Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI.  

PubMed

Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH(2) column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. All the compounds were separated in 16 min. The method was optimized and proved to be reproducible and accurate. Generally, more than 95% of sugars were identified for both matrixes. Sugars profiles were quite homogeneous for almond cultivars; sucrose was the main sugar (11.46 +/- 0.14 in Marcona to 22.23 +/- 0.59 in Ferragnes g/100 g of dried weight), followed by raffinose (0.71 +/- 0.05 in Ferraduel to 2.11 +/- 0.29 in Duro Italiano), glucose (0.42 +/- 0.12 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 1.47 +/- 0.19 in Ferragnes) and fructose (0.11 +/- 0.02 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 0.59 +/- 0.05 in Gloriette). Commercial cultivars proved to have higher sucrose contents, except in the case of Marcona. Nevertheless, chestnut cultivars revealed a high heterogeneity. Sucrose was the main sugar in Aveleira (22.05 +/- 1.48), Judia (23.30 +/- 0.83) and Longal (9.56 +/- 0.91), while glucose was slightly prevalent in Boa Ventura (6.63 +/- 0.49). The observed variance could serve for inter-cultivar discrimination. PMID:20033298

Barreira, João C M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2010-03-01

447

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum , the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. We used direct and indirect methods to compare and evaluate exposure to A. phagocytophilum in horses in northern Tunisia. Methods Serum from 60 horses was tested by IFA for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum , and whole blood was tested for A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene using a nested-PCR. To examine the risk of A. phagocytophilum transmission, 154 ticks that had been collected from horses were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by nested-PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene. Results This is the first time that A. phagocytophilum has been detected in horses in Tunisia, with an overall seroprevalence of 40/60 (67%). Six of the seroreactive samples (10%) had an IFA titer of 1:80, 14 (23%) of 1:160, 8 (13%) of 1:320 and 12 (20%) a titer 1???640. The seroprevalence revealed no significant regional and sex differences. In contrast, a significant difference was observed between breeds. Eight (13%) of the horses were positive for A. phagocytophilum in the PCR, with no significant breed and age differences. Hyalomma marginatum was a predominant tick species (130/154), and 3 were infected by A. phagocytophilum (a prevalence of 2.3%). The concordance rate of A. phagocytophilum detection between IFA and PCR had a k value of ?0.07. Conclusions The results presented in this study suggest that horses infested by ticks in Tunisia are exposed to A. phagocytophilum. PMID:22935132

2012-01-01

448

9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 11.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...violations of the Horse Protection Act or regulations,...

2013-01-01

449

9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 11.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...violations of the Horse Protection Act or regulations,...

2012-01-01

450

9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 11.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...violations of the Horse Protection Act or regulations,...

2010-01-01

451

9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 11.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...violations of the Horse Protection Act or regulations,...

2011-01-01

452

9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.  

...Section 11.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS...violations of the Horse Protection Act or regulations,...

2014-01-01

453

Hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana) toxicity in a herd of broodmare horses.  

PubMed

A herd of pregnant horses exposed to hoary alyssum through ingested hay developed acute and severe gastrointestinal toxicity accompanied by intravascular hemolysis. Postmortem lesions were consistent with these signs. Three horses had late-term abortions. PMID:8434451

Hovda, L R; Rose, M L

1993-02-01

454

Evolution, Systematics, and Phylogeography of Pleistocene Horses in the New World  

E-print Network

regarded as closely related to the Eurasian caballines, a group that includes the domestic horse (Equus caballus) and the extant wild Przewalskii horse. The stilt-legged forms have been taxonomically assigned

Rubenstein, Daniel I.

455

Feeding and Caring for a Two-Year-Old 4-H Futurity Horse  

E-print Network

This publication explains how to care for a 2-year-old horse and have a successful 4-H futurity horse project. Topics include proper nutrition; regular coat, hoof, and health care; adequate exercise; and consistent training. Activities are included...

Antilley, Teri J.; Sigler, Dennis

2009-05-15

456

77 FR 41473 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Lion Attacking a Horse  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Lion Attacking a Horse'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations...hereby determine that the object entitled ``Lion Attacking a Horse,'' to be imported by The J. Paul Getty Museum from...

2012-07-13

457

The role of andragogy and self-directed learning in the draft horse industry  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to determine and understand the variables affecting the revival of the draft horse industry in the United States. A qualitative study was conducted using 31 purposively (Lincoln and Guba, 1985) selected draft horse...

Hynes, James William

2006-08-16

458

Nutrition assessment of horse-racing athletes.  

PubMed

Athletes involved in horse racing face weight restrictions like wrestlers and dancers; however, the literature is sparse pertaining to nutritional habits of jockeys. The practice of "making weight" causes these athletes to engage in potentially unhealthy practices. A gap in nutritionally sound practices and methods used by jockeys was identified and a desire for nutrition education was expressed to Cooperative Extension of Delaware by representatives of the riders at Delaware Park Race Track. Nutrition assessment was done using the Nutrition Care Process. Twenty jockeys were interviewed using an assessment form developed to target areas of disordered eating. Body mass index (BMI), mean weight loss on race day, methods of weight loss and ease of weight maintenance were examined. The jockeys were also asked for areas they wished to receive nutrition education on in the future. The BMI of the 20 jockeys ranged from 17.0 to 21.4 during racing season, with only one jockey in the "underweight" category. This range increased to 19.1-24.0 when the riders were not riding. The most common method of weight loss was the use of steam rooms, to lose an average 2.5 lb in 1 day. Eight of 20, the most common response, reported it very easy to maintain their racing weight. The jockeys reported interest in future education sessions on meal planning and healthy food ideas. The assessment was used as the basis to develop nutrition education materials and presentations for the riders at the race track. PMID:20803166

Cotugna, Nancy; Snider, O Sue; Windish, Jennifer

2011-04-01

459

Assisted reproduction techniques in the horse.  

PubMed

This paper reviews current equine assisted reproduction techniques. Embryo transfer is the most common equine ART, but is still limited by the inability to superovulate mares effectively. Immature oocytes may be recovered by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of immature follicles, or from ovaries postmortem, and can be effectively matured in vitro. Notably, the in vivo-matured oocyte may be easily recovered from the stimulated preovulatory follicle. Standard IVF is still not repeatable in the horse; however, embryos and foals can be produced by surgical transfer of mature oocytes to the oviducts of inseminated recipient mares or via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Currently, ICSI and in vitro embryo culture are routinely performed by only a few laboratories, but reported blastocyst development rates approach those found after bovine IVF (i.e. 25%-35%). Nuclear transfer can be relatively efficient (up to 26% live foal rate per transferred embryo), but few laboratories are working in this area. Equine blastocysts may be biopsied via micromanipulation, with normal pregnancy rates after biopsy, and accurate genetic analysis. Equine expanded blastocysts may be vitrified after collapsing them via micromanipulation, with normal pregnancy rates after warming and transfer. Many of these recently developed techniques are now in clinical use. PMID:23244831

Hinrichs, Katrin

2012-01-01

460

Lateralized suckling in domestic horses (Equus caballus).  

PubMed

Brain lateralization enables preferential processing of certain stimuli and more effective utilization of these stimuli in either the left or the right cerebral hemisphere. Horses show both motor and sensory lateralization patterns. Our aim was to determine whether a lateralized response could be detected in foals during the naturally side-biased behaviour, suckling. The foals' preferred suckling side could be the effect of either visual or motor lateralization. In the case of a visual lateralized response, foals are expected to suck more often from the mother's right side, so potential danger can be detected by the better adapted right hemisphere (i.e. left eye). Motor lateralization can be identified when a foal will suck predominantly from one side, either left or right. We found no population trend in the preferred suckling side, but we detected significant differences amongst individual foals. One-third (35.4 %) of 79 foals showed a strong, either right or left side preference which increased with age. The mothers did not influence the foals' suckling side preferences either by side-biased rejection or termination of suckling. According to our findings, a general pattern of sucking with the left eye open for better danger detection and recognition is unlikely in foals up to 7 months old. Foals of this age are probably young or fully focused on suckling and rely on their mothers' vigilance. Individual side preferences amongst foals are suggested to be based on motor lateralization. PMID:23117229

Komárková, Martina; Bartošová, Jitka

2013-05-01

461

Cardiorespiratory response and blood lactate in cutting horses subjected to two exercise regimens  

E-print Network

subjected to aerobic and intermittent anaerobic (cutting horse) work using treadmill (TET) and cutting (CET) exercise tests. In phase I, heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR) and blood lactate (LA) concentr