Sample records for horse chestnut aesculus

  1. Triazole induced drought tolerance in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum).

    PubMed

    Percival, Glynn C; Noviss, Kelly

    2008-11-01

    We determined the influence of the triazole derivatives paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole, propiconazole and myclobutanil on the drought tolerance and post drought recovery of container-grown horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) saplings. Myclobutanil neither conferred drought resistance, as assessed by its effects on a number of physiological and biochemical parameters, nor affected growth parameters measured after recovery from drought. Chlorophyll fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)), photosynthetic rates, total foliar chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, foliar proline concentration and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were consistently higher and leaf necrosis and cellular electrolyte leakage was lower at the end of a 3-week drought in trees treated with paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole or propiconazole than in control trees. Twelve weeks after drought treatment, leaf area and shoot, root and total plant dry masses were greater in triazole-treated trees than in control trees with the exception of those treated with myclobutanil. In a separate study, trees were subjected to a 2-week drought and then sprayed with paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole, propiconazole or myclobutanil. Chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic rate, foliar chlorophyll concentration and catalase activity over the following 12 weeks were 20 to 50% higher in triazole-treated trees than in control trees. At the end of the 12-week recovery period, leaf area and shoot, root and total plant dry masses were higher in triazole-treated trees than in control trees, with the exception of trees treated with myclobutanil. Application of triazole derivatives, with the exception of myclobutanil, enhanced tolerance to prolonged drought and, when applied after a 2-week drought, hastened recovery from drought. The magnitude of treatment effects was in the order epixiconazole approximately propiconazole > penconazole > paclobutrazol > myclobutanil. PMID:18765373

  2. Horse Chestnut

    MedlinePLUS

    ... E-mail: info@nccih.nih.gov PubMed® A service of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), PubMed® contains publication information and ( ... supporting research, sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications ... Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus Horse Chestnut Listing: www.nlm. ...

  3. Horse Chestnut: Cultivation for Ornamental Purposes and Non-Food Crop Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bellini; S. Nin

    2005-01-01

    The horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) is a common ornamental tree that possesses numerous useful derivatives (escin, cholesterol-escin complex, glycolic, soft and dry extracts, esculin) in different parts of the plant, especially the seeds and trunk bark. These derivatives are widely used in dermatology and pharmacology, mainly for the treatment of peripheral chronic venous insufficiency, but also in the cosmetic

  4. Environmental Fate of Emamectin Benzoate After Tree Micro Injection of Horse Chestnut Trees

    PubMed Central

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1–6. © 2014 The Authors. Published 2014 SETAC PMID:25363584

  5. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. PMID:25363584

  6. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Status in Androgenic Embryos of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava

    PubMed Central

    Štajner, Dubravka; Popovi?, Boris M.; ?ali?, Dušica; Štajner, Marijana

    2014-01-01

    In vivo (leaves and seed embryos) and in vitro (androgenic embryos) antioxidant scavenging activity of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava medical plants was examined. Here we report antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids, soluble protein contents, quantities of malondialdehyde, and •OH radical presence in the investigated plant samples. Total antioxidant capacity of all the samples of A. hippocastanum and A. flava was determined using FRAP, DPPH, and NO• radical scavenger capacity. The leaves of A. flava collected from the botanical garden exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (higher activities of SOD, and higher quantities of GSH, TSH, TPC, and scavenging abilities of DPPH and NO•, and higher FRAP values and lowest quantities of •OH and MDA) than in vitro obtained cultures. However, the leaves of A. flava showed higher antioxidant activity than the leaves of A. hippocastanum, and therefore they have a stronger tolerance of oxidative stress. Androgenic embryos of both species had low amount of antioxidants due to controlled in vitro environmental conditions (T, photoperiod, humidity, nutritive factors, and pathogen-free). Our results confirmed that we found optimal in vitro conditions for producing androgenic embryos of both Aesculus species. Also, we assume that horse chestnut androgenic embryos can be used as an alternative source for large-scale aescin production. PMID:24672369

  7. The Horse Chestnut Lines Harboring the rol Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Zdravkovi?-Kora?; D. ?ali?; P. H. Druart; Lj. Radojevi?

    2003-01-01

    An Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system for Aesculus hippocastanum L. has been developed. Wounded androgenic embryos of A. hippocastanum were inoculated with bacteria containing the pRiA4 plasmid, with the uid A sequence as a reporter gene. The hairy roots emerging from the wounded sites of androgenic embryos were isolated and maintained in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) liquid hormone-free medium. Five hairy

  8. How to safely compost Cameraria ohridella-infested horse chestnut leaf litter on private compost heaps

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    How to safely compost Cameraria ohridella-infested horse chestnut leaf litter on private compost the deposition of pest-infested litter on private compost heaps was dissuaded because of the risk of leafminer emergence in the following spring. Thus, the aim of this study was to test safe ways to compost pest

  9. The Success of the Horse-Chestnut Leaf-Miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK Revealed with Hypothesis-Led Citizen Science

    PubMed Central

    Pocock, Michael J. O.; Evans, Darren M.

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the ‘Conker Tree Science’ project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella) undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1) the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2) the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism) increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging many people with science. PMID:24465973

  10. Histological Examination of Horse Chestnut Infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and Non-Destructive Heat Treatment to Stop Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A. M.; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39°C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens. PMID:22808044

  11. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    PubMed

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A M

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens. PMID:22808044

  12. Determination of escin content in androgenic embryos and hairy root culture of Aesculus hippocastanum.

    PubMed

    Cali?-Dragosavac, Dusica; Zdravkovi?-Kora?, Snezana; Savikin-Fodulovi?, Katarina; Radojevi?, Ljiljana; Vinterhalter, Branka

    2010-05-01

    Escin, a group of chemically related triterpenic glycosides, is widely used in commercial preparations for the treatment of venous insufficiency. Since the zygotic embryo cotyledons accumulate the highest amount of escin, it is currently extracted from the seeds of horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae), on a large scale. As this material is available during only short period of the year, we studied the possibility of using plant tissue culture to obtain escin. For this purpose, the content of escin in androgenic embryos and hairy root cultures of horse chestnut was studied. Escin content was found to be dependent on the stage of androgenic embryo development and the type of phytoregulator supplemented to the nutritive medium. In the absence of phytoregulators, androgenic embryos at the globular stage of development contained approximately four times less escin than those at the cotyledonary stage. Inclusion of various phytoregulators in the nutritive media stimulated escin production. Among them, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) showed the most pronounced effect, with escin content almost reaching that found in zygotic embryos (6.77% versus 6.96%). Two hairy root clones produced substantial amounts of escin (3.57% and 4.09%), less than zygotic embryos, but higher than cotyledonary embryos on phytoregulator-free medium. PMID:20645800

  13. In vitro permeation studies of phenolics from horse chestnut seed gels prepared with different polyacrylic acid polymer derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zelbien?, Egl?; Draksiene, Gailute; Savickas, Arunas; Kopustinskiene, Dalia; Masteikova, Ruta; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of polyacrylic acid polymers (Ultrez 10, Ultrez 20, Carbopol 980, and Carbopol 940) on the viscosity and the in vitro permeation of phenolic compounds from the gel prepared from natural horse chestnut seed extract. Experiments were performed in the presence and in the absence of peppermint oil (Mentha piperita). Our results showed that peppermint oil decreased the viscosity of the gels and permeation of phenolic compounds from all gel samples. Results show that the highest content of phenolic compounds (1.758 ?g cm-2) permeated in vitro from gel based on Carbopol Ultrez 20 without peppermint oil added (p < 0.05 vs. other tested polymers). PMID:26011934

  14. Rational therapy of chronic venous insufficiency – chances and limits of the therapeutic use of horse-chestnut seeds extract

    PubMed Central

    Ottillinger, Bertram; Greeske, Karin

    2001-01-01

    Background and methods We report two clinical studies, one already published, performed in patients with early and advanced chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). In both, compression therapy and oral therapy with horse-chestnut seeds extracts (HCSE) were compared to placebo. Results The published study in early CVI (Grade I) showed HCSE and compression to be superior to placebo and to be equivalent to each other in reducing lower leg volume, a measure for oedema. In the study, in advanced CVI (Grade II and IIIa), compression appeared to be superior to placebo, whereas HCSE was not. HCSE fared better in Grade II than in Grade IIIa patients. These results are discussed in the light of data from an in vitro model, where HCSE has been able to close the intercellular gaps in the venular endothelium. Not fully specified factors lead to an opening of these gaps, resulting in oedema as well as in local coagulation and thrombosis. The subsequent inflammation keeps these gaps open and initiates and maintains a chronic disease process, which may be the starting point of CVI. Conclusion Due to its ability to close the venular endothelial gaps, HCSE seems to be a suitable and protecting therapy during the early stages of CVI. In later more severe stages compression therapy is indicated. Taking into account the observed negative impact of compression on quality of life, pharmacological CVI therapy should start early to avoid progress and to spare patients compression therapy. PMID:11747472

  15. The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time.

    PubMed

    Koskella, Britt; Parr, Nicole

    2015-08-19

    Insight to the spatial and temporal scales of coevolution is key to predicting the outcome of host-parasite interactions and spread of disease. For bacteria infecting long-lived hosts, selection to overcome host defences is just one factor shaping the course of evolution; populations will also be competing with other microbial species and will themselves be facing infection by bacteriophage viruses. Here, we examine the temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial adaptation against natural phage populations from within leaves of horse chestnut trees. Using a time-shift experiment with both sympatric and allopatric phages from either contemporary or earlier points in the season, we demonstrate that bacterial resistance is higher against phages from the past, regardless of spatial sympatry or how much earlier in the season phages were collected. Similarly, we show that future bacterial hosts are more resistant to both sympatric and allopatric phages than contemporary bacterial hosts. Together, our results suggest the evolution of relatively general bacterial resistance against phages in nature and are contrasting to previously observed patterns of phage adaptation to bacteria from the same tree hosts over the same time frame, indicating a potential asymmetry in coevolutionary dynamics. PMID:26150663

  16. Parasitism of the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lep., Gracillariidae), in Serbia and Macedonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Heitland; I. Tosevski

    2002-01-01

    A study concerning the parasitism of Cameraria ohridella, a pest of Aesculus hippocastanum invading Europe, has been carried out in Serbia and Macedonia in 1998 and 1999. From C. ohridella 14 species of parasitoids were reared, which are polyphagous and occur in the whole of Europe. Twelve of the species found belong to the Chalcidoidean family Eulophidae. The rates of

  17. Horses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... horses and can cause human illness are: Anthrax ( Bacillus anthracis ) Anthrax is a naturally occurring disease of animals caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis . People and animals can get anthrax when they ...

  18. Flavonol oligosaccharides from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum.

    PubMed

    Hübner, G; Wray, V; Nahrstedt, A

    1999-10-01

    Nine flavonol oligosides of quercetin and kaempferol with glucose, xylose, and rhamnose as sugars were isolated from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae). Five of them are new compounds (2 trisaccharides, 1 bisdesmoside, a nicotinic and a indolinone hydroxyacetic acid ester of the bisdesmoside). Their structures were elucidated mainly using (1)H- and (13)C-NMR techniques. PMID:17260289

  19. American Chestnut Tree

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KET

    2008-09-02

    This annotated slideshow adapted from KET's Electronic Field Trip to the Forest illustrates how blight decimated the American chestnut tree and the methods scientists use to identify and pollinate the remaining trees to create blight-resistant trees.

  20. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  1. CHESTNUT RIDGE RD VALLEY ROAD

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    :BETHEL VALLEY ROAD 8600 8700 8610 SNS Spallation Neutron Source SNS User Office: 865-574-4600 08-G00333A/gim 0 ACCESS ROAD HFIR SIGN East Vehicle Portal West Vehicle Portal TO:I-75/I-40, EXIT 81,AND LENOIR CITY Visitor's Center SNS SIGN TO: OAK RIDGE, Y-12,AND KNOXVILLE CHESTNUT RIDGE ROAD FIRSTSTREET 95 95 HFIR

  2. CHESTNUT RIDGE RD VALLEY ROAD

    E-print Network

    :BETHEL VALLEY ROAD 8600 8700 8610 SNS Spallation Neutron Source SNS User Office: 865-574-4600 08-G00333B/gim 0 VALLEY RD BETHEL VALLEY RD RAMSEY DRIVE EGERACCESSROAD MELTON VALLEY DRIVE MELTON VALLEY ACCESS ROAD HFIR SIGN TO: OAK RIDGE, Y-12,AND KNOXVILLE CHESTNUT RIDGE ROAD FIRSTSTREET 95 95 HFIR and SNS Sites #12;

  3. CHESTNUT RIDGE RD VALLEY ROAD

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    :BETHEL VALLEY ROAD 8600 8700 8610 SNS Spallation Neutron Source SNS User Office: 865-574-4600 08-G00333B/gim 0 VALLEY RD BETHEL VALLEY RD RAMSEY DRIVE EGERACCESSROAD MELTON VALLEY DRIVE MELTON VALLEY ACCESS ROAD HFIR SIGN TO: OAK RIDGE, Y-12,AND KNOXVILLE CHESTNUT RIDGE ROAD FIRSTSTREET 95 95 HFIR and SNS Sites ORNL

  4. Impact of the leaf miner Cameraria ohridella on photosynthesis, water relations and hydraulics of Aesculus hippocastanum leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Raimondo; Lia A. Ghirardelli; Andrea Nardini; Sebastiano Salleo

    2003-01-01

    The mining of leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum caused by the larvae of Cameraria ohridella leads to precocious defoliation of trees. Damage to plant productivity was estimated in terms of the photosynthetic performance as well as of leaf water relations and hydraulics of increasingly mined leaves from infested plants in comparison with the same variables measured in non-mined leaves (controls). Electron

  5. Hypersensitivity to latex, chestnut, and banana.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M; Vega, F; García, M T; Panizo, C; Laffond, E; Montalvo, A; Cuevas, M

    1993-01-01

    The incidence of latex-allergic patients is probably higher than suspected. A spectrum of IgE-dependent allergic reactions to latex products including urticaria, rhinitis, asthma, angioedema, and life-threatening anaphylaxis has been increasingly reported in recent years. We describe three patients with rubber hypersensitivity and allergy to fruit (banana and chestnut). Immediate positive responses were obtained in prick tests with latex, banana, and chestnut extracts. Histamine release was positive and specific IgE antibodies to all three extracts were detected by fluorescence radioimmunoassay. In the RAST-inhibition studies, the extract of latex inhibited the binding of chestnut and banana, but chestnut and banana extracts did not inhibit the binding of latex. These results suggest a sensitivity to crossreacting antigens in latex allergy associated with allergy to certain fruits. PMID:7678723

  6. Dendroecology of American chestnut in a disjunct stand of oak–chestnut forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan W. McEwan; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Brian C. McCarthy

    2006-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) was once an important hardwood species in the for- ests of eastern North America. Following the chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr) pandemic of the early 20th century, C. dentata remains only as sprouts throughout much of its range. We conducted a dendroecological analysis of a large naturalized stand of mature C. dentata

  7. A modified version of fluctuating asymmetry, potential for the analysis of Aesculus hippocastanum L. compound leaves.

    PubMed

    Velickovic, Miroslava

    2008-01-01

    My research interest was to create a new, simple and tractable mathematical framework for analyzing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in Aesculus hippocastanum L. palmately compound leaves (each compound leaf with 7 obviate, serrate leaflets). FA, being random differences in the development of both sides of a bilaterally symmetrical character, has been proposed as an indicator of environmental and genetic stress. In the present paper the well-established Palmer's procedure for FA has been modified to improve the suitability of the chosen index (FA1) to be used in compound leaf asymmetry analysis. The processing steps are described in detail, allowing us to apply these modifications for the other Palmer's indices of FA as well as for the compound leaves of other plant species. PMID:18604782

  8. Paradata for 'Pets>Horses>The Horse: Featuring many breeds of horses, including working horses, ponies, racing horses, riding horses, care, feeding, books, and other info'

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This record contains paradata for the resource 'Pets>Horses>The Horse: Featuring many breeds of horses, including working horses, ponies, racing horses, riding horses, care, feeding, books, and other info'

  9. Antifeedants and Feeding Stimulants in Bark Extracts of Ten Woody Non-host Species of the Pine Weevil, Hylobius abietis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carina Eriksson; Per E. Månsson; Kristina Sjödin; Fredrik Schlyter

    2008-01-01

    Bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a Soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. Species were alder (Alnus glutinosa), aspen (Populus tremula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), holly (Ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (Evonymus europaeus),

  10. Agrobacterium rhizogenes -mediated DNA transfer to Aesculu s hippocastanum L. and the regeneration of transformed plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Zdravkovi?-Kora?; Y. Muhovski; P. Druart; D. ?ali?; L. Radojevi?

    2004-01-01

    Hairy roots were induced from androgenic embryos of horse chestnut ( Aesculus hippocastanum L.) by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4GUS. Single roots were selected according to their morphology in the absence of antibiotic or herbicide resistance markers. Seventy-one putative transformed hairy root lines from independent transformation events were established. Regeneration was induced in MS liquid medium supplemented with 30 µ

  11. The Role of Water Uptake in the Transition of Recalcitrant Seeds from Dormancy to Germination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V. Obroucheva; O. V. Antipova

    2004-01-01

    In recalcitrant seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) maintaining a high water content during winter, dormancy is determined by the presence and influence of the seed coat, while the axial organs of the embryos excised from these seeds are not dormant. Such axial organs were capable for active water uptake and rapid fresh weight increase, so that their fresh

  12. Aescin: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and therapeutic profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesare R. Sirtori

    2001-01-01

    Aescin, the major active principle from Aesculus hippocastanum (Hippocastanaceae) the horse chestnut tree, has shown satisfactory evidence for a clinically significant activity in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), haemorrhoids and post-operative oedema. In one controlled trial aescin was shown to be as effective as compression therapy as an alternative to medical treatment for CVI. The therapeutic benefit is well supported by

  13. The expression of dehydrin proteins in desiccation-sensitive (recalcitrant) seeds of temperate trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Finch-Savage; S. K. Pramanik; J. D. Bewley

    1994-01-01

    Proteins that have homology with dehydrins have been identified immunologically in the desiccationsensitive (recalcitrant)\\u000a seeds of English oak (Quercus robur L.), European chestnut (Castanea sativa L.), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), sycamore (Acer psuedoplatanus L.) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.), and in the desiccation-tolerant seeds of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.). The mRNA for a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA)

  14. BOSTON COLLEGE CHESTNUT HILL, MASSACHUSETTS 02467

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    BOSTON COLLEGE CHESTNUT HILL, MASSACHUSETTS 02467 Internship Approval Form To receive credit in the College of Arts and Sciences, internships must provide an educational experience equivalent to a practicum on the Internship Approval form, commit to at least 50 hours work, and secure the approval of both the internship

  15. Comparison of the transcriptomes of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) in response to the chestnut blight infection

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Abdelali; DiLoreto, Denis S; Zhang, Yi; Smith, Chris; Baier, Kathleen; Powell, William A; Wheeler, Nicholas; Sederoff, Ron; Carlson, John E

    2009-01-01

    Background1471-2229-9-51 American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was devastated by an exotic pathogen in the beginning of the twentieth century. This chestnut blight is caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, a fungus that infects stem tissues and kills the trees by girdling them. Because of the great economic and ecological value of this species, significant efforts have been made over the century to combat this disease, but it wasn't until recently that a focused genomics approach was initiated. Prior to the Genomic Tool Development for the Fagaceae project, genomic resources available in public databases for this species were limited to a few hundred ESTs. To identify genes involved in resistance to C. parasitica, we have sequenced the transcriptome from fungal infected and healthy stem tissues collected from blight-sensitive American chestnut and blight-resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) trees using ultra high throughput pyrosequencing. Results We produced over a million 454 reads, totaling over 250 million bp, from which we generated 40,039 and 28,890 unigenes in total from C. mollissima and C. dentata respectively. The functions of the unigenes, from GO annotation, cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. In silico expression analyses showed that many of the stress response unigenes were expressed more in canker tissues versus healthy stem tissues in both American and Chinese chestnut. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either American or Chinese chestnut canker tissues. Conclusion Our study resulted in the identification of a large set of cDNA unigenes from American chestnut and Chinese chestnut. The ESTs and unigenes from this study constitute an important resource to the scientific community interested in the discovery of genes involved in various biological processes in Chestnut and other species. The identification of many defense-related genes differentially expressed in canker vs. healthy stem in chestnuts provides many new candidate genes for developing resistance to the chestnut blight and for studying pathways involved in responses of trees to necrotrophic pathogens. We also identified several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to Cryphonectria parasitica between American chestnut and Chinese chestnut. PMID:19426529

  16. Chestnut resistance to the blight disease: insights from transcriptome analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A century ago, Chestnut Blight Disease (CBD) devastated the American chestnut. Backcross breeding has been underway to introgress resistance from Chinese chestnut into surviving American chestnut genotypes. Development of genomic resources for the family Fagaceae, has focused in this project on Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut) and Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh (American chestnut) to aid in the backcross breeding effort and in the eventual identification of blight resistance genes through genomic sequencing and map based cloning. A previous study reported partial characterization of the transcriptomes from these two species. Here, further analyses of a larger dataset and assemblies including both 454 and capillary sequences were performed and defense related genes with differential transcript abundance (GDTA) in canker versus healthy stem tissues were identified. Results Over one and a half million cDNA reads were assembled into 34,800 transcript contigs from American chestnut and 48,335 transcript contigs from Chinese chestnut. Chestnut cDNA showed higher coding sequence similarity to genes in other woody plants than in herbaceous species. The number of genes tagged, the length of coding sequences, and the numbers of tagged members within gene families showed that the cDNA dataset provides a good resource for studying the American and Chinese chestnut transcriptomes. In silico analysis of transcript abundance identified hundreds of GDTA in canker versus healthy stem tissues. A significant number of additional DTA genes involved in the defense-response not reported in a previous study were identified here. These DTA genes belong to various pathways involving cell wall biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA), abscissic acid (ABA), and hormone signalling. DTA genes were also identified in the hypersensitive response and programmed cell death (PCD) pathways. These DTA genes are candidates for host resistance to the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Conclusions Our data allowed the identification of many genes and gene network candidates for host resistance to the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. The similar set of GDTAs in American chestnut and Chinese chestnut suggests that the variation in sensitivity to this pathogen between these species may be the result of different timing and amplitude of the response of the two to the pathogen infection. Resources developed in this study are useful for functional genomics, comparative genomics, resistance breeding and phylogenetics in the Fagaceae. PMID:22429310

  17. The Role of the Horse in Mughal Miniature Paintings

    E-print Network

    Mullins, Emily

    2012-07-11

    were popular26; the Tartar people bred smaller Turkomans, mostly chestnuts, bays and greys, with some painted horses as well27. In the 18th century, near the end of the Mughal reign, Turkoman breeds from Hindu Kush were the most popular mounts... of the buckskin, often miscalled a dun39. A buckskin has a yellowish/gold body with black points; a dun has primitive markings: a dorsal stripe and sometimes zebra stripes down the legs and a stripe down the shoulder40. Grey is unique in equine coloration...

  18. Effect of chestnut extract and chestnut fiber on viability of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains under gastrointestinal tract conditions.

    PubMed

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; La Gatta, Barbara; Di Capua, Marika; Di Luccia, Aldo; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The main challenge to probiotics, during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract, are the acidic gastric secretions of the stomach, and the bile salts released into the duodenum. The survival of the strains, in this phase, is strongly influenced by the food used for their delivery. This work is part of a project studying the development of novel food processes, based on the use of chestnuts from cultivar "Castagna di Montella". In detail, the effect of indigestible chestnut fiber and of chestnut extract on the viability of selected lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated. Among 28 cultures, twelve strains were selected, on the basis of tolerance to low pH values and bile salts, and submitted to exposition to simulated gastric or bile juice in presence of chestnut extract with or without immobilization in chestnut fiber. The presence of chestnut extract proved to play a significant role on the gastric tolerance improvement of lactobacilli. The recorded protective effect could not be simply related to the starch or reducing sugars content. RP-HPLC demonstrated that in the chestnut flour, there are one or more hydrophobic peptides or oligopeptides, which specifically offer a marked resistance to simulated gastric juice, albeit present at low concentration. These beneficial effects proved to be dependent by the cultivar used to produce the flour. PMID:24010594

  19. CHESTNUT AVENUE BRIDGE. BOWIE, PRINCE GEORGES CO., MD. Sec. 1201,, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHESTNUT AVENUE BRIDGE. BOWIE, PRINCE GEORGES CO., MD. Sec. 1201,, MP 120.48. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  20. Composting Horse Manure

    E-print Network

    Auvermann, Brent W.; McDonald, Lanny; Devin, Robert; Sweeten, John M.

    1999-07-02

    Uncontrolled stockpiles of horse manure can be an unsightly, smelly and fly-infested mess. However, composting manure can eliminate the messy problems and provide a modest additional income for horse enthusiasts, operators of equine facilities...

  1. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of escin Ia and isoescin Ia after administration of escin and of pure escin Ia and isoescin Ia in rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-Jun Wu; Meng-Liang Zhang; Xiang-Yong Cui; Feng Gao; Qun He; Xiao-Jiao Li; Ji-Wen Zhang; J. Paul Fawcett; Jing-Kai Gu

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Escin Ia and isoescin Ia have been traditionally used clinically as the chief active ingredients of escin, a major triterpene saponin isolated from horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, hemorrhoids, inflammation and edema.Aim of the study To establish a sensitive LC-MS\\/MS method and investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of escin Ia and isoescin

  2. Chestnut extract induces apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji

    2011-01-01

    In Korea, chestnut production is increasing each year, but consumption is far below production. We investigated the effect of chestnut extracts on antioxidant activity and anticancer effects. Ethanol extracts of raw chestnut (RCE) or chestnut powder (CPE) had dose-dependent superoxide scavenging activity. Viable numbers of MDA-MD-231 human breast cancer cells, DU145 human prostate cancer cells, and AGS human gastric cancer cells decreased by 18, 31, and 69%, respectively, following treatment with 200 µg/mL CPE for 24 hr. CPE at various concentrations (0-200 µg/mL) markedly decreased AGS cell viability and increased apoptotic cell death dose and time dependently. CPE increased the levels of cleaved caspase-8, -7, -3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner but not cleaved caspase-9. CPE exerted no effects on Bcl-2 and Bax levels. The level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein decreased within a narrow range following CPE treatment. The levels of Trail, DR4, and Fas-L increased dose-dependently in CPE-treated AGS cells. These results show that CPE decreases growth and induces apoptosis in AGS gastric cancer cells and that activation of the death receptor pathway contributes to CPE-induced apoptosis in AGS cells. In conclusion, CPE had more of an effect on gastric cancer cells than breast or prostate cancer cells, suggesting that chestnuts would have a positive effect against gastric cancer. PMID:21779520

  3. Yoghurt with candied chestnut: freeze drying, physical, and rheological behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sakin-Yilmazer, Melike; Dirim, S Nur; Di Pinto, Davide; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2014-12-01

    As a novel product, yoghurt powder was produced by freeze drying and with added candied chestnut puree at ratios of 5, 10, and 20 % by weight. During the freeze drying process, mass loss, water activity, and the moisture content of the samples were determined and the colour (Hunter L, a, b) of the yoghurt powder products was measured. Results showed that increasing the percentage of candied chestnut puree resulted in an increase in water activity, moisture content, and colour change values of the end product. The drying behaviour, drying rate versus free moisture content, was also investigated. It was observed that yoghurt with or without added candied chestnut puree could be satisfactorily freeze-dried. Moreover, the performance of the dried product was observed in a ready-to-use, reconstituted form. For this purpose, the obtained powders were reconstituted to their original moisture contents. Shear stress and apparent viscosity against shear rate in a range of 1-1,000 (1/sec) was then measured by a Haake-Mars rotary viscometer. According to the results, the apparent viscosities of reconstituted products, as plain yoghurt and the one with an added 5 % chestnut puree were lower than that of fresh yoghurt. However, reconstituted yoghurts containing 10 % and 20 % chestnut puree had apparent viscosities higher than fresh yoghurt. Power Law explained well the rheological behaviour of reconstituted yoghurt samples for the applied shear rate range. Based on rheological data and sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freeze dried yoghurt containing 10 % (w/w) candied chestnut puree was an acceptable novel product. PMID:25477665

  4. Horse Genome Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What's in a horse? As it turns out, what's in a horse is quite important, and the Horse Genome Project at the University of Kentucky is currently defining the genome of this animal. The Project is a cooperative international effort which involves some 100 scientists working in 20 countries. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors can make their way through five sections, including "The People", "The Horses", "Genomics 101", and "Applications of Genome Study". "The Horses" area is a good place to start, as it gives an overview of the animals being used in the project. In "Genomics 101", interested parties will find an overview of some basic terms used in the field, such as gene, allele, and mutation. The "Applications of Genome Study" area focuses in on how their work will be used to benefit the health and welfare of horses.

  5. Nondestructive detection of infested chestnuts based on NIR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect feeding is a significant postharvest problem for processors of Chestnuts (Castanea sativa, Miller). In most cases, damage from insects is 'hidden', i.e. not visually detectable on the fruit surface. Consequently, traditional sorting techniques, including manual sorting, are generally inadequa...

  6. Horse Nutrition and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...

  7. Electroantennographic responses of the lesser chestnut weevil curculio sayi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to volatile organic compounds identified from chestnut reproductive plant tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary insect pest of the developing chestnut industry in the central United States is the lesser chestnut weevil, Curculio sayi (Gyllenhal), which is a specialist on only Castanea trees. Recent research has shown this insect is attracted to and feeds upon the reproductive tissues of the chestn...

  8. Ectomycorrhizal characterization of an American chestnut ( Castanea dentata ) -dominated community in Western Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Palmer; Daniel L. Lindner; Thomas J. Volk

    2008-01-01

    Circa 1900, a farmer from the eastern US planted 11 American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seeds on a newly established farm near West Salem in western Wisconsin. These trees were very successful, producing a large\\u000a stand of over 6,000 trees. Since this area is well outside the natural range of chestnut, these trees remained free from chestnut\\u000a blight until 1987. In

  9. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  10. CHAPTER 16: HORSE SAFETY GUIDELINES Approaching a horse

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    the lead near the halter. Extend your right elbow slightly toward the horse. If the horse makes contact with you, its shoulder will hit your elbow first and move you away from it. Your elbow also can be used

  11. Chestnut Species and Jasmonic Acid Treatment Influence Development and Community Interactions of Galls Produced by the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, William R.; Rieske, Lynne K.

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant—signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA– inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses. PMID:22233098

  12. Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pridnya, M.V.; Cherpakov, V.V.; Paillet, F.L.

    1996-01-01

    Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

  13. Assessing fitness in endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-03-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels. PMID:22942450

  14. Assessing fitness in endurance horses

    PubMed Central

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels. PMID:22942450

  15. Male genotype influences seed set and seed size in controlled crosses of American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh] Borhk)

    E-print Network

    Male genotype influences seed set and seed size in controlled crosses of American chestnut the influence of pollen donor genotype on seed set and seed mass. Pollen from ten American chestnut or American chestnut hybrids was applied to the five mother trees. The seeds were harvested, counted, and individually

  16. Thiamin supplementation for exercising horses 

    E-print Network

    Topliff, Donald Ray

    1981-01-01

    at the other measured intervals however horses after treat- ment III appeared to clear pyruvate from the blood at a faster rate than horses after either treatments I or II. Horses after treatment I had significantly higher (P&. 05) TPP effect values at 30... Blanace Blood Thiamln ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Blood Pyruvate. . . . . , ~ TP ' Effect o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Blood Lactate ~. . . . , ~. . . , , , ~ Correlations GENERAL DISCUSSION ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ SU...

  17. Composition of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and association with health effects: fresh and processed products.

    PubMed

    De Vasconcelos, Maria C B M; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira-Cardoso, Jorge V

    2010-08-15

    Chestnut fruits are highly regarded and widely consumed throughout Europe, America and Asia. Various commercial forms are available, e.g. fresh and industrially processed. There have been various reviews on the composition of chestnut fruits but there has not been a comprehensive review of the different health benefits that this fruit can provide. This review is focused on the composition and associated health effects of European fresh chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and their home-processed and industrial products, e.g. boiled, roasted, frozen, and 'marron glacées'. We also expand the knowledge of chestnut uses by presenting data for other chestnut materials that have potential applications as new foods, as sources of antioxidants, and as sources of other useful bioactives. There is considerable literature data on nutrients in fresh chestnut fruits but less information on bioactive non-nutrients such as phenolics. Chestnuts are mostly consumed as processed forms, and the different types of processing clearly affect the nutrient and non-nutrient composition of the fruits. The benefits that this fruit can provide for human and animal health are numerous, but it is clear that improvements can be made for both production and quality of chestnut products, e.g. genetic selection and optimizing industrial processing. PMID:20564434

  18. Cold storage of in vitro cultures of wild cherry, chestnut and oak

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note Cold storage of in vitro cultures of wild cherry, chestnut and oak LV Janeiro, AM Vieitez of chestnut, oak and wild cherry have been stored at low temperature (2°C) for 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Cultures / oak / wild cherry Résumé — Conservation au froid de pousses in vitro de merisier, châtaignier et

  19. Besnoitiosis in a horse.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, J; Els, H J; Raubenheimer, E J; Williams, J H

    1993-06-01

    Besnoitiosis was confirmed in a pony which presented with inspiratory dyspnoea, scleroderma and ventral oedema. Numerous cysts were visible in the sclerae. Histological examination of the skin confirmed the presence of numerous cysts. The parasite could not be transmitted by subcutaneous injection of homogenised skin from the infected horse to rabbits and a horse. Ultrastructural morphology of the crescent-shaped bradyzoites was not compatable with Besnoitia besnoiti or B. jellisoni and it is proposed that the infection was caused by B. bennetti. PMID:8410950

  20. Freeze Branding Horses

    E-print Network

    Householder, Doug; Webb, Gary; Wigington, Sam; Bruemmer, Jason

    2001-06-29

    , simpli- f_ied drawing of one hair shaft with its color (pigment) producing follicle (CF) and its growth follicle (GF), both shown below the skin. Doug Householder 1 , Gary Webb 2 , Sam Wigington 3 and Jason Bruemmer 4 Freeze Branding Horses Figure 1. Hair... manager, Horse Center, Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University. Texas AgriLife Extension Service ? Zerle L. Carpenter, Director ? The Texas A&M University System ? College Station, Texas Under normal circumstances hair grows as a clear shaft...

  1. Replacement of native oak and hickory tree species by the introduced American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.; Rutter, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    American chestnut was introduced at West Salem, Wisconsin, about 1880 and had begun to replace native tree species in adjacent oak-hickory woodland before 1930. Chestnut is now an important canopy species over c20 ha of forested ridge extending N and S of the original plantation. A smaller area of <5 ha is dominated by chestnut in both canopy and understory. Chestnut seedlings and small saplings are more numerous along woodland edges and in recently disturbed soil, they are rare in the interior of ungrazed pasture and entirely absent from intensively grazed areas adjacent to chestnut-dominated woodland. Random sampling of recently established seedlings indicates that 1-5 seedlings/(yr.ha) became established in undisturbed woodland between 1986-1988. The general pattern of chestnut distribution indicates the importance of woodland edges in chestnut propagation and the effects of livestock grazing in excluding chestnut. Replacement of native species by chestnut appears to have occurred in 2 steps: isolated groups of trees become established at favorable locations, after which many additional chestnut stems became established in the understory. The West Salem site may not be available for study of blight-free chestnut in the future. -from Authors

  2. Horse Domestication and Conservation Genetics of Przewalski's Horse Inferred from Sex Chromosomal and Autosomal Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison N. Lau; Lei Peng; Hiroki Goto; Leona Chemnick; Oliver A. Ryder; Kateryna D. Makova

    2008-01-01

    Despite their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, there is continued disagreement about the genetic relationship of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) to its endangered wild relative, Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii). Analyses have differed as to whether or not Przewalski's horse is placed phylogenetically as a separate sister group to domestic horses. Because Przewalski's horse and domestic horse are

  3. Gastric ulceration in horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Hepburn

    2011-01-01

    Equine gastric ulceration syndrome (EGUS) was first described in 1986 and is common in all types of horses. The clinical signs are variable and often vague but EGUS can be easily diagnosed following thorough history taking and physical examination, and confirmed using gastroscopy. Ulcers can be effectively treated and prevented by introducing changes in management practices and instituting drug therapy.

  4. Texas 4-H Horse Quiz Bowl Supplement 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.

    1999-09-28

    of nutrients a horse needs. Answer: Energy nutrients, proteins, vitamins, min- erals and water Source: ?Horse Science? Page number: 26 Division: Senior A. Nutrition Question: What is the main energy nutrient? Answer: Carbohydrate Source: ?Horse Science? Page... horse see what he is eating? Answer: No Source: ?Horse Science? Page number: 3 Division: Both D. Anatomy and Conformation Question: What is a cataract? Answer: A cloudy or opaque appearance of the eye Source: ?Horse Science? Page number: 10 Division...

  5. Composting Horse Manure 

    E-print Network

    Auvermann, Brent W.; McDonald, Lanny; Devin, Robert; Sweeten, John M.

    1999-07-02

    and disagreeable odors. 2. Biologically mediated. A biologically mediated process like composting takes advantage of naturally occurring microbes to digest the organic material. The addition of heat normally is not required. By contrast, a purely chemical... composting. B-6084 6-99 Composting Horse Manure Brent W . Auvermann, Lanny A. McDonald, Robert Devin and John M. Sweeten* *Assistant Professor and Extension Agricultural Engineer, Extension Associate/Water Quality, Randall County Extension Agent...

  6. Evaluation of thin-layer chromatography methods for quality control of commercial products containing Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Durón, Rosalba; Ceniceros-Almaguer, Lucía; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Salazar-Cavazos, Ma de la Luz; Waksman de Torres, Noemi

    2007-01-01

    In Mexico, plant-derived products with health claims are sold as herbal dietary supplements, and there are no rules for their legal quality control. Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis are some of the major commercial products obtained from plants used in this region. In this paper, we describe the effectiveness of thin-layer chromatography methods to provide for the quality control of several commercial products containing these plants. Standardized extracts were used. Of the 49 commercial products analyzed, only 32.65% matched the chromatographic characteristic of standardized extracts. A significant number of commercial products did not match their label, indicating a problem resulting from the lack of regulation for these products. The proposed methods are simple, sensitive, and specific and can be used for routine quality control of raw herbals and formulations of the tested plants. The results obtained show the need to develop simple and reliable analytical methods that can be performed in any laboratory for the purpose of quality control of dietary supplements or commercial herbal products sold in Mexico. PMID:17760328

  7. Chestnut Lodge and the psychoanalytic approach to psychosis.

    PubMed

    Kafka, John S

    2011-02-01

    The study of psychosis has a long history in psychoanalysis, as does the debate over the suitability of psychoanalysis for treating schizophrenia. For decades, Chestnut Lodge was not only a hospital but also a clinical research and educational institution. A unique patient-staff ratio--about twenty analytic therapists for a hundred patients--made possible prolonged and intense clinical work with schizophrenic and other severely disturbed patients. Interstaff discussions were encouraged and facilitated. This quasi-academic approach to in-depth individual case studies led to clinical findings and theoretical formulations that had a significant impact on developments in psychoanalysis, both here and abroad. Many of these findings and theoretical formulations are relevant to current studies and treatments of psychotic and nonpsychotic patients. PMID:21606513

  8. Effects of Water Chestnut ( Trapa natans ) Beds on Water Chemistry in the Tidal Freshwater Hudson River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith Hummel; Stuart Findlay

    2006-01-01

    Vegetated areas of rivers and estuaries are capable of affecting the concentration of dissolved and particulate matter in\\u000a water masses traversing those plant beds. We examined whether different sizes of water chestnut (Trapa natans) beds in the Hudson River, USA, alter dissolved oxygen, nutrients and turbidity of water masses. Ebb–tide water was sampled\\u000a from four water chestnut beds in the

  9. Non-target effects of transgenic blight-resistant American chestnut (Fagales: Fagaceae) on insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Post, K H; Parry, D

    2011-08-01

    American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen], a canopy dominant species across wide swaths of eastern North America, was reduced to an understory shrub after introduction of the blight fungus [Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr] in the early 1900s. Restoration of American chestnut by using biotechnology is promising, but the imprecise nature of transgenesis may inadvertently alter tree phenotype, thus potentially impacting ecologically dependent organisms. We quantified effects of genetic engineering and fungal inoculation of trees on insect herbivores by using transgenic American chestnuts expressing an oxalate oxidase gene and wild-type American and Chinese (C. mollissima Blume) chestnuts. Of three generalist folivores bioassayed, only gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] was affected by genetic modification, exhibiting faster growth on transgenic than on wild-type chestnuts, whereas growth of polyphemus moth [Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer)] differed between wild-type species, and fall webworm [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)] performed equally on all trees. Inoculation of chestnuts with blight fungus had no effect on the growth of two herbivores assayed (polyphemus moth and fall webworm). Enhanced fitness of gypsy moth on genetically modified trees may hinder restoration efforts if this invasive herbivore's growth is improved because of transgene expression. PMID:22251697

  10. Clinical nutrition of adult horses.

    PubMed

    Ralston, S L

    1990-08-01

    Horses suffering from trauma, sepsis, and severe burns need 12% to 16% of protein (dry matter basis) in their diet. Since reduced appetite may be a problem, relatively energy dense (greater than 2 Mcal DE/kg) feeds should be offered. In hepatic failure, maintenance protein requirements (8% on a dry matter basis for adult horses) should be met with feeds that are high in short branched-chain amino acids and arginine but low in aromatic amino acids and tryptophan (for example, milo, corn, soybean, or linseed meal) in addition to grass hay. Vitamins A, C, and E should also be supplemented. In cases with renal failure, protein, calcium, and phosphorus should be restricted to maintenance or lower levels. Grass hay and corn are the best feeds for horses with reduced renal function. Do not offer free-choice salt to horses with dependent edema from uncompensated chronic heart failure. Following gastrointestinal resection, legume hay and grain mixtures are the feeds of choice. Horses with diarrhea should not be deprived or oral or enteral alimentation for prolonged periods of time. Liquid formulas may be used if bulk or gastrointestinal motility are a problem. Apple cider vinegar and a high grain diet may reduce the incidence of enteroliths in horses prone to this problem. Pelleted feeds will reduce fecal volume and produce softer feces for horses that have had rectovaginal lacerations or surgery. Horses with small intestinal dysfunction or resection should be offered low residue diets initially, but long-term maintenance requires diets that promote large intestinal digestion (alfalfa hay, vegetable oil, restricted grain). Geriatric horses (greater than 20 years old need diets similar to those recommended for horses 6 to 18 months old. PMID:2202496

  11. Observational learning in horses 

    E-print Network

    Baer, Katherine Louise

    1979-01-01

    to extraneous stimuli in the way of sounds and movements of the technicians which could cause data on that particular day to be invalid. The response data obtained on this day were suspect to experi- mental cues, therefore data from day 1 has been deleted... habituated to them. Throughout the experimental procedures, the horses were exposed to extraneous stimuli in the form of sounds or odors. Other animals outside the barn, cars and other vehicles contributed to the various sounds. Inside the barn, the smell...

  12. Freeze Branding Horses 

    E-print Network

    Householder, Doug; Webb, Gary; Wigington, Sam; Bruemmer, Jason

    2001-06-29

    (like a clear straw) from the GF. On colored horses, pigment (black, brown, red, yellow, etc.) is added from the CF below the skin to the clear hairshaft, which gives the hair its color. When the intensely cold iron used in freeze branding is placed... site contains no pigment and appears white. This is the desired result?a uniform, white brand. If the iron is pressed to the skin for a shorter period of time and/or with less pressure than required, some hairs grow in colored and some hairs grow...

  13. Feeding the Arena Performance Horse

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.; Scott, Brett D.

    2003-11-04

    comparatively large amount of highly digestible starch to meet their demands for both aerobic and anaerobic energy production. High-performance horses cannot eat enough hay to get the amount of energy they need, and cereal grain can cause digestive upsets when... as polysaccha- ride storage myopathy syndrome (PSSM), and those horses should not be fed large amounts of carbohy- drates. But in normal horses, the most effective way to achieve peak performance is to feed a fat-supple- mented, high-carbohydrate diet. Several...

  14. Horse Theft Awareness and Prevention - Identification of Horses 

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Wall, Leman H.; Householder, Doug

    1998-08-12

    Permanently identifying horses can deter theft and help prove ownership. This publication discusses hot-iron branding, freeze branding, electronic identification, lip tattoos, and using photographs, illustrations, parentage verification and brand...

  15. Toward development of silvical strategies for forest restoration of American chestnut ( Castanea dentata) using blight-resistant hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2007-01-01

    Backcross breeding has provided a viable means to restore American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) to eastern North American forests, where the foundation species was essentially extirpated by an introduced pathogen. With the prospect of American chestnut reintroduction imminent, it is critical to formulate restoration strategies based on the ecology and silvics of the species, operational confines, social or policy

  16. Recovery of horses from anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Clark-Price, Stuart C

    2013-04-01

    Recovery from anesthesia can be one of the most dangerous and unpredictable elements of providing anesthesia to horses. Strategies to quiet, control, and improve the quality of recovery of horses can be implemented in most situations and circumstances. This article provides an overview of the recovery period and areas where interventions may be practical to clinicians to provide improved care for their equine patients. PMID:23498055

  17. Horse domestication and conservation genetics of Przewalski's horse inferred from sex chromosomal and autosomal sequences.

    PubMed

    Lau, Allison N; Peng, Lei; Goto, Hiroki; Chemnick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver A; Makova, Kateryna D

    2009-01-01

    Despite their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, there is continued disagreement about the genetic relationship of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) to its endangered wild relative, Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii). Analyses have differed as to whether or not Przewalski's horse is placed phylogenetically as a separate sister group to domestic horses. Because Przewalski's horse and domestic horse are so closely related, genetic data can also be used to infer domestication-specific differences between the two. To investigate the genetic relationship of Przewalski's horse to the domestic horse and to address whether evolution of the domestic horse is driven by males or females, five homologous introns (a total of approximately 3 kb) were sequenced on the X and Y chromosomes in two Przewalski's horses and three breeds of domestic horses: Arabian horse, Mongolian domestic horse, and Dartmoor pony. Five autosomal introns (a total of approximately 6 kb) were sequenced for these horses as well. The sequences of sex chromosomal and autosomal introns were used to determine nucleotide diversity and the forces driving evolution in these species. As a result, X chromosomal and autosomal data do not place Przewalski's horses in a separate clade within phylogenetic trees for horses, suggesting a close relationship between domestic and Przewalski's horses. It was also found that there was a lack of nucleotide diversity on the Y chromosome and higher nucleotide diversity than expected on the X chromosome in domestic horses as compared with the Y chromosome and autosomes. This supports the hypothesis that very few male horses along with numerous female horses founded the various domestic horse breeds. Patterns of nucleotide diversity among different types of chromosomes were distinct for Przewalski's in contrast to domestic horses, supporting unique evolutionary histories of the two species. PMID:18931383

  18. A High Density SNP Array for the Domestic Horse and Extant Perissodactyla: Utility for Association Mapping, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeny Studies

    PubMed Central

    McCue, Molly E.; Bannasch, Danika L.; Petersen, Jessica L.; Gurr, Jessica; Bailey, Ernie; Binns, Matthew M.; Distl, Ottmar; Guérin, Gérard; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hill, Emmeline W.; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Røed, Knut H.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Swinburne, June E.; Tozaki, Teruaki; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Vaudin, Mark; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    An equine SNP genotyping array was developed and evaluated on a panel of samples representing 14 domestic horse breeds and 18 evolutionarily related species. More than 54,000 polymorphic SNPs provided an average inter-SNP spacing of ?43 kb. The mean minor allele frequency across domestic horse breeds was 0.23, and the number of polymorphic SNPs within breeds ranged from 43,287 to 52,085. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) in most breeds declined rapidly over the first 50–100 kb and reached background levels within 1–2 Mb. The extent of LD and the level of inbreeding were highest in the Thoroughbred and lowest in the Mongolian and Quarter Horse. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses demonstrated the tight grouping of individuals within most breeds, close proximity of related breeds, and less tight grouping in admixed breeds. The close relationship between the Przewalski's Horse and the domestic horse was demonstrated by pair-wise genetic distance and MDS. Genotyping of other Perissodactyla (zebras, asses, tapirs, and rhinoceros) was variably successful, with call rates and the number of polymorphic loci varying across taxa. Parsimony analysis placed the modern horse as sister taxa to Equus przewalski. The utility of the SNP array in genome-wide association was confirmed by mapping the known recessive chestnut coat color locus (MC1R) and defining a conserved haplotype of ?750 kb across all breeds. These results demonstrate the high quality of this SNP genotyping resource, its usefulness in diverse genome analyses of the horse, and potential use in related species. PMID:22253606

  19. Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use

    PubMed Central

    Gounga, Mahamadou E.; Xu, Shi-ying; Wang, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption. Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample’s protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal. PMID:18763299

  20. Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., has constructed a storage facility, the Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile (CRBAWP), for mercury-contaminated soil excavated from the Oak Ridge Civic Center properties and the Oak Ridge Sewer Line Beltway. Excavation of the soil from the Civic Center began in September 1984 and was completed in early 1985. Similar soils from other areas of the city were added to the pile until 1987. Approximately 3000 yd{sup 3} are stored at the present time. An Interim Status RCRA permit was initially sought for this facility. Samples from the waste pile passed the Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test (EP Tox). The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (now the Tennessee Department of Conservation-TDC) denied the permit based on their conclusion that the waste was not a RCRA-regulated waste. On September 25, 1990 the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) superseded the EP Tox test. TCLP tests are not proposed to satisfy a request by TDC and to make a final determination of the nature of the soils in order to close the CRBAWP as a solid waste disposal facility under Tennessee State rule 1200-1-7-.04. The objectives of this work are to summarize existing site information and detail actions necessary to sample and characterize soils from the waste pile as hazardous or nonhazardous per the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Within the scope of this plan, a site investigation will be discussed; a field sampling plan will be described in terms of sampling locations, procedures, and quality assurance; and ancillary activities such as waste management, data management, and health and safety will be outlines. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses.

    PubMed

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Davis, Elizabeth G; Beard, Laurie A; Vander Werf, Karie A; Bianco, Alex W; Giger, Urs

    2014-02-01

    Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses. PMID:24489393

  2. Horses’ responses to variation in human approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynda Birke; Jo Hockenhull; Emma Creighton; Lisa Pinno; Jenny Mee; Daniel Mills

    2011-01-01

    The behaviour of humans around horses is thought to have a substantial impact on how people are perceived in subsequent interactions and many horse trainers give detailed advice on how handlers should behave when initially approaching a loose horse. Here we report on three studies designed to explore the effect of different human approach styles on the behaviour of naïve

  3. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found. PMID:25829553

  4. The iron horse: a sound ride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanna Landin; Sus Lundgren; Johannes Prison

    2002-01-01

    The Iron Horse combines modern technology with a childhood dream. It's a bike --- but its sounds like a horse. By biking at different speeds, one can get it to walk, trot or gallop. Sometimes it snorts, and it greets its owner and other iron horses with a neigh. In the project, we explored how to transfer the auditive expressions

  5. Original article Breeding evaluation of arab horses

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Breeding evaluation of arab horses from their racing results in Tunisia by a BLUP of the earnings according to the place was too approximate. horse / racing ability / purebred Arabian / BLUP was to estimate the breeding value of Arab horses in Tunisia. Racing results (36203) were available corresponding

  6. Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses

    PubMed Central

    Ohmes, Cameon M.; Davis, Elizabeth G.; Beard, Laurie A.; Vander Werf, Karie A.; Bianco, Alex W.; Giger, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses. PMID:24489393

  7. Coordination dynamics in horse-rider dyads.

    PubMed

    Wolframm, Inga A; Bosga, Jurjen; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J

    2013-02-01

    The sport of equestrianism is defined through close horse-rider interaction. However, no consistent baseline parameters currently exist describing the coordination dynamics of horse-rider movement across different equine gaits. The study aims to employ accelerometers to investigate and describe patterns of motor coordination between horse and rider across the equine gaits of walk, rising trot, sitting trot and canter. Eighteen female (N=18; mean age±SD: 37.57±13.04) Dutch horse-rider combinations were recruited to participate in the study. Horse-rider coordination was recorded using two tri-axial wireless accelerometers during a standard ridden protocol. Multiple measures of horse-rider coordination were calculated to investigate the relationship between the horse and rider, while the unpredictability of the acceleration-time series of the horse and rider during task performance were determined separately by means of approximate entropy analysis. The kinematic variables of horse-rider correlation, mean relative phase, mean standard deviation of the relative phase, approximate entropy rider, approximate entropy horse and spectral edge frequency at 95% of the power in the 0-10 Hz frequency band were examined using multiple correlational analyses and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Findings showed significantly different coordination dynamics between equine gaits, with the gait of canter allowing for the highest levels of horse-rider synchronicity. It may be concluded that accelerometers are a valuable tool to map distinct coordination patterns of horse-rider combinations. PMID:23290116

  8. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  9. The use of crushing equipments for soil management practice in chestnut orchards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Santos; Afonso Martins; Olga Borges; Isabel Linhares

    Chestnut orchards have an important role on the rural economy and landscape ecology of Northern Portugal. Previous studies have shown the need of new management practices in those agro-ecosystems in order to improve its productivity and sustainability and, one of the envisaged techniques is the use of new equipment that destroys the vegetation under canopy and crushes the organic residues

  10. Fine root growth in a sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) coppice

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fine root growth in a sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) coppice P. Montpied Laboratoire d'Ecotogie V6g6tale, CNRS URAt2t,Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay, France Introduction The root growth and turnover of fine roots are known to be a major carbon pathway in forest ecosystems (Fogel, 1985). Dubroca (1983

  11. Infectivity and sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Branches from northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia production, while the other three plants w...

  12. Effects of Pleistocene glaciations on population structure of North American chestnut-backed chickadees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THERESA M. B URG; ANTHONY J. G ASTON; KEVIN WINKER; VICKI L. F RIESEN

    2006-01-01

    The postglacial recolonization of northern North America was heavily influenced by the Pleistocene glaciation. In the Pacific Northwest, there are two disjunct regions of mesic temperate forest, one coastal and the other interior. The chestnut-backed chickadee is one of the species associated with this distinctive ecosystem. Using seven microsatellite markers we found evidence of population structure among nine populations of

  13. Analysis of Chestnut Cellular Tissue during Osmotic Dehydration, Air Drying, and Rehydration Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramón Moreira; Francisco Chenlo; Lívia Chaguri; Luis Mayor

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of changes in microstructure is very important in order to understand heat and mass transfer processes in biological systems and to evaluate physical properties and the quality of fresh and processed food materials. In this study, chestnut (Castanea sativa M.) samples were submitted to several processes such as osmotic dehydration by immersion in sucrose solution (60% w\\/w) at

  14. The American Chestnut Blight: An Agent of Biological and Cultural Catastrophe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Eddie

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the history and habits of the fungus commonly referred to as the "chestnut blight." Considers the impact of the blight and efforts to control it, offers personal and cultural reflections on the blight, and gives tips for incorporating the information into cross-disciplinary lessons. Contains 17 references. (WRM)

  15. Galerucella birmanica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a promising potential biological control agent of water chestnut, Trapa natans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianqing Ding; Bernd Blossey; Yuzhou Du; Fushan Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Water chestnut, Trapa natans, has become a major invasive plant in shallow water bodies in the northeastern United States. The failure of chemical and mechanical means to provide long-term and economically sustainable suppression of the species resulted in interest in the development of biological control. Field surveys in Asia and Europe identified a number of potential biological control agents in

  16. Brodifacoum toxicosis in two horses.

    PubMed

    McConnico, R S; Copedge, K; Bischoff, K L

    1997-10-01

    Increased popularity during the past decade of brodifacoum, an anticoagulant rodenticide, has led to an increase in cases of accidental poisoning in nontarget species, including pets and farm animals. Pharmacokinetics of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides such as brodifacoum are substantially different from those of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides such as warfarin. This difference dramatically influences management of exposure in terms of duration and cost of treatment and may affect outcome. The National Poison Control Center reports that approximately 50 cases of brodifacoum exposure have occurred in horses between 1993 and 1997. To our knowledge, this report is the first complete clinical description of accidental ingestion of a potentially lethal dose of brodifacoum in horses. Early recognition of exposure to brodifacoum, subsequent treatment with adequate doses of vitamin K1, and sequential monitoring of clotting times and serum brodifacoum concentration permitted poisoning in these horses to be managed successfully. PMID:9333092

  17. Hepatoprotective potential of chestnut bee pollen on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damages in rats.

    PubMed

    Y?ld?z, Oktay; Can, Zehra; Saral, Ozlem; Yulu?, Esin; Oztürk, Ferhat; Aliyaz?c?o?lu, Rezzan; Canpolat, Sinan; Kolayl?, Sevgi

    2013-01-01

    Bee pollen has been used as an apitherapy agent for several centuries to treat burns, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, and various other diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of chestnut bee pollen against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4)-induced liver damage. Total phenolic content, flavonoid, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and DPPH radical activity measurements were used as antioxidant capacity determinants of the pollen. The study was conducted in rats as seven groups. Two different concentrations of chestnut bee pollens (200 and 400?mg/kg/day) were given orally and one group was administered with silibinin (50?mg/kg/day, i.p.) for seven days to the rats following the CCI4 treatment. The protective effect of the bee pollen was monitored by aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (AST) activities, histopathological imaging, and antioxidant parameters from the blood and liver samples of the rats. The results were compared with the silibinin-treated and untreated groups. We detected that CCI4 treatment induced liver damage and both the bee pollen and silibinin-treated groups reversed the damage; however, silibinin caused significant weight loss and mortality due, severe diarrhea in the rats. The chestnut pollen had showed 28.87?mg GAE/g DW of total phenolic substance, 8.07?mg QUE/g DW of total flavonoid, 92.71?mg Cyn-3-glu/kg DW of total anthocyanins, and 9?mg ? -carotene/100?g DW of total carotenoid and substantial amount of antioxidant power according to FRAP and DPPH activity. The results demonstrated that the chestnut bee pollen protects the hepatocytes from the oxidative stress and promotes the healing of the liver damage induced by CCI4 toxicity. Our findings suggest that chestnut bee pollen can be used as a safe alternative to the silibinin in the treatment of liver injuries. PMID:24250716

  18. Shuni Virus as Cause of Neurologic Disease in Horses

    PubMed Central

    van Eeden, Charmaine; Williams, June H.; Gerdes, Truuske G.H.; van Wilpe, Erna; Viljoen, Adrianne; Swanepoel, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To determine which agents cause neurologic disease in horses, we conducted reverse transcription PCR on isolates from of a horse with encephalitis and 111 other horses with acute disease. Shuni virus was found in 7 horses, 5 of which had neurologic signs. Testing for lesser known viruses should be considered for horses with unexplained illness. PMID:22305525

  19. European Domestic Horses Originated in Two Holocene Refugia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vera Warmuth; Anders Eriksson; Mim A. Bower; Javier Cañon; Gus Cothran; Ottmar Distl; Marie-Louise Glowatzki-Mullis; Harriet Hunt; Cristina Luís; Maria Do Mar Oom; Isabel Tupac Yupanqui; Tomasz Zabek; Andrea Manica; Michael Hofreiter

    2011-01-01

    The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local

  20. Archeometery Applied to Horse Bones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Madsen; Steven E. Jones

    1998-01-01

    For many years it has been assumed that horses became extinct in the American continent during the last ice age (Pleistocene period). Most of the evidence for this was obtained through stratagraphic dating. However, we have uncovered new evidence which may contradict this theory. We are currently applying Archeometry, the application of physics techniques to archelogy, to seek evidence for

  1. Review article African horse sickness

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article African horse sickness: transmission and epidemiology PS Mellor Institute for Animal. These are usually considered to be species of Culicoides biting midges but mosquitoes and/or ticks may also Africa spanning as they do, 5 or more yr, seem to have established a new pattern in AHS virus persistence

  2. logic bombs trojan horse independent

    E-print Network

    West, Margaret Mary

    needs host program logic bombs trojan horse virus worm replicate zombie malicious programs from hacking, fraud, viruses or human error. Malicious Programs: See Figure 1 for taxonomy of malicious and running a file from the Internet. The PWSteal.Trojan is a Trojan. Virus's definition: computer virus

  3. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  4. CAPACITY OF EXTRACTS OF SWEET CHESTNUT CONCERNING TO REMOVE LIPID PEROXIDATION KAPACITET EKSTRAKTA PITOMOG KESTENA ZA SUZBIJANJE LIPIDNE PEROKSIDACIJE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bulevar Zorana; Bulevar Cara Lazara

    Permanent attention of researchers has been focused on the use of natural antioxidants to inhibit lipid peroxidation, or to protect the damage provoked by free radicals. Extracts of sweet chestnut, Lovran's Marrone cultivar and grafted Italian \\

  5. 75 FR 76453 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco Wind, LLC; Arizona Solar One LLC; Criterion Power Partners, LLC; Sundevil Power Holdings, LLC; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator...

  6. The horse-saddle-rider interaction.

    PubMed

    Greve, Line; Dyson, Sue

    2013-03-01

    Common causes of poor performance in horses include factors related to the horse, the rider and/or the saddle, and their interrelationships remain challenging to determine. Horse-related factors (such as thoracolumbar region pain and/or lameness), rider-related factors (such as crookedness, inability to ride in rhythm with the horse, inability to work the horse in a correct frame to improve core strength and muscular support of the thoracolumbar spine of the horse), and saddle-related factors (such as poor fit causing focal areas of increased pressure) may all contribute to poor performance to varying degrees. Knowledge of the horse-saddle-rider interaction is limited. Traditionally, saddle fit has been evaluated in standing horses, but it is now possible to measure the force and pressure at the interface between the saddle and the horse dynamically. The purpose of this review is critically to discuss available evidence of the interaction between the horse, the rider and the saddle, highlighting not only what is known, but also what is not known. PMID:23177524

  7. Hindgut microbes, fermentation and their seasonal variations in Hokkaido native horses compared to light horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Kobayashi; Satoshi Koike; Makoto Miyaji; Hiroshi Hata; Keiichi Tanaka

    2006-01-01

    Fecal bacteria and protozoa of Hokkaido native horses and light horses were enumerated to compare seasonal variation in hindgut microbes and fermentation between the two breeds. Fecal samples were collected in winter and summer from eight horses (four for each breed) that had been reared together under the same conditions after birth (on woodland pasture in winter and on grassland

  8. Horse Theft Awareness and Prevention - 15 Steps to Minimizing Theft of Horses and Equipment 

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.

    2003-09-26

    to permanently identify horses. Thieves are less likely to steal horses that are per- manently marked, and those that are stolen are easier to track and recover. Remember: The state is full of solid sorrels and bays all f_it- ting a similar description. Horse...

  9. Sorghum Bran, Chestnut Wood Powder, and Chardonnay Grape Seed Flour Addition Effect on Lipid Oxidation and Color in Ground Beef Patties

    E-print Network

    Roybal, Tabitha Lynn

    2012-02-14

    ., Spooner, WI), 0.1% and 0.25% chestnut wood powder (CN, Castanea sative mill, approximately 74-78% hydrolysable tannins, Chemtan? Chestnut Powder KPN, Chemtan Co., Exeter, NH), and 0.25% and 0.5% of each of the following sorghum bran varieties: black... seed (CG, Botanic Oil Innovations Inc., Spooner, WI), 0.1% chestnut (CN, Castanea sative mill, approximately 74-78% hydrolysable tannins, Chemtan? Chestnut Powder KPN, Chemtan Co., Exeter, NH), and 0.5% black sorghum bran with tannins (BTS). Patties...

  10. Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

  11. Drying of Chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) after Osmotic Dehydration with Sucrose and Glucose Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Moreira; F. Chenlo; L. Chaguri; H. Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Chestnuts were dehydrated by using a combined method of osmotic dehydration followed by air drying. Samples were osmotically pretreated with sucrose (60% w\\/w) and glucose (56% w\\/w) for 8 h, air-dried at temperatures of 45, 55, and 65°C, at a relative humidity of 30% and at a velocity of 2.7 m·s and the experimental data of the drying kinetics were obtained. Whole samples were

  12. Air drying and colour characteristics of chestnuts pre-submitted to osmotic dehydration with sodium chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Moreira; F. Chenlo; L. Chaguri; G. Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Air drying kinetics of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) submitted previously to osmotic dehydration with sodium chloride solutions (22%, w\\/w, 25°C, 8h) were experimentally determined. Drying experiments were carried out at 45, 55 and 65°C during 32h. Before osmotic dehydration operation, shell and tegument tissue were carefully removed in all samples. Rough external surface was maintained (peeled samples) or also removed

  13. Technological Assessment of Chestnut Flour Doughs Regarding to Doughs from Other Commercial Flours and Formulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramón Moreira; Francisco Chenlo; María D. Torres; Diego M. Prieto

    The technological assessment of chestnut flour doughs was studied using Mixolab® apparatus, establishing a comparison with\\u000a gluten (soft, hard and whole wheat) and gluten-free (rice and yellow corn) flour doughs as well as corn starch pastrymaking\\u000a and breadmaking formulations. This equipment measures the torque in function of temperature and time, firstly at 30 °C (mixing\\u000a curve) and secondly the mixing during

  14. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed. PMID:22529137

  15. Preparation and characterisation of the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnut polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Jun; Yu, Lin

    2015-08-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a strong oxidant that cleaves glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides. In this study, the oligosaccharides were prepared by removing the starch from Chinese water chestnuts through hydrolysis using ?-amylase and then hydrolysing the remaining polysaccharides with H2O2, during which the oligosaccharide yield was monitored. The yield of oligosaccharide was affected by reaction time, temperature, and H2O2 concentration. Extended reaction times, high temperatures, and high H2O2 concentrations decreased oligosaccharide yield. Under optimum conditions (i.e., reaction time of 4h, reaction temperature of 80°C, and 2.5% H2O2 concentration), the maximum oligosaccharide yield was 3.91%. The oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides exhibited strong hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity when applied at a concentration of 100 ?g/mL. The results indicate that the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides possessed good antioxidant properties and can be developed as a new dietary supplement and functional food. PMID:25794714

  16. Cutaneous schwannomas in 22 horses.

    PubMed

    Schöniger, S; Valentine, B A; Fernandez, C J; Summers, B A

    2011-03-01

    Schwannomas are uncommonly recognized in horses. This study describes cutaneous schwannomas in 22 horses aged 8 to 25 years: 12 male, 7 female, and 3 of unknown sex. The horses had solitary cutaneous masses: 9 on the head, 3 on the neck, and the others on the shoulder, hip, thorax, abdomen, rump, extremities, or tail. The location of 1 tumor was unknown. The dermal tumors were well demarcated and expansile. Twelve had a multinodular pattern, whereas 10 formed a single nodule. Antoni A areas were observed in all tumors, and 10 tumors contained Antoni B areas. In Antoni A areas, the densely packed spindle-shaped neoplastic cells were arranged in short fascicles with nuclear palisading. In the hypocellular Antoni B areas, neoplastic cells were separated by abundant myxomatous stroma. Tumors commonly had hyalinization of stroma and vessel walls and ancient change. Cellular vacuolation was observed in 18 tumors. In all 22 cases, neoplastic cells were immunopositive for S100 protein. Expression of laminin and glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in all 6 tumors evaluated by immunohistochemistry for these markers. One tumor was examined ultrastructurally: Neoplastic cells had branched cytoplasmic processes and were surrounded by an external lamina. Follow-up information was available 8 months to 10 years postexcision for 9 horses, for which surgical excision of the tumor was curative. The equine cutaneous schwannomas in this study had microscopic features like those of human schwannoma and had benign clinical behavior. Correct classification of equine cutaneous schwannoma will facilitate accurate prognosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:20716761

  17. Feeding the Arena Performance Horse 

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.; Scott, Brett D.

    2003-11-04

    ..............................................................................8 Vitamins ............................................................................8 Minerals ............................................................................11 How to feed for best performance............12 Balanced rations... Vitamin Vitamin Thiamin Salt Energy Protein A E Class (Mcals) (pounds) (grams) (grams) (IU?s) (IU?s) (mg) (grams) Mature horses a Light work 20.5 1.8 25 18 22,000 675 100 90 Moderate work 24.6 2.2 30 21 22,000 800 150 100 Intense work 32.8 2.9 40 29 22...

  18. Ameloblastic Carcinoma in a Horse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. V De Cock; P Labelle; K. G Magdesian

    2003-01-01

    The clinical, gross morphological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of an ameloblastic carcinoma in a 30-year-old Quarter Horse mare are reported. This tumour was fast growing, locally invasive and destructive. Histologically, it showed an infiltrative pattern of large islands, broad sheets and, at the periphery, small cords of moderately pleomorphic round, oval to spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed positive labelling for

  19. Iberian Origins of New World Horse Breeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CRISTINA LUIS; E. GUS COTHRAN; MARIA DO MAR OOM; Edifõ ´ cio; Campo Grande; C. Luõ

    2006-01-01

    Fossil records, archaeological proofs, and historical documents report that horses persisted continuously in the Iberian Peninsula since the Pleistocene and were taken to the American continent (New World) in the 15th century. To investigate the variation within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of Iberian and New World horse breeds, to analyze their relationships, and to test the historical origin

  20. Stomach Ulcers and the Endurance Horse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Marlin

    The results of numerous surveys, conducted from the 1980s to present day suggest that gastric (stomach) ulcers are an ongoing and widespread problem for adult horses. Thoroughbreds in active race training were quickly identified as being a 'high risk' group, with the results of several published studies citing a prevalence of 80-90% within horses in training. Following on from these

  1. Distributed Computing with a Trojan Horse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauri Auronen; Antti Peltonen; Sami Vaarala; Teemupekka Virtanen

    In this paper we describe constructing a trojan horse application for the purpose of distributed computing on the Internet. The mechanisms used by the trojan horse are discussed in detail. We also detail the procedure by which a user can be tricked to install the trojan using a known Microsoft Outlook Express vulnerability. The gains and risks of constructing a

  2. May the Horse Be With You

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2014-01-08

    , for example, 1951, they're asking for an animal, more specifically, one of the 12 animals of the Chinese zodiac. And they are, in order of appearance: Rat, Ox, Tiger, Rabbit, Dragon, Snake, Horse, Goat, Monkey, Rooster, Dog and Pig. The Year of the Horse...

  3. Hepatic cirrhosis and hemochromatosis in three horses.

    PubMed

    Pearson, E G; Hedstrom, O R; Poppenga, R H

    1994-04-01

    Hemochromatosis, an iron storage disease, was diagnosed in 3 horses with hepatic cirrhosis. Each horse had bridging portal fibrosis and abundant iron deposits in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Serum concentrations of liver-derived enzymes and total bile acids were high. However, serum iron concentration was not high, and iron binding capacity was only 46% saturated in the 1 horse in which it was measured. However, the concentration of iron in the liver of this horse was 20 times the reference limits. Hemochromatosis is common in mynah birds and human beings. There are several types of this iron storage disease. In human beings, there is a familial disease with iron absorption inappropriate for the level of stored iron. Hemochromatosis also occurs secondary to cirrhosis of the liver, and in certain anemia diseases. Another type of hemochromatosis is seen in association with dietary iron overload. These horses were not related, and there was not any evidence of high dietary iron intake. PMID:8045806

  4. Diversity of vegetative compatibility types, distribution of mating types and occurrence of hypovirulence of Cryphonectria parasitica in chestnut stands in NW Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Montenegro; O. Aguín; M. J. Sainz; M. Hermida; J. P. Mansilla

    2008-01-01

    An extensive survey on chestnut stands in NW Spain was carried out to study the population biology of Cryphonectria parasitica in order to design future biological control programmes of chestnut blight based on the field introduction of native hypovirulent strains. Five hundred and thirty-nine Cryphonectria parasitica isolates, belonging to five populations (A Coruña, Lugo, Ourense, Pontevedra and León), were obtained.

  5. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

    2015-01-24

    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue. PMID:25376504

  6. Innovative use of an automated horse walker when breaking in young horses.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jack

    2008-01-01

    There is an inherent element of risk associated with "backing" and riding the previously unbroken horse. If training proceeds too quickly, conflict behaviors may result from the simultaneous application of too many cues. Automated horse walkers (AHW) facilitate the exercising of several horses concurrently at walk or trot for warm-up, cool-down, fitness programs, and rehabilitation purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate if backing the horse within the AHW was an appropriate training method. Ten horses (3-year-olds) took part in this study. They began training within the AHW with a simple bridle and protective boots. A handler subsequently long-reined the horses within the AHW when they wore rollers, side reins, and a saddle. When considered appropriate, the handler went from jumping beside the horse to lying over the saddle to sitting astride the horse within the AHW. The horses habituated to this innovative approach quickly without evidence of conflict behavior. The handler rode the horses from the AHW after approximately 4 riding episodes of this innovative training system. PMID:18569219

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel.

    PubMed

    Weese, J Scott

    2004-12-01

    Fortunately, MRSA infection and colonization are currently uncommon in veterinary medicine. Nevertheless, the increasing reports of the occurrence of MRSA infection in horses, veterinarians, and equine personnel dictate that serious consideration be given to the control of this pathogen in veterinary hospitals as well as in the equine community. It is unclear whether extrapolation from human hospitals and people in the community is appropriate; however, given the rapid increase in nosocomial MRSA in human hospitals and the recent shift of certain clones of MRSA into the community, it would be unwise to ignore this potential pathogen. If equine MRSA did, indeed, originate in the human population, complete eradication in the equine population is unlikely, regardless of the prevalence of infection in horses and the intensity of infection control measures, without concurrent eradication of MRSA in the human population, which is surely an impossible feat. Early institution of appropriate surveillance and other infection control measures should be used to attempt to limit the impact of MRSA in veterinary medicine, however. It has been stated, "The time to act is now, before the prevalence of MRSA in the community begins to rise and we end up with 50% of the community strains becoming methicillin-resistant". This statement was directed at control of MRSA in people; however, it is equally relevant in the veterinary context and should receive strong consideration. PMID:15519821

  8. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C. [Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l'Ingegneria, Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy)

    2008-01-24

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S{sub b}(E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U{sub e} for several two body processes are discussed.

  9. Ameloblastic carcinoma in a horse.

    PubMed

    De Cock, H E V; Labelle, P; Magdesian, K G

    2003-01-01

    The clinical, gross morphological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of an ameloblastic carcinoma in a 30-year-old Quarter Horse mare are reported. This tumour was fast growing, locally invasive and destructive. Histologically, it showed an infiltrative pattern of large islands, broad sheets and, at the periphery, small cords of moderately pleomorphic round, oval to spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed positive labelling for vimentin, cytokeratin 5/6 and cytokeratin 14. In the oral cavity of human beings, this immunolabelling pattern is unique for the embryonal enamel organ and tumours of ameloblastomatous epithelial origin, which strongly supports the diagnosis of equine ameloblastic carcinoma. PMID:12634103

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Water Chestnut Extract on Cytokine Responses via Nuclear Factor-?B-signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Choi, Byung-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa japonica Flerov.) is an annual aquatic plant. In the present study, we showed that the treatment of water chestnut extracted with boiling water resulted in a significant increase 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and decrease the intracellular H2O2-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, water chestnut extract (WCE) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production and suppressed mRNA and protein expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. The cytokine array results showed that WCE inhibited inflammatory cytokine secretion. Also, WCE reduced tumor necrosis factor-?-and interleukin-6-induced nuclear factor-?B activity. Furthermore, during sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritation of human skin, WCE reduced SLS-induced skin erythema and improved barrier regeneration. These results indicate that WCE may be a promising topical anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25593649

  11. Isolation, purification and identification of etiolation substrate from fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa).

    PubMed

    Pan, Yong-Gui; Li, Yi-Xiao; Yuan, Meng-Qi

    2015-11-01

    Fresh cut Chinese water-chestnut is a popular ready-to-eat fresh-cut fruit in China. However, it is prone to etiolation and the chemicals responsible for this process are not known yet. To address this problem, we extracted phytochemicals from etiolated Chinese water-chestnut and separated them using MPLC and column chromatography. Four compounds were obtained and their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, TLC, HPLC and NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. We identified these compounds as eriodictyol, naringenin, sucrose and ethyl d-glucoside. Among those, eriodictyol and naringenin were both isolated for the first time in fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut and are responsible for the yellowing of this fruit cutting. PMID:25976800

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Water Chestnut Extract on Cytokine Responses via Nuclear Factor-?B-signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Choi, Byung-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa japonica Flerov.) is an annual aquatic plant. In the present study, we showed that the treatment of water chestnut extracted with boiling water resulted in a significant increase 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and decrease the intracellular H2O2-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, water chestnut extract (WCE) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production and suppressed mRNA and protein expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. The cytokine array results showed that WCE inhibited inflammatory cytokine secretion. Also, WCE reduced tumor necrosis factor-?-and interleukin-6-induced nuclear factor-?B activity. Furthermore, during sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritation of human skin, WCE reduced SLS-induced skin erythema and improved barrier regeneration. These results indicate that WCE may be a promising topical anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25593649

  13. Nutraceutical properties of chestnut flours: beneficial effects on skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Frati, Alessia; Landi, Debora; Marinelli, Cristian; Gianni, Giacomo; Fontana, Lucia; Migliorini, Marzia; Pierucci, Federica; Garcia-Gil, Mercedes; Meacci, Elisabetta

    2014-11-01

    Plants contain a wide range of non-nutritive phytochemicals, many of which have protective or preventive properties for human diseases. The aim of the present work has been to investigate the nutraceutical properties of sweet chestnut flour extracts obtained from fruits collected from 7 geographic areas of Tuscany (Italy), and their ability in modulating skeletal muscle atrophy. We found that the cultivars from different geographic areas are characterized by the composition and quantity of various nutrients and specific bioactive components, such as tocopherols, polyphenols and sphingolipids. The nutraceutical properties of chestnut sweet flours have been evaluated in C2C12 myotubes induced to atrophy by serum deprivation or dexamethasone. We found that the pretreatment with both total extracts of tocopherols and sphingolipids is able to counterbalance cell atrophy, reducing the decrease in myotube size and myonuclei number, and attenuating protein degradation and the increase in expression of MAFbx/atrogin-1 (a muscle-specific atrophy marker). By contrast, polyphenol extracts were not able to prevent atrophy. Since we also found that ?-tocopherol is the major form of tocopherol in sweet flour and its content differs depending on the procedure of sweet flour preparation, the mechanisms by which ?-tocopherol as well as sphingolipids affect skeletal muscle cell atrophy have been also investigated. This is the first evidence that chestnut sweet flour is a natural source of specific bioactive components with a relevant role in the prevention of cell degeneration and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass, opening important implications in designing appropriate nutritional therapeutic approaches to skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:25183412

  14. Horse-rider interaction in dressage riding.

    PubMed

    Münz, Andreas; Eckardt, Falko; Witte, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    In dressage riding the pelvis of the rider interacts with the horse physically. However, there is little information about the influence of riding skill on the interaction of the human pelvis with the horse. Therefore this paper aims to study the interaction between horse and rider in professional riders (PRO) and beginners (BEG). Twenty riders rode in walk, trot, and canter in an indoor riding hall with inertial sensors attached to their pelvis and to the horses' trunk. Statistical analysis of waveform parameters, qualitative interpretation of angle-angle plots, and cross-correlation of horse and rider were applied to the data. Significant differences between PRO and BEG could be found for specific waveform parameters. Over all gaits PRO kept their pelvis closer to the mid-position and further forward whereas BEG tilted their pelvis further to the right and more backwards. The coupling intensity of horse and rider revealed differences between the gaits. Furthermore phase shifts were found between PRO and BEG. This paper describes a sensor-based approach for the investigation of interactions of the human pelvis with the trunk of a horse under in-field conditions. First the results show that the riding level influences the posture of a rider and secondly that differences can be detected with contemporary available sensor technology and methods. PMID:24290612

  15. Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

    1993-01-01

    Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed each to provide the delivery of a tactile stimulus, a repetitive light tapping, at different locations (spaced 10.0 cm apart) along the horse's back. Two preliminary steps were necessary before generalization testing: training a measurable response (lip pressing) and training on several reinforcement schedules in the presence of a training stimulus (tapping by one of the solenoids). We then gave each horse two generalization test sessions. Results indicated that the horses' behavior was effectively controlled by the training stimulus. Horses made the greatest number of responses to the training stimulus, and the tendency to respond to the other test stimuli diminished as the stimuli became farther away from the training stimulus. These findings are discussed in the context of behavioral principles and their relevance to the training of horses. PMID:8315368

  16. Synthesis of chestnut-bur-like palladium nanostructures and their enhanced electrocatalytic activities for ethanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Seong Ji; Kim, Do Youb; Kang, Shin Wook; Choi, Kyeong Woo; Han, Sang Woo; Park, O. Ok

    2014-03-01

    We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pd nanostructures with highly open structure and huge surface area by reducing Na2PdCl4 with ascorbic acid and using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a surfactant in an aqueous solution. The prepared Pd nanostructures had an average overall size of 70 nm and were composed of dozens of needle-like thin arms, originating from the same core, with an average thickness of 2.3 nm; the arms looked like chestnut-burs. Time evolution of Pd nanostructures implied that small Pd particles generated at the early stage of the reaction by fast reduction grew via the particle attachment growth mechanism. The morphology and size of the Pd nanostructures could be readily controlled by varying the concentration of CPC; depending on the amount of CPC, the reduction rates varied the morphology of the Pd nanostructures. Because of the huge surface area and possible catalytically active sites, the prepared chestnut-bur-like Pd nanostructures exhibited greater electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation compared to other Pd nanocatalysts, including cubic and octahedral Pd nanocrystals, and even commercial Pd/C.We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pd nanostructures with highly open structure and huge surface area by reducing Na2PdCl4 with ascorbic acid and using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a surfactant in an aqueous solution. The prepared Pd nanostructures had an average overall size of 70 nm and were composed of dozens of needle-like thin arms, originating from the same core, with an average thickness of 2.3 nm; the arms looked like chestnut-burs. Time evolution of Pd nanostructures implied that small Pd particles generated at the early stage of the reaction by fast reduction grew via the particle attachment growth mechanism. The morphology and size of the Pd nanostructures could be readily controlled by varying the concentration of CPC; depending on the amount of CPC, the reduction rates varied the morphology of the Pd nanostructures. Because of the huge surface area and possible catalytically active sites, the prepared chestnut-bur-like Pd nanostructures exhibited greater electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation compared to other Pd nanocatalysts, including cubic and octahedral Pd nanocrystals, and even commercial Pd/C. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional TEM images of Pd nanostructures (Fig. S1-S4). See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06410g

  17. Identifying Unmet Therapeutic Domains in Schizophrenia Patients: The Early Contributions of Wayne Fenton From Chestnut Lodge

    PubMed Central

    McGlashan, Thomas H.; Carpenter, William T.

    2007-01-01

    Wayne Fenton, MD, died on September 3, 2006, while giving emergency clinical care. His leadership at National Institute of Mental Health provided a framework for therapeutic discovery. He crafted a new approach to psychosis based on poor functional outcomes and the psychopathology domains underlying long-term morbidity. His research and clinical observations during his career at the Chestnut Lodge clarified the unmet therapeutic needs in schizophrenia and provided the foundation for his vision. The results have radically changed the paradigm for discovery with emphasis on impaired cognition and negative symptom psychopathology. PMID:17634414

  18. Microsatellite Variation in Japanese and Asian Horses and Their Phylogenetic Relationship Using a European Horse Outgroup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tozaki; N. TAKEZAKI; T. HASEGAWA; N. ISHIDA; M. KUROSAWA; M. TOMITA; N. SAITOU

    2003-01-01

    The genetic relationships of seven Japanese and four mainland-Asian horse populations, as well as two European horse populations, were estimated using data for 20 microsatellite loci. Mongolian horses showed the highest average heterozygosities (0.75-0.77) in all populations. Phylogenetic analysis showed the existence of three distinct clusters supported by high bootstrap values: the European cluster (Anglo-Arab and thoroughbreds), the Hokkaido-Kiso cluster,

  19. Horse Theft Awareness and Prevention - 15 Steps to Minimizing Theft of Horses and Equipment

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.

    2003-09-26

    , and some- times even resource people who will speak to equine groups and associations. Publications available from Texas Cooperative Extension in- clude: ? L-5244, ?What to do if Your Horse is Stolen?; and ? L-5211, ?Horse Theft Aware- ness and Prevention...: Perma- nent Identif_ication of Horses.? Publications available from Veterinar y Practice Publishing Company, P.O. Box 4457, Santa Barbara, California 93140-4457, include: ? The Equine Recovery Hand- book , by Amelita F. Donald; ? The Equine Identif...

  20. Staphylococcus hyicus in skin lesions of horses.

    PubMed

    Devriese, L A; Vlaminck, K; Nuytten, J; De Keersmaecker, P

    1983-07-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus (subspecies hyicus) was isolated as the only pathogenic organism from two independent cases of dermatitis of the lower parts of the limbs (grease heel) in horses. The organism was recovered together with other pathogenic staphylococci from similar conditions in two other horses of different origins. These conditions were characterised by epidermolysis, alopecia and crust formation. They responded quickly to antibiotic treatment. The organism was also isolated from a long standing case of "summer eczema" which healed without antibiotic treatment, and from a horse with dermatophilosis (streptotrichosis, Dermatophilus congolensis infection). Experimentally, Staph hyicus caused epidermolysis, exudation and inflammation in the superficial layers of the skin. PMID:6884317

  1. Antifeedants and feeding stimulants in bark extracts of ten woody non-host species of the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Carina; Månsson, Per E; Sjödin, Kristina; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2008-10-01

    Bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a Soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. Species were alder (Alnus glutinosa), aspen (Populus tremula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), holly (Ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (Evonymus europaeus), walnut (Juglans regia), and yew (Taxus baccata). Bark of each species was collected in southern Scandinavia during the summer. Resulting extracts were tested for antifeedant activity against the pine weevil by a micro-feeding choice assay. At a dose corresponding to that in the bark, methanol extracts from Aesculus, Taxus, Ilex, and Populus were antifeedant active, while pentane extracts of Aesculus, Fagus, Syringa, and Viburnum were stimulatory. Four known antifeedants against H. abietis, the straight-chained carboxylic acids, hexanoic and nonanoic acid (C6 and C9), carvone, and carvacrol were identified by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in several extracts. The major constituents were identified and tested for feeding deterrence. The aromatic compounds benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol are new non-host plant-derived feeding deterrents for the pine weevil. Additionally, two feeding stimulants, beta-sitosterol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, were identified. One active methanol extract of Aesculus bark was sequentially fractionated by liquid chromatography, and major compounds were tentatively identified as branched alcohols and esters of hexanoic acid. Five commercially available hexanoate esters and two commercially available branched alcohols were identified as new active antifeedants. Both stimulatory and inhibiting compounds were found in the same extracts and co-eluted in the same or adjacent fractions. The mix of semiochemicals of opposite activity in each extract or fraction could explain the stimulatory-, inhibitory-, or sometimes neutral activity. Generally, such co-occurrence confounds the isolation of antifeedants. PMID:18719963

  2. West Nile Encephalitis in Humans and Horses 

    E-print Network

    Lawhorn, D. Bruce

    2000-08-25

    Humans and horses are infected with West Nile Encephalitis after being bitten by mosquitoes that transmit the virus. Migratory birds are thought to be responsible for the introduction of the virus into new areas. This publication explains...

  3. A Song for the Horse Nation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website accompanies an exhibition at the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) George Gustav Heye Center in New York City, and presents "the epic story of the horse's influence on American Indian tribes from the 1600s to the present." Divided into five thematic sections, the exhibition draws on the riches of NMAI, using both historical objects, such as drawings, hoof ornaments, beaded bags, hide robes, and paintings, as well as new pieces by contemporary Native artists. For example, in the "Native Arts & the Horse", 1840-1900 section, visitors can see images of bridles, saddles and saddle blankets, and other clothing, along with photos of these being used and worn. The section "The Horse Nation Lives On" includes works by contemporary Native American artists, such as a painting by Jim Yellowhawk (Cheyenne River Lakota, b. 1958), Lakota Horse Mask, 2008, and beaded rawhide bags made by Jackie Bread (Piikuni, b. 1960) in 2009.

  4. Toxicological effects of aflatoxins in horses.

    PubMed

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina

    2011-06-01

    Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins principally produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, which are both natural contaminants of food and feedstuff. Aflatoxin B(1) is the most prevalent member of this group that is normally detected and is the most powerful hepatocarcinogen known. Few naturally occurring episodes of aflatoxicosis in horses have been reported in the literature. Indeed, the published information about aflatoxin exposure, metabolism and the effects on horses is limited and controversial, possibly indicating a lack of awareness rather than the rarity of the occurrence. The target organ in horses, as in other animal species, is the liver and horses suffering from aflatoxicosis show signs of inappetence, depression, fever, tremor, ataxia and cough. Necropsy findings include a yellow-brown liver with centrilobular necrosis, icterus, haemorrhage, tracheal exudates and brown urine. A possible link between aflatoxin exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been hypothesised. PMID:20619706

  5. Enzymatic hydrolysis of chestnut purée: process optimization using mixtures of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase.

    PubMed

    López, Cristina; Torrado, Ana; Fuciños, Pablo; Guerra, Nelson P; Pastrana, Lorenzo

    2004-05-19

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of starch present in chestnut purée was performed through a one-step treatment with a mixture of a commercial thermostable alpha-amylase (Termamyl 120 L, type S) and glucoamylase (AMG 300 L) at 70 degrees C. The effect of the enzyme concentration and the ratio of both amylases in the reaction mixture was studied by means of a factorial second-order rotatable design, which allowed conditions to be set leading to the total conversion of starch to glucose after 15 min of incubation (60 total enzymatic units g(-1) of chestnut; ratio of alpha-amylase/glucoamylase enzymatic units, 0.35:0.65). At lower enzyme concentration, the delay in the addition of the glucoamylase with regard to the addition of the alpha-amylase allowed a slightly higher hydrolysis percentage to be reached when compared to the simultaneous addition of both amylases at the same low enzyme concentration. The kinetics of liberation of glucose supports the existence of a synergistic effect between these two enzymes only in the first moments of the reaction. Finally, a sequential one-step hydrolysis was assayed, and more concentrated glucose syrups were thus obtained. PMID:15137834

  6. Hypovirus virulence and vegetative incompatibility in populations of the chestnut blight fungus.

    PubMed

    Bryner, Sarah Franziska; Rigling, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 hyperparasitizes the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and acts as a biocontrol agent for this serious tree disease. The virus is transmitted cytoplasmatically between fungal individuals. However, highly virulent viruses strongly debilitate their host and, thus, reduce their own transmission probability. Furthermore, vegetative incompatibility between fungi is an important transmission barrier. Therefore, virulent viruses are expected to be strongly selected against in fungal populations with high levels of vegetative incompatibility, eventually leading to the erosion of biocontrol. To test this prediction, we assessed the virulence of the virus in four European C. parasitica populations with high diversity of vegetative compatibility types and in four populations with low diversity. We expected the degree of virus virulence to be lower in fungal populations with high levels of vegetative incompatibility. However, our results did not reveal such a trend. No significant differences in virus virulence between populations with low versus high diversity of vegetative compatibility types were observed. There was no evidence for an erosion of disease control due to the presence of these transmission barriers. Thus, the findings of this study are promising for the sustainability of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 as a biocontrol agent for chestnut blight in Europe. PMID:22857516

  7. Complex of solonetzes and vertic chestnut soils in the manych-gudilo depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovda, I. V.; Morgun, E. P.; Il'ina, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological, physicochemical, and isotopic properties of a two-member soil complex developed under dry steppe have been studied in the central part of the Manych Depression. The soils are formed on chocolate-colored clayey sediments, and have pronounced microrelief and the complex vegetation pattern. A specific feature of the studied soil complex is the inverse position of its components: vertic chestnut soil occupies the microhigh, while solonetz is in the microlow. The formation of such complexes is explained by the biological factor, i.e., by the destruction of the solonetzic horizon under the impact of vegetation and earth-burrowing animals with further transformation under steppe plants and dealkalinization of the soil in the microhighs. The manifestation of vertic features and shrink-swell process in soils of the complex developing in dry steppe are compared with those in the vertic soils of the Central Pre-Caucasus formed under more humid environment. It is supposed that slickensides in the investigated vertic chestnut soil are relict feature inherited from the former wetter stage of the soil development and are subjected to a gradual degradation at present. In the modern period, vertic processes are weak and cannot be distinctly diagnosed. However, their activation may take place upon an increase of precipitation or the rise in the groundwater level.

  8. Chronic renal failure in horses.

    PubMed

    Schott, Harold C

    2007-12-01

    Chronic renal failure is a syndrome of progressive loss of renal function that results in loss of urinary concentrating ability, retention of nitrogenous and other metabolic end products, alterations in electrolyte and acid-base status, and dysfunction of several hormone systems. This article describes the prevalence, causes, clinical signs, diagnostic evaluation, and management of horses afflicted with chronic renal failure. It is hoped that this article illustrates that chronic renal failure, when detected in the earlier stages of disease, can be managed successfully in the short-term allowing owners to enjoy a period of time of ongoing productivity, performance, or companionship until loss of condition reaches the point that euthanasia becomes warranted. PMID:18061852

  9. Discrimination reversal learning in yearling horses 

    E-print Network

    Fiske, Jeanna Chastain

    1976-01-01

    ~ fillies, 20, 02~ geldings, 15o18e ME scores were& colts, 5 ' 84i fillies, 10. 66~ geldings, 3. 52 ' LAI scores were~ colts, 11. 5i filliesy 15 ' 8) geldings, 24, 4. Mean emotionality scores were' colts, 2. 64' fillies, 2 ' 48t geldings, 1 ' 78 ' Mean... ~ ~ ~ ~ . . ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ . 15 MT Scores for All Horses Ranked in Order of' Performance ~ . ~ ~ . . ~ ~ 20 ME Scores for All Horses Ranked in Order of Performance . . . . . . . . 22 Daily MT for the Three Experimental Groups ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 25 10...

  10. A retrospective study of nineteen ataxic horses

    PubMed Central

    Nappert, Germain; Vrins, André; Breton, Luc; Beauregard, Michel

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study of 19 ataxic horses admitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Montreal during the period of January 1985 to December 1988 is presented. There were 11 cases of cervical vertebral malformation, four of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy, two of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, one each of vertebral osteomyelitis and intervertebral disc protrusion. The clinical diagnosis of ataxia in horses requires neurological, radiographic, myelographic, and laboratory examinations. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17423438

  11. Horses 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    42nd Bombardment Squadron (H) Monthly Squadron Histories April 1944 ? November 1944. 42nd Bombardment Squadron (H), 11th Bombardment Group (H), 7th Air Force (1941-January 1943); 13th Air Force (January 1943... - ) Air Force Historical Association, IRIS No. 44028. This copy of the missions of the 42 nd Bombardment Squadron was digitized from the microfilm copy (Air Force Historical Association, IRIS No. 44028) obtained from the Air Force Historical...

  12. ABUNDANCE OF NON-BREEDING HORNED LARKS AND CHESTNUT-COLLARED LONGSPURS ON GRAZED AND RESTED SEMIARID GRASSLAND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; David L. Hawksworth; Raymond A. Meyer; Timothy Brush

    2006-01-01

    We counted birds monthly from October through April of 1999-2000 and 2000- 2001 on regularly grazed and rested (since 1973) semiarid grassland of central New Mexico. Horned larks (Eremophila alpestris) and chestnut-collared longspurs (Calcarius ornatus) accounted for 66% and 10% of all birds detected, respectively. We examined variation in counts of these species relative to grazing history, site, and vegetation

  13. Transcriptomic identification and expression of starch and sucrose metabolism genes in the seeds of chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) seed provides a rich source of carbohydrates as food and feed. However, little is known about starch biosynthesis in the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine seed composition profiles and identify genes involved in starch and sucrose metabo...

  14. Solute accumulation of chestnut oak and dogwood leaves in response to throughfall manipulation of an upland oak forest.

    PubMed

    Gebre, G Michael; Tschaplinski, Timothy J

    2002-03-01

    To determine the biochemical basis of osmotic adjustment, seasonal and treatment differences in foliar water- soluble organic solutes and inorganic ions were investigated for two hardwood species that exhibited osmotic adjustment in a Throughfall Displacement Experiment at the Walker Branch Watershed near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Leaf samples of overstory and understory chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) and understory dogwood (Cornus florida L.) were collected during the 1994 (wet) and 1995 (dry) growing seasons from each of three treatments: dry (-33% throughfall), ambient (control) and wet (+33% throughfall). Foliar soluble carbohydrates and organic acids were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. During May 1994, when the demand for sucrose was greatest, dogwood accumulated small amounts of glucose, quinic acid and Mg2+, offsetting a decline in nitrate concentration. As the mild drought continued and tree growth slowed, there was a significant accumulation of sucrose in dogwood in the dry treatment in June, and a trend toward increased K+. In overstory chestnut oak in the dry treatment over the same period, there were significant accumulations of fructose, glucose and K+, and a trend toward increased quinic acid accumulation. Sucrose did not become a key osmotically active compound in chestnut oak until August 1994. In 1995, with the exception of understory chestnut oak, there was no accumulation of K+ in either species. During the severe drought of 1995, monosaccharides, particularly glucose and fructose, accounted for most of the osmotic adjustment in both species. Among solutes, glucose constituted the largest accumulation in dogwood in the dry treatment in August 1995, followed by fructose and sucrose. There was only a moderate increase in solutes in chestnut oak trees in 1995, with fructose and glucose constituting over 50% of the predicted solute accumulation in July. Both species accumulated a wider array of solutes during the dry year than during the wet year, but treatment differences in solute accumulation in chestnut oak were partially limited by drought. The greater dehydration tolerance of chestnut oak than dogwood was evident in the higher baseline concentrations of organic solutes and the greater array of solutes accumulated in response to drought. PMID:11874721

  15. HorsesHorses Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette IN, 47907

    E-print Network

    facing horse owners. The best advice is to establish a regular health care program with a local veterinarian who has interest and expertise with horses. Let the veterinarian help you make health care waste and pasture management. Some indications of parasite infestation are weight loss, rough hair coat

  16. Bone growth and development in weanling horses given forced exercise 

    E-print Network

    Williams, Jessica Leah

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of different management techniques to grow weanling horses, focusing on bone growth and development. Horses were put into two management regimens, the first in semi-confinement in a dry lot paddock...

  17. Effect of Concentrate Form on Gastric Ulcer Syndrome in Horses

    E-print Network

    Huth, Lindsey

    2012-02-14

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is common amongst equine athletes of various disciplines and linked to decreased performance. Prevalence among racehorses has been reported to be over 90%, performance horses at 60%, and endurances horses...

  18. The Hypersensitivity of Horses to Culicoides Bites in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gail S.; Belton, Peter; Kleider, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Culicoides hypersensitivity is a chronic, recurrent, seasonal dermatitis of horses that has a worldwide distribution, but has only recently been reported in Canada. It is characterized by intense pruritus resulting in lesions associated with self-induced trauma. A survey of veterinarians and horse-owners in British Columbia showed no differences in susceptibility due to the sex, color, breed, or height of the horses. The prevalence of the disease in the 209 horses surveyed was 26%. Horses sharing the same pasture could be unaffected. The disease was reported primarily from southwestern British Columbia; it occurred between April and October and usually affected the ventral midline, mane, and tail. Horses were generally less than nine years old when the clinical signs first appeared ([unk]=5.9 yr). Culicoides hypersensitivity was common in the lineage of several affected horses, possibly indicating a genetic susceptibility. Most cases were severe enough to require veterinary attention and some horses were euthanized. PMID:17423117

  19. Bone growth and development in weanling horses given forced exercise

    E-print Network

    Williams, Jessica Leah

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of different management techniques to grow weanling horses, focusing on bone growth and development. Horses were put into two management regimens, the first in semi-confinement in a dry lot paddock...

  20. Original article Chiral inversion of fenoprofen in horses and dogs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Chiral inversion of fenoprofen in horses and dogs: an in vivo-in vitro study geldings and three male beagle dogs, following intravenous doses of racemic FPF (1 mg/kg in horses), R(-)FPF (0.5 mg/kg in horses, 1 mg/kg in dogs), and S(+)FPF (0.5 mg/kg in horses, 1 mg/kg in dogs

  1. East Chestnut Ridge hydrogeologic characterization: A geophysical study of two karst features

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Permitting and site selection activities for the proposed East Chestnut Ridge landfill, located on the Oak Ridge Reservation, have required additional hydrogeologic studies of two karst features. Geophysical testing methods were utilized for investigating these karst features. The objectives of the geophysical testing was to determine the feasibility of geophysical techniques for locating subsurface karst features and to determine if subsurface anomalies exist at the proposed landfill site. Two karst features, one lacking surface expression (sinkhole) but with a known solution cavity at depth (from previous hydrologic studies), and the other with surface expression were tested with surface geophysical methods. Four geophysical profiles, two crossing and centered over each karst feature were collected using both gravimetric and electrical resistivity techniques.

  2. Total monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition by chestnut honey, pollen and propolis.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, O; Karahalil, F; Can, Z; Sahin, H; Kolayli, S

    2014-10-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors are generally used in the treatment of depressive disorders and some neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the MAO [MAO (E.C.1.4.3.4)] inhibiting effect of various apitherapeutic products, such as chestnut honey, pollen and propolis. Extracts' MAO inhibition was measured using peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay in enzyme isolated from rat liver microsomes, and the values are expressed as the inhibition concentration (IC50) causing 50% inhibition of MAO. The antioxidant activity of the bee products was also determined in terms of total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power in aquatic extracts. All samples exhibited substantial inhibition of MAO, propolis having the highest. Inhibition was related to samples' TPCs and antioxidant capacities. These results show that bee products possess a sedative effect and may be effective in protecting humans against depression and similar diseases. PMID:24156742

  3. Feasibility assessment of anaerobic digestion of European water chestnuts (Trapa natans L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Besha, J.A.; Countryman, W.D.

    1980-07-01

    The project determined the technical and economic feasibility of anaerobic digestion of Trapa natans L. or European water chestnuts, to produce methane. Trapa natans is a nuisance aquatic plant presently found in the northeastern United States. The field data collection phase included color aerial photogrammetry and manual sampling. Yields of 9.08 kg per square meter of raw material with a corresponding dry weight of 1.53 kg/sq meter were determined. Bacterial digestion resulting in gas production of 69% methane and 31% carbon dioxide was shown in laboratory-scale digestion experiments. Mass spectrographic analysis indicated no contaminants in the gas stream. Conceptual technical design of a 400 kW methane-fueled electric generation facility indicated economic feasibility of this facility either as an independent or a hybrid process in conjunction with a small hydroelectric facility. Substantial economic and environmental benefits may accure from the control of Trapa natans by this means.

  4. Endoscopically assisted annular ligament release in horses.

    PubMed

    Nixon, A J; Sams, A E; Ducharme, N G

    1993-01-01

    An endoscopically assisted technique for internally dividing the palmar or plantar annular ligament was developed in six cadaver limb specimens and two anesthetized horses. Under arthroscopic view, a slotted cannula was inserted into the digital sheath through a stab wound proximal to the annular ligament and advanced through the fetlock canal superficial to the flexor tendons with the slot oriented toward the fibers of the annular ligament. Division of the annular ligament by 90-degree tipped open and guarded blades was observed and verified by direct arthroscopic view. At necropsy, complete division of the annular ligament without iatrogenic damage to the neurovascular structures was confirmed by dissection. Annular ligament division was performed in seven horses with complex tenosynovitis conditions. Tenoscopic examination and removal of tendon and digital sheath adhesions, masses, and bands was followed by endoscopically assisted annular ligament transection. At follow-up, five horses were sound athletes without recurrent digital sheath problems, one horse had residual lameness, and one horse was still convalescing. PMID:8116207

  5. Causative ehrlichial organisms in Potomac horse fever.

    PubMed Central

    Rikihisa, Y; Perry, B D

    1985-01-01

    An ehrlichia was consistently isolated from the peripheral blood leukocyte fraction of ponies that had been experimentally infected with Potomac horse fever by whole blood transfusion from naturally infected horses. The organism was propagated in a human histiocyte cell line for 3 to 5 weeks and then inoculated intravenously or intradermally into healthy adult ponies. Clinical signs of Potomac horse fever, which varied in the degree of severity, occurred 9 to 14 days post-inoculation in all of the ponies. One pony died 20 days post-inoculation. The ehrlichial organism was reisolated in the human histiocyte cell line from the blood leukocyte fraction of all of the experimental ponies on each day that samples were examined (days 9, 10, 11, 19, and 39). These organisms were identical to those originally detected in the wall of the intestine of ponies with clinically diagnosed Potomac horse fever when compared by light and electron microscopy and an immunofluorescence labeling technique. The immunofluorescent antibody titer became positive in a pony at 20 days postinjection. These results indicate that the ehrlichial organisms is the causative agent of Potomac horse fever. Images PMID:4030092

  6. Sensory sensitivities: Components of a horse's temperament dimension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Léa Lansade; Gaëlle Pichard; Mathilde Leconte

    2008-01-01

    Temperament is an important factor when working with horses. Behavioural tests have already been developed to measure certain dimensions of a horse's temperament (fearfulness, gregariousness, etc.). In order to measure the temperament more precisely, our work aimed to identify a dimension which has already been described in several species but not yet in horses, namely sensory sensitivity. Our study was

  7. Effects of observational learning on food selection in horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. V. Clarke; C. J. Nicol; R. Jones; P. D. McGreevy

    1996-01-01

    Fourteen riding horses of mixed age and breed were randomly allocated to observer and control treatments. An additional horse was pre-trained as a demonstrator to walk the 13.8 m length of the test arena and select one of two food buckets using colour and pattern cues. Observer horses were exposed to correct performances of the task by the trained demonstrator,

  8. Differences in motor laterality between breeds of performance horse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. McGreevy; Peter C. Thomson

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between motor laterality in horses bred for different types of work and therefore different temperaments. Foreleg preference during grazing was measured in three populations of domestic horse, Thoroughbreds (TB, bred to race at the gallop), Standardbreds (SB, bred for pacing) and Quarter Horses (QH, in this case bred for so-called “cutting work” which involves manoeuvring

  9. FIELD STUDY OF HOOF WALL PROBLEMS IN UNSHOD WORKING HORSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. BIGHAM; A. N. TABATABAEI

    A population of 100 native breed unshod working horses was examined for hoof wall problems. The diagnosis of hoof wall defects was performed by close visual observation and via physical examina- tion. The location, extent and types of defects were then determined and recorded. Out of 100 horses, 124 hoof wall defects were noted in ninety working horses. The number

  10. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO ENCEPHALITOZOON CUNICULI IN HORSES IN BRAZIL.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi has been associated with natural cases of abortion and still-birth in horses. However, little is known abut the prevalence of this parasite in horses. We examined serva from 559 horses from Brazil for antibodies to E. cuniculi using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody ...

  11. A zoonotic genotype of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in an equid species. Feces from 195 horses from four locations in Colombia were examined for E. bieneusi by PCR. Of these, 21 horses (10.8 percent) were found positive for E. bieneusi. The prevalence of E. bieneusi in horses <1 yr of age was signif...

  12. Comparisons of Ectomycorrhizal Colonization of Transgenic American Chestnut with Those of the Wild Type, a Conventionally Bred Hybrid, and Related Fagaceae Species

    PubMed Central

    D'Amico, Katherine M.; Horton, Thomas R.; Maynard, Charles A.; Stehman, Stephen V.; Oakes, Allison D.

    2014-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) dominated the eastern forests of North America, serving as a keystone species both ecologically and economically until the introduction of the chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica, functionally eradicated the species. Restoration efforts include genetic transformation utilizing genes such as oxalate oxidase to produce potentially blight-resistant chestnut trees that could be released back into the native range. However, before such a release can be undertaken, it is necessary to assess nontarget impacts. Since oxalate oxidase is meant to combat a fungal pathogen, we are particularly interested in potential impacts of this transgene on beneficial fungi. This study compares ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization on a transgenic American chestnut clone expressing enhanced blight resistance to a wild-type American chestnut, a conventionally bred American-Chinese hybrid chestnut, and other Fagaceae species. A greenhouse bioassay used soil from two field sites with different soil types and land use histories. The number of colonized root tips was counted, and fungal species were identified using morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and DNA sequencing. Results showed that total ectomycorrhizal colonization varied more by soil type than by tree species. Individual fungal species varied in their colonization rates, but there were no significant differences between colonization on transgenic and wild-type chestnuts. This study shows that the oxalate oxidase gene can increase resistance against Cryphonectria parasitica without changing the colonization rate for ectomycorrhizal species. These findings will be crucial for a potential deregulation of blight-resistant American chestnuts containing the oxalate oxidase gene. PMID:25326296

  13. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  14. Texas 4-H Horse Project Teaching Outlines 

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.; Johnson, Ken; Mason, Vanessa; Mitchell, Julianne

    2000-06-15

    differing amounts of nutrients in their daily diets. 1. The nutritional classes are mature idle, producing, working and growing. 2. Use practical feeding plans. a. Plan A: Feed the same kind of roughage and two to four different concentrate feeds. b. Plan B... reliable than visual observation in estimating weight. B. The procedure may not be highly accurate for pregnant mares or for horses with extreme conformational irregu- larities. 13 A SIMPLE FORMULA TO ESTIMATE HORSE BODY WEIGHT Q&A 1. What is the formula...

  15. European Domestic Horses Originated in Two Holocene Refugia

    PubMed Central

    Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim A.; Cañon, Javier; Cothran, Gus; Distl, Ottmar; Glowatzki-Mullis, Marie-Louise; Hunt, Harriet; Luís, Cristina; do Mar Oom, Maria; Yupanqui, Isabel Tupac; Z?bek, Tomasz; Manica, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both. PMID:21479181

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in horses with septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Easley, Jeremiah T; Brokken, Matthew T; Zubrod, Chad J; Morton, Alison J; Garrett, Katherine S; Holmes, Shannon P

    2011-01-01

    Fourteen horses with septic arthritis underwent high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Septic arthritis was diagnosed based on results from historical and clinical findings, synovial fluid analyses and culture, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, arthroscopic, and histopathologic findings. MR findings included diffuse hyperintensity within bone and extracapsular tissue on fat-suppressed images in 14/14 horses (100%), joint effusion, synovial proliferation, and capsular thickening in 13/14 horses (93%), bone sclerosis in 11/14 horses (79%), and evidence of cartilage and subchondral bone damage in 8/14 horses (57%). Intravenous gadolinium was administered to five of the 14 horses and fibrin deposition was noted in all horses. Other findings after gadolinium administration included synovial enhancement in 4/5 (80%) horses, and bone enhancement in 1/5 (20%) horses. The MR findings of septic arthritis in horses were consistent with those reported in people. MRI may allow earlier and more accurate diagnosis of septic arthritis in horses as compared with other imaging modalities, especially when the clinical diagnosis is challenging. It also provides additional information not afforded by other methods that may influence and enhance treatment. PMID:21447039

  17. Application of a new purification method of West-Kazakhstan chestnut soil microbiota DNA for metagenomic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergaliev, N. Kh.; Kakishev, M. G.; Zhiengaliev, A. T.; Volodin, M. A.; Andronov, E. E.; Pinaev, A. G.

    2015-04-01

    A method for the extraction of soil microbial DNA has been tested on chestnut soils (Kastanozems) of the West Kazakhstan region. The taxonomic analysis of soil microbiome libraries has shown that the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria constitute the largest part of microbial communities in the analyzed soils. The Archaea form an appreciable part of the microbiome in the studied samples. In the underdeveloped dark chestnut soil, their portion is higher than 11%. This is of interest, as the proportion of Archaea in the soil communities of virgin lands usually does not exceed 5%. In addition to the phyla mentioned above, there are representatives of the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadales, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia, which are all fairly common in soil communities.

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and pharynx in horses.

    PubMed

    Jones, D L

    1994-01-01

    Medical records were reviewed for 11 horses with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and/or pharynx. The average age at presentation was 15.3 years. No breed or sex predilection was present. At presentation, 6 of 11 horses were dyspneic and 4 horses had inspiratory stridor. Endoscopy was performed in all cases and was more useful in demonstrating a mass in the laryngopharyngeal region than laryngeal or guttural pouch radiography. Surgical excision was attempted in 3 horses and in 1 horse alleviated clinical signs for 4 months. Ten horses were euthanatized and 1 horse died. Results of this study indicated that laryngopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas are difficult to surgically excise due to their location, size and invasiveness. Treatment is often not attempted because of the advanced state of the disease at the time of presentation. PMID:8313703

  19. Virginia 4-H Horse Activities for K-3 Youth Puzzling Horse Parts!

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , ears, and nose are for sensing things. The mane is like the hair on your head, protecting your skin Tags: Cloverbud, horse, parts Time Needed: 45-60 minutes (can easily be divided into smaller segments

  20. Exploration of a rare population of Chinese chestnut in North America: stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Amy C.; Woeste, Keith E.; Anagnostakis, Sandra L.; Jacobs, Douglass F.

    2014-01-01

    With the transport of plants around the globe, exotic species can readily spread disease to their native relatives; however, they can also provide genetic resistance to those relatives through hybrid breeding programmes. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was an abundant tree species in North America until its decimation by introduced chestnut blight. To restore chestnut in North America, efforts are ongoing to test putative blight-resistant hybrids of Castanea dentata and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima), but little is known about the ecology of C. mollissima. In a forest in northeastern USA in which C. mollissima has become established, we explored questions of stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships of C. mollissima offspring to an adjacent parent orchard. We found that C. mollissima was adapted and randomly distributed among native species in this relatively young forest. The genetics of the C. mollissima population compared with its parents indicated little effect of selection pressure as each of the parent trees contributed at least one offspring. The ease with which this exotic species proliferated calls to question why C. mollissima is rare elsewhere in forests of North America. It is likely that a time window of low animal predation allowed seedlings to establish, and the shallow soil at this site limited the maximum forest canopy height, permitting the characteristically short-statured C. mollissima to avoid suppression. Our results indicate that because C. mollissima exhibited pioneer species characteristics, hybrids between C. mollissima and C. dentata have the potential to be successful pioneer species of future forests in North America, and we challenge the paradigm that exotic tree species are wholly detrimental to native biodiversity. We contend that exotic tree species should be assessed not only by their level of threat to native species, but also by their potential positive impacts on ecosystems via hybrid breeding programmes. PMID:25336337

  1. Study of morphological and phenological diversity in chestnut trees (‘Judia’ variety) as a function of temperature sum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T. Dinis; F. Peixoto; T. Pinto; R. Costa; R. N. Bennett; J. Gomes-Laranjo

    2011-01-01

    Morphological and histological adaptation of chestnut leaves at the different altitudes and edaphoclimate conditions were shown. The study was carried out on Castanea sativa Mill. var. ‘Judia’. The growth range altitudes of ‘Judia’ were between 709ma.s.l. and 860ma.s.l. (above sea level), corresponding to a variation in the sum of temperatures (expressed in degree-day values – °D) of 2751°D to 2316°D

  2. Dissociation of testosterone and aggressive behavior during the breeding season in male chestnut-collared longspurs, Calcarius ornatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon E. Lynn; John C. Wingfield

    2008-01-01

    In many species of birds, expression of male–male aggression during breeding elicits increased secretion of testosterone. Elevations in testosterone in turn enhance expression of aggressive behavior in appropriate contexts. However, in other species, the relationship between elevated plasma testosterone and aggressive behavior is subtle or nonexistent. We examined the relationship between high testosterone and male–male aggression in the chestnut-collared longspur,

  3. Stereotypic Behaviour in the Stabled Horse: Causes, Effects and Prevention without Compromising Horse Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Cooper; P. McGreevy

    Apparently functionless, repetitive behaviour in horses, such as weaving or crib-biting has been difficult to explain for\\u000a behavioural scientists, horse owners and veterinarians alike. Traditionally activities such as these have been classed amongst\\u000a the broad descriptor of undesirable stable vices and treatment has centred on prevention of the behaviours per se rather than\\u000a addressing their underlying causes. In contrast, welfare

  4. Stereotypic Behaviour in the Stabled Horse: Causes, Effects and Prevention Without Compromising Horse Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Cooper; P. McGreevy

    Apparently functionless, repetitive behaviour in horses, such as weaving or crib-biting has been difficult to explain for\\u000a behavioural scientists, horse owners and veterinarians alike. Traditionally activities such as these have been classed amongst\\u000a the broad descriptor of undesirable stable vices and treatment has centred on prevention of the behaviours per se rather than\\u000a addressing their underlying causes. In contrast, welfare

  5. Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (?s1-, ?-, ?-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt. PMID:25200788

  6. Use of a 3-D dispersion model for calculation of distribution of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities.

    PubMed

    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

    2014-04-01

    The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m³). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority--80%-90%--detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

  7. Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m3). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority—80%–90%—detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

  8. Influence of 4-H Horse Project Involvement on Development of Life Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, K. P.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.

    2011-01-01

    Four-H horse project members who competed in non-riding horse contests were surveyed to evaluate the influence of their horse project participation on life-skill development. Contests in which youth competed included Horse Bowl, Demonstrations, Public Speaking, and Art. Youth indicated a positive influence on both life-skill development and horse

  9. Page 1 of 2 2013 NEW ENGLAND 4-H HORSE EDUCATION POSTER CONTEST

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Page 1 of 2 2013 NEW ENGLAND 4-H HORSE EDUCATION POSTER CONTEST Situation: 4-H members procedures around horses and general horse knowledge. How: A Horse Safety Poster Display in the horse barn. Who: Any 4-H member is invited to submit annually a new poster for the contest. When: Posters must

  10. Experimental Transmission of Ehrlichia equi to Horses through Naturally Infected Ticks (Ixodes pacificus) from Northern California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GERHARD H. REUBEL; ROBERT B. KIMSEY; JEFFREY E. BARLOUGH; JOHN E. MADIGAN

    1998-01-01

    We report the experimental transmission of Ehrlichia equi from naturally infected Ixodes pacificus ticks to horses. Three weeks after exposure to ticks, two of three horses developed clinical signs compatible with E. equi infection, while one horse remained asymptomatic. 16S rRNA gene PCR of blood leukocyte lysates was positive for all horses at various time points; two horses seroconverted. The

  11. Common peripheral nerve disorders in the horse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Hahn

    2008-01-01

    WITH rare exceptions, horses are largely unaffected by the plethora of developmental, degenerative and metabolic axonopathies and myelinopathies that perplex neurologists in human and small animal medicine. Nevertheless, selected equine peripheral nerve syndromes are not uncommon. A detailed neurological examination is an absolute prerequisite to localising peripheral neuropathies and determining the underlying aetiology of these syndromes. This article describes disorders

  12. Letting horse sense loose on marketing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin van Mesdag

    1995-01-01

    Issues a plea for the exercise and application of horse sense in place of the increasingly sophisticated tools of modern marketers to repair some of the damage done by suppliers who have been economizing on their concern for their customers? interests. Uses a wide variety of examples (products, services, brands) to illustrate how all elements of the marketing mix could

  13. Emergency management of fractures in horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Walmsley

    1999-01-01

    THE development of internal fixation techniques and better hospital facilities have significantly improved the success of fracture repair in horses. A practitioner, therefore, has an obligation to be prepared to administer adequate splinting in fracture cases unless he or she is absolutely certain that the injury is irreparable and warrants euthanasia. Properly applied initial first aid for the fracture case

  14. Infarctive purpura hemorrhagica in five horses.

    PubMed

    Kaese, Heather J; Valberg, Stephanie J; Hayden, David W; Wilson, Julia H; Charlton, Patricia; Ames, Trevor R; Al-Ghamdi, Ghanem M

    2005-06-01

    Five horses were examined because of signs of muscle stiffness, colic, or both. All 5 had been exposed to Streptococcus equi within 3 weeks prior to examination or had high serum titers of antibodies against the M protein of S equi. Horses had signs of unrelenting colic-like pain and focal areas of muscle swelling. Four horses were euthanatized. The fifth responded to treatment with penicillin and dexamethasone; after 3 weeks of treatment with dexamethasone, prednisolone was administered for an additional 10 weeks. Common hematologic and serum biochemical abnormalities included neutrophilia with a left shift and toxic changes, hyperproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and high serum creatine kinase and aspartate transferase activities. Necropsy revealed extensive infarction of the skeletal musculature, skin, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and lungs. Histologic lesions included leukocytoclastic vasculitis in numerous tissues and acute coagulative necrosis resembling infarction. These horses appeared to have a severe form of purpura hemorrhagica resembling Henoch-Schönlein purpura in humans and characterized by infarction of skeletal muscles. Early recognition of focal muscle swelling, abdominal discomfort, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, and high serum creatine kinase activity combined with antimicrobial and corticosteroid treatment may enhance the likelihood of a successful outcome. PMID:15934258

  15. Advancing Medicine for Horses and Humans

    E-print Network

    Advancing Medicine for Horses and Humans Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory Laboratory, in the Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences's work.Dr.Ed Squires'passion for equine medicine was infectious.I switched an elective rotation

  16. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesare Galli; Irina Lagutina; Roberto Duchi; Silvia Colleoni; Giovanna Lazzari

    2008-01-01

    Contents The cloning of equids was achieved in 2003, several years after the birth of Dolly the sheep and also after the cloning of numerous other laboratory and farm animal species. The delay was because of the limited development in the horse of more classical-assisted reproductive techniques required for success- ful cloning, such as oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo

  17. Trojan Horse Particle Invariance: An Extensive Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M. L.; Lamia, L.; Tumino, A.; Bertulani, C. A.; Blokhintsev, L.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; La Cognata, M.; Mrazek, J.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spartá, R.

    2014-08-01

    In the last decades, the Trojan Horse method (THM) has played a crucial role for the measurement of several particle (both neutron and charged one) induced cross sections for reactions of astrophysical interest. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases, many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance proves the relatively simple approach allowed by the pole approximation and sheds light in the involved reaction mechanisms. Here we shortly review the complete work for the binary 2H(d,p)3H, 6Li(d, ?)4He, 6Li(p, ?)3He, 7Li(p, ?)4He reactions, by using the quasi free reactions after break-ups of different nuclides. Results are compared assuming the 6Li and 3He break-up in the case of the d(d,p)t, 6Li(d, ?)4He reactions and considering the 2H and 3He break-up for 6Li(p, ?)3He, 7Li(p, ?)4He reactions. These results, regardless of the Trojan Horse particle or the break-up scheme, confirms the applicability of the standard description of the THM and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nuclei for a whole spectra of different cases. This gives a strong basis for the understanding of the quasi-free mechanism which is the foundation on which the THM lies.

  18. Investigating the origins of horse domestication.

    PubMed

    Levine, M A

    1999-04-01

    Before the development of firearms, the horse was crucial to warfare and, before the invention of the steam engine, it was the fastest and most reliable form of land transport. It is crucial to the life of nomadic pastoralists on the Eurasian steppe and played a major role in the evolution of human society during the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Understanding the human past requires knowledge of the origins and development of horse husbandry. The problem of being able to identify the early stages of horse domestication is one that many researchers have grappled with for the most part unsuccessfully. Until recently the most important criteria used had been that of increased relative abundance. That is, around 3500 BC, in some parts of Eurasia, there was an apparent increase in the proportions of horse bones and teeth found in archaeological deposits by comparison with preceding periods. However, other evidence suggests that the observed increase during the Copper Age could be explained as well, or even better, by increased hunting rather than by domestication. PMID:11314236

  19. Feeding Young Horses For Sound Development

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.

    2005-05-25

    and exercise on the incidence of developmental orthopedic disease in weanling horses?. In Proceeding, 12th Equine Nutrition & Physiology Symposium. p. 15. 3. Boren, S.R., D.R. Topliff, D.W. Freeman, R.J. Bahr, D.G. Wagner and C.V. Maxwell. 1987. ?Growth...

  20. Diagnostic and operative arthroscopy of the coxofemoral joint in horses.

    PubMed

    Nixon, A J

    1994-01-01

    Arthroscopic examination of the hip joint was performed in mature and juvenile horses, using a lateral approach and standard or long instruments depending on body weight. Nine hip joints were examined in three cadavers and four anesthetized horses. The lateral, cranial, and caudal regions of the femoral head and acetabulum were accessible, and, after distraction of the limb, the ligament of the head of the femur and the acetabular notch were also visible. In small horses, the medial regions of the hip joint were visible but were inaccessible in larger horses. Iatrogenic injury to the sciatic nerve or periarticular vasculature was not evident at necropsy examination. Six horses with lameness localized to the hip joint were examined arthroscopically. At surgery, two horses had tearing of the ligament of the head of the femur, two horses had osteochondrosis of the femoral head or acetabulum, and two horses had degenerative joint disease, one associated with a rim fracture of the caudal aspect of the acetabulum and the other of indeterminant origin. Improvement after debridement occurred in one of the horses with partial disruption of the ligament of the head of the femur and in both horses with osteochondrosis. Diagnostic and surgical arthroscopy of the hip can be accomplished in foals and weanlings using standard equipment, but, in adults weighing more than 300 kg, longer instruments are required and the ease of access and the visible extent of the hip joint is considerably reduced. PMID:7839596

  1. 19 CFR 148.32 - Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. 148.32 Section...aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad. (a) Admission...aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses, together with their...

  2. 43 CFR 4750.4 - Private maintenance of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private maintenance of wild horses and burros. 4750...CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4 Private maintenance of wild horses and...

  3. Subsurface structure of the north Summit gas field, Chestnut Ridge anticline of the Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, G.; Shumaker, R.C. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Staub, W.K. [Consolidated Gas Transmission Co., Clarksburg, WV (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Chestnut Ridge anticline is the westernmost of the High Plateau folds in southwestern Pennsylvania and north-central West Virginia that are detached primarily in the Marcellus Shale, and the Martinsburg, Salina, and Rome Formations. The primary, basal detachment at the Summit field occurs in the Salina salt. Production from fracture porosity in the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone commenced in 1936. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, 14 wells were drilled preparatory to conversion of the reservoir to gas storage. Schlumberger`s Formation MicroScanner (FMS) logs were run in each of these wells to provide information on the structural configuration and fracture patterns of the reservoir. These data indicate that two inward-facing, tight folds at the Oriskany level form the upper flanks and core of the anticline at the northern end of the field, whereas the main part of the field to the south is a comparatively simple, broad closure at the Oriskany level. The structure is a broad, slightly asymmetric open fold in the Mississippian Greenbrier Formation at the surface. Fracture patterns mapped using FMS logs indicate a complex fracture system which varies slightly along the trend of the fold and among the units analyzed, including the Helderberg Formation, Huntersville Chert, Oriskany Sandstone, and Onondaga Formation. An orthogonal joint system strikes toward the northwest and northeast slightly askew to the trend of the fold`s crestal trace. A similar, but more complex fracture pattern is found in an oriented core of these units.

  4. Chestnut shell as unexploited source of fermentable sugars: effect of different pretreatment methods on enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Maurelli, Luisa; Ionata, Elena; La Cara, Francesco; Morana, Alessandra

    2013-07-01

    Chestnut shell (CS) is an agronomic residue mainly used for extraction of antioxidants or as adsorbent of metal ions. It also contains some polysaccharide that has not been considered as potential source of fermentable sugars for biofuel production until now. In this study, the effect of different pretreatment methods on CS was evaluated in order to obtain the greatest conversion of cellulose and xylan into fermentable sugars. Hot acid impregnation, steam explosion (acid-catalysed or not), and aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) were selected as pretreatments. The pretreated biomass was subjected to saccharification with two enzyme cocktails prepared from commercial preparations, and evaluation of the best pretreatment and enzyme cocktail was based on the yield of fermentable sugars produced. As AAS provided the best result after preliminary experiments, enhancement of sugar production was attempted by changing the concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, enzymes, and CS. The optimal pretreatment condition was 10 % ammonium hydroxide, 70 °C, 22 h with CS at 5 % solid loading. After saccharification of the pretreated CS for 72 h at 50 °C and pH 5.0 with a cocktail containing cellulase (Accellerase 1500), beta-glucosidase (Accellerase BG), and xylanase (Accellerase XY), glucose and xylose yields were 67.8 and 92.7 %, respectively. PMID:23640265

  5. Genetic diversification of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and its associated hypovirus in Germany.

    PubMed

    Peters, Franziska S; Busskamp, Johanna; Prospero, Simone; Rigling, Daniel; Metzler, Berthold

    2014-02-01

    Chestnut blight in south-western Germany was first reported in 1992 and is since expanding in distribution. Here we investigated the invasion history of Cryphonectria parasitica and its associated hypovirus. For this, we characterized 284 isolates collected between 1992 and 2012 for hypovirulence, vegetative compatibility (vc), mating type, and microsatellite haplotype. A total of 27 haplotypes and 15 vc types were observed, although the C. parasitica population analyzed is currently dominated to 50 % by one haplotype and to 64 % by the vc type EU-2. Structure analysis indicated two divergent genetic pools. Over 66 % of the haplotypes belonged to a pool probably originating from northern Italy. Further diversification is expected due to ongoing sexual recombination, but also to new migration and additional introductions. Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1) was found in four of five C. parasitica populations from Baden-Württemberg. Genetic analysis of the 35 CHV-1 isolates obtained revealed that they all belong to the German subtype, although they have clearly diverged from the first German hypovirus isolated in 1992. Our study suggests that C. parasitica has been introduced into Germany several times from two different gene pools, whereas the hypovirus most probably has a single origin. PMID:24528641

  6. Plant growth-promoting and antifungal activity of yeasts from dark chestnut soil.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Lyudmila V; Brazhnikova, Yelena V; Berzhanova, Ramza Z; Mukasheva, Togzhan D

    2015-06-01

    538 yeast strains were isolated from dark chestnut soil collected from under the plants of the legume family (Fabaceae). The greatest number of microorganisms is found at soil depth 10-20cm. Among the 538 strains of yeast 77 (14.3%) strains demonstrated the ability to synthesize IAA. 15 strains were attributed to high IAA-producing yeasts (above 10?g/ml). The most active strains were YA05 with 51.7±2.1?g/ml of IAA and YR07 with 45.3±1.5?g/ml. In the study of effect of incubation time on IAA production the maximum accumulation of IAA coincided with maximum rates of biomass: at 120h for YR07 and at 144h for strain YA05. IAA production increased when medium was supplemented with the l-tryptophan. 400?g/ml of l-tryptophan showed maximum IAA production. 10 strains demonstrated the ability to inhibit the growth and development of phytopathogenic fungi. YA05 and YR07 strains formed the largest zones of inhibition compared to the other strains - from 21.6±0.3 to 30.6±0.5mm. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed for YA05 against Phytophtora infestans and YR07 strains against Fusarium graminearum. YA05 and YR07 strains were identified as Aureobasidium pullulans YA05 (GenBank accession No JF160955) and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa YR07 (GenBank accession No JF160956). PMID:25843007

  7. Characterization and antimicrobial properties of water chestnut starch-chitosan edible films.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun; Yuan, Yilin; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei; Yu, Huaning

    2013-10-01

    The characterization and antimicrobial properties of water chestnut starch-chitosan (WSC) films containing Cornus officinalis fruit extract (COE 1% w/w), glycerol monolaurate (GML 1% w/w), nisin (10,000 IU/g), pine needle essential oil (PNEO 0.35% v/v), and their combinations were evaluated. Incorporation of COE decreased pH value of the film-forming solution, the moisture content and the water absorption expansion ability (WAEA). GML-incorporated film had lower WAEA, tensile strength, elongation and puncture strength. However, films with nisin displayed good mechanical properties. All the treated films were less transparent and higher in water vapour permeability values. For film microstructure, the presence of PNEO caused discontinuities with lipid droplets or holes embedded in a continuous network and the incorporation of GML led to abaisse-like structures. The COE, GML, nisin, PNEO and their combinations incorporated in the WSC films are effective in inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes at different levels. The results showed that WSC films containing COE and GML, GML and nisin, COE and nisin were able to reduce the number of E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. This research has potential applications to the extension of the shelf life of food products. PMID:23831899

  8. Altered transcriptional response to nutrient availability in hypovirus-infected chestnut blight fungus.

    PubMed Central

    Larson, T G; Nuss, D L

    1994-01-01

    The gene lac-1, encoding the enzyme laccase, is one of several genes of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, that are suppressed by virulence-attenuating mycoviruses of the hypovirus group. Two antagonistic regulatory pathways have been shown to govern the activity of the lac-1 promoter: a positive pathway that stimulates transcription and a negative pathway that represses transcription. We now report that these two regulatory pathways respond independently to specific changes in the nutritional environment. These newly defined conditions were used to confirm that a hypovirus suppresses the activity of the positive regulatory pathway, and to implicate calmodulin and calcineurin as components of the signal transduction cascades regulating lac-1 transcription. Significantly, lac-1 transcript accumulation was shown to be affected by amino acid availability. Further analysis revealed that transcriptional repression mediated by the negative regulatory pathway is relieved under conditions of amino acid deprivation. Thus, by blocking the positive pathway, hypovirus infection prevents increased lac-1 transcript accumulation in response to amino acid deficiency. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that hypoviruses alter the transcriptional response of the host fungus to changes in nutrient availability. Images PMID:7988558

  9. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal faecal Escherichia coli of hospitalised horses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of hospitalisation and antimicrobial drug administration on the prevalence of resistance in commensal faecal E. coli of horses. Faecal samples were collected from ten hospitalised horses treated with antimicrobials, ten hospitalised horses not treated with antimicrobials and nine non-hospitalised horses over a consecutive five day period and susceptibility testing was performed on isolated E. coli. Results revealed that hospitalisation alone was associated with increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance in commensal E. coli of horses. Due to the risk of transfer of resistance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, veterinarians need to be aware of possible resistance in commensal bacteria when treating hospitalised horses. PMID:21851747

  10. Plasma and liver copper values in horses with equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Dill, S G; Hintz, H F; deLahunta, A; Waldron, C H

    1989-01-01

    Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (EDM) is a common spinal cord disease in the horse. The etiology of EDM currently is unknown. In other species, there are similarities in the clinical signs and neuropathological changes observed in EDM and in copper deficiency. The objective of this study was to determine if horses affected with EDM had low levels of plasma or liver copper. Plasma copper values were determined in 25 EDM affected horses and 35 normal horses. Liver copper levels were determined on 13 EDM affected horses and 22 normal horses. Plasma and liver copper values were not significantly lower in EDM affected horses than in control horses. PMID:2914224

  11. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-10-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of the art of exercise testing in the Olympic disciplines of eventing, show jumping and dressage, and areas for further development are defined. In event horses, a simple four-step incremental exercise test measuring heart rate (HR), lactate concentration (LA) and velocity (V) is most often used. In dressage and riding horses, a wide variety of exercise tests have been developed, including incremental exercise tests, indoor riding tests and lunging tests. In show jumping, the use of a five-step incremental exercise test and exercise tests evaluating technical skills and fatigue of the horse has been reported. The velocity at a plasma LA of 4?mmol/L (VLA4) and HR recovery during submaximal exercise intensity have been shown to be the best parameters in event horses for predicting performance and impending injuries. In riding horses, the fitness level of horses is also an important determinant of injuries. Implementation of regular exercise testing and monitoring of training sessions may have important added value in the assessment of performance ability and potential future injuries in Warmblood sport horses. However, there is an urgent need to standardise methodologies and outcome parameters in order to make results comparable. PMID:25172838

  12. Impaired instrumental choice in crib-biting horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew; Redhead, Edward S; Goodwin, Deborah; McBride, Sebastian D

    2008-08-01

    Horses displaying an oral stereotypy were tested on an instrumental choice paradigm to examine differences in learning from non-stereotypic counterparts. Stereotypic horses are known to have dysfunction of the dorsomedial striatum, and lesion studies have shown that this region may mediate response-outcome learning. The paradigm was specifically applied in order to examine learning that requires maintenance of response-outcome judgements. The non-stereotypic horses learned, over three sessions, to choose a more immediate reinforcer, whereas the stereotypic horses failed to do so. This suggests an initial behavioural correlate for dorsomedial striatum dysregulation in the stereotypy phenotype. PMID:18430476

  13. Summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis) poisoning in three horses.

    PubMed

    Woods, L W; Filigenzi, M S; Booth, M C; Rodger, L D; Arnold, J S; Puschner, B

    2004-05-01

    Three horses died as a result of eating grass hay containing summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis L.), a plant containing cardenolides similar to oleander and foxglove. A 9-year-old thoroughbred gelding, a 20-year-old appaloosa gelding, and a 5-year-old quarter horse gelding initially presented with signs of colic 24-48 hours after first exposure to the hay. Gastrointestinal gaseous distension was the primary finding on clinical examination of all three horses. Two horses became moribund and were euthanatized 1 day after first showing clinical signs, and the third horse was euthanatized after 4 days of medical therapy. Endocardial hemorrhage and gaseous distension of the gastrointestinal tract were the only necropsy findings in the first two horses. On microscopic examination, both horses had scattered foci of mild, acute myocardial necrosis and neutrophilic inflammation associated with endocardial and epicardial hemorrhage. The third horse that survived for 4 days had multifocal to coalescing, irregular foci of acute, subacute, and chronic myocardial degeneration and necrosis. A. aestivalis (pheasant's eye, summer adonis) was identified in the hay. Strophanthidin, the aglycone of several cardenolides present in Adonis spp., was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry in gastrointestinal contents from all three horses. Although Adonis spp. contain cardiac glycosides, cardiac lesions have not previously been described in livestock associated with consumption of adonis, and this is the first report of adonis toxicosis in North America. PMID:15133169

  14. Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses.

    PubMed

    Davis, T Z; Stegelmeier, B L; Lee, S T; Green, B T; Hall, J O

    2013-10-01

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehydrotremetone, 6-hydroxytremetone, and 3-oxyangeloyl-tremetone) are responsible for the toxicity of rayless goldenrod. However, experimental reproduction of rayless goldenrod-induced disease and detailed descriptions of poisoning in horses with known concentrations of tremetone and other BFK has not been documented. In this study four horses were fed increasing amounts of rayless goldenrod to obtain doses of approximately 0, 10, 30, and 60 mg BFK/kg BW for 14 days. After seven days of dosing the horse dosed with 60 mg BFK/kg BW horse developed depression, reluctance to eat, dehydration, trembling, and muscle fatigue. Biochemical alterations including increases in the serum enzyme activities of CK, AST, ALT, and LDH, and increased cardiac troponin I concentration, were also identified. Physiologically the clinically poisoned horse had decreased endurance seen as reluctance to perform on the treadmill with increased resting heart rate and a prolonged recovery of heart rate following treadmill exercise. The condition of the horse continued to decline and it was euthanized and necropsied on day 10. At necropsy the myocardium was pale and soft and many of the appendicular and large apical muscles were pale and moist. Histologically, the myocardium had extensive myocardial degeneration and necrosis with extensive fibrosis and multifocal mineralization. Several of the large appendicular muscles in this horse also had small foci of skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. Less severe myocardial changes were also identified in the horse dosed with 30 mg BFK/kg BW after 14 days of dosing. No clinical, biochemical or histologic changes were identified in the control horse and the horse dosed with 10 mg BFK/kg BW. These results suggest that doses of 60 mg BFK/kg BW for seven days produce extensive myocardial lesions in horses. The horse dosed with 30 mg BFK/kg BW developed less severe, but similar myocardial lesions over a longer duration, this suggests that poisoning may be cumulative and lower doses of longer duration are also toxic. Horses seem to be uniquely sensitive to rayless goldenrod-induced myocardial disease, therefore cardiac troponin I may be a useful marker of rayless goldenrod poisoning in horses. More work is needed to determine which BFK produce myocardial toxicity and better determine the effects of dose and duration on poisoning in horses. PMID:23831837

  15. Cervical Intervertebral Disc Protrusion in Two Horses

    PubMed Central

    Foss, R. R.; Genetzky, R. M.; Riedesel, E. A.; Graham, C.

    1983-01-01

    Two horses with ataxia of all four limbs were found to have cervical intervertebral disc protrusion. Severe pelvic limb ataxia, proprioceptive deficits and spasticity were present in both horses with similar but less severe signs in the thoracic limbs. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was within normal limits. Metrizamide myelography allowed definitive diagnosis in one case when a compression of the spinal cord was demonstrated at the level of the second intervertebral space. In the second case, an intervertebral disc protrusion between cervical vertebrae 6 and 7 was found at necropsy. Fiber degeneration with poor myelin staining characterized the spinal cords histologically. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2a.Figure 2b.Figure 3. PMID:17422269

  16. The Trojan Horse Method in Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Spitaleri, C. [Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l'Ingegneria, Catania University (Italy) and INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-Catania (Italy)

    2010-11-24

    The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross section in nuclear reaction between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed in the non resonant reactions case. A review of applications aimed to extract the bare nucleus astrophysical S{sub b}(E) factor for two body processes are presented. The information on electron screening potential U{sub e} were obtained from comparison with direct experiments of fusion reactions.

  17. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in horses.

    PubMed

    Galli, Cesare; Lagutina, Irina; Duchi, Roberto; Colleoni, Silvia; Lazzari, Giovanna

    2008-07-01

    The cloning of equids was achieved in 2003, several years after the birth of Dolly the sheep and also after the cloning of numerous other laboratory and farm animal species. The delay was because of the limited development in the horse of more classical-assisted reproductive techniques required for successful cloning, such as oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo production. When these technologies were developed, the application of cloning also became possible and cloned horse offspring were obtained. This review summarizes the main technical procedures that are required for cloning equids and the present status of this technique. The first step is competent oocyte maturation, this is followed by oocyte enucleation and reconstruction, using either zona-enclosed or zona-free oocytes, by efficient activation to allow high cleavage rates and finally by a suitable in vitro embryo culture technique. Cloning of the first equid, a mule, was achieved using an in vivo-matured oocytes and immediate transfer of the reconstructed embryo, i.e. at the one cell stage, to the recipient oviduct. In contrast, the first horse offspring was obtained using a complete in vitro procedure from oocyte maturation to embryo culture to the blastocyst stage, followed by non-surgical transfer. Later studies on equine cloning report high efficiency relative to that for other species. Cloned equid offspring reported to date appear to be normal and those that have reached puberty have been confirmed to be fertile. In summary, horse cloning is now a reproducible technique that offers the opportunity to preserve valuable genetics and notably to generate copies of castrated champions and therefore, offspring from those champions that would be impossible to obtain otherwise. PMID:18638143

  18. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Burócziová; J. ?íha

    2009-01-01

    Genetic relationships and population structure of 8 horse breeds in the Czech and Slovak Republics were investigated using\\u000a classification methods for breed discrimination. To demonstrate genetic differences among these breeds, we used genetic information\\u000a — genotype data of microsatellite markers and classification algorithms — to perform a probabilistic prediction of an individual’s\\u000a breed. In total, 932 unrelated animals were genotyped

  19. Scintigraphical evaluation of alveolar clearance in horses.

    PubMed

    Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Duvivier, D H; Lambert, P; Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1998-07-01

    This study proposed a standardized method for measuring alveolar epithelium membrane permeability in the horse. The normal rate of clearance (%.min-1) from lung into blood of nebulized 99mTc-DTPA has been established for healthy horses (Group A) compared with values obtained with horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; Group B). The 99mTc-DTPA clearance was measured in the caudoventral (R1) and in the half caudal (R2) parts of the left lung during different time intervals. The two regions aimed to define the influence of the airways on measured clearance (R2 contained proportionally more conducting airways than R1). It was concluded that a comparison of groups of subjects may be performed in R2 and on data collected during a 20 min period. The normal clearance rate in R2 was 1.80 +/- 0.46%.min-1 (T1/2R2 = 40.99 +/- 12.45 min) in Group A. In Group B, a significantly faster 99mTc-DTPA transfer rate was found (4.17 +/- 0.83%.min-1 or T1/2R2 = 17.17 +/- 3.38min). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) suggested that the increased permeability measured in Group B could be the result of lung inflammatory responses. Our results have demonstrated the ability of the 99mTc-DTPA clearance test to detect alveolar epithelial damage in horses. Furthermore, we were able to show that a regional analysis of the alveolar-capillary barrier integrity may be performed satisfactorily in the equine patient. PMID:9691851

  20. Saddled with a Lame Horse? Why State Consumer Protection Laws Can Be the Best Protection for Duped Horse Purchasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne I Bandes

    2003-01-01

    Many first-time horse purchasers have little experience with the equine industry and are thus vulnerable to the use of deceptive and unfair practices by the more knowledgeable seller. In situations where inexperienced horse purchasers are duped into buying ill or otherwise defective horses, there are two potential claims that purchasers can make for relief: U.C.C. claims or state consumer protection

  1. Immunologic studies of a horse with lymphosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ansar Ahmed, S; Furr, M; Chickering, W R; Sriranganathan, N; Sponenberg, D P

    1993-10-01

    Immunological, clinical, and pathological investigations were conducted on a horse with lymphosarcoma. The immunological status was investigated by measuring the level of antibodies by single radial immunodiffusion test and the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate in response to mitogens. Multiple immunological abnormalities were noted in this horse. They were; (1) decreased IgM, IgG, and IgA levels in the serum despite hyperproteinemia; (2) increased in-vitro spontaneous lymphoproliferation which reflects augmented mitosis; (3) decreased lymphoproliferative response to T cell stimulants (e.g. Concanavalin-A (Con-A)) suggesting impaired T cell activation; (4) presence of immunosuppressive factors in serum as demonstrated by in-vitro lymphocyte culture systems. Clinical pathology findings revealed an unusual monoclonal alpha peak in the serum and morphologically abnormal lymphocytes distributed throughout the body. Serum fractionated by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) revealed that the immunosuppressive factors were found in this abnormal alpha peak. The immunopathological findings in this horse are discussed. PMID:8291201

  2. A controlled trial on the effect of feeding dietary chestnut extract and glycerol monolaurate on liver function in newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Wieland, M; Weber, B K; Hafner-Marx, A; Sauter-Louis, C; Bauer, J; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Metzner, M

    2015-02-01

    Beginning in the fall of 2010, an increasing and alarming number of cases of calves suffering from liver dystrophy were reported in the south of Germany. An epidemiological investigation was carried out by the authors between November 2010 and July 2011, leading to the implication of a commercial dietary supplement as the potential cause for this outbreak. The components of this product were first tested in a cell culture model and two of them (dietary chestnut extract and glycerol monolaurate) showed a cytotoxic effect. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding of both components alone or in combination on liver function in newborn calves on a commercial dairy farm. Ten calves were enrolled in each of the three treatment groups and the control group (group O) following a blocked design. Treatment consisted of supplementation with chestnut extract at 0.02% of birth body mass (BM) (group C), supplementation with glycerol monolaurate at 0.006% of BM (group G) or a combined treatment (group CG) for five consecutive days. The effect of treatments on liver function was evaluated clinically and by measurement of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities as well as the determination of the concentrations of glucose, L-lactate and total bilirubin in serum. There was a significant increase in GLDH and AST activities and a significant decrease in glucose concentration in treatment groups C and CG compared with the control group (p ? 0.035), whereas no difference was shown for group G. Survival was significantly decreased in groups C (p = 0.029) and CG (p = 0.001) compared with both group G and the control group. These results suggest that dietary chestnut extract in an amount of 0.02% of BM alone or in combination has a toxic effect on liver function in newborn calves. PMID:24605953

  3. Impact of fertilization on chestnut growth, N and P concentrations in runoff water on degraded slope land in South China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shu-Cai; Chen, Bei-Guang; Jiang, Cheng-Ai; Wu, Qi-Tang

    2007-01-01

    Growing fruit trees on the slopes of rolling hills in South China was causing serious environmental problems because of heavy application of chemical fertilizers and soil erosion. Suitable sources of fertilizers and proper rates of applications were of key importance to both crop yields and environmental protection. In this article, the impact of four fertilizers, i.e., inorganic compound fertilizer, organic compound fertilizer, pig manure compost, and peanut cake (peanut oil pressing residue), on chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) growth on a slope in South China, and on the total N and total P concentrations in runoff waters have been investigated during two years of study, with an orthogonal experimental design. Results show that the organic compound fertilizer and peanut cake promote the heights of young chestnut trees compared to the control. In addition, peanut cake increases single-fruit weights and organic compound fertilizer raises single-seed weights. All the fertilizers increased the concentrations of total N and total P in runoff waters, except for organic compound fertilizer, in the first year experiment. The observed mean concentrations of total N varied from 1.6 mg/L to 3.2 mg/L and P from 0.12 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L, which were increased with the amount of fertilizer applications, with no pattern of direct proportion. On the basis of these experiment results, organic compound fertilizer at 2 kg/tree and peanut cake at 1 kg/tree are recommended to maximize chestnut growth and minimize water pollution. PMID:17966870

  4. FEEDING STANDARDS FOR ENERGY AND PROTEIN FOR HORSES IN FRANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM MARTIN-ROSSET

    The validity of the UFC and MADC systems was tested through many feeding trials using mares, growing horses and working horses to create the new French feeding standards. These systems and the proposed feeding standards were updated in 1990 by the INRA group on the basis of further experiments and feeding trials, which focused on energy metabolism and mare and

  5. Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Franklin; Hailu Kinde; Michele T. Jay; Laura D. Kramer; Emily-Gene N. Green; Robert E. Chiles; Eileen Ostlund; Stan Husted; Jonathan Smith; Michael D. Parker

    2002-01-01

    A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for pre- vention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed. A vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was later suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neuro-

  6. Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses The NYS Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory has isolated Salmonella Group C2 from cultures submitted from 4 different horse farms in either to most antibiotics. A Salmonella newport strain (Group C2) was recently associated with the closing

  7. Neutrophil and cytokine dysregulation in hyperinsulinemic obese horses.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Todd C; Tipton, Ty; McFarlane, Dianne

    2012-01-15

    Equine metabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity and regional adiposity coupled with evidence of recurrent laminitis. Although inflammation has been well characterized in several experimental models of acute laminitis, the inflammatory events associated with endocrinopathic laminitis are not well documented. The aim of this study was to characterize selected markers of inflammation in horses with clinical evidence of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst, as well as endogenous and stimulated cytokine expression were evaluated. A marked increase in neutrophil reactive oxygen species production upon phagocytosis was observed in horses with EMS that was strongly correlated to the blood insulin concentration. Increased oxidative burst activity of neutrophils in hyperinsulinemic horses may predispose horses with metabolic syndrome to laminitis. In contrast, peripheral blood cells of obese hyperinsulinemic horses showed decreased endogenous proinflammatory cytokine gene expression (IL-1 and IL-6) and similar cytokine response following immune stimulation compared to that of control horses. This may suggest that, unlike in people, cytokine-mediated inflammation does not increase in direct response to obesity or insulin resistance in horses. This species-specific disparity may explain the difference in clinical outcomes observed in obese horses compared to obese people. PMID:22169327

  8. Immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis in horses and pigs using Western blots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Texia Gorman; Jimena Aballay; Fernando Fredes; Marco Silva; Juan Carlos Aguillón; Hector A. Alcaíno

    1997-01-01

    Crude and partially purified somatic (S) and excretory-secretory (ES) antigens of Fasciola hepatica were subjected to Western blot analysis in order to identify polypeptides that would enable specific and sensitive immunodiagnosis of horse and pig fasciolosis to be undertaken. Sera from 20 horses and 20 pigs with natural infections of F. hepatica and the same number of uninfected hosts of

  9. Very low-density lipoprotein metabolism in hypothyroid horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Frank

    2002-01-01

    The central hypothesis of this thesis is that hypothyroidism alters the metabolism of blood lipoproteins in horses. More specifically, our goal was to determine the effect of hypothyroidism on very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism. Thyroid glands were surgically removed (thyroidectomy) from horses to create a hypothyroid state and blood lipids were examined. Results revealed a significant 9-fold rise in mean

  10. Orthopaedic Health, Conformation and Longevity in Riding Horses

    E-print Network

    Lina Jönsson Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science Department of Animal Breeding, correlations, horse breeding, heritability Author's address: Lina Jönsson, SLU, Department of Animal Breeding a central role for animal welfare, sport performance and horse owner economy. Routine registration of health

  11. Job Title: Ranch Hand Name: Howard Owens' Cutting Horses

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    Job Title: Ranch Hand Name: Howard Owens' Cutting Horses Openings: 1 Time: 2-3 hours a day, 7 days a week Salary: $200/month Start Date: Immediately Supervisor: Howard Owens Description: Job entails daily cleaning of horse stalls, keeping grass mowed, and odd jobs around the ranch. Approximately 2 to 3 hours

  12. Connecticut 4-H Horse Judging By Margaret I. Rausch

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    that should be of equal length; the shoulder, midpiece, hindquarter. Ideally the shoulder, back, hip, head as much as a horse with a shorter (or longer) back or hip. The most important lengths that should that "run downhill" should not be faulted as severely as a mature horse would be. In addition, the width

  13. A changing pattern of injuries to horse riders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P S Moss; A Wan; M R Whitlock

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the demographics and nature of injuries occurring on or around horses, to examine the nature of protective clothing in relation to these injuries, and to compare our data with previously published work in this area.Methods: Patients were identified using the term “sports injury–horse riding” from the departmental database for one calendar year from February 2000. Data were

  14. Tansy ragwort poisoning in a horse in southern Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    de Lanux-Van Gorder, V

    2000-01-01

    Bizarre behavior, apparent lameness, and colic were noticed in 1 of 3 horses on a pasture overgrown by weeds during a drought. Liver failure and hepatoencephalopathy were diagnosed, caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis associated with consumption of tansy ragwort. The horse made a full recovery when removed from the pasture. PMID:10816838

  15. Sinusitis associated with nasogastric intubation in 3 horses

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Jorge E.; Yamout, Sawsan; Dechant, Julie E.

    2014-01-01

    Sinusitis has not been reported as a complication of long-term nasogastric intubation in horses. We describe 3 horses that developed nosocomial sinusitis following abdominal surgery with associated perioperative nasogastric intubation. Sinusitis was suspected by the presence of malodorous discharge and confirmed by percussion, upper airway endoscopy, radiographs (n = 3), and bacterial culture (n = 1). PMID:24891638

  16. Feeding and Caring for a Yearling 4-H Futurity Horse

    E-print Network

    Antilley, Teri J.; Sigler, Dennis

    2009-04-23

    Feeding and Caring for a Yearling 4-H Futurity Horse Teri Antilley and Dennis Sigler* B-6223 4-09 *Extension Program Specialist?Equine, and Professor and Extension Horse Specialist The Texas A&M University System i TEXAS AGRILIFE EXTENSION... SERVICE All photos courtesy of Teri Antilley, Sarah Owen, and Dennis Sigler Contents Introduction .....................................................................1 Nutrition ...........................................................................1...

  17. Tail docking in horses: a review of the issues.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, D; Lips, D; Odberg, F O; Giffroy, J M

    2007-09-01

    Routinely performed painful procedures are of increasing interest and, in 2001 (Royal Order, May 17), Belgium prohibited docking in several vertebrates including horses. In 2004, opponents to this decision submitted a Bill (Doc51 0969/001) to Parliament, intending to obtain derogation for Belgian draught horses, which were traditionally docked. The Animal Welfare Council of Belgium, an official body advising the Minister of Public Health, was asked to evaluate this complex question, including biological, ethical and socio-economic aspects, on the basis of the available peer-reviewed studies. In this context, this study reviews legal aspects (overview of the European legislation), zootechnic aspects (uses of the Belgian draught horse) and biological aspects (pain potentially related to docking; horses' welfare linked to insect harassment and hygiene, communication and reproduction) of tail docking in draught horses. We conclude that (1) there is no benefit for horses in tail docking, including Belgian draught horses, (2) potential advantages of docking are essentially in favour of humans and these advantages could be scrupulously re-evaluated, taking into account practices of other countries. Therefore, there is no need to dock any horse other than for veterinary reasons. PMID:22444861

  18. A large scale molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in horses is poorly known. The present study examined feces from 195 horses, 1 month to 17 years of age, in 4 locations in Colombia. Prevalence of infection was determined by PCR and all positives were sequenced to determine the genotypes. Thirty four (...

  19. An inherited connective tissue disease in the horse.

    PubMed

    Hardy, M H; Fisher, K R; Vrablic, O E; Yager, J A; Nimmo-Wilkie, J S; Parker, W; Keeley, F W

    1988-08-01

    The hyperextensible, fragile skin of two related horses was compared with the skin of eight normal horses. Skin sections were examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The deep dermal layer of the dorsal abdomen was much thinner in the affected horses, and contained bundles of collagen fibers which were more loosely packed. Within individual fibers, the fibrils were frequently curved and nonparallel rather than straight and parallel. Both of the affected animals had a greater range of fibril diameters than a normal horse. They had some unusually thick fibrils with very irregular outlines in cross-sections, not observed in the normal animal. Other skin samples were subjected to acetic acid extraction, pepsin digestion, amino acid analysis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the skin of the two affected horses, the proportion of total extracted collagen which was acid-soluble was twice as high as in two normal horses. Collagen types I and III were present in similar proportions in normal and affected horses, and the collagen chains were of normal molecular weights. The disorder resembles the group described by Minor (Minor RR: Am J Pathol 98: 226, 1980) as 'dominant collagen packing defect I' which has been reported in dogs, mink, and cats, and which shares features with Ehlers Danlos Syndrome I, II, and III in man. The pedigree data available for these horses suggest an autosomal recessive mutation, but are also consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. PMID:3404977

  20. Adverse effects of zilpaterol administration in horses: three cases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three healthy horses were fed 0.17 mg/kg body weight of the beta-adrenergic agonist zilpaterol to determine zilpaterol elimination kinetics. Shortly after treatment, each horse developed skeletal muscle tremors, tachycardia, and serological abnormalities lasting several days. A 75% to 87.5% reduced ...

  1. From kids and horses: Equine facilitated psychotherapy for children1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenio Quiroz Rothe; Beatriz Jiménez Vega; Rafael Mazo Torres; Silvia María; Campos Soler; Rosa María; Molina Pazos

    2005-01-01

    Equine facilitated psychotherapy is a developing form of animal assisted therapy, which primarily incorporates human interaction with horses as guides. The behavior of a sensitive horse, provides a vehicle by which the therapist can use to teach the patient coping skills. This theoretical study is present to reader our opinion, about the main considerations of equine facilitated psychotherapy for children.

  2. Growth dynamics of Lipizzan horses and their comparison to other horse breeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ester Lovšin; Gregor Fazarinc; Azra Poga?nik; Sr?an V Bavdek

    2001-01-01

    A typical body format of Slovenian Lipizzan horse was investigated. The study included 6 foals (5 colts and 1 filly) at the Lipica stud farm. They were measured from birth to twenty-seven months and again at forty-four months of age. Measurements included body length, chest circumference, withers height and body mass. All those measurements were statistically evaluated and compared to

  3. HorsesHorses Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette IN, 47907

    E-print Network

    can increase its heart rate 5-6 times resting levels, both advantages for emergency situations. When, and is an extremely important ethical issue. A horse's well-being is based on its physical, emotional have a tremendous capacity for exercise and activity for long periods of time and quickly recover from

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of laryngeal muscles in normal horses and horses with subclinical recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Hannah S; Steel, Catherine M; Derksen, Frederik J; Robinson, N Edward; Hoh, Joseph F Y

    2009-08-01

    We used immunohistochemistry to examine myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-based fiber-type profiles of the right and left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and arytenoideus transversus (TrA) muscles of six horses without laryngoscopic evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Results showed that CAD and TrA muscles have the same slow, 2a, and 2x fibers as equine limb muscles, but not the faster contracting fibers expressing extraocular and 2B MyHCs found in laryngeal muscles of small mammals. Muscles from three horses showed fiber-type grouping bilaterally in the TrA muscles, but only in the left CAD. Fiber-type grouping suggests that denervation and reinnervation of fibers had occurred, and that these horses had subclinical RLN. There was a virtual elimination of 2x fibers in these muscles, accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of 2a and slow fibers, and hypertrophy of these fiber types. The results suggest that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are at work in early RLN, including selective denervation and reinnervation of 2x muscle fibers, corruption of neural impulse traffic that regulates 2x and slow muscle fiber types, and compensatory hypertrophy of remaining fibers. We conclude that horses afflicted with mild RLN are able to remain subclinical by compensatory hypertrophy of surviving muscle fibers. PMID:19398607

  5. HorsesHorses Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette IN, 47907

    E-print Network

    $7 per square foot of floor space as the absolute minimum cost to build an enclosed barn for horses have fewer problems with respiratory diseases and more normal bone development when they are housed percent of their body weight per day. As an animal that evolved as a nibbler and grazer, it is best

  6. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training.

    PubMed

    Munsters, C C B M; Visser, E K; van den Broek, J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    2013-05-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inexperienced) police horses during police training. Horses were evaluated during four test settings at three time points over a 7-week period: outdoor track test, street track test, indoor arena test and smoke machine test. Heart rate (HR; beats/min), HR variability (HRV; root means square of successive differences; ms), behavior score (BS; scores 0 to 5) and standard police performance score (PPS; scores 1 to 0) were obtained per test. All data were statistically evaluated using a linear mixed model (Akaike's Information criterium; t > 2.00) or logistic regression (P < 0.05). HR of horses was increased at indoor arena test (98 ± 26) and smoke machine test (107 ± 25) compared with outdoor track (80 ± 12, t = 2.83 and t = 3.91, respectively) and street track tests (81 ± 14, t = 2.48 and t = 3.52, respectively). HRV of horses at the indoor arena test (42.4 ± 50.2) was significantly lower compared with street track test (85.7 ± 94.3 and t = 2.78). BS did not show significant differences between tests and HR of horses was not always correlated with the observed moderate behavioral responses. HR, HRV, PPS and BS did not differ between repetition of tests and there were no significant differences in any of the four tests between experienced and inexperienced horses. No habituation occurred during the test weeks, and experience as a police horse does not seem to be a key factor in how these horses handle stress. All horses showed only modest behavioral responses, and HR may provide complimentary information for individual evaluation and welfare assessment of these horses. Overall, little evidence of stress was observed during these police training tests. As three of these tests (excluding the indoor arena test) reflect normal police work, it is suggested that this kind of police work is not significantly stressful for horses and will have no negative impact on the horse's welfare. PMID:23244508

  7. Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii Exposure among Horses in Korea

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Seung-Hun; LEE, Sang-Eun; SEO, Min-Goo; GOO, Youn-Kyoung; CHO, Kwang-Hyun; CHO, Gil-Jae; KWON, Oh-Deog; KWAK, Dongmi; LEE, Won-Ja

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibodies by ELISA in horses reared in Korea. Serum samples were collected from 2009 through 2013 from 816 horses reared in Korea. Analysis was performed using a commercial toxoplasmosis ELISA kit to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies. Overall, 24 out of 816 horses (2.9%) were seropositive for T. gondii. The result was analyzed by age, gender, breed and region. Significant differences were observed according to breed and region (P<0.05). This is the first nationwide serological investigation of T. gondii in horses reared in Korea. The study results reveal that T. gondii occurs nationwide in Korean horses. PMID:25649954

  8. Genetic characterization of the Spanish Trotter horse breed using microsatellite markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Javier Azor; Mercedes Valera; María Dolores Gómez; Félix Goyache; Antonio Molina

    2007-01-01

    To assist in selection schemes we carried out the first genetic characterization of the Spanish Trotter horse (Trotador Español). We used 16 microsatellite markers to genotype 40 unrelated Spanish trotters, 25 native Balearic horses (11 Menorquina and 14 Mallorquina horses) and 32 Andalusian horses. The observed heterozygosity for the Spanish Trotters was 0.647 ± 0.037 and the expected heterozygosity was

  9. Bit-related lesions in Icelandic competition horses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral lesions related to the use of the bit and bridle are reported to be common findings in horses worldwide and represent an important animal welfare issue. In order to provide an overview of bit-related lesions in Icelandic competition horses, a field examination of the rostral part of the oral cavity was performed in 424 competition horses coming to the two major national horse events in Iceland in 2012. Records from repeated examination of 77 horses prior to the finals were used to assess potential risk factors. Results Mild lesions were recorded in 152 horses (36%) prior to the preliminary rounds. They were most often located in the commissures of the lips and the adjacent buccal mucosa (n?=?111). Severe lesions were found in 32 (8%) horses. For 77 horses examined prior to the finals, the frequency of findings in the area of the mandibular interdental space (bars of the mandible) had increased from 8% to 31% (P?horses. The type of bits used influenced both the location and the severity of the lesions. The use of curb bits with a port was found to be a decisive risk factor for lesions on the bars of the mandible, most of which were regarded as severe. The results also raised questions about the head and neck carriage demanded for the competition horses. PMID:25116656

  10. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    PubMed

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals. PMID:25320481

  11. Y-Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Diversity in Chinese Indigenous Horse.

    PubMed

    Han, Haoyuan; Zhang, Qin; Gao, Kexin; Yue, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Tao; Dang, Ruihua; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    2015-08-01

    In contrast to high genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), equine Y chromosome shows extremely low variability, implying limited patrilines in the domesticated horse. In this study, we applied direct sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods to investigate the polymorphisms of 33 Y chromosome specific loci in 304 Chinese indigenous horses from 13 breeds. Consequently, two Y-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (Y-45701/997 and Y-50869) and one Y-indel (Y-45288) were identified. Of those, the Y-50869 (T>A) revealed the highest variation frequency (24.67%), whereas it was only 3.29% and 1.97% in Y-45288 (T/-) and Y-45701/997 (G>T) locus, respectively. These three mutations accounted for 27.96% of the total samples and identified five Y-SNP haplotypes, demonstrating genetic diversity of Y chromosome in Chinese horses. In addition, all the five Y-SNP haplotypes were shared by different breeds. Among 13 horse breeds analyzed, Balikun horse displayed the highest nucleotide diversity (? = 5.6×10(-4)) and haplotype diversity (h = 0.527), while Ningqiang horse showed the lowest nucleotide diversity (? = 0.00000) and haplotype diversity (h = 0.000). The results also revealed that Chinese horses had a different polymorphic pattern of Y chromosome from European and American horses. In conclusion, Chinese horses revealed genetic diversity of Y chromosome, however more efforts should be made to better understand the domestication and paternal origin of Chinese indigenous horses. PMID:26104513

  12. Disseminated cryptococcosis including osteomyelitis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Lenard, Z M; Lester, N V; O'hara, A J; Hopper, B J; Lester, G D

    2007-01-01

    A 4-year-old Arab mare was diagnosed with disseminated cryptococcosis, including osteomyelitis of the proximal phalanx of the left hind limb, osteomyelitis with associated soft tissue granuloma of a rib and disseminated, large cryptococcal nodules in the lungs. The lesion in the dorsoproximal aspect of the proximal phalanx had a large area of cortical lysis with spiculated periosteal new bone and extensive soft tissue swelling. The affected rib had a pathological fracture. Cryptococcal osteomyelitis has not been previously reported in horses but should be considered as a differential diagnosis, particularly in endemic regions. PMID:17300456

  13. In vitro propagation of chestnut ( Castanea sativa× C. crenata): Effects of rooting treatments on plant survival, peroxidase activity and anatomical changes during adventitious root formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Carlos Gonçalves; Graça Diogo; Sara Amâncio

    1998-01-01

    In order to improve plant survival and to achieve a better understanding of the rooting process of chestnut (Castanea sativa×C. crenata) shoot cultures of mature origin, different rooting treatments were compared. For root induction, the basal ends of the shoots were dipped into 1 g l?1 IBA solution for 1 min or planted for 5 days in 3 mg l?1

  14. Effects of chestnut tannins on performance and antioxidative status of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Liu, H W; Zhou, D W; Li, K

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on performance and antioxidative status of transition dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Chinese Holstein cows in late gestation were paired according to expected calving date and randomly assigned either to a diet supplemented with CT (CNT, 10 g of CT/kg of diet, dry matter basis) or to an unsupplemented control (CON) diet from 3 wk prepartum to 3 wk postpartum. Blood samples were taken on d -21, 1, 7, and 21 relative to calving for analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver samples were taken by puncture biopsy on d 1 and 21 relative to calving for analysis of SOD, GSH-Px, and MDA. Data were analyzed for a completely randomized block design with repeated measures. The addition of CT had no significant effects on dry matter intake, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, and milk composition but did decrease milk MDA and somatic cell score in transition dairy cows. Dry matter intake decreased from d -21 to 0 and increased from d 1 to 21 relative to calving across treatments. During the experimental period, body weight and body condition score decreased, whereas milk MDA and somatic cell score increased across treatments. A time effect was also observed for plasma MDA, which peaked on d 1 relative to calving and remained higher than that on d -21 relative to calving across treatments. Addition of CT decreased MDA concentrations in plasma and liver. Neither time nor CT × time effects were observed for SOD and T-AOC in plasma and SOD and GSH-Px in liver; a time effect was observed for plasma GSH-Px, which peaked on d 1 relative to calving and remained higher than those on d -21 relative to calving across treatments. Addition of CT increased SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC activities in plasma and SOD and GSH-Px activities in liver. In conclusion, addition of CT might inhibit lipid peroxidation and increase antioxidant enzymes activities in plasma and liver of transition dairy cows. Supplementation of CT may be a feasible means to improve the antioxidative status of transition dairy cows. PMID:23871369

  15. Proximodorsal first phalanx osteochondral chip fragmentation in 336 horses.

    PubMed

    Kawcak, C E; McIlwraith, C W

    1994-09-01

    The results of arthroscopic surgery in the treatment of osteochondral fragmentation of the proximodorsal aspect of the first phalanx and the influence of other fetlock joint lesions on prognosis were evaluated in 336 horses. Horses were classified as: 1) returning to previous use at the same or higher class of performance; 2) returning to previous use (regardless of class of performance); or 3) failing to return to previous use. Ninety-six horses (29%) had fragmentation alone; 140 horses (42%) had fragmentation and additional fetlock lesions, and 100 horses (29%) underwent concurrent carpal arthroscopy. Of the 100 horses that underwent carpal arthroscopy, 63 had proximodorsal first phalanx fragmentation alone and 37 had other fetlock lesions associated with the fragment. There was significant association between lesion type and return to previous use for the Thoroughbred racehorse group. There was also a significant association between lesion type and return to the same or higher class of racing for the Thoroughbred racehorse group. No significant association in return to previous use existed for racehorses vs. non-racehorses, Thoroughbred racehorses vs. Quarter Horse racehorses, single vs. multiple joint involvement, and single vs multiple fragmentation per joint. The Thoroughbred racehorses in this study were sensitive to additional fetlock or carpal lesions, as was exemplified by the significant effect lesion type had on outcome. PMID:7988543

  16. Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Ko?ár, Petr; Ko?árová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybní?ek, Michal; S?vová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavr?ík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

  17. Potential of enterococci isolated from horses.

    PubMed

    Lauková, Andrea; Simonová, Monika; Strompfová, Viola; Styriak, Igor; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Várady, Marián

    2008-10-01

    Faecal samples of 122 horses (from farms in Slovakia) were examined to select enterococci to study their probiotic potential for their further use as additives. Each gram of faeces contained 1.0-5.0 cfu (log 10) of enterococci. Of the 43 isolates, 25 (58.1%) were identified as Enterococcus faecium, 3 strains were (6.9%) Enterococcus mundtii and one strain was identified as E. faecalis. Fourteen isolates were not characterized further. A significant proportion of the isolates were resistant to kanamycin, vancomycin and gentamicin. Low urease activity of enterococci dominated. The values of lactic acid ranged from 0.98 to 1.91 mmol/L. Porcine fibronectectin and bovine lactoferrin were bound weakly by tested enterococci, while bovine fibrinogen was bound more strongly. Enterococci from horses did not bind bovine apotransferrin. The isolates adhered with the same ability to human as well as to canine mucus. At least one enterocin gene was detected among 16 analyzed isolates. Ent B gene was detected in all strains tested (16, 100%), followed by the genes ent A, ent P and ent L50B. Three suitable candidates-the strains of E. faecium EF 412, EF 462 and EF 491 were selected for further detail studies and possibilities to be used as additives. PMID:18508395

  18. Movement initiation in groups of feral horses.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often. PMID:24220794

  19. The effects of meclofenamic acid on osteoarthritis in the horse 

    E-print Network

    Gunn, Floyd Littleton

    1971-01-01

    disease in the horse was studied. Alkaline phosphatase levels in horses with osteo- arthritis and/or navicular disease were found to be lower than controls. Test horses showed slightly lower levels while on the drug than they did on pre and post drug... evaluations. During the administration of the drug there was an average decrease in the degree of pain. Mec3, ofenamic acid did not effect hemoglobin, packed cell volume, RBC, WBC, BUN, urine pH and specific gravity. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author...

  20. Daytime shelter use of individually kept horses during Swedish summer.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, E; Hopkins, R J; Blomgren, E; Ventorp, M; von Brömssen, C; Dahlborn, K

    2015-02-01

    In Sweden, no provision for summer shelter to protect horses from heat and insects is required, although access to shelter for horses kept outdoors 24 h during winter is a requirement. This study investigated horses' daytime shelter-seeking behavior in relation to weather conditions and insect activity during a 2-wk period in summer. Eight Warmblood riding horses had access to 2 shelters of different design to test which shelter design is preferred by horses. Furthermore, rectal and skin temperatures and insect-defensive behavior were measured to test whether horses would benefit from the provision of shade. The horses were kept alone in paddocks for 4 d. During 2 d, horses had access to 2 shelters: 1) open shelter with roof and uncovered sides and 2) closed shelter with roof, wind nets on 2 sides, and opaque plastic opposite the entrance. Weather conditions (ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed) were recorded every 10 min. The number of insects (flies, mosquitos) was counted from insect traps placed in each shelter and outside. Behavior (shelter use, insect-defensive behavior, locomotion, grazing) was recorded at 5-min intervals between 0900 to 1200 h and 1300 to 1600 h and rectal and skin temperatures were measured at 0800 h, 1200 h, and 1600 h. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED and GLIMMIX procedure for Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Ambient temperature ranged from 16 to 25°C (average temperature humidity index 65.7 ± 1.4). Five horses preferred the closed shelter and were observed inside up to 2.5 h continuously. Greater wind speed decreased the likelihood of observing horses inside the shelter ( < 0.001), as did lower numbers of flies ( < 0.001). The insect-defensive behaviors, skin shiver and ear flick, were performed less frequently when horses were using the closed shelter ( < 0.001), indicating that they were less disturbed by insects. Thirty-minute shelter use had no effect on rectal and skin temperatures ( > 0.05). Results showed that horses made use of shelters during the summer even when weather conditions were moderate. A shelter with roof and covers on 3 sides was preferred over a shelter with roof only and can reduce insect-defensive behavior. PMID:26020760

  1. Methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from horses.

    PubMed

    Corrente, Marialaura; D'Abramo, Maria; Latronico, Francesca; Greco, Maria Fiorella; Bellacicco, Anna Lucia; Greco, Grazia; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Domenico

    2009-07-01

    A methicillin-resistant (MR) Staphylococcus epidermidis strain was isolated from a saddle horse affected by osteolysis. MR coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) were isolated from 11 of 14 (78.8%) horses housed in the same riding club. By typing of the SCCmec region, almost the strains displayed a non typeable (NT) pattern and possessed the ccr type 2. Altogether, the high prevalence of MRCNS and the detection of NT SCCmec types support the hypothesis that horses may represent a reservoir of MRCNS for humans and that equine MRCNS may act as potential source of resistance genes for other staphylococci. PMID:19845115

  2. Metacarpophalangeal joint synovial pad fibrotic proliferation in 63 horses.

    PubMed

    Dabareiner, R M; White, N A; Sullins, K E

    1996-01-01

    Medical records, radiographs, and sonograms of 63 horses with metacarpophalangeal joint synovial pad proliferation were examined retrospectively. All horses had lameness, joint effusion, or both signs associated with one or both metacarpophalangeal joints. Bony remodeling and concavity of the distodorsal aspect of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) just proximal to the metacarpal condyles was identified by radiography in 71 joints (93%); 24 joints (32%) had radiographic evidence of a chip fracture located at the proximal dorsal aspect of the proximal phalanx. Fifty-four joints (71%) were examined by ultrasound. The mean +/- SD sagittal thickness of the synovial pad was 11.3 +/- 2.8 mm. Seventy-nine percent of the horses had single joint involvement with equal distribution, between the right and left forelimbs. Sixty-eight joints in 55 horses were treated by arthroscopic surgery. Sixty joints (88%) had debridement of chondral or osteochondral fragmentation from the dorsal surface of Mc3 beneath the synovial pad and 30 joints (44%) had a bone chip fracture removed from the medial or lateral proximal dorsal eminence of the proximal phalanx. Complete or partial excision of both medial and lateral synovial pads was completed in 42 joints. Only the medial synovial pad was excised or trimmed in 21 joints, and 5 joints had only the lateral pad removed. Eight joints in eight horses were treated by stall rest, administration of intra-articular medication and systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Follow-up information was obtained for 50 horses treated surgically and for eight horses treated medically. Forty-three (86%) that had surgery returned to racing; 34 (68%) raced at an equivalent or better level than before surgery. Three (38%) of the medically treated horses returned to racing; only one horse raced better than the preinjury level. Horses that returned to racing at a similar or equal level of performance were significantly younger in age than horses returning at a lower level or not racing (P < or = .05). Overall, horses with synovial pad proliferation treated by arthroscopic surgery had a good prognosis for return to racing at a level equal or better than before injury. PMID:9012104

  3. Genetic variation of Polish endangered Bi?goraj horses and two common horse breeds in microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Zabek, Tomasz; Nogaj, Anna; Radko, Anna; Nogaj, Jan; S?ota, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Genetic variation of endangered Bi?goraj horses and two common Polish horse breeds was compared with the use of 12 microsatellite loci (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, HMS2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, HTG10, VHL20). Lower allelic diversity was detected in all investigated populations in comparison to other studies. Large differences in the frequencies of microsatellite alleles between Bi?goraj horses and two other horse breeds were discovered. In all polymorphic loci all investigated breeds were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Mean Fis values and the results of a test for the presence of a recent bottleneck were non-significant in all studied populations. Comparable values of observed and expected gene diversity indicate no substantial loss of genetic variation in the Bi?goraj population and two other breeds. The lowest variability observed in the investigated group of Thoroughbred horses was confirmed. About 10% of genetic variation are explained by differences between breeds. Values of pairwise Fst and two measures of genetic distance demonstrated that Bi?goraj horses are distantly related to both common horse breeds. PMID:16110187

  4. Healing with horses: fostering recovery from cancer with horses as therapists.

    PubMed

    Haylock, Pamela J; Cantril, Cynthia A

    2006-05-01

    Nearly 10 years ago, I looked at a poster exhibit for a nonprofit organization's camping experience for cancer survivors. One of the images in particular remains with me to this day. It was of an elderly man wearing a cowboy hat and the great grin on his wrinkled face as he stood next to a beautiful sorrel horse. The woman at the poster told me the story behind the picture: The man had advanced cancer and had already entered a hospice program, even though he was still physically active. He'd told many people that his biggest regret in life was that he'd never gotten to ride a horse. The photograph was taken the day his wish to ride had finally come true, and he died only weeks later. At that moment, I started thinking about how to describe the benefit the equine experience had given that man. A growing number of experiential programs offer cancer survivors, primarily children, the opportunity to ride horses as one of many recreational activities. But, that man had experienced something that surpassed a momentary recreational thrill. That started a quest that, after 10 years, is coming to fruition. PMID:16781655

  5. The content of available mineral phosphorus compounds in chestnut soils of Northern Mongolia upon application of different forms of phosphorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubugunov, L. L.; Enkhtuyaa, B.; Merkusheva, M. G.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of different forms of phosphorite (activated and crude ground) of the Burenkhansk deposit on the phosphate status of chestnut soils and the productivity of spring wheat was studied in Northern Mongolia. It was found that the transformation of mineral soil phosphates upon the application of activated phosphorite (together with NK) is similar to that upon superphosphate application, and the available phosphorus concentration is even a gradation higher. The application of crude ground phosphorite helped to preserve the content of mineral phosphates in the soil at the initial level. Optimum concentrations of available phosphorus and the sum of loosely bound and calcium phosphates in the plow horizon were estimated 33-35 mg/kg) and 16-18 mg/100 g, respectively. Under these concentrations, high and sustainable yields of spring wheat were obtained upon application of activated phosphorite.

  6. Effect of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on rheological properties of gels from blends of chestnut and rice flours.

    PubMed

    Torres, M D; Raymundo, A; Sousa, I

    2013-10-15

    The development of high quality gluten-free products requires the understanding of the phenomena that dictate the ingredient interactions commonly used in foodstuff. In this work, the main objective was to develop alternative gluten-free gelled desserts from blends of chestnut flour (Cf) and whole (Rw), Agulha (Ra) or Carolino (Rc) rice flours. The impact of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on textural, rheological and structural properties of selected gels was investigated. Texture results indicated that studied gels in the presence of sucrose and xylitol decreased significantly the firmness. Rheological outcomes showed that the temperature ramps on heating of Cf/Rw gels were similar to those obtained for Cf/Ra, whereas Cf/Rc gels presented a particular pattern. The presence of sucrose resulted in a significant decrease in the values of storage and loss moduli. Confocal microscopic images showed that the sugar addition leads to a less aggregated structure with fracture lines well marked. PMID:23987342

  7. Plasma Citrulline Levels in Horses at Risk of Acute Laminitis

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Amy Lynn

    2013-04-10

    Laminitis is a painful and irreversible disease in horses in which the soft tissue structures of the foot, called the laminae (connecting the coffin bone to the hoof wall), lose blood flow and deteriorate. Without the support of these laminae...

  8. Hematological and Biochemical Reference Values for the Endangered Kiso Horse

    PubMed Central

    TAKASU, Masaki; NAGATANI, Nana; TOZAKI, Teruaki; KAKOI, Hironaga; MAEDA, Masami; MURASE, Tetsuma; MUKOYAMA, Harutaka

    2013-01-01

    To establish blood and biochemical references for the endangered Kiso horse, blood samples were collected from 111 adult Kiso horses, 74.5% of the existing breed. The samples were analyzed for 23 hematological and biochemical parameters to determine their means and standard deviations (SD). We compared the mean ± 2SD with the reference values cited in one of the most commonly used veterinary textbooks in Japan. The hematology of Kiso horses is characterized by lower erythrocyte count and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. In addition, their serum biochemistry showed lower levels of aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and ?-glutamyl transferase. Whether these propensities are attributed to breed-specific factors or are acquired factors remains unclear. Nevertheless, this study provides useful diagnostic indices for the endangered Kiso horse. PMID:24834006

  9. 4-H Horse Advisory Committee 23 February 2013

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Berry Hillborough County: Danielle Morano, Elyse Morano, Margaret Edmonds, Cher Griffin, Jo Gelinas/Budgets for 4-H Horse Events handed out, as had been requested. Quiz Bowl 2013 at Belmont, Jan. 19 ­ 1

  10. Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehy...

  11. Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Horses

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    signs such as depression, dysphagia, head tilt and encephalitis were reported in chronic cases 2 in response to tick feeding and again after infection of a warm-blooded host, such as dogs, horses, or humans

  12. 15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE AT THE FAR RIGHT, AND THE STORE ROOM DOOR IS AT THE NEAR RIGHT. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  14. Facial hair whorls (trichoglyphs) and the incidence of motor laterality in the horse.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jack; Arkins, Sean

    2008-09-01

    Several species demonstrate obvious motor laterality (sidedness, handedness) in their motor function. Motor laterality in the horse affects locomotion and subsequently equine performance during training and may have inherent safety implications for equitation. Some of the most commonly used identification features in the horse are hair whorls (trichoglyphs), since their specific location and character vary to some degree in every horse. We investigated the relationship between the hair flow of single facial hair whorls and the incidence of lateralised motor bias in 219 horses when under saddle in ridden work. The horses exhibited significant differences in motor preferences with 104 left-lateralised (LL) horses, 95 right-lateralised (RL) horses compared to only 20 well-balanced (WB) horses (chi(2)=36.9, d.f.=2, P<0.01). There was also a significant difference in the frequency distribution of single facial hair whorl patterns in the horses consisting of 114 horses with counter-clockwise (CC) whorls, 82 horses with clockwise (C) whorls and 23 horses, which had radial (R) whorls (chi(2)=38.87, d.f.=2, P<0.01). Overall there was a statistically significant association between motor behaviour and facial hair whorl patterns in the horses (chi(2)=69.4, d.f.=4, P>0.001). The RL horses had significantly more C facial hair whorls and the LL horses had significantly more CC facial hair whorls than would be expected purely by chance alone (P<0.05). The findings may provide trainers with a useful tool when attempting to identify simple, non-invasive and reliable predictors of motor laterality in the horse. Furthermore, given that efficient targeted training of performance horses during ridden work may produce WB equine athletes, the findings could assist trainers when designing individual-specific training programmes for young horses. PMID:18511219

  15. Lead foreign body arthropathy in a horse.

    PubMed

    Crabill, M R; Watkins, J P; Morris, E L; Helman, R G; Schmitz, D G

    1994-09-15

    A diagnosis of degenerative joint disease secondary to an intra-articular metallic foreign body in the right metacarpophalangeal joint was made in a Quarter Horse gelding. Arthroscopy, performed to evaluate the joint and remove the foreign body, revealed yellow discoloration of the articular cartilage and synovium, and blunting and proliferation of the synovium. The foreign body was identified as a lead sphere. Microscopic examination of synovium revealed chronic synovitis, with accumulation of hemosiderin and multifocal, mild mineralization. Another pigment was evident extracellularly in the synovium. Lead arthropathy was diagnosed. Lead arthropathy results from the dissolution of intra-articular lead, causing signs of chronic pain, restricted motion, joint effusion, and synovial proliferation. PMID:7829382

  16. Latherin: A Surfactant Protein of Horse Sweat and Saliva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhona E. McDonald; Rachel I. Fleming; John G. Beeley; Douglas L. Bovell; Jian R. Lu; Xiubo Zhao; Alan Cooper; Malcolm W. Kennedy; Sotirios Koutsopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Horses are unusual in producing protein-rich sweat for thermoregulation, a major component of which is latherin, a highly surface-active, non-glycosylated protein. The amino acid sequence of latherin, determined from cDNA analysis, is highly conserved across four geographically dispersed equid species (horse, zebra, onager, ass), and is similar to a family of proteins only found previously in the oral cavity and

  17. Control of Strongylidae in horses by pasture rotation and chemotherapy 

    E-print Network

    Sharp, Marvin Lafayette

    1964-01-01

    in afflictions of horses was at a Low ebb due to many factors including mechanisat ion of farms ~ economic depressions and the ds vslopment of small animal practice. With the advent of phenothiasine, interest in the chemotherapy of strongy- losis was revived... parasites which were prcssat vers removed by chemotherapy. To prevsae rsiafsc? tioa thc horses were hept ia *n sroa which was free of infective strongyle larvae. gcgular treatment at three week iatorvals with thia- bsn4ssolc wss givci o prevent...

  18. [New drugs for horses and production animals in 2014].

    PubMed

    Emmerich, I U

    2015-06-15

    In 2014, no new active pharmaceutical ingredients were released on the German market for horses and food producing animals. One established veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredient is avaibable for an additional species. The analgetic buprenorphine (Buprenodale® Multidose) has additionally been authorized for horses. Furthermore, four new preparations with a new pharmaceutical form, one drug with a new formulation, new galenics and a new indication, respectively, have recently been released to the market. Furthermore, the prostaglandin F2? analoque luprostiol is available again. PMID:26013471

  19. An Outbreak of Herpesvirus Myeloencephalitis in Vaccinated Horses

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, G. W.; McCready, R.; Sanford, E.; Gagnon, A.

    1979-01-01

    In the foaling season of 1977, five vaccinated horses in a Standardbred breeding stable were affected with herpesvirus myeloencephalitis. Respiratory and abortigenic forms also occurred in other individuals on the premises. Equine herpesvirus type 1 was isolated from the brain of one case of myeloencephalitis and from lungs of two aborted fetuses. Twelve of 16 horses demonstrated fourfold or greater increases in titres to equine herpesvirus type 1. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4. PMID:216473

  20. Male reproductive success in free-ranging feral horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl S. Asa

    1999-01-01

    In the social organization of feral horses, adult males compete to monopolize groups or bands of females, sometimes called\\u000a harems. Alternative male strategies are to remain alone or with other bachelors or, less commonly, to accept subordinate status\\u000a within a harem. The hypothesis that dominant harem stallion status confers a reproductive advantage was tested in free-ranging\\u000a feral horses. The presence

  1. Nitrogen balance in mature horses at varying levels of work 

    E-print Network

    Freeman, David Wayne

    1981-01-01

    NITROGEN BALANCE IN MATURE HORSES AT VARYING LEVELS OF WORK A Thesis by David Wayne Freeman Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1981 Major Subject: Animal Science NITROGEN BALANCE IN NATURE HORSES AT VARYING LEVELS OF WORK A Thesis by David Wayne Freeman Approved as to style and content by: (Chai an o Committee) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Head of Departmen ) December...

  2. Muscle glycogen utilization and exercise performance in horses 

    E-print Network

    Oldham, Shannon Lee

    1990-01-01

    MUSCLE GLYCOGEN UTILIZATION AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE IN HORSES A Thesis bY SHANNON LEE OLDHAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1990 Major Subject: Animal Science MUSCLE GLYCOGEN UTILIZATION AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE IN HORSES A Thesis by SHANNON LEE OLDHAM Approved as to style and content by: Gary . otter (Chair of Committee) J. W. Evans (Member) S B. Smith...

  3. Toxicosis in horses after ingestion of hoary alyssum.

    PubMed

    Geor, R J; Becker, R L; Kanara, E W; Hovda, L R; Sweeney, W H; Winter, T F; Rorick, J K; Ruth, G R; Hope, E; Murphy, M J

    1992-07-01

    Fever, limb edema, and laminitis were observed in horses 18 to 36 hours after they consumed hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana) under field and experimental conditions. Clinical signs were not observed in all horses that had ingested the plant. Diagnosis in the field cases was limited to observation of clinical signs and evidence of plant ingestion in hay or on pasture. In most cases, clinical remission was observed 2 to 4 days after empirical treatment, removal of the plant source, or both. PMID:1644648

  4. Mitochondrial DNA lineages of Italian Giara and Sarcidano horses.

    PubMed

    Morelli, L; Useli, A; Sanna, D; Barbato, M; Contu, D; Pala, M; Cancedda, M; Francalacci, P

    2014-01-01

    Giara and Sarcidano are 2 of the 15 extant native Italian horse breeds with limited dispersal capability that originated from a larger number of individuals. The 2 breeds live in two distinct isolated locations on the island of Sardinia. To determine the genetic structure and evolutionary history of these 2 Sardinian breeds, the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced and analyzed in 40 Giara and Sarcidano horses and compared with publicly available mtDNA data from 43 Old World breeds. Four different analyses, including genetic distance, analysis of molecular variance, haplotype sharing, and clustering methods, were used to study the genetic relationships between the Sardinian and other horse breeds. The analyses yielded similar results, and the FST values indicated that a high percentage of the total genetic variation was explained by between-breed differences. Consistent with their distinct phenotypes and geographic isolation, the two Sardinian breeds were shown to consist of 2 distinct gene pools that had no gene flow between them. Giara horses were clearly separated from the other breeds examined and showed traces of ancient separation from horses of other breeds that share the same mitochondrial lineage. On the other hand, the data from the Sarcidano horses fit well with variation among breeds from the Iberian Peninsula and North-West Europe: genetic relationships among Sarcidano and the other breeds are consistent with the documented history of this breed. PMID:25366719

  5. Four Loci Explain 83% of Size Variation in the Horse

    PubMed Central

    Makvandi-Nejad, Shokouh; Hoffman, Gabriel E.; Allen, Jeremy J.; Chu, Erin; Gu, Esther; Chandler, Alyssa M.; Loredo, Ariel I.; Bellone, Rebecca R.; Mezey, Jason G.; Brooks, Samantha A.; Sutter, Nathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS) that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication. PMID:22808074

  6. Origin and History of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in Domestic Horses

    PubMed Central

    Cieslak, Michael; Pruvost, Melanie; Benecke, Norbert; Hofreiter, Michael; Morales, Arturo; Reissmann, Monika; Ludwig, Arne

    2010-01-01

    Domestic horses represent a genetic paradox: although they have the greatest number of maternal lineages (mtDNA) of all domestic species, their paternal lineages are extremely homogeneous on the Y-chromosome. In order to address their huge mtDNA variation and the origin and history of maternal lineages in domestic horses, we analyzed 1961 partial d-loop sequences from 207 ancient remains and 1754 modern horses. The sample set ranged from Alaska and North East Siberia to the Iberian Peninsula and from the Late Pleistocene to modern times. We found a panmictic Late Pleistocene horse population ranging from Alaska to the Pyrenees. Later, during the Early Holocene and the Copper Age, more or less separated sub-populations are indicated for the Eurasian steppe region and Iberia. Our data suggest multiple domestications and introgressions of females especially during the Iron Age. Although all Eurasian regions contributed to the genetic pedigree of modern breeds, most haplotypes had their roots in Eastern Europe and Siberia. We found 87 ancient haplotypes (Pleistocene to Mediaeval Times); 56 of these haplotypes were also observed in domestic horses, although thus far only 39 haplotypes have been confirmed to survive in modern breeds. Thus, at least seventeen haplotypes of early domestic horses have become extinct during the last 5,500 years. It is concluded that the large diversity of mtDNA lineages is not a product of animal breeding but, in fact, represents ancestral variability. PMID:21187961

  7. Relationship between morphological and stabilographic variables in standing horses.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Hilary M; Buchholz, Rachel; Nauwelaerts, Sandra

    2013-12-01

    A stabilogram plots movements of the centre of pressure (COP) in the horizontal plane. Derived stabilographic variables quantify postural balance, but it is not known if these variables are size dependent. The aims of this study were to determine which morphological variable was most representative of size, which stabilographic variables were most representative of balance and whether size normalisation improved estimates of postural performance. Croup height (0.93-1.77 m), mass (117-666 kg), base of support (BOS) length (0.74-1.18 m) and BOS width (0.22-0.45 m) were measured in 24 horses. Stabilographic variables describing craniocaudal (CC), mediolateral (ML) and resultant amplitudes, velocities and frequencies of COP motion were measured as the horses stood stationary for 15s with fore and hind hooves on separate force plates (960 Hz). Principal component analysis identified morphological and stabilographic components. Morphological variables were consolidated into a single size component that was represented by body mass. Five stabilographic components explained 91% of the variation in sway patterns and five representative stabilographic variables were identified: CC amplitude, CC velocity, CC frequency, ML amplitude and ML frequency. Mass was correlated with CC velocity and ML frequency, with larger horses having smaller CC velocities and slower ML sway frequencies. When horses were grouped by mass (small horses <400 kg; large horses ? 400 kg), the within-group values for CC velocity and ML frequency were no longer correlated with mass. PMID:24144772

  8. Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a Pain Assessment Tool in Horses Undergoing Routine Castration

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Minero, Michela; Lebelt, Dirk; Stucke, Diana; Canali, Elisabetta; Leach, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of pain is critical for the welfare of horses, in particular when pain is induced by common management procedures such as castration. Existing pain assessment methods have several limitations, which reduce the applicability in everyday life. Assessment of facial expression changes, as a novel means of pain scoring, may offer numerous advantages and overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a standardised pain scale based on facial expressions in horses (Horse Grimace Scale [HGS]). Methodology/Principal Findings Forty stallions were assigned to one of two treatments and all animals underwent routine surgical castration under general anaesthesia. Group A (n?=?19) received a single injection of Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia. Group B (n?=?21) received Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia and then again, as an oral administration, six hours after the surgery. In addition, six horses were used as anaesthesia controls (C). These animals underwent non-invasive, indolent procedures, received the same treatment as group A, but did not undergo surgical procedures that could be accompanied with surgical pain. Changes in behaviour, composite pain scale (CPS) scores and horse grimace scale (HGS) scores were assessed before and 8-hours post-procedure. Only horses undergoing castration (Groups A and B) showed significantly greater HGS and CPS scores at 8-hours post compared to pre operatively. Further, maintenance behaviours such as explorative behaviour and alertness were also reduced. No difference was observed between the two analgesic treatment groups. Conclusions The Horse Grimace Scale potentially offers an effective and reliable method of assessing pain following routine castration in horses. However, auxiliary studies are required to evaluate different painful conditions and analgesic schedules. PMID:24647606

  9. Neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Reduction of inflammatory cell apoptosis or a dysregulation of this process could lead to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis and necrosis of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from seven horses suffering from RAO (study group) and seven control horses. Results We demonstrated that neutrophil/macrophage apoptosis is altered in RAO-affected horses compared with the control group in the BAL fluid. We found a significant difference between the median percentage of early and late apoptosis of neutrophils between the study and control group of horses. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the rate of apoptosis and the median percentage of macrophages in RAO-affected horses. Conclusion The findings suggest that apoptosis dysregulation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAO. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of altered apoptosis in the course of equine recurrent airway obstruction. PMID:24460911

  10. Serum thymidine kinase activity in clinically healthy and diseased horses: A potential marker for lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Larsdotter, S; Nostell, K; von Euler, H

    2015-08-01

    Serum thymidine kinase (sTK) activity is a tumour marker used as a prognostic indicator for lymphoma in humans, dogs and cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of sTK as a biomarker for lymphoma in horses. Serum samples were collected from clinically normal horses (n?=?37), horses with lymphoma (n?=?23), horses with non-haematopoietic neoplasia (n?=?9) and horses with inflammatory disease (n?=?14). sTK was measured using a radioenzyme assay. A reference cut-off value of?<2.7?U/L (mean?+?2 standard deviations, SDs) was established using data from clinically normal horses. sTK activity (mean?±?SD) was 26.3?±?91.5?U/L (range 0.8-443?U/L) for horses with lymphoma, 2.3?±?1.4?U/L (range 0.6-5.7?U/L) for horses with non-haematopoietic neoplasia and 1.5?±?0.6?U/L (range 0.6-2.8?U/L) for horses with inflammatory disease. Horses with lymphoma had significantly higher sTK activity than horses without clinical signs of disease (P?<0.01), horses with inflammatory disease (P?<0.01) and horses with non-haematopoietic neoplasia (P?<0.05). sTK activity is a potentially useful biomarker for equine lymphoma. PMID:25744802

  11. Assessment of electron beam-induced DNA damage in larvae of chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hasan, Mahbub; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Hayashi, Toru

    2006-02-01

    Effect of electron beam treatment on DNA damage in mature larvae of chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) was assessed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet assay). Electrons at acceleration voltages of 0 (control), 300, 750, 1000, and 1500 kV at radiation doses of 1 and 4 kGy were used. Electron beam-treated chestnut larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation, compared with cells from non-treated ones which showed a more intact DNA. Investigations using the comet assay showed that the parameters including tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment as well as the quota of DNA damage at both the doses were significantly larger than the control batch larvae. Thus, this technique could contribute to analytical identification of an effective disinfestation and quarantine treatment.

  12. Infectious cDNA Clone of Hypovirus CHV1Euro7: a Comparative Virology Approach To Investigate Virus-Mediated Hypovirulence of the Chestnut Blight Fungus Cryphonectria parasitica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BAOSHAN CHEN; DONALD L. NUSS

    1999-01-01

    We report the construction of a full-length infectious cDNA clone for hypovirus CHV1-Euro7, which is associated with reduced virulence (hypovirulence) of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. Field strains infected with CHV1-Euro7 are more virulent and exhibit less severe phenotypic changes (hypoviru- lence-associated traits) than strains infected with the prototypic hypovirus CHV1-EP713, for which the first infectious cDNA clone was

  13. Comparison of results of two dye-tracer tests at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstrand, P.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Haas, J. [EIC Laboratories, Norwood, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Personnel from Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) manage a closed hazardous waste disposal unit the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP), located on the crest of Chestnut Ridge near the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. To investigate the discharge of groundwater from CRSP to springs and streams located along the flanks and base of Chestnut Ridge, an initial dye-tracer study was conducted during 1990. A hydraulic connection was inferred to exist between the injection well (GW-178) on Chestnut Ridge and several sites to the east-northeast, east, and southeast of CRSP. A second dye-tracer study was conducted in 1992 to verify the results of the initial test and identify additional discharge points that are active during wet-weather conditions. No definitive evidence for the presence of dye was identified at any of the 35 locations monitored during the second dye study. Although interpretations of the initial dye test suggest a hydraulic connection with several sites and CRSP, reevaluation of the spectrofluorescence data from this test suggests that dye may not have been detected during the initial test. A combination of relatively high analytical detection limits during the initial test, and high natural background interference spectral peaks observed during the second test, suggest that high natural background emission spectra near the wavelength of the dye used during the initial test may have caused the apparently high reported concentrations. The results of these two tests do not preclude that a hydraulic connection exists; dye may be present in concentrations below the analytical detection limits or has yet to emerge from the groundwater system. The dye injection well is not completed within any significant karst features. Dye migration therefore, may be within a diffuse, slow-flow portion of the aquifer, at least in the immediate vicinity of the source well.

  14. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: undergraduate student outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L

    2012-12-01

    Equine teaching and research programs are popular but expensive components of most land grant universities. External funding for equine research, however, is limited and restricts undergraduate research opportunities that enhance student learning. In 1999, a novel undergraduate teaching and research program was initiated at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. A unique aspect of this program was the use of young horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue but of relatively low value. The media interest in such horses was utilized to advantage to obtain funding for the program. The use of horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs held the risks of attracting negative publicity, potential of injury while training previously unhandled young horses, and uncertainty regarding re-sale value; however, none of these concerns were realized. For 12 years the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program received extensive positive press and provided invaluable learning opportunities for students. Over 500 students, at least 80 of which were minorities, participated in not only horse management and training but also research, event planning, public outreach, fund-raising, and website development. Public and industry support provided program sustainability with only basic University infrastructural support despite severe economic downturns. Student research projects generated 25 research abstracts presented at national and international meetings and 14 honors theses. Over 100 students went on to veterinary school or other higher education programs, and more than 100 others pursued equine- or science-related careers. Laudatory popular press articles were published in a wide variety of breed/discipline journals and in local and regional newspapers each year. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses yielded positive outcomes for all, especially the undergraduate students. PMID:22767090

  15. Rapid calcitonin response to experimental hypercalcemia in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Rourke, K M; Kohn, C W; Levine, A L; Rosol, T J; Toribio, R E

    2009-05-01

    Calcium has important physiological functions, and disorders of calcium homeostasis are frequent in horses. We have made important progress understanding equine calcium homeostasis; however, limited information on equine calcitonin (CT) is available, in part because of the lack of validated CT assays. To determine the CT response to high ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations in healthy horses, we induced hypercalcemia in 10 healthy horses using a calcium gluconate 23% solution (5mg/kg; 120 mL/500 kg horse) infused over 4 min. Four horses were infused with 120 mL of 0.9% NaCl and used as controls. We validated a human-specific CT radioimmunoassay for use in horses. Serum Ca(2+) concentrations increased from 6.2+/-0.3mg/dL to 9.9+/-0.5mg/dL (4 min; P<0.01). Serum CT increased from 16.7+/-8.0 pg/mL to 87.1+/-55.8 pg/mL at 2 min, and 102.5+/-51.1 pg/mL at 4 min (P<0.01). Serum CT returned to baseline by 20 min, whereas serum Ca(2+) returned to baseline by 40 min. Of interest, CT concentrations returned to baseline despite hypercalcemia, suggesting thyroid gland C-cell CT depletion. Resting CT values higher than 40 pg/mL were considered abnormally elevated. No significant changes in serum Ca(2+) or CT concentrations were found in control horses. The coefficients of variation for the CT radioimmunoassay were lower than 11.9%. We conclude that the equine thyroid gland C-cell responds quickly to changes in extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations by secreting large quantities of CT into the systemic circulation, indicating that CT is important in equine calcium homeostasis. The human CT radioimmunoassay can be used to measure changes in equine CT. PMID:19135828

  16. Hendra virus and horse owners--risk perception and management.

    PubMed

    Kung, Nina; McLaughlin, Amanda; Taylor, Melanie; Moloney, Barbara; Wright, Therese; Field, Hume

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic novel paramyxovirus causing sporadic fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Species of fruit-bats (genus Pteropus), commonly known as flying-foxes, are the natural host of the virus. We undertook a survey of horse owners in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia to assess the level of adoption of recommended risk management strategies and to identify impediments to adoption. Survey questionnaires were completed by 1431 respondents from the target states, and from a spectrum of industry sectors. Hendra virus knowledge varied with sector, but was generally limited, with only 13% of respondents rating their level of knowledge as high or very high. The majority of respondents (63%) had seen their state's Hendra virus information for horse owners, and a similar proportion found the information useful. Fifty-six percent of respondents thought it moderately, very or extremely likely that a Hendra virus case could occur in their area, yet only 37% said they would consider Hendra virus if their horse was sick. Only 13% of respondents stabled their horses overnight, although another 24% said it would be easy or very easy to do so, but hadn't done so. Only 13% and 15% of respondents respectively had horse feed bins and water points under solid cover. Responses varied significantly with state, likely reflecting different Hendra virus history. The survey identified inconsistent awareness and/or adoption of available knowledge, confusion in relation to Hendra virus risk perception, with both over-and under-estimation of true risk, and lag in the uptake of recommended risk minimisation strategies, even when these were readily implementable. However, we also identified frustration and potential alienation by horse owners who found the recommended strategies impractical, onerous and prohibitively expensive. The insights gained from this survey have broader application to other complex risk-management scenarios. PMID:24260503

  17. Physiological responses of reining horses to interval training versus conventional training procedures 

    E-print Network

    Haney, Elizabeth anne

    1998-01-01

    Eight mature Quarter Horses were used in a cross-over hics. experiment to determine the efficacy of an interval training program versus a conventional training program to enhance fitness in the reining performance horse. The two training treatments...

  18. Selection and Use of Hay and Processed Roughage in Horse Feeding 

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.

    2005-04-15

    Roughage, fed on a regular basis, helps a horse's digestive system function properly and meets some percentage of the horse's daily nutrient requirements. Proper selection of roughage, avoiding inferior quality foodstuffs, and daily roughage intake...

  19. Imflammatory response in horses fed diets containing omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Kristopher Ray

    2003-01-01

    cowhorse training protocol to mimic the athletic stresses placed on young horses during strenuous exercise. There was no significant difference (P>.05) in body weight between horses consuming the three diets. When compared to consuming diet B (corn oil...

  20. 77 FR 41473 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Lion Attacking a Horse

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ...Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Lion Attacking a Horse'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the...15, 2003), I hereby determine that the object entitled ``Lion Attacking a Horse,'' to be imported by The J. Paul...

  1. Dermatitis in a horse associated with the poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    PubMed

    Mignon, Bernard; Losson, Bertrand

    2008-02-01

    This is the first documented case report of dermatitis associated with the poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in a horse. It occurred in a 16-year-old horse that was in contact with domestic hens. Clinical signs consisted of severe pruritus, with self-induced hair loss mainly on the head. Despite the multiple skin scrapings performed during both day- and nighttime, mites were only isolated from the in-contact poultry and from the horse's environment, and not the horse. The animal was treated using a 2% permethrin solution, sprayed on the entire body once a week for 4 weeks, and by decontamination of the horse's immediate environment. Although eradication of the mites and elimination of further contact between the horse and the poultry were not achievable, recurrence of dermatitis was prevented by regular applications of permethrin on the horse and biannual decontamination of the horse's stable. PMID:18177291

  2. Hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana) toxicity in a herd of broodmare horses.

    PubMed

    Hovda, L R; Rose, M L

    1993-02-01

    A herd of pregnant horses exposed to hoary alyssum through ingested hay developed acute and severe gastrointestinal toxicity accompanied by intravascular hemolysis. Postmortem lesions were consistent with these signs. Three horses had late-term abortions. PMID:8434451

  3. Note types and coding in Parid vocalizations: the chick-a-dee call of the chestnut-backed chickadee (Poecile rufuscens).

    PubMed

    Hoeschele, Marisa; Gammon, David E; Moscicki, Michele K; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2009-10-01

    A first step to understanding how a species communicates acoustically is to identify, categorize, and quantify the acoustic parameters of the elements that make up their vocalizations. The "chick-a-dee" call notes of the chestnut-backed chickadee (Poecile rufescens) were sorted into four call note categories, A, C, D, and Dh notes, based on their acoustic structure as observed in sound spectrograms, and evaluated based on the syntactical ordering of the note types within calls. The notes were then analyzed using quantitative measures and it was determined which features have the potential to convey information to discriminate note type, individual, and the geographic origin of the producer. The findings were comparable to previous research of congeners in that chestnut-backed chickadee calls were produced with a relatively fixed syntax and contained similarly structured note types across all geographic regions. Overall this information will form a base for future research on chestnut-backed chickadee vocalizations and will strengthen the foundation for future comparative evolutionary studies. PMID:19813818

  4. Haematological and biochemical changes in horses competing in a 3 Star horse trial and 3-day-event.

    PubMed

    Andrews, F M; Geiser, D R; White, S L; Williamson, L H; Maykuth, P L; Green, E M

    1995-11-01

    Haematological and biochemical changes in horses competing in the Endurance Test (Phase T and D) of an advanced Horse Trial (HT, n = 22) and the Endurance Test (Phases A-D) of an advanced (CCI) 3-day-event (TD, n = 11) over a similar course on the same day were studied. Environmental conditions during the event were cool (5.5-11.1 degrees C). Blood samples were collected from the horses in each group the evening prior to the Endurance Test, within 60 s after, and 10 min after, completion of Phase D (cross-country jumping). The following were determined in the blood samples and compared between the 2 groups of horses: packed cell volume (PCV), serum total protein [TP], serum albumin [ALB], plasma lactate [lactate], serum total calcium [TCa], plasma ionised calcium [Ca+2], serum inorganic phosphate [PO4], plasma pH, plasma sodium [Na], plasma potassium [K], serum chloride [Cl], serum urea nitrogen [SUN], serum creatinine [Cr] and serum glucose concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK) activities. The PCV and [Cr] were higher in the TD group and approached significance (P = 0.063 and P = 0.057, respectively). The [TP], [ALB], [Na], glucose concentration and CK, and AST were significantly higher and [Cl] and [PO4] were significantly lower in the TD group after exercise when compared to the HT group. It was deduced from these data that the horses competing in the 3-day-event experienced greater fluid and electrolyte losses, reduced glomerular filtration, higher glycogenolysis and had greater leakage of enzymes from working muscles during competition than horses competing in the horse trial. PMID:8933086

  5. Acute phase proteins in Andalusian horses infected with Theileria equi.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rocío; Cerón, José J; Riber, Cristina; Castejón, Francisco; Gómez-Díez, Manuel; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan M; Muñoz, Ana

    2014-10-01

    Clinical and laboratory findings were determined in 23 Andalusian horses in southern Spain that were positive for Theileria equi by PCR, including 16 mares at pasture (group A1) and seven stabled stallions (group B1). Five healthy mares at pasture (group A2) and five stabled stallions (group B2), all of which were negative for T.?equi in Giemsa stained blood smears and by PCR, were used as controls. The most frequent clinical signs were anorexia, anaemia, depression and icterus (group A1), along with loss of performance or failure to train and depression (group B1). Thrombocytopoenia was evident in 5/7 horses in group B1. Lower serum iron concentrations were observed in both diseased groups compared with their respective control groups. There were no significant differences in APP concentrations between diseased and control groups; all affected horses had APP concentrations within reference limits. Serum haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were higher than the reference limits in 5/23, 3/23 and 1/23 diseased horses, respectively. It was concluded that horses with theileriosis exhibited only a mild systemic inflammatory response. PMID:25086769

  6. Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema in Belgian Draught Horses.

    PubMed

    De Keyser, K; Janssens, S; Peeters, L M; Foqué, N; Gasthuys, F; Oosterlinck, M; Buys, N

    2014-12-01

    Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL)-associated traits in Belgian Draught Horses were estimated, using a multitrait animal model. Clinical scores of CPL in the four limbs/horse (CPLclin ), skinfold thickness and hair samples (hair diameter) were studied. Due to CPLclin uncertainty in younger horses (progressive CPL character), a restricted data set (D_3+) was formed, excluding records from horses under 3 years from the complete data set (D_full). Age, gender, coat colour and limb hair pigmentation were included as fixed, permanent environment and date of recording as random effects. Higher CPLclin certainty (D_3+) increased heritability coefficients of, and genetic correlations between traits, with CPLclin heritabilities (SE) for the respective data sets: 0.11 (0.06) and 0.26 (0.05). A large proportion of the CPLclin variance was attributed to the permanent environmental effect in D_full, but less in D_3+. Date of recording explained a proportion of variance from 0.09 ± 0.03 to 0.61 ± 0.08. Additive genetic correlations between CPLclin and both skinfold thickness and hair diameter showed the latter two traits cannot be used as a direct diagnostic aid for CPL. Due to the relatively low heritability of CPLclin , selection should focus on estimated breeding values (from repeated clinical examinations) to reduce CPL occurrence in the Belgian Draught Horse. PMID:24641331

  7. 1 Responsibilities as a 4-H Horse Leader HorLdrRe.doc.indd.pdf

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    , to field trips and horse shows. Horses are large animals and can be unpredictable. Youth and adults working you become a 4-H Volunteer you signed a 4-H Volun- teer Agreement Form. This guide further defines not participate in 4-H activities involving horses or other large animals. Adhering to items listed in the 4-H

  8. Phenotypic relationship between test results of Swedish Warmblood horses as 4-year-olds and longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Wallin; Erling Strandberg; Jan Philipsson

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between longevity and different traits scored in the Swedish Riding Horse Quality Test (RHQT) was studied to evaluate their use as predictors of survival. Data comprised 1815 Warmblood horses born between 1969 and 1982 that had participated in the RHQT as 4-year-olds. Survival information was obtained via a questionnaire sent to owners of horses that had participated in

  9. Genetic Diversity in a Feral Horse Population from Sable Island, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YVES PLANTE; J OSE LUIS VEGA-PLA; Z. Lucas; D. Colling; B. de March; F. Buchanan

    2007-01-01

    The present-day Sable Island horse population, inhabiting an island off the eastern coast of Canada, is believed to have originated mainly from horses confiscated from the early French settlers in Nova Scotia in the latter half of the 18th century. In 1960, the Sable Island horses were given legal protected status and no human interference has since been allowed. The

  10. VARIATION OF SOME BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN CATTLE, HORSES AND DOGS,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VARIATION OF SOME BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN CATTLE, HORSES AND DOGS, AND CAUSES cattle. A few examples will also be given concerning horses and dogs. NORMAL RANGE In biology the concept the normal ranges for dairy cattle (Swedish Red and White Breed), horses (standardbred trotters) and dogs

  11. Analysis of the strongylid nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylidae) community after deworming of brood horses in Ukraine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Kuzmina; V. A. Kharchenko; A. I. Starovir; G. M. Dvojnos

    2005-01-01

    Communities of intestinal helminths in horses are commonly studied post mortem. The study objectives were here to examine the species composition of the strongylid community in brood horses in Ukraine after deworming with an aversectin drug Univerm. The site distribution of the strongylid species was analysed according to dynamics of their expulsion in faeces. Forty-four horses of different ages from

  12. 2002 EASTERN NATIONAL 4-H HORSE ROUND-UP BEGIN ONE-ON-ONE

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    = Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Appaloosa, Paint, Arabian S. Evans, p. 72 RESUME OPEN QUESTIONS 22. Cat. 500 Q2002 EASTERN NATIONAL 4-H HORSE ROUND-UP Round 1 BEGIN ONE-ON-ONE 1. Cat. 900 Q. Aluminum shoes are most commonly used in what equine sport? A. Race horses S. Evans, p. 732 2. Cat. 400 Q. What

  13. The genetic structure of indigenous Romanian Hucul horse breed inferred from microsatellite data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. GEORGESCU; MARIA ADINA MANEA; MARIETA COSTACHE

    2008-01-01

    The existence of the Hucul horse on the Romanian territory has been documented from the very distant past and some of the theories state that this horse originates from a wild mountain horse, similar to the Tarpan. Today, the Hucul is an independent and unique breed and belongs to the protected gene fund of original and primitive animal breeds of

  14. Management and long-term outcome of partial glossectomy in 2 horses

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Hayley M.; Panizzi, Luca; Smyth, Travis T.; Plaxton, Andrea E.; Lohmann, Katharina L.; Barber, Spencer M.

    2014-01-01

    Records were reviewed for 2 horses with partial glossectomy, 1 traumatic and 1 elective. According to long-term follow-up by telephone, both horses had recovered well, experiencing only temporary difficulty while eating, and went on to be ridden successfully using mouth bits. Partial glossectomy, therefore, had a favorable prognosis in 2 performance horses. PMID:24587510

  15. Haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against African horse sickness virus in domestic

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Short note Haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against African horse sickness virus in domestic of antibody against AHS virus. Of these, 77 (95.1%) horse, 4 (100%) donkey, 10 (10.4%) camel and 28 (35%) dog horses in different regions was similar. The prevalence of antibody to AHS virus detected in camels

  16. The Man Who Listens to Behavior: Folk Wisdom and Behavior Analysis from a Real Horse Whisperer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Dougan; Valeri Farmer-Dougan

    1999-01-01

    The popular novel and movie The Horse Whisperer are based on the work of several real-life horse whisperers, the most famous of whom is Monty Roberts. Over the last 50 years, Roberts has developed a technique for training horses that is both more effective and less aversive than traditional training techniques. An analysis of Roberts’ methods (as described in his

  17. Horse fly and Deer fly Control Phil Pellitteri, UW-Madison Insect Diagnostic Lab

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    Horse fly and Deer fly Control Phil Pellitteri, UW-Madison Insect Diagnostic Lab There are over thirty species of blood feeding horse flies (Tabanus, Hybomitra) and deer flies (Chrysops) found until they get an opportunity to bite. Deer flies and horse flies can be active from May until September

  18. Theileria ( Babesia ) equi and Babesia caballi Infections in Horses in Galicia, Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Camacho; F. J. Guitian; E. Pallas; J. J. Gestal; A. S. Olmeda; M. A. Habela; S. R. Telford III; A. Spielman

    2005-01-01

    The control of equine piroplasmosis is becoming increasingly important to maintain the international market open to the horse industry. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of equine piroplasmosis (Theileria equi and Babesia caballi) in Galicia, north-west Spain, and to compare haematological and serum biochemistry parameters between non-parasitaemic horses and horses parasitaemic with T. equi and B.

  19. EQUINE PIROPLASMOSES AT THE REINTRODUCTION SITE OF THE PRZEWALSKI'S HORSE (EQUUS FERUS PRZEWALSKII ) IN MONGOLIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon R. Ruegg; Paul R. Torgerson; Marcus G. Doherr; Peter Deplazes; Reinhard Bose; Nadia Robert; Christian Walzer

    Piroplasmosis has been identified as a possible cause of mortality in reintroduced Przewalski's horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in the Dsungarian Gobi (Mongolia). A cross- sectional and a longitudinal study were conducted in a representative sample (n5141) of the resident domestic horse population and in 23 Przewalski's horses to assess the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. Piroplasms were detected

  20. Risk factors for fecal shedding of Salmonella from horses in a veterinary teaching hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine A. Alinovi; Michael P. Ward; Laurent L. Couëtil; Ching Ching Wu

    2003-01-01

    Identification of risk factors for horses shedding Salmonella in their feces helps identify patients at-risk of infection and protect the overall population through heightened biosecurity. Fecal samples from 230 hospitalized horses were cultured for Salmonella spp. Historical data were collected on 21 putative risk factors and assessed for association with the risk of a horse being culture positive using forwards

  1. Body composition and nutrient metabolism in juvenile athletic horses treated with exogenous equine somatotropin

    E-print Network

    Sutfin, Jonathan Arthur

    2000-01-01

    likely due to anabolic effects of eST. The eST treated horses consumed more feed and energy per kg body weight than the control horses as the trial advanced. Normalized feed intake data revealed an increase in the eST treated horses above...

  2. Arytenoid mucosal injury in young Thoroughbred horses — investigation of a proposed aetiology and clinical significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RL Smith; NR Perkins; EC Firth; BH Anderson

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether trauma to the larynx caused by nasotracheal intubation induced mucosal ulceration of the arytenoid cartilages of adult horses, and to determine the incidence of such ulceration in yearling Thoroughbred horses and its effect on athletic performance.METHODS: Laryngeal trauma was induced in a group of 21 adult horses by introduction of a nasogastric tube into the trachea

  3. The genetic structure of Spanish Celtic horse breeds inferred from microsatellite data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Canon; M L Checa; C Carleos; J L Vega-Pla; M Vallejo; S Dunner

    2000-01-01

    Partition of the genetic variability, genetic structure and relationships among seven Span- ish Celtic horse breeds were studied using PCR amplification of 13 microsatellites on 481 ran- dom individuals. In addition, 60 thoroughbred horses were included. The average observed heterozygosity and the mean number of alleles were higher for the Atlantic horse breeds than for the Balearic Islands breeds. Only

  4. Use of a minimally invasive fasciotomy technique for treatment of antebrachial compartment syndrome in two horses.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Brad B; Ragle, Claude A; Barrett, Myra F; Hendrickson, Dean A

    2015-08-01

    Case Description-An 18-year-old Paint stallion (horse 1) and a 17-year-old Morgan gelding (horse 2) were evaluated because of an acute onset of severe unilateral forelimb lameness. Clinical Findings-Both horses were unable to bear weight on the affected forelimb and had a dropped elbow appearance. Radial nerve paralysis, triceps myopathy, and fractures of the humerus and ulna were ruled out. The caudal aspect of the affected antebrachium of each horse was very firm to palpation and became firmer when weight was shifted onto the limb. Ultrasonographic examination revealed swelling and suspected intramuscular hemorrhage of the caudal antebrachial muscles. On the basis of clinical examination and diagnostic imaging findings, both horses had antebrachial compartment syndrome diagnosed. Lameness did not substantially improve with medical treatment in either horse. Treatment and Outcome-Caudal antebrachial fasciotomy was performed in each horse. Following sedation and local anesthetic administration, a bistoury knife was inserted through small incisions to perform fasciotomy. Horses remained standing throughout the procedure and were immediately able to bear weight on the affected limb without signs of discomfort. Horse 1 developed colitis and horse 2 developed a mild incisional infection, but both fully recovered and returned to their previous activities. Clinical Relevance-Antebrachial compartment syndrome is a rare cause of severe unilateral forelimb lameness and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with a dropped elbow appearance. Both horses of this report had a successful outcome following antebrachial fasciotomy. PMID:26176728

  5. Effects of loading and transport on the heart rate and behaviour of horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie K. Waran; Derek Cuddeford

    1995-01-01

    Although there is much anecdotal evidence to suggest that some horses are stressed during transport, very few empirical studies have been done that describe and quantify the responses of horses to transport. The aim of this preliminary study was to describe the behaviour and heart rates of horses during loading and transport that would enable further studies to be carried

  6. Corneal invasion by hemangiosarcoma in a horse.

    PubMed

    Pinn, Toby L; Cushing, Tim; Valentino, Lorie Moore; Koch, Seth A

    2011-05-01

    A 15-year-old gray Arabian gelding presented for evaluation of a lateral limbal mass extending across approximately 30% of the cornea. Grossly, the raised mass appeared nonpigmented, smooth, and irregular in shape, with an area of central necrosis and serosanguinous discharge. The mass was removed via lamellar keratectomy and histopathologic evaluation revealed features characteristic of hemangiosarcoma (HSA), including irregular vascular channels lined by a plump spindle cell population. Immunohistochemistry results showed that the neoplastic cells lining the vascular channels present diffuse and strong cytoplasmic reaction with von Willebrand Factor and the perivascular spindle cells exhibit moderate cytoplasmic reaction for smooth muscle actin. A lack of cytokeratin staining definitively excluded a diagnosis of atypical squamous cell carcinoma. Smooth muscle actin staining of the perivascular cells adjacent to the neoplastic endothelial cells is not a feature commonly described in HSA and has not been reported in previous cases of equine HSA. The horse remained in good health 21 months postkeratectomy and has exceeded the survival time of previously documented equine ocular HSA cases where more extreme surgical excision was performed. PMID:21521445

  7. Osteochondrosis in the horse. II. Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rejnö, S; Strömberg, B

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was made of the pathology of osteochondritis dissecans of young foals and horses with clinical signs of the lesion. A randomly selected material of fetuses and young foals without clinical signs was also examined. It was demonstrated that osteochondritis dissecans is primarily a cartilaginous disease, as previously described in pigs and dogs. Thickening, disturbance of endochondral ossification, degeneration and necrosis of the cartilage were the four main features of osteochondritis dissecans. Cracks and fissures occurred in the degenerated and necrotic parts of the cartilage. This led to formation of cartilage flaps and eventually to loose bodies. It was shown that small pieces of subchondral bone could be ripped off when a cartilage flap was formed. This was one explanation as to why many flaps and loose bodies contained bone in contrast to the findings in pigs and dogs. Endochondral ossification could also take place in the thickened joint cartilage in some cases. Even some loose bodies could undergo endochondral ossification if they were well nourished. Osteochondritis dissecans was often found bilaterally in the knee and hock joint and this was interpreted as an indication that osteochondritis dissecans is a manifestation of a generalized condition called osteochondrosis. Simultaneous occurrence of lesions in joints other than the knee and hock and in several metaphyseal growth plates was another indication of the generalized nature. PMID:233595

  8. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods.

    PubMed

    Burocziova, M; Riha, J

    2009-01-01

    Genetic relationships and population structure of 8 horse breeds in the Czech and Slovak Republics were investigated using classification methods for breed discrimination. To demonstrate genetic differences among these breeds, we used genetic information - genotype data of microsatellite markers and classification algorithms - to perform a probabilistic prediction of an individual's breed. In total, 932 unrelated animals were genotyped for 17 microsatellite markers recommended by the ISAG for parentage testing (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG10, VHL20, HTG6, HMS2, HTG7, ASB17, ASB23, CA425, HMS1, LEX3). Algorithms of classification methods - J48 (decision trees); Naive Bayes, Bayes Net (probability predictors); IB1, IB5 (instance-based machine learning methods); and JRip (decision rules) - were used for analysis of their classification performance and of results of classification on this genotype dataset. Selected classification methods (Naive Bayes, Bayes Net, IB1), based on machine learning and principles of artificial intelligence, appear usable for these tasks. PMID:19875888

  9. Lateralized suckling in domestic horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Komárková, Martina; Bartošová, Jitka

    2013-05-01

    Brain lateralization enables preferential processing of certain stimuli and more effective utilization of these stimuli in either the left or the right cerebral hemisphere. Horses show both motor and sensory lateralization patterns. Our aim was to determine whether a lateralized response could be detected in foals during the naturally side-biased behaviour, suckling. The foals' preferred suckling side could be the effect of either visual or motor lateralization. In the case of a visual lateralized response, foals are expected to suck more often from the mother's right side, so potential danger can be detected by the better adapted right hemisphere (i.e. left eye). Motor lateralization can be identified when a foal will suck predominantly from one side, either left or right. We found no population trend in the preferred suckling side, but we detected significant differences amongst individual foals. One-third (35.4 %) of 79 foals showed a strong, either right or left side preference which increased with age. The mothers did not influence the foals' suckling side preferences either by side-biased rejection or termination of suckling. According to our findings, a general pattern of sucking with the left eye open for better danger detection and recognition is unlikely in foals up to 7 months old. Foals of this age are probably young or fully focused on suckling and rely on their mothers' vigilance. Individual side preferences amongst foals are suggested to be based on motor lateralization. PMID:23117229

  10. An unexpected advantage of whiteness in horses: the most horsefly-proof horse has a depolarizing white coat

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Gábor; Blahó, Miklós; Kriska, György; Hegedüs, Ramón; Gerics, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Åkesson, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    White horses frequently suffer from malign skin cancer and visual deficiencies owing to their high sensitivity to the ultraviolet solar radiation. Furthermore, in the wild, white horses suffer a larger predation risk than dark individuals because they can more easily be detected. In spite of their greater vulnerability, white horses have been highly appreciated for centuries owing to their natural rarity. Here, we show that blood-sucking tabanid flies, known to transmit disease agents to mammals, are less attracted to white than dark horses. We also demonstrate that tabanids use reflected polarized light from the coat as a signal to find a host. The attraction of tabanids to mainly black and brown fur coats is explained by positive polarotaxis. As the host's colour determines its attractiveness to tabanids, this parameter has a strong influence on the parasite load of the host. Although we have studied only the tabanid–horse interaction, our results can probably be extrapolated to other host animals of polarotactic tabanids, as the reflection–polarization characteristics of the host's body surface are physically the same, and thus not species-dependent. PMID:20129982

  11. A preliminary study of the effects of handling type on horses' emotional reactivity and the human-horse relationship.

    PubMed

    Fureix, Carole; Pagès, Magali; Bon, Richard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel; Kuntz, Philippe; Gonzalez, Georges

    2009-10-01

    Handling is a crucial component of the human-horse relationship. Here, we report data from an experiment conducted to assess and compare the effect of two training methods. Two groups of six Welsh mares were trained during four sessions of 50 min, one handled with traditional exercises (halter leading, grooming/brushing, lifting feet, lunging and pseudo-saddling (using only girth and saddle pad) and the second group with natural horsemanship exercises (desensitization, yielding to body pressure, lunging and free-lunging). Emotional reactivity (ER) and the human-horse relationship (HHR) were assessed both prior to and following handling. A social isolation test, a neophobia test and a bridge test were used to assess ER. HHR was assessed through test of spontaneous approach to, and forced approach by, an unknown human. Horses' ER decreased after both types of handling as indicated by decreases in the occurrence of whinnying during stressful situations. Head movement (jerk/shake) was the most sensitive variable to handling type. In the spontaneous approach tests, horses in the traditional handling group showed higher latencies to approach a motionless person after handling than did the natural horsemanship group. Our study suggests that natural horsemanship exercises could be more efficient than traditional exercises for improving horses' HHR. PMID:19591910

  12. [Complex fracture of the larynx caused by a horse kick].

    PubMed

    Kilgué, A; Teudt, I U; Grundmann, T; Püschel, K

    2014-12-01

    Every blunt laryngeal trauma requires examination by an ENT physician and may necessitate observation for a number of hours. The literature shows a heterogeneous picture regarding airway management (tracheotomy vs. intubation). Extremely violence forces such as horse kicks require a tracheotomy, as demonstrated by case studies. In such cases, a high level of responsibility lies with the emergency physician providing the initial treatment. We present the case of a 37-year-old horse trainer, who suffered a horse kick to the larynx with a complex laryngeal fracture. Intubation of the patient by the emergency physician would most probably have led to incorrect placement of the tube or complete displacement of larynx and trachea. In addition to securing a vital airway by tracheotomy, a timely reconstruction of the airways, where necessary by employing the temporary insertion of a tracheal stent, is the treatment of choice. The latter therapy should be applied within the first 6 hours following the accident. PMID:25270837

  13. Circumferential hoof clamp method of lameness induction in the horse.

    PubMed

    Swaab, M E; Mendez-Angulo, J L; Groschen, D M; Ernst, N S; Brown, M P; Trumble, T N

    2015-07-01

    A circumferential hoof clamp method to induce controlled and reversible lameness in the forelimbs of eight horses was assessed. Peak vertical forces and vertical impulses were recorded using a force plate to verify induced lameness. Video recordings were used by blinded observers to determine subjective lameness using a 0-5 scale and any residual lameness following clamp loosening. Tightening of clamps resulted in consistent, visible lameness in the selected limbs in all horses. Lameness was confirmed by significant decreases from baseline in the peak vertical force (P?<0.01). Lameness was also confirmed subjectively by elevated median scores (0 at baseline and 2 during lameness). Lameness was not immediately reversible after clamp loosening (median score 1.5), but horses were not obviously lame after clamp removal and were no different from initial baseline (median score 0.5) approximately 3 days later. PMID:26045357

  14. Meperidine prolongs lidocaine caudal epidural anaesthesia in the horse.

    PubMed

    Derossi, Rafael; Medeiros, Ulisses; de Almeida, Ricardo G; Righetto, Fernando R; Frazílio, Fabrício O

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the effects of caudal epidural administration of meperidine (MP), lidocaine (LD), and a combination of the two (MPLD) in six mature saddle horses. Horses were randomly assigned to receive three treatments (MP 0.3 mg/kg; LD 0.2 mg/kg; and MPLD: MP 0.3 mg/kg and LD 0.2 mg/kg), with at least 1 week between treatments. Drugs were injected into the epidural space between the first and second coccygeal areas in conscious standing horses. Analgesia, ataxia, sedation, cardiovascular and respiratory effects, and rectal temperature were recorded at different intervals before (baseline) and after administration. Epidural administration of MPLD resulted in a longer duration of analgesia of the tail, perineum, and upper hind limb regions than did administration of MP or LD alone. PMID:17892957

  15. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  16. Post-anesthetic pulmonary edema in two horses.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, M Johanna; Pang, Daniel S J; Cuvelliez, Sophie G

    2010-03-01

    CASE 1: A two-year old, 462 kg Standard bred horse was anesthetized for arthroscopy and castration. During anesthesia, hyperemia of the mucosal membranes and urticaria were noticed. During 5 hours of anesthesia subcutaneous edema of the eyelids and neck region developed. In the recovery box, the orotracheal (OT) tube was left in situ and secured in place with tape. Following initial attempts to stand, the horse became highly agitated and signs consistent with pulmonary edema developed subsequently. Arterial hypoxemia (PaO(2): 3.7 kPa [28 mmHg]) and hypocapnia (PaCO(2): 3.1 kPa [23 mmHg]) were confirmed. Oxygen and furosemide were administered. The horse was assisted to standing with a sling. Therapy continued with bilateral intra-nasal oxygen insufflation. Ancillary medical therapy included flunixin meglumine, penicillin, gentamycin and dimethylsulfoxide. Following 7 hours of treatment the arterial oxygen tensions began to increase towards normal values. CASE 2: An 11-year old, 528 kg Paint horse was anesthetized for surgery of a submandibular mass. The 4-hour anesthetic period was unremarkable. The OT tube was left in situ for the recovery. During recovery, the horse was slightly agitated and stood after three attempts. Clinical signs consistent with pulmonary edema and arterial hypoxemia (PaO(2): 5 kPa [37.5 mmHg]) subsequently developed following extubation. Respiratory signs resolved with medical therapy, including unilateral nasal oxygen insufflation, furosemide, flunixin meglumine and dimethylsulfoxide. The diagnosis of pulmonary edema in these horses was made by clinical signs and arterial blood-gas analysis. While pulmonary radiographs were not taken to confirm the diagnosis, the clinical signs following anesthesia support the diagnosis in both cases. The etiology of pulmonary edema was most likely multifactorial. PMID:20230564

  17. Mature, Senior and Geriatric Horses: Management, Care and Use 

    E-print Network

    Martin, M. T.; Scrutchfield, W. L.; Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.

    2005-04-18

    .J. Valberg, J.H. Jones, B.L. Smith and B. Sommerville. 1995. ?Limitations to performance caused by skeletal muscle enzyme deficiencies.? Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement 18:205. ? S.J. Valberg, J.M. MacLeay and J.R. Mickel- son. 1997. ?Exertional... into geriatric status has been hastened by an injury. Chronically foundered horses, severely arthritic horses and those with special conditions of the kid- neys, liver or other organs may be classed as geriat- ric (see Table 2). Special conditions of geriatric...

  18. Long distance exercise in the horse: Golden Horseshoe Ride 1978.

    PubMed

    Lucke, J N; Hall, G M

    As part of a study of the metabolic effects of long distance riding the results of biochemical analyses of blood samples taken from horses before, immediately after and one hour after an 80 km ride are reported. The results show that the horses were moderately dehydrated, they were working aerobically using fats as metabolic substrates and blood glucose was reduced. There was no evidence of post exercise ketosis and circulating alanine levels fell. Metabolic hormone levels are reported and are related to the availability of substrates for gluconeogenesis. There was evidence of reduced kidney and liver function which was showing little sign of recovery in the first hour after the ride. PMID:7434503

  19. A tangled tale of two teal: Population history of the grey Anas gracilis and chestnut teal a. castanea of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joseph, L.; Adcock, G.J.; Linde, C.; Omland, K.E.; Heinsohn, R.; Terry, Chesser R.; Roshier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two Australian species of teal (Anseriformes: Anatidae: Anas), the grey teal Anas gracilis and the chestnut teal A. castanea, are remarkable for the zero or near-zero divergence recorded between them in earlier surveys of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. We confirmed this result through wider geographical and population sampling as well as nucleotide sampling in the more rapidly evolving mtDNA control region. Any data set where two species share polymorphism as is the case here can be explained by a model of gene flow through hybridization on one hand or by incomplete lineage sorting on the other hand. Ideally, analysis of such shared polymorphism would simultaneously estimate the likelihood of both phenomena. To do this, we used the underlying principle of the IMa package to explore ramifications to understanding population histories of A. gracilis and A. castanea. We cannot reject that hybridization occurs between the two species but an equally or more plausible finding for their nearly zero divergence is incomplete sorting following very recent divergence between the two, probably in the mid-late Pleistocene. Our data add to studies that explore intermediate stages in the evolution of reciprocal monophyly and paraphyletic or polyphyletic relationships in mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian birds. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  20. Mitotic stability and nuclear inheritance of integrated viral cDNA in engineered hypovirulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, B; Choi, G H; Nuss, D L

    1993-01-01

    Transmissible hypovirulence is a novel form of biological control in which virulence of a fungal pathogen is attenuated by an endogenous RNA virus. The feasibility of engineering hypovirulence was recently demonstrated by transformation of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, with a full-length cDNA copy of a hypovirulence-associated viral RNA. Engineered hypovirulent transformants were found to contain both a chromsomally integrated cDNA copy of the viral genome and a resurrected cytoplasmically replicating double-stranded RNA form. We now report stable maintenance of integrated viral cDNA through repeated rounds of asexual sporulation and passages on host plant tissue. We also demonstrate stable nuclear inheritance of the integrated viral cDNA and resurrection of the cytoplasmic viral double-stranded RNA form in progeny resulting from the mating of an engineered hypovirulent C. parasitica strain and a vegetatively incompatible virulent strain. Mitotic stability of the viral cDNA ensures highly efficient transmission of the hypovirulence phenotype through conidia. Meiotic transmission, a mode not observed for natural hypovirulent strains, introduces virus into ascospore progeny representing a spectrum of vegetative compatibility groups, thereby circumventing barriers to anastomosis-mediated transmission imposed by the fungal vegetative incompatibility system. These transmission properties significantly enhance the potential of engineered hypovirulent C. parasitica strains as effective biocontrol agents. Images PMID:8344241

  1. Antioxidant Status in Elite Three-Day Event Horses during Competition

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Carey A.; Burk, Amy O.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if competition intensity would have an effect on antioxidant status in horses before and during a three-day event. Body weight, body condition score, and blood was sampled from CCI2* (n = 19) and CCI3* (n = 23) horses before the start of dressage, 20 to 30?min following cross-country, and 18–24?h after cross-county. Data were analyzed using a PROC MIXED in SAS. There were no differences between CCI2* and CCI3* horses during competition for plasma cortisol, lactate, ?-tocopherol, retinol, or erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. After cross-country, CCI3* horses had higher serum creatine kinase (P = 0.003) and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.0001) than the CCI2* horses. Plasma ?-carotene was higher in the CCI2* horses compared to the CCI3* horses (P = 0.0001). Total erythrocyte glutathione was also higher in the CCI2* horses versus CCI3* horses (P < 0.0001). These results are the first report of antioxidant status of horses competing in this level of a three-day event. The changes in antioxidant and muscle enzymes observed between divisions are likely due to the increased anaerobic and musculoskeletal demand on the upper level horses and the fitness required to compete at that level. PMID:22792415

  2. Salmonella Oranienburg isolated from horses, wild turkeys and an edible home garden fertilized with raw horse manure.

    PubMed

    Jay-Russell, M T; Madigan, J E; Bengson, Y; Madigan, S; Hake, A F; Foley, J E; Byrne, B A

    2014-02-01

    In July 2010, a horse from a rural farm (Farm A) in coastal Northern California was diagnosed with Salmonella Oranienburg infection following referral to a veterinary hospital for colic surgery. Environmental sampling to identify potential sources and persistence of Salmonella on the farm was conducted from August 2010 to March 2011. Salmonella was cultured using standard enrichment and selective plating. Pure colonies were confirmed by biochemical analysis, serotyped and compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. A total of 204 clinical and environmental samples at Farm A were analysed, and Salmonella spp. was isolated from six of eight (75%) horses, an asymptomatic pet dog, two of seven (28.6%) water samples from horse troughs, nine of 20 (45%) manure storage pile composites, 16 of 71 (22.5%) wild turkey faeces and four of 39 (10.3%) soil samples from the family's edible home garden. Well water and garden vegetable samples and horse faecal samples from a neighbouring ranch were negative. S. Oranienburg with a PFGE pattern indistinguishable from the horse clinical strain was found in all positive sample types on Farm A. The investigation illustrates the potential for widespread dissemination of Salmonella in a farm environment following equine infections. We speculate that a recent surge in the wild turkey population on the property could have introduced S. Oranienburg into the herd, although we cannot rule out the possibility wild turkeys were exposed on the farm or to other potential sources of Salmonella. Findings from the investigation indicated that raw horse manure applied as fertilizer was the most likely source of garden soil contamination. Viable S. Oranienburg persisted in garden soil for an estimated 210 days, which exceeds the 120-day standard between application and harvest currently required by the National Organic Program. The study underscores the need to educate the public about potential food safety hazards associated with using raw animal manure to fertilize edible home gardens. PMID:23425126

  3. Natural infestation of the chewing lice (Werneckiella equi) on horses and treatment with imidacloprid and phoxim.

    PubMed

    Mencke, N; Larsen, K S; Eydal, M; Sigurdsson, H

    2004-11-01

    Infestation with the chewing louse (Werneckiella (Damalinia) equi) can be found on horses world-wide. Louse infestations, including clinical signs of louse-derived dermatitis, are known from Icelandic horses. A clinical field investigation was conducted in Iceland using horses with natural louse infestations to evaluate the efficacy of imidacloprid in a 10% solution in comparison with phoxim in a 0.05% solution. A total of 27 horses received a single imidacloprid treatment using 16 ml of the 10% solution along the mane and on the dorso-lateral trunk. A further 43 horses were treated twice, 14 days apart, with phoxim, using 2 x 50 ml solution applied along the mane and the dorso-lateral trunk. At the final evaluation on day 28, complete control of the lice was obtained for the imidacloprid treated horses and only a single moribund louse was found on two horses treated with phoxim. PMID:15549385

  4. Effect of exercise on concentrations of immunoreactive endothelin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of normal horses and horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Benamou, A E; Art, T; Marlin, D J; Roberts, C A; Lekeux, P

    1999-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a major cause of loss of performance in the horse. The role of endothelin (ET), a potent bronchoconstrictive and vasoactive peptide, is currently being investigated in asthma and other obstructive respiratory diseases in man. We have previously found elevated systemic and pulmonary endothelin levels in horses during exacerbation of COPD. In the present study, our aim was to examine possible variations in ET concentrations occurring during exercise in COPD horses. We compared the effects of intense treadmill exercise on the recovery of endothelin (ET) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as in arterial and venous blood, in a group of 5 healthy horses and a group of 5 COPD horses studied alternately in remission and while symptomatic. We also investigated the possible correlations between ET levels and pulmonary function tests during the study. While exercise did not affect the ET levels recovered in BALF among controls, it caused a significant increase (P = 0.02) among symptomatic COPD horses. During remission, wide variations of ET levels among horses, at rest and during exercise, made any significant interpretation difficult. No correlation could be found between exercise-induced changes in ET concentrations and pulmonary function tests or changes in arterial oxygen tension with exercise. We conclude that exercise appears to affect the release of ET by the airways in COPD horses, in contrast to healthy horses. It is still unclear, however, whether these differences relate to adjustments of lung function during exercise. PMID:10659230

  5. Antibodies in horses, mules and donkeys following monovalent vaccination against African horse sickness.

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, C.; Mellor, P. S.; Graham, S. D.; Hooghuis, H.; Montejano, R. C.; Cubillo, M. A.; Boned, J.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 256 sera collected from three species of domesticated equidae in four different Spanish provinces were examined 1-4 months after the administration of attenuated monovalent African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 vaccine. Approximately 10% of the sera were negative by ELISA, virus neutralization, agar gel immuno-diffusion and complement fixation tests. Similar negative reactions were recorded with sera from two ponies after experimental primary vaccination. The rapid rise in antibodies in sera from these two ponies, after a second dose of vaccine, suggested they would probably have been immune to challenge. It is therefore suggested that the apparent absence of antibodies against AHSV in some animals after primary vaccination may not necessarily indicate a total lack of protection. PMID:1902185

  6. Enterocolitis caused by Ehrlichia sp. in the horse (Potomac horse fever).

    PubMed

    Cordes, D O; Perry, B D; Rikihisa, Y; Chickering, W R

    1986-07-01

    Potomac horse fever was reproduced in 15 ponies by transfusion of whole blood originally from two natural cases and subsequently from ponies infected by the transfusions. Incubation periods varied from 9 to 15 days. Affected ponies developed varying degrees of fever, diarrhea, anorexia, depression, and leukopenia. Eleven affected ponies were killed, three died in the acute phase of the disease, and one did not show clinical signs. The most consistent post-mortem findings were fluid contents in the cecum and large colon, and areas of hyperemia (of inconstant degree and distribution) in mucosae of both small and large intestines. Multifocal areas of necrosis occurred in mucous membranes. Ehrlichial organisms were most common in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells, macrophages, and mast cells of the large colon. PMID:3750739

  7. The prevalence and nature of cardiac arrhythmias in horses following general anaesthesia and surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence and nature of arrhythmias in horses following general anaesthesia and surgery is poorly documented. It has been proposed that horses undergoing emergency surgery for gastrointestinal disorders may be at particular risk of developing arrhythmias. Our primary objective was to determine the prevalence and nature of arrhythmias in horses following anaesthesia in a clinical setting and to establish if there was a difference in the prevalence of arrhythmias between horses with and without gastrointestinal disease undergoing surgery. Our secondary objective was to assess selected available risk factors for association with the development of arrhythmias following anaesthesia and surgery. Methods Horses with evidence of gastrointestinal disease undergoing an exploratory laparotomy and horses with no evidence of gastrointestinal disease undergoing orthopaedic surgery between September 2009 and January 2011 were recruited prospectively. A telemetric electrocardiogram (ECG) was fitted to each horse following recovery from anaesthesia and left in place for 24 hours. Selected electrolytes were measured before, during and after surgery and data was extracted from clinical records for analysis. Recorded ECGs were analysed and the arrhythmias characterised. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with the development of arrhythmias. Results Sixty-seven horses with gastrointestinal disease and 37 without gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Arrhythmias were very common during the post-operative period in both groups of horses. Supra-ventricular and bradyarrhythmias predominated in both groups. There were no significant differences in prevalence of any type of arrhythmias between the horses with or without gastrointestinal disease. Post-operative tachycardia and sodium derangements were associated with the development of any type of arrhythmia. Conclusions This is the first study to report the prevalence of arrhythmias in horses during the post-operative period in a clinical setting. This study shows that arrhythmias are very common in horses following surgery. It showed no differences between those horses with or without gastrointestinal disease. Arrhythmias occurring in horses during the post-anaesthetic period require further investigation. PMID:22112936

  8. Coding as a Trojan Horse for Mathematics Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadanidis, George

    2015-01-01

    The history of mathematics educational reform is replete with innovations taken up enthusiastically by early adopters without significant transfer to other classrooms. This paper explores the coupling of coding and mathematics education to create the possibility that coding may serve as a Trojan Horse for mathematics education reform. That is,…

  9. Wild Horses: Stories and Activities. The Wonder Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorehead, Carol Ann

    This curriculum guide is all about wild horses and provides information through the telling of stories about these animals and their history and folklore. The activities contained in this guide employ an interdisciplinary approach and use mazes, puzzles, model-building, and board games to interest and inform students. Topics covered include the…

  10. Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Examination of Horse Apomyoglobin Acid Unfolding Intermediates

    E-print Network

    Asher, Sanford A.

    Articles Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Examination of Horse Apomyoglobin Acid Unfolding Intermediates excited Raman spectra are dominated by the Tyr and Trp Raman bands, which are analyzed to examine changes of Tyr and Trp environments and solvent exposures. We observe two partially unfolded apoMb intermediates

  11. Current concepts of hyperlipaemia in horses and ponies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LB Jeffcott; JR Field

    1985-01-01

    Hyperlipaemia is an important condition in ponies, not just because of the seriousness of the clinical signs and biochemical changes involved, but because of the distress it causes owners and breeders that have had animals suffer from it. Hyperlipaemia occurs most commonly in fat ponies in late pregnancy and is rarely seen in larger horses. The syndrome has similarities with

  12. Pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone after multiple oral dose administration in horses.

    PubMed

    Wearn, J M G; Crisman, M V; Davis, J L; Geor, R J; Hodgson, D R; Suagee, J K; Ashraf-Khorassani, M; McCutcheon, L J

    2011-06-01

    Pioglitazone is a thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic agent with proven efficacy in increasing insulin sensitivity in humans with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, a syndrome of insulin resistance sharing similarities with equine metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone in adult horses following multiple oral dose administration. Pioglitazone hydrochloride (1 mg/kg) was administered orally for 11 doses at 24-h intervals, and plasma samples were collected. Initially, a pilot study was performed using one horse; and thereafter the drug was administered to six horses. Samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental modeling. The maximum plasma concentration was 509.1 ± 413.5 ng/mL achieved at 1.88 ± 1.39 h following oral administration of the first dose, and 448.1 ± 303.5 ng/mL achieved at 2.83 ± 1.81 h (mean ± SD) following the eleventh dose. Apparent elimination half-life was 9.94 ± 4.57 and 9.63 ± 5.33 h after the first and eleventh dose, respectively. This study showed that in healthy horses, pioglitazone administered at a daily oral dose of 1 mg/kg results in plasma concentrations and total drug exposure approximating, but slightly below, those considered therapeutic in humans. PMID:21492190

  13. Effect of Concentrate Form on Gastric Ulcer Syndrome in Horses 

    E-print Network

    Huth, Lindsey

    2012-02-14

    separated into 1 of 2 treatment groups that were all fed Bermuda grass hay and either a commercially available pelleted or textured concentrate. After the initial 28-d period, horses were all fed pelleted feed and Bermuda grass hay for a 21-d washout period...

  14. Hematopoietic Neoplasias in Horses: Myeloproliferative and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    MUÑOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJÓN, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia. PMID:24833969

  15. On the Pleistocene extinctions of Alaskan mammoths and horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew R. Solow; David L. Roberts; Karen M. Robbirt

    2006-01-01

    The fossil record has been used to shed light on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America and elsewhere. It is therefore important to account for variability due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and error in dating fossil remains. Here, a joint confidence region for the extinction times of horses and mammoths in Alaska is constructed. The

  16. MOTION PICTURE STUDIES ON DEGRANULATION OF HORSE EOSINOPHILS DURING PHAGOCYTOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Gordon T.; Hirsch, James G.

    1963-01-01

    Horse eosinophil function has been studied in vitro by means of phase contrast cinemicrophotography. Locomotion of horse eosinophils was inhibited by serum factors reacting with glass surfaces. Under appropriate conditions which eliminated this inhibitory effect, eosinophils moved about and ingested some particles as rapidly as did neutrophils. Eosinophils were attracted to and readily engulfed such diverse materials as yeast cell walls, foreign erythrocytes, and antigen-antibody precipitates. Specific antibody was required for phagocytosis of red cells, and greatly accelerated the uptake of yeast cell walls. Horse eosinophil granules situated adjacent to material being engulfed disrupted with discharge of granule contents into or alongside the phagocytic vacuole. Granule disruption resulted in a clear zone and deposition of amorphous, phase-dense material. A heat-labile serum factor was required for degranulation of eosinophils ingesting foreign red cells, but not for degranulation during engulfment of yeast cell walls or antigen-antibody precipitates. Horse eosinophils were incapable under these conditions of engulfing an entire human red cell. The eosinophil commonly put out a large pseudopod to surround about half the red cell, and then appeared to constrict this pseudopod distally to cut the erythrocyte in half. It is concluded that eosinophils are phagocytic cells, resembling neutrophils in many of their properties. Any specific functions of eosinophils, distinguishing them from other phagocytes, remain to be discovered. PMID:14074392

  17. MOTION PICTURE STUDIES ON DEGRANULATION OF HORSE EOSINOPHILS DURING PHAGOCYTOSIS.

    PubMed

    ARCHER, G T; HIRSCH, J G

    1963-08-01

    Horse eosinophil function has been studied in vitro by means of phase contrast cinemicrophotography. Locomotion of horse eosinophils was inhibited by serum factors reacting with glass surfaces. Under appropriate conditions which eliminated this inhibitory effect, eosinophils moved about and ingested some particles as rapidly as did neutrophils. Eosinophils were attracted to and readily engulfed such diverse materials as yeast cell walls, foreign erythrocytes, and antigen-antibody precipitates. Specific antibody was required for phagocytosis of red cells, and greatly accelerated the uptake of yeast cell walls. Horse eosinophil granules situated adjacent to material being engulfed disrupted with discharge of granule contents into or alongside the phagocytic vacuole. Granule disruption resulted in a clear zone and deposition of amorphous, phase-dense material. A heat-labile serum factor was required for degranulation of eosinophils ingesting foreign red cells, but not for degranulation during engulfment of yeast cell walls or antigen-antibody precipitates. Horse eosinophils were incapable under these conditions of engulfing an entire human red cell. The eosinophil commonly put out a large pseudopod to surround about half the red cell, and then appeared to constrict this pseudopod distally to cut the erythrocyte in half. It is concluded that eosinophils are phagocytic cells, resembling neutrophils in many of their properties. Any specific functions of eosinophils, distinguishing them from other phagocytes, remain to be discovered. PMID:14074392

  18. Geophagia in horses: a short note on 13 cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D McGreevy; L. A Hawson; T. C Habermann; S. R Cattle

    2001-01-01

    Recorded in several species including humans, geophagia or soil eating has been observed in both wild and domesticated horses and has generally been regarded as an indication of nutritional deficiency or “boredom”. Studies of soils consumed by different species have led to several theories as to the identity of soil constituents that stimulate geophagia. In this study, geochemical analysis of

  19. The Palæolithic Drawing of a Horse from Sherborne, Dorset

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur Smith Woodward

    1926-01-01

    IN the third edition of his ``Ancient Hunters'', p. 536, Prof. W. J. Sollas states that the drawing of a head of a horse on bone from Sherborne, which I described in 1914 as an example of Palæolithic art, ``is a forgery perpetrated by some schoolboys.'' I read this statement with surprise, because the bone is in a semi-fossilised condition,

  20. Epidemiology of equine sarcoids in horses in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K; Davies, Jennifer L; Hill, Janet E; Jackson, Marion L; Kidney, Beverly A; Mayer, Monique N; Townsend, Hugh G G; Allen, Andrew L

    2010-10-01

    Sarcoids are the most common tumor of the equine skin but only 1 study describing the epidemiology of sarcoids in Canadian horses has been published. The records of 5 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in western Canada were searched to identify submissions of sarcoids from horses. The submission records and diagnostic reports of 802 separate submissions of equine sarcoids were reviewed for age, breed, and gender of the horse and the number, location, and clinical type of sarcoid. From these records, the 307 submissions to laboratories in Saskatchewan were compared to a reference group to test for breed and gender predisposition. Based on clinical history and lesion descriptions, 5 clinical types of sarcoids were identified. Horses of various ages and 23 equine breeds were affected; donkeys were over-represented. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from a stratified subset of 96 of the different clinical types; BPV2 was present in 60 of 74 (81%) for which a PCR product was obtained. Unlike other areas in the world, in western Canada, equine sarcoids are most commonly associated with BPV type 2. PMID:21197201

  1. Epidemiology of equine sarcoids in horses in western Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wobeser, Bruce K.; Davies, Jennifer L.; Hill, Janet E.; Jackson, Marion L.; Kidney, Beverly A.; Mayer, Monique N.; Townsend, Hugh G.G.; Allen, Andrew L.

    2010-01-01

    Sarcoids are the most common tumor of the equine skin but only 1 study describing the epidemiology of sarcoids in Canadian horses has been published. The records of 5 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in western Canada were searched to identify submissions of sarcoids from horses. The submission records and diagnostic reports of 802 separate submissions of equine sarcoids were reviewed for age, breed, and gender of the horse and the number, location, and clinical type of sarcoid. From these records, the 307 submissions to laboratories in Saskatchewan were compared to a reference group to test for breed and gender predisposition. Based on clinical history and lesion descriptions, 5 clinical types of sarcoids were identified. Horses of various ages and 23 equine breeds were affected; donkeys were over-represented. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from a stratified subset of 96 of the different clinical types; BPV2 was present in 60 of 74 (81%) for which a PCR product was obtained. Unlike other areas in the world, in western Canada, equine sarcoids are most commonly associated with BPV type 2. PMID:21197201

  2. The regulation of respiratory resistance in exercising horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio L. Lafortuna; Franco Saibene; Mariangela Albertini; M. Giovanna Clement

    2003-01-01

    Horses display remarkable aerobic capabilities, attaining during muscular exercise a maximal rate of oxygen consumption about 30-fold higher than the resting value, and 2.5-fold higher than that of other mammals of similar body mass. Under these circumstances an enormous mechanical burden is expected to impinge on the equine respiratory pump and regulatory mechanisms aiming to minimize this load may play

  3. Gene expression profiling from leukocytes of horses affected by osteochondrosis.

    PubMed

    Serteyn, Didier; Piquemal, David; Vanderheyden, Laurent; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe; Verwilghen, Denis; Sandersen, Charlotte

    2010-07-01

    Osteochondrosis (OC) is a developmental disease that affects growing horses and that severely affects their ability to perform. The genetic basis of its pathogenesis is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to analyze the transcript profile of leukocytes from horses affected with OC. Two transcriptome libraries were constructed from leukocytes of OC-affected and non-OC-affected horses using digital gene expression analysis (DGE) and real-time PCR. Statistical analysis allowed selection of 1,008 tags upregulated in the non-OC-affected group and 1,545 tags upregulated in the OC-affected group. Among these genes, 16 regulated genes and 5 housekeeping genes were selected. Metabolic pathways analysis showed an obvious dysregulation of several signaling pathways related to cartilage formation or cartilage repair, including Wnt, Indian hedgehog, and TGF-beta signaling. Other genes, including ISG, ApoB, MGAT4, and TBC1D9, showed a significantly different expression between groups. These genes may play a role in high carbohydrate diet, abnormal insulin metabolism, or inflammation, mechanisms suspected to be involved in OC. This DGE analysis of the transcript profile of leukocytes from OC-affected horses demonstrated significant differences in comparison to the control library. These results open new perspectives for the understanding of equine OC. PMID:20108324

  4. Components of the total kinetic moment in jumping horses.

    PubMed

    Galloux, P; Barrey, E

    1997-05-01

    Thirty horses were filmed with a panning camera operating at 50 frames/s as they jumped over a 1.20 x 1.20 m fence. The markers of 9 joints on the horse and 7 joints on the rider were tracked in 2D with the TrackEye system. The centre of gravity and moment of inertia of each segment were calculated using a geometric algorithm and a cylindric model, respectively. The kinetic moment of each part of the horse was calculated after filtering, and resampling of data. This method showed the relative contribution of each body segment to the body overall rotation during the take-off, jump and landing phases. It was found that the trunk, hindlimbs and head-neck had the greatest influence. The coordination between the motion of the body segments allowed the horse to control its angular speed of rotation over the fence. This remained nearly constant during the airborne phase (120 +/- 5 degrees/s). During the airborne phase, the kinetic moment was constant because its value was equal to the moment of the external forces (722 +/- 125 kg x m2/s). PMID:9354287

  5. "One of the big loads leaving Springville. Eighteen horses are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "One of the big loads leaving Springville. Eighteen horses are marching along with 30,000 pounds on the wagon." San Joaquin Light and Power Magazine, Vol. I, No. 12, December 1913, p. 552 - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  6. Speculations on the origin of the Arabian horse breed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iwona G?a?ewska

    2010-01-01

    Arabian horses are widely believed to be one of the oldest breeds in the world. There are many legends regarding their origin, some of which date back even to the times of King Solomon. The present study attempts to determine the real origin of the breed through the analysis of mtDNA sequences from American and Polish Arabs that are deposited

  7. Forces and pressures on the horse's back during bareback riding.

    PubMed

    Clayton, H M; Belock, B; Lavagnino, M; Kaiser, L J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure forces and pressure profiles when riding with a conventional saddle compared to bareback riding. An electronic pressure mat was used to compare contact area, mean total force and pressure variables for one rider riding seven horses at sitting trot with a conventional saddle or bareback. The use of a saddle was associated with a larger contact area and higher mean total force compared with the bareback condition. Mass normalized mean total force for bareback riding was lower than expected based on the rider's body mass, suggesting that shear forces exerted by the rider's thighs were not being registered by the pressure mat. In spite of the lower total force, the bareback condition was associated with higher average pressure, higher maximal pressure and larger area with mean pressure >11 kPa. Focal pressure concentrations were present beneath the rider's ischial tuberosities in the area of the horse's epaxial muscles when riding bareback but not when using a saddle. It was concluded that bareback riding was associated with focal pressure concentrations that may increase the risk of pressure-induced injury to the horse's epaxial musculature. The findings also emphasized that researchers should remain cognizant of shear forces, which may not be registered by the pressure mat, but may contribute to the effects of riding on the horse's back. PMID:22796121

  8. West Nile Virus Infection in Humans and Horses, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Maria Guadalupe; Fernández, Roberto; Llop, Alina; Dickinson, Félix Orlando; Pérez, Daniel; Cruz, Raúl; González, Tayri; Estévez, Gonzalo; González, Hiram; Santos, Paulino; Kourí, Gustavo; Andonova, Maya; Lindsay, Robbin; Artsob, Harvey; Drebot, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A surveillance system to detect West Nile virus (WNV) was established in Cuba in 2002. WNV infection was confirmed by serologic assays in 4 asymptomatic horses and 3 humans with encephalitis in 2003 and 2004. These results are the first reported evidence of WNV activity in Cuba. PMID:16707068

  9. Methods, Applications and Limitations of Gait Analysis in Horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. BARREY

    1999-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the increase in interest in horses for racing and riding activities has stimulated scientific research in equine locomotion. This paper presents a review of the measurement methods and their applications used to assess equine locomotion. After describing gaits and velocity-related changes in stride variables, the current applications of gait analysis are presented. The economic consequences

  10. "A shape bend in the road, showing how the horses ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "A shape bend in the road, showing how the horses are hitched in 'blocking.' The remainder of the team has been hitched to the block and tackle." San Joaquin Light and Power Magazine, Vol. I, No. 12, December 1913, p. 553 - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  11. Comparison of horse and tractor traction using emergy analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torbjörn Rydberg; Jan Jansén

    2002-01-01

    Horse traction in the context of Sweden 1927 and tractor traction in the context of Sweden 1996 were compared in terms of their resource requirements. Flows of energy, material and service from the environment and the economy were identified for the two traction-producing systems. The environmental work and human activity involved in generating necessary inputs for the systems were evaluated

  12. Major histocompatibility complex variation in the endangered Przewalski's horse.

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, P W; Parker, K M; Miller, E L; Miller, P S

    1999-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a fundamental part of the vertebrate immune system, and the high variability in many MHC genes is thought to play an essential role in recognition of parasites. The Przewalski's horse is extinct in the wild and all the living individuals descend from 13 founders, most of whom were captured around the turn of the century. One of the primary genetic concerns in endangered species is whether they have ample adaptive variation to respond to novel selective factors. In examining 14 Przewalski's horses that are broadly representative of the living animals, we found six different class II DRB major histocompatibility sequences. The sequences showed extensive nonsynonymous variation, concentrated in the putative antigen-binding sites, and little synonymous variation. Individuals had from two to four sequences as determined by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. On the basis of the SSCP data, phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences, and segregation in a family group, we conclude that four of these sequences are from one gene (although one sequence codes for a nonfunctional allele because it contains a stop codon) and two other sequences are from another gene. The position of the stop codon is at the same amino-acid position as in a closely related sequence from the domestic horse. Because other organisms have extensive variation at homologous loci, the Przewalski's horse may have quite low variation in this important adaptive region. PMID:10430594

  13. TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICANAMERICAN SOLDIERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICAN-AMERICAN SOLDIERS, POST IN 1939 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1939.00.00.06, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  14. Physical Fitness and Mitochondrial Respiratory Capacity in Horse Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Hélène; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Background Within the animal kingdom, horses are among the most powerful aerobic athletic mammals. Determination of muscle respiratory capacity and control improves our knowledge of mitochondrial physiology in horses and high aerobic performance in general. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied high-resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration protocols to study mitochondrial physiology in small (1.0–2.5 mg) permeabilized muscle fibres sampled from triceps brachii of healthy horses. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity (pmol O2•s?1•mg?1 wet weight) with combined Complex I and II (CI+II) substrate supply (malate+glutamate+succinate) increased from 77±18 in overweight horses to 103±18, 122±15, and 129±12 in untrained, trained and competitive horses (N?=?3, 8, 16, and 5, respectively). Similar to human muscle mitochondria, equine OXPHOS capacity was limited by the phosphorylation system to 0.85±0.10 (N?=?32) of electron transfer capacity, independent of fitness level. In 15 trained horses, OXPHOS capacity increased from 119±12 to 134±37 when pyruvate was included in the CI+II substrate cocktail. Relative to this maximum OXPHOS capacity, Complex I (CI)-linked OXPHOS capacities were only 50% with glutamate+malate, 64% with pyruvate+malate, and 68% with pyruvate+malate+glutamate, and ?78% with CII-linked succinate+rotenone. OXPHOS capacity with glutamate+malate increased with fitness relative to CI+II-supported ETS capacity from a flux control ratio of 0.38 to 0.40, 0.41 and 0.46 in overweight to competitive horses, whereas the CII/CI+II substrate control ratio remained constant at 0.70. Therefore, the apparent deficit of the CI- over CII-linked pathway capacity was reduced with physical fitness. Conclusions/Significance The scope of mitochondrial density-dependent OXPHOS capacity and the density-independent (qualitative) increase of CI-linked respiratory capacity with increased fitness open up new perspectives of integrative and comparative mitochondrial respiratory physiology. PMID:22529950

  15. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil columns (0-20 cm) from the different segments of the paddock were isolated and potential leaching losses of P, N and carbon (C) were measured from two representative horse paddock (a clay and a loamy sand) following simulated rainfall events in the laboratory. Results showed that the leachate concentrations and net release of P, N, and dissolved organic C (DOC) from paddock topsoils were highest in feeding and excretion areas and considerably higher from the loamy sand than the clay paddock topsoil. It was concluded that: i) horse paddocks pose a potential threat to water quality via leaching of excess P and N, ii) feeding and excretion areas are potential hotspots for highly enhanced leaching losses, and iii) paddocks established on sandy soils are particularly susceptible to high losses.

  16. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1994 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y- 12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts: Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference containing the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 of the annual groundwater report, to be issued mid-year, will contain a regime-wide evaluation of groundwater quality, present the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describe changes in monitoring priorities, and present planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

  17. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  18. Microvascular circulation of the ascending colon in horses.

    PubMed

    Snyder, J R; Tyler, W S; Pascoe, J R; Olander, H J; Bleifer, D R; Hinds, D M; Neves, J W

    1989-12-01

    Microvascular circulation of the ascending colon in healthy horses was studied using microangiography, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The pelvic flexure with 30 cm of ventral and dorsal colon attached was removed from 14 adult horses immediately after horses were euthanatized. The lumen was flushed with warm water, and this section of the ascending colon was placed in a 37-C bath of isotonic NaCl. In sections from 8 horses, colic vessels were perfused with a radio-opaque medium for microangiography. After angiographic evaluation, tissue sections were prepared for light microscopic observation, using standard histologic methods. In sections from 6 horses, injection replicas were made by perfusing the vessels with 2 types of plastics. The results of microangiography, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy of vascular replicas were correlated, providing a comprehensive documentation of the microvasculature of the ascending colon at the pelvic flexure. Arteries branched from mesenteric colic vessels approximately every 2 cm toward the colonic tissue. Immediately after branching, arterial vessels formed an anastomotic plexus, the colonic rete. However, each branch from the colic vessel eventually continued into the colonic tissue. A second set of vessels originated from the colonic tissue. A second set of vessels originated from the colonic rete and supplied the mesenteric lymph nodes. Arterial vessels penetrated the tunica muscularis into the submucosa 3 to 4 cm toward the antimesenteric border forming a submucosal vascular network. From the submucosal arterioles, branching took place at right angles to supply the mucosal capillaries. Capillaries surrounded the colonic glands and anastomosed at the luminal surface, forming a superficial luminal honeycomb-appearing vascular plexus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2610433

  19. Dorsoproximal proximal phalanx osteochondral fragmentation in 117 Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Declercq, J; Martens, A; Maes, D; Boussauw, B; Forsyth, R; Boening, K J

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine clinical and arthroscopic characteristics associated with dorsoproximal proximal phalanx (P1) fragments in Warmblood horses, as well as to examine their histopathological appearance. One hundred sixty-eight fragments were removed from 150 fetlocks of 117 Warmblood horses. Details of signalment and results of clinical examination were collected prior to surgery. After arthroscopic fragment removal and joint evaluation for synovial and/or cartilage abnormalities, the fragments were measured and evaluated histopathologically. The vast majority of the fragments (95.2%) were found medially, without predilection for front or hind limbs. In 10% of the joints, more than one fragment was present. The mean size of the fragments was 6.8 +/- 2.6 mm. Only eight horses presented fetlock-related lameness. Horses of seven years of age and older (OR = 13.32; p = 0.033) and the presence of more than one fragment (OR = 11.12; p = 0.016) were significantly associated with lameness. Arthroscopic evaluation revealed one or more abnormalities in 50.7% of the joints. On histopathology, osteochondral fragments presented as a bony center covered with smooth hyaline cartilage on one side and some fibrous tissue on the other side. No clear histopathological signs were indicating precisely their origin. In Warmblood horses with dorsoproximal P1 fragments, the age (seven years and older) and the presence of more than one fragment in a fetlock significantly increased the risk of lameness. The osteochondral dorsoproximal P1 fragments could be defined as a developmental orthopaedic disease. PMID:19151863

  20. [Diversity and dynamics of bacteriophages in horse feces].

    PubMed

    Kulikova, E E; Isaeva, A S; Rotkina, A S; Manykin, A A; Letarov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The complex cellulolytic microbial community of the horse intestines is a convenient model for studying the ecology of bacteriophages in natural habitats. Unlike the rumen of the ruminants, this community of the equine large intestine is not subjected to digestion. The inner conditions of the horse gut are much more stable in comparison to other mammals, due to the fact that the horse diet remains almost unchanged and the intervals between food consumption and defecation are much shorter than the whole digestive cycle. The results of preliminary analysis of the structure and dynamics of the viral community of horse feces, which combines direct and culture methods, are presented. In horse fecal samples, we detected more than 60 morphologically distinct phage types, the majority of which were present as a single phage particle. This indicates that the community includes no less than several hundreds of phage types. Some phage types dominated and constituted 5-11% of the total particle count each. The most numerous phage type had an unusual morphology: the tails of its members were extremely long (about 700 nm), flexible, and irretractable, while their heads were 100 nm in diameter. Several other phage types with similar but not identical properties were detected. The total coliphage plaque count of the samples taken from three animals revealed significant fluctuations in the phage titers. During the observation time, the maximum titer ranged within four orders of magnitude (10(3)-10(7) plaque forming units (PFU)/g); the minimum titer ranged within two orders of magnitude. The samples contained two to five morphologically distinct and potentially competitive coliphage types, specific to a single Escherichia coli strain. PMID:17583225

  1. In vitro of adenosine on lymphocytes and erythrocytes from horses with combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, N S; Perryman, L E

    1979-01-01

    The effect of adenosine on the mitogenic response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and on the nucleotide pools of erythrocytes from normal horses, horses heterozygous for the combined immunodeficiency (CID) trait (carriers), and foals with CID was studied. When PBL from normal, carrier, and CID horses were stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A, or pokeweed mitogen, [3H]thymidine uptake was inhibited by adenosine (0.1 microM) to 1.0 mM) in a dose-dependent manner. Adenosine (100 microM) mediated inhibition of [3H]thymidine uptake was prevented in both normal and carrier horse PBL by incubation with uridine. Uridine had no sparing effect on PBL from horses with CID. Differences were detected between human and horse PBL in response to adenosine and erythro-9(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA), a competitive inhibitor of adenosine deaminase. In the first assay, mitogen-stimulated PBL from horses were more sensitive to adenosine. In the second assay, adenosine was added to PBL cultures at various times after PHA addition. Adenosine inhibited mitogenesis in horse PBL if added within the first 24 h. In human PBL cultures, adenosine inhibited mitogenesis only if added within the first 4 h. The third assay measured capacity of PHA-stimulated human and horse lymphocytes to escape inhibition by adenosine or EHNA. At the end of a 72-h culture period, horse PBL were still inhibited of mitogenesis in both human and horse PBL. With prolonged incubation (72 h), synergistic inhibition was detected only in horse PB. With high-pressure liquid chromatography, nucleotide levels in erythrocytes of normal, carrier, and CID horses were found to be similar. Incubation with adenosine produced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in total adenine nucleotide pools in erythrocytes from all horses. However, these increases were accompanied by alterations in the relative amounts of the nucleotide components. This was seen as a significant decrease in the ATP:(AMP plus ADP plus ATP) ratio and energy charge in erythrocytes from normal horses. In contrast, the ATP:(AMP plus ADP plus ATP) ratio decreased only slightly in erythrocytes from CID horses, whereas no change in the energy charge was detected. The data from these studies indicate a difference in adenosine metabolism exists between human and horse lymphoyctes, and an abnormality may exist in purine metabolism or in an interconnecting pathway in horses with CID. PMID:447864

  2. Population dynamics of the chestnut gall-wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) IV. Further analysis of the distribution of eggs and young larvae in buds using the truncated negative binomial series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yosiaki Itô

    1967-01-01

    Summary  Distribution pattern of eggs and the first instar larvae of the chestnut gall-wasp,Dryocosmus kuriphilus, per bud of the chestnut tree was re-examined using the truncatedPoisson and the truncated negative binomial series. The results are as follows:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (1) \\u000a \\u000a About sixty percent of the distribution are approximated by the truncated negative binomial and another thirty percent by\\u000a the truncatedPoisson. When the distribution

  3. The course of some bone remodelling plasma metabolites in healthy horses and in horses offered a calcium-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    de Behr, V; Daron, D; Gabriel, A; Remy, B; Dufrasne, I; Serteyn, D; Istasse, L

    2003-04-01

    An inquiry was carried out to assess the concentrations of plasma metabolites related to bone remodelling in 21 saddle horses of Warmblood breed aged 4-26 years, five draught horses of Ardennes breed aged 4-10 years, and 10 Ardennes foals aged 9-11 months. They were fed according to normal feeding practice in Belgium. The changes in some bone remodelling plasma metabolite concentrations were studied when an unbalanced diet was offered and later corrected for four Warmblood horses. Bone formation was evaluated by bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and osteocalcin (bone gla-protein, OC). Bone resorption was assessed by hydroxyproline (HYP). Total calcium, ionized calcium, phosphorus (P) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25-(OH)D] concentrations were more or less constant. The comparison of four bone remodelling factors between the Ardennes and Warmblood horses showed higher concentrations in the Ardennes breed. Bone marker concentrations decreased according to age. The correction of the unbalanced Ca : P diet induced inconsistent effects at plasma level. The interpretation of the different bone parameters appeared to be difficult if not associated with other parameters such as a complete anamnesis and clinical examination of the animal in addition to dietary evaluation. PMID:14511141

  4. Groundwater quality assessment for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste- management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR), which is one of the three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division of the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

  5. Horses fail to use social learning when solving spatial detour tasks.

    PubMed

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Ahrendt, Line Peerstrup; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-07-01

    Social animals should have plenty of opportunities to learn from conspecifics, but most studies have failed to document social learning in horses. This study investigates whether young Icelandic horses can learn a spatial detour task through observation of a trained demonstrator horse of either the same age (Experiments 1 and 2, n = 22) or older (Experiment 3, n = 24). Observer horses were allowed to observe the demonstrator being led three times through the detour route immediately before being given the opportunity to solve the task themselves. Controls were allowed only to observe the demonstrator horse eating at the final position, but not the demonstration of the route. Although we found a tendency towards better performance by observer horses in the second experiment, we were unable to repeat this result in a similar set-up with a new group of horses and older, dominant demonstrator horses. We conclude that horses exposed to prior demonstration did not perform better than control horses in solving spatial detour tasks. PMID:25716720

  6. Effects of trot quality and collection on the angular velocity in the hindlimbs of riding horses.

    PubMed

    Holmström, M; Drevemo, S

    1997-05-01

    The angular velocities of the hindlimb angles of 14 horses, including 6 Grand Prix dressage horses, 4 horses judged as good at the trot and 4 horses judged as poor, were analysed. The horse material was the same as previously used by Holmström (1994) in studies on conformation and trotting gaits in the Swedish Warmblood riding horse. Four consecutive strides of each horse and the corresponding pace were analysed and mean velocity curves (Xh) for each angle were calculated. Before calculation the data were filtered forwards and backwards with a Butterworth third order filter with a cut off frequency of 60 Hz. During the last 60% of the stance phase there were differences between the horses judged as good and poor at the trot in all the analysed hindlimb angles except the femur inclination. The angular velocity in the hock joint, pelvis inclination and hindlimb pendulation was larger in the good horses. The angular velocity of the hindlimb pendulation decreased with collection in the Grand Prix horses. During parts of the stance phase, there was also a gradual decrease in the femur angular velocity from trot at hand to piaffe. In the hock joint, there was no difference in angular velocity between trot at hand and passage during the last 30%. The higher compression of the hock angle and pelvic angle to the horizontal plane probably reflects a higher compression of the whole hindlimb. It probably contributes to the greater springiness in the movements of good young horses and Grand Prix dressage horses. The results from the present study confirmed the importance of storing elastic strain energy for the quality of the dressage horse gaits. PMID:9354292

  7. Effects of chestnut tannins and coconut oil on growth performance, methane emission, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations in sheep.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Vaddella, V; Zhou, D

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) and coconut oil (CO) on growth performance, methane (CH?) emission, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations in sheep. A total of 48 Rideau Arcott sheep (average body weight 31.5±1.97 kg, 16 wk old) were randomly assigned into 6 treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial design, with CT and CO as the main effects (8 sheep per group). The treatments were control diet (CTR), 10 or 30 g of CT/kg of diet (CT10 and CT30), 25 g of CO/kg of concentrate (CO25), and 10 or 30 g of CT/kg of diet+25 g of CO/kg of concentrate (CT10CO25 and CT30CO25). After the feeding trial (60 d), all sheep were moved to respiratory chambers to measure CH? emission. After CH? emission measurements, all sheep were slaughtered to obtain rumen fluid samples. Results showed that the addition of CT, CO, and CT+CO had no significant effects on growth performance of sheep but reduced CH? emission. Addition of CT reduced the NH?-N concentration in rumen fluid in CT30. Addition of CO decreased the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid. No significant differences were observed in pH and molar proportion of volatile fatty acids among treatments. Addition of CT, CO, and CT+CO significantly decreased methanogen and protozoa populations. Moreover, CO decreased counts of Fibrobacter succinogenes. No significant differences were observed in populations of fungi, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, or Ruminococcus albus among treatments. In conclusion, supplementation of CT and CO seemed to be a feasible means of decreasing emissions of CH? from sheep by reduction of methanogen and protozoa populations with no negative effect on growth performance. PMID:22118094

  8. Dissociation of testosterone and aggressive behavior during the breeding season in male chestnut-collared longspurs, Calcarius ornatus.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Sharon E; Wingfield, John C

    2008-03-01

    In many species of birds, expression of male-male aggression during breeding elicits increased secretion of testosterone. Elevations in testosterone in turn enhance expression of aggressive behavior in appropriate contexts. However, in other species, the relationship between elevated plasma testosterone and aggressive behavior is subtle or nonexistent. We examined the relationship between high testosterone and male-male aggression in the chestnut-collared longspur, a species in which males exhibit a peak in testosterone early in the breeding season that declines to a breeding baseline after nests are initiated. Elevated testosterone enhances sexual behavior after nests are initiated, but does not affect care of nestlings. We used simulated territorial intrusions (STIs) to test (1) if males increased testosterone secretion after an aggressive interaction early in the breeding season (2) if expression of aggressive behavior declined as testosterone levels declined to the breeding baseline, and (3) if experimentally elevated testosterone enhanced aggression when testosterone levels were at the breeding baseline. Plasma testosterone was unrelated to duration of STI before nests were initiated. In addition, although males were significantly more aggression prior to nest initiation than during incubation, elevation of plasma testosterone to pre-nesting levels did not enhance aggression during incubation. Thus, although elevated plasma testosterone and expression of aggressive behavior appear to overlap temporally, high plasma testosterone and male-male aggression may not be fully coupled in this species. We suggest that high plasma testosterone may be more important in eliciting and maintaining sexual behavior than aggressive behavior in this species. PMID:18275961

  9. Petrological and Geochemical Studies of Samples from the Nicor Chestnut 18-4 Drill Core, AMES Impact Structure, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, C.; Reimold, W. U.

    1996-03-01

    The near-circular 15-km-diameter Ames structure is located at 36 degrees 15' N and 98 degrees 12' W in southeastern Major County (NW Oklahoma). The structure, which is set in Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle dolomite, consists of two concentric rims, an outer rim, which is about 1.5 to 3 km wide, and an inner "rim". The rocks of the outer rim consist mainly of fractured and brecciated Arbuckle dolomite. The inner "ring" (about 5 km in diameter) seems to be the eroded remnant of a central structural uplift, with rocks comprising brecciated Precambrian granite and Arbuckle dolomite. The depression is covered by Middle Ordovician Oil Creek shale. The structure is penetrated by a number of oil- and gas-producing wells in the crater rim and the central uplift. The production from these wells indicate that Ames represents one of the largest - if not the largest - single oil fields in Oklahoma. Currently the structural disturbance is buried beneath almost 3000 m of sedimentary rock. The origin of the structure has been intensely debated since the discovery of the structural anomaly, but geophysical and geological, as well as petrological and geochemical data provide very good evidence that it was formed by impact, and not by volcanism or even more esoteric processes. In the present study, we analyzed 17 samples, including impact melt breccia, from the Nicor Chestnut 18-4 core. These samples represent the largest and best examples of impact melt breccias and melt rock obtained so far from the Ames structure. One important result of the petrographic analyses is the observation that not all carbonate rocks postdate the impact, but some were clearly present among the target rocks. The chemical composition of the impact melt breccias is similar to that of other melt rocks from the Dorothy 1-19 core, as well as to the target granite, with variable carbonate admixtures. Some impact melt rocks are enriched in siderophile elements, indicating a possible meteoritic component.

  10. Effects of chestnut tannins on carcass characteristics, meat quality, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua Wei; Gai, Francesco; Gasco, Laura; Brugiapaglia, Alberto; Lussiana, Carola; Guo, Kai Jun; Tong, Jian Ming; Zoccarato, Ivo

    2009-12-01

    Seventy two male Bianca Italiana rabbits were used to study the effects of the inclusion (0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%) of a natural extract of chestnut wood (Silvafeed ENC) in the diet on productive traits, carcass characteristics, meat quality, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of rabbit meat. Results showed ENC had no significant effect on live weight, productive traits, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, skin weight, pH, cooking losses, shear force and colour. The iron content was higher in Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle of rabbit fed the ENC 1.0% diet than the control group. TBARS average values in the group ENC 0.5% were significantly lower (P<0.05) than in the control and ENC 1.0% groups. Myristic acid (C14:0; P<0.01), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 cis-9; P<0.05) and pentadecanoic acid (C15:0; P<0.01) contents were lower in LTL muscle of rabbits fed the ENC 1.0% diet, whereas the palmitic acid (C16:0) content was higher (P<0.05) in the rabbits of this group. Moreover, the rabbits fed with the ENC 0.5% diet had lower (P<0.01) levels of trans-vaccenic acid (C18:1 trans-11) compared to rabbits fed with the control diet. No significant differences were observed in saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids, as well as in PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios among the groups. PMID:20416639

  11. A nonnatural head-neck position (Rollkur) during training results in less acute stress in elite, trained, dressage horses.

    PubMed

    van Breda, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This study measured parameters of stress in recreational, trained horses (REC; n = 7) and elite (International Grand Prix level) trained, dressage horses (DRES; n = 5). The training of the DRES horses uses an unnatural head-neck position (Rollkur), whereas in the REC horses such training techniques are not common. The study measured stress by using heart rate variability analysis for 30 min postfeeding in the morning and 30 min postexercise after a morning training session. The study found no significant difference at rest between the REC and DRES horses. During the posttraining measurements, however, the DRES horses showed, among others, a less sympathetic and increased parasympathetic dominance. These results suggest that DRES horses tend to have less acute stress than do REC horses postexercise. The findings of this study suggest maintaining the health and well-being of DRES horses despite nonnatural, biomechanical positions. PMID:16649951

  12. Europe's Horse Meat Scandal Casts Light on Food Taboo1 Horse meat is taboo in some cultures, standard in others.2

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    , chicken, and cow a part of your diet, there's a feeling10 that there's just something wrong about eating On the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, for example, horse is a popular local ingredient, as is its relative the FAO, is25 Kazakhstan, where horse is an integral part of the diet and used to make various sausages

  13. Microsporidia and Cryptosporidium in horses and donkeys in Algeria: detection of a novel Cryptosporidium hominis subtype family (Ik) in a horse.

    PubMed

    Laatamna, Abd Elkarim; Wagnerová, Pavla; Sak, Bohumil; Kv?to?ová, Dana; Xiao, Lihua; Rost, Michael; McEvoy, John; Saadi, Ahmed Rachid; Aissi, Meriem; Kvá?, Martin

    2015-03-15

    A total of 219 and 124 individual fecal samples of horses and donkeys, respectively, were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., Encephalitozoon spp., and Enterocytozoon bieneusi DNA by genus-specific nested PCR. Isolates were genotyped by sequence analysis of SSU rRNA, GP60, TRAP-C1, COWP, and HSP70 loci in Cryptosporidium, and the ITS region in microsporidia. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected on 3/18 horse farms and 1/15 farms where donkeys were kept. Overall, five (2.3%) horse and two (1.6%) donkey specimens were PCR positive for Cryptosporidium. Genotyping at SSU and GP60 loci revealed that three isolates from horses and donkeys were C. parvum subtype family IIaA16G1R1, one isolate from a horse was, C. muris RN66, and one isolate from a donkey was C. muris TS03. An isolate from a horse shared 99.4% and 99.3% similarity with Cryptosporidium hominis and C. cuniculus, respectively, at the SSU locus. This isolate shared 100% identity with C. hominis at the TRAP-C1, COWP, and HSP70 loci, and it was from the novel gp60 subtype family IkA15G1. Microsporidia were found on 6/18 horse and 2/15 donkey farms. E. bieneusi was identified in 6.8% (15/219) and 1.6% (2/124), and Encephalitozoon cuniculi was identified in 1.8% (4/219) and 1.6% (2/124), of horses and donkeys, respectively. Three genotypes of E. cuniculi (I, II and III) were detected in horses, and E. cuniculi genotype II was detected in donkeys. Four genotypes of E. bieneusi (horse1, horse 2, CZ3, D) were described in horses. An additional five horses and two donkeys were positive for E. bieneusi, but the isolated were not genotyped. Neither Cryptosporidium nor microsporidia prevalence were affected by sex, age, type of breeding, or whether the host was a horse or a donkey. PMID:25638716

  14. Metabolism before, during and after anaesthesia in colic and healthy horses

    PubMed Central

    Edner, Anna H; Nyman, Görel C; Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Background Many colic horses are compromised due to the disease state and from hours of starvation and sometimes long trailer rides. This could influence their muscle energy reserves and affect the horses' ability to recover. The principal aim was to follow metabolic parameter before, during, and up to 7 days after anaesthesia in healthy horses and in horses undergoing abdominal surgery due to colic. Methods 20 healthy horses given anaesthesia alone and 20 colic horses subjected to emergency abdominal surgery were anaesthetised for a mean of 228 minutes and 183 minutes respectively. Blood for analysis of haematology, electrolytes, cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol, glucose and lactate was sampled before, during, and up to 7 days after anaesthesia. Arterial and venous blood gases were obtained before, during and up to 8 hours after recovery. Gluteal muscle biopsy specimens for biochemical analysis of muscle metabolites were obtained at start and end of anaesthesia and 1 h and 1 day after recovery. Results Plasma cortisol, FFA, glycerol, glucose, lactate and CK were elevated and serum phosphate and potassium were lower in colic horses before anaesthesia. Muscle adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content was low in several colic horses. Anaesthesia and surgery resulted in a decrease in plasma FFA and glycerol in colic horses whereas levels increased in healthy horses. During anaesthesia muscle and plasma lactate and plasma phosphate increased in both groups. In the colic horses plasma lactate increased further after recovery. Plasma FFA and glycerol increased 8 h after standing in the colic horses. In both groups, plasma concentrations of CK increased and serum phosphate decreased post-anaesthesia. On Day 7 most parameters were not different between groups. Colic horses lost on average 8% of their initial weight. Eleven colic horses completed the study. Conclusion Colic horses entered anaesthesia with altered metabolism and in a negative oxygen balance. Muscle oxygenation was insufficient during anaesthesia in both groups, although to a lesser extent in the healthy horses. The post-anaesthetic period was associated with increased lipolysis and weight loss in the colic horses, indicating a negative energy balance during the first week post-operatively. PMID:18001483

  15. Expression Levels of LCORL Are Associated with Body Size in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Julia; Schrimpf, Rahel; Philipp, Ute; Distl, Ottmar

    2013-01-01

    Body size is an important characteristic for horses of various breeds and essential for the classification of ponies concerning the limit value of 148 cm (58.27 inches) height at the withers. Genome-wide association analyses revealed the highest associated quantitative trait locus for height at the withers on horse chromosome (ECA) 3 upstream of the candidate gene LCORL. Using 214 Hanoverian horses genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 BeadChip and 42 different horse breeds across all size ranges, we confirmed the highly associated single nucleotide polymorphism BIEC2-808543 (?log10P?=?8.3) and the adjacent gene LCORL as the most promising candidate for body size. We investigated the relative expression levels of LCORL and its two neighbouring genes NCAPG and DCAF16 using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). We could demonstrate a significant association of the relative LCORL expression levels with the size of the horses and the BIEC2-808543 genotypes within and across horse breeds. In heterozygous C/T-horses expression levels of LCORL were significantly decreased by 40% and in homozygous C/C-horses by 56% relative to the smaller T/T-horses. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that this SNP T>C mutation is disrupting a putative binding site of the transcription factor TFIID which is important for the transcription process of genes involved in skeletal bone development. Thus, our findings suggest that expression levels of LCORL play a key role for body size within and across horse breeds and regulation of the expression of LCORL is associated with genetic variants of BIEC2-808543. This is the first functional study for a body size regulating polymorphism in horses and a further step to unravel the mechanisms for understanding the genetic regulation of body size in horses. PMID:23418579

  16. A synteny map of the horse genome comprised of 240 microsatellite and RAPD markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. L. Shiue; L. A. Bickel; A. R. Caetano; R. S. Clark; M. L. Eggleston; R. Michelmore; E. Bailey; G. Guerin; S. Godard; J. R. Mickelson; S. J. Valberg; J. D. Murray; A. T. Bowling

    1999-01-01

    Summary To generate a domestic horse genome map we integrated synteny information for markers screened on a somatic cell hybrid (SCH) panel with published information for markers physi- cally assigned to chromosomes. The mouse- horse SCH panel was established by fusing pSV2neo transformed primary horse fibroblasts to either RAG or LMTk-mouse cells, followed by G418 antibiotic selection. For each of

  17. Airway response of horses with COPD to dry powder inhalation of ipratropium bromide.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, D H; Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1997-09-01

    To determine the effects of the dry powder inhalation (DPI) of ipratropium bromide (ipratropium) on the airways of health horses and the dose-response curve in horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by means of pulmonary function tests, five healthy horses were first studied. Ipratropium (2400 micrograms ipratropium horse-1) was contained in gelatine capsules and administered using a dry powder device connected to an adapted face mask. Pulmonary function tests were recorded before inhalation and 15 and 60 min after inhalation. No modification of pulmonary function was observed. The airway response to ipratropium DPI was then determined in six horses suffering from COPD. To induce airway obstruction, the horses were bedded on straw and fed hay. When the maximal change in pleural pressure during tidal breathing exceeded 1.96 kPa, pulmonary function tests were recorded before DPI, and 15 and 60 min post-inhalation. Placebo (six capsules horse-1) or ipratropium (600, 1200 and 2400 micrograms horse-1) was administered in a randomized order to each horse using the dry powder device and the adapted face mask. Neither ipratropium nor placebo DPI affected respiratory frequency (f) or tidal volume (VT). Inhalation of 600 micrograms ipratropium horse-1 resulted in a delayed decrease of total pulmonary resistance (RL) whereas dynamic compliance (Cdyn) was improved (although not significantly) at both times of measurement when compared with values following placebo inhalation. Simultaneous decreased RL and increased Cdyn, was observed within 15 min after DPI of 1200 micrograms ipratropium horse-1 and persisted for the 1 h duration of the experiment. Doubling the dose also improved pulmonary function but not significantly more than following inhalation of 1200 micrograms ipratropium. No systemic side effects were observed in either group of horses. PMID:9308401

  18. Effect of orientation and location during transport on stress and maintenance of balance in horses 

    E-print Network

    Clark, Diana Kathleen

    1991-01-01

    inside the trailer (behind a plywood partition positioned behind the forward facing horse) recorded how often the horses impacted the sides and ends of the trailer, lost their balance, pawed, vocalized, or defecated. Heart rates were monitored... displacement behaviors as "activities that typically appear in conflict situations but also appear in frustration conditions. " Pawing in horses can be an anomalous reactive behavior (Merck, 1986). Carbonaro (1989) found that female goats, frustrated...

  19. Hysteresis and calcium set-point for the calcium parathyroid hormone relationship in healthy horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramiro E. Toribio; Catherine W. Kohn; Richard A. Sams; Charles C. Capen; Thomas J. Rosol

    2003-01-01

    Abnormalities in calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis are reported in horses with several pathological conditions; however, there is little information on Ca2+ regulation in horses. The objectives of the present study were to determine the Ca2+ set-point in healthy horses, to determine whether the Ca2+\\/parathyroid hormone (PTH) response curves were characterized by hysteresis, and to determine if the order of experimentally induced

  20. A study of the use of methoxyflurane general anesthesia in the horse 

    E-print Network

    Titus, Robert Stephen

    1964-01-01

    result of ventricular fibrillation. Table 111 gives the same information as Table II for horse number ll, the animal intentionally destroyed. Figure II is typical of a series of recordings made ~ Note the partial heart block that existed in this horse... prior to restraint, This was the only incidence of heart block that was observed and it disappeared when the animal was restrained. Figure III shows a series of recordings made on the animal that died from ventricular fibrillation (horse number 9...

  1. Plasma concentration of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in horses following an oral dose

    E-print Network

    Welch, Courtney Ann

    2006-04-12

    in performance and pleasure horses (Hanson, 1996). Numerous dietary supplements containing glucosamine and/or chondroitin sulfate are marketed as a way to help support, improve or restore the health of horse?s joints (Ramey et al., 2002). The main goal... in the medical management of these joint problems has focused on slowing the process of cartilage degradation and promotion of cartilage matrix synthesis (Hanson, 1996). Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are macromolecules endogenous to cartilage and have...

  2. Improving environmental management on small-scale farms: perspectives of extension educators and horse farm operators.

    PubMed

    Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms. PMID:25267522

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of the Hucul horse from Romania inferred from mitochondrial D-loop variation.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, S E; Manea, M A; Dudu, A; Costache, M

    2011-01-01

    The existence of the Hucul horse on Romanian territory has been documented from the very distant past; today Hucul is a unique breed that is part of the FAO Program for the Preservation of Animal Genetic Resources. We compared Hucul with several primitive European and Asiatic breeds in order to elucidate the origin of these horses. We analyzed a 683-bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop fragment in a population of Hucul horses and compared the polymorphic sites with sequences from other primitive breeds, including Exmoor, Icelandic Pony, Sorraia, Przewalski Horse, Mongolian Wild Horse, Konik, and Shetland Pony, as well as with Arabian, Akhal Teke and Caspian Pony. The sequences were truncated to 247 bp to accommodate short sequence data for the other species. Eighty horses were analyzed; 35 polymorphic sites representing 33 haplotypes were observed. The mean percentage of polymorphic sites was 14.2% for this mtDNA fragment. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed based on Kimura two-parameter distances and the Network 3.111 software was used for phylogenetic analysis. The Hucul horse was classified separately from all other primitive breeds. It is possible that the Hucul horse is not part of the pony class, as it segregated apart from all primitive pony breeds. We found multiple origins in the maternal lineage of domestic horse breeds and demonstrated the uniqueness of the Hucul breed; its origins remain unclear. PMID:22057995

  4. Radiographic closure time of appendicular growth plates in the Icelandic horse

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Eric; Braathen, Linn Camilla; Hellsten, Mia C; Huse-Olsen, Lisel; Bjornsdottir, Sigridur

    2007-01-01

    Background The Icelandic horse is a pristine breed of horse which has a pure gene pool established more than a thousand years ago, and is approximately the same size as living and extinct wild breeds of horses. This study was performed to compare the length of the skeletal growth period of the "primitive" Icelandic horse relative to that reported for large horse breeds developed over the recent centuries. This information would provide practical guidance to owners and veterinarians as to when the skeleton is mature enough to commence training, and would be potentially interesting to those scientists investigating the pathogenesis of osteochondrosis. Interestingly, osteochondrosis has not been documented in the Icelandic horse. Methods The radiographic closure time of the appendicular growth plates was studied in 64 young Icelandic horses. The results were compared with previously published closure times reported for other, larger horse breeds. The radiographs were also examined for any signs of developmental orthopaedic diseases. In order to describe further the growth pattern of the Icelandic horse, the total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined and the height at the withers was measured. Results Most of the examined growth plates were fully closed at the age of approximately three years. The horses reached adult height at this age; however ALP activity was still mildly increased over baseline values. The growth plates in the digits were the first to close at 8.1 to 8.5 months of age, and those in the regions of the distal radius (27.4 to 32.0 months), tuber olecrani (31.5 to 32.2 months), and the stifle (27.0 to 40.1 months) were the last to close. No horse was found to have osteochondrosis type lesions in the neighbouring joints of the evaluated growth plates. Conclusion The Icelandic horse appears to have similar radiographic closure times for most of the growth plates of its limbs as reported for large new breeds of horses developed during the past few centuries. It thus appears that different breeding goals and the intensity of breeding have not altered the length of the growth period in horses. Instead, it can be assumed that the pristine and relatively small Icelandic horse has a slower rate of growth. The appendicular skeleton of Icelandic horses has completed its bone growth in length at approximately 3 years of age, and therefore may be able to enter training at this time. PMID:17640333

  5. Notching and anterior beveling on fossil horse incisors: Indicators of domestication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Richard A.; Rogers, Laurine A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the lines of evidence cited for possible late Pleistocene human control of horses has been the presence of notching and anterior beveling on horse incisor teeth recovered from upper and middle Paleolithic sites in Europe. Similar forms of wear have been found on the incisor teeth of wild horses from early and middle Pleistocene deposits in North America. Notching appears partly due to malocclusion and chipping. The causes of beveling are less certain but may involve the eating of bark. Therefore, the presence of notching and anterior beveling on horse incisor teeth may not be a reliable indicator of human control.

  6. Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinlong; Zhao, Yiping; Shiraigol, Wunierfu; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Ye, Weixing; Daidiikhuu, Dorjsuren; Yang, Lihua; Jin, Burenqiqige; Zhao, Qinan; Gao, Yahan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Li, Anaer; Zhang, Yuhong; Han, Haige; Bai, Haitang; Bao, Yanqing; Zhao, Lele; Zhai, Zhengxiao; Zhao, Wenjing; Sun, Zikui; Zhang, Yan; Meng, He; Dugarjaviin, Manglai

    2014-01-01

    Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3?M bp) and Mongolian horse (2?M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsonian translocation event through the wild horse's chromosomes 23 and 24, which contained sequences that were highly homologous with those on the domestic horse's chromosome 5. The four main types of rearrangement, insertion of unknown origin, inserted duplication, inversion, and relocation, are not evenly distributed on all the chromosomes, and some chromosomes, such as the X chromosome, contain more rearrangements than others, and the number of inversions is far less than the number of insertions and relocations in the horse genome. Furthermore, we discovered the percentages of LINE_L1 and LTR_ERV1 are significantly increased in rearrangement regions. The analysis results of the two representative Equus species genomes improved our knowledge of Equus chromosome rearrangement and karyotype evolution. PMID:24828444

  7. Impact of horse traffic on trails in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Summer, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Disturbances related to the impact of horses on trails in Rocky Mountain National Park vary across the landscape. Geomorphic monitoring of permanent sites suggests that horse traffic is not the single, dominant process active on trails, nor is degredation always a direct result of horse use. Instead, amounts and rates of change are a function of geomorphic and biologic characteristics of the terrain interacting with horse traffic of varying degrees. The most influential landscape factors governing trail deteriortion, rockiness, stoniness, vegetation, and drainage. - from Author

  8. Patterns of Horse-Rider Coordination during Endurance Race: A Dynamical System Approach

    PubMed Central

    Viry, Sylvain; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Frances, Jean-Philippe; Berton, Eric; Laurent, Michel; Nicol, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    In riding, most biomechanical studies have focused on the description of the horse locomotion in unridden condition. In this study, we draw the prospect of how the basic principles established in inter-personal coordination by the theory of Coordination Dynamics may provide a conceptual and methodological framework for understanding the horse-rider coupling. The recent development of mobile technologies allows combined horse and rider recordings during long lasting natural events such as endurance races. Six international horse-rider dyads were thus recorded during a 120 km race by using two tri-axial accelerometers placed on the horses and riders, respectively. The analysis concentrated on their combined vertical displacements. The obtained shapes and angles of Lissajous plots together with values of relative phase between horse and rider displacements at lower reversal point allowed us to characterize four coordination patterns, reflecting the use of two riding techniques per horse's gait (trot and canter). The present study shows that the concepts, methods and tools of self-organizing dynamic system approach offer new directions for understanding horse-rider coordination. The identification of the horse-rider coupling patterns constitutes a firm basis to further study the coalition of multiple constraints that determine their emergence and their dynamics in endurance race. PMID:23940788

  9. Factors affecting clinical assessment of insulin sensitivity in horses.

    PubMed

    Firshman, A M; Valberg, S J

    2007-11-01

    Insulin resistance is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of many equine conditions such as pars intermedia dysfunction, equine metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipaemia, laminitis, endotoxaemia and osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD); whereas polysaccharide storage myopathy in Quarter Horses and equine motor neuron disease (EMD) have been associated with increased insulin sensitivity. However, it is clear that there is not one ideal test, in terms of both practicality and accuracy, for evaluating insulin sensitivity in horses and improved diagnostic techniques are required. This review sets out the background to the subject and identifies current knowledge regarding the measurement of insulin sensitivity by tolerance testing and clamping techniques. Factors affecting insulin sensitivity, such as breed, pregnancy, lactation, obesity and nutritional factors are discussed. In addition, the relationship with training, nutritional supplementation and drug administration are considered. PMID:18065318

  10. Anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin given intramuscularly in horses.

    PubMed

    DiPietro, J A; Todd, K S; Lock, T F; McPherron, T A

    1982-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of ivermectin was evaluated in 18 female horses with naturally acquired parasitic infections. Horses were treated once (IM) with vehicle only (n = 6), 200 microgram/kg of body weight (n = 6), and 300 microgram/kg (n = 6). Efficacy of both dosages of ivermectin was greater than 99% against Gasterophilus spp, 100% against Trichostrongylus axei, Habronema muscae, H majus, and Draschia megastoma, 98% to 99% against adult cyathostomes, 86% to 97% against 4th-stage cyathostomes, and 100% against adult large strongyles. Although ivermectin was incomplete in its activity against arterial stages of Strongylus vulgaris, it was effective against microfilariae of Onchocerca spp. Adverse local or systemic reactions were not observed due to treatment with ivermectin. PMID:6896407

  11. [Preliminary performance test in saddle horses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    van der Mey, G J; Bos, H

    1975-12-01

    The study of the literature on a preliminary performance test for saddle horses (stallions) is concerned with European countries. Interest is found to be increasing in the various countries. Performance of the test in the Netherlands (since 1966) is described and the various criteria of evaluation are discussed in detail. The intensity of selection based on this test is referred to. In 1974, it was 78 per cent in the Netherlands. Part of studies on the relationship between some results of testing are reviewed. The traction test shows a very low coefficient of correlation with the other parts of the examination. The contemplated analysis of the results of progeny groups is discussed. In the comment, the fact is stressed that there should be more international co-operation in this field. Finally, the preliminary performance test is considered as part of the criteria adopted in the selection of saddle horses in the future. PMID:1202651

  12. Endoscopic examination of the carpal flexor tendon sheath in horses.

    PubMed

    Cauvin, E R; Munroe, G A; Boyd, J S

    1997-11-01

    This study was undertaken to design a safe technique to examine the carpal flexor tendon sheath (carpal sheath) of horses endoscopically, using an arthroscope. The limbs from 15 horses were used to study the normal anatomy of the carpal sheath and related structures, establish a safe approach and endoscopic technique, and determine the normal endoscopic appearance of the sheath. Major arteries, veins and nerves, present within and around the sheath, left few 'safe' areas to insert the endoscope. Several portals were assessed and a distal lateral approach was found to be safest and to allow adequate visualisation of most of the sheath. The surgical technique and normal endoscopic findings are described in detail and discussed. PMID:9413719

  13. A Genome Scan for Positive Selection in Thoroughbred Horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingjing Gu; Nick Orr; Stephen D. Park; Lisa M. Katz; Galina Sulimova; David E. MacHugh; Emmeline W. Hill; Cecile Fairhead

    2009-01-01

    Thoroughbred horses have been selected for exceptional racing performance resulting in system-wide structural and functional adaptations contributing to elite athletic phenotypes. Because selection has been recent and intense in a closed population that stems from a small number of founder animals Thoroughbreds represent a unique population within which to identify genomic contributions to exercise-related traits. Employing a population genetics-based hitchhiking

  14. Latherin: a surfactant protein of horse sweat and saliva.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Rhona E; Fleming, Rachel I; Beeley, John G; Bovell, Douglas L; Lu, Jian R; Zhao, Xiubo; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2009-01-01

    Horses are unusual in producing protein-rich sweat for thermoregulation, a major component of which is latherin, a highly surface-active, non-glycosylated protein. The amino acid sequence of latherin, determined from cDNA analysis, is highly conserved across four geographically dispersed equid species (horse, zebra, onager, ass), and is similar to a family of proteins only found previously in the oral cavity and associated tissues of mammals. Latherin produces a significant reduction in water surface tension at low concentrations (< or = 1 mg ml(-1)), and therefore probably acts as a wetting agent to facilitate evaporative cooling through a waterproofed pelt. Neutron reflection experiments indicate that this detergent-like activity is associated with the formation of a dense protein layer, about 10 A thick, at the air-water interface. However, biophysical characterization (circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry) in solution shows that latherin behaves like a typical globular protein, although with unusual intrinsic fluorescence characteristics, suggesting that significant conformational change or unfolding of the protein is required for assembly of the air-water interfacial layer. RT-PCR screening revealed latherin transcripts in horse skin and salivary gland but in no other tissues. Recombinant latherin produced in bacteria was also found to be the target of IgE antibody from horse-allergic subjects. Equids therefore may have adapted an oral/salivary mucosal protein for two purposes peculiar to their lifestyle, namely their need for rapid and efficient heat dissipation and their specialisation for masticating and processing large quantities of dry food material. PMID:19478940

  15. Genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships of the Polish Heavy Horse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewa Iwa?czyk; Rytis Juras; Grzegorz Cholewi?ski; E. Gus Cothran

    2006-01-01

    In this study a wide range of genetic markers (12 microsatellites, 7 blood-group loci, 10 blood-protein loci) and mitochondrial\\u000a DNA (mtDNA) were used to assess genetic diversity in Polish Heavy horses. Three random samples were sequenced for 421 bp of\\u000a the mitochondrial D-loop region, but no clear phylogenetic patterns were seen in mtDNA variation. Both heterozygosity and\\u000a diversity levels are

  16. MICROSATELLITES VARIATIONS IN ROMANIAN THOROUGHBRED AND ARABIAN HORSE POPULATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgescu Sergiu Emil; Condac Eduard; Rebedea Mariana; Dinischiotu Anca; Tesio C lin Dumitru; Costache Marieta

    2005-01-01

    The use of PCR technology for analyzing microsattelites is increasing every day. Microsatellite markers are evenly distributed across genome and can be identified within DNA samples using PCR. Genetic diversity between Thoroughbred and Arabian horse populations were analyzed using 12 microsatellite markers. The DNA loci analyzed - AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, HMS2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, HTG10 and VHL20

  17. Applied load on the horse's back under racing conditions.

    PubMed

    Geser-von Peinen, Katja; Latif, Selma N; Wiestner, Thomas; Bitschnau, Caroline; Renk, Brigitte; Weishaupt, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    With the intention of limiting the weight on horses' backs and guaranteeing maximal freedom of movement, commonly used racing saddles are small and have minimal cushioning. Poor saddle cushioning may limit performance or even affect soundness of the back. The aim of this study was to measure the pressure under an average racing saddle ridden by a jockey at racing speed. Saddle pressure using a medium-sized racing saddle (length 37 cm, weight 450 g) was measured in five actively racing Thoroughbred horses. All horses were trained at the same facility and ridden by their usual professional jockey, weighing 60 kg. The horses were ridden on a race track at canter (mean velocity, V1 ± standard deviation, SD: 7.7 ± 0.4m/s) and gallop (V2 ± SD: 14.0 ± 0.7 m/s). Maximal pressure was 134 kPa at V1 and 116 kPa at V2. Mean peak pressure was 73.6 kPa at V1 and 54.8 kPa at V2. The maximal total force did not differ between the two velocities and was approximately twice the jockey's bodyweight. The centre of pressure lateral range of motion differed significantly, with excursions of 23 mm at V1 and 37 mm at V2; longitudinal excursion was 13 mm for V1 and 14 mm for V2. The highest pressure (>35 kPa) was always localised along the spinous processes over an average length of 12.5 cm. It was concluded that racing saddles exert high peak pressures over bony prominences known to be sensitive to pressure. PMID:24246649

  18. 33. 20HORSE POWER VERTICAL BOILER WAS MANUFACTURED BY ORR & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. 20-HORSE POWER VERTICAL BOILER WAS MANUFACTURED BY ORR & SEMBOWER, FROM READING, PA. IT WAS INSTALLED IN 1929 TO REPLACE THE ORIGINAL BOILER. THE BOILER PROVIDED STEAM TO THE STEAM ENGINE. TO LUBRICATING THE DIE OF THE BRICK AUGER, AND TO THE STEAM PIPES OF THE DRYING ROOM ON THE FLOOR ABOVE. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  19. 1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A SMALL WINDOW. THE 4/4 DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW IS IN THE STORE ROOM. THE ROLLING DOOR WAS WIDENED, PROBABLY IN 1926, ELIMINATING THE ORIGINAL LOFT LADDER AT THE CORNER OF THE BUILDING. THE PUBLIC RESTROOM NEAR THE LEFT EDGE OF THE VIEW DOES NOT RELATE TO THE RANGER STATION. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  20. Evaluation of purified horse serum butyrylcholinesterase in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Genovese; X. C. M. Lu; M. K. Gentry; R. Larrison

    1993-01-01

    We examined the effects of purified horse serum butyrylcholinesterasc (BChE) to further investigate its potential use as a prophylaxis therapy against organophosphorus toxicity. Rats were trained to lever-press for food under a variable interval 18 s (VI18) schedule of reinforcement which produced relatively fast and constant response rates throughout daily 30-min sessions. One group received BChE (500 U), IP, prior

  1. Granulomatous colitis associated with small strongyle larvae in a horse.

    PubMed

    Jasko, D J; Roth, L

    1984-09-01

    Horses presented with chronic weight loss are difficult to manage clinically. A diagnosis of granulomatous colitis due to mucosal stages of cyathostomes (small strongyles) should be considered in those cases exhibiting weight loss, intermittent diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia, increased serum globulins, and low fecal egg counts. Treatment can be attempted with larva-cidal doses of fenbendazole or ivermectin. Clinical and necropsy findings in one such case are presented. PMID:6480477

  2. A study of Streptococcus equi in the horse

    E-print Network

    Evers, Warren Dean

    1966-01-01

    and Barner, strangles in the horse was described by Solleysel in 1664. Lafosse recognized the contagious nature of the disease in 1790. Viborg, in 1802, described his dem- onstration of the transmissability of strangles through the use of nasal 19 pus.... Pyosepticemia and septic arthritis have been reported in 17, 18, 29 foals. "The streptococci on reaching the surface of the nasal mucosa, colonize and multiply. The organisms either penetrate the mucous glands or are carried through the epithelium...

  3. Sardine and horse mackerel recruitment and upwelling off Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Miguel; P. Santos; Maria de Fatima Borges; Steve Groom

    2001-01-01

    The results of preliminary investigations on the possible relationships between coastal upwelling variability observed with satellite remote sensing, and sardine and horse mackerel recruitment dynamics in the west coast of Portugal are presented. The analysis of a sardine-recruitment time-series for the period 1976-1998 shows that there has been a decreasing trend since 1983 (with the exceptions of 1991 and 1992),

  4. Comparison of pharmacopuncture, aquapuncture and acepromazine for sedation of horses.

    PubMed

    Luna, Stelio P L; Angeli, Ana L; Ferreira, Cristiane L; Lettry, Vivien; Scognamillo-Szabó, Márcia

    2008-09-01

    Pharmacopuncture, the injection of subclinical doses of drugs into acupoints reduces drug undesirable side effects, residues in animal consumption products and treatment costs in large animals. Acepromazine (Acp) produces several undesirable effects, such as hypotension. Previous studies with the injection of 1/10 of Acp dose in dog acupoints showed its advantage for sedation, minimizing undesirable effects. Eight horses were randomly submitted to four different treatment protocols according to a Latin Square double-blind design: (i) 0.1 ml kg(-1) of saline subcutaneously injected at the cervical region, (ii) 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Acp injected subcutaneously at the cervical region, (iii) 0.01 ml kg(-1) of saline injected into GV1 acupoint (aquapuncture) and (iv) 0.01 mg kg(-1) of Acp injected into GV1 acupoint (pharmacopuncture). Heart rate, respiratory rate, head height and degree of sedation were measured before and at 30, 60 and 90 min after treatments. Signs of sedation were observed in all treated groups at 30 min and only in 1/10Acp-GV1 at 60 min after the treatments. Only the group treated with 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Acp s.c. had significantly lower values of head height at 30 min. Respiratory rate tended to reduce in all groups but was significantly lower only in horses treated with 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Acp s.c. Heart rate remained unchanged in all groups. Acp-pharmacopuncture on GV1 in horses produced a mild sedation when compared with the conventional dose of Acp. More investigations are necessary to determine the optimal dosage of Acp-pharmacopuncture for sedation in horses. PMID:18830446

  5. West Nile Virus Antibody Prevalence in Horses in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Ute; Skrypnyk, Artem; Keller, Markus; Staubach, Christoph; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Damiani, Armando M.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Groschup, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus of global importance. Over the last two decades, it has been responsible for significant numbers of cases of illness in humans and animals in many parts of the world. In Ukraine, WNV infections in humans and birds were first reported more than 25 years ago, yet the current epidemiological status is quite unclear. In this study, serum samples from over 300 equines were collected and screened in order to detect current WNV activity in Ukraine with the goal to estimate the risk of infection for humans and horses. Sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization assay (NT) to detect WNV-specific antibodies. The results clearly revealed that WNV circulates in most of the regions from which samples were obtained, shown by a WNV seroprevalence rate of 13.5% of examined horses. This is the first topical report indicating the presence of WNV infections in horses in Ukraine, and the results of this study provide evidence of a widespread WNV circulation in this country. PMID:24100889

  6. Age-related changes in genomic stability of horses.

    PubMed

    Wnuk, Maciej; Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika; Lewinska, Anna; Oklejewicz, Bernadetta; Zabek, Tomasz; Bartosz, Grzegorz; S?ota, Ewa

    2011-05-01

    Recently, the old horse has been proposed as a model to study telomere-dependent senescence, immunosenescence and inflamm-aging. In the present paper, we used 80 Hucul and Anglo-Arabian horses divided into 3 age groups (juvenile, adult, old) to evaluate age-dependent changes at the genomic and DNA level and in cell proliferative potential. The level of positive TUNEL cells (both apoptotic and with DNA fragmentation), oxidative DNA damage (8-oxoG immunostaining), sister chromatid exchange and bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks were significantly increased in the combined old group compared to the combined adult group. We observed a negative correlation between micronuclei formation and age, which may be associated with damaged cells undergoing apoptosis, rather than expressing micronuclei. We were unable to show any significant changes in the nuclear division index value, which reflects the proliferative status of the viable cell fraction during aging. Here, we show that breed-independent and age-associated changes in genomic stability may contribute, at least in part, to the aging process in the horse. PMID:21557962

  7. Mitochondrial D-loop sequence variation among Italian horse breeds

    PubMed Central

    Cozzi, Maria Cristina; Strillacci, Maria Giuseppina; Valiati, Paolo; Bighignoli, Barbara; Cancedda, Mario; Zanotti, Marta

    2004-01-01

    The genetic variability of the mitochondrial D-loop DNA sequence in seven horse breeds bred in Italy (Giara, Haflinger, Italian trotter, Lipizzan, Maremmano, Thoroughbred and Sarcidano) was analysed. Five unrelated horses were chosen in each breed and twenty-two haplotypes were identified. The sequences obtained were aligned and compared with a reference sequence and with 27 mtDNA D-loop sequences selected in the GenBank database, representing Spanish, Portuguese, North African, wild horses and an Equus asinus sequence as the outgroup. Kimura two-parameter distances were calculated and a cluster analysis using the Neighbour-joining method was performed to obtain phylogenetic trees among breeds bred in Italy and among Italian and foreign breeds. The cluster analysis indicates that all the breeds but Giara are divided in the two trees, and no clear relationships were revealed between Italian populations and the other breeds. These results could be interpreted as showing the mixed origin of breeds bred in Italy and probably indicate the presence of many ancient maternal lineages with high diversity in mtDNA sequences. PMID:15496286

  8. Copper-associated hepatic cirrhosis in a Friesian horse.

    PubMed

    Ankringa, Nynke; Wijnberg, Inge D; Boerma, Siebren; Ijzer, Jooske

    2012-05-01

    A 6-year-old Friesian stallion was examined because of signs of exercise intolerance, stiff gait and symmetrical hind weakness, and increased serum liver enzymes. On presentation, the horse showed muscle atrophy of the hindquarters. Neurological investigation showed no abnormalities. Laboratory findings revealed a prolonged prothrombin time and increased levels of alkaline phosphatase (AF), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and bile acids. Histological evaluation of the liver revealed severe cirrhosis and intracytoplasmic greyish brown granules in almost all hepatocytes, sinusoidal Kuppfer cells, and macrophages. These granules stained strongly for copper. Treatment to slow hepatic fibrosis was advised and included oral prednisolone administration for at least 1 month. A diet to support liver function was formulated by a nutritional specialist, and vitamin E was advised as dietary supplement to support neuromuscular function. Soon after diagnosis, the animal showed signs of intravascular haemolysis, with the presence of Heinz bodies in peripheral blood smears, and haemoglobinuria. On the basis of this haemolytic crisis and the poor prognosis of the chronic hepatic disease, the horse was euthanized at the owners' request. Although we could not establish the cause of the hepatic copper accumulation, this case report highlights that excessive copper in the liver should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatic cirrhosis and Heinz body anaemia in the horse. PMID:22667176

  9. Random X inactivation in the mule and horse placenta

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Miller, Donald C.; Clark, Andrew G.; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2012-01-01

    In eutherian mammals, dosage compensation of X-linked genes is achieved by X chromosome inactivation. X inactivation is random in embryonic and adult tissues, but imprinted X inactivation (paternal X silencing) has been identified in the extra-embryonic membranes of the mouse, rat, and cow. Few other species have been studied for this trait, and the data from studies of the human placenta have been discordant or inconclusive. Here, we quantify X inactivation using RNA sequencing of placental tissue from reciprocal hybrids of horse and donkey (mule and hinny). In placental tissue from the equid hybrids and the horse parent, the allelic expression pattern was consistent with random X inactivation, and imprinted X inactivation can clearly be excluded. We characterized horse and donkey XIST gene and demonstrated that XIST allelic expression in female hybrid placental and fetal tissues is negatively correlated with the other X-linked genes chromosome-wide, which is consistent with the XIST-mediated mechanism of X inactivation discovered previously in mice. As the most structurally and morphologically diverse organ in mammals, the placenta also appears to show diverse mechanisms for dosage compensation that may result in differences in conceptus development across species. PMID:22645258

  10. Peripheral serotoninergic response to physical exercise in athletic horses.

    PubMed

    Alberghina, Daniela; Giannetto, Claudia; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of exercise on plasma tryptophan (TRP) and free serotonin (f5-HT), whole blood-5-HT (WB-5-HT) and f5-HT/WB-5-HT ratio in Italian Saddle horses. Six clinically healthy Italian Saddle horses were subjected to a 450 meters obstacles course. Blood samples were collected from each horse by jugular venipuncture using vacutainer tubes with K(3)-EDTA at rest, immediately after exercise, and after 30 min. TRP, f5-HT and WB-5-HT were analyzed by HPLC. Immediately after exercise, statistically significant increases of f5-HT (p <0.001) and WB-5-HT (p <0.001) were observed. After 30 min, f5-HT and WB-5-HT decreased compared to immediately after exercise, but were still significantly higher than rest values (p <0.01 and p <0.05, respectively). A significant linear regression between f5-HT and WB-5-HT was observed during experimental conditions. f5-HT and WB-5-HT modifications after exercise suggest an important role of peripheral serotoninergic markers in response to physical activity. The possible source of extra serotonin detected after show jumping should be clarified by further investigation. PMID:21113096

  11. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

  12. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

    2014-09-01

    Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

  13. The current 'state of play' of regenerative medicine in horses: what the horse can tell the human.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger Kw; Garvican, Elaine R; Fortier, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    The horse is an attractive model for many human age-related degenerative diseases of the musculoskeletal system because it is a large animal species that both ages and exercises, and develops naturally occurring injuries with many similarities to the human counterpart. It therefore represents an ideal species to use as a 'proving ground' for new therapies, most notably regenerative medicine. Regenerative techniques using cell-based therapies for the treatment of equine musculoskeletal disease have been in use for over a decade. This review article provides a summary overview of the sources, current challenges and problems surrounding the use of stem cell and non-cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine in horses and is based on presentations from a recent Havemeyer symposium on equine regenerative medicine where speakers are selected from leading authorities in both equine and human regenerative medicine fields from 10 different countries. PMID:25372081

  14. Exertional rhabdomyolysis in quarter horses and thoroughbreds: one syndrome, multiple aetiologies.

    PubMed

    Valberg, S J; Mickelson, J R; Gallant, E M; MacLeay, J M; Lentz, L; de la Corte, F

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Quarter Horses and Thoroughbreds represents one or several distinct myopathies. Eighteen Quarter Horses and 18 Thoroughbreds with ER were selected from cases presented to the Veterinary Hospital on the basis of a history of ER, assessment of muscle histopathology, and serum CK activity before and 4 h post exercise. In addition, 2 of 3 of the following parameters were evaluated: muscle glycogen concentrations, thyroid hormones (T3, T4), fractional excretion (FE) of sodium, potassium and chloride. The CK response to training, the metabolic response to a near maximal standardised exercise test (SET), blood glucose concentrations after an i.v. glucose challenge and a skeletal muscle in vitro caffeine contracture test were performed on 5 of the Quarter Horses, selected because of polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM), and 5 of the Thoroughbreds. Serum T3 and T4 were all within normal limits. Low FE of sodium and potassium were seen in < 20% of Quarter Horses and Thoroughbreds. Four hours post exercise, CK was increased in 77% of Quarter Horses and 72% of Thoroughbreds with ER. Muscle glycogen concentrations in Quarter Horses with ER were significantly higher than in normal Quarter Horses and Thoroughbreds with ER. No Thoroughbreds, but 15/18 Quarter Horses with ER had abnormal polysaccharide accumulation in muscle biopsies consistent with a diagnosis of PSSM. PSSM Quarter Horses had higher CK activity during training than Thoroughbreds and higher glycogen utilisation with the SET. PSSM Quarter Horses also had significantly enhanced glucose clearance compared to normal Quarter Horses and Thoroughbreds with ER. Thoroughbreds with ER had significantly lower thresholds for caffeine-induced contracture than normal horses and PSSM Quarter Horses. It was concluded that there are multiple causes for exertional rhabdomyolysis. In Quarter Horses, rhabdomyolysis is commonly due to a glycogen storage disorder, PSSM, and is readily expressed in untrained horses. In Thoroughbreds, ER is commonly due to an underlying abnormality of muscle contraction. Rhabdomyolysis in Thoroughbreds, however, is only expressed intermittently when key stressors are present. PMID:10659313

  15. Mutations in MITF and PAX3 Cause “Splashed White” and Other White Spotting Phenotypes in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Blatter, Marlis; Brooks, Samantha A.; Burger, Dominik; Drögemüller, Cord; Gerber, Vincent; Henke, Diana; Janda, Jozef; Jude, Rony; Magdesian, K. Gary; Matthews, Jacqueline M.; Poncet, Pierre-André; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Tozaki, Teruaki; Wilkinson-White, Lorna; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Rieder, Stefan; Leeb, Tosso

    2012-01-01

    During fetal development neural-crest-derived melanoblasts migrate across the entire body surface and differentiate into melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells. Alterations in this precisely regulated process can lead to white spotting patterns. White spotting patterns in horses are a complex trait with a large phenotypic variance ranging from minimal white markings up to completely white horses. The “splashed white” pattern is primarily characterized by an extremely large blaze, often accompanied by extended white markings at the distal limbs and blue eyes. Some, but not all, splashed white horses are deaf. We analyzed a Quarter Horse family segregating for the splashed white coat color. Genome-wide linkage analysis in 31 horses gave a positive LOD score of 1.6 in a region on chromosome 6 containing the PAX3 gene. However, the linkage data were not in agreement with a monogenic inheritance of a single fully penetrant mutation. We sequenced the PAX3 gene and identified a missense mutation in some, but not all, splashed white Quarter Horses. Genome-wide association analysis indicated a potential second signal near MITF. We therefore sequenced the MITF gene and found a 10 bp insertion in the melanocyte-specific promoter. The MITF promoter variant was present in some splashed white Quarter Horses from the studied family, but also in splashed white horses from other horse breeds. Finally, we identified two additional non-synonymous mutations in the MITF gene in unrelated horses with white spotting phenotypes. Thus, several independent mutations in MITF and PAX3 together with known variants in the EDNRB and KIT genes explain a large proportion of horses with the more extreme white spotting phenotypes. PMID:22511888

  16. Myeloperoxidase concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and those with recurrent airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Art, Tatiana; Franck, Thierry; Lekeux, Pierre; de Moffarts, Brieuc; Couëtil, Laurent; Becker, Martine; Kohnen, Serge; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Serteyn, Didier

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to measure the myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid collected from horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), both in crisis and in remission, as well as from healthy horses. Seven horses with RAO were exposed to moldy hay until the maximum change in pleural pressure was greater than 1.5 kPa. At that point, BAL was performed, and the total cell counts and percentages in the fluid were immediately determined. To measure the MPO concentration in BAL-fluid supernatant, we used a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with polyclonal antibodies against equine MPO. The tests were repeated on the horses with RAO after they had spent 2 mo on pasture. Six healthy horses serving as controls underwent the same tests. The absolute and relative neutrophil counts and the MPO concentration in the BAL fluid were significantly greater in the horses with an RAO crisis than in the control horses. After 2 mo on pasture, the horses that had been in RAO crisis were clinically normal, and their neutrophil counts and MPO levels in BAL fluid had significantly decreased; during remission their neutrophil counts were not significantly different from those in the healthy horses, but their MPO concentration remained significantly higher. This study showed that determining the MPO concentration in a horse’s BAL fluid is technically possible and that during remission from RAO the concentration remains higher than normal. Thus, MPO may be a marker of neutrophil presence and activation in the lower airways. PMID:17042382

  17. Testing VHF/GPS collar design and safety in the study of free-roaming horses.

    PubMed

    Collins, Gail H; Petersen, Steven L; Carr, Craig A; Pielstick, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS) and very high frequency (VHF) radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness. PMID:25198704

  18. Influence of an active stable system on the behavior and body condition of Icelandic horses.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, G; Bentke, A; Rose-Meierhöfer, S; Berg, W; Mazetti, P; Hardarson, G H

    2012-10-01

    Horses are often stabled in individual boxes, a method that does not meet their natural needs and may cause psychical and musculoskeletal diseases. This problem is particularly evident in Iceland, where horses often spend the long winter periods in cramped boxes. The aim of this study was to analyze the suitability of a group housing system in Iceland, but the results are also applicable to horses of other regions. Eight Icelandic horses were observed in an active stable system, and their behavior and time budget were recorded. Movement and lying behavior were studied with ALT (Activity, Lying, Temperature detection) pedometers. The effect of an automatic concentrate feeding station (CFS) on the horses' behavior was examined. In the first period of investigation, the horses were fed concentrates manually, and in the second period, they were fed with the CFS. Additional behavioral observations and a determination of social hierarchy occurred directly or by video surveillance. The physical condition of the horses was recorded by body weight (BW) measurement and body condition scoring (BCS). The results showed a significant increase between the first and second trial periods in both the activity (P < 0.001) and the lying time (P = 0.003) of the horses with use of the CFS. However, there was no significant change in BW during the first period without the CFS (P = 0.884) or during the second period with the CFS (P = 0.540). The BCS of the horses was constant at a very good level during both trial periods, and the horses showed a low level of aggression, a firm social hierarchy and behavioral synchronization. This study concludes that group housing according to the active stable principle is a welfare-friendly option for keeping horses and is a suitable alternative to conventional individual boxes. PMID:22717220

  19. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghi, R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.; Duhl, T.; Daly, R.

    2012-10-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple (Malus sp.), horse chestnut (Aesculus carnea, "Ft. McNair"), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, "Sunburst"), and hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata, "Pauls Scarlet"). These species constitute ~ 65% of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees) from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10-C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS). Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the post-blooming state for crabapple and honey locust. The results were scaled to the dry mass of leaves and flowers contained in the enclosure. Only flower dry mass was accounted for crabapple emission rates as leaves appeared at the end of the flowering period. Total normalized (30 °C) monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.3 ?gC g-1 h-1) than after flowering (1.2 ?gC g-1 h-1). The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 ?gC g-1 h-1) during the flowering period is of the same order as isoprene emissions from oak trees, which are among the highest BVOC flowering period floral emissions observed from plants to date. These findings illustrate that during the relatively brief springtime flowering period, floral emissions constitute by far the most significant contribution to the BVOC flux from these tree species, some of which are leafless at this time. Experimental results were integrated into the MEGAN biogenic emission model and simulations were performed to estimate the contribution of floral BVOC emissions to the total urban BVOC flux during the spring flowering period. The floral BVOC emitted during this three-month simulation are equivalent to 11% of the integrated monoterpene flux for the Boulder urban area.

  20. The effect of increasing visual horizons on stereotypic weaving: implications for the social housing of stabled horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan J. Cooper; Lisa McDonald; Daniel S. Mills

    2000-01-01

    Stabled horses commonly perform stereotypic patterns of weaving, where the horse shifts its weight from side to side often swinging its head. Ten warm-blood types, of which five were known to reliably weave, were housed in similar 12×12 ft wooden loose boxes in a single stable block surrounding a courtyard. Each horse was exposed to each of five stable designs.

  1. Pilot study of behavior responses in young riding horses using 2 methods of making transitions from trot to walk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agneta Egenvall; Marie Eisersiö; Lars Roepstorff

    According to the principles of negative reinforcement, when an aid has been given to an animal, it should be released as soon as the desired response has been achieved, and, if performed well, may be associated with fewer conflict behaviors than otherwise. In riding, pressure in the horse’s mouth from the bit is used to give signals to the horse,

  2. 76 FR 30902 - Shasta Lake Management Unit, Shasta-Trinity National Forest; California; Green-Horse Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ...Shasta-Trinity National Forest; California; Green-Horse Habitat Restoration and Maintenance...approximately 41,816 acres under the Green-Horse Habitat Restoration and Maintenance...comments-pacificsouthwest-shasta-trinity@fs.fed.us with ``Green-Horse Habitat Restoration and...

  3. Estimating the Transmission Dynamics of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses S.R. REGG1

    E-print Network

    Barbour, Andrew

    Estimating the Transmission Dynamics of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses S.R. RÜEGG1 equi and Babesia caballi in a herd of 510 horses in SW Mongolia, several mathematical models of epidemiological field data. KEYWORDS Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, horses, tick borne disease, epidemiology

  4. Effect of Trace Mineral Supplementation on Gastric Ulcers in Exercising Yearling Horses 

    E-print Network

    Hayes, Alexa Dawn

    2010-10-12

    in exercising yearling horses. Twenty-one Quarter Horse yearlings, 15 to 18 mo of age, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups. The control group received no supplemental trace minerals, the inorganic group received supplemental sulfated trace minerals...

  5. The first large scale molecular study of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of species and genotypes of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in horses is poorly known. The present study examined feces from 195 horses, 1 month to 17 years of age, in 4 locations in Colombia. Prevalence and age distribution of Giardia and Cryptosporidium were determined by PCR. All PCR p...

  6. Correlations between the behavior of recreational horses, the physiological parameters and summer atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela; Zalewska, Edyta; Bocian, Krzysztof

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to select atmospheric factors and their values, which may disrupt the correct behavior and physiological condition of recreational horses. The studies were carried out from 1 July until 1 September on 16 Anglo-Arabian geldings. Each day, from 09.00 to 10.00 hours, the horses worked under saddle. The riders and the authors gave a qualitative behavioral assessment for each horse. Mood and willingness to work were evaluated. The quantitative assessment was called 'incorrect behavior of the horse while riding' (IBHR). The percentage time of duration and the number of occurrences of the features while riding were calculated. Heart rate, body temperature and respiratory rate were taken at 08.00 hours (resting measurement) and at 10.05 hours (post-exercise measurement). Air temperature, relative air humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure were measured at 08.00 and 10.00 hours. The results showed that adverse changes in the behavior of recreational horses can occur if the horse is ridden when the air temperature is above 26°C and when wind speeds exceed 5.5?m/s. Such conditions may cause a reduction in the mood and willingness to work in horses. Physiological parameters like heart rate and body temperature seem to be more sensitive indicators of the horse body reaction to the weather than behavioral reactions. PMID:25488802

  7. America's Wild Horses. Five Day Lesson Plan and Workbook--4th Grade. Legend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Arlene E.

    This document contains a teaching guide and a children's activity book about the wild horses and burros living on Nevada public lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). In 1971 Congress passed legislation to protect, manage, and control wild horses and burros on public lands. The BLM maintains 270 herd management areas in 10 states.…

  8. Copper and zinc balance in exercising horses fed two forms of mineral supplements 

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Elizabeth Lynn

    2009-05-15

    This study was undertaken to compare the absorption and retention of copper and zinc when supplemented to exercising horses in the form of sulfate or organic-chelate mineral supplements. Nine mature horses were used in a modified-switchback designed...

  9. Mitomycin C, with or without surgery, for the treatment of ocular squamous cell carcinoma in horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Malalana; D. Knottenbelt; S. McKane

    2010-01-01

    Ocular lesions in horses, confirmed as squamous cell carcinoma, were treated topically with mitomycin C. Fourteen horses with confirmed ocular squamous cell carcinoma, three of which were affected bilaterally, were included in the study. Eight of the affected eyes were treated topically with mitomycin C alone; in the other nine eyes, the tumours were surgically removed and topical treatment with

  10. Study of nitrogen digestion from different hays by the mobile nylon bag technique in horses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Study of nitrogen digestion from different hays by the mobile nylon bag technique in horses D digestibility of 7 hays of different qualities was measured by the mobile nylon bag technique (MNBT) in fistulated horses in the precaical part and the total digestive tract. The comparison between in sacco result

  11. Genetic characterization of the endangered Kiso horse using 31 microsatellite DNAs.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Masaki; Hiramatsu, Nana; Tozaki, Teruaki; Kakoi, Hironaga; Nakagawa, Takeru; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Huricha; Maeda, Masami; Murase, Tetsuma; Mukoyama, Harutaka

    2012-02-01

    In order to contribute to conservation of the endangered Kiso horse, we clarified their genetic information using 31 microsatellite DNAs, and genotyped 125 horses, 83% of the existing breed. First, we clarified the current status of the horses. The horses were confirmed to have experienced rapid loss of population causing a bottleneck, and their effective population size was much smaller than their census size. Moreover, the number of alleles (6.3), observed heterozygosity (0.674), and expected heterozygosity (0.662) were in the same range as other endangered horses all over the world. Therefore, although their inbreeding level was not so severe (F(is): -0.017), the Kiso horse is surely one of the endangered. Second, we obtained genetic information of individuals. This information allowed us to understand the genetic distance of individuals, and might help in development of a reproductive strategy concerning the genetic distance between the mating pairs. Moreover, there appeared to be 4 subpopulations of Kiso horse, and this result was in good agreement with their historical background. Third, we confirmed that the parentage test for identification using the 31 microsatellite DNAs was highly reliable (probability of exclusion: 0.999999993). This identification increases the reliability of stud certification, and is also helpful for effective management. Understanding the genetic diversity within the population and the relationships among individuals is important to ensuring effective management for maintenance of genetic variation, and this study may help in conservation of the endangered Kiso horse. PMID:21963881

  12. Effects induced by exercise on lymphocyte ?-adrenergic receptors and plasma catecholamine levels in performance horses.

    PubMed

    Cuniberti, B; Badino, P; Odore, R; Girardi, C; Re, G

    2012-02-01

    The effect of dynamic exercise on complete blood cell count, lymphocyte ?-adrenergic receptor and plasma catecholamine (adrenaline and noradrenaline) levels in horses performing different disciplines were investigated during rest and after exercise. Blood samples were collected from jumping horses (n=6), Arabian Endurance horses (n=6) and Standardbred trotters (n=6) before and immediately after competition. Dynamic exercise caused a significant increase in red blood cell count (Standardbred trotters: P=0.0012), haemoglobin concentration (jumping horses: P=0.001; Standardbred trotters: P=0.01), haematocrit percentage (Standardbred trotters: P=0.005), neutrophil percentage (jumping horses: P=0.0003), lymphocyte percentage (jumping horses: P=0.0003), monocyte percentage (Standardbred trotters: P=0.0008), lymphocyte ?-AR numbers (jumping horses: P=0.01; Arabian Endurance horses: P=0.016; Standardbred trotters: P=0.05), plasma adrenaline concentration (Standardbred trotters: P=0.0001) and plasma noradrenaline levels (Standardbred trotters: P=0.003). It is concluded that acute increases in plasma catecholamine concentrations depended on the exercise performed and may induce up-regulation of ?-AR in equine lymphocytes. However, the exact mechanism of ?-AR up-regulation still remains unclear. PMID:21168179

  13. Comparative ergoespirometric adaptations to a treadmill exercise test in untrained show Andalusian and Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Castejón-Riber, Cristina; Muñoz, Ana; Trigo, Pablo; Riber, Cristina; Santisteban, Rafael; Castejón, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Significant differences exist in the respiratory adaptation to exercise in different equine breeds. This research describes the ergoespirometric response to exercise of Andalusian (AN) and Arabian (A) horses, both selected according to morphological criteria. Thirteen untrained male horses (6 AN and 7 A) performed a treadmill exercise test (TET) with a slope of 6%, with workloads starting from 5 m/s and increasing 1 m/s every 3 min until the horses were not able to keep the required velocity. Tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate, minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), exercise time to fatigue (ETF) and respiratory aerobic threshold (RAT) were determined. AN horses presented higher TV and VE, whereas respiratory rate, VO2 and VCO2 were lower at the same velocities. RER was similar between breeds. ETF was longer in A horses (556.7?±?66.5 in AN vs. 607.1?±?71.1 s in A) and no significant differences were found in RAT (5.50?±?0.50 in AN vs. 5.86?±?1.07 m/s in A). In summary, despite the more intense ventilatory response to exercise at the same velocity, AN horses had lower VO2. The AN horse develops a more intense ventilatory response to fixed velocities than the A horse and it could be interesting to clarify the role of the locomotion characteristics in this response. PMID:22183731

  14. Evaluation of high functional avidity CTL to Gag epitope clusters in EIAV carrier horses

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chungwon; Mealey, Robert H.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2012-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are critical for lentivirus control including EIAV. Since CTL from most EIAV carrier horses recognize Gag epitope clusters (EC), the hypothesis that carrier horses would have high functional avidity CTL to optimal epitopes in Gag EC was tested. Twenty-two optimal EC epitopes were identified; two in EC1, six in EC2, and seven each in EC3 and 4. However, only five of nine horses had high functional avidity CTL (?11 nM) recognizing six epitopes in EC; four in relatively conserved EC3; and one each in EC1 and 2. Horses with high functional avidity CTL had significantly more days since the last clinical episode than horses with low avidity CTL, and this was not explained by analyzing duration of infection. Furthermore, there was a significant inverse correlation between the CTL functional avidity of the nine horses and the days since the last clinical episode. Gag CTL epitope escape variants were found in three horses, but only one of these was recognized by high functional avidity CTL. Thus, not all carrier horses had high functional avidity CTL to Gag EC, but those that did had longer periods without disease episodes. PMID:16139857

  15. Problems in quantifying bone response to exercise in horses: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EC Firth

    2004-01-01

    Detecting changes in bone during growth, training, rest from competition (spelling), and disease in horses requires imaging techniques that have a high level of accuracy and precision. Currently, most imaging techniques used in horses do not possess such characteristics and are more suitable for detecting endstage disease than subtle changes. Some are incapable of detecting changes in bone size. Non-planar

  16. Effects of feral horses in Great Basin landscapes on soils and ants: Direct and indirect mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.; Herrick, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    We compared soil-surface penetration resistance and abundance of ant mounds at 12 western Great Basin sites (composed of 19 plots) either grazed by feral horses (Equus caballus) or having had horses removed for the last 10-14 years. Across this broad spatial domain (3.03 million ha), we minimized confounding due to abiotic factors by selecting horse-occupied and horse-removed sites with similar aspect, slope, fire history, grazing pressure by cattle (minimal to none), and dominant vegetation (Artemisia tridentata). During both 1997 and 1998, we found 2.2-8.4 times greater abundance of ant mounds and 3.0-15.4 times lower penetration resistance in soil surfaces at horse-removed sites. In 1998, thatched Formica ant mounds, which existed predominately at high elevations, were 3.3 times more abundant at horse-removed sites, although abundance varied widely among sites within treatments. Several types of analyses suggested that horses rather than environmental variability were the primary source of treatment differences we observed in ecosystem components. Tests of several predictions suggest that alterations occurred through not only direct effects, but also indirect effects and potentially feedback loops. Free-roaming horses as well as domestic grazers should be considered in conservation planning and land management in the Great Basin, an ecoregion that represents both an outstanding conservation opportunity and challenge.

  17. Fertility control using intrauterine devices: An alternative for population control in wild horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. F. Daels; J. P. Hughes

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a contraceptive method for feral horses. The feral horse population has increased significantly in recent years despite attempts to control numbers. As in most wild animal population control programs, contraceptive methods must be easy to apply, cause minimal disruption to the social structure and be fully reversible. In the present study, we

  18. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis caused by Neospora hughesi in an adult horse in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K; Godson, Dale L; Rejmanek, Daniel; Dowling, Patricia

    2009-08-01

    A protozoal parasite identified as Neospora hughesi was found in inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system of a Canadian-born adult horse presented with neurological signs. This is believed to be the first case of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) caused by Neospora hughesi in a horse outside of the United States. PMID:19881924

  19. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis caused by Neospora hughesi in an adult horse in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Wobeser, Bruce K.; Godson, Dale L.; Rejmanek, Daniel; Dowling, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    A protozoal parasite identified as Neospora hughesi was found in inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system of a Canadian-born adult horse presented with neurological signs. This is believed to be the first case of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) caused by Neospora hughesi in a horse outside of the United States. PMID:19881924

  20. [Attack of black flies (Diptera, Simuliidae) on horses in Basel (Switzerland)].

    PubMed

    Glatthaar, R

    1997-01-01

    In April 1996 an attack of black flies (Diptera, Simuliidae) to horses was observed in the region of Basle, Switzerland. Females of Simulium erythrocephalum and Simulium ornatum were involved in this attack, part of them had taken a blood meal. For S. ornatum this is the first record in Switzerland that this species takes blood meals on horses. PMID:9411729

  1. Copper and zinc balance in exercising horses fed two forms of mineral supplements

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Elizabeth Lynn

    2009-05-15

    This study was undertaken to compare the absorption and retention of copper and zinc when supplemented to exercising horses in the form of sulfate or organic-chelate mineral supplements. Nine mature horses were used in a modified-switchback designed...

  2. Long-Term Efficacy of Three Contraceptive Approaches for Population Control of Wild Horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Killian; Nancy K. Diehl; Lowell Miller; Jack Rhyan

    Controlling fertility of feral horses through the use of long-acting contraceptives or sterilization approaches has been championed as a reasonable and humane solution for addressing overpopulation problems in several western states. However, methods to accomplish long-term contraceptive efficacy of horses following a single treatment have been lacking. In fall 2002 and spring 2003, we initiated a study to compare the

  3. Osteochondral fragmentation of the plantar/palmar proximal aspect of the proximal phalanx in racing horses.

    PubMed

    Whitton, R C; Kannegieter, N J

    1994-10-01

    The clinical presentation and outcome of treatment is presented for 26 cases of osteochondral fragmentation of the plantar/palmar proximal aspect of the proximal phalanx. Twenty-three were racing Standardbreds and three were racing Thoroughbreds. The most common reason for presentation was an inability to run straight at high speed. Only eight horses presented for lameness, although on examination 19 were lame. A positive flexion test was recorded in 90% of affected fetlock joints and effusion in 48%. Arthroscopic fragment removal was performed on 23 occasions in 21 horses and arthrotomy in one horse. Of the 16 horses that had returned to racing, 12 had improved their performance, while three showed no improvement, and one was retired for other reasons. In three horses refragmentation occurred after surgery, two of which had improved after initial arthroscopic removal. Degenerative changes within the fetlock joint were detected at surgery in eight horses. Of the four horses treated conservatively, one returned to its previous level of performance temporarily after intra-articular medication, one showed no improvement and two were still resting. Plantar/palmar osteochondral fragmentation of the proximal aspect of the first phalanx is a common cause of low-grade lameness in racing horses, and arthroscopic removal results in improvement in race performance in a high percentage of cases. PMID:7848178

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Taylorella equigenitalis Strain MCE529, Isolated from a Belgian Warmblood Horse

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Laurent; Touzain, Fabrice; de Boisséson, Claire; Breuil, Marie-France; Duquesne, Fabien; Laugier, Claire; Blanchard, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    Taylorella equigenitalis is the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM), a sexually transmitted infection of horses. We herein report the genome sequence of T. equigenitalis strain MCE529, isolated in 2009 from the urethral fossa of a 15-year-old Belgian Warmblood horse in France. PMID:25428969

  5. 67 FR 61293 - Standards for Permanent, Privately Owned Horse Quarantine Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-09-30

    We are reopening the comment period for our proposed rule that would amend the regulations pertaining to the importation of horses to establish standards for the approval of permanent, privately owned quarantine facilities for horses. This action will allow interested persons additional time to prepare and submit...

  6. Ancient DNA reveals traces of Iberian Neolithic and Bronze Age lineages in modern Iberian horses

    E-print Network

    Ancient DNA reveals traces of Iberian Neolithic and Bronze Age lineages in modern Iberian horses this hypothesis, we analysed mitochondrial DNA from 22 ancient Iberian horse remains belonging to the Neolithic sequence appeared in the D1 group. Neolithic and Bronze Age sequences grouped in other clusters, one

  7. Variations in systemic and pulmonary endothelin-1 in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves).

    PubMed

    Benamou, A E; Art, T; Marlin, D J; Roberts, C A; Lekeux, P

    1998-01-01

    Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is an asthma-like condition of the horse that represents a major cause of morbidity and loss of performance. The exact pathogenesis of asthma in man is unclear but the role of endothelin (ET) is currently under investigation, thus sparking interest in the bronchoconstrictive and vasoconstrictive properties of endothelin in the equine-specific disease entity. In this study, we investigated the levels of ET-1 in systemic blood, as well as in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from horses with RAO. We also studied how these values might correlate with those of lung function tests and pulmonary artery pressure. Five horses with RAO were evaluated both in remission and in crisis and compared to five control horses. RAO horses had significantly (P<0.05) higher systemic ET-1 levels than control horses. They also had a negative arteriovenous ET-1 difference that may correspond to a net uptake of ET-1 in the lung. RAO horses in crisis had increased amounts of immunoreactive ET in BAL fluid compared to normal control subjects. Additionally, the reduction in lung function seen in RAO horses in crisis was significantly correlated with lower epithelial lining fluid ET-1 levels. Our results demonstrate that endothelin may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. PMID:9918762

  8. SADDLE HORSE AND OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS' PERCEPTIONS OF 4-H CLUB WORK IN OHIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROVES, ROBERT H.

    PERCEPTIONS AND UNDERSTANDINGS OF 4-H OBJECTIVES AND PROGRAMS OF 4-H SADDLE HORSE ADVISORS WERE COMPARED WITH THOSE OF OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS IN NORTHEASTERN AND SOUTHWESTERN DISTRICTS OF OHIO. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY QUESTIONNAIRES FROM 90 SADDLE HORSE AND 133 OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS. STATE 4-H STAFF AND SUPERVISORS PROVIDED CORRECT ANSWERS.…

  9. Studies of apparent digestibility in horses and the use of internal markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Miraglia; D Bergero; B Bassano; M Tarantola; G Ladetto

    1999-01-01

    The digestibility of horse feeds and rations can be determined by means of different techniques: calculations from the chemical composition of feeds, in vitro and in vivo methods. The aim of this research is to compare indigestible internal markers (acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and acid detergent lignin (ADL)) and total collection techniques for apparent digestibility estimation in horses. Analyses were carried

  10. Feeding and Caring for a Two-Year-Old 4-H Futurity Horse

    E-print Network

    Antilley, Teri J.; Sigler, Dennis

    2009-05-15

    Feeding and Caring for a 2-Year-Old 4-H Futurity Horse Teri Antilley and Dennis Sigler B-6225 5-09 *Extension Program Specialist?Equine, and Professor and Extension Horse Specialist The Texas A&M University System i TEXAS AGRILIFE EXTENSION...

  11. Virginia 4-H Horse Activities for K-3 Youth Knocking Off the Dirt!

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    the horse clean; it also relaxes them and allows you to look for injuries, parasites, or skin conditions or the face, where the skin is thin, since this can be painful. Brush can be "hard" (stiff) or "soft-making, Criti- cal thinking, Disease prevention Tags: Cloverbud, horse, grooming Time Needed: 30 minutes (can

  12. Thermal environment in a four-horse slant-load trailer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information has been published describing thermal conditions in horse trailers while in transit. Dry bulb temperature (Tdb), globe temperature (Tg), and relative humidity (RH) were measured in ten locations within a fully enclosed four-horse slant-load trailer with and without animals to asse...

  13. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks: A preliminary survey of Central Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizio Passamonti; Veronesi Fabrizia; Cappelli Katia; Capomaccio Stefano; Coppola Giacomo; Marenzoni Maria Luisa; Piergili Fioretti Daniela; Verini Supplizi Andrea; Coletti Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. In this work we compared direct and indirect methods to evaluate A. phagocytophilum presence in Central Italy: 135 sera were screened by IFA for A. phagocytophilum and other haemopathogens (Theileria equi and Babesia caballi). Each horse was also tested for A. phagocytophilum

  14. Larval viability and serological response in horses with long term Trichinella infection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, 35 horses were infected with 1000, 5000, or 10,000 T. spiralis muscle larvae and the course of infection was followed for 1 year. Larval burdens in selected muscles, the condition and infectivity of larvae in tissue, and the serological response of infected horses were assessed. The ...

  15. Salmonella spp. fecal shedding detected by real-time PCR in competing endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Fielding, C Langdon; Meier, Chloe A; Magdesian, K Gary; Pusterla, Nicola

    2013-09-01

    Fecal shedding of Salmonella spp. was recently documented in 8% of endurance horses presented to equine referral centers for colic. Previous studies have documented fecal shedding of Salmonella spp. in as few as 0.8% of the general horse population, although horses with colic appear to be at higher risk. Fecal Salmonella spp. shedding before and after endurance horse competitions has not been evaluated. Fecal samples were collected from 204 horses during three separate 100 mile endurance competitions. Following incubation in selenite broth, 289 fecal samples were tested by real-time PCR analysis for Salmonella spp. Only one post-race sample (0.5% tested positive for Salmonella spp. in this study and no pre-race sample was available from this horse. Results suggest that fecal shedding of Salmonella spp. is uncommon in endurance horses during competitions. Further research is needed to confirm and identify the source of Salmonella spp. infection in endurance horses with colic requiring treatment at referral centers. PMID:23810741

  16. The use of oral endoscopy for detection of cheek teeth abnormalities in 300 horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hubert Simhofer; Robert Griss; Karl Zetner

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate an endoscopic examination protocol for routine dental examination in horses. The oral cavities of 300 standing, sedated horses were examined under field and hospital conditions with a rigid endoscope using a standardised technique that included examination of the occlusal, lingual (palatal) and buccal surfaces of all cheek teeth rows. The most

  17. Endotoxin concentrations within the breathing zone of horses are higher in stables than on pasture.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Annerose; Derksen, Frederik J; Edward Robinson, N

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory airway disease is common in stabled horses, with a prevalence of 17.3% in Michigan pleasure horses. Stable dust is rich in endotoxin, which may induce neutrophilic airway inflammation. Climatological conditions (ambient temperature and relative humidity) may influence endotoxin concentrations in pastures. The aim of this project was to determine if endotoxin levels in the breathing zone of horses in stables were higher than of horses on pasture, and if the endotoxin on pasture was associated with climatological conditions. Endotoxin exposure of six horses that were stabled or on pasture was determined by a Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Climatological data were obtained from the US National Climatic Data Center. Endotoxin exposure was significantly higher (about 8-fold) in stables than on pasture. On pasture, endotoxin varied widely, despite constant climatological conditions. It was concluded that stabled horses are exposed to higher endotoxin concentrations than horses on pastures. Local endotoxin concentrations may be more important than ambient climatological conditions in determining endotoxin exposure of individual horses. PMID:18930664

  18. Radiographic abnormalities in barrel racing horses with lameness referable to the metacarpophalangeal joint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Menarim; V. M. V. Machado; L. E. Cisneros; R. Carneiro; L. Busch; L. C. Vulcano

    Barrel racing is one of the most popular uses of the American Quarter horse in North and South America. Although injury to the metacarpophalangeal joint frequently occurs in this sport, there is limited information describing the nature of these injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the most common radiographic abnormalities in barrel racing horses with lameness referable

  19. Analysis in horse hair as a means of evaluating selenium toxicoses and long-term exposures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are susceptible to chronic selenosis if grazed on seleniferous forages for a prolonged period. In this study, mane and tail samples from horses that exhibited classical hoof lesions of chronic selenosis were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for selenium (Se) content. T...

  20. Effect of animal density and trough placement on drinking behavior and dehydration in slaughter horses 

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Amy Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    The effect of horse density and trough placement on aphics. latency to drink and the amount of time spent drinking water on-board a semi-trailer were determined. Three experiments using 19, 20, and 24 slaughter-type horses, ...

  1. Strongyle egg shedding consistency in horses on farms using selective therapy in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M K; Haaning, N; Olsen, S N

    2006-02-18

    Knowledge of horses that shed the same number of strongyle eggs over time can lead to the optimization of parasite control strategies. This study evaluated shedding of strongyle eggs in 424 horses on 10 farms when a selective anthelmintic treatment regime was used over a 3-year period. Faecal egg counts were performed twice yearly, and horses exceeding 200 eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces were treated. The results are presented as probabilities of the egg count outcome, when two previous egg counts are known. A horse with no strongyle eggs detected in the two previous faecal examinations had an 82% probability of a zero, and a 91% of being below 200 eggs per gram in the third examination. A horse with the two previous egg counts below 200 EPG had an 84% probability of being below 200 EPG the third time as well. When faecal egg counts exceeded 200 EPG on the previous two counts, the probability for a horse exceeding 200 EPG the third time was 59%. In conclusion, these data demonstrate consistent shedding from one grazing season to another in a majority of horses despite treatment of horses exceeding 200 EPG. PMID:16226379

  2. Evaluation of Stress Before, During, and After Transport in Naive Yearling Horses 

    E-print Network

    Garey, Shannon M.

    2010-07-14

    , then transported for 6 hours. Ten horses were transported per day (5 in stalls and 5 in a loose group) over a two day trial. The experiment was replicated with a second trial 35 days later, and utilized a switchback design where the horses exchanged treatments...

  3. Patterns and durations of journeys by horses transported from the USA to Canada for slaughter.

    PubMed

    Roy, R Cyril; Cockram, Michael S

    2015-06-01

    Concern has been expressed over the welfare of horses transported from the USA for slaughter in Canada. United States Department of Agriculture owner/shipper certificates for the year 2009 were analyzed to provide quantitative information on the patterns and durations of these journeys. In 2009, horses from 16 states in the northern USA were transported to 6 equine slaughter plants in Canada. Thirty-two percent of loads were from auction centers, 33% from feedlots, and 35% from horse collection centers. The median duration of the journey was 19 h. Thirty-six percent of horses were transported for < 6 h, 11% for 6 to 18 h, 13% for 18 to 24 h, 25% for 24 to 36 h, 9% for 36 to 48 h, and apparently 6% > 48 h. Some journeys exceeded those specified in regulations and, based on other research, would put these horses at risk of negative welfare outcomes, such as dehydration, injury, and fatigue. PMID:26028678

  4. Transmission of Streptococcus equi Subspecies zooepidemicus Infection from Horses to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Susanne B.; Suomala, Päivi; Karhukorpi, Jari; Vuorinen, Sakari; Koivula, Irma; Väisänen, Tia; Pentikäinen, Jaana; Autio, Tiina; Tuuminen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a zoonotic pathogen for persons in contact with horses. In horses, S. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen, but human infections associated with S. zooepidemicus are often severe. Within 6 months in 2011, 3 unrelated cases of severe, disseminated S. zooepidemicus infection occurred in men working with horses in eastern Finland. To clarify the pathogen’s epidemiology, we describe the clinical features of the infection in 3 patients and compare the S. zooepidemicus isolates from the human cases with S. zooepidemicus isolates from horses. The isolates were analyzed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and sequencing of the szP gene. Molecular typing methods showed that human and equine isolates were identical or closely related. These results emphasize that S. zooepidemicus transmitted from horses can lead to severe infections in humans. As leisure and professional equine sports continue to grow, this infection should be recognized as an emerging zoonosis. PMID:23777752

  5. Osteochondritis dessicans and subchondral cystic lesions in draft horses: a retrospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, C B; Scott, W M; Caron, J P; Fretz, P B; Bailey, J V; Barber, S M

    1998-01-01

    The clinical features, radiographic findings, treatment, and outcome in 51 draft horses with osteochondritis dessicans (OCD) or subchondral cystic lesions (SC) are reported. Clydesdale and Percheron were the most commonly affected breeds, and affected animals represented only 5% of the hospital population of draft horses. Horses were most frequently affected in the tibiotarsal joints and 73% (24 of 33 cases) of the horses with tibiotarsal effusion were affected bilaterally. Osteochondritis dessicans of the distal intermediate ridge was the most common lesion found in the tibiotarsal joint. The stifle was also frequently affected; 87% (13 of 15 cases) of horses with femoropatellar OCD only were lame, and lesions were most commonly located on the lateral trochlear ridge. Sixteen cases were managed conservatively, 30 received surgery, and 5 were euthanized. Lameness, effusion, or both clinical signs resolved in more than 50% of surgically treated cases, but clinical signs improved in 30% of conservatively-managed cases. PMID:9789673

  6. Prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in some States of northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ehizibolo, David O; Kamani, Joshua; Ehizibolo, Peter O; Egwu, Kinsley O; Dogo, Goni I; Salami-Shinaba, Josiah O

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991

  7. Prevalence and Significance of Parasites of Horses in Some States of Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    EHIZIBOLO, David O.; KAMANI, Joshua; EHIZIBOLO, Peter O.; EGWU, Kinsley O.; DOGO, Goni I.; SALAMI-SHINABA, Josiah O.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991

  8. Reproductive potential of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) fed cattle, chicken, or horse blood.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Kristina M; Johnson, Gregory D

    2012-05-01

    Reproductive potential was assessed for stable fly cohorts fed cattle, chicken, or horse blood. Flies provided chicken blood oviposited 20% more eggs per day than did those fed cattle or horse blood. However, flies provided cattle or horse blood were fecund 50% longer. When both egg viability and number of eggs produced were considered, lifetime reproductive potential was almost twice as high for flies fed cattle or chicken blood than for flies fed horse blood. Maternal investment, which took egg production and volume into account, was higher in cohorts fed cattle blood (70 mm3) when compared with the other treatments (chicken = 54 mm3, horse = 55 mm3). This is the first report of stable flies producing viable eggs after feeding on bird blood. Results from this study in addition to field observations indicate that stable fly interactions with birds may be limited to relatively low risk scenarios. PMID:22679851

  9. Biparental incubation in the chestnut-vented tit-babbler Parisoma subcaeruleum: Mates devote equal time, but males keep eggs warmer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auer, S.K.; Bassar, R.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Biparental care in birds is less common during incubation than in other nesting stages. Males share in incubating eggs in a minority of bird species, and male effort is generally thought to be lower than females when sharing does occur. However, male assistance and incubation efficacy is poorly studied in such species. We examined sex differences in incubation effort in 12 pairs of a species with biparental incubation, the chestnut-vented tit-babbler Parisoma subcaeruleum. Males and females did not differ in the amount of time spent incubating during the day, time of day spent incubating, nor in their ability to rewarm eggs. Yet, males consistently maintained eggs at higher temperatures than their female partners, despite the absence of a brood patch. ?? Journal of Avian Biology.

  10. Molecular Analysis of Neorickettsia risticii in Adult Aquatic Insects in Pennsylvania, in Horses Infected by Ingestion of Insects, and Isolated in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Jason; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Seaton, Elizabeth; Martin, Carol; Reed, Stephen; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2002-01-01

    Upon ingestion of adult aquatic insects, horses developed clinical signs of Potomac horse fever, and Neorickettsia risticii was isolated from the blood. 16S rRNA and 51-kDa antigen gene sequences from blood, isolates, and caddis flies fed to the horses were identical, proving oral transmission of N. risticii from caddis flies to horses. PMID:11825999

  11. Landscape-scale factors affecting feral horse habitat use during summer within the rocky mountain foothills.

    PubMed

    Girard, Tisa L; Bork, Edward W; Nielsen, Scott E; Neilsen, Scott E; Alexander, Mike J

    2013-02-01

    Public lands occupied by feral horses in North America are frequently managed for multiple uses with land use conflict occurring among feral horses, livestock, wildlife, and native grassland conservation. The factors affecting habitat use by horses is critical to understand where conflict may be greatest. We related horse presence and abundance to landscape attributes in a GIS to examine habitat preferences using 98 field plots sampled within a portion of the Rocky Mountain Forest Reserve of SW Alberta, Canada. Horse abundance was greatest in grassland and cut block habitats, and lowest in conifer and mixedwood forest. Resource selection probability functions and count models of faecal abundance indicated that horses preferred areas closer to water, with reduced topographic ruggedness, situated farther from forests, and located farther away from primary roads and trails frequented by recreationalists, but closer to small linear features (i.e. cut lines) that may be used as beneficial travel corridors. Horse presence and abundance were closely related to cattle presence during summer, suggesting that both herbivores utilise the same habitats. Estimates of forage biomass removal (44 %) by mid-July were near maximum acceptable levels. In contrast to horse-cattle associations, horses were negatively associated with wild ungulate abundance, although the mechanism behind this remains unclear and warrants further investigation. Our results indicate that feral horses in SW Alberta exhibit complex habitat selection patterns during spring and summer, including overlap in use with livestock. This finding highlights the need to assess and manage herbivore populations consistent with rangeland carrying capacity and the maintenance of range health. PMID:23183796

  12. Myeloperoxidase concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and those with recurrent airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Art, Tatiana; Franck, Thierry; Lekeux, Pierre; de Moffarts, Brieuc; Couëtil, Laurent; Becker, Martine; Kohnen, Serge; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Serteyn, Didier

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this work was to measure the myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid collected from horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), both in crisis and in remission, as well as from healthy horses. Seven horses with RAO were exposed to moldy hay until the maximum change in pleural pressure was greater than 1.5 kPa. At that point, BAL was performed, and the total cell counts and percentages in the fluid were immediately determined. To measure the MPO concentration in BAL-fluid supernatant, we used a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with polyclonal antibodies against equine MPO. The tests were repeated on the horses with RAO after they had spent 2 mo on pasture. Six healthy horses serving as controls underwent the same tests. The absolute and relative neutrophil counts and the MPO concentration in the BAL fluid were significantly greater in the horses with an RAO crisis than in the control horses. After 2 mo on pasture, the horses that had been in RAO crisis were clinically normal, and their neutrophil counts and MPO levels in BAL fluid had significantly decreased; during remission their neutrophil counts were not significantly different from those in the healthy horses, but their MPO concentration remained significantly higher. This study showed that determining the MPO concentration in a horse's BAL fluid is technically possible and that during remission from RAO the concentration remains higher than normal. Thus, MPO may be a marker of neutrophil presence and activation in the lower airways. PMID:17042382

  13. Visual attention, an indicator of human-animal relationships? A study of domestic horses (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Rochais, C.; Henry, S.; Sankey, C.; Nassur, F.; Góracka-Bruzda, A.; Hausberger, M.

    2014-01-01

    As visual attention is an intrinsic part of social relationships, and because relationships are built on a succession of interactions, their establishment involves learning and attention. The emotional, rewarding or punishing, content can modulate selective attention. In horses, the use of positive/negative reinforcement during training determines short and long-term human-horse relationships. In a recent study in horses, where either food or withers' grooming were used as a reward, it appeared that only the food-rewarded horses learned the task and show better relationship with humans. In the present study, we hypothesized that this differential effect of grooming/food rewards on learning performances could be due to attentional processes. Monitoring, gazes and behaviors directed towards the trainer revealed that the use of a food reward (FR) as positive reinforcement increased horses' selective attention towards their trainer. Conversely, horses trained with grooming reward (GR) expressed more inattentive responses and did not show a decrease of “agitated” behavior. However, individual plotting of attention vs. rate of learning performances revealed a complex pattern. Thus, while all FR horses showed a “window” of attention related to faster learning performances, GR horses' pattern followed an almost normal curve where the extreme animals (i.e., highest and lowest attention) had the slowest learning performances. On the other hand, learning was influenced by attention: at the end of training, the more attentive horses had also better learning performances. This study, based on horses, contributes to the general debate on the place of attentional processes at the interface of emotion and cognition and opens new lines of thought about individual sensitivities (only individuals can tell what an appropriate reward is), attentional processes and learning. PMID:24592244

  14. Could it be colic? Horse-owner decision making and practices in response to equine colic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about lay understanding and decision making in response to colic. Horse-owners/carers are key to identifying colic and initiating veterinary intervention. Understanding how owners think and act in relation to colic could assist veterinary surgeons in tailoring information about colic with the aim of improving colic outcomes. Methods A mixed methods approach was employed including qualitative in-depth interviews and a cross-sectional questionnaire. Qualitative data were analysed using Grounded theory to conceptualise processes involved in horse-owner management of colic. Following this, a cross-sectional survey was designed to test these concepts. Cluster analysis explored the role of the human-horse relationship upon colic management strategies. Results Fifteen horse-owners with a range of colic experience participated in the interviews. A theoretical conceptual model was developed and described how horse-owners’ recognised, assessed and responded to colic. Three main management strategies were used including ‘wait and see’, ‘lay treatments’ and ‘seek veterinary assistance’. Actions in response to colic were moderated by owners’ experience of colic and interpretation of the severity of colic signs. A postal questionnaire gathered data from 673 horse-owners from the North-West of the UK. The majority (605, 89.9%) of respondents were female. Cluster analysis revealed 5 meaningful groups of horse-owners based upon assessment of questionnaire items on the human-horse relationship. These groups included 2 professional and 3 amateur owner typologies. There were differences in the responses to some questionnaire items among the identified groups. Conclusions This study describes lay understanding and management of colic among a population of horse-owners from the North-West of the UK. The information may serve as a basis upon which to tailor existing programmes designed to educate owners about colic management strategies, and may inform veterinarians’ interactions with horse-owners. PMID:25238026

  15. Antibody responses to natural rattlesnake envenomation and a rattlesnake toxoid vaccine in horses.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Lyndi L; Carmichael, Robert C; Holbrook, Todd C; Taylor, Jennifer M; Ownby, Charlotte L; McFarlane, Dianne; Payton, Mark E

    2013-05-01

    Antivenom antibody titers following administration of rattlesnake venom for antivenom production in horses are well documented; however, antivenom antibody titers following natural rattlesnake envenomation in horses are not. Antibody titers produced in response to the commercially available rattlesnake venom vaccine are also not published. Our study objectives were to measure antivenom antibody titers in rattlesnake-bitten horses and compare them to titers in horses vaccinated with the rattlesnake venom vaccine. Additionally, titers were compared in pregnant versus nonpregnant horses to assess the affect of pregnancy on vaccine response and were measured pre- and postsuckle in foals of vaccinated mares to detect passive transfer of vaccine immunoglobulins. Blood samples were collected from 16 rattlesnake-bitten horses. Thirty-six horses (11 pregnant mares, 12 nonpregnant mares, 13 geldings) were vaccinated using a Crotalus atrox venom toxoid vaccine. Blood was collected before administering each vaccination and 30 days following the third vaccination. Blood was collected from foals of vaccinated mares pre- and postsuckle. All serum was assayed for anti-Crotalus atrox venom antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Rattlesnake-bitten horses had higher (P = 0.001) titers than vaccinated horses. There was no significant difference between titers in vaccinated pregnant versus nonpregnant horses. One mare had a positive titer at foaling, and the foals had positive postsuckle titers. Antivenom antibody titer development was variable following natural envenomation and vaccination, and vaccine-induced titers were lower than natural envenomation titers. Further studies are required to determine if natural or vaccine antivenom antibody titers reduce the effects of envenomation. PMID:23515015

  16. Forest ResearchThe research agency of the Forestry Commission Annual Report

    E-print Network

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Bleeding canker of horse chestnut: a growing threat? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Gypsy moth and oak processionary moth in the UK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Publications

  17. Chestnut Blight (Cryphonectria parasitica)

    E-print Network

    for the pathogen. Basal lesion with outer bark removed showing dying inner bark. Death of the main stem may occur. Cankering and bark splitting at the base of a young tree symptomatic of bark death. Heavily cankered stem

  18. Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus major capsid protein VP2 provides complete clinical protection against challenge.

    PubMed

    Alberca, Berta; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Cabana, Marta; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Viaplana, Elisenda; Frost, Lorraine; Gubbins, Simon; Urniza, Alicia; Mertens, Peter; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

    2014-06-17

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that infects all species of equidae and causes high mortality in horses. Previously, a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing the protein VP2 of AHSV serotype 4 was shown to induce virus neutralising antibodies in horses and protected interferon alpha receptor gene knock-out mice (IFNAR -/-) against virulent AHSV challenge. This study builds on the previous work, examining the protective efficacy of MVA-VP2 vaccination in the natural host of AHSV infection. A study group of 4 horses was vaccinated twice with a recombinant MVA virus expressing the major capsid protein (VP2) of AHSV serotype 9. Vaccinated animals and a control group of unvaccinated horses were then challenged with a virulent strain of AHSV-9. The vaccinated animals were completely protected against clinical disease and also against viraemia as measured by standard end-point dilution assays. In contrast, all control horses presented viraemia after challenge and succumbed to the infection. These results demonstrate the potential of recombinant MVA viruses expressing the outer capsid VP2 of AHSV as a protective vaccine against AHSV infection in the field. PMID:24837765

  19. Where are the horses? With the sheep or cows? Uncertain host location, vector-feeding preferences and the risk of African horse sickness transmission in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Robin, Charlotte A.; Newton, J. Richard; Gubbins, Simon; Wood, James L. N.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the influence of non-susceptible hosts on vector-borne disease transmission is an important epidemiological problem. However, investigation of its impact can be complicated by uncertainty in the location of the hosts. Estimating the risk of transmission of African horse sickness (AHS) in Great Britain (GB), a virus transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, provides an insightful example because: (i) the patterns of risk are expected to be influenced by the presence of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts (cattle and sheep) and (ii) incomplete information on the spatial distribution of horses is available because the GB National Equine Database records owner, rather than horse, locations. Here, we combine land-use data with available horse owner distributions and, using a Bayesian approach, infer a realistic distribution for the location of horses. We estimate the risk of an outbreak of AHS in GB, using the basic reproduction number (R0), and demonstrate that mapping owner addresses as a proxy for horse location significantly underestimates the risk. We clarify the role of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts by showing that the risk of disease in the presence of many hosts (susceptible and non-susceptible) can be ultimately reduced to two fundamental factors: first, the abundance of vectors and how this depends on host density, and, second, the differential feeding preference of vectors among animal species. PMID:23594817

  20. Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus major capsid protein VP2 provides complete clinical protection against challenge

    PubMed Central

    Alberca, Berta; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Cabana, Marta; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Viaplana, Elisenda; Frost, Lorraine; Gubbins, Simon; Urniza, Alicia; Mertens, Peter; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

    2014-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that infects all species of equidae and causes high mortality in horses. Previously, a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing the protein VP2 of AHSV serotype 4 was shown to induce virus neutralising antibodies in horses and protected interferon alpha receptor gene knock-out mice (IFNAR ?/?) against virulent AHSV challenge. This study builds on the previous work, examining the protective efficacy of MVA-VP2 vaccination in the natural host of AHSV infection. A study group of 4 horses was vaccinated twice with a recombinant MVA virus expressing the major capsid protein (VP2) of AHSV serotype 9. Vaccinated animals and a control group of unvaccinated horses were then challenged with a virulent strain of AHSV-9. The vaccinated animals were completely protected against clinical disease and also against viraemia as measured by standard end-point dilution assays. In contrast, all control horses presented viraemia after challenge and succumbed to the infection. These results demonstrate the potential of recombinant MVA viruses expressing the outer capsid VP2 of AHSV as a protective vaccine against AHSV infection in the field. PMID:24837765