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1

Residues of diflubenzuron on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) leaves and their efficacy against the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella.  

PubMed

Residues of the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron were quantified on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) leaves treated with a diflubenzuron 480 g litre(-1) SC, Dimilin. To analyse the samples, an analytical procedure was developed involving a simple extraction step followed by high-performance liquid chromatography on an octadecyl-modified silica column with methanol + 0.01 M ammonium acetate mobile phase. The results showed diflubenzuron to be highly stable on horse chestnut leaves; more than 4 months (127 days) after application, 38% (on average) of the insecticide still remained on/in the leaves. The data confirmed biological observations showing diflubenzuron's long-term efficacy against the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimi?, which is the most important pest of the horse chestnut in Europe. The hypothesis of possible penetration of diflubenzuron into the leaf mass is explored and discussed. PMID:16475222

Nejmanová, Jana; Cvacka, Josef; Hrdý, Ivan; Kuldová, Jelena; Mertelík, Josef; Muck, Alexander; Nesnerová, Petra; Svatos, Ales

2006-03-01

2

Phylogeography of Japanese horse chestnut ( Aesculus turbinata ) in the Japanese Archipelago based on chloroplast DNA haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata: Hippocastanaceae) is one of the typical woody plants that grow in temperate riparian forests in the Japanese Archipelago.\\u000a To analyze the phylogeography of this plant in the Japanese Archipelago, we determined cpDNA haplotypes for 337 samples from\\u000a 55 populations covering the entire distribution range. Based on 1,313 bp of two spacers, we determined ten haplotypes that

Kanako SugaharaYuko; Yuko Kaneko; Satoshi Ito; Keisuke Yamanaka; Hitoshi Sakio; Kazuhiko Hoshizaki; Wajiro Suzuki; Norikazu Yamanaka; Hiroaki Setoguchi

2011-01-01

3

Flavonoids in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds and powdered waste water byproducts.  

PubMed

Horse chestnut extracts are widely used in pharmacy and cosmetic industries. The main active constituents are saponins of oleane type, but seeds of horse chestnut also contain flavonoids, being glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Their contribution to the overall activity of the extracts was not clear. In the present work, the main flavonoids from horse chestnut seeds were isolated and their structures established with spectral methods. Seven glycosides were isolated, out of which six ( 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 13) were previously reported and one ( 9) was identified as a new tamarixetin 3- O- [beta- d-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)]- O-beta- d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)- O-beta- d-glucopyranoside. The structures of three additional compounds 1, 10, and 12, not previously reported, were deduced on the basis of their LC-ESI/MS/MS fragmentation characteristics. A new ultraperformance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method has been developed for profiling and quantitation of horse chestnut flavonoids. The method allowed good separation over 4.5 min. Thirteen compounds could be identified in the profile, out of which di- and triglycoisdes of quercetin and kaempferol were the dominant forms and their acylated forms occurred in just trace amounts. The total concentration of flavonoids in the powdered horse chestnut seed was 0.88% of dry matter. The alcohol extract contained 3.46%, and after purification on C18 solid phase, this concentration increased to 9.40% of dry matter. The flavonoid profile and their content were also measured in the horse chestnut wastewater obtained as byproduct in industrial processing of horse chestnut seeds. The total flavonoid concentration in the powder obtained after evaporation of water was 2.58%, while after purification on solid phase, this increased to 11.23% dry matter. It was concluded that flavonoids are present in a horse chestnut extract in a relatively high amount and have the potential to contribute to the overall activity of these extracts. Industrial horse chestnut wastewater can be used to obtain quercetine and kaempferol glycosides for cosmetic, nutraceutical, and food supplement industries. PMID:17867637

Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo; Franceschi, Federico; Franz, Chlodwig; Oleszek, Wieslaw

2007-09-15

4

The characterization and properties of castaprenol-11, -12 and -13 from the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut)  

PubMed Central

The isolation and purification of a mixture of cis–trans-polyprenols from the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut) are described. Results of studies involving mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, micro-hydrogenation and ozonolytic degradation show the mixture to be made up of undecaprenol, dodecaprenol and tridecaprenol with dodecaprenol predominating. Each of the prenols contains three trans internal isoprene residues and a cis `OH-terminal' isoprene residue. They differ from each other only in the number of cis internal isoprene residues. The trivial names castaprenol-11, castaprenol-12 and castaprenol-13 are proposed to describe these compounds. Gas–liquid-chromatographic and reversed-phase partition thin-layer chromatographic evidence suggest the presence in the mixture of small quantities of castaprenol-10 also.

Wellburn, A. R.; Stevenson, J.; Hemming, F. W.; Morton, R. A.

1967-01-01

5

Transient etiolation: protochlorophyll(ide) and chlorophyll forms in differentiating plastids of closed and breaking leaf buds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum).  

PubMed

An accompanying paper reports the accumulation of photoactive protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) in the innermost leaf primordia of buds of many tree species. In this paper, we describe plastid differentiation, changes in pigment concentrations and spectral properties of bud scales and leaf primordia of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) from January until the end of bud break in April. The bud scales contained plastids with grana, stroma thylakoids characteristic of chloroplasts and large dense bodies within the stroma. In January, proplastids and young chloroplasts were present in the leaf primordia, and the fluorescence spectra of the primordia were similar to those of green leaves except for a minor band at 630 nm, indicative of a protochlorophyll(ide). During bud break, the pigment concentrations of the green bud scales and the outermost leaf primordia increased, and Pchlide forms with emission maxima at 633, 644 and 655 nm accumulated in the middle and innermost leaf primordia. Depending on the position of the leaf primordia within the bud, their plastids and their pigment concentrations varied. Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and prothylakoids with developing grana were observed in the innermost leaves. Besides the above-mentioned Pchlide forms, the middle and innnermost leaf primordia contained only a Chl band with an emission maximum at 686 nm. The outermost leaf primordia contained etio-chloroplasts with well-developed grana and small, narrow-type PLBs. These outermost leaves contained only chlorophyll forms like the mature green leaves. No Pchlide accumulation was observed after bud break, indicating that etiolation of the innermost and middle leaves is transient. The Pchlide forms and the plastid types of the primordia in buds grown in nature were similar to those of leaves of dark-germinated seedlings and to those of the leaf primordia of dark-forced buds. We conclude that transient etiolation occurs under natural conditions. The formation of PLBs and etio-chloroplasts and the accumulation of the light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase are involved in the natural greening process and ontogenesis of young leaf primordia of horse chestnut buds. PMID:16651258

Solymosi, Katalin; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

2006-08-01

6

MIGRÁCIA CHROBÁKOV (COLEOPTERA) NA KME?OCH PAGAŠTANA KONSKÉHO (AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAJZLAN, O., 2002: A Migration of Beetles (Coleoptera) on trunks of a horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). Folia faunistica Slovaca 7: 49-53. Abstract: During the years 2000, 2001 and 2002 we studied a vertical and horizontal migration of arthropods on trunks of a horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). Especially we have evaluated the seasonal dynamics, bee- tle communities and migration onto tree

OTO MAJZLAN

7

Late Flowering of HorseChestnut  

Microsoft Academic Search

DR. JULIAN HUXLEY'S letter1 describing the late flowering of horse-chestnut in Paris this autumn brought back to me a vivid memory of autumn 1912. I turned up my youthful diary and found this entry:``Paris, 3rd September, 1912. The trees are in a queer state here; the old leaves are dead and falling as in autumn and at the same time

E. M. Blackwell

1945-01-01

8

The Horse Chestnut Lines Harboring the rol Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system for Aesculus hippocastanum L. has been developed. Wounded androgenic embryos of A. hippocastanum were inoculated with bacteria containing the pRiA4 plasmid, with the uid A sequence as a reporter gene. The hairy roots emerging from the wounded sites of androgenic embryos were isolated and maintained in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) liquid hormone-free medium. Five hairy

S. Zdravkovi?-Kora?; D. ?ali?; P. H. Druart; Lj. Radojevi?

2003-01-01

9

A missense mutation in the gene for melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MCIR) is associated with the chestnut coat color in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor gene (MCIR) is the major candidate gene for the chestnut coat color in horses since it is assumed to be controlled by an allele at the\\u000a extension locus. MCIR sequences were PCR amplified from chestnut (e\\/e) and non-chestnut (EI-) horses. A single-strand conformation polymorphism was found that showed a complete association to the chestnut coat color

L. Marklund; M. Johansson Moller; K. Sandberg; L. Andersson

1996-01-01

10

Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.  

PubMed

Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens. PMID:22808044

de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A M

2012-07-09

11

Horse chestnut  

MedlinePLUS

... include alpha-lipoic acid, chromium, devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and ... some people. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, red clover, and others.

12

Dynamics of carbohydrates in the embryo axes of horse chestnut seeds during their transition from dormancy to germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was shown that the content of carbohydrates and their composition in embryo axes of horse chestnut seeds changed as seeds\\u000a acquired a capability of dormancy release and germination. Sucrose prevailed among carbohydrates, comprising to 150–160 mg\\/g\\u000a dry wt. During the first half of the seed imbibition time, oligosaccharides, namely raffinose and stachyose, degraded, whereas\\u000a the contents of glucose and

N. V. Obroucheva; S. V. Lityagina; A. Richter

2006-01-01

13

Parasitism of the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lep., Gracillariidae), in Serbia and Macedonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study concerning the parasitism of Cameraria ohridella, a pest of Aesculus hippocastanum invading Europe, has been carried out in Serbia and Macedonia in 1998 and 1999. From C. ohridella 14 species of parasitoids were reared, which are polyphagous and occur in the whole of Europe. Twelve of the species found belong to the Chalcidoidean family Eulophidae. The rates of

W. Heitland; I. Tosevski

2002-01-01

14

Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of meteorological variables and parameters. In particular, more severe conditions during spring and summer are expected, especially in the Mediterranean area, with less precipitation and higher temperatures. All these changes will have impacts on chestnut fruits and wood in Europe. Dinis, L-T. J., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Peixoto, F., Costa, R. e Gomes-Laranjo, J., 2011: Study of morphological and chemical diversity in chestnut trees (var. 'Judia') as a function of temperature sum. Cyta- Journal of food, 9(3): 192-199 Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy, Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland. Proceedings of the International Chestnut Conference, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 10-14 July 1992, 175-178. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. Wilczynski, S. And Podlaski, R, 2007: The effect of climate on radial growth of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland, J.For.Res., 12, 24-23.

Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

2012-04-01

15

Host tracking or cryptic adaptation? Phylogeography of Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the highly invasive horse-chestnut leafminer  

PubMed Central

Classical biological control is often advocated as a tool for managing invasive species. However, accurate evaluations of parasitoid species complexes and assessment of host specificity are impeded by the lack of morphological variation. Here, we study the possibility of host races/species within the eulophid wasp Pediobius saulius, a pupal generalist parasitoid that parasitize the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella. We analysed the population genetic structure, host associations and phylogeographic patterns of P. saulius in Europe using the COI mitochondrial gene. This marker strongly supports a division into at least five highly differentiated parasitoid complexes, within two of which clades with differing degrees of host specialization were found: a Balkan clade that mainly (but not only) attacks C. ohridella and a more generalist European group that attacks many hosts, including C. ohridella. The divergence in COI (up to 7.6%) suggests the existence of cryptic species, although this is neither confirmed by nuclear divergence nor morphology. We do not find evidence of host tracking. The higher parasitism rates observed in the Balkans and the scarcity of the Balkan–Cameraria haplotypes out of the Balkans open the possibility of using these Balkan haplotypes as biological control agents of C. ohridella elsewhere in Europe.

Hernandez-Lopez, Antonio; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Augustin, Sylvie; Lees, David C; Tomov, Rumen; Kenis, Marc; Cota, Ejup; Kullaj, Endrit; Hansson, Christer; Grabenweger, Giselher; Roques, Alain; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

2012-01-01

16

Assessing potential changes of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather conditions play an important role during different phases of the vegetative cycle of the chestnut trees and, consequently, several meteorological parameters seem to be associated chestnut productivity (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992, Cesaraccio et al., 2001, Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007, Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008, Dinis et al., 2011, Pereira et al., 2011). Observed data from European Climate Assessment and simulated data by COSMO-CLM model for the actual (C20) and future (A1B and B1) climate scenarios were used in this study to: (i) assess the model ability to reproduce weather parameters distribution; and, (ii) to assess future changes in the distribution of meteorological parameters which play an important role in the productivity of chestnut for different future periods. Results points to statistical significant changes in the mean and in variance in the future, more prominent in temperature than in precipitation based parameters. Changes in precipitation will be more significant in Northwestern Iberian Peninsula and France in the end of the 21st century for A1B scenario conditions. As expected, more significant changes will be expected to occur during spring and summer, in the Mediterranean areas and in the later period. The number of days with Tmax<28°C will generally decrease in both scenarios, while the changes in the number of days with 24°Cchestnut in Europe, in some areas of production. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: "Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland". Proceedings of the International Chestnut Conference, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 10-14 July 1992, 175-178. Wilczynski, S. And Podlaski, R, 2007: "The effect of climate on radial growth of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland", J.For.Res., 12, 24-23. Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: "Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy", Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Dinis, L.T,Peixoto, F., Pinto, T., Costa, R.Bennett, R. N., and Gomes-Laranjo,J., 2011: "Study of morphological and phonological diversity in chestnut trees (Judia variety) as a function of temperature sum". Environ. Exp Bot., 70, 110-120. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: "Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity". Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. This work was supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692.

Pereira, Mário; Calheiros, Tomas; Pinto, Joaquim; Caramelo, Liliana

2013-04-01

17

7 CFR 301.51-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...inch or more in diameter of the following genera: Acer (maple), Aesculus (horse chestnut), Albizia (mimosa), Betula (birch), Celtis (hackberry), Fraxinus (ash), Platanus (sycamore), Populus (poplar), Salix...

2010-01-01

18

Somatic Embryogenesis in Chestnut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryogenesis is an important biotechnological tool that demonstrates significant benefits\\u000a when applied to forest tree species; clonal propagation, cryostorage of valuable germoplasm and genetic\\u000a transformation are among the most promising of its applications. In this chapter, the state of the\\u000a art of somatic embryogenesis in chestnut (an important economical tree species of the genus Castanea) is assessed and discussed.

E. Corredoira; A. Ballester; F. J. Vieitez; A. M. Vieitez

19

7 CFR 301.51-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of half an inch or more in diameter of the following genera: Acer (maple), Aesculus (horse chestnut), Albizia (mimosa), Betula (birch), Celtis (hackberry), Fraxinus (ash), Platanus (sycamore), Populus (poplar),...

2009-01-01

20

Bioactive saponins from the fruits of Aesculus pavia L.  

PubMed

Continued chemical investigation on the fruits of Aesculus pavia L. resulted in theisolation and identification of two new oleanolic acid saponins, namely vaccaroside A (1) andvaccaroside B (2). The isolated furostanol saponins were evaluated for cytotoxic activity againsthuman normal amniotic and human lung carcinoma cell lines using neutral red and MTT assays.In vitro experiments showed significant cytotoxicity in a dose dependent manner with IC?? valuesin the range of 27.80-79.02 ?M. PMID:21787846

Sun, Zhen-Liang; Zhang, Ming; Wu, Ying; Wan, Ai-Hong; Zhang, Rong

2011-07-20

21

The subcellular distribution and biosynthesis of castaprenols and plastoquinone in the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum  

PubMed Central

Intact chloroplasts and cell walls were prepared from horse-chestnut leaves that had previously metabolized [2-14C]mevalonate. The bulk of the castaprenols and plastoquinone-9 was found within the chloroplasts. The remaining portion of the castaprenols was associated with the cell-wall preparation whereas that of the plastoquinone-9 was probably localized in the soluble fraction of the plant cell. The 14C content of these compounds of different cell fractions indicated the presence of polyisoprenoid-synthesizing activity both inside and outside the chloroplasts. This was confirmed by the relative incorporation of 14C when ultrasonically treated and intact chloroplasts were incubated with [2-14C]mevalonate. As the leaves aged (on the tree) an increase in extraplastidic castaprenols and plastoquinone-9, together with associated synthesizing activities, was observed.

Wellburn, A. R.; Hemming, F. W.

1967-01-01

22

Comparative Genome Analysis Provides Insights into the Evolution and Adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum  

PubMed Central

A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae), is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae). On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae), isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree.

Green, Sarah; Studholme, David J.; Laue, Bridget E.; Dorati, Federico; Lovell, Helen; Arnold, Dawn; Cottrell, Joan E.; Bridgett, Stephen; Blaxter, Mark; Huitema, Edgar; Thwaites, Richard; Sharp, Paul M.

2010-01-01

23

COMPETITIVE MARKET ANALYSIS-CHESTNUT PRODUCERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Missouri Center for Agroforestry (UMCA) is conducting research to identify and describe the chestnut (Castanea spp.) product market value chain. Through detailed market research and by organizing events that increase consumer awareness towards chestnuts, UMCA's goal is to broaden market opportunities for all individuals and businesses in the chestnut market. In 2004, UMCA conducted a nationwide survey

Michael A. Gold; Mihaela M. Cernusca; Larry D. Godsey

2005-01-01

24

Soil compaction and chestnut ink disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Chestnut ink disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soil-borne pathogen of world-wide distribution, accounts for the majority of disease problems on chestnuts in Portugal, limiting yield in a large number of stands and impeding establishment of trees in new areas. A survey was carried out in 32 chestnut stands in the Padrela Mountains of northern Portugal to

T. F. Fonseca; C. G. Abreu; B. R. Parresol

2004-01-01

25

Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological conditions play a fundamental role during entire chestnut tree vegetative cycle. Chestnut trees are well adapted to mean year temperatures of 8-15°C, requires monthly mean temperatures greater than 10°C during 6 months (Gomes-Laranjo et al. 2008) and its pollen only germinates at relatively high temperatures of 27-30°C (Bounous, 2002). Photosynthesis of an adult tree is highly dependent of temperature. Photosynthesis is maximal at 24-28°C but it is inhibited for temperatures greater than 32°C (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). Furthermore, there are significant differences between chestnut trees cultivated in northfaced orchads in relation to those cultivated in the southfaced and between leaves from different sides of the chestnut canopy because they receive different amounts of radiant energy and consequently they grow under different mean daily air temperature. The objective of this work was to assess the role of weather on chestnut production variability. This study was performed for the 28 years period defined between 1980 and 2007 and it was based on annual values of chestnut production and total area of production, at national level, provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal. The meteorological data used was provided by Meteored (http://www.meteored.com/) and includes daily values of precipitation, wind speed, and mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. All meteorological variables were tested as potential predictors by means of a simple correlation analysis. Multiple time intervals were considered in this the analysis, which consist in moving intervals of constant length and forward and backward evolutionary intervals. Results show that some meteorological variables present significant correlation with chestnut productivity particularly in the most relevant periods of the chestnut tree cycle, like the previous winter, the flushing phase and the maturation period. A regression model based on the winter (January to March) precipitation, the number of days with maximum temperature between 24°C and 28°C and the number of days of May with minimum temperature below 0°C is able to model the chestnut productivity with r2 equal to 0.79. It should be pointed out that the relation between weather/climate and chestnut productivity may change over time. Finally, it is important to express objectively the effects of temperature and precipitation extremes on the chestnut productivity since temperature is one of the global circulation models predicted variables with less uncertainty. With these tools will be possible to assess the weather related risk on chestnut production as well as infer about evolution of the adequate conditions to the chestnut trees in the actual plantations and about the expansion of this specie. Bounous, G. (2002) "Il castagno" [Chestnut.] - Edagricole, Bologna. [In Ital.] Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955.

Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

2009-04-01

26

Assessment of the chestnut production weather dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetative cycle of chestnut trees is highly dependent on weather. Photosynthesis and pollen germination are mainly conditioned by the air temperature while heavy precipitation and strong wind have significant impacts during the flushing phase period (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). In Portugal, chestnut tree orchads are located in mountainous areas of the Northeast region of Trás-os-Montes, between 600 and

Mário Pereira; Liliana Caramelo; Célia Gouveia; José Gomes-Laranjo

2010-01-01

27

Enhancement of American chestnut somatic seedling production.  

PubMed

Somatic embryogenesis holds promise for mass propagation of American chestnut trees bred or genetically engineered for resistance to chestnut blight. However, low germination frequency of chestnut somatic embryos has limited somatic seedling production for this forest tree. We tested the effects of culture regime (semi-solid versus liquid), cold treatment, AC and somatic embryo morphology (i.e., cotyledon number) on germination and conversion of the somatic embryos. Cold treatment for 12 weeks was critical for conversion of chestnut somatic embryos to somatic seedlings, raising conversion frequencies for one line to 47%, compared to 7% with no cold treatment. AC improved germination and conversion frequency for one line to 77% and 59%, respectively, and kept roots from darkening. For two lines that produced embryos with one, two or three-plus cotyledons, cotyledon number did not affect germination or conversion frequency. We also established embryogenic American chestnut suspension cultures and adapted a fractionation/plating system that allowed us to produce populations of relatively synchronous somatic embryos for multiple lines. Embryos derived from suspension cultures of two lines tested had higher conversion frequencies (46% and 48%) than those from cultures maintained on semi-solid medium (7% and 30%). The improvements in manipulation of American chestnut embryogenic cultures described in this study have allowed over a 100-fold increase in somatic seedling production efficiency over what we reported previously and thus constitute a substantial advance toward the application of somatic embryogenesis for mass clonal propagation of the tree. PMID:15789206

Andrade, G M; Merkle, S A

2005-03-24

28

Spatial habitat modeling of American chestnut at Mammoth Cave National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was historically one of the most important trees in forests of the eastern U.S., but it was severely decimated by chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica). Efforts are underway by The American Chestnut Foundation (TACF) and other organizations to develop blight-resistant chestnut trees for restoration. To ensure local adaptability, a variety of American chestnut trees with a

Songlin Fei; Joe Schibig; Mark Vance

2007-01-01

29

Horse Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Horse racing, the so-called "sport of kings," has captivated fans for centuries. One reason is the grace and agility of the horses themselves -- when they're running at top speed, they look as if they're flying down the track. In this Science Update, you'll hear how studying horses may help engineers improve human flight in air and space.

Science Update;

2003-05-27

30

The Role of Water Uptake in the Transition of Recalcitrant Seeds from Dormancy to Germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recalcitrant seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) maintaining a high water content during winter, dormancy is determined by the presence and influence of the seed coat, while the axial organs of the embryos excised from these seeds are not dormant. Such axial organs were capable for active water uptake and rapid fresh weight increase, so that their fresh

N. V. Obroucheva; O. V. Antipova

2004-01-01

31

Agrobacterium rhizogenes -mediated DNA transfer to Aesculu s hippocastanum L. and the regeneration of transformed plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairy roots were induced from androgenic embryos of horse chestnut ( Aesculus hippocastanum L.) by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4GUS. Single roots were selected according to their morphology in the absence of antibiotic or herbicide resistance markers. Seventy-one putative transformed hairy root lines from independent transformation events were established. Regeneration was induced in MS liquid medium supplemented with 30 µ

S. Zdravkovi?-Kora?; Y. Muhovski; P. Druart; D. ?ali?; L. Radojevi?

2004-01-01

32

Comparison of the transcriptomes of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) in response to the chestnut blight infection  

PubMed Central

Background1471-2229-9-51 American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was devastated by an exotic pathogen in the beginning of the twentieth century. This chestnut blight is caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, a fungus that infects stem tissues and kills the trees by girdling them. Because of the great economic and ecological value of this species, significant efforts have been made over the century to combat this disease, but it wasn't until recently that a focused genomics approach was initiated. Prior to the Genomic Tool Development for the Fagaceae project, genomic resources available in public databases for this species were limited to a few hundred ESTs. To identify genes involved in resistance to C. parasitica, we have sequenced the transcriptome from fungal infected and healthy stem tissues collected from blight-sensitive American chestnut and blight-resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) trees using ultra high throughput pyrosequencing. Results We produced over a million 454 reads, totaling over 250 million bp, from which we generated 40,039 and 28,890 unigenes in total from C. mollissima and C. dentata respectively. The functions of the unigenes, from GO annotation, cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. In silico expression analyses showed that many of the stress response unigenes were expressed more in canker tissues versus healthy stem tissues in both American and Chinese chestnut. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either American or Chinese chestnut canker tissues. Conclusion Our study resulted in the identification of a large set of cDNA unigenes from American chestnut and Chinese chestnut. The ESTs and unigenes from this study constitute an important resource to the scientific community interested in the discovery of genes involved in various biological processes in Chestnut and other species. The identification of many defense-related genes differentially expressed in canker vs. healthy stem in chestnuts provides many new candidate genes for developing resistance to the chestnut blight and for studying pathways involved in responses of trees to necrotrophic pathogens. We also identified several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to Cryphonectria parasitica between American chestnut and Chinese chestnut.

Barakat, Abdelali; DiLoreto, Denis S; Zhang, Yi; Smith, Chris; Baier, Kathleen; Powell, William A; Wheeler, Nicholas; Sederoff, Ron; Carlson, John E

2009-01-01

33

Charley horse  

MedlinePLUS

A charley horse is the common name for a muscle spasm, especially in the leg. Muscle spasms can occur in any ... irritated nerve is involved, you might need physical therapy or even surgery. The most common cause of ...

34

Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i) a simulation model (R2-value = 87%) based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii) a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63%) with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gouveia, C.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Magalhães, M.

2011-10-01

35

Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ri...

1997-01-01

36

CHESTNUT AVENUE BRIDGE. BOWIE, PRINCE GEORGES CO., MD. Sec. 1201,, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CHESTNUT AVENUE BRIDGE. BOWIE, PRINCE GEORGES CO., MD. Sec. 1201,, MP 120.48. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

37

Chestnut pellicle for the recovery of gold.  

PubMed

Recovery of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid medium by using crosslinked chestnut pellicle (CCP) gel was studied. Strong selectivity was observed for Au(III) showing negligible affinity for other precious metals and some base metal ions tested. The adsorption isotherm study exhibited the maximum loading capacity of the gel as high as 10.6 mol or about 2.1 kg gold per kg dry weight of gel. The reduction of Au(III) ion to elemental form during adsorption process is expected to be the reason of high selectivity and high capacity for Au(III). Kinetic studies at various temperatures confirm an endothermic adsorption process following the pseudo-first order rate law. PMID:18713661

Parajuli, Durga; Adhikari, Chaitanya Raj; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Yamada, Sayaka; Ohto, Keisuke; Inoue, Katsutoshi

2008-08-17

38

Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of chestnut ( Castanea sativa) shell and eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus globulus) bark extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chestnut (Castanea sativa) shell and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) bark, waste products of the food and wood industries, respectively, were analysed as potential sources of antioxidant compounds. The extraction yield, the antioxidant activity and total phenols content of the extracts were greater in chestnut shell than in eucalyptus bark for most of the extraction conditions essayed. Extraction of chestnut shell with

G. Vázquez; E. Fontenla; J. Santos; M. S. Freire; J. González-Álvarez; G. Antorrena

2008-01-01

39

Effects of light acclimation on the photosynthesis, growth, and biomass allocation in American chestnut ( Castanea dentata) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is currently regarded as functionally extinct because of chestnut blight. To reintroduce blight-resistant American chestnut back to its historic range, it is imperative to understand the silvics and silviculture of the species. In an outdoor rainout shelter, we grew American chestnut seedlings at four levels of irradiance (4, 12, 32 and 100% of full sunlight) to

G. Geoff Wang; William L. Bauerle; Bryan T. Mudder

2006-01-01

40

Quantitative genetic aspects of coat color in horses.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for coat color in horses. Besides defining coat color classes (gray, chestnut, bay, and black), the phenotypes were also measured quantitatively according to standardized international procedures (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*, a*, b*), where L* describes lightness, a* describes color saturation from red to green, and b* describes color saturation from yellow to blue. The total color saturation was derived from a* and b* and referred to as Chroma. A total of 294 horses from the breeds Lipizzan, Nonius, Arabian Pure Bred, Shagya Arabian, and Gidran were measured at neck, shoulder, and belly. Heritabilities (within and between breeds or color classes) and repeatabilities were estimated using REML from univariate animal models defined separately for gray and nongray horses. For gray horses, the estimated within-breed heritabilities for L* ranged from 0.45 to 0.49 and for a*, b*, and Chroma from 0.09 to 0.52, indicating moderate polygenic effect. For nongray horses, between-color class heritabilities were high (0.70 to 0.85) and within-color class heritabilities were negligible (except for L* measured on neck and belly, 0.21 and 0.34, respectively). Additionally, the importance of L* was described by the relation with the total melanin content of horse coat hair; for gray and nongray horses, a strong negative linear relationship was detected (P < 0.01). The spectrometric measures and the results of this study demonstrate a possible approach to the estimation of the polygenic component involved in coat color inheritance. PMID:16971562

Toth, Z; Kaps, M; Sölkner, J; Bodo, I; Curik, I

2006-10-01

41

Suitability of chestnut earlywood vessel chronologies for ecological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary •W ood anatomical features measured in dated tree rings have often proven to be of ecological value. However, little is known about the suitability and power of such measurements studied in a year-to-year basis as is done in dendrochronology. • The present work is based on a comparative analysis of 60 dated time-series of earlywood features of chestnut (

Patrick Fonti; Ignacio Garcia-Gonzalez

2004-01-01

42

Nondestructive detection of infested chestnuts based on NIR spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect feeding is a significant postharvest problem for processors of Chestnuts (Castanea sativa, Miller). In most cases, damage from insects is 'hidden', i.e. not visually detectable on the fruit surface. Consequently, traditional sorting techniques, including manual sorting, are generally inadequa...

43

The effects of logging and disease on American chestnut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbance histories drive spatiotemporal patterns of species distributions, and multiple disturbances can have complex effects on these patterns of distribution. The introduction of the chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica (Murril.) Barr.) to the eastern United States in the early 1900s coincided with an increase in logging, thus presenting an ideal situation for studying the effect of two disturbance events, logging and

Katie L. Burke

2011-01-01

44

Chestnut Burs as a Source of Natural Antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of chestnut bur as a source of natural antioxidants has been studied. Extracts in solvents of varying polarity (acetone, ethanol, methanol and water) were obtained and compared with respect to extraction yield, total phenols content, antioxidant activity, molecular weight distribution and composition. The extraction with water led to the highest extraction yield (21.2%) and extract total phenols content

G. Vázquez; J. González-Álvarez; M. S. Freire; A. Fernández-Agulló

45

Electroantennographic responses of the lesser chestnut weevil curculio sayi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to volatile organic compounds identified from chestnut reproductive plant tissue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The primary insect pest of the developing chestnut industry in the central United States is the lesser chestnut weevil, Curculio sayi (Gyllenhal), which is a specialist on only Castanea trees. Recent research has shown this insect is attracted to and feeds upon the reproductive tissues of the chestn...

46

Diseases from Horses  

MedlinePLUS

... rare. For example, horses often carry the bacterium Salmonella . This germ causes salmonellosis (sal-MON-el-oh- ... fungal disease associated various animals, including with horses . Salmonella Infection (salmonellosis) : A bacterial disease associated with various ...

47

Chinese chestnut production in the United States: Practice, problems, and possible solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are fewer than 162 ha of commercial Chinese chestnut orchards in the United States, with approximately half of these\\u000a in the Southeast. Large numbers of Chinese chestnut seedlings are planted annually in the United States for home and game\\u000a food production; however, knowledge about chestnut propagation, fertilization, pests, harvest, storage and marketing is not\\u000a adequate. There is little commercial

Jerry A. Payne; Richard A. Jaynes; Stanley J. Kays

1983-01-01

48

Floral Origin Markers of Chestnut and Lime Tree Honeys.  

PubMed

The apiculture industry is more and more interested in finding typical markers to authenticate floral origin of honeys. With this aim, some reliable volatile compounds were proposed to identify origin of lime tree and chestnut samples. A dichloromethane extraction followed by a Likens-Nickerson simultaneous steam distillation/solvent extraction led to representative honey extracts. About 400 volatile compounds were separated by gas chromatography, but only a few authenticated the floral origin of honeys. Chestnut honeys are distinguishable from other origins by high concentrations of acetophenone, 1-phenylethanol (>88 ppb), and 2-aminoacetophenone (>154 ppb). Lime tree honeys are characterized by enhanced amounts of shikimate pathway derivatives (ethylmethylphenol isomer (>31 ppb), 4-tert-butylphenol, estragole (>51 ppb), and p-methylacetophenone but also by high concentrations of monoterpene-derived compounds (menthol, thymol, 8-p-menthene-1,2-diol, and carvacrol (>76 ppb)) and methyl(1-methylethenyl)benzene. PMID:10554289

Guyot; Bouseta; Scheirman; Collin

1998-02-16

49

Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. ?-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

2012-09-01

50

Development and germination of American chestnut somatic embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) plants were regenerated from developing ovules through somatic embryogenesis.\\u000a On an initiation medium containing 18.18 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1.11 ?M 6-benzyladenine (BA), 25 out of 1,576\\u000a ovules were induced to form proembryogenic masses (PEMs). These PEMs were cultivated on a development medium for 4 weeks.\\u000a Individual somatic embryos were then grown on a

Zizhuo Xing; William A. Powell; Charles A. Maynard

1999-01-01

51

Biochemical analysis of two varieties of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.).  

PubMed

In this study, two varieties (Green and red) of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.) have been selected for their biochemical analysis as well as nutrient composition using standard methods. The proximate composition of green water chestnuts revealed moisture 62.5, ash 1.04, crude fiber 2.13%, total soluble sugar 0.92%, reducing sugar 0.33%, non-reducing sugar 0.59%, starch 8.7%, lipid 0.84%. One hundred gram of green variety contained water soluble protein 0.275 mg, beta-Carotene 60 microg, vitamin-C 1.1 mg and total phenol 0.5 mg. The minerals contents of green variety were potassium 5.22%, sodium 0.64%, calcium 0.25%, phosphorus 6.77%, sulpher 0.38%, and iron, copper, manganese and zinc 200, 430, 90 and 600 ppm, respectively. The red variety contained moisture 62.7%, ash 1.30%, crude fiber 2.27%, total soluble sugar 0.90%, reducing sugar 0.30%, non-reducing sugar 0.60%, starch 8.2%, lipid 0.83%. The red variety contained water soluble protein 0.251 mg, beta-Carotene 92 microg, vitamin-C 0.9 mg and total phenol 0.60 mg per 100 g. The red variety contained potassium 5.32%, sodium 0.59%, calcium 0.26% phosphorus 6.77%, sulpher 0.32%, Iron 200 ppm, copper 450 ppm, manganese 110 ppm and zinc 650 ppm. The free amino acids, glutamic acid, tryptophan, tyrosine, alanine, lysine and leucine were commonly found in both varieties. In addition, green and red variety contained cysteine, arginine and proline and glutamine and asparagines, respectively. Thus, the present study sheds light on the nutrient contents of the two varieties of water chestnuts and suggests that water chestnuts may play a crucial role in human nutrition. PMID:24163944

Faruk, M Omar; Amin, M Ziaul; Sana, Niranjan Kumar; Shaha, Ranajit Kumar; Biswas, Kamal Krishna

2012-11-01

52

Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of European chestnut embryogenic cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative and efficient genetic transformation protocol for European chestnut is described in which embryogenic cultures are used as the target material. When somatic embryos at the globular or early-torpedo stages were cocultured for 4 days with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harbouring the pUbiGUSINT plasmid containing marker genes, a transformation efficiency of 25% was recorded. Murashige and Skoog culture medium

E. Corredoira; D. Montenegro; A. M. Vieitez; A. Ballester

2004-01-01

53

Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.  

PubMed

Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses. PMID:22233098

Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

2011-01-01

54

Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

Pridnya, M. V.; Cherpakov, V. V.; Paillet, F. L.

1996-01-01

55

The effect of low-temperature storage on the activity of polyphenol oxidase in Castanea henryi chestnuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chestnuts of Castanea henryi (Skan) Rehd. et Wils were stored at 4 and ?20°C for a duration of 6 months. The effects of such storage treatments on the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and total free phenolics content were investigated. Total phenolics content showed uneven distribution in C. henryi chestnuts. The chestnut PPO was isolated and characterized in terms of optimum

Jinsen Xu

2005-01-01

56

EVALUATION OF MINE SPOIL SUITABILITY FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF AMERICAN CHESTNUT HYBRIDS IN THE CUMBERLAND PLATEAU1  

Microsoft Academic Search

American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) was formerly the most important hardwood species throughout the forests of eastern North America. The introduction of an exotic fungal blight (Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr) in the early 20th century decimated C. dentata populations. Blight- resistant chestnut hybrids may soon be available for widespread distribution through The American Chestnut Foundation's breeding program, although the

Michael E. French; Christopher D. Barton; Donald Graves; Patrick N. Angel; Frederick V. Hebard

2007-01-01

57

HPLC determination of sugars in varieties of chestnut fruits from Galicia (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major components in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) are carbohydrates, mainly starch, followed by sucrose. This disaccharide is one of the most important parameters for the assessment of the commercial quality of these fruits. In this study we assessed glucose, fructose and sucrose contents in different varieties of chestnut (C. sativa Mill) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of

M. M??guez Bernárdez; J De la Montaña Miguélez; J. Garc??a Queijeiro

2004-01-01

58

Riparian vegetation in the southern Appalachian mountains (USA) following chestnut blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

American chestnut is often listed as an important component of mesic midslopes and xeric ridges in pre-blight southern Appalachian forests, but its former importance in riparian forests has generally been considered minor. To document its importance in riparian forests, 589 American chestnut stumps were located on four sites (two previously logged, two unlogged) in the Blue Ridge physiographic province of

D. B Vandermast; D. H Van Lear

2002-01-01

59

Horse Gaits Flipbooks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the gait of horses by constructing flipbooks with British photographer Eadweard Muybridge's famous photographs. Learners print out three flipbooks that showcase horses walking, trotting, and galloping. Learners will explore how many hooves leave the ground at the same time when the horse trots, walks, or gallops. This activity can also be used as part of a larger unit on animation or film.

History, American M.

2012-06-26

60

Theme Unit. Horse Sense.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This integrated, cross-curricular theme unit has children become immersed in the equine world as they broaden their vocabulary, participate in hands-on science and math, explore art, become aware of the horse's important role in history, and learn about good grooming. A student reproducible, a poetry poster, and a poster on the coloring of horses

Flagg, Ann

1999-01-01

61

Welfare of competition horses.  

PubMed

In the large majority of cases and circumstances, horses benefit from their association with man. However, abuse of horses can occur, due to neglect or through the pressures of competition. The welfare of all animals, including competition horses, has become increasingly topical over the past ten years. Equestrian sport is coming under closer public scrutiny due to reports of apparent abuse. The bodies responsible for regulating these sports strenuously endeavour to protect the welfare of horses which compete under their rules and regulations. The Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI: International Equestrian Federation) is the sole authority for all international events in dressage, show-jumping, three-day event, driving, endurance riding and vaulting. The FEI rules illustrate the ways in which the welfare of competing horses is safeguarded. PMID:8173097

Atock, M A; Williams, R B

1994-03-01

62

Horse trichinellosis, an unresolved puzzle.  

PubMed

In spite of routine controls to detect Trichinella larvae in horse-meat, human infections due to horse-meat consumption continue to occur in France and Italy. The epidemiology of horse trichinellosis since its discovery in 1975 is outlined, addressing the possible modes of natural transmission to horses, the need to develop more sensitive methods for detecting Trichinella larvae in horses, and the economic impact of horse trichinellosis. Investigations of human outbreaks due to horse-meat consumption have implicated single cases of inadequate veterinary controls on horses imported from non-European Union countries. In particular, most cases of human infection have been attributed to horses imported from Eastern Europe, where pig trichinellosis is re-emerging and the main source of infection in horses. PMID:11484375

Pozio, E; Tamburrini, A; La Rosa, G

2001-06-01

63

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of European chestnut embryogenic cultures.  

PubMed

An innovative and efficient genetic transformation protocol for European chestnut is described in which embryogenic cultures are used as the target material. When somatic embryos at the globular or early-torpedo stages were cocultured for 4 days with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harbouring the pUbiGUSINT plasmid containing marker genes, a transformation efficiency of 25% was recorded. Murashige and Skoog culture medium containing 150 mg/l of kanamycin was used as the selection medium. The addition of acetosyringone was detrimental to the transformation efficiency. Transformation was confirmed by a histochemical beta-glucuronidase (GUS ) assay, PCR and Southern blot analyses for the uidA (GUS) and nptII (neomycin phosphotransferase II) genes. At present, 93 GUS-positive chestnut embryogenic lines are being maintained in culture. Low germination rates (6.3%) were recorded for the transformed somatic embryos. The presence of the transferred genes in leaves and shoots derived from the germinated embryos was also verified by the GUS assay and PCR analysis. PMID:15338188

Corredoira, E; Montenegro, D; San-José, M C; Vieitez, A M; Ballester, A

2004-08-26

64

ANTIPROTEINS IN HORSE SERA  

PubMed Central

1. Two horses were injected subcutaneously with alum-precipitated rabbit serum albumin. 2. The resulting antibody resembled diphtheria antitoxin and anti-egg albumin in the horse in giving a sharp zone of flocculation with antigen, in being water-soluble, in reactivity toward an anti-antibody rabbit serum, and in its electrophoretic properties. 3. The effect of continued immunization, and of variation in volume and temperature on the reactivity of the antibody are discussed. 4. Intravenous injection of the same antigen into horses did not give rise to detectable amounts of antibody of the same type.

Treffers, Henry P.; Heidelberger, Michael; Freund, Jules

1947-01-01

65

Hoof Comfort for Horses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called 'Power Pads,' which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads...

2002-01-01

66

Social Ecology of Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horses (Equidae ) are believed to clearly demonstrate the links between ecology and social organization. Their social cognitive\\u000a abilities enable them to succeed in many different environments, including those provided for them by humans, or the ones\\u000a domestic horses encounter when escaping from their human care takers. Living in groups takes different shapes in equids. Their\\u000a aggregation and group cohesion

Konstanze Krueger

67

Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut ( Castanea mollissima ) fruit for commercial use  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed\\u000a to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption. Chocolate\\u000a coating significantly improved the nutritional value of

Mahamadou E. Gounga; Shi-ying Xu; Zhang Wang

2008-01-01

68

Effects of Water Chestnut ( Trapa natans ) Beds on Water Chemistry in the Tidal Freshwater Hudson River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetated areas of rivers and estuaries are capable of affecting the concentration of dissolved and particulate matter in\\u000a water masses traversing those plant beds. We examined whether different sizes of water chestnut (Trapa natans) beds in the Hudson River, USA, alter dissolved oxygen, nutrients and turbidity of water masses. Ebb–tide water was sampled\\u000a from four water chestnut beds in the

Meredith Hummel; Stuart Findlay

2006-01-01

69

Equilibrium and kinetic modelling of the adsorption of Cd 2+ ions onto chestnut shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the removal of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions by acid formaldehyde pretreated chestnut (Castanea sativa) shell was conducted in batch conditions. The influence of different parameters: adsorption time, temperature (15, 25 and 35°C) and initial concentration of Cd2+ ions (15.3, 50.5 and 87.3mgL?1), on cadmium uptake was analysed. Cadmium free and cadmium loaded chestnut shell were characterized

Gonzalo Vázquez; M. Sonia Freire; Julia González-Alvarez; Gervasio Antorrena

2009-01-01

70

Inheritance of racing performance of Thoroughbred horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horse racing is a contest between horses, usually held for the purpose of betting. Thoroughbred horse racing is the most diffused form of horse racing throughout the world. Thoroughbred is one of the most versatile of horse breeds and has influenced the development of many other breeds. Thoroughbred horses served as a foundation stock for the development of the light

A. K. Thiruvenkadan; N. Kandasamy; S. Panneerselvam

2009-01-01

71

DIRECT-SEEDING VERSUS CONTAINERIZED TRANSPLANTATION OF AMERICAN CHESTNUTS ON LOOSE MINE SPOILS IN THE CUMBERLAND PLATEAU1  

Microsoft Academic Search

American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) was formerly an important timber and nut-producing hardwood throughout the forests of eastern North America. The introduction of an exotic fungal blight (Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr) in the early 20th century devastated C. dentata populations. Blight-resistant chestnut backcrosses will be available for widespread distribution through The American Chestnut Foundation's breeding program in the near

Michael E. French; Christopher D. Barton; Donald Graves

72

Qualidade de produtos a base de plantas medicinais comercializados no Brasil: castanha-da-índia (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf ) e centela (Centella asiatica (L.) Urban)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of products made from medicinal plants commercialized in Brazil: horsechestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf), and gotu kola (Centella asiatica (L.) Urban). Aiming to evaluate the quality of products made from medicinal plants, there were analyzed ten samples of horsechestnut, eleven samples of lemongrass, and six samples of gotu kola commercialized in pharmacies from the city

Joabe Gomes de Melo; Járisson Diógenes Guilherme da Roch Martins; Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti de Amorim; Ulysses Paulino de Albuquerque

2007-01-01

73

From wild horses to domestic horses: a European perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a period of some 5000 years or so in the prehistory of Europe when horse populations were greatly depleted and perhaps even disappeared in many places. Before this time, during the Upper Palaeolithic, wild horses were common; after, during the Bronze Age, domestic horses were being raised and used across Europe. What happened in between is uncertain, in

Robin Bendrey

2012-01-01

74

Coprophilous fungi of the horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 1267 microfungi, including 35 Myxomycetes, were recorded from the fecal samples of the 60 horses; of these 395 were found on 20 saddle-horse feces, 363 on 20 race-horses and 509 on 20 working-horses. Eighty two species representing 53 genera were recorded; of these 7 were Zygomycetes, 18 Ascomycetes, 1 Basidiomycetes and 25 Fungi Imperfecti: 2 Myxomycetes. Common

E. Piontelli; M. Alicia Toro Santa-maria; G. Caretta

1981-01-01

75

Training Methods and Horse Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aspects of horse care and handling are based upon convenience and traditional practices. Many of these methods of management and practice do not take into account the natural behaviour of horses. This is despite the belief that although domestic horses are probably more docile, stronger, faster growing and faster moving than their ancestors, they are unlikely to have lost

N. Waran; P. McGreevy; R. Casey

76

African horse sickness.  

PubMed

African horse sickness (AHS) is a reportable, noncontagious, arthropod-borne viral disease that results in severe cardiovascular and pulmonary illness in horses. AHS is caused by the orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV), which is transmitted primarily by Culicoides imicola in Africa; potential vectors outside of Africa include Culicoides variipennis and biting flies in the genera Stomoxys and Tabanus. Infection with AHSV has a high mortality rate. Quick and accurate diagnosis can help prevent the spread of AHS. AHS has not been reported in the Western Hemisphere but could have devastating consequences if introduced into the United States. This article reviews the clinical signs, pathologic changes, diagnostic challenges, and treatment options associated with AHS. PMID:23705175

Stern, Adam W

2011-08-01

77

Characteristics of Hypovirulent Strains of Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, Isolated in Korea  

PubMed Central

Chestnut blight disease caused by Cryphonectria parasitica is widely distributed throughout chestnut tree plantations in Korea. We surveyed 65 sites located at 9 provinces in South Korea, and isolated 248 virulent and 3 hypovirulent strains of chestnut blight fungus. Hypovirulent strains had dsRNA virus in the cytoplasm, which is one of the typical characteristics of hypovirulent strains. In addition, they showed more characteristics of hypovirulent strains, i.e., suppressed conidiation, reduced pigmentation in colony color, and reduced phenol oxidase activity as well as reduced pathogenicity. Hypovirulent strains, KCPH-22, KCPH-135 and KCPH-136, had a genomic dsRNA band with the molecular weight of 12.7 kb, which is the L-dsRNA of CHV1. They also had a 2.7 kb defective dsRNA band. Single conidia isolated from hypovirulent strains were cultured and various phenotypes and absence of dsRNA bands were obtained from single conidial cultures, which means that hypovirulence transmission is unstable in asexual reproduction and variations in viral heredity by asexual reproduction. Biocontrol trial using hypovirulent strains was also carried out in the chestnut tree plantations, and canker expansion in the treated trees was stopped and healed by callus formation at the margin of the canker. These results show the potentials in successful biocontrol of chestnut blight if the vegetatively compatible hypovirulent strains could be directly used around the canker formed by compatible virulent strains.

Lee, Sang Hyun; Moon, Byung Ju

2006-01-01

78

Purification and characterization of polyphenols from chestnut astringent skin.  

PubMed

Polyphenolic compounds from chestnut astringent skin (CAS) were purified by dialysis, using Diaion HP-20 and Sephadex LH-20 columns. During purification, specific ?-amylase inhibitory activities were increased about 3.4-fold, and the 50% inhibition value was 5.71 ?g/mL in the Sephadex LH-20 fraction (SE-fraction). The SE-fraction contained about 67% of the total polyphenols, 57.3% of the flavanol-type tannins, and 51.3% of the procyanidins. Strong antioxidant activity was observed in the SE-fraction. Oral administration of the SE-fraction in rats fed corn starch significantly suppressed an increase in blood glucose levels. The SE-fraction contained gallic acid and ellagic acid. The MALDI-TOF spectrum showed a peak series exhibiting a mass increment of 288 Da, reflecting the variation in the number of catechin/epicatechin units. Our results suggest CAS contains polyphenols with strong ?-amylase inhibitory activity. The data also suggest CAS polyphenols might be oligomeric proanthocyanidins with gallic acid and ellagic acid. PMID:21777007

Tsujita, Takahiro; Yamada, Misato; Takaku, Takeshi; Shintani, Tomoyoshi; Teramoto, Kanae; Sato, Takafumi

2011-08-01

79

Toward development of silvical strategies for forest restoration of American chestnut ( Castanea dentata) using blight-resistant hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backcross breeding has provided a viable means to restore American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) to eastern North American forests, where the foundation species was essentially extirpated by an introduced pathogen. With the prospect of American chestnut reintroduction imminent, it is critical to formulate restoration strategies based on the ecology and silvics of the species, operational confines, social or policy

Douglass F. Jacobs

2007-01-01

80

Horse Domestication and Conservation Genetics of Przewalski's Horse Inferred from Sex Chromosomal and Autosomal Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, there is continued disagreement about the genetic relationship of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) to its endangered wild relative, Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii). Analyses have differed as to whether or not Przewalski's horse is placed phylogenetically as a separate sister group to domestic horses. Because Przewalski's horse and domestic horse are

Allison N. Lau; Lei Peng; Hiroki Goto; Leona Chemnick; Oliver A. Ryder; Kateryna D. Makova

2008-01-01

81

Hyperelastosis in the Horse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Equine hyperelastosis cutis, also known as dermatosporaxis and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (HERDA), is an autosomal recessive inheritable disease and has been reported in Thoroughbreds, Morgans, Haflingers , Hanoverians, a Swiss Warmblood, a mule and several Arabian cross horses in the United Kingdom, U...

82

TEI HORSEing Around  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Text Encoding Initiative's typed segment-boundary delimiter method is only one of several proposed mechanisms for handling overlap in TEI documents. HORSE (aka CLIX) defines a method by which an XML element is used normally when possible and as an improved version of the typed segment-boundary delimiter method when an overlap problem is encountered. A significant portion of the rules

Syd Bauman

2005-01-01

83

[Intersexuality in horses].  

PubMed

Intersexuality is a rare congenital anomaly of horses. Diagnosis of intersexuality is difficult because there are usually no specific changes in the reproductive tract visible. During a period of five years, ten patients with reduced fertility or suspected intersexuality respectively were investigated using cytogenetic, molecular genetic, histopathological and endocrinological methods. In one case a 64,XX/63,X0 mosaicism was found. In six cases male pseudohermaphroditism was verified. These patients showed a male karyotype, testes and rudimentary parts of a female reproductive tract were present. One horse was suspected to be a male pseudohermaphrodite but the gonads were not examined. One horse was suspected to be affected by an XX-sex several syndrome and in one case a SRY-negative XY-sex reversal syndrome was most likely. In the case of an XX-sex reversal syndrome, there is a female chromosomal constitution, an uterus and cranial parts of the vagina are present but also testes tissue and possibly an enlarged penis like clitoris. Here an XX-sex reversal syndrome was suspected but not confirmed as it was not possible to examine the gonads and verify tissue from testes. Therefore a pseudohermaphroditismus femininus could not be excluded. In cases of XY-sex reversal syndrome the patients show a male chromosomal constitution, parts of a female reproductive tract but no testes tissue is present. For the horse described here, a deletion of the SRY gene was the most likely cause for the XY-sex reversal syndrome. PMID:17341020

Kuiper, H; Distl, O

2007-02-01

84

[Prevalence of hereditary diseases in three-year-old horses of the Freiberger breed].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate clinical signs indicating diseases with known or suspected hereditary components like equine sarcoid, insect bite hypersensitivity, osteochondrosis, allergic airway diseases, podotrochleosis, prognatism and wind-sucking in the franches-montagnes horse. We performed a clinical examination on 702 three-year-old, privately owned franches-montagnes horses, which were shown at the Swiss-Field-Tests in 2004. With the help of the owners a questionnaire on health, environment and feeding habits of the animals was completed. In 11.9% of the horses, sarcoids were detected, 6.2% carried one tumor and 5.7% had several. The prevalence was higher in chestnuts (16.6%) than in bays (10.1%). The prevalence of sarcoids in offspring from sires with known sarcoids (data from Station-Tests 1994-2005) was not significantly higher than in descendants from stallions without a known history of sarcoids. Clinical signs of insect bite hypersensitivity were only found in six horses (0.9%). In 12.0% hoof abnormalities like brittle horn, ring hoofs or hoof cracks of different degrees were recorded. The angle between hoof base and hoof wall was 56.7 +/- 0.1 degrees, the average hoof width was 13.7 +/- 0.3 cm in the front feet. For both of these measures we found no significant difference between left and right feet. With the exception of a high sarcoid prevalence, our results indicate that the franches-montagnes horse is a healthy breed overall. PMID:17461390

Mele, M; Gerber, V; Straub, R; Gaillard, C; Jallon, L; Burger, D

2007-04-01

85

Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use  

PubMed Central

In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption. Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample’s protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal.

Gounga, Mahamadou E.; Xu, Shi-ying; Wang, Zhang

2008-01-01

86

Soils and geomorphology of the East Chestnut Ridge site  

SciTech Connect

Soil mapping of the East Chestnut Ridge site in conjunction with subsurface soil and rock coring provides an in-depth evaluation of the site and its suitability for disposal of wastes. Landforms and surface and subsurface hydrology, the natural, undisturbed, soil-saprolite-geohydrology system beneath the zone of engineering modifications provides for the ultimate containment of wastes and a means for the filtration and purification of any leachate before it reaches the aquifer. The surface location and extent of each geologic formation on the site were mapped. These locations correlated well with projections of subsurface contacts to the surface even through the criteria used by the pedologist and geologist to identify soil and rock from the same formation may be different. Soil thickness over bedrock of the Copper Ridge, Chepultepec, Longview, and Kingsport Formations is sufficient to provide considerable buffering between trench bottoms and groundwater or rock. Soil thickness over the Mascot Formation is comparatively thin, and pinnacles and ledges exposed on steeper sideslopes are common. Soil underlain by the Mascot Formation is not suited for a trench landfill. According to soil coring and active borrow pit observations, chert beds in the soil and saprolite are preferred zones of water flow. Construction of adequate clay liners beneath disposal units sited on the Longview dolomite may require placement and compaction of other native soils to achieve sufficiently low soil permeabilities. Karst geomorphic processes that initiated the formation of dolines evidently started several million years ago. Doline formation and enlargement is episodic, with short periods of activity followed by long periods of stability. Analysis of doline soil stratigraphy suggests that most of the large dolines on the site have been stable for most of the past 10,000 to 1000,000 years. 8 refs., 9 figs.

Lietzke, D.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R. (Lietzke (D.A.), Rutledge, TN (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-10-01

87

Training Methods and Horse Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aspects of horse care and handling are based upon convenience and traditional practices. Many of these methods of management\\u000a and practice do not take into account the natural behaviour of horses. This is despite the belief that although domestic horses\\u000a are probably more docile, stronger, faster growing and faster moving than their ancestors, they are unlikely to have lost

N. Waran; P. McGreevy; R. Casey

88

The apoptotic effects of escin in the H-Ras transformed 5RP7 cell line.  

PubMed

Extracts of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse chestnut) seed have been used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, edema and hemorrhoids. Most of the beneficial effects of horse chestnut are attributed to its principal component ?-escin or escin. We have evaluated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of escin in the H-Ras 5RP7 cell line by analyzing cell growth inhibition, apoptosis and caspase-3 dependent activity. We have also shown structural and ultrastructural changes in these cell using confocal and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that escin has significant inhibitory effects on cell growth and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased after treatment with escin, and the micrographs confirmed that escin damaged these cells and induced apoptosis. PMID:22911540

Güney, G; Kutlu, H M; I?can, A

2012-08-21

89

Does Horse Temperament Influence Horse–Rider Cooperation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperation between rider and horse is of major importance in equitation. A balanced team of horse and rider improves (sport) performances and welfare aspects by decreasing stress, frustration, risks of injuries, and accidents. Important features affecting the cooperation are the physical skills, knowledge, and personality of the rider on one hand and the temperament, experience, and physical abilities of the

E. Kathalijne Visser; Cornelis G. Van Reenen; Mari Zetterqvist Blokhuis; E. Karin M. Morgan; Peter Hassmén; T. Margareta M. Rundgren; Harry J. Blokhuis

2008-01-01

90

Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health

J. Gruhl; F. C. Schweppe

1980-01-01

91

Temporal and spatial dynamic of stool uprooting in abandoned chestnut coppice forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) coppice is a man-made forest type that has been managed for centuries in short rotations to rapidly produce woody biomass. These forests, which nowadays cover significant areas within Europe, experience a general neglect and are subsequently being abandoned. Most of them are now over-aged, very dense, and highly monotone. Little is known about their development. The

Juliane Vogt; Patrick Fonti; Marco Conedera; Boris Schröder

2006-01-01

92

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RING SHAKE INCIDENCE AND EARLYWOOD VESSEL CHARACTERISTICS IN CHESTNUT WOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper investigates whether in Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) a relationship exists between anatomical features of earlywood vessels, which may contribute to weakening the wood, and the incidence of ring shake. The study compared two groups of 30 wood discs with and without ring shake, collected in three coppice stands in Southern Swit- zerland. Shake-prone stems are not characterised

Patrick Fonti; Otto-Ulrich Bräker; Fulvio Giudici

93

Sexually mature transgenic American chestnut trees via embryogenic suspension-based transformation.  

PubMed

The availability of a system for direct transfer of anti-fungal candidate genes into American chestnut (Castanea dentata), devastated by a fungal blight in the last century, would offer an alternative or supplemental approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees resistant to the blight fungus and other pathogens. By taking advantage of the strong ability of embryogenic American chestnut cultures to proliferate in suspension, a high-throughput Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into the tree was established. Proembryogenic masses (PEMs) were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 harboring the plasmid pCAMBIA 2301, followed by stringent selection with 50 or 100 mg/l Geneticin. A protocol employing size-fractionation to enrich for small PEMs to use as target material and selection in suspension culture was applied to rapidly produce transgenic events with an average efficiency of four independent transformation events per 50 mg of target tissue and minimal escapes. Mature somatic embryos, representing 18 transgenic events and derived from multiple American chestnut target genotypes, were germinated and over 100 transgenic somatic seedlings were produced and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Multiple vigorous transgenic somatic seedlings produced functional staminate flowers within 3 years following regeneration. PMID:19578855

Andrade, Gisele M; Nairn, Campbell J; Le, Huong T; Merkle, Scott A

2009-07-04

94

Note. Sugar, Moisture Contents, and Color of Chestnuts during Different Storage Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color, moisture and sucrose, glucose and fructose contents of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) at several initial states (whole and undried; whole, peeled, and partially air-dried, with or without prior sucrose treatment; peeled, broken, and undried or partially air-dried) were monitored for 11 months during storage under various conditions (unpacked, packed in plastic bags at ambient pressure, or vacuum packed) and

F. Chenlo; R. Moreira; L. Chaguri; M. D. Torres

2009-01-01

95

Plant species diversity changes in abandoned chestnut (Castanea sativa) groves in southern France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few decades, marked land use changes have taken place in many Mediterranean ecosystems. For example, many chestnut groves in France are now abandoned and have turned into 'natural' coppice stands while others are now clear-cut every 10 or 15 years for wood. Species composition and life form diversity of the plant communities have changed markedly both in

Helene Gondard; François Romane; Michel Grandjanny; Junqing Li; James Aronson

2001-01-01

96

Health effects of air pollution due to coal combustion in the Chestnut Ridge region of Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used the seventeen monitor air quality network in the Chestnut Ridge region of Pennsylvania to evaluate the effect of pollutant trends and representations on measures of exposure. Data consisted of four and five years of SOâ and TSP measurements, respectively, and were considered in deriving exposure models. A cross-sectional study of 4071 children aged 6 to 11 years

S. Batterman; D. Golomb

1985-01-01

97

Influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and skins.  

PubMed

As seasonal products chestnuts have to be post-harvest treated to increase their shelf-life. The most common preservation method for chestnuts is the chemical fumigation with methyl bromide, a toxic agent that is under strictly Montreal Protocol due to its adverse effects on human health and environment. Food irradiation is a possible feasible alternative to substitute the traditional quarantine chemical fumigation treatment. This preliminary study evaluated the influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnut fruits and skins, through several chemical and biochemical parameters. The bioactive compounds (phenolics and flavonoids) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of ?-carotene bleaching capacity were determined. The obtained results seem to indicate that the storage favoured chestnuts antioxidant potential. Furthermore, the application of gamma irradiation also seems to be advantageous for antioxidant activity, independently of the dose used (0.27 ± 0.04 kGy or 0.54 ± 0.04 kGy). PMID:21371520

Antonio, Amilcar L; Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-03-01

98

In vitro germination and transient GFP expression of American chestnut ( Castanea dentata ) pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the male reproductive structures of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is described to advance our understanding of its reproductive behavior. This information has been vital in the development\\u000a of a strategy to collect pollen grains from male catkins suitable for in vitro germination and transformation experiments. Cutting male catkins into small segments and rolling them over a culture

Danilo D. Fernando; Javonna L. Richards; Julie R. Kikkert

2006-01-01

99

Novel insights into the emergence of pathogens: the case of chestnut blight.  

PubMed

Exotic, invasive pathogens have emerged repeatedly and continue to emerge to threaten the world's forests. Ecosystem structure and function can be permanently changed when keystone tree species such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) are eliminated from a whole range by disease. The fungal ascomycete pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica is responsible for causing chestnut blight. Once the pathogen was introduced into the Eastern US, where chestnuts were predominant, chestnuts were all but eliminated. This pathogen is currently causing extensive damage in Europe. A study in this issue of Molecular Ecology sheds new light on the pattern and process of emergence of this devastating plant pathogen (Dutech et al. 2012). The authors used microsatellite markers to investigate the evolutionary history of C. parasitica populations introduced into North America and Europe. To infer sources of migrants and the migration events, the authors included putative source populations endemic to China and Japan, inferred potentially unsampled populations and conducted a multivariate population genetic and complex ABC analysis. Cryphonectria parasitica emerges as an example of an introduced pathogen with limited genotypic diversity and some admixture in the invaded ranges, yet repeated invasions into different areas of Europe and the United States. This work sheds new light on the emergence of C. parasitica providing compelling evidence that this pathogen emerged by repeated migration and occasional admixture. PMID:22835047

Grünwald, Niklaus J

2012-08-01

100

Subsurface structure of the north Summit gas field, Chestnut Ridge anticline of the Appalachian Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chestnut Ridge anticline is the westernmost of the High Plateau folds in southwestern Pennsylvania and north-central West Virginia that are detached primarily in the Marcellus Shale, and the Martinsburg, Salina, and Rome Formations. The primary, basal detachment at the Summit field occurs in the Salina salt. Production from fracture porosity in the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone commenced in 1936. During

G. Zhou; R. C. Shumaker; W. K. Staub

1996-01-01

101

Removal of copper from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto chestnut shell and grapeseed activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons prepared from chestnut shell and grapeseed were used as adsorbent for the removal of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions. Adsorption experiments were performed by varying initial metal ion concentration, temperature and pH. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data obtained at different adsorption conditions. It was observed that Freundlich isotherm provided better fit

Didem Özçimen; Ay?egül Ersoy-Meriçboyu

2009-01-01

102

Bovine intelligence for training horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rail-mounted model of a small cow is to be used in the training of horses for camp-drafting contests. The paper concerns the addition of sensors and a strategy to enable the machine to respond to the proximity of the horse in a manner that will represent the behaviour of a live calf.

John Billingsley

2007-01-01

103

Hay Days: The Horse in Iowa History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"The Goldfinch" introduces young children to various facets of Iowa history. Each issue has a specific topic, and a number of articles covering different aspects of the topic being addressed. This particular issue focuses on horses. Featured articles discuss historical uses of horses, an Iowa child who owns a quarter horse, show horses, and…

Frese, Millie K., Ed.

1998-01-01

104

Clinical nutrition of adult horses.  

PubMed

Horses suffering from trauma, sepsis, and severe burns need 12% to 16% of protein (dry matter basis) in their diet. Since reduced appetite may be a problem, relatively energy dense (greater than 2 Mcal DE/kg) feeds should be offered. In hepatic failure, maintenance protein requirements (8% on a dry matter basis for adult horses) should be met with feeds that are high in short branched-chain amino acids and arginine but low in aromatic amino acids and tryptophan (for example, milo, corn, soybean, or linseed meal) in addition to grass hay. Vitamins A, C, and E should also be supplemented. In cases with renal failure, protein, calcium, and phosphorus should be restricted to maintenance or lower levels. Grass hay and corn are the best feeds for horses with reduced renal function. Do not offer free-choice salt to horses with dependent edema from uncompensated chronic heart failure. Following gastrointestinal resection, legume hay and grain mixtures are the feeds of choice. Horses with diarrhea should not be deprived or oral or enteral alimentation for prolonged periods of time. Liquid formulas may be used if bulk or gastrointestinal motility are a problem. Apple cider vinegar and a high grain diet may reduce the incidence of enteroliths in horses prone to this problem. Pelleted feeds will reduce fecal volume and produce softer feces for horses that have had rectovaginal lacerations or surgery. Horses with small intestinal dysfunction or resection should be offered low residue diets initially, but long-term maintenance requires diets that promote large intestinal digestion (alfalfa hay, vegetable oil, restricted grain). Geriatric horses (greater than 20 years old need diets similar to those recommended for horses 6 to 18 months old. PMID:2202496

Ralston, S L

1990-08-01

105

Leptospirosis in horses in Ontario.  

PubMed Central

Sera from Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses in southwest Ontario were tested for antibody to seven Leptospira interrogans serovars (autumnalis, bratislava, canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona), using the microscopic agglutination test. There was significantly higher seroprevalence of bratislava than of other serovars, in which prevalence was low. Seroprevalence of bratislava increased significantly with age; only 5% of two to three year old horses had titers greater than or equal to 1:80 compared to 52% of horses older than seven years. Eight of 16 foals from two farms seroconverted at low titers to bratislava between four and eight months of age. Leptospires were not detected by immunofluorescence and isolation techniques in 50 kidneys collected from horses at slaughter. Fetal tissues from 52 aborted horse fetuses were also examined by these methods and serovar kennewicki was identified by immunofluorescence and by isolation in one fetus. Serovar bratislava appears to be widespread in horses in Ontario but unimportant in abortion. The clinical significance of this infection in horses in Ontario is unclear.

Kitson-Piggot, A W; Prescott, J F

1987-01-01

106

Evaluation of thin-layer chromatography methods for quality control of commercial products containing Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis.  

PubMed

In Mexico, plant-derived products with health claims are sold as herbal dietary supplements, and there are no rules for their legal quality control. Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis are some of the major commercial products obtained from plants used in this region. In this paper, we describe the effectiveness of thin-layer chromatography methods to provide for the quality control of several commercial products containing these plants. Standardized extracts were used. Of the 49 commercial products analyzed, only 32.65% matched the chromatographic characteristic of standardized extracts. A significant number of commercial products did not match their label, indicating a problem resulting from the lack of regulation for these products. The proposed methods are simple, sensitive, and specific and can be used for routine quality control of raw herbals and formulations of the tested plants. The results obtained show the need to develop simple and reliable analytical methods that can be performed in any laboratory for the purpose of quality control of dietary supplements or commercial herbal products sold in Mexico. PMID:17760328

Ramírez-Durón, Rosalba; Ceniceros-Almaguer, Lucía; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Salazar-Cavazos, Ma de la Luz; Waksman de Torres, Noemi

107

A High Density SNP Array for the Domestic Horse and Extant Perissodactyla: Utility for Association Mapping, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeny Studies  

PubMed Central

An equine SNP genotyping array was developed and evaluated on a panel of samples representing 14 domestic horse breeds and 18 evolutionarily related species. More than 54,000 polymorphic SNPs provided an average inter-SNP spacing of ?43 kb. The mean minor allele frequency across domestic horse breeds was 0.23, and the number of polymorphic SNPs within breeds ranged from 43,287 to 52,085. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) in most breeds declined rapidly over the first 50–100 kb and reached background levels within 1–2 Mb. The extent of LD and the level of inbreeding were highest in the Thoroughbred and lowest in the Mongolian and Quarter Horse. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses demonstrated the tight grouping of individuals within most breeds, close proximity of related breeds, and less tight grouping in admixed breeds. The close relationship between the Przewalski's Horse and the domestic horse was demonstrated by pair-wise genetic distance and MDS. Genotyping of other Perissodactyla (zebras, asses, tapirs, and rhinoceros) was variably successful, with call rates and the number of polymorphic loci varying across taxa. Parsimony analysis placed the modern horse as sister taxa to Equus przewalski. The utility of the SNP array in genome-wide association was confirmed by mapping the known recessive chestnut coat color locus (MC1R) and defining a conserved haplotype of ?750 kb across all breeds. These results demonstrate the high quality of this SNP genotyping resource, its usefulness in diverse genome analyses of the horse, and potential use in related species.

McCue, Molly E.; Bannasch, Danika L.; Petersen, Jessica L.; Gurr, Jessica; Bailey, Ernie; Binns, Matthew M.; Distl, Ottmar; Guerin, Gerard; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hill, Emmeline W.; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; R?ed, Knut H.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Swinburne, June E.; Tozaki, Teruaki; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Vaudin, Mark; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

2012-01-01

108

African horse sickness in naturally infected, immunised horses.  

PubMed

To determine whether subclinical cases, together with clinical cases, of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in immunised horses in field conditions, whole blood samples were collected and rectal temperatures recorded weekly from 50 Nooitgedacht ponies resident in open camps at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, during 2008-2010. The samples were tested for the presence of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) RNA by a recently developed real-time RT-PCR. It was shown that 16% of immunised horses in an AHS endemic area were infected with AHSV over a 2 year period, with half of these (8%) being subclinically infected. The potential impact of such cases on the epidemiology of AHS warrants further investigation. PMID:22612775

Weyer, C T; Quan, M; Joone, C; Lourens, C W; MacLachlan, N J; Guthrie, A J

2012-05-21

109

Trojan Horse Method: Recent Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross sections in nuclear reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed and recent applications are presented.

Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A. [DMFCI, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Rolfs, C. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany); Typel, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

2006-07-12

110

Aorto-cardiac fistulas in seven horses.  

PubMed

This report describes the history, clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings, treatment, outcome and post-mortem findings in seven horses with aorto-cardiac fistula. Affected horses included 5 stallions, one gelding and one mare; 2 each of the Thoroughbred, Arabian and Standardbred breeds and one Thoroughbred-cross with a mean +/- s.d. age of 12 +/- 4 years, range 6-18 years. The presenting signs were acute distress (four horses), exercise intolerance (two horses) and the lesion was detected during a routine examination in one horse. Five horses had monomorphic ventricular tachycardia on admission and one other had a history of this arrhythmia. Five horses had a characteristic continuous murmur loudest in the right fourth intercostal space. Echocardiography (six horses) and/or post-mortem examination (four horses) revealed the horses had aorto-cardiac fistulas arising from the right aortic sinus in all five horses in which the site was recorded. Two horses had ruptured aneurysmal dilatations of the aortic wall at this site. Fistulas extended into the right ventricle in four horses; the right atrium in two horses, the left ventricle in one horse, and five horses had dissecting tracts in the septal myocardium. Horses survived for periods ranging from 24 h to 4 years. Aorto-cardiac fistula should be considered in the differential diagnosis for horses presenting with acute distress, bounding arterial pulse, a right-sided continuous murmur and/or monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, particularly in middle-aged or older stallions. Echocardiography is the technique of choice for confirming the diagnosis and demonstrating accompanying cardiac changes. PMID:9491514

Marr, C M; Reef, V B; Brazil, T J; Thomas, W P; Knottenbelt, D C; Kelly, D F; Baker, J R; Reimer, J M; Maxson, A D; Crowhurst, J S

111

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic purposes; reservation...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.304 Import permits for horses...

2009-01-01

112

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic purposes; reservation...MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.304 Import permits for horses...

2010-01-01

113

19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10.66...exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry....

2010-04-01

114

19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10.66...exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry....

2009-04-01

115

Fungal diseases of horses.  

PubMed

Among diseases of horses caused by fungi (=mycoses), dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are of particular concern, due their worldwide diffusion and, for some of them, zoonotic potential. Conversely, other mycoses such as subcutaneous (i.e., pythiosis and mycetoma) or deep mycoses (i.e., blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) are rare, and/or limited to restricted geographical areas. Generally, subcutaneous and deep mycoses are chronic and progressive diseases; clinical signs include extensive, painful lesions (not pathognomonic), which resemble to other microbial infections. In all cases, early diagnosis is crucial in order to achieve a favorable prognosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and diagnosis of fungal diseases is essential for the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of equine fungal infections as a support to early diagnosis and application of targeted therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:23428378

Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

2013-01-29

116

The exhausted horse syndrome.  

PubMed

Exhaustion occurs in most equestrian sports, but it is more frequent in events that require sustained endurance work such as endurance racing, three-day eventing, trial riding, and hunting. Exhaustion is also more likely when an unfit, unacclimatized, or unsound horse is exercised. Mechanisms that contribute to exhaustion include heat retention, fluid and electrolyte loss, acid-base imbalance, and intramuscular glycogen depletion. Clinical signs include elevated temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate; depression; anorexia; unwillingness to continue to exercise; dehydration; weakness; stiffness; hypovolemic shock; exertional myopathy; synchronous diaphragmatic flutter; atrial fibrillation; diarrhea; colic; and laminitis. Treatment includes stopping exercise; rapid cooling; rapid large volume intravenous or oral fluid administration; and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration. PMID:9561696

Foreman, J H

1998-04-01

117

Characterization of mutants of the chestnut blight fungus ( Cryphonectria parasitica ) with unusual hypovirus symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The type virus of the family Hypoviridae,\\u000a Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 strain EP713 (CHV1-EP713), infects Cryphonectria parasitica, the filamentous causal fungus of chestnut blight, and reduces its virulence. This pathosystem serves as a model to study\\u000a fungus-mycovirus interactions. We previously developed a genetic screening protocol for host factors associated with symptom\\u000a induction by CHV1-EP713 and its mutants. In the procedure the

Masatoshi Izumimoto; Nobuhiro Suzuki

2008-01-01

118

The Chestnut-banded Plover is an overlooked globally Near Threatened Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Species that show obvious population declines are relatively easy to categorize as globally threatened under IUCN Red List criteria. However, species whose populations are highly concentrated at a few inaccessible sites that are unprotected or habitat-threatened and then disperse are more difficult to pigeon-hole. Here we re-assess the conservation status of one such species - the Chestnut-banded Plover Charadrius

Rob Simmons; Neil Baker; Rod Braby; Tim Dodman; Oliver Nasirwa; Stephanie Tyler; Wilferd Versfeld; Keith Wearne; Marius Wheeler

2007-01-01

119

Effects of elevated CO 2 on growth, photosynthesis and respiration of sweet chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two year old sweet chestnut seedlings (Castanea sativa Mill) were grown in pots at ambient (350 µmol·mol-1) and double (700 µmol·mol-1) atmospheric CO2 concentration in constantly ventilated greenhouses during entire growing seasons. CO2 enrichment caused either no significant change or a decrease in shoot response, depending on yearly weather conditions. Similarly, leaf area was either reduced or unchanged under elevated

M. Mousseau; H. Lambers

1993-01-01

120

Drying of Chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) after Osmotic Dehydration with Sucrose and Glucose Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chestnuts were dehydrated by using a combined method of osmotic dehydration followed by air drying. Samples were osmotically pretreated with sucrose (60% w\\/w) and glucose (56% w\\/w) for 8 h, air-dried at temperatures of 45, 55, and 65°C, at a relative humidity of 30% and at a velocity of 2.7 m·s and the experimental data of the drying kinetics were obtained. Whole samples were

R. Moreira; F. Chenlo; L. Chaguri; H. Oliveira

2007-01-01

121

Experimental results and modeling of the osmotic dehydration kinetics of chestnut with glucose solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic dehydration of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) was carried out using aqueous solutions of glucose of different concentrations (40.0, 50.0 and 56.5% w\\/w) as osmotic media, and working at three temperatures (25, 35 and 45°C). At different time intervals (up to 8h) of contact with the osmotic media, total mass, solids gain, water loss and moisture content were determined for

F. Chenlo; R. Moreira; C. Fernández-Herrero; G. Vázquez

2006-01-01

122

Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of the chestnut canopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In crowns of chestnut trees the absorption of radiant energy is not homogeneous; leaves from the south (S) side are the most\\u000a irradiated, but leaves from the east (E) and west (W) sides receive around 70 % and those from north (N) face less than 20\\u000a % of the S irradiation. Compared to the S leaves, those from the N

J. Gomes-Laranjo; J. P. Coutinho; V. Galhano; J. V. Ferreira-Cardoso

2008-01-01

123

Neuronal cell protection and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect of the phenolics in chestnut inner skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chestnut inner skin was known to contain various phenolics as a potential antioxidant, and 3 phenolics (catechin, epicatechin,\\u000a and gallic acid) were isolated. The relative antioxidant capacity of 3 phenolics in vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity\\u000a (VCEAC) evaluated by ABTS assay was in decreasing order as follows: gallic acid>catechin>epicatechin>vitamin C. Gallic acid\\u000a showed the highest inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase (AChE)

Ji Hye Kim; Gwi Nam Choi; Ji Hyun Kwak; Hee Rok Jeong; Chang-Ho Jeong; Ho Jin Heo

2011-01-01

124

The effect of drying temperatures on morphological and chemical properties of dried chestnuts flours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of drying conditions on morphological and chemical properties of two Portuguese Castanea sativa varieties (Longal and Martainha) was evaluated. All chestnut drying curves were found to be different according to drying temperatures (40°C, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C). Those conditions also affected both chemical composition of flours and morphological properties of starch. Colour parameters of the flours (L?c?h°) generally

Paula Correia; António Leitão; Maria Luísa Beirão-da-Costa

2009-01-01

125

Technological Assessment of Chestnut Flour Doughs Regarding to Doughs from Other Commercial Flours and Formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological assessment of chestnut flour doughs was studied using Mixolab® apparatus, establishing a comparison with\\u000a gluten (soft, hard and whole wheat) and gluten-free (rice and yellow corn) flour doughs as well as corn starch pastrymaking\\u000a and breadmaking formulations. This equipment measures the torque in function of temperature and time, firstly at 30 °C (mixing\\u000a curve) and secondly the mixing during

Ramón Moreira; Francisco Chenlo; María D. Torres; Diego M. Prieto

126

Chestnut shell as heavy metal adsorbent: Optimization study of lead, copper and zinc cations removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of initial cation concentration, temperature and pH was investigated to optimize Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ removal from aqueous solutions using acid formaldehyde pre-treated chestnut shell as adsorbent. Experiments were planned according to an incomplete 33 factorial experimental design. Under the optimal conditions selected, the metal ion adsorption equilibrium was satisfactorily described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum

Gonzalo Vázquez; Marcos Calvo; M. Sonia Freire; Julia González-Alvarez; Gervasio Antorrena

2009-01-01

127

Evaluation of potential applications for chestnut ( Castanea sativa) shell and eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus globulus) bark extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of chestnut shell and eucalyptus bark extracts as phenol substitutes in the formulation of adhesives, as chrome substitutes in leather tanning and as a source of antioxidants compounds has been studied. The influence of extraction conditions, type and concentration of alkaline compounds (NaOH, Na2SO3 and Na2CO3) and temperature, on extraction yield and on extract characteristics: Stiasny number, tannin

G. Vázquez; J. González-Alvarez; J. Santos; M. S. Freire; G. Antorrena

2009-01-01

128

Domestication of the horse: Genetic relationships between domestic and wild horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, a large amount of equine genetic data has been obtained regarding (i) extant domestic horses of various breeds from all over the world, (ii) ancient domestic horses, (iii) the extant Przewalski's wild horse, and (iv) the late Pleistocene wild horse from Eurasia and North America. Here, a review of mtDNA and Y chromosome marker analyses is presented in

Tatjana Kavar; Peter Dov?

2008-01-01

129

Do horses generalise between objects during habituation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habituation to frightening stimuli plays an important role in horse training. To investigate the extent to which horses generalise between different visual objects, 2-year-old stallions were habituated to feeding from a container placed inside a test arena and assigned as TEST (n=12) or REFERENCE horses (n=12). In Experiment 1, TEST horses were habituated to six objects (ball, barrel, board, box,

Janne Winther Christensen; Tatjana Zharkikh; Jan Ladewig

2008-01-01

130

Black walnut toxicosis in ten horses.  

PubMed

Black walnut toxicosis was diagnosed in 10 horses at one stable. The time from exposure to shavings to development of clinical signs was 8 to 12 hours. Most common clinical signs were moderate to severe laminitis (Obel grade 2 or 3), pitting edema of the distal portion of the limbs, and rapid respiratory rate. Two horses had clinical signs of colic and 2 other horses had anorexia and lethargy. All 10 horses recovered without complications. PMID:2768058

Uhlinger, C

1989-08-01

131

Coordination dynamics in horse-rider dyads.  

PubMed

The sport of equestrianism is defined through close horse-rider interaction. However, no consistent baseline parameters currently exist describing the coordination dynamics of horse-rider movement across different equine gaits. The study aims to employ accelerometers to investigate and describe patterns of motor coordination between horse and rider across the equine gaits of walk, rising trot, sitting trot and canter. Eighteen female (N=18; mean age±SD: 37.57±13.04) Dutch horse-rider combinations were recruited to participate in the study. Horse-rider coordination was recorded using two tri-axial wireless accelerometers during a standard ridden protocol. Multiple measures of horse-rider coordination were calculated to investigate the relationship between the horse and rider, while the unpredictability of the acceleration-time series of the horse and rider during task performance were determined separately by means of approximate entropy analysis. The kinematic variables of horse-rider correlation, mean relative phase, mean standard deviation of the relative phase, approximate entropy rider, approximate entropy horse and spectral edge frequency at 95% of the power in the 0-10 Hz frequency band were examined using multiple correlational analyses and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Findings showed significantly different coordination dynamics between equine gaits, with the gait of canter allowing for the highest levels of horse-rider synchronicity. It may be concluded that accelerometers are a valuable tool to map distinct coordination patterns of horse-rider combinations. PMID:23290116

Wolframm, Inga A; Bosga, Jurjen; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J

2013-01-04

132

Urethrolithiasis and nephrolithiasis in a horse.  

PubMed Central

A 9-year-old, quarter horse gelding with obstructive urethrolithiasis was treated with a perineal urethrostomy. The horse's condition deteriorated and abdominocentesis confirmed septic uroperitonitis. The horse was euthanized and postmortem examination revealed peritonitis, a tear in the lateral wall of the bladder, and a nephrolith within the left renal pelvis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2.

Saam, D

2001-01-01

133

Ultrasonographic diagnosis of coxofemoral subluxation in horses.  

PubMed

The clinical and ultrasonographic features of seven horses with coxofemoral subluxation are presented. Affected horses included five adult geldings (11-20 years), one large pony (6 years) and a 3-month-old filly. All were lame at the walk except for the pony with grade 3/5 lameness. Lameness was acute in all horses, but three horses progressed after initial improvement. Crepitus, muscle atrophy, and pelvic asymmetry were inconsistent findings. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of subluxation required dynamic visualization of femoral head displacement from the acetabulum while placing weight on the affected limb and subsequent replacement into its normal position upon limb resting. Acetabular rim fractures and joint effusion were visible regardless of weight bearing status in six horses each. No fractures were identified in the pony; the only patient with a good outcome. Six horses had a poor outcome with severe chronic lameness, four of which were euthanized. Postmortem ventrodorsal radiographs obtained in two horses confirmed subluxation only on extended limb projections, but not on hip-flexed projections. Acetabular rim fractures were not visible radiographically in either horse but were confirmed at necropsy. Subluxation was due to an elongated but intact ligament of the head of the femur in both horses. Osteoarthrosis was evident ultrasonographically, radiographically, and at necropsy. Dynamic ultrasonography was readily performed in the standing horse and produced diagnostic images with a low frequency curvilinear transducer. The apparent poor prognosis for horses with subluxation and acetabular fracture illustrate the importance of this imaging technique to identify affected horses. PMID:19697609

Brenner, Suzanne; Whitcomb, Mary Beth

134

Horner's syndrome in ten horses  

PubMed Central

Ten cases of equine Horner's syndrome were reviewed. None of the clinical signs in this series were transient (<48 hours). Sweating and ptosis were consistently observed by the attending clinician in over half of the affected horses. Enophthalmos and prolapse of the third eyelid were not reported consistently. The average duration of the clinical signs was 4.94 months and ranged from 14 days to 15 months. Eight of the ten horses developed associated complications, some of which affected performance. Airway obstruction and impedance of passage of a fiberoptic endoscope due to nasal mucosal edema occurred in five horses. Facial paralysis (4/10) and laryngeal hemiplegia (2/10), which are not direct features of Horner's syndrome, were also observed.

Green, Sherril L.; Cochrane, Susan M.; Smith-Maxie, Laura

1992-01-01

135

Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents: The role of the cotyledonary petiole.  

PubMed

Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak (Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ?6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to produce seedlings suggests a far greater resilience of white oaks to seed predation than previously anticipated. PMID:23179950

Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W; Agosta, Salvatore J; Steele, Michael A

2012-11-24

136

Kleingrass-associated hepatotoxicosis in horses.  

PubMed

Chronic hepatic disease was diagnosed in 6 horses with history of anorexia and weight loss. These horses consistently had abnormally high serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activities, total and direct bilirubin and blood ammonia values, and sulfobromophthalein clearance times, whereas serum iditol dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were variable. In the 6 horses, histologic examination of the liver revealed lesions of chronic hepatitis with varying degrees of fibrosis. All 6 horses had ingested kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) for variable periods. Three healthy horses fed kleingrass hay for 90 days developed hepatic lesions and increases in serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activities similar to those in the 6 horses with chronic hepatitis. Characteristic hepatic lesions in both groups of horses included bridging hepatic fibrosis, cholangitis, and hepatocellular regeneration. PMID:3192474

Cornick, J L; Carter, G K; Bridges, C H

1988-10-15

137

Optimisation of Polyphenols Extraction from Chestnut Shell by Response Surface Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The extraction of polyphenols from a waste product from the food industry, the shell of the chestnut fruit, was examined with\\u000a the aim of analyzing the potential of the extracts for the formulation of wood adhesives, for leather tanning and as natural\\u000a antioxidants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Experiments were planned according to a 23 factorial design to analyze the influence of temperature and Na2SO3

G. VazquezM; M. S. Freire; J. Santos; G. Antorrena; J. González-Álvarez

2010-01-01

138

Over-flexing the horse's neck: A modern equestrian obsession?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used an opportunistic review of photographs of different adult and juvenile horses walking, trotting, and cantering (n = 828) to compare the angle of the nasal plane relative to vertical in feral and domestic horses at liberty (n = 450) with ridden horses advertised in a popular Australian horse magazine (n = 378). We assumed that horses in advertisements

Paul D. McGreevy; Alison Harman; Andrew McLean; Lesley Hawson

2010-01-01

139

External Parasites on Horses1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arthropod parasites of horses include internal bots that infest the digestive tract, mites that burrow in the skin and feed on the skin surface, ticks that infest the ears as well as the skin, lice that either suck blood or feed on skin, blood sucking flies and mosquitoes that range in size from biting gnats just observable with the naked

P. E. Kaufman; P. G. Koehler; J. F. Butler

140

Syringohydromyelia in horses: 3 cases  

PubMed Central

Syringomyelia and hydromyelia are cavitary lesions of the spinal cord that may be acquired or congenital. These lesions are not frequently reported in large animal species. The presenting complaints, clinical, gross pathological, and histopathologic findings of 2 cases of syringomyelia and 1 case of hydromyelia in horses are described.

Sponseller, Brett A.; Sponseller, Beatrice T.; Alcott, Cody J.; Kline, Karen; Hostetter, Jesse; Reinertson, Eric L.; Fales-Williams, Amanda

2011-01-01

141

Adverse drug reactions in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in horses are rare but cause serious anxiety to patients, owners, and veterinarians when they occur and are frequently the reason for legal action against veterinarians. Although not every ADR can be prevented or predicted, equine practitioners should be aware of some of the most common or most serious reactions to frequently used drugs. The most

Patricia M. Dowling

2002-01-01

142

Congenital ocular abnormalities of Rocky Mountain Horses.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and describe ocular abnormalities in a cross-section of the population of Rocky Mountain Horses. Design: Prospective study. Animals: Five-hundred and fourteen Rocky Mountain Horses. Procedure: Ophthalmic examinations were performed using a slit-lamp biomicroscope and an indirect ophthalmoscope. Intraocular pressures were measured by applanation tonometry. Eyes from six horses were obtained for histologic examination. RESULTS: Cysts of the posterior iris, ciliary body, and peripheral retina were detected most frequently (249 horses), and were always located temporally. Curvilinear streaks of retinal pigmented epithelium extending from the peripheral temporal retina marked the boundary of previous retinal detachment in 189 horses. Retinal dysplasia was detected in 125 horses. Multiple ocular anomalies were evident in 71 horses and were always bilateral and symmetrical. Affected eyes had a large, clear cornea that protruded excessively and had an apparent short radius of curvature, a deep anterior chamber, miotic and dyscoric pupil, and iris hypoplasia. Pupillary light responses were decreased or absent and pupils failed to dilate after repeated instillation of mydriatic drugs in horses with multiple ocular anomalies. Less frequently encountered abnormalities included peripheral iridocorneal adhesions and goniosynechiae. Congenital cataract was always present in eyes with multiple abnormalities. Intraocular pressures did not differ among horses with normal eyes and horses with multiple ocular abnormalities. Histologic examination of eyes corroborated the clinical appearance. PMID:11397242

Ramsey, D.T.; Ewart, S.L.; Render, J.A.; Cook, C.S.; Latimer, C.A.

1999-01-01

143

Quick detection of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in chestnut dormant buds by nested PCR.  

PubMed

Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) develops in chestnut buds that remain asymptomatic from oviposition (June-July) until budburst; it is, thus, easily spread by plant material used in propagation. Therefore, it is particularly interesting to identify infested plant batches before their movement. Unfortunately, a non-destructive method for checking buds has not yet been developed, and the only technique available is the screening of a bud sample. The visual investigation is long and requires highly skilled and trained staff. The purpose of this work was to set up an effective and fast method able to identify the presence of first instar larvae of D. kuriphilus in a large number of chestnut buds by PCR. Four primer pairs were designed on nuclear and mitochondrial sequences of a set of seven gall wasp taxa and tested on five different cynipid's DNA. Nested diagnostic PCR was carried out on DNA extracted from samples of 2 g buds simulating four levels of infestation (larvae were added to uninfested buds); 320 bp amplicon of 28S sequence was chosen as a marker to detect one larva out of 2 g buds. The method showed a potential efficiency of 5000 to 15,000 buds per week, depending on bud size. PMID:22280881

Sartor, C; Marinoni, D Torello; Quacchia, A; Botta, R

2012-01-27

144

Biological control of chestnut blight: an example of virus-mediated attenuation of fungal pathogenesis.  

PubMed Central

Environmental concerns have focused attention on natural forms of disease control as potentially safe and effective alternatives to chemical pesticides. This has led to increased efforts to develop control strategies that rely on natural predators and parasites or that involve genetically engineered microbial pest control agents. This review deals with a natural form of biological control in which the virulence of a fungal pathogen is attenuated by an endogenous viral RNA genetic element: the phenomenon of transmissible hypovirulence in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Recent progress in the molecular characterization of a hypovirulence-associated viral RNA has provided an emerging view of the genetic organization and basic expression strategy of this class of genetic elements. Several lines of evidence now suggest that specific hypovirulence-associated virus-encoded gene products selectively modulate the expression of subsets of fungal genes and the activity of specific regulatory pathways. The construction of an infectious cDNA clone of a hypovirulence-associated viral RNA represents a major advancement that provides exciting new opportunities for examining the molecular basis of transmissible hypovirulence and for engineering hypovirulent strains for improved biocontrol. These developments have significantly improved the prospects of using this system to identify molecular determinants of virulence and elucidate signal transduction pathways involved in pathogenic responses. In addition, novel approaches are now available for extending the application of transmissible hypovirulence for management of chestnut blight and possibly other fungal diseases. Images

Nuss, D L

1992-01-01

145

Complex of solonetzes and vertic chestnut soils in the manych-gudilo depression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphological, physicochemical, and isotopic properties of a two-member soil complex developed under dry steppe have been studied in the central part of the Manych Depression. The soils are formed on chocolate-colored clayey sediments, and have pronounced microrelief and the complex vegetation pattern. A specific feature of the studied soil complex is the inverse position of its components: vertic chestnut soil occupies the microhigh, while solonetz is in the microlow. The formation of such complexes is explained by the biological factor, i.e., by the destruction of the solonetzic horizon under the impact of vegetation and earth-burrowing animals with further transformation under steppe plants and dealkalinization of the soil in the microhighs. The manifestation of vertic features and shrink-swell process in soils of the complex developing in dry steppe are compared with those in the vertic soils of the Central Pre-Caucasus formed under more humid environment. It is supposed that slickensides in the investigated vertic chestnut soil are relict feature inherited from the former wetter stage of the soil development and are subjected to a gradual degradation at present. In the modern period, vertic processes are weak and cannot be distinctly diagnosed. However, their activation may take place upon an increase of precipitation or the rise in the groundwater level.

Kovda, I. V.; Morgun, E. P.; Il'ina, L. P.

2013-01-01

146

Biological control of chestnut blight: an example of virus-mediated attenuation of fungal pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Environmental concerns have focused attention on natural forms of disease control as potentially safe and effective alternatives to chemical pesticides. This has led to increased efforts to develop control strategies that rely on natural predators and parasites or that involve genetically engineered microbial pest control agents. This review deals with a natural form of biological control in which the virulence of a fungal pathogen is attenuated by an endogenous viral RNA genetic element: the phenomenon of transmissible hypovirulence in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Recent progress in the molecular characterization of a hypovirulence-associated viral RNA has provided an emerging view of the genetic organization and basic expression strategy of this class of genetic elements. Several lines of evidence now suggest that specific hypovirulence-associated virus-encoded gene products selectively modulate the expression of subsets of fungal genes and the activity of specific regulatory pathways. The construction of an infectious cDNA clone of a hypovirulence-associated viral RNA represents a major advancement that provides exciting new opportunities for examining the molecular basis of transmissible hypovirulence and for engineering hypovirulent strains for improved biocontrol. These developments have significantly improved the prospects of using this system to identify molecular determinants of virulence and elucidate signal transduction pathways involved in pathogenic responses. In addition, novel approaches are now available for extending the application of transmissible hypovirulence for management of chestnut blight and possibly other fungal diseases. PMID:1480109

Nuss, D L

1992-12-01

147

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...breeding, raising, and training of horses on farms for racing purposes...employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed...the feeding, care, and training of horses which have been used in...

2009-07-01

148

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...breeding, raising, and training of horses on farms for racing purposes...employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed...the feeding, care, and training of horses which have been used in...

2010-07-01

149

9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment information. 93...REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities; payment information....

2010-01-01

150

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Inspection and detention of horses. 11.4 Section 11.4 Animals...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective...

2009-01-01

151

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Inspection and detention of horses. 11.4 Section 11.4 Animals...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective...

2010-01-01

152

9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. ...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment....

2010-01-01

153

9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 1 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. ...FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment....

2009-01-01

154

9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 1 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities. 93.309 Section 93...REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities. (a) Privately...

2009-01-01

155

Effect of pasture in oak and chestnut groves on chemical and sensorial traits of cured lard of Cinta Senese pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pasture in oak and chestnut groves on the che- mical and sensorial traits of cured lard. Thirty Cinta Senese barrows (124kg of l.w. on average) were allotted to three groups: one group (CONC) was reared outdoors in a confined area and fed commercial feedstuff. The other two groups were

Carolina Pugliese; Francesco Sirtori; Stefania D'Adorante; Silvia Parenti; Ana Rey; Clemente Lopez-Bote; Oreste Franci

2010-01-01

156

Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge Area. Progress report, March 15, 1980March 15, 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of: (1) a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania; and (2) the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task is to establish, through several distinct epidemiological approaches, health data

J. Gruhl; F. C. Schweppe; S. Batterman; F. E. Speizer; M. B. Schenker; J. Samet

1981-01-01

157

Identification of plant genes involved on the initial contact between ectomycorrhizal symbionts ( Castanea sativa – European chestnut and Pisolithus tinctorius)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to contribute to the knowledge on the genes involved in the early steps of ectomycorrhiza development, the transcriptional response of Castanea sativa (European chestnut) during the initial contact (6 and 12h) with Pisolithus tinctorius was analysed by microarray. This study revealed that among the regulated plant genes, a substantial number of up-regulated transcripts showed homology with genes encoding

Mónica Sebastiana; Andreia Figueiredo; Bartolomeu Acioli; Lisete Sousa; Fernando Pessoa; Aladje Baldé; Maria Salomé Pais

2009-01-01

158

Aortic root disease in four horses.  

PubMed

Clinical findings in 4 horses with aortic root disease are described. Three of the horses had aneurysms of the right aortic sinus, and in 2 of the 3, the aneurysm ruptured, creating a fistula between the aorta and right ventricle. One of these horses had had a murmur since birth, and the aortic sinus aneurysm may have been a congenital anomaly. In a second horse, the aneurysm may have been an acquired condition that developed secondary to chronic aortic regurgitation. Another horse had a large subendocardial hematoma associated with dissection of blood from the aorta to the interventricular septum because of a tear in the aortic root near the right aortic sinus. Ventricular ectopy and signs of abdominal pain were the most common initial signs in these horses. PMID:11518177

Sleeper, M M; Durando, M M; Miller, M; Habecker, P L; Reef, V B

2001-08-15

159

Behavioral and physiological responses of horses to initial training: the comparison between pastured versus stalled horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horses kept in stalls are deprived of opportunities for social interactions, and the performance of natural behaviors is limited. Inadequate environmental conditions may compromise behavioral development. Initial training is a complex process and it is likely that the responses of horses may be affected by housing conditions. Sixteen 2-year-old Arabian horses were kept on pasture (P) (n=8) or in individual

E. Rivera; S. Benjamin; B. Nielsen; J. Shelle; A. J. Zanella

2002-01-01

160

Some nutritional problems of horses.  

PubMed

The effects of overfeeding, calcium-phosphorus imbalance, misuse of supplements and false advertising on equine nutrition are discussed. Overfeeding is known to cause disorders in several species but, although a similar relationship has been suggested on clinical evidence, no controlled trials on horses have been reported. It has also been suggested that overfeeding is a problem only for those horses with a genetic predisposition to skeletal problems. The importance of adequate calcium and phosphorus levels has been known for many years but severe cases of calcium deficiency still occur. Client education is important and should not be neglected. Excessive use of supplements containing high levels of trace minerals (eg, iodine and selenium) or fat soluble vitamins (eg, vitamin A and vitamin D) can be harmful. Some manufacturers advertise supplements in terms which may inadvertently or intentionally misrepresent their products. Supplements should, therefore, be selected carefully to ensure that they meet the particular requirements of the individual. PMID:7197619

Hintz, H F; Kallfelz, F A

1981-07-01

161

The horse–human dyad: Can we align horse training and handling activities with the equid social ethogram?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the recently completed equid ethogram and shows how analogues of social interactions between horses may occur in various human–horse interactions. It discusses how some specific horse–horse interactions have a corresponding horse–human interaction – some of which may be directly beneficial for the horse while others may be unusual or even abnormal. It also shows how correspondent behaviours

P. D. McGreevy; C. Oddie; F. L. Burton; A. N. McLean

2009-01-01

162

[Finding Setaria equina in horses].  

PubMed

For the first time findings of Setaria equina (Abildgaard, 1789) in horses are reported from the German Democratic Republic. The nematodes, located in the peritoneum, were discovered in the course of autopsy. Based on a thorough analysis of the international literature, the paper discusses geographical distribution, morphology, cycle and diagnosis of this nematode as well as clinical symptoms mainly caused by the stages of the larvae. PMID:2782665

Buchwalder, R; Schuster, R

1989-05-01

163

Anti-elastase and anti-hyaluronidase activities of saponins and sapogenins from Hedera helix, Aesculus hippocastanum, and Ruscus aculeatus: factors contributing to their efficacy in the treatment of venous insufficiency.  

PubMed

Triterpene and steroid saponins and sapogenins of medicinal plants (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hedera helix L., Ruscus aculeatus L.) are claimed to be effective for the treatment/prevention of venous insufficiency. In this work we evaluated the inhibitory effects of these plant constituents on the activity of elastase and hyaluronidase, the enzyme systems involved in the turnover of the main components of the perivascular amorphous substance. The results evidence that for Hedera helix L., the sapogenins only non-competitively inhibit hyaluronidase activity in a dose-dependent fashion, showing comparable IC50 values (hederagenin IC50 = 280.4 microM; oleanolic acid IC50 = 300.2 microM); both the saponins hederacoside C and alpha-hederin are very weak inhibitors. The same behaviour is observed for serine protease porcine pancreatic elastase: the glycosides are devoid of inhibitory action, while genins are potent competitive inhibitors (oleanolic acid IC50 = 5.1 microM; hederagenin IC50 = 40.6 microM). Constituents from Aesculus hippocastanum L. show inhibitory effects only on hyaluronidase, and this activity is mainly linked to the saponin escin (IC50 = 149.9 microM), less to its genin escinol (IC50 = 1.65 mM). By contrast, ruscogenins from Ruscus aculeatus L., ineffective on hyaluronidase activity, exhibit remarkable anti-elastase activity (IC50 = 119.9 microM; competitive inhibition). The mechanism of elastase inhibition by triterpene and steroid aglycones, with a nitroanilide derivative as substrate, is discussed. PMID:8554461

Facino, R M; Carini, M; Stefani, R; Aldini, G; Saibene, L

1995-10-01

164

Generalized sarcoidosis in two horses.  

PubMed

Equine sarcoidosis is a rare disorder usually characterized by exfoliative dermatitis, moderate to severe wasting, and sarcoidal granulomatous inflammation of multiple organ systems. It has an unknown aetiopathogenesis. The condition is not related to equine sarcoid. This case report describes generalized cutaneous and systemic sarcoidosis in an 11-year-old Trakehner mare (case A) and in a 7-year-old Dutch Warmblood gelding (case B). Case A was presented with cutaneous sarcoidosis on the head and body and was diagnosed on the basis of histological examination of skin. Case B presented with multiple subcutaneous nodules (2-15 cm in diameter) and the diagnosis was established at postmortem examination. Both horses showed distinctive histology of the skin with extensive lymphohistiocytic infiltration and Langhans-type multinucleated giant cells. Haematology and biochemistry revealed a normal total white blood cell count with a right shift in both horses. Case B was anaemic and had a slightly elevated total protein concentration with hyperglobulinaemia. Both horses were unresponsive to corticosteroids and were euthanized. PMID:18788186

Reijerkerk, E P R; Veldhuis Kroeze, E J B; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

2008-08-15

165

Extraction of High Quality of RNA and Construction of a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) Library from Chestnut Rose( Rosa roxburghii Tratt)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a rare fruit crop of promising economical importance in fruit and ornamental exploitation in China. Isolation of\\u000a high quality RNA from chestnut rose is difficult due to its high levels of polyphenols, polysaccharides and other compounds,\\u000a but a modified CTAB extraction procedure without phenol gave satisfactory results. High concentrations of PVP (2%, w\\/v), CTAB

Qiang Xu; Xiaopeng Wen; Nengguo Tao; Zhiyong Hu; Hailin Yue; Xiuxin Deng

2006-01-01

166

The photorespiratory pathway is involved in the defense response to powdery mildew infection in chestnut rose.  

PubMed

Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt), a non-domesticated potential fruit crop, is susceptible to infection by powdery mildew. A small-scale customized macro-array was assembled with cDNA clones from a suppression subtractive hybridization library enriched for defense transcripts and used to screen for differentially expressed genes induced by powdery mildew infection. Three photorespiratory genes, encoding the small subunit of RuBisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), RuBisCO activase and serine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, were identified in this screen. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of these three genes showed that they were significantly up-regulated 16 h after the host was inoculated with powdery mildew, and assays at the enzyme level confirmed high levels of enzymatic activity 24 h after infection. Of six phytohormones tested, salicylic acid (SA) noticeably induced their expression, and HPLC analysis showed that SA accumulated in the leaves after fungal infection. PMID:22562382

Huang, Ming; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

2012-05-05

167

Identification of major phenolic compounds of Chinese water chestnut and their antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Chinese water chestnut (CWC) is one of the most popular foods among Asian people due to its special taste and medical function. Experiments were conducted to test the antioxidant activity and then determine the major phenolic compound components present in CWC. CWC phenolic extract strongly inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and exhibited a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which was superior to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), two commercial used antioxidants. Furthermore, the CWC extract was found to have a relatively higher reducing power, compared with BHT. The major phenolic compounds present in CWC tissues were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) as (-)-gallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate and (+)-catechin gallate. This study suggests that CWC tissues exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions. PMID:17851436

You, Yanli; Duan, Xuewu; Wei, Xiaoyi; Su, Xinguo; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Jian; Ruenroengklin, Neungnapa; Jiang, Yueming

2007-04-25

168

Structure of Oxalacetate Acetylhydrolase, a Virulence Factor of the Chestnut Blight Fungus*  

PubMed Central

Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxalacetate is the main OAH substrate, but the enzyme also acts as a lyase of (2R,3S)-dimethyl malate with ?1000-fold lower efficacy. The crystal structure of OAH was determined alone, in complex with a mechanism-based inhibitor, 3,3-difluorooxalacetate (DFOA), and in complex with the reaction product, oxalate, to a resolution limit of 1.30, 1.55, and 1.65 ?, respectively. OAH assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit exhibiting an (?/?)8 barrel fold and each pair swapping the 8th ?-helix. An active site “gating loop” exhibits conformational disorder in the ligand-free structure. To obtain the structures of the OAH·ligand complexes, the ligand-free OAH crystals were soaked briefly with DFOA or oxalacetate. DFOA binding leads to ordering of the gating loop in a conformation that sequesters the ligand from the solvent. DFOA binds in a gem-diol form analogous to the oxalacetate intermediate/transition state. Oxalate binds in a planar conformation, but the gating loop is largely disordered. Comparison between the OAH structure and that of the closely related enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, suggests potential determinants of substrate preference.

Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nuss, Donald L.; Herzberg, Osnat

2010-01-01

169

DNA Fingerprinting and Analysis of Population Structure in the Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria Parasitica  

PubMed Central

We analyzed DNA fingerprints in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, for stability, inheritance, linkage and variability in a natural population. DNA fingerprints resulting from hybridization with a dispersed moderately repetitive DNA sequence of C. parasitica in plasmid pMS5.1 hybridized to 6-17 restriction fragments per individual isolate. In a laboratory cross and from progeny from a single perithecium collected from a field population, the presence/absence of 11 fragments in the laboratory cross and 12 fragments in the field progeny set segregated in 1:1 ratios. Two fragments in each progeny set cosegregated; no other linkage was detected among the segregating fragments. Mutations, identified by missing bands, were detected for only one fragment in which 4 of 43 progeny lacked a band present in both parents; no novel fragments were detected in any progeny. All other fragments appeared to be stably inherited. Hybridization patterns did not change during vegetative growth or sporulation. However, fingerprint patterns of single conidial isolates of strains EP155 and EP67 were found to be heterogenous due to mutations that occurred during culturing in the laboratory since these strains were first isolated in 1976-1977. In a population sample of 39 C. parasitica isolates, we found 33 different fingerprint patterns with pMS5.1. Most isolates differed from all other isolates by the presence or absence of several fragments. Six fingerprint patterns each occurred twice. Isolates with identical fingerprints occurred in cankers on the same chestnut stems three times; isolates within the other three pairs were isolated from cankers more than 5 m apart. The null hypothesis of random mating in this population could not be rejected if the six putative clones were removed from the analysis. Thus, a rough estimate of the clonal fraction of this population is 6 in 39 isolates (15.4%).

Milgroom, M. G.; Lipari, S. E.; Powell, W. A.

1992-01-01

170

Anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppressive anthelmintic treatment strategies originally designed to control Strongylus vulgaris in horses were extremely successful in reducing morbidity and mortality from parasitic dis- ease. Unfortunately, this strategy has inadvertently resulted in the selection of drug-resistant cyathostomes (Cyathostominea), which are now considered the principal parasitic pathogens of horses. Resistance in the cyathostomes to benzimidazole drugs is highly prevalent throughout the world,

Ray M. Kaplan

2002-01-01

171

Enteric neuropathy in horses with grass sickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degeneration of enteric neurones has been recorded in grass sickness, but the distribution of the lesions in the gut and their possible relationship with the severity of the clinical signs has not been established. Samples obtained from 11 anatomically defined sites along the gastrointestinal tract of eight control horses without gastrointestinal disease, five horses with acute grass sickness and

SF Scholes; C Vaillant; P Peacock; GB Edwards; DF Kelly

1993-01-01

172

Stomach Ulcers and the Endurance Horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of numerous surveys, conducted from the 1980s to present day suggest that gastric (stomach) ulcers are an ongoing and widespread problem for adult horses. Thoroughbreds in active race training were quickly identified as being a 'high risk' group, with the results of several published studies citing a prevalence of 80-90% within horses in training. Following on from these

David Marlin

173

Management of Feral Horses at the North  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feral horse (Equus caballus L.) populations are found on properties managed by gov- ernmental agencies in western states, the Missouri Ozarks, and on several Atlantic coast barrier and estuarine islands. These animals are descendants of free-roaming horses introduced decades to centuries earlier. Public sentiment has influenced development of policies that have allowed the herds to remain. The North Carolina National

John B. Taggart

174

In vitro diazepam metabolism in horses.  

PubMed

There is little information about drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in horses. Therefore, it is necessary to characterize the profiles of drug metabolites for the safe use of drugs. In this study, we focused on cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), which represent an important enzyme group to determine pharmacological effects of drugs. We chose diazepam as the drug of choice for this study. The aim of this study was to elucidate the metabolic pathway of diazepam in horses in comparison with rats, and to clarify CYP subfamilies responsible for diazepam metabolism in horses. Our results showed temazepam was the major diazepam metabolite produced from microsomal reactions in horse liver, but horses produced drastically less p-hydroxydiazepam as compared with rats. Furthermore, CYP3A was a major contributor from the CYP subfamily of temazepam production. PMID:23631163

Hayami, Aki; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi

2013-02-01

175

Respiratory responses to exercise in the horse.  

PubMed

Horses are elite athletes when compared with other mammalian species. In the latter, performance is limited by cardiovascular or musculoskeletal performance whereas in athletic horses it is the respiratory system that appears to be rate limiting and virtually all horses exercising at high intensities become hypoxaemic and hypercapnoeic. This is due to both diffusion limitation and a level of ventilation inadequate for the metabolic level that enables horses to exercise at these intensities. In conjunction with these blood gas changes, total pulmonary resistance increases and the work of breathing rises exponentially and airflow eventually plateaus despite increases in inspiratory and expiratory intrapleural pressures. Horses breathe at comparatively high frequencies when galloping due to the tight 1:1 coupling of strides to breathing. Whether this effects gas exchange and, if so, to what extent, has not been fully elucidated. PMID:23106622

Franklin, S H; Van Erck-Westergren, E; Bayly, W M

2012-11-01

176

Behaviour of horses in the “round pen technique”  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated the behavioural background of the way horses learn to follow humans in the “round pen technique” suggested by “horse whisperers” as a gentle method for initial horse training. Though the practicability of this technique has been adequately demonstrated in the past, the horses’ behaviour during such training has not yet been documented in detail. In a riding arena,

Konstanze Krueger

2007-01-01

177

Congenital occipitoatlantoaxial malformations in the horse.  

PubMed

From a clinical, radiological and morphological study of 9 horses with congenital malformations of the occiput, atlas and axis, and from a study of 2 reported cases, 3 diseases were defined: A. Familial occipitalisation of the atlas with atlantalisation of the axis in Arabian horses (7 cases in this report and the case reported by Leipold, et al., 1974). These horses had congenital atlantooccipital fusion, hypoplasia of the atlas and dens, malformation of the axis and modification of the atlantoaxial joint. B. Congenital asymmetrical occipitoatlantoaxial malformation (2 cases in this report). A Standardbred and a Morgan horse had atlantooccipital fusion, a wedge shaped vertebral piece attached to the caudal end of the axis and sigmoid scoliosis of the cervical vertebrae. C. Asymmetrical atlantooccipital fusion (the case reported by Schmaltz, 1915). This horse of an unknown breed had asymmetrical fusion between the atlas and occiput and cervical scoliosis. The clinical syndromes shown by horses with these malformations were variable but were broadly classified as: 1. Foal dead at birth, seen in one foal with A. 2. Tetraparesis at birth, seen in 5 foals with A. These foals were born with signs varying from tetraparesis to tetraplegia. 3. Progressive ataxia, seen in 2 foals with A. Clinical signs were due to a progressive focal cervical compressive myelopathy. 4. Congenital cervical scoliosis/deviated head, seen in the 2 horses with B and the horse with C. These horses had no signs of spinal cord or brain disease. The diagnoses were made clinically by palpation of the occipitoatlantoaxial region and were confirmed radiographically and/or by post mortem examination in all except one case. Pedigree analysis showed the familial nature of the particular occipitoatlantoaxial malformation seen in horses of only the Arabian breed. PMID:565704

Mayhew, I G; Watson, A G; Heissan, J A

1978-04-01

178

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel.  

PubMed

Fortunately, MRSA infection and colonization are currently uncommon in veterinary medicine. Nevertheless, the increasing reports of the occurrence of MRSA infection in horses, veterinarians, and equine personnel dictate that serious consideration be given to the control of this pathogen in veterinary hospitals as well as in the equine community. It is unclear whether extrapolation from human hospitals and people in the community is appropriate; however, given the rapid increase in nosocomial MRSA in human hospitals and the recent shift of certain clones of MRSA into the community, it would be unwise to ignore this potential pathogen. If equine MRSA did, indeed, originate in the human population, complete eradication in the equine population is unlikely, regardless of the prevalence of infection in horses and the intensity of infection control measures, without concurrent eradication of MRSA in the human population, which is surely an impossible feat. Early institution of appropriate surveillance and other infection control measures should be used to attempt to limit the impact of MRSA in veterinary medicine, however. It has been stated, "The time to act is now, before the prevalence of MRSA in the community begins to rise and we end up with 50% of the community strains becoming methicillin-resistant". This statement was directed at control of MRSA in people; however, it is equally relevant in the veterinary context and should receive strong consideration. PMID:15519821

Weese, J Scott

2004-12-01

179

Trojan Horse Method: Recent Results  

SciTech Connect

Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S{sub b}(E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U{sub e} for several two body processes are discussed.

Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C. [Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l'Ingegneria, Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy)

2008-01-24

180

Polyphenolic compounds as chemical markers of wine ageing in contact with cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood.  

PubMed

The nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of four red wines, one white, and one rosé aged using barrels and chips of cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS, to identify the phenolic compounds that woods other than oak contribute to wines, and if some of them can be used as chemical markers of ageing with them. A total of 68 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were identified, 15 found only in wines aged with acacia wood, 6 with cherry wood, and 1 with chestnut wood. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify wines aged in contact with these woods. In addition, some differences in the nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of wines were detected related to both the levels of compounds provided by each wood species and the different evolution of flavonols and flavanols in wines during ageing in barrels or in contact with chips. PMID:24054214

Fernández de Simón, B; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Martínez, J; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

2013-07-27

181

Study of morphological and phenological diversity in chestnut trees (‘Judia’ variety) as a function of temperature sum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological and histological adaptation of chestnut leaves at the different altitudes and edaphoclimate conditions were shown. The study was carried out on Castanea sativa Mill. var. ‘Judia’. The growth range altitudes of ‘Judia’ were between 709ma.s.l. and 860ma.s.l. (above sea level), corresponding to a variation in the sum of temperatures (expressed in degree-day values – °D) of 2751°D to 2316°D

L. T. Dinis; F. Peixoto; T. Pinto; R. Costa; R. N. Bennett; J. Gomes-Laranjo

2011-01-01

182

A simple protocol for isolating genomic DNA from chestnut rose ( Rosa roxburghii tratt) for RFLP and PCR analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation of high-quality DNA from rosaceous species is particularly difficult because of their high levels of polyphenols,\\u000a polysaccharides, and other compounds. The yields and quality of genomic DNA are considerably affected when the common protocol\\u000a for DNA isolation is applied to the chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt). A simple, rapid, and efficient protocol for the extraction of DNA from the

Qiang Xu; Xiaopeng Wen; Xiuxin Deng

2004-01-01

183

Class I chitinases with hevein-like domain, but not class II enzymes, are relevant chestnut and avocado allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several foods associated with the latex-fruit syndrome present relevant allergens of around 30 kd. Neither these components nor any other responsible for the reported cross-reactions have been identified and purified.Objective: We sought to isolate and characterize the 30 kd allergens from avocado fruit and chestnut seed, two of the main allergenic foods linked with latex allergy.Methods: Sera from patients

Araceli Diaz-Perales; Carmen Collada; Carlos Blanco; Rosa Sánchez-Monge; Teresa Carrillo; Cipriano Aragoncillo; Gabriel Salcedo

1998-01-01

184

Analysis of organic acids in electron beam irradiated chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.): Effects of radiation dose and storage time.  

PubMed

Since 2010, methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant was banned from the European Union under the Montreal Protocol guidelines, due to its deleterious effects on health and risk to the environment. Since then, many alternatives for chestnut conservation have been studied (hot water dip treatment being the most common), among them, electron beam irradiation has been proposed as being a safe, clean and cheap alternative. Herein, the effects of this radiation at different doses up to 6kGy and over storage up to 60days in the amounts and profile of nutritionally important organic acids were evaluated. Chestnuts contained important organic acids with quinic and citric acids as main compounds. Storage time, which is traditionally well accepted by consumers, caused a slight decrease on quinic (13-9mg/g), ascorbic (1.2-0.8mg/g), malic (5-4mg/g), fumaric (0.4-0.3mg/g) and total organic (33-26mg/g) acids content. Otherwise, irradiation dose did not cause appreciable changes, either individually or in total (28-27mg/g) organic acid contents. Electron beam irradiation might constitute a valuable alternative for chestnut conservation. PMID:23376134

Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2013-02-01

185

Low dose ?-irradiation as a suitable solution for chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) conservation: effects on sugars, fatty acids, and tocopherols.  

PubMed

Along with dehydration, the development of insects and microorganisms is the major drawback in chestnut conservation. Irradiation has been regaining interest as an alternative technology to increase food product shelf life. In the present work, the effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the sugar, fatty acid, and tocopherol composition of chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different storage periods (0, 30, and 60 days) was evaluated. The irradiations were performed in a 60Co experimental equipment, for 1 h (0.27±0.04 kGy) and 2 h (0.54±0.04 kGy). Changes in sugars and tocopherols were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index and fluorescence detections, respectively, while changes in fatty acids were analyzed by gas-chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection. Regarding sugar composition, storage time proved to have a higher effect than irradiation treatment. Fructose and glucose increased after storage, with the corresponding decrease of sucrose. Otherwise, the tocopherol content was lower in nonirradiated samples, without a significant influence of storage. Saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected, either by storage or irradiation. Nevertheless, some individual fatty acid concentrations were influenced by one of two factors, such as the increase of palmitic acid in irradiated samples or the decrease of oleic acid after 60 days of storage. Overall, the assayed irradiation doses seem to be a promising alternative treatment to increase chestnut shelf life, without affecting the profile and composition in important nutrients. PMID:21823582

Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-08-23

186

Experimental Infection of Horses with Hendra Virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands  

PubMed Central

Hendra virus (HeV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus harbored by Australian flying foxes with sporadic spillovers directly to horses. Although the mode and critical control points of HeV spillover to horses from flying foxes, and the risk for transmission from infected horses to other horses and humans, are poorly understood, we successfully established systemic HeV disease in 3 horses exposed to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands by the oronasal route, a plausible route for natural infection. In 2 of the 3 animals, HeV RNA was detected continually in nasal swabs from as early as 2 days postexposure, indicating that systemic spread of the virus may be preceded by local viral replication in the nasal cavity or nasopharynx. Our data suggest that a critical factor for reducing HeV exposure risk to humans includes early consideration of HeV in the differential diagnosis and institution of appropriate infection control procedures.

Haining, Jessica; Hancock, Timothy J.; Robinson, Rachel; Foord, Adam J.; Barr, Jennifer A.; Riddell, Shane; Heine, Hans G.; White, John R.; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Middleton, Deborah

2011-01-01

187

[Differentiation of domestic horse and Przewalskis horse using various DNA sequences].  

PubMed

The electrophoretic mobility of seven erythrocyte enzymes and spectra of fragments amplified by RAPD-PCR with primers UBC-85 and UBC-126 were comparatively analyzed in domestic horse and Przewalski's horse. All tested genetic markers were classified into two groups differing in their involvement in differentiation of the two closely related horse species. Markers from different groups differed neither in their type (a polymorphic protein or an amplification product) nor in their biochemical role (for enzymes). PMID:9749342

Glazko, V I; Zelenaia, L B

1998-07-01

188

Cloning and phylogenetic analyses of serine/threonine kinase class defense-related genes in a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose'  

PubMed Central

Background Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a promising wild fruit crop in Southwest China. However, chestnut rose suffers from several important diseases such as powdery mildew and black spot. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of plant immunity related genes will strengthen the evolutionary knowledge of plant immune system and will facilitate the utilization of candidate genes in disease resistance breeding programs. Findings Serine/threonine kinase (STK) genes, encoding one of the important proteins for defense signal transduction, were cloned from 'chestnut rose'. Fifteen STK sequences were obtained by degenerate PCR. Sequence analysis showed that nine of them have continued open reading frames, and they are separated into five classes based on sequence analysis. Interestingly, one of the classes (STK V) showed less than 40% similarity to any other class, possibly representing new type genes from chestnut rose. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the new type STK V genes are single copy, while all the other genes have several copies in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of STK genes from chestnut rose and 21 plant species revealed that most chestnut rose genes show close relationship with Rosaceae homologs, while the STK V genes are rather ancient and form a unique clade distantly from plant homologs. Conclusions We cloned nine STK genes from a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose', of which a new type of STK genes was identified. The new type STK genes exist as single copies in the genome, and they are phylogenetically distant to plant homologs. The polymorphic STK genes, combined with other plant immunity genes, provide plenty of resources to be utilized to defend against pathogens attack.

2010-01-01

189

Pharmacokinetic assessment of ketanserin in the horse.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin in healthy adult horses, and to develop a computational model that could be used to optimize dosing. Plasma concentrations of ketanserin were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry after single and multiple intravenous administration in the horse. A two-compartment linear pharmacokinetic model described the plasma concentration-time profile of ketanserin after single and multiple doses in healthy horses; the terminal half-life was 11.5 h; steady-state volume of distribution was 10.5 L/kg; AUC was 115 ng · h/mL; and clearance was 0.87 L/h/kg. Model simulations followed by the examination in three healthy horses suggest 0.3 mg/kg q.8 h exhibited linear PK and produced consistent systemic blood concentrations of ketanserin above 3 ng/mL. PMID:22091605

Aljuffali, I A; Brainard, B M; Moore, J N; Kwon, S; Allen, D; Robertson, T P; Arnold, R D

2011-11-18

190

Temporohyoid osteoarthropathy in two young horses.  

PubMed

Two cases of temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO) in young Australian horses are described. The pathogenesis of THO is yet to be fully elucidated, but current theories include extension of infection from otitis media or interna to the temporohyoid joint or a primary but non-infectious degenerative condition within the temporohyoid joint. The young age of the horses and the unilateral distribution suggested an infectious aetiology. Both horses partially responded to treatment with broad-spectrum antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory drugs with concurrent management of ulcerative keratitis. The management of violent head shaking in one horse included the administration of gabapentin, an anticonvulsant known to have antihyperalgesic effects and reduce neuropathic pain. PMID:23614517

Readford, P K; Lester, G D; Secombe, C J

2013-03-11

191

Hungry Horse Selective Withdrawal Hydraulic Model Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of the Hungry Horse selective withdrawal hydraulic model study. The study was performed to evaluate the proposed selective withdrawal configurations and to provide operation and design information. Determination of addition...

J. Kubitschek

1994-01-01

192

Distortion effects in Trojan Horse applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deuteron induced quasi-free scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades. This was done not only for nuclear structure and processes study but also for the important astrophysical implication (Trojan Horse Method, THM). In particular the width of the neutron momentum distribution in deuteron will be studied as a function of the transferred momentum. The same will be done for other nuclides of possible use as Trojan Horse particles. Trojan horse method applications will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the Trojan horse nucleus is a necessary input for this method. The impact of the width (FWHM) variation on the extraction of the astrophysical S(E)-factor is discussed.

Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Irgaziev, B.; Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C.

2012-11-01

193

Anaphylaxis as a Manifestation of Horse Allergy  

PubMed Central

Allergic disease induced by animal exposure is a common phenomenon worldwide. Whereas cat and dog dander exposure are well recognized as causative of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, and contact urticaria, horse allergy can present with anaphylaxis. Horse allergy is induced by exposure to the major horse allergens Equ 1 through 5. The severity of the symptoms may be related to the level of exposure. Greatest risk of anaphylaxis occurs in those sensitized patients who have large amounts of animal allergen exposure, such as when in a barn, or when an animal bite occurs exposing sensitized persons to large quantities of the animal allergen that resides in the saliva. Horse allergy may be successfully treated with allergen specific immunotherapy.

2009-01-01

194

Nonprimate Hepaciviruses in Domestic Horses, United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Although the origin of hepatitis C virus infections in humans remains undetermined, a close homolog of this virus, termed canine hepacivirus (CHV) and found in respiratory secretions of dogs, provides evidence for a wider distribution of hepaciviruses in mammals. We determined frequencies of active infection among dogs and other mammals in the United Kingdom. Samples from dogs (46 respiratory, 99 plasma, 45 autopsy samples) were CHV negative by PCR. Screening of 362 samples from cats, horses, donkeys, rodents, and pigs identified 3 (2%) positive samples from 142 horses. These samples were genetically divergent from CHV and nonprimate hepaciviruses that horses were infected with during 2012 in New York state, USA. Investigation of infected horses demonstrated nonprimate hepacivirus persistence, high viral loads in plasma (105–107 RNA copies/mL), and liver function test results usually within reference ranges, although several values ranged from high normal to mildly elevated. Disease associations and host range of nonprimate hepaciviruses warrant further investigation.

Lyons, Sinead; Kapoor, Amit; Sharp, Colin; Schneider, Bradley S.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Culshaw, Geoff; Corcoran, Brendan; McGorum, Bruce C.

2012-01-01

195

Cardiac arrest during anaesthesia in two horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unexpected cardiac arrest occurred in two horses during routine surgical anaesthesia. Both were successfully resuscitated. The aetiology of these occurrences and their possible relationship to second degree heart block is discussed.

RE Kellagher; GC Watney

1986-01-01

196

Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication  

PubMed Central

Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes) from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus) were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region) were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski) using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73%) already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the time depth of the domestic horse mtDNA gene pool.

2011-01-01

197

Periocular sarcoid in a horse.  

PubMed

A periocular nodular sarcoid of the right upper and lower eyelids was diagnosed in an 11-year-old Thoroughbred mare. Computed tomography scan revealed the extent of the tumor. The mass was surgically debulked under general anesthesia, and the affected periocular region was injected intralesionally with Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG). An emulsion of cell wall fractions was used, which has been modified to reduce the toxic and allergic effect, but retain the antitumor activity. In total, five injections were performed at 2-week intervals. At follow-up 7 months after the last BCG injection, the tumor was completely resolved. Two years after the last treatment, the horse remains tumor-free. PMID:15091319

Komáromy, András M; Andrew, Stacy E; Brooks, Dennis E; Detrisac, Carol J; Gelatt, Kirk N

198

Inertial properties of Dutch Warmblood horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete set of three-dimensional inertial properties (mass, density, contre of mass, inertial tensor) was determined in 26 segments of six Dutch Warmblood horses. The measurements were performed with frozen segments similar to the procedure described by Lephart (1984, J. Biomechanics17, 537–543). Based on these data linear regression models were developed for the estimation of inertial properties in living horses.The

H. H. F. Buchner; H. H. C. M. Savelberg; H. C. Schamhardt; A. Barneveld

1997-01-01

199

A retrospective study of nineteen ataxic horses.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of 19 ataxic horses admitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Montreal during the period of January 1985 to December 1988 is presented. There were 11 cases of cervical vertebral malformation, four of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy, two of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, one each of vertebral osteomyelitis and intervertebral disc protrusion. The clinical diagnosis of ataxia in horses requires neurological, radiographic, myelographic, and laboratory examinations. PMID:17423438

Nappert, G; Vrins, A; Breton, L; Beauregard, M

1989-10-01

200

A retrospective study of nineteen ataxic horses  

PubMed Central

A retrospective study of 19 ataxic horses admitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Montreal during the period of January 1985 to December 1988 is presented. There were 11 cases of cervical vertebral malformation, four of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy, two of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, one each of vertebral osteomyelitis and intervertebral disc protrusion. The clinical diagnosis of ataxia in horses requires neurological, radiographic, myelographic, and laboratory examinations. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.

Nappert, Germain; Vrins, Andre; Breton, Luc; Beauregard, Michel

1989-01-01

201

Identification of copy number variants in horses.  

PubMed

Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds. PMID:22383489

Doan, Ryan; Cohen, Noah; Harrington, Jessica; Veazey, Kylee; Veazy, Kylee; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Gus; McCue, Molly E; Skow, Loren; Dindot, Scott V

2012-03-01

202

Identification of copy number variants in horses  

PubMed Central

Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds.

Doan, Ryan; Cohen, Noah; Harrington, Jessica; Veazy, Kylee; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Gus; McCue, Molly E.; Skow, Loren; Dindot, Scott V.

2012-01-01

203

Pharmacokinetics and safety of silibinin in horses.  

PubMed

Objective-To determine the oral bioavailability, single and multidose pharmacokinetics, and safety of silibinin, a milk thistle derivative, in healthy horses. Animals-9 healthy horses. Procedures-Horses were initially administered silibinin IV and silibinin phospholipid orally in feed and via nasogastric tube. Five horses then consumed increasing orally administered doses of silibinin phospholipid during 4 nonconsecutive weeks (0 mg/kg, 6.5 mg/kg, 13 mg/kg, and 26 mg/kg of body weight, twice daily for 7 days each week). Results-Bioavailability of orally administered silibinin phospholipid was 0.6% PO in feed and 2.9% via nasogastric tube. During the multidose phase, silibinin had nonlinear pharmacokinetics. Despite this, silibinin did not accumulate when given twice daily for 7 days at the evaluated doses. Dose-limiting toxicosis was not observed. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Silibinin phospholipid was safe, although poorly bio-available, in horses. Further study is indicated in horses with hepatic disease. PMID:24066917

Hackett, Eileen S; Mama, Khursheed R; Twedt, David C; Gustafson, Daniel L

2013-10-01

204

Characterization and antimicrobial properties of water chestnut starch-chitosan edible films.  

PubMed

The characterization and antimicrobial properties of water chestnut starch-chitosan (WSC) films containing Cornus officinalis fruit extract (COE 1% w/w), glycerol monolaurate (GML 1% w/w), nisin (10,000IU/g), pine needle essential oil (PNEO 0.35% v/v), and their combinations were evaluated. Incorporation of COE decreased pH value of the film-forming solution, the moisture content and the water absorption expansion ability (WAEA). GML-incorporated film had lower WAEA, tensile strength, elongation and puncture strength. However, films with nisin displayed good mechanical properties. All the treated films were less transparent and higher in water vapour permeability values. For film microstructure, the presence of PNEO caused discontinuities with lipid droplets or holes embedded in a continuous network and the incorporation of GML led to abaisse-like structures. The COE, GML, nisin, PNEO and their combinations incorporated in the WSC films are effective in inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes at different levels. The results showed that WSC films containing COE and GML, GML and nisin, COE and nisin were able to reduce the number of E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. This research has potential applications to the extension of the shelf life of food products. PMID:23831899

Mei, Jun; Yuan, Yilin; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei; Yu, Huaning

2013-07-04

205

Aerobiology of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in north-west Croatia.  

PubMed

The aims of the study were to analyse characteristics of the Castanea airborne pollen and to compare aeropalynological data obtained from two sampling stations in north-west Croatia. The study was conducted in Zagreb and Samobor during the 2003-2006 periods, using the seven-day volumetric samplers of the Hirst design. In both study areas, the seasons of chestnut pollination were similar and lasted from June to the end of July, which is comparable to other European cities. A general rule was noticed--the shorter the main pollen season, the higher the pollen peak concentration. Although the pollen season of Fagales pollen is prolonged to summer in the area of inland west-north Croatia due to the genus Castanea summer pollination, the number of days with pollen air concentration higher than 50 per m3 was low and was not likely to have any major effects in allergic individuals. Airborne pollen concentration of Castanea showed positive statistically significant correlation with air temperature and negative non-significant correlation with precipitation. Because of the non-significant differences between the two stations, for a possible long-term forecast model for Fagales airborne pollen for this part of north-west Croatia, aerobiological data obtained from only one station are sufficient. PMID:20698123

Hrga, Ivana; Miti?, Bozena; Alegro, Antun; Dragojlovi?, Dragoslav; Stjepanovi?, Barbara; Puntari?, Dinko

2010-06-01

206

Specific features of oil biodegradation in meadow-chestnut soils of the Stavropol region (model experiment)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil biodegradation in oil-contaminated meadow-chestnut soils under the impact of different biological preparations was studied in a model experiment. The soils differed from one another in the age of contamination and in the presence/absence of the stage of preliminary biological remediation. Background uncontaminated soils served as the control. To characterize oil degradation, the indices of basal respiration (BR) and dehydrogenase activity (DA) and data on oil concentrations in the soil were applied. It was shown that the most complete biodegradation of oil takes place in the soils with recent oil contamination in comparison with the soils contaminated with oil for 6.5 and 19.5 months. Maximum BR values were observed in the soils contaminated with oil for 19.5 months, whereas maximum DA values were observed in the soils contaminated with oil for 6.5 months. According to the multivariate analysis of variance, the major factors affecting the rate of oil biodegradation were the age of oil contamination, the biological preparation applied, and the presence (or absence) of the stage of preliminary biological remediation. These factors specified 18, 72, and 3% of the total variance of the residual oil content in the samples, respectively. The type of the applied biological preparations had the major effect on the BR and DA indices specifying 63 and 53% of their total variances, respectively. The results obtained in this study can be used as recommendations for remediation of oil-contaminated soils in the Stavropol region.

Ibatullina, I. Z.; Semenova, T. A.; Yakovlev, A. S.

2012-03-01

207

Study on Woody Species Diversity in the Chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) Forests, Guilan, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to study diversity of woody species in the Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) forests, Guilan, north of Iran. These forests are located in the Shafaroud and Emamzadeh Ebrahim regions. The Emamzadeh Ebrahim region is consisted of Visroud, Kishkhaleh, Askeh Koh, Male Lab, Doroudkhan, Galeroudkhan, Siahmazgy and Mali Anbar sites. Sampling was done in a selective manner in each site with a plot area of 50 m×50 m for tree and shrub layers and a circle 1000 m2 for tree saplings. In each plot, all trees >=10 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH) were identified and the DBH was measured, and shrub and tree sapling species were identified and recorded. In total, 68 sampling plots were taken using GPS device in the two regions. The results revealed that the mean richness, Simpson's index, Hill's N2, Shannon Wiener's function and N1 were higher in the Shafaroud region than other sites in tree, shrub and tree sapling layers. The highest and lowest mean values of evenness were obtained in the Kishkhaleh and Askekoh sites, respectively in tree layer, and similarly were in the Askekoh and Visroud in the shrub layer. The highest and lowest mean values of evenness were obtained in the Male Lab and Askeh Koh, respectively in the tree sapling layer.

Poorbabaei, Hassan; Faghir, Marzia B.

2008-01-01

208

Independent cultural evolution of two song traditions in the chestnut-sided warbler.  

PubMed

In oscine songbirds, song phenotypes arise via gene-culture coevolution, in which genetically transmitted learning predispositions and culturally transmitted song forms influence one another's evolution. To assess the outcome of this process in a population of chestnut-sided warblers (Dendroica pensylvanica), we recorded songs at intervals over a 19-year period. These recordings revealed the pattern of cultural evolution of songs in our study area, from which we inferred likely learning predispositions and mechanisms of cultural transmission. We found that the species' two song categories form two distinct cultural traditions, each with its own pattern of change over time. Unaccented-ending songs have undergone continual, rapid turnover of song and element types, consistent with a model of neutral cultural evolution. Accented-ending songs, in contrast, persisted virtually unchanged for the entire study period, with extraordinarily constant song form and only one appearance of a new song type. Our results indicate that in songbirds, multiple independent cultural traditions and probably multiple independent learning predispositions can evolve concurrently, especially when different signal classes have become specialized for different communicative functions. PMID:20712515

Byers, Bruce E; Belinsky, Kara L; Bentley, R Alexander

2010-10-01

209

Phosphatase activity in the surface and buried chestnut soils of the Volga-Don interfluve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phosphatase activity (PA) was studied in the chestnut paleosols buried in 1718-1720 under the Anna Ivanovna rampart in the southern part of the Privolzhskaya Upland and in the middle of the third millennium BC under the burial mound of the Bronze Age on the Northern Yergeni Upland; the background analogues of these soils were also examined. The PA values in the fresh soil samples varied from 2.5 to 37 mg of P2O5/10 g of soil per h with maximums in the A1 horizon of the surface soils and in the B1 horizon of the paleosols. The PA values depended on the time of storage of the samples: with time, they increased by 2.6-2.9 times in the A1 horizon of the background surface soil and decreased by 20-60% in the other soil samples. The specific distribution patterns of the PA values in the soil profiles remained the same independently of the time of storage of the samples. Relatively small amounts of the soil samples were sufficient for the reliable determination of the PA: 1-2 g for the A1 horizon and 3-5 g for the B1 and B2 horizons. The time of incubation with the substrate had to be increased up to 4 h for the long-stored samples.

Khomutova, T. E.; Demkina, T. S.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkin, V. A.

2012-04-01

210

[Accelerated senescence of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut tissues in relation to hydrogen peroxide accumulation].  

PubMed

Accelerated senescence of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut (CWC) tissues in relation to active oxygen species (AOS) metabolism was investigated. Fresh-cut CWC (2 mm thick) and intact CWC were stored at 4 degrees C in trays wrapped with plastic films. Changes in superoxide anion production rate, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were monitored, while contents of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid, MDA as well as electrolyte leakage were measured. Fresh-cutting of CWC induced activities of SOD, CAT and APX to a certain extent (Fig. 2B and Fig. 3), but simultaneously stimulated superoxide anion production markedly (Fig. 2A), enhanced hydrogen peroxide accumulation and accelerated loss in ascorbic acid (Figs. 4 and 5), which resulted in increased lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage (Fig. 1). Statistics analysis indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation among hydrogen peroxide accumulation, MDA content and electrolyte leakage (Table 1). Histochemical detection with 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine further demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide accumulation increased in fresh-cut CWC during storage (Fig. 5). AOS production rate and activities of SOD, CAT and APX changed little while no obvious hydrogen peroxide accumulation was observed, in intact CWC during storage. PMID:16222096

Peng, Li-Tao; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Yang, Shu-Zhen; Pan, Si-Yi

2005-10-01

211

Subsurface structure of the north Summit gas field, Chestnut Ridge anticline of the Appalachian Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Chestnut Ridge anticline is the westernmost of the High Plateau folds in southwestern Pennsylvania and north-central West Virginia that are detached primarily in the Marcellus Shale, and the Martinsburg, Salina, and Rome Formations. The primary, basal detachment at the Summit field occurs in the Salina salt. Production from fracture porosity in the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone commenced in 1936. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, 14 wells were drilled preparatory to conversion of the reservoir to gas storage. Schlumberger`s Formation MicroScanner (FMS) logs were run in each of these wells to provide information on the structural configuration and fracture patterns of the reservoir. These data indicate that two inward-facing, tight folds at the Oriskany level form the upper flanks and core of the anticline at the northern end of the field, whereas the main part of the field to the south is a comparatively simple, broad closure at the Oriskany level. The structure is a broad, slightly asymmetric open fold in the Mississippian Greenbrier Formation at the surface. Fracture patterns mapped using FMS logs indicate a complex fracture system which varies slightly along the trend of the fold and among the units analyzed, including the Helderberg Formation, Huntersville Chert, Oriskany Sandstone, and Onondaga Formation. An orthogonal joint system strikes toward the northwest and northeast slightly askew to the trend of the fold`s crestal trace. A similar, but more complex fracture pattern is found in an oriented core of these units.

Zhou, G.; Shumaker, R.C. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Staub, W.K. [Consolidated Gas Transmission Co., Clarksburg, WV (United States)

1996-09-01

212

Antifeedants and feeding stimulants in bark extracts of ten woody non-host species of the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.  

PubMed

Bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a Soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. Species were alder (Alnus glutinosa), aspen (Populus tremula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), holly (Ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (Evonymus europaeus), walnut (Juglans regia), and yew (Taxus baccata). Bark of each species was collected in southern Scandinavia during the summer. Resulting extracts were tested for antifeedant activity against the pine weevil by a micro-feeding choice assay. At a dose corresponding to that in the bark, methanol extracts from Aesculus, Taxus, Ilex, and Populus were antifeedant active, while pentane extracts of Aesculus, Fagus, Syringa, and Viburnum were stimulatory. Four known antifeedants against H. abietis, the straight-chained carboxylic acids, hexanoic and nonanoic acid (C6 and C9), carvone, and carvacrol were identified by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in several extracts. The major constituents were identified and tested for feeding deterrence. The aromatic compounds benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol are new non-host plant-derived feeding deterrents for the pine weevil. Additionally, two feeding stimulants, beta-sitosterol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, were identified. One active methanol extract of Aesculus bark was sequentially fractionated by liquid chromatography, and major compounds were tentatively identified as branched alcohols and esters of hexanoic acid. Five commercially available hexanoate esters and two commercially available branched alcohols were identified as new active antifeedants. Both stimulatory and inhibiting compounds were found in the same extracts and co-eluted in the same or adjacent fractions. The mix of semiochemicals of opposite activity in each extract or fraction could explain the stimulatory-, inhibitory-, or sometimes neutral activity. Generally, such co-occurrence confounds the isolation of antifeedants. PMID:18719963

Eriksson, Carina; Månsson, Per E; Sjödin, Kristina; Schlyter, Fredrik

2008-08-22

213

Comparative Studies on the Allergens of Horse Dandruff and Horse Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum albumin was found to be an important allergen in horse epithelia extracts. The albumin concentration varied considerably, depending on the raw material used for the preparation of the allergen extracts. In addition to serum albumin, two allergenic proteins were demonstrated in horse dandruff. The molecular weights of these allergens were calculated to be about 38,000 and 22,000, respectively. The

G. Ponterius; R. Brandt; E. Hultén; L. Yman

1973-01-01

214

Boots on Horses: Limb Protection or Hyperflexion Training Aids in the Showjumping Horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Showjumping riders regularly employ various schooling strategies to control the horse's jump stride kinematics (JSK). Strategies include plyometric training regimes with fences of different heights and widths set at specific distances. Gymnastic grids teach the horse to jump cleanly. Rapping, once used almost routinely, is no longer in vogue. However, the use of performance enhancing (PE) boots on the distal

Jack Murphy

2008-01-01

215

23. VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM, SHOWING SPILLWAY DISCHARGE TUNNEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM, SHOWING SPILLWAY DISCHARGE TUNNEL AT LEFT, RIGHT (OR NORTH) SPILLWAY, HEFU POWER UNIT, AND ORIGINAL POWER PLANT - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

216

36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER PLANT, LOOKING NORTH. ONLY TWO OF THE THREE UNITS ARE VISIBLE - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

217

Detail, drivethrough under hoppers, view to southeast. Hungry Horse ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, drive-through under hoppers, view to southeast. - Hungry Horse Village, Timber Sand Bunker, Approximately 1 mile south of Highway 2 East & 1/4 mile east of Colorado Boulevard, Hungry Horse, Flathead County, MT

218

1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; U.S. Highway 58 (toward Martinsville) is in the foreground - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

219

Context with Building 18, view to northwest. Hungry Horse ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Context with Building 18, view to northwest. - Hungry Horse Village, Maintenance Shop, Approximately 1 mile south of Highway 2 East & 1/4 mile east of Colorado Boulevard, Hungry Horse, Flathead County, MT

220

20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE AND CONCRETE PLACEMENT LINES August 2, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

221

Rupture of the peroneus tertius tendon in 27 horses  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing the outcome and prognosis of rupture of the tendon of the peroneus tertius muscle in 27 horses. Information on history, physical examination findings, diagnosis, treatment, and final outcome was summarized from medical records. Long-term follow-up information on horses was obtained by telephone survey. A stepwise logistic regression model was used to analyze factors influencing the outcome. Rupture occurred in the midbody of the tendon in 11 horses, at the insertion site in 11 horses, and at the origin in 2 horses. Overall, 18/23 (78.3%) horses returned to their previous level of exercise, 5/23 (21.7%) horses were euthanized due to persistent lameness. If the horse was racing at the time of injury or had an additional structure injured besides the peroneus tertius tendon, it was less likely to return to its intended use.

2005-01-01

222

Diversity and infection prevalence of endosymbionts in natural populations of the chestnut weevil: relevance of local climate and host plants.  

PubMed

Many insects are ubiquitously associated with multiple endosymbionts, whose infection patterns often exhibit spatial and temporal variations. How such endosymbiont variations are relevant to local adaptation of the host organisms is of ecological interest. Here, we report a comprehensive survey of endosymbionts in natural populations of the chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis, whose larvae are notorious pests of cultivated chestnuts and also infest acorns of various wild oaks. From 968 insects representing 55 localities across the Japanese Archipelago and originating from 10 host plant species, we identified six distinct endosymbiont lineages, namely Curculioniphilus, Sodalis, Serratia, Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Spiroplasma, at different infection frequencies (96.7%, 12.8%, 82.3%, 82.5%, 28.2% and 6.8%, respectively) and with different geographical distribution patterns. Multiple endosymbiont infections were very common; 3.18±0.61 (ranging from 1.74 to 5.50) endosymbionts per insect on average in each of the local populations. Five pairs of endosymbionts (Curculioniphilus-Serratia, Curculioniphilus-Wolbachia, Sodalis-Rickettsia, Wolbachia-Rickettsia and Rickettsia-Spiroplasma) co-infected the same host individuals more frequently than expected, while infections with Serratia and Wolbachia were negatively correlated to each other. Infection frequencies of the endosymbionts were significantly correlated with climatic and ecological factors: for example, higher Sodalis, Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections at localities of higher temperature; lower Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections at localities of greater snowfall; and higher Curculioniphilus, Sodalis, Serratia, Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections on acorns than on chestnuts. These patterns are discussed in relation to potential host-endosymbiont co-evolution via local adaptation across geographical populations. PMID:21199036

Toju, Hirokazu; Fukatsu, Takema

2010-12-28

223

Decomposition of chestnut litterfall and eight-year soil chemical changes under a no-tillage management system in Northern Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

– \\u000a \\u000a • Chestnut stands (Castanea sativa Mill.) for fruit production, in Northern Portugal, are subjected to frequent soil tillage operations, which is considered\\u000a a threat for the system sustainability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The effects of replacement of conventional tillage by the no-tillage system in chestnut stands on decomposition and nutrient\\u000a dynamics of leaf litter and burs were evaluated, using the litterbag

Fernando Raimundo; Afonso Martins; Manuel Madeira

2008-01-01

224

A Hypoderma diana (Diptera: Hypodermatidae) infection in a horse.  

PubMed

An infection with second-stage larvae of the warble-fly H. diana in a horse is described. The second-stage larvae were incapable of developing into the third stage, because horses are unsuitable hosts and because the infected horse was treated with an insecticide. Since the horse was used for dragging trees in the forests, the infection was likely contracted via contact with H. diana, a normal parasite of roe deer in the Netherlands. PMID:2718349

Hendrikx, W M; Jansen, J; de Vries, T J

1989-01-01

225

Pathomorphological study on gastroduodenal ulceration in horses: localisation of lesions.  

PubMed

Gastroduodenal ulceration is a prevalent disease in foals and adult horses. Decreased performance as well as fatal complications relate to this syndrome. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of gastric ulceration in a mixed population of horses by postmortem examination and to evaluate a possible association between equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) and sex or age of the examined horses, to evaluate the localisation of lesions in the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract and to determine the occurrence of gastric parasites. Postmortem examinations were performed on 71 horses over a period of 24 months. Gastric ulcers were found in 52 horses (73.2%). There was no significant association between age or sex and occurrence of gastric ulcers. In all horses the squamous mucosa lesions were localised near the margo plicatus (100% of the cases), whereas in 23 horses the lesions were near the margo plicatus and lesser curvature and in 7 horses at the greater curvature. In 18 horses the mucosa was affected in the whole extent of the margo plicatus and in 1 horse diffuse lesions of the squamous mucosa were noted. Lesions of the glandular mucosa were localised in 11 horses at the fundic area, in 1 horse they occurred in the pylorus, and in 10 horses diffuse lesions of the glandular mucosa were recorded. A low prevalence of Gasterophilus intestinalis infection was detected (1 horse, 1.4%). We have confirmed that gastric ulcers are a common problem in horses and duodenal or oesophageal ulceration is rare (not a single case of the latter was found in this study). Lesions in the glandular mucosa of the stomach are more frequent in suckling foals than in older animals. Lesions of the glandular mucosa are also common in adult horses, and a complete gastroscopic examination including examination of the pylorus is advisable to evaluate this syndrome. PMID:17555289

Bezdekova, Barbora; Jahn, P; Vyskocil, M

2007-06-01

226

Complications associated with Streptococcus equi infection on a horse farm.  

PubMed

Complications associated with Streptococcus equi infection developed in 15 (20.3%) of 74 horses on one farm included death, guttural pouch empyema, purpura hemorrhagica, upper respiratory tract obstruction, pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, agalactia, mesenteric lymph node abscessation, and periorbital abscessation. Death was attributed to pneumonia in 3 horses and to upper respiratory tract obstruction in 2 horses. One horse was euthanatized because of severe purpura hemorrhagica. PMID:3692991

Sweeney, C R; Whitlock, R H; Meirs, D A; Whitehead, S C; Barningham, S O

1987-12-01

227

Development of SCAR Markers for the Identification of Phytophthora katsurae Causing Chestnut Ink Disease in Korea  

PubMed Central

Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers are one of the most effective and accurate tools for microbial identification. In this study, we applied SCAR markers for the rapid and accurate detection of Phytophthora katsurae, the casual agent of chestnut ink disease in Korea. In this study, we developed seven SCAR markers specific to P. katsurae using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and assessed the potential of the SCAR markers to serve as tools for identifying P. katsurae. Seven primer pairs (SOPC 1F/SOPC 1R, SOPC 1-1F/SOPC 1-1R, SOPC 3F/SOPC 3R, SOPC 4F/SOPC 4R, SOPC 4F/SOPC 4-1R, SOPD 9F/SOPD 9R, and SOPD 10F/SOPD 10R) from a sequence derived from RAPD fragments were designed for the analysis of the SCAR markers. To evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the SCAR markers, the genomic DNA of P. katsurae was serially diluted 10-fold to final concentrations from 1 mg/mL to 1 pg/mL. The limit of detection using the SCAR markers ranged from 100 µg/mL to 100 ng/mL. To identify the limit for detecting P. katsurae zoospores, each suspension of zoospores was serially diluted 10-fold to final concentrations from 10 × 105 to 10 × 101 zoospores/mL, and then extracted. The limit of detection by SCAR markers was approximately 10 × 101 zoospores/mL. PCR detection with SCAR markers was specific for P. katsurae, and did not produce any P. katsurae-specific PCR amplicons from 16 other Phytophthora species used as controls. This study shows that SCAR markers are a useful tool for the rapid and effective detection of P. katsurae.

Lee, Dong Hyeon; Lee, Sun Keun; Lee, Sang Yong

2013-01-01

228

Development of SCAR Markers for the Identification of Phytophthora katsurae Causing Chestnut Ink Disease in Korea.  

PubMed

Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers are one of the most effective and accurate tools for microbial identification. In this study, we applied SCAR markers for the rapid and accurate detection of Phytophthora katsurae, the casual agent of chestnut ink disease in Korea. In this study, we developed seven SCAR markers specific to P. katsurae using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and assessed the potential of the SCAR markers to serve as tools for identifying P. katsurae. Seven primer pairs (SOPC 1F/SOPC 1R, SOPC 1-1F/SOPC 1-1R, SOPC 3F/SOPC 3R, SOPC 4F/SOPC 4R, SOPC 4F/SOPC 4-1R, SOPD 9F/SOPD 9R, and SOPD 10F/SOPD 10R) from a sequence derived from RAPD fragments were designed for the analysis of the SCAR markers. To evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the SCAR markers, the genomic DNA of P. katsurae was serially diluted 10-fold to final concentrations from 1 mg/mL to 1 pg/mL. The limit of detection using the SCAR markers ranged from 100 µg/mL to 100 ng/mL. To identify the limit for detecting P. katsurae zoospores, each suspension of zoospores was serially diluted 10-fold to final concentrations from 10 × 10(5) to 10 × 10(1) zoospores/mL, and then extracted. The limit of detection by SCAR markers was approximately 10 × 10(1) zoospores/mL. PCR detection with SCAR markers was specific for P. katsurae, and did not produce any P. katsurae-specific PCR amplicons from 16 other Phytophthora species used as controls. This study shows that SCAR markers are a useful tool for the rapid and effective detection of P. katsurae. PMID:23874131

Lee, Dong Hyeon; Lee, Sun Keun; Lee, Sang Yong; Lee, Jong Kyu

2013-06-30

229

Highly athletic terrestrial mammals: horses and dogs.  

PubMed

Evolutionary forces drive beneficial adaptations in response to a complex array of environmental conditions. In contrast, over several millennia, humans have been so enamored by the running/athletic prowess of horses and dogs that they have sculpted their anatomy and physiology based solely upon running speed. Thus, through hundreds of generations, those structural and functional traits crucial for running fast have been optimized. Central among these traits is the capacity to uptake, transport and utilize oxygen at spectacular rates. Moreover, the coupling of the key systems--pulmonary-cardiovascular-muscular is so exquisitely tuned in horses and dogs that oxygen uptake response kinetics evidence little inertia as the animal transitions from rest to exercise. These fast oxygen uptake kinetics minimize Intramyocyte perturbations that can limit exercise tolerance. For the physiologist, study of horses and dogs allows investigation not only of a broader range of oxidative function than available in humans, but explores the very limits of mammalian biological adaptability. Specifically, the unparalleled equine cardiovascular and muscular systems can transport and utilize more oxygen than the lungs can supply. Two consequences of this situation, particularly in the horse, are profound exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia and hypercapnia as well as structural failure of the delicate blood-gas barrier causing pulmonary hemorrhage and, in the extreme, overt epistaxis. This chapter compares and contrasts horses and dogs with humans with respect to the structural and functional features that enable these extraordinary mammals to support their prodigious oxidative and therefore athletic capabilities. PMID:23737162

Poole, David C; Erickson, Howard H

2011-01-01

230

FIELD STUDY OF HOOF WALL PROBLEMS IN UNSHOD WORKING HORSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of 100 native breed unshod working horses was examined for hoof wall problems. The diagnosis of hoof wall defects was performed by close visual observation and via physical examina- tion. The location, extent and types of defects were then determined and recorded. Out of 100 horses, 124 hoof wall defects were noted in ninety working horses. The number

A. S. BIGHAM; A. N. TABATABAEI

231

Safety and storage stability of horse meat for human consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most horse meat is consumed by humans and\\/or animals in the region where it is produced. However, horse meat for human consumption is exported in large quantities from the Americas and in lesser quantities from Eastern Europe, to Western Europe and Japan where it is often eaten raw. Horse meat prepared to a good hygienic condition should not be prone

C. O. Gill

2005-01-01

232

The Origins of Iberian Horses Assessed via Mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a number of recent studies that have focused on the origin of domestic horses, genetic relationships between major geographical clusters still remain poorly understood. In this study we analyzed a 296 bp mtDNA fragment from the HVI region of 171 horses representing 11 native Iberian, Barb, and Exmoor breeds to assess the maternal phylogeography of Iberian horses. The mtDNA

L. J. Royo; I. ALVAREZ; A. BEJA-PEREIRA; A. MOLINA; I. FERNANDEZ; J. JORDANA; E. GOMEZ; J. P. GUTIERREZ; F. GOYACHE

2005-01-01

233

Growth optimal investment in horse race markets with costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulate the problem of growth optimal investment in horse race markets with proportional costs and study growth optimal strategies both for stochastic horse races as well as races where one does not make any distributional assumptions. Our results extend all known results for frictionless horse race markets to their natural analog in markets with costs

Garud N. Iyengar; Thomas M. Cover

2000-01-01

234

Growth Rates in Thoroughbred Horses Raised in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryGrowth rates of thoroughbred horses are not as well defined as those of other farm animals, and only a few articles summarize growth of thoroughbred horses over a prolonged period. Body weight (BW), heart girth (HG), wither height (WH), body length (BL), and hip height (HH) of 128 thoroughbred horses (59 colts and 69 fillies) were recorded from birth to

A. N Kavazis; E. A Ott

2003-01-01

235

Horse soleus muscle: Postural sensor or vestigial structure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soleus muscle of horses is rather diminutive with respect to the overall size of adjacent synergist muscles in the hind limb of the horse. Whether or not such a muscle might be vestigial or may be providing some essential function has not been determined. We have studied the horse's sol- eus muscle using histochemical (ATPase), immunocytochemical (myosin iso- form

Ron A. Meyers; John W. Hermanson

2006-01-01

236

Predator odour per se does not frighten domestic horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horses frequently react nervously when passing animal production farms and other places with distinctive smells, leading riders to believe that horses are innately frightened by certain odours. In three experiments, we investigated how horses respond to (1) urine from wolves and lions, (2) blood from slaughtered conspecifics and fur-derived wolf odour, and (3) a sudden auditory stimulus in either presence

Janne Winther Christensen; Margareta Rundgren

2008-01-01

237

Changes in blood constituents accompanying exercise in polo horses.  

PubMed

There have been several studies of biochemical changes in horses doing intense exercise such as Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses and in horses performing exercise over a long period of time such as endurance horses and three-day eventing horses, but we are not aware of studies with polo horses. Blood samples were taken from 18 polo horses at rest, immediately after playing 2 chukkers of indoor polo, and after a 15 minute rest period. Each horse was studied at 2 different games. The blood samples were analyzed for lactic acid, protein, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, HCO-3, PCO2, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and pH. Samples taken immediately after playing polo had significant increases in lactic acid, protein, sodium, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and pH, and significant decreases in chloride, calcium, PCO2, and HCO-3. Pulse and respiration were significantly increased. After a 15 minute rest period, there was a significant decrease in potassium. The HCO-3 was lower immediately after playing, but was above the resting value after 15 minutes. It was concluded that the changes after exercise are similar in some aspects to those reported for horses performing intense exercise such as racehorses, and in some aspects to those reported for horses performing prolonged exercise such as three-day event horses and endurance horses. Horses playing indoor polo develop a high plasma lactic acid, but with alkalemia, and could be used as a model to study this condition. PMID:3921311

Craig, L; Hintz, H F; Soderholm, L V; Shaw, K L; Schryver, H F

1985-04-01

238

Prevalence of gastric ulcers in endurance horses – a preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric endoscopy was performed at the end of a 50 or 80 km endurance ride. Gastric ulceration was evident in 67% of the horses with ulcers on the squamous region of the stomach found in 57% of the horses and active bleeding of the glandular mucosa in 27%. Three horses (10%) had lesions only on the glandular mucosa. Values of

Jorge E Nieto; Jack R Snyder; Pablo Beldomenico; Monica Aleman; James W Kerr; Sharon J Spier

2004-01-01

239

9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93.317 Animals and...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

2010-01-01

240

9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93.317 Animals and...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

2009-01-01

241

Lesions of Experimental Equine Morbillivirus Pneumonia in Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory examinations of equine morbillivirus included experimental reproductions of the dis- ease caused by the virus by transmission of mixed lung and spleen taken from two field equine cases into two horses and by inoculating tissue culture virus into a further two horses. The most distinctive gross lesions of the diseases that developed in three of the horses was that

P. T. Hooper; P. J. Ketterer; A. D. Hyatt; G. M. Russell

1997-01-01

242

Histamine inhalation challenge in normal horses and in horses with small airway disease.  

PubMed Central

A histamine inhalation challenge (HIC) procedure was developed to assess hyperreactive states in horses. Following clinical evaluation, percutaneous lung biopsies were performed on nine light breed mares aged 6 to 15 years. Five horses, with normal small airways, were classified as group A and four subjects with small airway disease (SAD) lesions formed group B. Pulmonary mechanics parameters were monitored following an aerosol of 0.9% saline and every 5 min for up to 30 min after HIC with 0.5% w/v of histamine diphosphate, administered through a face mask for 2.5 min. Tidal volume (VT) and airflow (V) values were obtained with a pneumotachograph. Transpulmonary pressure (delta Ppl) was measured by the esophageal balloon catheter method. Dynamic compliance (Cdyn), total pulmonary resistance (RL), end expiratory work of breathing (EEW) and respiratory rate (f) were calculated by a pulmonary mechanics computer. Group A horses had increases in RL, and decreases in Cdyn whereas horses in group B were hyperreactive and showed greater changes in EEW, Cdyn, and delta Ppl but with a relatively lower variation of RL. One horse in clinical remission from SAD, but with a high biopsy score (group B), and one clinically normal horse belonging to group A showed marked hyperreactivity as shown by increases in EEW, maximum change in delta Ppl and RL and decreases in Cdyn. These results suggest that the HIC described can be used as a method to investigate airway hyperreactivity and SAD in horses. Images Fig. 1.

Doucet, M Y; Vrins, A A; Ford-Hutchinson, A W

1991-01-01

243

Crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum) toxicity in horses.  

PubMed

The clinical signs and pathology of 6 field cases of a respiratory disease of horses which occurs in the coastal hinterland of south-eastern Queensland are described. The condition has occurred for many years and has been thought to have been associated with ingestion of Crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum). Coughing, rapid heaving respiration, decreased exercise tolerance and loss of condition were seen in affected horses. In longstanding cases fibrosis, alveolar lining cell proliferation, oedema, neutrophil infiltration and abscessation were seen. In some cases vascular thrombosis and infarction occur in the lungs. Similar signs and lesions occurred in one horse fed E. adenophorum for 8 months and early lesions in another fed the flowering stage of the plant for about 6 weeks. Lesions also developed in 2 rabbits experimentally fed the plant, but not in sheep or rats. PMID:571272

O'Sullivan, B M

1979-01-01

244

Monensin poisoning in horses -- an international incident  

PubMed Central

Several hundred Michigan horses were accidentally exposed to varying levels of monensin. Severity of effects was proportional to the level of feed contamination; sudden death resulted on at least two premises. Acute signs of cardiovascular impairment occurred on one premises having received feed containing over 200 grams of monensin per tonne. Gross and histological postmortem lesions consisted of acute myocardial necrosis. Although only circumstantially confirmed, investigations led to the suspicion that the source of poisoning was a ration formulation error in a feedmill in southwestern Ontario. Concern over possible undetected heart damage in exposed horses led to clinical monitoring on one farm over a period of several months. Electrocardiographic and serum enzyme monitoring were used soon after the incident to implicate exposure in some horses; they were poor prognostic indicators. Applicable legislation, the cooperative role of government departments, and legal implications relative to potential prosecution and lawsuits arising from sale of contaminated feed between Canada and the USA are summarized.

Doonan, Gordon R.; Brown, Christopher M.; Mullaney, Thomas P.; Brooks, David B.; Ulmanis, Eugene G.; Slanker, Michael R.

1989-01-01

245

Conjunctival malignant melanoma in a horse.  

PubMed

A case of malignant melanoma originating from the conjunctiva of a horse is reported. The tumor exhibited locally aggressive behavior as evidenced clinically by recurrence following two treatment episodes including surgical excision on each occasion and one application of cryotherapy. The orbit was subsequently exenterated and histologically malignant conjunctival melanoma was confirmed. Histopathologic features included variable pigmentation with amelanotic sites demonstrating marked cellular and nuclear pleomorphism with high numbers of mitotic figures. Cords of neoplastic cells invaded the sclera and cornea. Following exenteration, the horse exhibited no recurrence of the tumor for five years before being lost to follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first report of primary malignant conjunctival melanoma in a horse. PMID:11397303

Moore, C.P.; Collins, B.K.; Linton, L.L.; Collier, L.L.

2000-01-01

246

Occurrence of Borrelia lusitaniae infection in horses.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infection in horses exposed to heavy tick infestations. Blood samples of 98 healthy horses from 5 stud farms were examined by SNAP(®) 4D× and PCR to detect antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. and Borrelia DNA, respectively. Ten samples (15.3%) were antibody positive and 5 samples (5.1%) were both antibody and PCR positive. Sequence analysis showed the highest homology with the B. lusitaniae genospecies. No differences were found between sexes and stud farms, while age was significantly related to seropositivity (p<0.05). Our data confirms the presence of B. lusitaniae infection in horses, previously not clearly demonstrated. PMID:22789679

Veronesi, Fabrizia; Laus, Fulvio; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Tesei, Beniamino; Piergili Fioretti, Daniela; Genchi, Claudio

2012-06-27

247

Y-Chromosome Analysis in Retuertas Horses  

PubMed Central

Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France) or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY) and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects.

Brandariz-Fontes, Claudia; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vega-Pla, Jose Luis; Backstrom, Niclas; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lippold, Sebastian; Rico, Ciro

2013-01-01

248

Touchdown nested multiplex PCR detection of Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. cambivora from French and English chestnut grove soils.  

PubMed

Soil borne Phytophthora cinnamomi and Phytophthora cambivora are considered the most pathogenic species associated with chestnut (Castanea sativa) decline in Europe. Mapping their incidence and distribution from nursery and plantation soils may offer valuable information for limiting spread. As conventional biological baiting and taxonomic confirmation is generally time consuming, labour, logistically and space intensive, we have focused on the development of a specific touchdown nested multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) approach for the simultaneous detection of both species direct from soil. Pre-existing and novel primers, based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences, have been evaluated for their specificity and use in a multiplex capacity in various combinations. Coupled to this we have modified a mechanical lysis procedure for DNA extraction from up to 10 g of chestnut under storey soils (ranging from 0.5 to 25 ?g DNA g(-1)fresh soil). Using serial dilutions and/or polyvinylpolypyrrolidone chromatography purification, both species have been successfully detected, in artificially and naturally infected soils. Levels of assay detection are comparable to other Phytophthora species where PCR based diagnostic systems have been reported. A qualitative evaluation of this approach against conventional baiting is presented. PMID:21724173

Langrell, Stephen R H; Morel, Olivier; Robin, Cécile

2011-05-14

249

Dissecting aortic aneurysm in a horse.  

PubMed

A case of dissecting aortic aneurysm in a 4-year-old male thoroughbred horse is reported. The horse had a history of inflammation in the right thigh and a fever 2 weeks before sudden death. At necropsy, aortic aneurysms were observed from the aortic valve to the aortic arch, spreading over a distance of 40 cm. An irregular rupture of the intima of the ascending aorta was located in the cardiac side of a ramification to the tunica branchiocephalicus communis. An intramural haematoma, apparent on the cut surface and in the pericardium, had caused cardiac tamponade and sudden death. PMID:10213675

Shirai, W; Momotani, E; Sato, T; Kashima, T; Saito, T; Itoi, Y

1999-04-01

250

Induced juglone toxicosis in ponies and horses.  

PubMed

Juglone, a toxic compound found in all parts of plants of the walnut tree family Jugans, was evaluated as the possible toxin involved in black walnut shaving-associated laminitis in the horse. Large amounts (up to 1 g) of this chemical administered per os inconsistently caused mild signs of laminitis in ponies. Topical application of juglone to the digits of horses caused local skin irritation but did not cause laminitis. Intravenous administration of juglone caused acute pulmonary edema in some individuals previously exposed to the compound per os or IV. PMID:7436086

True, R G; Lowe, J E

1980-06-01

251

Delayed monensin sodium toxicity in horses.  

PubMed

Thirty-two horses were examined with a history of poor performance and unthriftiness several months after the ingestion of feed containing monensin sodium. Cardiac abnormality was diagnosed in 8 cases and suspected in 4 others. Necropsy examinations were performed on 6 cases with marked clinical symptoms and evidence of circulatory failure was found. Marked cardiac myopathy and fibrosis was a consistent feature. It is concluded that ingestion of monensin sodium by horses may cause either acute death or delayed cardiac circulatory failure as a result of specific cardiac myodegeneration. PMID:7250099

Muylle, E; Vandenhende, C; Oyaert, W; Thoonen, H; Vlaeminck, K

1981-04-01

252

European domestic horses originated in two holocene refugia.  

PubMed

The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both. PMID:21479181

Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim A; Cañon, Javier; Cothran, Gus; Distl, Ottmar; Glowatzki-Mullis, Marie-Louise; Hunt, Harriet; Luís, Cristina; do Mar Oom, Maria; Yupanqui, Isabel Tupac; Z?bek, Tomasz; Manica, Andrea

2011-03-30

253

Best management practices plan for the Chestnut Ridge-Filled Coal Ash Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Chestnut Ridge Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP) Project has been established to satisfy Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2. FCAP is on Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant. A 62-foot high earthen dam across Upper McCoy Branch was constructed in 1955 to create a pond to serve as a settling basin for fly and bottom ashes generated by burning coal at the Y-12 Steam Plant. Ash from the steam was mixed with water to form a slurry and then pumped to the crest of Chestnut Ridge and released through a large pipe to flow across the Sluice Channel area and into the pond. The ash slurry eventually overtopped the dam and flowed along Upper McCoy Branch to Rogers Quarry. The purpose of this document is to provide a site-specific Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan for construction associated with environmental restoration activities at the FCAP Site.

NONE

1996-05-01

254

Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1997 in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). In July 1997, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved modifications to several of the permit conditions that address RCRA pow-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and RCIU4 post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin) and Kerr Hollow Quarry. This report has been prepared in accordance with these modified permit requirements. Also included in this report are the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 1997 for the purposes ofi (1) detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste disposal facilities (SWDFS) in accordance with operating permits and applicable regulations, (2) monitoring in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Recove~ Act Records of Decision (now pefiormed under the Integrated Water Quality Program for the Oak Ridge Reservation), and (3) monitoring needed to comply with U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1.

Jones, S.B.

1998-02-01

255

Human facial discrimination in horses: can they tell us apart?  

PubMed

The human-horse relationship has a long evolutionary history. Horses continue to play a pivotal role in the lives of humans and it is common for humans to think their horses recognize them by face. If a horse can distinguish his/her human companion from other humans, then evolution has supplied the horse with a very adaptive cognitive ability. The current study used operant conditioning trials to examine whether horses could discriminate photographed human faces and transfer this facial recognition ability a novel setting. The results indicated the horses (a) learned to discriminate photographs of the unrelated individuals, fraternal twins, and identical twins and (b) demonstrated transfer of facial recognition by spending more time with their S+ woman in the field test. PMID:19533185

Stone, Sherril M

2009-06-17

256

Genetic transformation of European chestnut somatic embryos with a native thaumatin-like protein (CsTL1) gene isolated from Castanea sativa seeds.  

PubMed

The availability of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) would offer an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. For the first time, a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1), isolated from chestnut cotyledons, has been overexpressed in three chestnut somatic embryogenic lines. Transformation experiments have been performed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Smith and Townsend vector harboring the neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) selectable and the green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter genes. The transformation efficiency, determined on the basis of the fluorescence of surviving explants, was clearly genotype dependent and ranged from 32.5% in the CI-9 line to 7.1% in the CI-3 line. A total of 126 independent transformed lines were obtained. The presence and integration of chestnut CsTL1 in genomic DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CsTL1 expression was up to 13.5-fold higher in a transgenic line compared with its corresponding untransformed line. In only one of the 11 transformed lines tested, expression of the CsTL1 was lower than the control. The remaining 115 transformed lines were successfully subjected to cryopreservation. Embryo proliferation was achieved in all of the transgenic lines regenerated and the transformed lines showed a higher mean number of cotyledonary stage embryos and total number of embryos per embryo clump than their corresponding untransformed lines. Transgenic plants were regenerated after maturation and germination of transformed somatic embryos. Furthermore, due to the low plantlet conversion achieved, axillary shoot proliferation cultures were established from partially germinated embryos (only shoot development), which were multiplied and rooted according to procedures already established. Transgenic plants were acclimatized and grown in a greenhouse. No phenotypic differences were found with control plants, suggesting no potential cytotoxic effects of the green fluorescent protein. The results reported in the present work could be considered as a first step toward the production of fungal-disease tolerant cisgenic chestnut plants. PMID:23086811

Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Allona, Isabel; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

2012-10-18

257

Stereotypic Behaviour in the Stabled Horse: Causes, Effects and Prevention Without Compromising Horse Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparently functionless, repetitive behaviour in horses, such as weaving or crib-biting has been difficult to explain for\\u000a behavioural scientists, horse owners and veterinarians alike. Traditionally activities such as these have been classed amongst\\u000a the broad descriptor of undesirable stable vices and treatment has centred on prevention of the behaviours per se rather than\\u000a addressing their underlying causes. In contrast, welfare

J. Cooper; P. McGreevy

258

Stereotypic Behaviour in the Stabled Horse: Causes, Effects and Prevention without Compromising Horse Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparently functionless, repetitive behaviour in horses, such as weaving or crib-biting has been difficult to explain for\\u000a behavioural scientists, horse owners and veterinarians alike. Traditionally activities such as these have been classed amongst\\u000a the broad descriptor of undesirable stable vices and treatment has centred on prevention of the behaviours per se rather than\\u000a addressing their underlying causes. In contrast, welfare

J. Cooper; P. McGreevy

259

A survey on the feeding of eventing horses during competition.  

PubMed

This study aims at the comparison of the actual feeding of horses with the recommendations from the literature, and it studies the effects of feeding and exercise on several blood metabolic parameters before and after exercise. Blood samples were collected from 25 horses during one-star eventing competitions and evaluated for blood glucose, insulin, lactate, free fatty acids and triglyceride levels. Questionnaires on the feeding practices of the horses were evaluated. The questionnaires revealed that during training, and on tournament days, horses received on average 4.3 kg of concentrate per day (min. 1.54 kg, max. 8 kg). The statistical analysis showed no significant effect of the amount of concentrate fed before exercise on the measured blood values. Oil was supplied as a supplementary energy source to 30% of the horses, but most of them only received very small quantities (0.02-0.4 l/day). Five horses (20%) had no access to salt supplements at all, and eleven horses (45%) had no access to salt on tournament days. Fifteen horses (60%) were supplied with mineral feed. Twenty-one horses (84%) had daily access to pasture during the training period. During competition, 55% of the horses received roughage ad libitum, compared with 37% during training. The majority of the horses received less roughage on days before the cross-country competition. It could not be ascertained whether feeding a large amounts of roughage had a beneficial effect on performance, because only a few horses in this study were fed with very restrictive roughage. Feeding of most of the horses was in agreement with the recommendations from the literature, except the need for sodium and chloride. The sodium and chloride need for sport horses may be overestimated in literature and needs to be re-evaluated. PMID:22809115

Brunner, J; Wichert, B; Burger, D; von Peinen, K; Liesegang, A

2012-07-19

260

Group housing exerts a positive effect on the behaviour of young horses during training  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an experiment on the effects of social environment and training on the human–animal relationship, 20 horses were handled according to a defined schedule. Eight horses were housed singly and 12 horses were housed in four groups of 3 horses. Horses were handled three times per week in 10min sessions from an age of 6 months until 2 years of

E Søndergaard; J Ladewig

2004-01-01

261

Traumatic foot injuries in horses: surgical management.  

PubMed

Managing traumatic foot wounds in horses may require surgical intervention. These wounds include coronary-band and heel-bulb lacerations, septic pedal osteitis, septic navicular bursitis, sepsis of the collateral cartilages, and hoof-wall injuries. This article provides a practical overview of the surgical management of these types of wounds. PMID:23532730

Burba, Daniel J

2013-01-01

262

Horse Training and Management: Program of Excellence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report on Lamar Community College's Horse Training and Management (HTM) program assesses the quality of the educational experience provided by the program, the quality of the faculty and students, institutional financial commitment to the program, contribution of the HTM program to state and local economic development, and external funding…

Lane, Marvin

263

Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

Symington, Ashley

2012-01-01

264

Electrochemotherapy of horses. A preliminary clinical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcoids are skin spontaneous tumours detected in horses. It can be cured by chemotherapy by using cisplatin. A multisequence treatment must be performed. Problems are present due to the poor diffusion of the hydrophilic product in the tumours. Electropulsation is known to drastically enhance the effect of antitumoral drugs in vivo. Taking into account the very successful results of the

M. P Rols; Y Tamzali; J Teissié

2002-01-01

265

Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

Symington, Ashley

2012-01-01

266

Widespread Origins of Domestic Horse Lineages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestication entails control of wild species and is generally regarded as a complex process confined to a restricted area and culture. Previous DNA sequence analyses of several domestic species have suggested only a limited number of origination events. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences of 191 domestic horses and found a high diversity of matrilines. Sequence analysis of

Carles Vilà; Jennifer A. Leonard; Anders Götherström; Stefan Marklund; Kaj Sandberg; Kerstin Lidén; Robert K. Wayne; Hans Ellegren

2001-01-01

267

A Study of Horse Racing in California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An expansion of horse racing in California would serve to benefit horsemen through an increase in purse opportunities, facilitate the maximization of state revenues by increasing the size of the handle on which license fees are based, and provide for indi...

R. M. Bell R. L. Harris B. P. Donnelly

1977-01-01

268

Probability models on horse-race outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of models have been examined for modelling probability based on rankings. Most prominent among these are the gamma and normal probability models. The accuracy of these models in predicting the outcomes of horse races is investigated in this paper. The parameters of these models are estimated by the maximum likelihood method, using the information on win pool fractions.

MUKHTAR M. ALI

1998-01-01

269

Modern Riding Style Improves Horse Racing Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

When animals carry loads, there is a proportionate increase in metabolic cost, and in humans this increase in cost is reduced when the load is elastically coupled to the load bearer. Major horse race times and records improved by 5 to 7% around 1900 when jockeys adopted a crouched posture. We show that jockeys move to isolate themselves from the

Thilo Pfau; Andrew Spence; Sandra Starke; Marta Ferrari; Alan Wilson

2009-01-01

270

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses.  

PubMed

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introduced in a small paddock invaded by the plant. The first nervous signs were observed 44 days from the start of grazing. The animal was euthanized on day 59. No significant gross lesions were observed upon necropsies of the experimental horse as well as one spontaneously affected horse. Upon histologic examination neuronal lipofuscinosis was observed in the brain, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Wallerian-type degeneration was observed on some mesencephalic tracts. Neuronal and axonal degeneration and lipofuscinosis were observed on electron microscopy examination. Indospicine was detected in four samples of I. lespedezioides with concentrations ranging from 63 to 1178 ?g/g whereas nitro toxins could be detected in only one of the samples at a concentration of 2.5 mg/g. In conclusion, poisoning by I. lespedezioides is very similar to those poisonings by Indigofera linnaei and Indigofera hendecaphylla. Based on the preponderance of indospince and lack of nitro toxins in the samples it is proposed that indospicine is the toxic compound responsible for the poisoning. PMID:22560887

Lima, Everton F; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Gardner, Dale R; Barros, Severo S; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Soares, Mauro P; Riet-Correa, Gabriela

2012-04-25

271

Biomechanical analysis of circles on pommel horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyse the principal mechanics of circles. Seventeen university male gymnasts performed circles on an instrumented pommel horse model that enabled the pommel reaction forces to be recorded at 1000 Hz with two force plates. The circles were also videotaped using two digital video cameras operating at 60 frames per second. During circles, the vertical

Toshiyuki Fujihara; Takafumi Fuchimoto; Pierre Gervais

2009-01-01

272

The use of phenylbutazone in the horse.  

PubMed

This review presents a brief historical prospective of the genesis of regulated medication in the US racing industry of which the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) phenylbutazone (PBZ) is the focus. It presents some historical guideposts in the development of the current rules on the use of PBZ by racing jurisdictions in the US. Based on its prevalent use, PBZ remains a focus of attention. The review examines the information presented in a number of different models used to determine the effects and duration of PBZ in the horse. They include naturally occurring lameness and reversible-induced lameness models that directly examine the effects and duration of the administration of various doses of PBZ. The review also examines indirect plasma and tissue models studying the suppression of the release of arachidonic acid-derived mediators of inflammation. The majority of studies suggest an effect of PBZ at 24 h at 4.4 mg/kg. This reflects and substantiates the opinion of many clinical veterinarians, many of whom will not perform a prepurchase lameness examination unless the horse is free of NSAID. This remains the opinion of many regulatory veterinarians responsible for the prerace examination of race horses that they wish to examine a horse without the possibility of an NSAID interfering with the examination and masking possible musculoskeletal conditions. Based on scientific studies, residual effects of PBZ remain at 24 h. The impact of sustained effect on the health and welfare of the horse and its contribution to injuries during competition remains problematic. PMID:21668837

Soma, L R; Uboh, C E; Maylin, G M

2011-06-14

273

Descriptive epidemiology of African horse sickness in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

A study of the prevalence of African horse sickness in horses was conducted, using records from two private equine practices in Harare for the period 1998-2004. Results indicated a higher prevalence of the disease in horses in Zimbabwe in the late rainy season (March - May). Age of the horse was found to be a significant risk factor, with foals or yearlings appearing to be 1.80 times more likely to contract the disease compared with horses older than two years. The case fatality rate in foals or yearlings was also higher than in older age groups, but this difference was not significant. The vaccination status was an important risk factor, with vaccinated horses 0.12 times less likely to die from the disease compared with unvaccinated horses. Young, unvaccinated horses therefore seem to be the most susceptible to the disease and have greater chances of fatality. This study highlights the importance of adequately protecting horses against African horse sickness by providing immunisation through vaccination and discusses the need to review current vaccination strategies being practiced in Zimbabwe. PMID:23718258

Gordon, Stuart; Bolwell, Charlotte; Rogers, Chris; Guthrie, Alan; Magunda, Forgivemore; Hove, Petronella

2013-05-24

274

Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment  

PubMed Central

Background Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus) in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Results Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Conclusion Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that < 30 horses used > 25 km2 of trails in our study area.

2009-01-01

275

33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone...ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description . Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible,...

2009-07-01

276

33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone...ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description . Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible,...

2010-07-01

277

9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.41 Reporting required of horse industry organizations or...

2009-01-01

278

43 CFR 4710.7 - Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled...AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.7 Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately...

2012-10-01

279

9 CFR 11.41 - Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Reporting required of horse industry organizations or associations...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.41 Reporting required of horse industry organizations or...

2010-01-01

280

19 CFR 148.32 - Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad...Residents § 148.32 Vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses taken abroad...Automobiles and other vehicles, aircraft, boats, teams and saddle horses,...

2013-04-01

281

Effect of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on rheological properties of gels from blends of chestnut and rice flours.  

PubMed

The development of high quality gluten-free products requires the understanding of the phenomena that dictate the ingredient interactions commonly used in foodstuff. In this work, the main objective was to develop alternative gluten-free gelled desserts from blends of chestnut flour (Cf) and whole (Rw), Agulha (Ra) or Carolino (Rc) rice flours. The impact of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on textural, rheological and structural properties of selected gels was investigated. Texture results indicated that studied gels in the presence of sucrose and xylitol decreased significantly the firmness. Rheological outcomes showed that the temperature ramps on heating of Cf/Rw gels were similar to those obtained for Cf/Ra, whereas Cf/Rc gels presented a particular pattern. The presence of sucrose resulted in a significant decrease in the values of storage and loss moduli. Confocal microscopic images showed that the sugar addition leads to a less aggregated structure with fracture lines well marked. PMID:23987342

Torres, M D; Raymundo, A; Sousa, I

2013-06-20

282

Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity  

PubMed Central

In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino.

Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Canon, Javier; Cortes, Oscar

2012-01-01

283

Antimicrobial resistance in commensal faecal Escherichia coli of hospitalised horses  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the impact of hospitalisation and antimicrobial drug administration on the prevalence of resistance in commensal faecal E. coli of horses. Faecal samples were collected from ten hospitalised horses treated with antimicrobials, ten hospitalised horses not treated with antimicrobials and nine non-hospitalised horses over a consecutive five day period and susceptibility testing was performed on isolated E. coli. Results revealed that hospitalisation alone was associated with increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance in commensal E. coli of horses. Due to the risk of transfer of resistance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, veterinarians need to be aware of possible resistance in commensal bacteria when treating hospitalised horses.

2010-01-01

284

Idiopathic gastroesophageal reflux disease in an adult horse.  

PubMed

Chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a 22-year-old female Tennessee Walking Horse that had signs of bruxism and ptyalism. Esophageal ulceration was detected via endoscopy. Compared with the damage to the proximal portions of the esophagus, the severity of the ulceration increased toward the gastroesophageal junction. Esophageal ulceration attributable to chronic gastric acid reflux is usually secondary to pyloric outflow obstruction in horses. In the horse of this report, there was no evidence of either a chronic pyloric or duodenal obstruction that could have resulted in esophageal ulceration. Esophageal ulceration in this horse was attributed to gastroesophageal reflux disease, a common condition in humans in which the underlying abnormality is functional incompetence of the gastroesophageal junction. Treatment is directed at decreasing gastric acidity and protecting the ulcerated mucosa. In the horse of this report, treatment was unsuccessful and the horse was euthanatized; a physical cause of gastroesophageal reflux disease was not identified during an extensive postmortem examination. PMID:15230453

Baker, Shannon J; Johnson, Philip J; David, Andrew; Cook, Cristi Reeves

2004-06-15

285

Evaluation of Calendar Year 1997 Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1997. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge bordered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) to the north, Scarboro Road to the eas~ Bethel Valley Road to the south, and an unnamed drainage basin southwest of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater quality monitoring is performed at hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities in the regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The CY 1997 monitoring data are presented in Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeolo~"c Regime at the US. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (MA Technical Services, Inc. 1998), which also presents results of site-specific monitoring data evaluations required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCIL4) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Regime

Jones, S.B.

1998-09-01

286

Evolution of Equine Influenza Virus in Vaccinated Horses  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses are characterized by their ability to evade host immunity, even in vaccinated individuals. To determine how prior immunity shapes viral diversity in vivo, we studied the intra- and interhost evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses. Although the level and structure of genetic diversity were similar to those in naïve horses, intrahost bottlenecks may be more stringent in vaccinated animals, and mutations shared among horses often fall close to putative antigenic sites.

Murcia, Pablo R.; Baillie, Gregory J.; Stack, J. Conrad; Jervis, Carley; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A.; Daly, Janet; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Holmes, Edward C.

2013-01-01

287

The Effects of Transportation on the Welfare of Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typically, horses are transported many times in their lives, this is with the exception of the horses reared for meat. Although\\u000a difficult to estimate the extent of the movement of horses worldwide, it is clear that this is a substantial and growing practice.\\u000a Until recently research into the effects of the different methods of transport (road, sea and air), was

N. Waran; D. Leadon; T. Friend

288

Experimental Infection of Horses With West Nile virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 12 horses of different breeds and ages were infected with West Nile virus (WNV) via the bites of infected Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Half the horses were infected with a viral isolate from the brain of a horse (BC787), and half were infected with an isolate from crow brain (NY99-6625); both were NY99 iso- lates. Postinfection, uninfected female

Michel L. Bunning; Richard A. Bowen; C. Bruce Cropp; Kevin G. Sullivan; Brent S. Davis; Nicholas Komar; Marvin S. Godsey; Dale Baker; Danielle L. Hettler; Derek A. Holmes; Brad J. Biggerstaff; Carl J. Mitchell

2002-01-01

289

Regulatory aspects of drug use in performance horses.  

PubMed

The control of drug use in performance horses and the policing of rules and regulations to prevent unauthorized drug use are important tasks for agencies overseeing equestrian events. This article describes the roles of the American Horse Shows Association, the Federation Equestre Internationale, and the Association of Racing Commissioners International, Inc, in the policing of drug use in horses competing in events under their control. PMID:8299009

Gowen, R R; Lengel, J G

1993-12-01

290

EFFECTS OF DIET AND CLIMATE ON GROWING HORSES 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of diet and climate were assessed in 42 light horse weanlings over 30 wk. Horses were fed diets varying in energy and phosphorus content. Diets were predominantly forage (73 to 77.5%) or concentrate (62 to 62.25%) and had 2.65 or 3.09 Mcal DE\\/kg DM, respectively. Horses were weighed every 14 d. Group feed intakes and climatic variables were

N. F. Cymbaluk; G. I. Christison

2010-01-01

291

Plasma and liver copper values in horses with equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy.  

PubMed Central

Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (EDM) is a common spinal cord disease in the horse. The etiology of EDM currently is unknown. In other species, there are similarities in the clinical signs and neuropathological changes observed in EDM and in copper deficiency. The objective of this study was to determine if horses affected with EDM had low levels of plasma or liver copper. Plasma copper values were determined in 25 EDM affected horses and 35 normal horses. Liver copper levels were determined on 13 EDM affected horses and 22 normal horses. Plasma and liver copper values were not significantly lower in EDM affected horses than in control horses.

Dill, S G; Hintz, H F; deLahunta, A; Waldron, C H

1989-01-01

292

[Occurrence of Salmonella spp. and shigatoxin-producing escherichia coli (STEC) in horse faeces and horse meat products].  

PubMed

In order to assess the relevance of horses as a possible reservoir of Salmonella and Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), 400 samples of horse faeces and 100 samples of horse meat products were examined by PCR-screening methods. Salmonella enterica was not found in any of the samples. One faeces-sample and one horse meat product were proved to be STEC positive. The STEC-strain from faecal origin belonged to the serotype 0113:H21 and had the stx 2c gene and the enterohemolysin gene. The STEC-strain isolated from a horse meat product had the serotype O87:H16 and the stx 2d gene. The results indicate a very low risk for human to get a Salmonella- or EHEC- infection from horses in Germany. PMID:16048044

Pichner, Rohtraud; Sander, Andrea; Steinrück, Hartmut; Gareis, Manfred

293

Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses.  

PubMed

Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehydrotremetone, 6-hydroxytremetone, and 3-oxyangeloyl-tremetone) are responsible for the toxicity of rayless goldenrod. However, experimental reproduction of rayless goldenrod-induced disease and detailed descriptions of poisoning in horses with known concentrations of tremetone and other BFK has not been documented. In this study four horses were fed increasing amounts of rayless goldenrod to obtain doses of approximately 0, 10, 30, and 60 mg BFK/kg BW for 14 days. After seven days of dosing the horse dosed with 60 mg BFK/kg BW horse developed depression, reluctance to eat, dehydration, trembling, and muscle fatigue. Biochemical alterations including increases in the serum enzyme activities of CK, AST, ALT, and LDH, and increased cardiac troponin I concentration, were also identified. Physiologically the clinically poisoned horse had decreased endurance seen as reluctance to perform on the treadmill with increased resting heart rate and a prolonged recovery of heart rate following treadmill exercise. The condition of the horse continued to decline and it was euthanized and necropsied on day 10. At necropsy the myocardium was pale and soft and many of the appendicular and large apical muscles were pale and moist. Histologically, the myocardium had extensive myocardial degeneration and necrosis with extensive fibrosis and multifocal mineralization. Several of the large appendicular muscles in this horse also had small foci of skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. Less severe myocardial changes were also identified in the horse dosed with 30 mg BFK/kg BW after 14 days of dosing. No clinical, biochemical or histologic changes were identified in the control horse and the horse dosed with 10 mg BFK/kg BW. These results suggest that doses of 60 mg BFK/kg BW for seven days produce extensive myocardial lesions in horses. The horse dosed with 30 mg BFK/kg BW developed less severe, but similar myocardial lesions over a longer duration, this suggests that poisoning may be cumulative and lower doses of longer duration are also toxic. Horses seem to be uniquely sensitive to rayless goldenrod-induced myocardial disease, therefore cardiac troponin I may be a useful marker of rayless goldenrod poisoning in horses. More work is needed to determine which BFK produce myocardial toxicity and better determine the effects of dose and duration on poisoning in horses. PMID:23831837

Davis, T Z; Stegelmeier, B L; Lee, S T; Green, B T; Hall, J O

2013-07-04

294

Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda

2005-01-01

295

[Ciliates from the intestine of Yakut horse (Equus caballus)].  

PubMed

Endobiotic ciliates of native Yakut horse are investigated. 57 ciliate species have been found. From 17 up to 43 species of ciliates have been revealed in each host specimen. The specimens of Alloiozona trizona Hsiung, 1930 and Triadinium caudatum Fiorentini, 1890 were present in 100 % of the horses. The endemic genus and species of allantosomides, Strelkowella urunbasiensis Kornilova, 2004, has been found in 11 horses. Allantoxena japonensis (Imai, 1979) and Cycloposthium ishikawai Gassovsky, 1919 being recorded previously in Japan only were found for the first time in Russia. The species Cycloposthium ponomarevi Kornilova, 2001 peculiar to the Turkmenistan koulan has been found in the Yakut horses. PMID:17144407

Kornilova, O A

296

Immunologically mediated ocular disease in the horse.  

PubMed

The continued study of immunology and its relationship to diseases of the eye will hopefully give some insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of certain ocular diseases of many species, including the horse. It may lead to a better understanding of equine recurrent uveitis, a disease that has remained an enigma for years and that now appears to be an immunologic hypersensitivity response to a number of varied antigens. The precise mechanism of the inflammation is still unclear, and the immunologic response may be variable or mixed depending upon the inciting antigen. Other ophthalmic diseases in the horse, such as conjunctivitis, chorioretinitis, and less well-defined entities such as superficial punctate keratitis, may also have an immunologic component in their pathogenesis. An appreciation of immunopathologic mechanisms may thus enhance the veterinarian's understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of equine ocular disease. PMID:6393544

Hines, M T

1984-11-01

297

Actinobacillus lignieresii infection in two horses.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old pregnant Norwegian Fjord horse was examined for gross swelling of the muzzle of 2 years' duration. Examination of biopsy specimens revealed diffuse dermal fibrosis, micropustule formation, and vascular thrombosis; large numbers of Actinobacillus lignieresii were isolated in pure culture. Prolonged treatment with i.v. administration of sodium iodide and oral administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole caused regression of the swelling and did not induce abortion. A 5-month-old American Paint filly was examined for swelling in the udder region. Bacteriologic culture of purulent material obtained from the left teat revealed A lignieresii. Treatment with oral administration of rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resulted in complete resolution of clinical signs. To the authors' knowledge, these findings represent the first report of mastitis and chronic nasal cellulitis caused by A lignieresii infection in horses. PMID:10496138

Carmalt, J L; Baptiste, K E; Chirino-Trejo, J M

1999-09-15

298

Somatic cell nuclear transfer in horses.  

PubMed

The cloning of equids was achieved in 2003, several years after the birth of Dolly the sheep and also after the cloning of numerous other laboratory and farm animal species. The delay was because of the limited development in the horse of more classical-assisted reproductive techniques required for successful cloning, such as oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo production. When these technologies were developed, the application of cloning also became possible and cloned horse offspring were obtained. This review summarizes the main technical procedures that are required for cloning equids and the present status of this technique. The first step is competent oocyte maturation, this is followed by oocyte enucleation and reconstruction, using either zona-enclosed or zona-free oocytes, by efficient activation to allow high cleavage rates and finally by a suitable in vitro embryo culture technique. Cloning of the first equid, a mule, was achieved using an in vivo-matured oocytes and immediate transfer of the reconstructed embryo, i.e. at the one cell stage, to the recipient oviduct. In contrast, the first horse offspring was obtained using a complete in vitro procedure from oocyte maturation to embryo culture to the blastocyst stage, followed by non-surgical transfer. Later studies on equine cloning report high efficiency relative to that for other species. Cloned equid offspring reported to date appear to be normal and those that have reached puberty have been confirmed to be fertile. In summary, horse cloning is now a reproducible technique that offers the opportunity to preserve valuable genetics and notably to generate copies of castrated champions and therefore, offspring from those champions that would be impossible to obtain otherwise. PMID:18638143

Galli, Cesare; Lagutina, Irina; Duchi, Roberto; Colleoni, Silvia; Lazzari, Giovanna

2008-07-01

299

The Trojan Horse Method in Nuclear Astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross section in nuclear reaction between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed in the non resonant reactions case. A review of applications aimed to extract the bare nucleus astrophysical S{sub b}(E) factor for two body processes are presented. The information on electron screening potential U{sub e} were obtained from comparison with direct experiments of fusion reactions.

Spitaleri, C. [Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l'Ingegneria, Catania University (Italy) and INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-Catania (Italy)

2010-11-24

300

Nutrition Assessment of HorseRacing Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes involved in horse racing face weight restrictions like wrestlers and dancers, however, the literature is sparse pertaining\\u000a to nutritional habits of jockeys. The practice of “making weight” causes these athletes to engage in potentially unhealthy\\u000a practices. A gap in nutritionally sound practices and methods used by jockeys was identified and a desire for nutrition education\\u000a was expressed to Cooperative

Nancy CotugnaO; O. Sue Snider; Jennifer Windish

2011-01-01

301

Perineal sarcoid in a Caspian miniature horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 8-year-old stallion male Caspian miniature horse was acquired by the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Islamic Azad University\\u000a from a commercial source for teaching veterinary students. One year later, during an annual health screen, a mass was noted\\u000a in the perineal region. The mass was surgically removed. Histologic examination revealed that the mass was a relatively well-demarcated,\\u000a unencapsulated neoplasm composed of

Mehdi Sakha; Saeed Ozmaie; Iraj Sohrabi-Haghdoost; Pejman Mortazavi; Alireza Jahandideh; Mehrdad Ameri

302

The action of cyanogen bromide on horse-heart cytochrome c and horse-heart myoglobin  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of cyanogen bromide on horse-heart cytochrome c and horse-heart myoglobin have been investigated. Cytochrome c yielded four fragments, of which two were haemopeptides. The two colourless peptides had amino acid compositions corresponding to those that are expected, on the basis of the sequence proposed for horse-heart cytochrome c by Margoliash, Smith, Kreil & Tuppy (1961), from cleavage at both methionine residues. Of the two haemopeptides, one was isolated and shown to be that derived from cleavage at only one methionine residue, that nearer to the C-terminus of the peptide chain. 2. Myoglobin also gave four peptides, three of which accounted for the total amino acid content of the intact protein. The fourth fragment arose by cleavage at a single methionine residue, that nearer the C-terminus. Characterization of this fourth fragment made it possible to deduce the order of arrangement of the fragments in the intact molecule.

Black, J. A.; Leaf, G.

1965-01-01

303

Multicentric mast cell tumors in a horse.  

PubMed

A 6-year-old female Rocky Mountain horse was presented for evaluation of draining tracts and distal limb subcutaneous edema on the left front and left hind limbs that had been present for 2 weeks. Direct smears of fluid collected by fine-needle aspiration of subcutaneous fluid from both limbs were highly cellular with a predominance of eosinophils accompanied by numerous, moderately atypical, variably granulated mast cells. The cytologic diagnosis was mast cell tumor (MCT) with prominent eosinophilic infiltration with a differential diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma. Histologic evaluation of surgical biopsies of lesions from both limbs was performed on sections stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and Luna stains. The histologic diagnosis was MCT, and staining with toluidine blue and Luna stains confirmed the presence of mast cells and eosinophils, respectively. In addition, the mast cells strongly expressed CD117. This is the first reported case of cutaneous mast cell neoplasia in a horse in which primary presenting complaints were draining tracts and distal limb subcutaneous edema involving multiple limbs. This case illustrates the utility of staining for CD117 expression in combination with traditional stains, such as toluidine blue and Luna, in differentiating MCTs from other eosinophilic lesions in horses. PMID:20412546

Millward, Laurie M; Hamberg, Alex; Mathews, Jennifer; Machado-Parrula, Cecilia; Premanandan, Christopher; Hurcombe, Samuel D A; Radin, M Judith; Wellman, Maxey L

2010-09-01

304

Differential outcome effect in the horse.  

PubMed Central

Three horses were trained with a discrimination task in which the color (blue or yellow) of a center panel signaled the correct (left or right) response (lever press). Reinforcing outcomes for the two correct color-position combinations (blue-left and yellow-right) were varied across phases. Discrimination performance was better when the combinations were differentially reinforced by two types of food (chopped carrot pieces and a solid food pellet) than when the combinations were randomly reinforced by these outcomes or when there was a common reinforcer for each of the correct combinations. However, the discrimination performance established by the differential outcome procedure was still 80% to 90% correct, and an analysis of two-trial sequences revealed that the stimulus color of the preceding trial interfered with discrimination performance on a given trial. Our demonstration of the differential outcome effect in the horse and its further analysis might contribute to more efficient control of equine behavior in the laboratory as well as in horse sports.

Miyashita, Y; Nakajima, S; Imada, H

2000-01-01

305

Assessment of electron beam-induced DNA damage in larvae of chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using comet assay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of electron beam treatment on DNA damage in mature larvae of chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) was assessed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet assay). Electrons at acceleration voltages of 0 (control), 300, 750, 1000, and 1500 kV at radiation doses of 1 and 4 kGy were used. Electron beam-treated chestnut larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation, compared with cells from non-treated ones which showed a more intact DNA. Investigations using the comet assay showed that the parameters including tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment as well as the quota of DNA damage at both the doses were significantly larger than the control batch larvae. Thus, this technique could contribute to analytical identification of an effective disinfestation and quarantine treatment.

Todoriki, Setsuko; Hasan, Mahbub; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Hayashi, Toru

2006-02-01

306

Extraction of high quality of RNA and construction of a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library from chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).  

PubMed

Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a rare fruit crop of promising economical importance in fruit and ornamental exploitation in China. Isolation of high quality RNA from chestnut rose is difficult due to its high levels of polyphenols, polysaccharides and other compounds, but a modified CTAB extraction procedure without phenol gave satisfactory results. High concentrations of PVP (2%, w/v), CTAB (2%, w/v) and beta-mercaptoethanol (4%, v/v) were used in the extraction buffer to improve RNA quality. The average yield was about 200 microg RNA g(-1) fresh leaves. The isolated RNA was of sufficient quality for construction of suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) library, which allowed the isolation of several pathogen-induced defense genes. PMID:16614897

Xu, Qiang; Wen, Xiaopeng; Tao, Nengguo; Hu, Zhiyong; Yue, Hailin; Deng, Xiuxin

2006-04-01

307

Corneal cross-linking in 9 horses with ulcerative keratitis  

PubMed Central

Background Corneal ulcers are one of the most common eye problems in the horse and can cause varying degrees of visual impairment. Secondary infection and protease activity causing melting of the corneal stroma are always concerns in patients with corneal ulcers. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), induced by illumination of the corneal stroma with ultraviolet light (UVA) after instillation of riboflavin (vitamin B2) eye drops, introduces crosslinks which stabilize melting corneas, and has been used to successfully treat infectious ulcerative keratitis in human patients. Therefore we decided to study if CXL can be performed in sedated, standing horses with ulcerative keratitis with or without stromal melting. Results Nine horses, aged 1 month to 16 years (median 5 years) were treated with a combination of CXL and medical therapy. Two horses were diagnosed with mycotic, 5 with bacterial and 2 with aseptic ulcerative keratitis. A modified Dresden-protocol for CXL could readily be performed in all 9 horses after sedation. Stromal melting, diagnosed in 4 horses, stopped within 24 h. Eight of nine eyes became fluorescein negative in 13.5 days (median time; range 4–26 days) days after CXL. One horse developed a bacterial conjunctivitis the day after CXL, which was successfully treated with topical antibiotics. One horse with fungal ulcerative keratitis and severe uveitis was enucleated 4 days after treatment due to panophthalmitis. Conclusions CXL can be performed in standing, sedated horses. We did not observe any deleterious effects attributed to riboflavin or UVA irradiation per se during the follow-up, neither in horses with infectious nor aseptic ulcerative keratitis. These data support that CXL can be performed in the standing horse, but further studies are required to compare CXL to conventional medical treatment in equine keratitis and to optimize the CXL protocol in this species.

2013-01-01

308

Assessment of the living and total biomass of microbial communities in the background chestnut soil and in the paleosols under burial mounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contents of phospholipids and carbon of the total microbial biomass were determined in the modern chestnut soil and in the paleosols buried under mounds of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages (5000-1800 years ago) in the dry steppe of the Lower Volga River basin. Judging from data on the ratio between the contents of phospholipids and organic carbon in the microbial cells, the carbon content of the living microbial biomass was calculated and compared with the total microbial biomass and total organic carbon in the studied soils. In the background chestnut soil, the content of phospholipids in the A1, B1, and B2 horizons amounted to 452, 205, and 189 nmol/g, respectively; in the paleosols, it was 28-130% of the present-day level. The maximum content was measured in the paleosols buried 5000 and 2000 years ago, in the periods with an increased humidity of the climate. In the background chestnut soil, the total microbial biomass was estimated at 5680 (the A1 horizon), 3380 (B1), and 4250 (B2) ?g C/g; in the paleosols, it was by 2.5-7.0 times lower. In the upper horizons of the background soil, the portion of the living microbial biomass in the total biomass was much less than that in the paleosols under the burial mounds; it varied within 8.5-15.3% and 15-81%, respectively. The portion of living microbial biomass in the total organic carbon content of the background chestnut soil was about 4-8%. In the paleosols buried in the Early Iron Age (2000 and 1800 years ago), this value did not exceed 3-8%; in the paleosols of the Bronze Age (5000-4000 years ago), it reached 40% of the total organic carbon.

Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkin, V. A.

2011-12-01

309

Chestnut ( Castanea crenata) inner shell extract inhibits development of hepatic steatosis in C57BL\\/6 mice fed a high-fat diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chestnut inner shell extract (CISE) on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) were evaluated. Hepatic triacylglycerol and plasma lipid levels decreased significantly in CISE-administered mice compared to control group. Relative mRNA expression levels for lipogenic genes SREBP-1c, FAS, ACCs, ACAT, and HMG-CoA were significantly decreased in CISE-administered mice (P<0.05). CISE suppressed FAS

Jung-Ran Noh; Yong-Hoon Kim; Gil-Tae Gang; Keum-Jin Yang; Hyun-Sun Lee; Phi Hung Nguyen; Won-Keun Oh; Kyung-Sik Song; Chul-Ho Lee

2010-01-01

310

Synthesis and characterisation of laboratory-charred grass straw ( Oryza sativa) and chestnut wood ( Castanea sativa) as reference materials for black carbon quantification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We synthesised large (?2kg) quantities of two chars for use as commercially available reference materials for the quantification of black carbon (BC). We pyrolysed chestnut wood (Castanea sativa) and grass straw (Oryza sativa) at 450°C under a N2 atmosphere, which mimics the oxygen-free conditions on the inside of burning material at a moderate burning temperature. The charred materials were dominated

Karen Hammes; Ronald J. Smernik; Jan O. Skjemstad; Andreas Herzog; Ulrich F. Vogt; Michael W. I. Schmidt

2006-01-01

311

DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE CASTAÑA EN MEDIOS ESTÁTICOS Y DINÁMICOS DE SAL, SACAROSA Y GLUCOSA OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF CHESTNUT USING STATIC AND DYNAMIC MEDIA OF SALT, SUCROSE AND GLUCOSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chestnut fruits were submitted to osmotic dehydration in sodium chloride (17, 22, 26.5% w\\/w), sucrose (40, 50, 60% w\\/w) and glucose (40, 50, 56.5% w\\/w) solutions at different stirring rates (0, 40, 110 rpm) and periods of time (1, 2, 4, 8 h) at 20°C. The effect of temperature (50°C) was studied in the case of samples dehydrated with glucose

F. Chenlo; R. Moreira; M. D. Torres; J. Ferra

2008-01-01

312

Cloning of two classes of PR genes and the development of SNAP markers for powdery mildew resistance loci in chestnut rose ( Rosa roxburghii Tratt)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenesis-related (PR) genes were isolated from chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) using a PCR approach with degenerate primers designed for the conserved regions of two PR gene families: class 2 (?-1,3-glucanase)\\u000a and class 5 (osmotin). Thirteen PR2 and ten PR5 genes were obtained, with a nucleotide identity that ranged from 40.1 to 99.7%\\u000a and from 99.2 to 99.8%, respectively. Sequence

Qiang Xu; Xiaopeng Wen; Xiuxin Deng

2007-01-01

313

Effect of the inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured "Lacón" from Celta pig breed.  

PubMed

The effect of the finishing diet on the volatile compounds throughout the manufacture of dry-cured "lacón" (a Spanish traditional meat product), from the Celta pig breed was studied. Thirty-six pigs were separated into three groups according to the type of feeding during the finish-fattening period of three months (concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut). From the pigs of each diet, four batches of dry-cured "lacón" were manufactured. From each batch, samples of fresh meat, meat after salting, after post-salting, and after 14, 28, 56 and 84days of drying-ripening were taken. Volatiles were extracted by a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seventy-six volatile compounds were identified and quantified from dry-cured "lacón" samples in pigs finished with chestnut, eighty-two for concentrate fed pigs and eighty in pigs fed with the mixed diet. The number of identified volatile compounds increased during the manufacturing process; at 84days of drying-ripening, in the dry-cured "lacón" samples from pigs finished with concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut, 54, 58 and 62 volatile compounds were detected, respectively. The most abundant group of flavour compounds at the end of the manufacturing process was hydrocarbons in the three feeding systems, followed by aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Discriminant analysis selected six variables (dodecane, butadienol, pentenol, 2-pentenal, decen-3-ona and pyridine-2-methyl) and calculated two discriminating functions which allowed verification of chestnut in the finishing diet. PMID:23911930

Lorenzo, José M; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier

2013-07-17

314

Effect of sweet chestnut tannin (SCT) on the performance, microbial status of intestine and histological characteristics of intestine wall in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?In experiments carried out with 950 one-day-old male chickens, the effect of tannin supplementation (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg\\/kg) on performance, microbial status of chickens small intestine and colon of 28- and 41-d-old chickens, as well as histological changes of jejunum walls at 41 d and carcase quality were determined.2.?Application of 250 or 500 mg of sweet chestnut tannin

D. Jamroz; A. Wiliczkiewicz; J. Skorupi?ska; J. Orda; J. Kuryszko; H. Tschirch

2009-01-01

315

Suspected systemic calcinosis and calciphylaxis in 5 horses  

PubMed Central

Five horses were presented with signs of myopathy along with systemic malaise, hyperfibrinogenemia, hyperphosphatemia, and an elevated calcium phosphorus product (Ca*P). Postmortem findings were consistent with systemic calcinosis, a syndrome of calcium deposition in the tissue of organs including lungs, kidneys, muscle, and heart that has not been previously described in horses.

Tan, Jean-Yin; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Sebastian, Manu M.; Davis, Gordon D.; Kelly, Jenny R.; Goehring, Lutz S.; Harland, Malte M.; Kuebelbeck, K. Leann; Waldridge, Bryan M.; Newton, Joseph C.; Reimer, Johanna M.

2010-01-01

316

Caudal vena cava thrombosis-like syndrome in a horse  

PubMed Central

A 9-year-old Quarter horse was presented for chronic refractory pneumonia. On necropsy, an hepatic abscess, caudal vena cava thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, and embolic pneumonia were identified. Similar lesions have been reported in cattle as caudal vena cava thrombosis syndrome, however this syndrome has not previously been reported in horses.

Schoster, Angelika; Anderson, Maureen E.C.

2010-01-01

317

From kids and horses: Equine facilitated psychotherapy for children1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine facilitated psychotherapy is a developing form of animal assisted therapy, which primarily incorporates human interaction with horses as guides. The behavior of a sensitive horse, provides a vehicle by which the therapist can use to teach the patient coping skills. This theoretical study is present to reader our opinion, about the main considerations of equine facilitated psychotherapy for children.

Eugenio Quiroz Rothe; Beatriz Jiménez Vega; Rafael Mazo Torres; Silvia María; Campos Soler; Rosa María; Molina Pazos

2005-01-01

318

Fusobacterium equinum sp. nov., from the oral cavity of horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the genus Fusobacterium are amongst a mixed facultative and anaerobic bacterial flora that may be isolated from the normal oral cavity as well as from oral-associated diseases of horses (Bailey & Love, 1991) and from a variety of other soft-tissue infections of humans and other animals. Respiratory tract infections of horses, including necrotizing pneumonia and pleurisy, are commonly

Matthias Dorsch; Daria N. Love; Graham D. Bailey

319

The Animal Other: Horse Training in Early Modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This historical sociological analysis of the training of horses for competition in early modernity draws from the sociology of the body to suggest that animals as we know them are constructed through human social processes. Contemporary horse-care publications are used to demonstrate how equine bodies were shaped through an application of humoral physiological theory. That is, they were made suitable

Peter Mewett

2008-01-01

320

Welfare issues of horses: an overview and practical recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The largest proportion of the world's horses are still used for work in agriculture and traction, however in the western countries they are increasingly kept for recreational and social purposes, breeding, sport and com - petition. It is often assumed that horses enjoys better farming conditions than other species, yet they have specific needs which should be fulfilled in order

Michela Minero; Elisabetta Canali

2010-01-01

321

Ethical equitation: Capping the price horses pay for human glory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical equitation is nowadays coming into sharp focus in equestrian culture. Concerns surround the ethics of sports based on controlling an animal's locomotory responses and in using animals such as horses in sport in general. Anthropomorphically labeled misinterpretations of the responses of trained horses, such as the use of terms like “mad,” “lazy,” “keen,” and “stubborn,” may be detrimental to

Andrew N. McLean; Paul D. McGreevy

2010-01-01

322

Inheritance of racing performance of trotter horses: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harness racing is a form of horseracing in which the horses race in a specified gait (trot or pace). In contrast to the Thoroughbred, the trotter is not an international breed. In this type, the horses are raced with trotting or pacing gait. Breeds specialized for racing at trot or pace are indigenous to many countries. Separate breeds of light

A. K. Thiruvenkadan; N. Kandasamy; S. Panneerselvam

2009-01-01

323

Treatment in the field of 27 horses with epiglottic entrapment.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven horses were treated for epiglottic entrapment by using an oral, hand-assisted bistoury knife technique, under general anaesthesia; 26 of them returned successfully to racing, but one developed a permanently displaced soft palate. After the surgery 13 of the horses had an increased handicap rating and 13 had a decreased rating. PMID:17693627

Russell, T; Wainscott, M

2007-08-11

324

Mitochondrial DNA and the origins of the domestic horse  

PubMed Central

The place and date of the domestication of the horse has long been a matter for debate among archaeologists. To determine whether horses were domesticated from one or several ancestral horse populations, we sequenced the mitochondrial D-loop for 318 horses from 25 oriental and European breeds, including American mustangs. Adding these sequences to previously published data, the total comes to 652, the largest currently available database. From these sequences, a phylogenetic network was constructed that showed that most of the 93 different mitochondrial (mt)DNA types grouped into 17 distinct phylogenetic clusters. Several of the clusters correspond to breeds and/or geographic areas, notably cluster A2, which is specific to Przewalski's horses, cluster C1, which is distinctive for northern European ponies, and cluster D1, which is well represented in Iberian and northwest African breeds. A consideration of the horse mtDNA mutation rate together with the archaeological timeframe for domestication requires at least 77 successfully breeding mares recruited from the wild. The extensive genetic diversity of these 77 ancestral mares leads us to conclude that several distinct horse populations were involved in the domestication of the horse.

Jansen, Thomas; Forster, Peter; Levine, Marsha A.; Oelke, Hardy; Hurles, Matthew; Renfrew, Colin; Weber, Jurgen; Olek, Klaus

2002-01-01

325

4. West and south elevations of the horse pasture store, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. West and south elevations of the horse pasture store, looking northeast; a "Greenhouse" structure can be seen extending to the west of the store at the left of the view - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

326

5. East and north (rear) elevations of the horse pasture ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. East and north (rear) elevations of the horse pasture store, looking southwest; the store's two outbuildings can ben seen at the right of the view - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

327

2. Overall view of the horse pasture store from the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Overall view of the horse pasture store from the east; U.S. Highway 58 runs from left to right across the view, while Route 687 rices into the distance at the left - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

328

Equine Recurrent Uveitis – A Spontaneous Horse Model of Uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is an autoimmune disease that occurs with a high prevalence (10%) in horses. ERU represents the only reliable spontaneous model for human autoimmune uveitis. We already identified and characterized novel autoantigens (malate dehydrogenase, recoverin, CRALBP) by analyzing the autoantibody-binding pattern of horses affected by spontaneous recurrent uveitis (ERU) to the retinal proteome. CRALBP also seems to

Cornelia A. Deeg; Stefanie M. Hauck; Barbara Amann; Dirk Pompetzki; Frank Altmann; Albert Raith; Thomas Schmalzl; Manfred Stangassinger; Marius Ueffing

2008-01-01

329

Immunopathology of Recurrent Uveitis in Spontaneously Diseased Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is the most serious eye disease in horses worldwide. Despite the fact that ERU is generally considered to be immune mediated, a detailed description of the histopathology of the posterior part of ERU eyes is lacking. Here, we examined sections of paraffin-embedded eyes using histological and immunhistological methods. Twenty seven eyes of 20 horses with ERU

C. A. Deeg; M. Ehrenhofer; S. R. Thurau; S. Reese; G. Wildner; B. Kaspers

2002-01-01

330

36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002.16 Section 1002.16 Parks...RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as...

2012-07-01

331

36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002.16 Section 1002.16 Parks...RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as...

2011-07-01

332

Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski's…

Milton, John R.

333

The Demand for Parimutuel Horse Race Wagering and Attendance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a long history of patron participation in parimutuel horse race wagering and attendance, which are major recreational products in consumer budgets. In this paper, the demand for parimutuel horse race wagering and attendance has been specified and estimated for both Thoroughbred and Standardbred racetracks in a multistate market area. The data are annual over the period 1960--1987.

Richard Thalheimer; Mukhtar M. Ali

1995-01-01

334

Subclinical leptospirosis may impair athletic performance in racing horses.  

PubMed

The infection by Leptospira in horses, in both its acute disease and subclinical forms, is very common, particularly in endemic regions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of subclinical leptospirosis in the athletic performance of racing thoroughbred horses. Athletic performance of 119 racing Thoroughbred horses from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was calculated by assigning a point value for the results in racing (performance index (PI)), and serology for leptospirosis was conducted. A total of 85 (71.4 %) horses showed reactive titers (? 100), and of which 52 had high titers (34 with 400 and 18 with ? 800). Although those animals had high titers against Leptospira, no clinical signs associated with leptospirosis were observed. Seventeen (89.5 %) out of the 19 horses with substandard performance were seroreactive with high titers, in contrast with 35 % of seroreactivity in horses with good athletic performance (P < 0.0001). Additionally, seroreactivity to leptospirosis was more often observed in horses with substandard athletic performance in contrast to those with good performance (P < 0.0001, odds ratio 15.8). The Average PI of this group increased to 133 % after treatment (P < 0.0001). Leptospirosis may impair performance in racing horses, and antibiotic therapy may improve the performance of affected animals. PMID:22547110

Hamond, Camila; Martins, Gabriel; Lilenbaum, Walter

2012-05-02

335

Adapting to failure: The case of horse race gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exemplifying Goffman's concern with adaptation to failure (cooling the mark), the researcher delineates the strategies used by horse race gamblers to deal with the consequences of monetary losses. Although racing attracts a large number of regular participants, little is known of their adaptations to the stark reality that ninety-five percent of horse players lose money from gambling. Analysis of participant

John Rosecrance

1986-01-01

336

A Comparison of Weight Estimation Methods in Adult Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight tapes and body weight estimation formulas are routinely used to determine the body weight of a horse when a scale is not available. The established formula to estimate body weight in mature horses is weight (kg) = (heartgirth2 ×body length)\\/(11,880 cm3). Two variations of the body length measurement have been used, measuring distance from the point of the shoulder

Elizabeth L. Wagner; Patricia J. Tyler

337

Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race.  

PubMed

We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities. PMID:22547844

Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M

2011-11-01

338

5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ARE AT CENTER AND CONCRETE TOWER LINES. AGGREGATE OPERATION IS VISIBLE ABOVE CONSTRUCTION SITE July 22, 1926 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

339

An overview of breeding objectives for warmblood sport horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to review the current breeding objectives of organisations that run a selection programme for warmblood riding horses in the light of an increasing trend in trade of semen across countries. In a questionnaire, 19 horse breeding organisations provided information on breeding objective traits. Variation both in length and amount of details used to define

E. P. C. Koenen; L. I. Aldridge; J. Philipsson

2004-01-01

340

Laterality of horses associated with emotionality in novel situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have established that lateral biases are characteristic of visual behaviour in 65 horses. Two breeds, Trotters and French Saddlebreds aged 2 to 3, were tested on a novel object test. The main finding was a significant correlation between emotionality index and the eye preferred to view the novel stimulus: the higher the emotionality, the more likely that the horse

Claire Larose; Marie-Annick Richard-Yris; Martine Hausberger; Lesley J. Rogers

2006-01-01

341

Prepurchase evaluation of horses: 134 cases (1988-1990).  

PubMed

To quantify some components of prepurchase evaluations in horses, records from 134 evaluations performed during a 2-year period were reviewed and the outcome was determined via telephone follow-up interview. Sixty-two percent of the prepurchase evaluations had been performed at the clinic and 38% had been performed in the field by the ambulatory service. All evaluations included physical and lameness examinations, whereas radiography (49%), endoscopy (15%), nerve blocking (5%), transrectal palpation (3%), hematologic analysis (2%), electrocardiography (2%), drug testing for analgesic agents (2%), and ultrasonography of the flexor tendons (1%) were not always performed. Fifty-nine percent of horses evaluated at the clinic were radiographed, compared with 33% of horses evaluated in the field (P less than 0.05). Thirty-seven percent of horses evaluated were judged serviceable for their intended use. Thirty-five percent of horses evaluated at the clinic were assessed to be serviceable, compared with 41% of those evaluated in the field (P less than 0.05). Horses used for pleasure riding (48%) tended to be considered serviceable more often than horses used for more athletic endeavors (3-day eventing, 33%; hunter/jumper, 24%; show, 31%; dressage, 30%). The most common basis for finding a horse unserviceable was lameness (88%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1429136

Dart, A J; Snyder, J R; Pascoe, J R; Meagher, D M; Wilson, W D

1992-10-01

342

Reliability of an injury scoring system for horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The risk of injuries is of major concern when keeping horses in groups and there is a need for a system to record external injuries in a standardised and simple way. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop and validate a system for injury recording in horses and to test its reliability and feasibility under field conditions.

Cecilie M Mejdell; Grete HM Jørgensen; Therese Rehn; Kjersti Fremstad; Linda Keeling; Knut E Bøe

2010-01-01

343

Helicobacter species and gastric ulceration in horses: a clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to gather more clinical information about the relationship between Helico- bacter species and gastric ulceration in horses. Twenty seven privately owned patients were selected for the clinical study. All horses were gastroscopically examined and biopsies were taken from the glandular mucosa. Stomach biopsies were examined using a PCR assay specific for Helicobacter pylori and\\/or

B. Bezdekova; J. Futas

344

Investigation of Deaths of Horses at Orr Springs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigation of the wild horse deaths in the Orr springs area of Dugway Proving Ground led to the following information: The weather had been exceptionally hot and dry prior to, and during, the incident. The water hole at Orr Springs used by the horses h...

L. L. Salomon

1976-01-01

345

Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race  

PubMed Central

We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities.

Trigo, Pablo; Munoz, Ana; Castejon, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M.

2011-01-01

346

Kinematics of side and cross circles on pommel horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most fundamental skills on the pommel horse is double leg circles (circles). Circles can be performed on all parts of the pommel horse. It was hypothesized that the different sets of physical constraints of the apparatus require a gymnast to adapt circles technique. The purpose of this study was to quantify how gymnasts modify their technique during

Toshiyuki Fujihara; Pierre Gervais

2010-01-01

347

Influenza Virus Transmission from Horses to Dogs, Australia  

PubMed Central

During the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia, respiratory disease in dogs in close contact with infected horses was noted; influenza (H3N8) virus infection was confirmed. Nucleotide sequence of the virus from dogs was identical to that from horses. No evidence of dog-to-dog transmission or virus persistence in dogs was found.

Finlaison, Deborah S.; Crispe, Ellie; Hurt, Aeron C.

2010-01-01

348

Inbreeding in captive bred Przewalski horses from local populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study were to estimate the inbreeding level in the population of captive bred Przewalski horses and its changes over time in the biggest conservation centers. The data of 2935 horses extracted from the Studbooks were considered. The average inbreeding coefficient was equal to 9.4%. In general, the inbreeding level decreased over the analyzed period. Average percentage

Anna WOLC; Martyna JOZWIAKOWSKA-NITKA; Tomasz SZWACZKOWSKI

349

9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...been possible to determine, they have not been exposed to any such disease common to animals of their kind during the preceding 60 days, and if the horses are shipped by rail or truck, the certificate shall further specify that the horses...

2013-01-01

350

‘High Horses’ – Horses, Class and SocioEconomic Change in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines an aspect of the growth of an Afrikaner bourgeoisie in the platteland through the ‘things’ they desired. It discusses the introduction of the American Saddlebred horse from the USA, to the agrarian sectors of the then Cape Province and Orange Free State. Analysis of breed discourse affords us insights into the role of status symbols, the socio-economic

Sandra Swart

2008-01-01

351

Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training.  

PubMed

Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inexperienced) police horses during police training. Horses were evaluated during four test settings at three time points over a 7-week period: outdoor track test, street track test, indoor arena test and smoke machine test. Heart rate (HR; beats/min), HR variability (HRV; root means square of successive differences; ms), behavior score (BS; scores 0 to 5) and standard police performance score (PPS; scores 1 to 0) were obtained per test. All data were statistically evaluated using a linear mixed model (Akaike's Information criterium; t > 2.00) or logistic regression (P < 0.05). HR of horses was increased at indoor arena test (98 ± 26) and smoke machine test (107 ± 25) compared with outdoor track (80 ± 12, t = 2.83 and t = 3.91, respectively) and street track tests (81 ± 14, t = 2.48 and t = 3.52, respectively). HRV of horses at the indoor arena test (42.4 ± 50.2) was significantly lower compared with street track test (85.7 ± 94.3 and t = 2.78). BS did not show significant differences between tests and HR of horses was not always correlated with the observed moderate behavioral responses. HR, HRV, PPS and BS did not differ between repetition of tests and there were no significant differences in any of the four tests between experienced and inexperienced horses. No habituation occurred during the test weeks, and experience as a police horse does not seem to be a key factor in how these horses handle stress. All horses showed only modest behavioral responses, and HR may provide complimentary information for individual evaluation and welfare assessment of these horses. Overall, little evidence of stress was observed during these police training tests. As three of these tests (excluding the indoor arena test) reflect normal police work, it is suggested that this kind of police work is not significantly stressful for horses and will have no negative impact on the horse's welfare. PMID:23244508

Munsters, C C B M; Visser, E K; van den Broek, J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

2012-12-17

352

Coordination Dynamics of the Horse~Rider System  

PubMed Central

The authors studied the interaction between rider and horse by measuring their ensemble motions in a trot sequence, comparing 1 expert and 1 novice rider. Whereas the novice’s movements displayed transient departures from phase synchrony, the expert’s motions were continuously phase-matched with those of the horse. The tight ensemble synchrony between the expert and the horse was accompanied by an increase in the temporal regularity of the oscillations of the trunk of the horse. Observed differences between expert and novice riders indicated that phase synchronization is by no means perfect but requires extended practice. Points of contact between horse and rider may haptically convey effective communication between them.

Lagarde, J.; Peham, C.; Licka, T.; Kelso, J. A. S.

2007-01-01

353

Field evaluation of moxidectin/praziquantel oral gel in horses.  

PubMed

The safety and efficacy of 2% moxidectin/12.5% praziquantel oral gel administered at a rate of 0.4 mg moxidectin and 2.5 mg praziquantel/kg was studied in client-owned horses under field use conditions. Four hundred horses (300 treated with moxidectin/praziquantel oral gel and 100 treated with vehicle) were enrolled, feces were collected, and eggs were counted. Investigators as well as horse owners were masked to treatment assignment. No adverse reactions to treatment were observed in any horses. Moxidectin/praziquantel gel reduced Anoplocephala spp by more than 99% and provided a significant (P <.05) reduction (> 98%) in the strongyle egg count of treated horses. PMID:15136986

Grubbs, Steven T; Amodie, Debbie; Rulli, Dino; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan; Reinemeyer, Craig; Yazwinski, Tom; Tucker, Chris; Hutchens, Doug; Smith, Larry; Patterson, Deborah

2003-01-01

354

Estimates of longevity and causes of culling and death in Swedish warmblood and coldblood horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on several different horse populations were analysed and compared regarding length of life and diseases or injuries leading to death or culling. In order to include information for horses still alive, a failure time (survival) analysis was used. The first material included 1847 warmblood horses born between 1968 and 1982, that had participated in the Swedish Riding Horse Quality

Lena Wallin; Erling Strandberg; Jan Philipsson; Göran Dalin

2000-01-01

355

Ocular findings in quarter horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to compare ocular structures of Quarter Horses homozygous for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) with those of Quarter Horses not affected by HERDA (control horses) and to determine the frequency of new corneal ulcers for horses with and without HERDA ...

356

Indiana 4-H Horse and Pony adult volunteers' valuation of equine welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the value that Indiana 4-H Horse and Pony adult volunteers place on skills that reflect aspects of equine well-being. In order to promote horse welfare through practice, the underlying perceptional attitudes about horse welfare must first be gleaned from industry participants. Because the 4-H Horse and Pony program functions as an

Natalie M Rappaport

2009-01-01

357

Concepts, scientific bases, structure and validation of the French horse net energy system (UFC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The French horse net energy (NE) system is based on energy utilization for maintenance and work, as maintenance accounts for 50–90% of total energy requirements of horses. The NE value of feeds was computed from their digestible energy (DE) content as determined in horses, the ratio between metabolizable energy (ME) and DE as measured in horses and the efficiency of

M. Vermorel; W. Martin-Rosset

1997-01-01

358

Ancient DNA provides new insights into the origin of the Chinese domestic horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic horses played a pivotal role in ancient China, but their exact origin remains controversial. To investigate the origin of Chinese domestic horses, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 35 horse remains, aged between 4000 and 2000 years, excavated from nine archaeological sites in northern China. The Chinese ancient horses exhibited high matrilineal diversity, falling into all the seven haplogroups

Dawei Cai; Zhuowei Tang; Lu Han; Camilla F. Speller; Dongya Y. Yang; Xiaolin Ma; Jian'en Cao; Hong Zhu; Hui Zhou

2009-01-01

359

9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the West Indies. 93.320 Section...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from...

2010-01-01

360

9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the West Indies. 93.320 Section...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from...

2009-01-01

361

The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

The study of energy production and nucleosynthesis in stars requires an increasingly precise knowledge of the nuclear reaction rates at the energies of interest. To overcome the experimental difficulties arising from the small cross sections at those energies and from the presence of the electron screening, the Trojan Horse Method has been introduced. The method provides a valid alternative path to measure unscreened low-energy cross sections of reactions between charged particles, and to retrieve information on the electron screening potential when ultra-low energy direct measurements are available.

Spitaleri, C., E-mail: spitaleri@lns.infn.it [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute (United States); Blokhintsev, L. D. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Cognata, M. La [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Pizzone, R. G.; Tumino, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy)

2011-12-15

362

latrogenic lipoid pneumonia in an adult horse.  

PubMed

A 20-year-old gelding presented with a history of acute respiratory distress which began immediately after administration of a mineral oil and water mix, via nasogastric intubation, for treatment of suspected gastrointestinal dysfunction. An initial presumptive diagnosis of acute lipoid pneumonia was made; this was further supported by evidence of arterial hypoxaemia and oxygen desaturation on arterial blood gas analysis, ultrasonographic signs of bilateral ventral lung consolidation and a mixed bronchoalveolar-interstitial lung pattern seen on thoracic radiographs. Despite intensive supportive therapy the horse's condition continued to deteriorate and the decision was made for humane euthanasia. Gross necropsy findings supported the clinical diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia. PMID:21851746

Metcalfe, Lucy; Cummins, Carolyn; Maischberger, Eva; Katz, Lisa

2010-05-01

363

A Trojan Horse for Parkinson's Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pathogenic mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are common genetic causes of late-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). Initial studies indicated that the intrinsic kinase activity of LRRK2 is associated with LRRK2-mediated PD pathogenesis. However, LRRK2 kinase activity may be dispensable for neuron survival and may not be required for its protective activity against neurotoxicity. Thus, the intrinsic kinase activity of LRRK2 appears to be a Trojan horse for PD, and inhibition of its kinase activity could potentially be therapeutically beneficial.

Youren Tong (Harvard Medical School;Brigham and Women's Hospital REV); Yi Hu (Harvard Medical School;Brigham and Women's Hospital REV)

2010-04-06

364

Trema micrantha toxicity in horses in Brazil.  

PubMed

After ingesting green leaves of T. micrantha, 2 horses showed apathy, locomotor deficit, blindness, recumbency, paddling, coma and death. The main gross findings were scattered haemorrhages, enhanced lobular pattern of the liver, and cerebral oedema. Histological changes included disseminated haemorrhages, massive hepatocellular necrosis, neuronal degeneration, Alzheimer type II astrocytes and cerebral perivascular oedema. Clinicopathological findings which were comparable with those observed in Trema micrantha poisoned ruminants, associated with epidemiological evidence suggested the diagnosis.Trema micrantha poisoning should be evaluated as a possible cause in the diagnosis of equine hepatopathy and occasional secondary encephalopathy. PMID:20636784

Bandarra, P M; Pavarini, S P; Raymundo, D L; Corrêa, A M R; Pedroso, P M O; Driemeier, D

2010-07-01

365

Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint affected with septic arthritis in 8 horses.  

PubMed Central

Arthrodesis was performed to treat septic arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of 8 horses. Records of the horses were reviewed to determine outcome and possible factors that influenced success or failure. All horses were female. Seven horses had 1 joint treated and 1 horse was treated for bilateral pelvic limb involvement. The duration of sepsis before surgery ranged from 1 to 66 days. Bone lysis and production was radiographically apparent in 7 horses before surgery. Six horses had multiple bacterial organisms cultured from bone or synovial tissues; 2 horses had single isolates identified. After aggressive curettage, arthrodesis was accomplished with 3 parallel screws in 1 horse, 2 divergent narrow dynamic compression plates in 3 horses, and a single broad dynamic compression plate in 4 horses. Casts were applied to all horses for 1 to 6 weeks. Four horses survived to successful brood mare status. Four horses were euthanized during hospitalization because of continued discomfort or complications of sepsis. Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint affected with septic arthritis appears to be an acceptable alternative to euthanasia for some horses. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4.

Groom, L J; Gaughan, E M; Lillich, J D; Valentino, L W

2000-01-01

366

Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint affected with septic arthritis in 8 horses.  

PubMed

Arthrodesis was performed to treat septic arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of 8 horses. Records of the horses were reviewed to determine outcome and possible factors that influenced success or failure. All horses were female. Seven horses had 1 joint treated and 1 horse was treated for bilateral pelvic limb involvement. The duration of sepsis before surgery ranged from 1 to 66 days. Bone lysis and production was radiographically apparent in 7 horses before surgery. Six horses had multiple bacterial organisms cultured from bone or synovial tissues; 2 horses had single isolates identified. After aggressive curettage, arthrodesis was accomplished with 3 parallel screws in 1 horse, 2 divergent narrow dynamic compression plates in 3 horses, and a single broad dynamic compression plate in 4 horses. Casts were applied to all horses for 1 to 6 weeks. Four horses survived to successful brood mare status. Four horses were euthanized during hospitalization because of continued discomfort or complications of sepsis. Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint affected with septic arthritis appears to be an acceptable alternative to euthanasia for some horses. PMID:10723597

Groom, L J; Gaughan, E M; Lillich, J D; Valentino, L W

2000-02-01

367

The fibrous tapetum of the horse eye.  

PubMed

The tapetum lucidum is a light-reflective tissue in the eyes of many animals. Many ungulates have a fibrous tapetum. The horse has one of the largest eyes of any living animal and also has excellent vision in low-light environments. This study aimed to clarify the macroscopic tapetal shape, relationship between the tapetal thickness and the degree of pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), spatial relationship between the visual streak and the tapetum, and wavelength of the light reflected from the tapetum in the horse. Macroscopically, weak light revealed the tapetum as a horizontal band located dorsal to and away from the optic disc. The tapetum expanded dorsally as the illumination increased. The tapetal tissue consisted of lamellae of collagen fibrils running parallel to the retinal surface; these spread over almost the entire ocular fundus and were thicker in the horizontal band dorsal to the disc. Only the horizontal band of the tapetum was covered by unpigmented RPE, suggesting that this band reflects light and is responsible for mesopic and scotopic vision. The visual streak was located in the ventral part of the horizontal band, ventral to the thickest part of the tapetum. The wavelength of the light reflected from the horizontal band of the tapetum was estimated from the diameter and interfibrous distance of the collagen fibrils to be approximately 468?nm. Therefore, the light reflected from the tapetum should be more effectively absorbed by rods than by cones, and should not interfere with photopic vision. PMID:24102505

Shinozaki, Aya; Takagi, Satoshi; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z; Uehara, Masato

2013-09-15

368

Morphology of starch digestion in the horse.  

PubMed

Structure of starch in feed and chyme of horses (7 with a cannula at the caudal end of the jejunum and 2 with a cecal fistula) after feeding high starch diets (maize: whole, broken, ground, expanded and as silage, oats: whole, rolled or ground, rolled barley, raw potatoes, and tapioca) was investigated by light and electron microscopy. Structure of feed starch and morphology or starch degradation in the chyme corresponded to data on preileal starch digestibility which was investigated in a parallel study. Barriers for starch digestion in the gastrointestinal tract of the horse were structure of the plant storage organ, as for example, a tight connection between starch granules in maize gains as well as the structure of the starch granules itself. The highly digestible oat starch was degraded by exocorrosion around the grains, whereas in other, less digestible, starch types degradation occurred by endocorrosion via pin holes. The number and size of the pin holes increased with increasing preileal starch digestibility. The effect of various ways of decomposition on preileal digestibility increased with advanced destruction of the original starch structure. Expanding was most effective. The granules were destroyed completely and the starch became soluble. Simple examination by light microscopy is a fast method to evaluate the degree of starch decomposition in the feed. PMID:9270343

Kienzle, E; Pohlenz, J; Radicke, S

1997-06-01

369

Ependymoma of the neurohypophysis and hypernatremia in a horse.  

PubMed

A 2-year-old Standardbred gelding was examined because of prolapse of the third eyelid; myoclonus of the muscles of the head, neck, and forelimbs; and persistent tail swishing. The horse had a high plasma sodium concentration but was not drinking water. The hypernatremia could not be corrected by means of IV administration of fluids, and the horse became worse and, 6 days later, died. At necropsy, a tumor was found to be compressing the neurohypophysis and the area in the brain in which the thirst centers are believed to be located. It is believed that hypernatremia in this horse was a result of altered thirst. PMID:7657573

Heath, S E; Peter, A T; Janovitz, E B; Selvakumar, R; Sandusky, G E

1995-09-15

370

Genetic variation of Polish endangered Bi?goraj horses and two common horse breeds in microsatellite loci.  

PubMed

Genetic variation of endangered Bi?goraj horses and two common Polish horse breeds was compared with the use of 12 microsatellite loci (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, HMS2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, HTG10, VHL20). Lower allelic diversity was detected in all investigated populations in comparison to other studies. Large differences in the frequencies of microsatellite alleles between Bi?goraj horses and two other horse breeds were discovered. In all polymorphic loci all investigated breeds were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Mean Fis values and the results of a test for the presence of a recent bottleneck were non-significant in all studied populations. Comparable values of observed and expected gene diversity indicate no substantial loss of genetic variation in the Bi?goraj population and two other breeds. The lowest variability observed in the investigated group of Thoroughbred horses was confirmed. About 10% of genetic variation are explained by differences between breeds. Values of pairwise Fst and two measures of genetic distance demonstrated that Bi?goraj horses are distantly related to both common horse breeds. PMID:16110187

Zabek, Tomasz; Nogaj, Anna; Radko, Anna; Nogaj, Jan; S?ota, Ewa

2005-01-01

371

An African horse sickness virus serotype 4 recombinant canarypox virus vaccine elicits specific cell-mediated immune responses in horses.  

PubMed

A recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine co-expressing synthetic genes encoding outer capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5, of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 (ALVAC(®)-AHSV4) has been demonstrated to fully protect horses against homologous challenge with virulent field virus. Guthrie et al. (2009) detected weak and variable titres of neutralizing antibody (ranging from <10 to 40) 8 weeks after vaccination leading us to hypothesize that there could be a participation of cell mediated immunity (CMI) in protection against AHSV4. The present study aimed at characterizing the CMI induced by the experimental ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccine. Six horses received two vaccinations twenty-eight days apart and three horses remained unvaccinated. The detection of VP2/VP5 specific IFN-? responses was assessed by enzyme linked immune spot (ELISpot) assay and clearly demonstrated that all ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccinated horses developed significant IFN-? production compared to unvaccinated horses. More detailed immune responses obtained by flow cytometry demonstrated that ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccinations induced immune cells, mainly CD8(+) T cells, able to recognize multiple T-epitopes through all VP2 and only the N-terminus sequence of VP5. Neither VP2 nor VP5 specific IFN-? responses were detected in unvaccinated horses. Overall, our data demonstrated that an experimental recombinant canarypox based vaccine induced significant CMI specific for both VP2 and VP5 proteins of AHSV4. PMID:22763149

El Garch, H; Crafford, J E; Amouyal, P; Durand, P Y; Edlund Toulemonde, C; Lemaitre, L; Cozette, V; Guthrie, A; Minke, J M

2012-06-15

372

Cadmium, zinc, and copper in horse liver and in horse liver metallothionein: Comparisons with kidney cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium, zinc, and copper were determined in liver and in kidney cortex samples obtained from 33 normal Swedish horses. Cadmium concentrations in liver ranged from 0.002 to 0.165 mmole\\/kg and in kidney from 0.01 to 2.15 mmole\\/kg. There was a significant correlation between liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium. The average kidney concentration of cadmium was about 15 times that

C. G. Elinder; M. Nordberg; B. Palm; M. Piscator

1981-01-01

373

Exercise studies in horses: 1. A simple telemetry system for recording excercise ECGs in horses.  

PubMed

A robust low cost portable radiotelemetry system is described for the horse and its method of operation and advantages briefly discussed. The equipment consisted of 2 electrodes forming a bipolar lead, a transmitter, a receiver and a writing device. The sitting, application and immobilising of the electrodes was a most important factor in obtaining good quality recordings. ECGs were recorded at all paces and also while jumping and the results proved satisfactory. PMID:862606

Hill, G; Atkins, R; Littlejohn, A; Kruger, J M; Bowles, F

1977-04-01

374

[Use of tempered, particle-reinforced aluminum horse shoes in sport horses under field conditions].  

PubMed

The use of handmade particulate reinforced alloy horseshoes (MMC metal matrix composites) was tested in a field study on 15 riding and draught horses. All horseshoes have been tempered after having been manually forged and tested concerning their surface imperfection. Forging temperature ranged between 350 degrees and 420 degrees C. Horseshoes in series A consisted of particulate reinforced wrought alloy (22% Al2O3 in alloy matrix). 11 shoeing periods with a duration of mean = 49.7 days (sd = 13.6) were evaluated. Horseshoes in series B consisted of particulate reinforced foundry alloy (20% SiC in alloy matrix), 5 shoeing periods were evaluated with a duration of mean = 45.4 days (sd = 7.9). Series C tested horseshoes made of particulated reinforced coextruded wrought alloy evaluating 6 shoeing periods with a duration of mean = 49.2 days (sd = 18.7). Service of the tempered particulate reinforced alloy horseshoes was significantly higher compared to untempered alloy horseshoes. Mechanical and forging properties of tempered particulate reinforced alloy are satisfactory. Service is only suitable for riding horses but not for draught horses. PMID:10085578

Brandstetter, J; Stanek, C; Hinterhofer, C

1999-02-01

375

Metabolic studies of turinabol in horses.  

PubMed

Turinabol (4-chloro-17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-1,4-androstadien-3-one) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid. As in the case of other anabolic steroids, it is a prohibited substance in equine sports. The metabolism of turinabol in human has been reported previously; however, little is known about its metabolic fate in horses. This paper describes the studies of both the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of turinabol in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting turinabol administration. For the in vitro studies, turinabol was incubated with fresh horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixture were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after trimethylsilylation. The results showed that the major biotransformation of turinabol was hydroxylation at the C6, C16 and C20 sites to give metabolites 6beta-hydroxyturinabol (M1), 20-hydroxyturinabol (M2), two stereoisomers of 6beta,16-dihydroxyturinabol (M3a, M3b) and 6beta,20-dihydroxyturinabol (M4). The metabolite 6beta-hydroxyturinabol was confirmed using an authentic reference standard. The structures of all other turinabol metabolites were tentatively identified by mass spectral interpretation. For the in vivo studies, two horses were administered orally with turinabol. Pre- and post-administration urine samples were collected for analysis. Free and conjugated metabolites were isolated using solid-phase extraction and analysed by GC-MS as described for the in vitro studies. The results revealed that turinabol was extensively metabolised and the parent drug was not detected in urine. Two metabolites detected in the in vitro studies, namely 20-hydroxyturinabol and 6beta,20-dihydroxyturinabol, these were also detected in post-administration urine samples. In addition, 17-epi-turinabol (M5) and six other metabolites (M6a-M6c and M7a-M7c), derived from D-ring hydroxylation and A-ring reduction, were also detected. Except for 17-epi-turinabol, none of these metabolites has ever been reported in any species. All in vivo metabolites were detected within 48 h after administration. PMID:17386713

Ho, E N M; Kwok, W H; Leung, D K K; Wan, T S M; Wong, A S Y

2006-10-04

376

Prevalence of gastric ulcers in endurance horses--a preliminary report.  

PubMed

Gastric endoscopy was performed at the end of a 50 or 80 km endurance ride. Gastric ulceration was evident in 67% of the horses with ulcers on the squamous region of the stomach found in 57% of the horses and active bleeding of the glandular mucosa in 27%. Three horses (10%) had lesions only on the glandular mucosa. Values of albumin, creatinine and glucose were higher in horses without gastric lesions. We conclude that horses from endurance competitions have a high prevalence of gastric ulceration that is similar to that observed in performance horses. However the severity of ulceration is less severe than has been reported in Thoroughbred race horses in active training. Owners should be aware of the high prevalence of gastric ulceration in horses that perform in endurance competitions. The high incidence of active bleeding from the glandular mucosa of the stomach in these horses requires further investigation. PMID:14623148

Nieto, Jorge E; Snyder, Jack R; Beldomenico, Pablo; Aleman, Monica; Kerr, James W; Spier, Sharon J

2004-01-01

377

West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in horses in Ontario: 28 cases  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus encephalomyelitis was diagnosed in 28 horses presented to the Ontario Veterinary College Veterinary Teaching Hospital between August 20 and October 15, 2002. The age range of affected horses was 5 months to 20 years (mean 6.9 years, median 6 years). Clinical signs were highly variable. Duration of hospitalization ranged from < 1 to 12 days (mean 5 days, median 5.4 days). Overall, 16 of the 28 (57%) horses were discharged and, of the 14 from which follow-up information was available, 13 (93%) were reported to be clinically normal 4 to 6 weeks following discharge, while the other horse had markedly improved. This pathogen is emerging as an important cause of neurological disease in Canada.

Weese, J. Scott; Baird, John D.; DeLay, Josepha; Kenney, Daniel G.; Staempfli, Henry R.; Viel, Laurent; Parent, Joane; Smith-Maxie, Laura; Poma, Roberto

2003-01-01

378

39. VIEW OF HORSE AND ESCAPE STEPS ON ARIZONA CANAL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. VIEW OF HORSE AND ESCAPE STEPS ON ARIZONA CANAL, LOOKING NORTH ON THE SALT RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION Photographer: James Eastwood, June 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

379

Construction Project Management for RED HORSE Troop Training Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This master's thesis is a study in construction project management for United States Air Force RED HORSE squadrons. The objective of the study is to design a construction project control system for troop training projects based on successful control pract...

T. H. Keiper

1989-01-01

380

9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

2013-01-01

381

9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

2013-01-01

382

9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

2013-01-01

383

9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...is rendered by a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine in the presence of an APHIS representative...injection by the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine attending the horse. The use,...

2013-01-01

384

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the...

2013-07-01

385

Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California  

PubMed Central

A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neurologic signs, histopathologic and serologic testing, and isolation and molecular characterization of EEEV from brain tissue. The vaccine was extensively tested for viral inactivation. Nucleotide sequences from the vaccine and the virus isolated in the affected horse were also compared. In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. This report describes the occurrence of EEEV infection in the horse and the investigation to determine the source of infection, which was not definitively identified.

Kinde, Hailu; Jay, Michele T.; Kramer, Laura D.; Green, Emily-Gene N.; Chiles, Robert E.; Ostlund, Eileen; Husted, Stan; Smith, Jonathan; Parker, Michael D.

2002-01-01

386

Borrelia burgdorferi infections with special reference to horses. A review.  

PubMed

This review discusses the literature on B. burgdorferi infections in view of the rising incidence of this infection in general and the increasing concerns of horse owners and equine practitioners. Lyme disease, the clinical expression of Borrelia infections in man is an important health problem. The geographic distribution of B. burgdorferi infections in equidae should resemble that of human cases because the vector tick involved, Ixodes ricinus, feeds on both species and, indeed, the infection has been established many times in horses. However, a definite diagnosis of the disease "Lyme borreliosis" in human beings as well as in horses and other animals is often difficult to accomplish. Although a broad spectrum of clinical signs has been attributed to B. burgdorferi infections in horses, indisputable cases of equine Lyme borreliosis are extremely rare so far, if they exist at all. PMID:16402512

Butler, C M; Houwers, D J; Jongejan, F; van der Kolk, J H

2005-12-01

387

Borrelia burgdorferi infections with special reference to horses. A review.  

PubMed

Summary This review discusses the literature on B. burgdorferi infections in view of the rising incidence of this infection in general and the increasing concerns of horse owners and equine practitioners. Lyme disease, the clinical expression of Borrelia infections in man is an important health problem. The geographic distribution of B. burgdorferi infections in equidae should resemble that of human cases because the vector tick involved, Ixodes ricinus, feeds on both species and, indeed, the infection has been established many times in horses. However, a definite diagnosis of the disease "Lyme borreliosis" in human beings as well as in horses and other animals is often difficult to accomplish. Although a broad spectrum of clinical signs has been attributed to B. burgdorferi infections in horses, indisputable cases of equine Lyme borreliosis are extremely rare so far, if they exist at all. PMID:22070377

Butler, C M; Houwers, D J; Jongejan, F; van der Kolk, J H

2002-12-01

388

11. Detail of horse lamp fixture in original Clubhouse bar. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Detail of horse lamp fixture in original Clubhouse bar. Fixture is at north end of bar. Camera pointed up and NW. (July 1993) - Longacres, Clubhouse & Additions, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

389

View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing northwest - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

390

Optical DEM generation: satellites help preserve Przewalski's horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privateers NV generated a DEM from optical LANDSAT TM and Spot images as first layer for the GIS system that is used in the Hustain Nuruu national park in Mongolia by the re- introduction program of the Przewalski horse.

Paul ROMEIJN; Edmond NEZRY; Pierre TRAHAN; Iwan SUPIT

391

2. GENERAL VIEW OF RESIDENCE (STRUCTURE 7) AND HORSE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GENERAL VIEW OF RESIDENCE (STRUCTURE 7) AND HORSE AND LIVERY STABLE (STRUCTURE 8) FROM NORTH - Twin Oaks Dairy, Northwest of Metcalfe Road, off State Route 101 (Monterey Road), Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

392

Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

Not Available

1993-09-01

393

Severe mitral regurgitation in horses: clinical, echocardiographic and pathological findings.  

PubMed

Forty-three horses with mitral regurgitation (MR) and congestive heart failure were examined, using M-mode, 2-dimensional real-time and Doppler echocardiography. There was no breed or sex predisposition when compared to the general hospital population. The mean +/- s.d. age of affected horses was 7.6 +/- 8.1 years. Horses with MR and congestive heart failure had significant increases in mean values for left ventricular chamber size, left atrial size and heart rate and significant decreases in interventricular septal and left ventricular free wall thickness. Significant increases in pulmonary artery diameter were detected compared to aortic diameter. Mean values for fractional shortening were not significantly different from normal. All horses had a Grade 3-6/6 holosystolic or pansystolic murmur with its point of maximal intensity in the mitral to aortic valve area. Atrial fibrillation was found at presentation in 24 horses with MR and congestive heart failure. One horse presented with atrial tachycardia and subsequently developed atrial fibrillation. Seven horses had ventricular premature contractions. Exercise intolerance (n = 34), respiratory signs (n = 31), and fever (n = 21) were the most common presenting signs. Thickening of the left atrioventricular valve leaflets, endocarditis, flail valve leaflets, rupture of a chorda tendineae, and mitral valve prolapse were detected echocardiographically. Doppler echocardiography confirmed the presence of a large systolic regurgitant jet in the left atrium in all horses in which it was used, and in many horses, concurrent tricuspid and pulmonary regurgitation was detected. All horses died or were subjected to euthanasia due to the severity of their MR and/or lack of response to therapy. Post mortem examinations were performed in 35 horses and confirmed the echocardiographic findings. The echocardiographic detection of a flail mitral valve leaflet was significantly associated with the detection of a ruptured chorda tendineae at post mortem examination. There was a significant association between echocardiographic detection of a dilated pulmonary artery and its presence at post mortem examination. M-mode, 2-dimensional real-time, and Doppler echocardiography should be used to accurately characterise the valvular abnormalities and assess the severity of mitral regurgitation. Pulmonary artery dilatation, an echocardiographic indication of severe pulmonary hypertension, should be considered a grave prognostic indicator and may indicate impending pulmonary artery rupture. PMID:9458395

Reef, V B; Bain, F T; Spencer, P A

1998-01-01

394

Surgical treatment of distal tarsal joint luxations in three horses.  

PubMed

The clinical signs, radiographic findings, surgical treatment, and outcome of three horses with luxation of the distal tarsal joints are reported. Two patients showed luxations of the tarsometatarsal joint whereas luxation of the proximal intertarsal joint was found in one case. Open reduction, followed by internal fixation was performed in two horses and closed reduction with a transfixation pin cast was performed in the third. The treatment in all three cases resulted in a satisfactory clinical outcome. PMID:23857573

Abuja, G A; Bubeck, K A; Quinteros, D D; García-López, J M

2013-04-10

395

Differentiation of Heel Pain from Other Hoof Pain in Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sardari, K, Kazemi, H. and Seifi, H. 2005. Differentiation of heel pain from other hoof pain in horses. J. Appl. Amm. Sci., 28: 133–135.Thirty-four horses with forelimb lameness referable to the hoof based on their response to the palmar digital nerves analgesia were divided into 2 groups based on their response to distal interphalangeal joint analgesic injection and hoof tester

K. Sardari; H. Kazemi; H. Seifi

2005-01-01

396

Radiographic study of bit position within the horse's oral cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to describe and compare the positions of different types of bits within the horse's oral cavity. Eight horses were fitted with a bridle and six bits (jointed snaffle ( JS), Boucher, KK Ultra, Myler snaffle (MylerS), Myler ported barrel (MylerPB), Myler correctional-ported barrel (MylerCPB)). Lateral radiographs and custom soft- ware were used to measure the position and

J Manfredi; HM Clayton; D Rosenstein

2005-01-01

397

Accidents with horses: what has changed in 20 years?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horse riding is a dangerous pastime with more accidents occurring per hour than during motor-cycling. Since a prospective survey of horse-related injuries conducted at a major centre in 1971–19722, equestrian groups and the medical profession have encouraged improvements in training and protective riding wear. By conducting a similar study at the same centre 20 years later we hoped to assess

J. P. Chitnavis; C. L. M. H. Gibbons; M. Hirigoyen; J. Lloyd Parry; A. H. R. W. Simpson

1996-01-01

398

Genomic characterization of MHC class I genes of the horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of a contig of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones spanning the equine major histocompatibility\\u000a complex (MHC) made possible a detailed analysis of horse MHC class I genes. Prior to this study, only a single horse MHC class\\u000a I gene had been sequenced at the genomic level. Although many (?60) MHC class I cDNA sequences had been determined and

Rebecca L. Tallmadge; Teri L. Lear; Douglas F. Antczak

2005-01-01

399

Chronically starved horses: predicting survival, economic, and ethical considerations.  

PubMed

Nine of 45 horses subjected to prolonged malnutrition died subsequent to being placed with a responsible caregiver and being provided an appropriate diet. Initial extreme poor body condition score tended to be associated with death, although individual response to refeeding varied. The financial costs of stabilizing the group of horses significantly exceeded their free market price. Responsible management of chronically starved commercial animals should include options for immediate euthanasia. PMID:15943117

Whiting, Terry L; Salmon, Ray H; Wruck, Gustave C

2005-04-01

400

First mass spectrometric detection of boldenone in horse mane samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to investigate the detection of boldenone in horse mane samples, a boldenone study was conducted on two horses. The\\u000a analytical procedure consisted in a hydrolysis using the Sorensen buffer, a liquid-liquid extraction using diethyl ether and\\u000a a PFPA derivatization. The instrumental method was a gas chromatography sequential mass spectrometry performed on an ion trap\\u000a instrument in full scan

M. A. Popot; N. Stojiljkovic; P. Garcia; Y. Bonnaire; J. C. Tabet

2003-01-01

401

Assessment of the mobility and time of renewal of the densimetric fractions of organic matter in chestnut soils from the ratio of stable carbon isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of experimental studying of the organic matter status in soils using methods of granulodensimetric fractionation and the geochemistry of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes are presented. The organic and organomineral matter in chestnut soils representing a chronoseries—stages of natural changes in the vegetation with different carbon isotope compositions—were investigated. The organomineral fractions and fractions of free organic matter were distinguished, the changes in their proportion due to the changes in the vegetation were analyzed, and the residence time of the carbon in the organic matter of the fractions was assessed.

Morgun, E. G.; Boutton, T. V.; Jessip, K. D.

2010-05-01

402

Metabolic studies of 1-testosterone in horses.  

PubMed

1-Testosterone (17?-hydroxy-5?-androst-1-en-3-one), a synthetic anabolic steroid, has been described as one of the most effective muscle-building supplements currently on the market. It has an anabolic potency of 200 as compared to 26 for testosterone. Apart from its abuse in human sports, it can also be a doping agent in racehorses. Metabolic studies on 1-testosterone have only been reported for human in the early seventies, whereas little is known about its metabolic fate in horses. This paper describes the studies of in vitro and in vivo metabolism of 1-testosterone in horses, with the aim of identifying the most appropriate target metabolites to be monitored for controlling the misuse or abuse of 1-testosterone in racehorses. Six in vitro metabolites, namely 5?-androst-1-ene-3?,17?-diol (T1a), 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol (T2), epiandrosterone (T3), 16,17-dihydroxy-5?-androst-1-ene-3-one (T4 & T5), and 5?-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione (T6), were identified. For the in vivo studies, two thoroughbred geldings were each administered orally with 800?mg of 1-testosterone by stomach tubing. The results revealed that the parent drug and eight metabolites were detected in urine. Besides the four in vitro metabolites (T1a, T2, T3, and T5), four other urinary metabolites, namely 5?-androst-1-ene-3?,17?-diol (T1b), 5?-androst-1-ene-3?,17?-diol (T1c), 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol (T7) and 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol (T8) were identified. This study shows that the detection of 1-testosterone administration is best achieved by monitoring the parent drug, which could be detected for up to 30?h post-administration. PMID:22715048

Kwok, W H; Ho, Emmie N M; Leung, Gary N W; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M; Wong, Henry N C; Yeung, John H K

2012-06-20

403

Detection of a hypersensitive reaction in the chestnut hybrid 'Bouche de Bétizac' infested by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was the identification of the mechanisms of resistance to Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in the hybrid-resistant cultivar 'Bouche de Bétizac' (Castanea sativa × Castanea crenata). Larvae and eggs of the insect are found in the buds of this cultivar at the end of winter, but there is no gall development after budburst. The hypothesis of the presence of a hypersensitive reaction (HR) in the buds was tested using diaminobenzidine (DAB) to detect H(2)O(2) and by Real Time PCR (RT-PCR) to evaluate the expression of a germin-like protein gene. HR in plants is elicited by the production of reactive oxygen compounds, such as H(2)O(2), and results in the programmed cell death. The DAB test was applied to buds of 'Bouche de Bétizac' and of the susceptible cultivar 'Madonna' (C. sativa) at different stages of budburst. The DAB staining produced brown areas in the swelling buds of 'Bouche de Bétizac', indicating the presence of H(2)O(2). On the contrary, all uninfested buds, as well as the infested buds of 'Madonna', appeared whitish. Papers report that germin and germin-like proteins (GLP) with oxalate oxidase activity are discrete markers of stress-responsive gene products. A strong expression of the chestnut GLP gene was detected by RT-PCR at bud swelling in infested 'Bouche de Bétizac' buds but not in 'Madonna' ones. The results support the hypothesis of the occurrence of an HR in 'Bouche de Bétizac' as response to the cynipid infestation, resulting in cell and larvae death. PMID:22906812

Dini, Francesca; Sartor, Chiara; Botta, Roberto

2012-08-03

404

Sensory and chemical modifications of wine-brandy aged with chestnut and oak wood fragments in comparison to wooden barrels.  

PubMed

Wooden barrels are used in the ageing or maturation of many alcoholic beverages, namely brandies and wines. However, the high costs related to ageing in wooden barrels have led to a search for alternative technologies. In this study we examined the application of wood fragments to the beverage in order to promote an accelerated ageing. We evaluated the sensory and chemical modifications in brandy aged in presence of two types of wood fragments, from two different woods (Limousin oak wood and Portuguese chestnut wood), and compared those with a brandy aged in wooden barrels. The results of the analysis of variance revealed more significant effects of wood botanical species than the ageing system on the sensory attributes. Concerning the ageing system, significant differences in brandy colour attributes were found, namely golden, topaz and greenish; olfactory attributes such as alcoholic, toasted and coffee; and the gustatory attribute, bitter. The brandies aged in the presence of wood tablets presented the highest intensities of topaz and greenish colour, toasted and coffee odours, while the brandies aged in wooden barrels presented the highest intensities of golden colour, alcohol odour and bitter taste. However, the overall quality of the brandies was similar. The analysis of odourant compounds showed a great discrimination of the brandies based on the ageing system. The brandies aged in wooden barrels presented the highest levels of several ethyl esters, acids, furanic aldehydes and the lowest levels of volatile phenols. Thus, considering the overall quality of the brandies, these results suggest the use of wood fragments to be an interesting alternative technology. On the other hand, the chemical analysis of the brandies showed the possibility of discriminating the ageing technologies based on odourant compound levels. PMID:20103142

Caldeira, Ilda; Anjos, Ofélia; Portal, Vera; Belchior, A P; Canas, Sara

2009-11-03

405

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome in adult horses: a review.  

PubMed

In recent years, gastric ulceration has been recognised as a common, possibly performance-limiting disease of adult horses. Here, we aim to provide the reader with a useful review of recent literature covering all aspects of equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) in adult horses. The anatomy and physiology of the stomach, with particular reference to secretion of acid and mucosal protective mechanisms, are reviewed, as are the differing theories relating to the aetiopathogenesis of gastric ulceration. We also explore the possible influence of various management factors on development of the disease. The prevalence of the disease in racehorses has been reported to be as high as 100%. In general, horses that are in active training for racing tend to have a prevalence of around 90%, whereas pleasure horses in full work have a reported prevalence of approximately 60%. Emerging diagnostic tests which could obviate the need for gastroscopy are introduced and current recommendations for treatment are summarised, focussing on proton pump inhibitors, in particular omeprazole, administered orally. The oral administration of omeprazole has been shown to be effective in both treating horses with gastric ulceration and at preventing re-occurrence whilst the horses are in training, provided that daily dosing is maintained. PMID:17339910

Bell, R J W; Mogg, T D; Kingston, J K

2007-02-01

406

The Absolute Threshold of Colour Vision in the Horse  

PubMed Central

Arrhythmic mammals are active both during day and night if they are allowed. The arrhythmic horses are in possession of one of the largest terrestrial animal eyes and the purpose of this study is to reveal whether their eye is sensitive enough to see colours at night. During the day horses are known to have dichromatic colour vision. To disclose whether they can discriminate colours in dim light a behavioural dual choice experiment was performed. We started the training and testing at daylight intensities and the horses continued to choose correctly at a high frequency down to light intensities corresponding to moonlight. One Shetland pony mare, was able to discriminate colours at 0.08 cd/m2, while a half blood gelding, still discriminated colours at 0.02 cd/m2. For comparison, the colour vision limit for several human subjects tested in the very same experiment was also 0.02 cd/m2. Hence, the threshold of colour vision for the horse that performed best was similar to that of the humans. The behavioural results are in line with calculations of the sensitivity of cone vision where the horse eye and human eye again are similar. The advantage of the large eye of the horse lies not in colour vision at night, but probably instead in achromatic tasks where presumably signal summation enhances sensitivity.

Roth, Lina S. V.; Balkenius, Anna; Kelber, Almut

2008-01-01

407

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...identification which includes a description of the horse, name, age, markings, if any, registration number, if any, and tattoo or eartag; the region of origin; the name and address of the exporter; the port of embarkation in the foreign...

2013-01-01

408

A comparative evaluation of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses in Italy  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) which is a potencial risk factor of transmission between animals and humans in different types of horses (harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses) and to compare the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. Methods A total of 191 healthy horses, housed at different locations of the Campania Region (Italy), were included in the study. Nasal swab samples were collected from each nostril of the horses. The mecA gene was detected by a nested PCR technique. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for each isolate. Results MRS was isolated from nasal samples of 68/191 (35.6%; 95% CI: 28.9%-42.9%) healthy horses. All isolates were coagulase-negative with the exception of two coagulase-positive MRS strains, identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, 2/83 (2.4%; 95% CI: 0.4%-9.2%). Interestingly, both coagulase-positive MRS isolates were from harness racing-horses. These horses also presented a significantly higher positivity for MRS (53.3%; 95% CI: 40.1%-66.1%) than the breeding mares and riding-horses groups. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed difference between isolates due to different origins except for an almost common high resistance to aminopenicillins, such as ampicillin and amoxicillin. Conclusions It can be concluded that harness racing-horses may act as a significant reservoir of MRS as compared to breeding mares and riding-horses.

Mallardo, Karina; Nizza, Sandra; Fiorito, Filomena; Pagnini, Ugo; De Martino, Luisa

2013-01-01

409

7 CFR 301.51-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...stumps, roots, branches, and debris of half an inch or more in diameter of the following genera: Acer (maple), Aesculus (horse...katsura), Fraxinus (ash), Koelreuteria (golden rain tree), Platanus (sycamore), Populus (poplar), Salix...

2013-01-01

410

Quality assurance project plan for the Chestnut Ridge Fly Ash Pond Stabilization Project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Chestnut Ridge Fly Ash Pond Stabilization (CRFAPS) Project will stabilize a 19-m-high (62-ft-high) earthen embankment across Upper McCoy Branch situated along the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge. This task will be accomplished by raising the crest of the embankment, reinforcing the face of the embankment, removing trees from the face and top of the embankment, and repairing the emergency spillway. The primary responsibilities of the team members are: Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) will be responsible for project integration, technical support, Title 3 field support, environmental oversight, and quality assurance (QA) oversight of the project; Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWENC) will be responsible for design and home office Title 3 support; MK-Ferguson of Oak Ridge Company (MK-F) will be responsible for health and safety, construction, and procurement of construction materials. Each of the team members has a QA program approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations. This project-specific QA project plan (QAPP), which is applicable to all project activities, identifies and integrates the specific QA requirements from the participant`s QA programs that are necessary for this project.

NONE

1996-07-01

411

Antiamnesic effects of ethyl acetate fraction from chestnut (Castanea crenata var. dulcis) inner skin on A?(25-35)-induced cognitive deficits in mice.  

PubMed

To investigate neuronal cell protective effects of an ethyl acetate fraction from chestnut inner skin, in vitro assays, including 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were performed. Intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species resulting from hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) treatment of PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were present in the medium compared to PC12 cells treated with H(2)O(2) only. In a cell viability assay using MTT, the ethyl acetate fraction protected against H(2)O(2)-induced neurotoxicity, and inhibited LDH release into the medium. In addition, the ethyl acetate fraction improved in vivo cognitive ability against amyloid ?-peptide (A?)-induced neuronal deficit. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses showed that gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin were predominant phenolics in the ethyl acetate fraction. Consequently, the results suggest that chestnut inner skin, including above phenolics, could ameliorate A?-induced learning and memory deficiency, and be utilized as effective substances for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23134459

Jeong, Hee-Rok; Jo, Yu Na; Jeong, Ji Hee; Jin, Dong Eun; Song, Byung Gi; Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Heo, Ho Jin

2012-11-07

412

Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: undergraduate student outcomes.  

PubMed

Equine teaching and research programs are popular but expensive components of most land grant universities. External funding for equine research, however, is limited and restricts undergraduate research opportunities that enhance student learning. In 1999, a novel undergraduate teaching and research program was initiated at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. A unique aspect of this program was the use of young horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue but of relatively low value. The media interest in such horses was utilized to advantage to obtain funding for the program. The use of horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs held the risks of attracting negative publicity, potential of injury while training previously unhandled young horses, and uncertainty regarding re-sale value; however, none of these concerns were realized. For 12 years the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program received extensive positive press and provided invaluable learning opportunities for students. Over 500 students, at least 80 of which were minorities, participated in not only horse management and training but also research, event planning, public outreach, fund-raising, and website development. Public and industry support provided program sustainability with only basic University infrastructural support despite severe economic downturns. Student research projects generated 25 research abstracts presented at national and international meetings and 14 honors theses. Over 100 students went on to veterinary school or other higher education programs, and more than 100 others pursued equine- or science-related careers. Laudatory popular press articles were published in a wide variety of breed/discipline journals and in local and regional newspapers each year. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses yielded positive outcomes for all, especially the undergraduate students. PMID:22767090

Ralston, Sarah L

2012-07-05

413

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum , the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. We used direct and indirect methods to compare and evaluate exposure to A. phagocytophilum in horses in northern Tunisia. Methods Serum from 60 horses was tested by IFA for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum , and whole blood was tested for A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene using a nested-PCR. To examine the risk of A. phagocytophilum transmission, 154 ticks that had been collected from horses were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by nested-PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene. Results This is the first time that A. phagocytophilum has been detected in horses in Tunisia, with an overall seroprevalence of 40/60 (67%). Six of the seroreactive samples (10%) had an IFA titer of 1:80, 14 (23%) of 1:160, 8 (13%) of 1:320 and 12 (20%) a titer 1???640. The seroprevalence revealed no significant regional and sex differences. In contrast, a significant difference was observed between breeds. Eight (13%) of the horses were positive for A. phagocytophilum in the PCR, with no significant breed and age differences. Hyalomma marginatum was a predominant tick species (130/154), and 3 were infected by A. phagocytophilum (a prevalence of 2.3%). The concordance rate of A. phagocytophilum detection between IFA and PCR had a k value of ?0.07. Conclusions The results presented in this study suggest that horses infested by ticks in Tunisia are exposed to A. phagocytophilum.

2012-01-01

414

Lameness and Laminitis in U.S. Horses. National Animal Health Monitoring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives for the lameness portion of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Equine 98 study: (1) describe the occurrence of owner reported lameness and laminitis in horses and the proportion of operations with one or more affected horses f...

2000-01-01

415

49. HORSE MESA DAM, AUXILIARY SPILLWAY, 40.0' x 44.5' REGULATING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. HORSE MESA DAM, AUXILIARY SPILLWAY, 40.0' x 44.5' REGULATING GATE HOIST. INSTALLATION ASSEMBLY February 3, 1937 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

416

Presumed clostridial and aerobic bacterial infections of the cornea in two horses.  

PubMed

Microscopic examination of Gram-stained tissue specimens collected from severe corneal ulcers in 2 horses revealed large gram-positive rods suggestive of Clostridium spp. Clostridium perfringens was isolated from specimens collected from horse 1; anaerobic organisms were not detected in specimens from horse 2. Aerobic bacterial culture revealed Aeromonas hydrophila and Enterobacter cloacae in specimens collected from horses 1 and 2, respectively. An insect exoskeleton was presumed to be the underlying cause of ulceration in horse 1. Cause of ulceration in horse 2 was not determined. Antibiotics used to treat the corneal infections included ticarcillin disodium-clavulanic acid injected one time subconjunctivally and chloramphenicol applied topically at frequent intervals. Horse 2 also received penicillin or trimethoprim-sulfadiazine. Small leukomas were the only lesion remaining between 2 and 7 months after initial evaluation. Chloramphenicol applied topically appears to be an effective treatment against clostridial corneal infections in horses. PMID:10340080

Rebhun, W C; Cho, J O; Gaarder, J E; Peek, S F; Patten, V H

1999-05-15

417

Epidemiology of Trichinella infection in the horse: the risk from animal product feeding practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discovery in 2002 of a Trichinella spiralis-infected horse in Serbia offered an opportunity to conduct needed epidemiological studies on how horses, considered herbivores, acquire a meat-borne parasite. This enigma has persisted since the first human outbreaks from infected horse meat occurred in then 1970s. The trace back of the infected horse to a farm owner was carried out. Interviews

K. D. Murrell; M. Djordjevic; K. Cuperlovic; Lj. Sofronic; M. Savic; S. Damjanovic

2004-01-01

418

Identification of Allergens in Extract of Horse Hair and Dandruff by Means of Crossed Radioimmunoelectrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera from 26 patients and 4 normals were examined for specific IgE binding to antigens of extract of horse hair and dandruff by means of CR1E. 22 of the patients were RAST- and intracutaneous-positive to horse extract. 4 more of the patients were RAST-negative to horse allergens, but showed allergies to extract of allergens from sources other than horse. The

H. Løwenstein; B. Markussen; B. Weeke

1976-01-01

419

Behavioural and physiological responses to an acute stressor in crib-biting and control horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of eleven pairs of crib-biting and non-crib-biting horses (controls) to an arousal-inducing stimulus were studied. Video-observation of the horses revealed that crib-biting horses spent between 10.4 and 64.7% of their stabling time performing the stereotypy. During the first 2 days of an experimental period, the horses were conditioned to receive food from a special bucket. On the third

I. Bachmann; P. Bernasconi; R. Herrmann; M. A. Weishaupt; M. Stauffacher

2003-01-01

420

The seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in horses in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

Equine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis is an emerging disease of weanling foals and affects their growth and development. The prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in The Netherlands is not known. The aim of the study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in horses in The Netherlands. Blood samples were taken from healthy foals before and after weaning and from healthy yearlings and mature horses on farms throughout The Netherlands. These samples were analysed for the presence of Lawsonia intracellularis-specific antibodies with a blocking ELISA. White blood cell count, packed cell volume, and total protein concentration were also measured in all foals. Information regarding housing, pasture access, and contact with pig manure on the premises was obtained for all animals. The prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis antibodies in foals increased significantly from 15% before weaning to 23% after weaning (p = 0.019); it was 89% in yearlings and 99% in horses older than 2 years. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between the pasture-kept and stable-confined adult horses (97% and 100%, respectively), and there was no significant influence of contact with pig manure. None of the sampled animals showed clinical disease. In conclusion, the results suggest that Lawsonia intracellularis is widespread in The Netherlands and that seropositivity is not necessarily associated with clinical problems. The high seroprevalence in adult horses suggests long-term persistence of antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis or constant exposure to the bacterium. PMID:21528618

Kranenburg, L C; van Ree, H E M I; Calis, A N M; de Pater, M; Buter, G J; van Maanen, C; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaarn, M M

2011-04-01

421

Is there evidence of learned helplessness in horses?  

PubMed

Learned helplessness is a psychological condition whereby individuals learn that they have no control over unpleasant or harmful conditions, that their actions are futile, and that they are helpless. In a series of experiments in which dogs were exposed to inescapable shocks, this lack of control subsequently interfered with the ability to learn an avoidance task. There is evidence that both neural adaptations and behavioral despair occur in response to uncontrollable aversive experiences in rodents, although this has yet to be demonstrated in other species such as horses. However, certain traditional methods of horse training and some behavioral modification techniques--it has been suggested--may involve aversive conditions over which the horse has little or no control. When training and management procedures are repeatedly unpleasant for the horse and there is no clear association between behavior and outcome, this is likely to interfere with learning and performance-in addition to compromising welfare. This article reviews published literature and anecdotal evidence to explore the possibility that the phenomenon, learned helplessness, occurs in the horse. PMID:18569222

Hall, Carol; Goodwin, Deborah; Heleski, Camie; Randle, Hayley; Waran, Natalie

2008-01-01

422

Vertical ground reaction force–time histories of sound Warmblood horses trotting on a treadmill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to establish representative treadmill ground reaction force (GRF) and interlimb co-ordination time data of clinically sound horses at the trot. It was anticipated that these normative standards would provide a reference data base against which lame horses could be compared. GRF–time histories were collected from 30 Warmblood riding horses with easy, wide natural gaits.

Michael A. Weishaupt; Thomas Wiestner; Hermann P. Hogg; Patrick Jordan; Jörg A. Auer

2004-01-01

423

Larval viability and serological response in horses with long-term Trichinella spiralis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The horse is considered an aberrant host for the nematode parasite Trichinella spiralis, and many aspects of the biology and epidemiology of Trichinella infection in the horse are poorly understood. It has been reported that experimentally-infected horses produce a transient serological response to infection and that muscle larvae are cleared more rapidly than in parasite-adapted hosts such as the pig

D. E. Hill; L. Forbes; M. Kramer; A. Gajadhar; H. R. Gamble

2007-01-01

424

Distribution of Trichinella spiralis larvae in muscles from a naturally infected horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological investigations conducted during 10 trichinellosis outbreaks between 1975 and 1994 showed that horse-meat was the probable source of infection. Though hundreds of thousands of horses have been examined at abattoirs in America and Europe to detect Trichinella infection by artificial digestion or trichinelloscopy, an infected horse has never been detected during routine analysis, which consists of examining 1 g

E. Pozio; G. V. Celano; L. Sacchi; C. Pavia; P. Rossi; A. Tamburrini; S. Corona; G. La Rosa

1998-01-01

425

Viability and infectivity of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae in frozen horse tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aspects of the biology and epidemiology of Trichinella infection in the horse are poorly understood, including survival of Trichinella spp in horse muscle. In this study, we have assessed the freeze tolerance of T. spiralis in horse meat stored at 5, ?5, and ?18°C for 1 day to 24 weeks. Results demonstrate a steady reduction in the number of

D. E. Hill; L. Forbes; A. A. Gajadhar; H. R. Gamble

2007-01-01

426

Radiographic closure time of appendicular growth plates in the Icelandic horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Icelandic horse is a pristine breed of horse which has a pure gene pool established more than a thousand years ago, and is approximately the same size as living and extinct wild breeds of horses. This study was performed to compare the length of the skeletal growth period of the \\

Eric Strand; Linn Camilla Braathen; Mia C Hellsten; Lisel Huse-Olsen; Sigridur Bjornsdottir

2007-01-01

427

Cortisol Circadian Rhythm Ratio: A Simple Method to Detect Stressed Horses at Higher Risk of Colic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the hypothesis that police horses with abnormal cortisol circadian rhythm (CCR) had more chance to develop colic, the aim of this study was to determine the CCR ratio in horses subjected to different housing and work conditions and to associate abnormal CCR ratio with incidence of colic. A total of 116 police horses belonging to four different groups were

Baity B. Leal; Geraldo E. S. Alves; Robert H. Douglas; Beatriz Bringel; Robert J. Young; João Paulo A. Haddad; Walmir S. Viana; Rafael R. Faleiros

2011-01-01

428

A comparison of sympathetic and conventional training methods on responses to initial horse training  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ‘sympathetic horsemanship’ the importance of the natural behaviour of the horse and the use of body language in communication is emphasised. However, it is unclear what effect sympathetic horsemanship has on the welfare of horses. During a 5-week starting period the effect of a sympathetic (ST) versus a conventional (CT) training method was studied using 28 young Warmblood horses.

E. Kathalijne Visser; Machteld VanDierendonck; Andrea D. Ellis; Charlotte Rijksen; Cornelis G. Van Reenen

2009-01-01

429

Effects of glycosaminoglycan polysulphate on the organisation of collagen fibres in experimentally induced tendonitis in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inflammatory process was induced by intratendinous injection of bacterial collagenase into the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of the left thoracic limb of 10 horses. One week later, the tendons in five of the horses (group 1) were treated with glycosaminoglycan polysulphate (GAGPS), and the tendons of the other five (group 2) were treated with saline solution. The horses

J. R. E. Moraes; G. G. Facco; F. R. Moraes; J. R. Engracia Filho; L. G. Miyazato; D. C. Beretta

2009-01-01

430

Analysis of the strongylid nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylidae) community after deworming of brood horses in Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communities of intestinal helminths in horses are commonly studied post mortem. The study objectives were here to examine the species composition of the strongylid community in brood horses in Ukraine after deworming with an aversectin drug Univerm. The site distribution of the strongylid species was analysed according to dynamics of their expulsion in faeces. Forty-four horses of different ages from

T. A. Kuzmina; V. A. Kharchenko; A. I. Starovir; G. M. Dvojnos

2005-01-01

431

Effects of athletic conditioning on horses with degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD) is a debilitating condition that has limited response to rest and stall confinement. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that mild to moderate DSLD is not worsened by consistent exercise. Paso Fino and Peruvian Paso horses (two normal horses and four horses with DSLD) were exercised for 30min every other day for

Lin Xie; Nakia D. Spencer; Ralph E. Beadle; Lorrie Gaschen; Mark R. Buchert; Mandi J. Lopez

2011-01-01

432

America's Wild Horses "Fitting 'Em In": A Social Studies Subject for Upper Elementary Students. Teachers Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This learning package is designed to portray to upper elementary and junior high school students the various factors influencing the relationship of wild horses and burros to their environment in the Western United States. Protested by the Wild and Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act of 1971, the thousands of protected horses and burros pose a…

Lent, Judith; And Others

433

43 CFR 4710.3-2 - Wild horse and burro ranges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wild horse and burro ranges. 4710.3-2 Section...MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-2 Wild horse and burro ranges. Herd management...

2012-10-01

434

Detection of Leptospira spp. in the Aqueous Humor of Horses with Naturally Acquired Recurrent Uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptospiral organisms have long been presumed to be associated with the presence of equine recurrent uveitis. This project was undertaken to determine the presence of Leptospira spp. in the aqueous humor of horses with uveitis to determine if there was an association with inflammation. Thirty horses were determined to have recurrent uveitis based on clinical evaluation or history. Sixteen horses

NICK A. FABER; MELISSA CRAWFORD; RANCE B. LEFEBVRE; NEDIM C. BUYUKMIHCI; JOHN E. MADIGAN; NEIL H. WILLITS

2000-01-01

435

Selection and acceptance of flavours in concentrate diets for stabled horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like most large grazing herbivores, horses select their food based on visual cues, odour, taste, texture, availability and variety. There is relatively little published information about the role of flavour in diet selection by domestic horses in comparison with other domestic and companion animals. However, previous trials investigating effects of diet flavour in stabled horses indicated significant effects on foraging

D. Goodwin; H. P. B. Davidson; P. Harris

2005-01-01

436

Extrapituitary and Pituitary Pathological Findings in Horses with Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction: A Retrospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to describe the histopathologic changes observed in extrapituitary organs as well as the pituitary glands of horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). Adrenal gland, thyroid gland, liver, lung, kidney, heart, and pituitary gland from 32 horses with clinical and histologic evidence of PPID and 20 control horses were reviewed histologically. Ten of the

Christiana M. Glover; Lisa M. Miller; Noel O. Dybdal; Alfonso Lopez; Wendy M. Duckett; Dianne McFarlane

2009-01-01

437

Fear reactions in trained and untrained horses from dressage and show-jumping breeding lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horses’ fear reactions are hazardous to both horses and human beings, but it is not clear whether fear is influenced more by training or by other factors such as genetics. The following study was designed to detect differences between young, untrained (U) and older, well-trained (T) horses of dressage (D), show-jumping (J), and mixed (M) genetic lines with regard to

Uta U. K. von Borstel; Ian J. H. Duncan; Märtha Claesson Lundin; Linda J. Keeling

2010-01-01

438

Fat diet reduces stress and intensity of startle reaction in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intense startle reaction by horses is a common cause of injuries for both riders and horses. Some studies suggest that diet composition, in particular the percentage of fat, may have an effect in stress and behavioural response to novel stimuli. Here we use 28 individual horses to perform an experiment on the influence of diet treatment on physiological parameters and

Alberto José Redondo; Juan Carranza; Pablo Trigo

2009-01-01

439

Theileria ( Babesia ) equi and Babesia caballi Infections in Horses in Galicia, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of equine piroplasmosis is becoming increasingly important to maintain the international market open to the horse industry. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of equine piroplasmosis (Theileria equi and Babesia caballi) in Galicia, north-west Spain, and to compare haematological and serum biochemistry parameters between non-parasitaemic horses and horses parasitaemic with T. equi and B.

A. T. Camacho; F. J. Guitian; E. Pallas; J. J. Gestal; A. S. Olmeda; M. A. Habela; S. R. Telford III; A. Spielman

2005-01-01

440

Evaluation of two vaccines for the treatment of pythiosis insidiosi in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two vaccines to treat pythiosis insidiosi in horses were evaluated in 71 Costa Rican horses between 1982 to 1988. One vaccine used a cell-mass (CMV) as antigen and the other a soluble concentrated antigen (SCAV). Both vaccines cured horses infected with Pythium insidiosum (p value ~ 14%). The age of lesions prior to vaccination was important in the response of

Leonel Mendoza; Jaime Villalobos; Carlos E. Calleja; Alejandro Solis

1992-01-01

441

Horse-training techniques that may defy the principles of learning theory and compromise welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review considers some contemporary training and restraining techniques that may lead to confusion or abuse in ridden and nonridden horses. As competitive equestrian sports boom, the welfare of the horse is under increasing scrutiny. The current focus on hyperflexion of the neck in dressage warm-up has exposed the problems with relying on subjective opinions when attempting to safeguard horse

Andrew N. McLean; Paul D. McGreevy

2010-01-01

442

Study of crib-biting and gastric inflammation and ulceration in young horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen young horses that had recently started to perform the stereotypy of crib-biting were compared with 16 non-stereotypic horses for 14 weeks. After initial observations of their behaviour and an endoscopic examination of the condition of their stomachs, the horses were randomly allocated to a control or an antacid diet. At the start of the trial, the stomachs of the

C. J. Nicol; H. P. D. Davidson; P. A. Harris; A. J. Waters; A. D. Wilson

2002-01-01

443

Rhodococcus equi-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Immune Horses and Development in Asymptomatic Foals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodococcus equi is an important cause of pneumonia in young horses; however, adult horses are immune due to their ability to mount protective recall responses. In this study, the hypothesis that R. equi-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are present in the lung of immune horses was tested. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-derived pulmonary T lymphocytes stimulated with R. equi lysed infected alveolar

Kristin M. Patton; Travis C. McGuire; Melissa T. Hines; Robert H. Mealey; Stephen A. Hines

2005-01-01

444

Heart Rate Variability in Horses Engaged in Equine-Assisted Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been a recent surge in using horses to treat mental and emotional human health issues, the consequences of horse-assisted interventions on the stress response of horses have not been well documented. Assessment of the autonomic nervous system and its regulation of cardiovascular function has been used as an indicator of acute and chronic stress in human beings

Ellen Kaye Gehrke; Ann Baldwin; Patric M. Schiltz

2011-01-01

445

Ten cases of bladder paralysis associated with sabulous urolithiasis in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bladder paralysis and sabulous urolithiasis were diagnosed in 10 horses with urinary incontinence. Additional neurological deficits in the hindquarters were detected in five of them. Treatment by catheter drainage and bladder lavage was unsuccessful, and all the horses were destroyed within 14 months of presentation. Neuritis of the cauda equina was diagnosed post mortem in one horse, but the cause

PE Holt; TS Mair

1990-01-01

446

Clinicopathological Features Associated with the Outbreak of African Horse Sickness in Lagos, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of African horse sickness involving 17 horse stables in Lagos, Nigeria, was investigated from December 20 to February 21, 2007. The investigation revealed high and sudden mortality of 40 horses, affecting both the local and Argentine breeds from December 20, 2006 to January 30, 2007. The clinical and postmortem signs were predominantly circulatory and respiratory, as described elsewhere,

M. M. Kazeem; N. Rufai; E. A. Ogunsan; L. H. Lombin; L. U. Enurah; O. Owolodun

2008-01-01

447

EQUINE PIROPLASMOSES AT THE REINTRODUCTION SITE OF THE PRZEWALSKI'S HORSE (EQUUS FERUS PRZEWALSKII ) IN MONGOLIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piroplasmosis has been identified as a possible cause of mortality in reintroduced Przewalski's horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in the Dsungarian Gobi (Mongolia). A cross- sectional and a longitudinal study were conducted in a representative sample (n5141) of the resident domestic horse population and in 23 Przewalski's horses to assess the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. Piroplasms were detected

Simon R. Ruegg; Paul R. Torgerson; Marcus G. Doherr; Peter Deplazes; Reinhard Bose; Nadia Robert; Christian Walzer

448

Assisted reproduction techniques in the horse.  

PubMed

This paper reviews current equine assisted reproduction techniques. Embryo transfer is the most common equine ART, but is still limited by the inability to superovulate mares effectively. Immature oocytes may be recovered by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of immature follicles, or from ovaries postmortem, and can be effectively matured in vitro. Notably, the in vivo-matured oocyte may be easily recovered from the stimulated preovulatory follicle. Standard IVF is still not repeatable in the horse; however, embryos and foals can be produced by surgical transfer of mature oocytes to the oviducts of inseminated recipient mares or via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Currently, ICSI and in vitro embryo culture are routinely performed by only a few laboratories, but reported blastocyst development rates approach those found after bovine IVF (i.e. 25%-35%). Nuclear transfer can be relatively efficient (up to 26% live foal rate per transferred embryo), but few laboratories are working in this area. Equine blastocysts may be biopsied via micromanipulation, with normal pregnancy rates after biopsy, and accurate genetic analysis. Equine expanded blastocysts may be vitrified after collapsing them via micromanipulation, with normal pregnancy rates after warming and transfer. Many of these recently developed techniques are now in clinical use. PMID:23244831

Hinrichs, Katrin

2012-01-01

449

An unexpected advantage of whiteness in horses: the most horsefly-proof horse has a depolarizing white coat  

PubMed Central

White horses frequently suffer from malign skin cancer and visual deficiencies owing to their high sensitivity to the ultraviolet solar radiation. Furthermore, in the wild, white horses suffer a larger predation risk than dark individuals because they can more easily be detected. In spite of their greater vulnerability, white horses have been highly appreciated for centuries owing to their natural rarity. Here, we show that blood-sucking tabanid flies, known to transmit disease agents to mammals, are less attracted to white than dark horses. We also demonstrate that tabanids use reflected polarized light from the coat as a signal to find a host. The attraction of tabanids to mainly black and brown fur coats is explained by positive polarotaxis. As the host's colour determines its attractiveness to tabanids, this parameter has a strong influence on the parasite load of the host. Although we have studied only the tabanid–horse interaction, our results can probably be extrapolated to other host animals of polarotactic tabanids, as the reflection–polarization characteristics of the host's body surface are physically the same, and thus not species-dependent.

Horvath, Gabor; Blaho, Miklos; Kriska, Gyorgy; Hegedus, Ramon; Gerics, Balazs; Farkas, Robert; Akesson, Susanne

2010-01-01

450

An unexpected advantage of whiteness in horses: the most horsefly-proof horse has a depolarizing white coat.  

PubMed

White horses frequently suffer from malign skin cancer and visual deficiencies owing to their high sensitivity to the ultraviolet solar radiation. Furthermore, in the wild, white horses suffer a larger predation risk than dark individuals because they can more easily be detected. In spite of their greater vulnerability, white horses have been highly appreciated for centuries owing to their natural rarity. Here, we show that blood-sucking tabanid flies, known to transmit disease agents to mammals, are less attracted to white than dark horses. We also demonstrate that tabanids use reflected polarized light from the coat as a signal to find a host. The attraction of tabanids to mainly black and brown fur coats is explained by positive polarotaxis. As the host's colour determines its attractiveness to tabanids, this parameter has a strong influence on the parasite load of the host. Although we have studied only the tabanid-horse interaction, our results can probably be extrapolated to other host animals of polarotactic tabanids, as the reflection-polarization characteristics of the host's body surface are physically the same, and thus not species-dependent. PMID:20129982

Horváth, Gábor; Blahó, Miklós; Kriska, György; Hegedüs, Ramón; Gerics, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Akesson, Susanne

2010-02-03

451

Inactivated African Horse Sickness virus cell culture vaccine  

PubMed Central

Immunogenic killed vaccine against African Horse Sickness can be prepared from a neurotropic vaccine strain or a virulent strain of virus, type 9, grown in a monkey kidney stable cell line. Virus was inactivated with either formaldehyde in a final concentration of 1:8000 or ?-propiolactone at 0·2 per cent. In order to enhance the immunogenicity of the product, aluminium hydroxide was added to the vaccine as an adjuvant. After inoculation of a single dose of either vaccine, neutralizing antibodies developed with 4 weeks, and all horses resisted challenge with homologous virulent virus. When two injections of inactivated vaccine were administered at an interval of 4 weeks, much higher neutralizing antibodies were present in sera and 6 months later all horses were still resistant to a challenge dose of virulent virus. Under the conditions of these experiments a significantly higher degree of antigenicity was demonstrated with formalin-inactivated vaccine than with ?-propiolactone-inactivated vaccine.

Mirchamsy, H.; Taslimi, H.

1968-01-01

452

Physical and chemical characterization of horse serum carboxylesterase  

SciTech Connect

The serine carboxylesterase from horse serum was characterized by amino acid composition, peptide mapping, molecular and subunit weights, C- and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and partial sequencing of the amino acids around the essential serine residue at the active site. A protocol was developed for using reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography to obtain homogeneous preparation of horse serum carboxylesterase. In addition, a number of kinetic properties were determined, including the substrate specificity, effect of pH, and activation energies. The horse serum carboxylesterase was characterized by unusually low turnover numbers with substrates commonly used with serine carboxylesterases. A variety of criteria were used to confirm the low turnover numbers and the concomitant high concentration of the esterase in the serum. These included reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography, disc-gel electrophoresis, and labelling with (/sup 14/C) diisopropylphosphofluoridate.

Torres, J.L.

1987-01-01

453

Laryngotracheal lesions following routine orotracheal intubation in the horse.  

PubMed

Sequelae of routine orotracheal intubation under clinical conditions were characterised in 38 healthy horses presented at three veterinary medical teaching hospitals. Four of these were necropsied and their tissues studied histologically. To minimise variation, 30 mm id cuffed silicone endotracheal tubes or Cole cuffless tubes were used in all patients. Fibreoptic endoscopic examination of upper respiratory and tracheal areas was accomplished pre-intubation, immediately post extubation and after 24 h. Endoscopy revealed that intubation was associated with laryngeal and/or tracheal lesions in all horses. Observations included abundant tracheal mucus, epithelial ecchymoses, basement membrane haemorrhage and mucus covered diphtheritic membrane plaques. Histological examination of lesions from the upper respiratory system of the four necropsied horses confirmed that the damage was comparable to that associated with tracheal intubation and reported in other species. PMID:2591359

Heath, R B; Steffey, E P; Thurmon, J C; Wertz, E M; Meagher, D M; Hyyppa, T; Van Slyke, G L

1989-11-01

454

Abortion in a horse following Neorickettsia risticii infection.  

PubMed

A pregnant 18-year-old Quarterhorse mare presented with fever, anorexia, tachycardia, tachypnea, and gastrointestinal hypermotility at day 68 of gestation. Potomac horse fever was diagnosed based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of whole blood and a high antibody titer to Neorickettsia risticii. The mare made a rapid clinical recovery following antibiotic therapy, but aborted 98 days later. Necropsy on the aborted fetus revealed lymphohistiocytic colitis, lymphadenitis, myocarditis, and hepatitis. The placenta was grossly and histologically normal. Formalin-fixed lymph node, thymus, liver, and colon taken from the aborted fetus were positive by PCR for N. risticii DNA. Potomac horse fever is a common disease in horses that may result in delayed abortion. The microscopic lesions in the fetus are characteristic, and the diagnosis can be confirmed by PCR on formalin-fixed tissues. PMID:18987240

Coffman, Elizabeth A; Abd-Eldaim, Mohamed; Craig, Linden E

2008-11-01

455

[Phylogeny, form and function of canine teeth in the horse].  

PubMed

The canine teeth of the horse developed phylogenically from the simple, pointed, short-rooted tooth form of the leaf eating, in pairs living, Eocene horse Hyracotherium and served up to the Oligocene as a means of defense (self preservation). In the Miocene the living conditions of the Merychippus changed and they took to eating grass and adopted as a new behavior the life in a herd. The canine teeth possibly played an important role in fights for social ranking; they changed from a crown form to knife-like shape. In the Pliohippus the canine tooth usually remained in male horses and since the Pliocene, it contributed to the fights between stallions, to ensure that the offspring only came from the strongest animals (preservation of the species). Form and construction of the canine tooth are described and discussed in detail under the above mentioned phylogenic and ethologic aspects. PMID:12919071

Vollmerhaus, B; Roos, H; Gerhards, H; Knospe, C

2003-08-01

456

[New drugs for horses and production animals in 2010].  

PubMed

In 2010, three new active pharmaceutical ingredients were released on the German market for horses and food-producing animals. These were gamithromycin (Zactran®), a new macrolide antibiotic, Monepantel (Zolvix®), a broad spectrum anthelmintic with a novel mechanism, and Pergolide (Prascend®), the first dopamine receptor agonist for animals. Two substances have been approved for additional species. The tetracycline antibiotic doxycycline is now also authorized for turkeys and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug firocoxib from the group of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors is now available for horses. Furthermore, four new preparations with an interesting new pharmaceutical form, one drug with a new formulation and two drugs, which are interesting because of other criteria, were added to the market for horses and food producing animals. PMID:22167083

Emmerich, I U

2011-01-01

457

A Massively Parallel Sequencing Approach Uncovers Ancient Origins and High Genetic Variability of Endangered Przewalski's Horses  

PubMed Central

The endangered Przewalski's horse is the closest relative of the domestic horse and is the only true wild horse species surviving today. The question of whether Przewalski's horse is the direct progenitor of domestic horse has been hotly debated. Studies of DNA diversity within Przewalski's horses have been sparse but are urgently needed to ensure their successful reintroduction to the wild. In an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the phylogenetic position and genetic diversity of Przewalski's horses, we used massively parallel sequencing technology to decipher the complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes for all four surviving maternal lineages of Przewalski's horses. Unlike single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing usually affected by ascertainment bias, the present method is expected to be largely unbiased. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were discovered—two similar ones, haplotypes I/II, and one substantially divergent from the other two, haplotype III. Haplotypes I/II versus III did not cluster together on a phylogenetic tree, rejecting the monophyly of Przewalski's horse maternal lineages, and were estimated to split 0.117–0.186 Ma, significantly preceding horse domestication. In the phylogeny based on autosomal sequences, Przewalski's horses formed a monophyletic clade, separate from the Thoroughbred domestic horse lineage. Our results suggest that Przewalski's horses have ancient origins and are not the direct progenitors of domestic horses. The analysis of the vast amount of sequence data presented here suggests that Przewalski's and domestic horse lineages diverged at least 0.117 Ma but since then have retained ancestral genetic polymorphism and/or experienced gene flow.

Goto, Hiroki; Ryder, Oliver A.; Fisher, Allison R.; Schultz, Bryant; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

2011-01-01

458

A massively parallel sequencing approach uncovers ancient origins and high genetic variability of endangered Przewalski's horses.  

PubMed

The endangered Przewalski's horse is the closest relative of the domestic horse and is the only true wild horse species surviving today. The question of whether Przewalski's horse is the direct progenitor of domestic horse has been hotly debated. Studies of DNA diversity within Przewalski's horses have been sparse but are urgently needed to ensure their successful reintroduction to the wild. In an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the phylogenetic position and genetic diversity of Przewalski's horses, we used massively parallel sequencing technology to decipher the complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes for all four surviving maternal lineages of Przewalski's horses. Unlike single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing usually affected by ascertainment bias, the present method is expected to be largely unbiased. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were discovered-two similar ones, haplotypes I/II, and one substantially divergent from the other two, haplotype III. Haplotypes I/II versus III did not cluster together on a phylogenetic tree, rejecting the monophyly of Przewalski's horse maternal lineages, and were estimated to split 0.117-0.186 Ma, significantly preceding horse domestication. In the phylogeny based on autosomal sequences, Przewalski's horses formed a monophyletic clade, separate from the Thoroughbred domestic horse lineage. Our results suggest that Przewalski's horses have ancient origins and are not the direct progenitors of domestic horses. The analysis of the vast amount of sequence data presented here suggests that Przewalski's and domestic horse lineages diverged at least 0.117 Ma but since then have retained ancestral genetic polymorphism and/or experienced gene flow. PMID:21803766

Goto, Hiroki; Ryder, Oliver A; Fisher, Allison R; Schultz, Bryant; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

2011-07-29

459

The effect of double bridles and jaw-clamping crank nosebands on facial cutaneous and ocular temperature in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any apparatus that restricts a horse’s movement can compromise welfare. Eye temperature as measured remotely using infrared thermography is emerging as a correlate of salivary cortisol concentrations in horses. This article explores the effect on the temperature of the eyes and facial skin of horses wearing devices that restrict jaw movements. In certain equestrian disciplines, unacceptable equine oral activity, such

Paul McGreevy; Amanda Warren-Smith; Yann Guisard

460

High prevalence of bovine papillomaviral DNA in the normal skin of equine sarcoid-affected and healthy horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine papillomavirus (BPV), the causative agent of papillomas in cattle, has been shown to play a major role in the pathogenesis of equine sarcoids in horses. BPV has also been detected occasionally in normal equine skin. In this study, presence and activity of BPV in normal skin and peripheral blood of 4 groups of horses were evaluated: sarcoid-affected horses, horses

L. Bogaert; A. Martens; M. Van Poucke; R. Ducatelle; H. De Cock; J. Dewulf; C. De Baere; L. Peelman; F. Gasthuys

2008-01-01

461

Post-anesthetic pulmonary edema in two horses.  

PubMed

CASE 1: A two-year old, 462 kg Standard bred horse was anesthetized for arthroscopy and castration. During anesthesia, hyperemia of the mucosal membranes and urticaria were noticed. During 5 hours of anesthesia subcutaneous edema of the eyelids and neck region developed. In the recovery box, the orotracheal (OT) tube was left in situ and secured in place with tape. Following initial attempts to stand, the horse became highly agitated and signs consistent with pulmonary edema developed subsequently. Arterial hypoxemia (PaO(2): 3.7 kPa [28 mmHg]) and hypocapnia (PaCO(2): 3.1 kPa [23 mmHg]) were confirmed. Oxygen and furosemide were administered. The horse was assisted to standing with a sling. Therapy continued with bilateral intra-nasal oxygen insufflation. Ancillary medical therapy included flunixin meglumine, penicillin, gentamycin and dimethylsulfoxide. Following 7 hours of treatment the arterial oxygen tensions began to increase towards normal values. CASE 2: An 11-year old, 528 kg Paint horse was anesthetized for surgery of a submandibular mass. The 4-hour anesthetic period was unremarkable. The OT tube was left in situ for the recovery. During recovery, the horse was slightly agitated and stood after three attempts. Clinical signs consistent with pulmonary edema and arterial hypoxemia (PaO(2): 5 kPa [37.5 mmHg]) subsequently developed following extubation. Respiratory signs resolved with medical therapy, including unilateral nasal oxygen insufflation, furosemide, flunixin meglumine and dimethylsulfoxide. The diagnosis of pulmonary edema in these horses was made by clinical signs and arterial blood-gas analysis. While pulmonary radiographs were not taken to confirm the diagnosis, the clinical signs following anesthesia support the diagnosis in both cases. The etiology of pulmonary edema was most likely multifactorial. PMID:20230564

Kaartinen, M Johanna; Pang, Daniel S J; Cuvelliez, Sophie G

2010-03-01

462

Reticulocyte changes after experimental anemia and erythropoietin treatment of horses.  

PubMed

Availability of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) has facilitated use to enhance red blood cell production, and therefore aerobic performance, in human and equine athletes. Recombinant human EPO promotes growth and differentiation of equine erythroid precursor cells, but in some horses repeat administration induces immune interference with endogenous EPO resulting in fatal anemia. Although blood reticulocyte parameters acquire unique changes in humans treated with EPO, with manual enumeration methods, horses were not considered to release reticulocytes from the bone marrow into circulation, even under severe erythropoietic stress. The goals of this study were to determine whether reticulocytes could be detected and characterized in horses that are anemic or have been treated with EPO using a modern hematology analyzer. Anemia was induced in six horses by removal of 30 ml of blood/kg of body wt over 24 h. After 28 days, the horses were treated twice with 55 U/kg of EPO (Eprex), and after 65 days they were treated thrice with 73 U/kg of EPO. Blood samples were analyzed with the ADVIA120 instrument every 3-5 days and bone marrow samples 7 days after anemia and EPO treatments. Analysis of blood reticulocyte parameters by ANOVA in a randomized complete block design determined that anemia and EPO induced significant (P < or = 0.05) increases in red cell distribution width and reticulocyte mean cell volume. Parameters changed only after EPO treatment were cellular hemoglobin concentration mean, mean cell volume, reticulocyte concentration, proportion of macrocytic reticulocytes, and reticulocyte cellular hemoglobin. These findings indicate that horses under erythropoietic stress and after EPO treatment release reticulocytes with unique characteristics into circulation. PMID:16103516

Cooper, C; Sears, W; Bienzle, D

2005-09-01

463

[Detection of leptospira in the vitreous body of horses without ocular diseases and of horses with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) using transmission-electron microscopy].  

PubMed

Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is caused by persistent intraocular leptospira, which appear to use the vitreous body as a refuge. The detection of leptospira in the vitreous body of horses with spontaneous ERU by histological methods has not yet been described. Thirty eight vitreous body samples from 36 horses with ERU (collected during vitrectomy), and 10 vitreous body samples obtained from 5 horses without ocular disease (control group) were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Prior to sample collection, 2 ml of a leptospira culture suspension were injected into the vitreous body of 2 eyes enucleated from horses of the control group. The detection of leptospira in samples, experimentally inoculated with these bacteria was uncomplicated; in vitreous body samples from horses with spontaneous ERU the detection was successful in only a few cases (3/38). The morphologically varying envelope of leptospira in vitreous body samples of horses which developed ERU spontaneously suggests the existence of a bacterial masquerade in vivo. PMID:17147152

Niedermaier, G; Wollanke, B; Hoffmann, R; Brem, S; Gerhards, H

2006-11-01

464

Advanced glycation endproducts in horses with insulin-induced laminitis.  

PubMed

Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer, inflammatory conditions and diabetic complications. An interaction of AGEs with their receptor (RAGE) results in increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing damage to susceptible tissues. Laminitis, a debilitating foot condition of horses, occurs in association with endocrine dysfunction and the potential involvement of AGE and RAGE in the pathogenesis of the disease has not been previously investigated. Glucose transport in lamellar tissue is thought to be largely insulin-independent (GLUT-1), which may make the lamellae susceptible to protein glycosylation and oxidative stress during periods of increased glucose metabolism. Archived lamellar tissue from horses with insulin-induced laminitis (n=4), normal control horses (n=4) and horses in the developmental stages (6h, 12h and 24h) of the disease (n=12) was assessed for AGE accumulation and the presence of oxidative protein damage and cellular lipid peroxidation. The equine-specific RAGE gene was identified in lamellar tissue, sequenced and is now available on GenBank. Lamellar glucose transporter (GLUT-1 and GLUT-4) gene expression was assessed quantitatively with qRT-PCR in laminitic and control horses and horses in the mid-developmental time-point (24 h) of the disease. Significant AGE accumulation had occurred by the onset of insulin-induced laminitis (48 h) but not at earlier time-points, or in control horses. Evidence of oxidative stress was not found in any group. The equine-specific RAGE gene was not expressed differently in treated and control animals, nor was the insulin-dependent glucose transporter GLUT-4. However, the glucose transporter GLUT-1 was increased in lamellar tissue in the developmental stages of insulin-induced laminitis compared to control horses and the insulin-independent nature of the lamellae may facilitate AGE formation. However, due to the lack of AGE accumulation during disease development and a failure to detect an increase in ROS or upregulation of RAGE, it appears unlikely that oxidative stress and protein glycosylation play a central role in the pathogenesis of acute, insulin-induced laminitis. PMID:22240145

de Laat, M A; Kyaw-Tanner, M T; Sillence, M N; McGowan, C M; Pollitt, C C

2011-12-26

465

Owner survey of tarsocrural effusion (bog spavin) in Clydesdale horses.  

PubMed

A postal survey of the owners of Clydesdale horses in the UK and USA was conducted to obtain information on tarsocrural effusion ('bog spavin') as an indicator of osteochondrosis from 935 horses. Additional information requested included details of how this condition was investigated and treated. The reported tarsocrural effusion incidence was 10 per cent. The majority of respondents believed the condition to be of concern to Clydesdale owners, but only a minority were aware of the implications of tarsocrural effusion, suggesting that owner education would be of benefit. PMID:22262698

Weaver, M P; Wilant, L

2012-01-18

466

Endocrine dysregulation in critically ill foals and horses.  

PubMed

Critical illness challenges many endocrine homeostatic systems to overcome diseases, stress, and hostile conditions that threaten survival. Coordinated and consecutive responses by the autonomic nervous system, endocrine metabolic adaptations to mobilize and conserve energy and electrolytes, cardiovascular adjustments to maintain organ perfusion, and immunomodulation to overcome infections and inflammation are required. Because most admissions to equine intensive care units are related to horses with gastrointestinal disease and septic foals, most endocrine information during critical disease are generated from these populations. This article presents an overview on endocrine responses to critical illness in horses and foals and also some comparative information. PMID:21392652

Toribio, Ramiro E

2011-04-01

467

Analysis of horse-related injuries in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of the present study was to investigate factors affecting the nature, characteristics, severity and outcome of\\u000a horseback and horse care injuries in paediatric patients and to create guidelines for injury prevention.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods   Detailed clinical records of 265 children sustained horse-riding related injuries have been analysed. Questionnaires were\\u000a mailed to provide follow-up information for patients who have been treated

Katalin Kiss; Paul Swatek; Imre Lénárt; Johannes Mayr; Barbara Schmidt; András Pintér; Michael E. Höllwarth

2008-01-01