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Sample records for horse chestnut aesculus

  1. Somatic Embryogenesis in Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.).

    PubMed

    Capuana, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Embryogenic cultures of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) can be obtained from different organs and tissues. We describe here the induction from stamen filaments and the procedures applied for the successive phases of somatic embryo development and maturation. Embryogenic tissues are obtained on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 9.0 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Somatic embryos develop after transfer to hormone-free medium enriched with glutamine. Maturation and germination of isolated embryos are achieved by transfer to medium containing polyethylene glycol 4000 and activated charcoal, successive desiccation treatment, and cold storage at 4 °C for 8 weeks. PMID:26619878

  2. Triazole induced drought tolerance in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum).

    PubMed

    Percival, Glynn C; Noviss, Kelly

    2008-11-01

    We determined the influence of the triazole derivatives paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole, propiconazole and myclobutanil on the drought tolerance and post drought recovery of container-grown horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) saplings. Myclobutanil neither conferred drought resistance, as assessed by its effects on a number of physiological and biochemical parameters, nor affected growth parameters measured after recovery from drought. Chlorophyll fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)), photosynthetic rates, total foliar chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, foliar proline concentration and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were consistently higher and leaf necrosis and cellular electrolyte leakage was lower at the end of a 3-week drought in trees treated with paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole or propiconazole than in control trees. Twelve weeks after drought treatment, leaf area and shoot, root and total plant dry masses were greater in triazole-treated trees than in control trees with the exception of those treated with myclobutanil. In a separate study, trees were subjected to a 2-week drought and then sprayed with paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole, propiconazole or myclobutanil. Chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic rate, foliar chlorophyll concentration and catalase activity over the following 12 weeks were 20 to 50% higher in triazole-treated trees than in control trees. At the end of the 12-week recovery period, leaf area and shoot, root and total plant dry masses were higher in triazole-treated trees than in control trees, with the exception of trees treated with myclobutanil. Application of triazole derivatives, with the exception of myclobutanil, enhanced tolerance to prolonged drought and, when applied after a 2-week drought, hastened recovery from drought. The magnitude of treatment effects was in the order epixiconazole approximately propiconazole > penconazole > paclobutrazol > myclobutanil. PMID:18765373

  3. [Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) used nasally as snuff - a case report].

    PubMed

    Zając, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    There are only few reports in the medical literature about side effects and toxicity of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). We report a 15-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital because of symptoms including: vomiting, dyspnea, burning in the nose and throat, and syncope, after intranasal snuff of powdered horse chestnut seeds. Laboratory tests showed no abnormalities. After 2 days of hospitalization the female was discharged home with subjective and objective improvement. Preparation and use of snuff is related to the tradition of the kashubian region. The powder formed from horse chestnuts, which is white in color, effects after about 5-10 minutes, and causes severe irritation of the nasal mucous membranes, which results in sneezing. Responsible for side effects is mainly aescin. The most frequently observed aescin intoxication symptoms were gastrointestinal irritation and allergic reactions. Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut used nasally as snuff may lead, as it was in our case, to sudden and self-limiting clinical symptoms. Supportive therapy and a short hospital observation seems to be sufficient in such cases. PMID:25632792

  4. Horse Chestnut - Aesculus Hippocastanum: Potential Applications in Cosmetic Skin-care Products.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, J A; Brown, A M

    1999-12-01

    In addition to the well reported beneficial effects of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) extracts on venous insufficiency and associated conditions, such preparations also have many potential positive pharmacological effects on the skin. Extracts from this species, and in particular, those based on horse chestnut seeds, contain saponins, known collectively as 'aescin', which have a gentle soapy feel, and are potent anti-inflammatory compounds. Saponins, such as escin, also reduce capillary fragility, and therefore help to prevent leakage of fluids into surrounding tissues, which can cause swelling. An extract of horse chestnut has recently been shown to have one of the highest 'active-oxygen' scavenging abilities of 65 different plant extracts tested. Such extracts are more powerful anti-oxidants than vitamin E, and also exhibit potent cell-protective effects, which are linked to the well-known anti-ageing properties of anti-oxidants. The extract is also rich in a number of flavonoids, such as derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol. Flavonoids also have protective effects on blood vessels, and are well-known, powerful anti-oxidants. PMID:18503457

  5. [Micrococcus sp.--the pathogen of leaf necrosis of horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.) in Kiev].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, L M; Makhinia, L V; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2013-01-01

    A group of phytopathogenic bacteria was isolated from patterns of drying horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.), which grow in Kyiv. The properties of slowly growing, highly aggressive microorganisms have been described in the paper. They grow up on the 8-10th day after sowing. The investigated microorganisms form very small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) colonies on the potato agar. Bacteria are protuberant, shining, smooth with flat edges, they are pale yellow, yellow, or pink. The bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical, are disposed in smears singly, in pairs, as accumulations, or netting. They are aerobes, do not form spores, are not mobile. They are inert in respect of different sources of carbon. They reduce nitrates, do not dilute gelatin, do not hydrolyze starch, do not release hydrogen sulphide and indole. The bacteria are catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. They do not cause potato and carrot rot. They lose quickly their viability under the laboratory conditions. The saturated acids C 14:0; C 15:0; C16:0; C18:0 have been revealed in the composition of cellular fatty acids. Microorganisms are identified as Micrococcus sp. Under artificial inoculation this highly aggressive pathogen causes drying of the horse-chestnut buds and necrosis, which occupies 1/3-1/2 of the leaf plate. A wide zone of chlorosis, surrounding necrosis, may occupy the whole leaf surface. The infected leaves use to twist up from the top (apex) or along a midrib and to dry. PMID:23866588

  6. Horse Chestnut

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References Horse chestnut. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on September 8, 2009. Horse chestnut. Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on September ...

  7. Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

  8. Bioactive saponins and glycosides. XII. Horse chestnut. (2): Structures of escins IIIb, IV, V, and VI and isoescins Ia, Ib, and V, acylated polyhydroxyoleanene triterpene oligoglycosides, from the seeds of horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae).

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Yamahara, J; Matsuda, H

    1998-11-01

    New acylated polyhydroxyoleanene triterpene oligoglycosides, escins IIIb, IV, V, and VI and isoescins Ia, Ib, and V, were isolated from the seeds of horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum L.). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. PMID:9845957

  9. Flavonoids in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds and powdered waste water byproducts.

    PubMed

    Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo; Franceschi, Federico; Franz, Chlodwig; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2007-10-17

    Horse chestnut extracts are widely used in pharmacy and cosmetic industries. The main active constituents are saponins of oleane type, but seeds of horse chestnut also contain flavonoids, being glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Their contribution to the overall activity of the extracts was not clear. In the present work, the main flavonoids from horse chestnut seeds were isolated and their structures established with spectral methods. Seven glycosides were isolated, out of which six ( 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 13) were previously reported and one ( 9) was identified as a new tamarixetin 3- O- [beta- d-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)]- O-beta- d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)- O-beta- d-glucopyranoside. The structures of three additional compounds 1, 10, and 12, not previously reported, were deduced on the basis of their LC-ESI/MS/MS fragmentation characteristics. A new ultraperformance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method has been developed for profiling and quantitation of horse chestnut flavonoids. The method allowed good separation over 4.5 min. Thirteen compounds could be identified in the profile, out of which di- and triglycoisdes of quercetin and kaempferol were the dominant forms and their acylated forms occurred in just trace amounts. The total concentration of flavonoids in the powdered horse chestnut seed was 0.88% of dry matter. The alcohol extract contained 3.46%, and after purification on C18 solid phase, this concentration increased to 9.40% of dry matter. The flavonoid profile and their content were also measured in the horse chestnut wastewater obtained as byproduct in industrial processing of horse chestnut seeds. The total flavonoid concentration in the powder obtained after evaporation of water was 2.58%, while after purification on solid phase, this increased to 11.23% dry matter. It was concluded that flavonoids are present in a horse chestnut extract in a relatively high amount and have the potential to contribute to the overall activity of these extracts

  10. The content of phenolic compounds in leaf tissues of white (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and red horse chestnut (Aesculus carea H.) colonized by the horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić).

    PubMed

    Oszmiański, Jan; Kalisz, Stanisław; Aneta, Wojdyło

    2014-01-01

    Normally, plant phenolics are secondary metabolites involved in the defense mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens. Therefore, in this study we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in leaves of white and red horse chestnut with leaf miner larvae before and after Cameraria ohridella attack. A total of 17 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in white and red horse chestnut leaf extracts. Significantly decreased concentrations of some phenolic compounds, especially of flavan-3-ols, were observed in infected leaves compared to the non-infected ones. Additionally, a higher content of polyphenolic compounds especially (-)-epicatechin and procyanidins in leaves of red-flowering than in white-flowering horse chestnut may explain their greater resistance to C. ohridella insects. PMID:25225723

  11. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) starch: Basic physico-chemical characteristics and use as thermoplastic material.

    PubMed

    Castaño, J; Rodríguez-Llamazares, S; Contreras, K; Carrasco, C; Pozo, C; Bouza, R; Franco, C M L; Giraldo, D

    2014-11-01

    Starch isolated from non-edible Aesculus hippocastanum seeds was characterized and used for preparing starch-based materials. The apparent amylose content of the isolated starch was 33.1%. The size of starch granules ranged from 0.7 to 35 μm, and correlated with the shape of granules (spherical, oval and irregular). The chain length distribution profile of amylopectin showed two peaks, at polymerization degree (DP) of 12 and 41-43. Around 53% of branch unit chains had DP in the range of 11-20. A. hippocastanum starch displayed a typical C-type pattern and the maximum decomposition temperature was 317 °C. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) prepared from A. hippocastanum with glycerol and processed by melt blending exhibited adequate mechanical and thermal properties. In contrast, plasticized TPS with glycerol:malic acid (1:1) showed lower thermal stability and a pasty and sticky behavior, indicating that malic acid accelerates degradation of starch during processing. PMID:25129797

  12. Effects of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb from horse chestnut, the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L., on acute inflammation in animals.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Li, Y; Murakami, T; Ninomiya, K; Yamahara, J; Yoshikawa, M

    1997-10-01

    We investigated the effects of escins Ia, Ib, and IIb isolated from horse chestnut, the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L., and desacylescins I and II obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of escins on acute inflammation in animals (p.o.). Escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb (50-200 mg/kg) inhibited the increase of vascular permeability induced by both acetic acid in mice and histamine in rats. Escins Ib, IIa, and IIb (50-200 mg/kg) also inhibited that induced by serotonin in rats, but escin Ia didn't. Escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb (200 mg/kg) inhibited the hind paw edema induced by carrageenin at the first phase in rats. Escin Ia (200 mg/kg) and escins Ib, IIa, and IIb (50-200 mg/kg) inhibited the scratching behavior induced by compound 48/80 in mice, but escin Ia was weakest. Desacylescins I and II (200 mg/kg) showed no effect. With regard to the relationship between their chemical structures and activities, the acyl groups in escins were essential. Escins Ib, IIa, and IIb with either the 21-angeloyl group or the 2'-O-xylopyranosyl moiety showed more potent activities than escin Ia which had both the 21-tigloyl group and the 2'-O-glucopyranosyl moiety. PMID:9353571

  13. Identification of novel saponins from edible seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata Blume) after treatment with wooden ashes and their nutraceutical activity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideto; Ogawa, Satoshi; Jisaka, Mitsuo; Kimura, Yasuo; Katsube, Takuya; Yokota, Kazushige

    2006-08-28

    Natural seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata Blume) contain large amounts of mixed triterpenoidal saponins called escins. Recent studies have shown that escins have several biological activities including anti-inflammatory action and inhibitory effects on the absorption of ethanol and glucose. For the edible utilization of the seeds, natural seeds are usually treated with wooden ashes to remove harshness. Here, we found the novel compounds derived from escins in the edible seeds after the food processing with wooden ashes. The instrumental analyses revealed the chemical structures of escins and the derivatives. These compounds are identified as four types of deacetylescins Ia, IIa, Ib, and IIb as well as two types of desacylescins I and II. To determine their biological activity, the purified compounds were tested for their potential nutraceutical activity. The oral glucose tolerance test in mice revealed that a single oral administration of the isolated components of deacetylescins at a dose of 100 mg/kg was clearly effective in attenuating the elevation of blood glucose levels. The inhibitory effects of escins and their derivatives were in the order of escins>deacetylescins>desacylescins. Moreover, we found the inhibitory activity of those compounds on pancreatic lipase. Escins were the most potent in inhibiting the enzyme activity, and followed by desacylescins and then deacetylescins. Taken together, our results suggest the potential usefulness of novel saponins including deacetylescins and desacylescins from edible seeds as novel sources for nutraceutical foods with anti-obese effects. PMID:16621416

  14. Transient etiolation: protochlorophyll(ide) and chlorophyll forms in differentiating plastids of closed and breaking leaf buds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum).

    PubMed

    Solymosi, Katalin; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

    2006-08-01

    An accompanying paper reports the accumulation of photoactive protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) in the innermost leaf primordia of buds of many tree species. In this paper, we describe plastid differentiation, changes in pigment concentrations and spectral properties of bud scales and leaf primordia of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) from January until the end of bud break in April. The bud scales contained plastids with grana, stroma thylakoids characteristic of chloroplasts and large dense bodies within the stroma. In January, proplastids and young chloroplasts were present in the leaf primordia, and the fluorescence spectra of the primordia were similar to those of green leaves except for a minor band at 630 nm, indicative of a protochlorophyll(ide). During bud break, the pigment concentrations of the green bud scales and the outermost leaf primordia increased, and Pchlide forms with emission maxima at 633, 644 and 655 nm accumulated in the middle and innermost leaf primordia. Depending on the position of the leaf primordia within the bud, their plastids and their pigment concentrations varied. Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and prothylakoids with developing grana were observed in the innermost leaves. Besides the above-mentioned Pchlide forms, the middle and innnermost leaf primordia contained only a Chl band with an emission maximum at 686 nm. The outermost leaf primordia contained etio-chloroplasts with well-developed grana and small, narrow-type PLBs. These outermost leaves contained only chlorophyll forms like the mature green leaves. No Pchlide accumulation was observed after bud break, indicating that etiolation of the innermost and middle leaves is transient. The Pchlide forms and the plastid types of the primordia in buds grown in nature were similar to those of leaves of dark-germinated seedlings and to those of the leaf primordia of dark-forced buds. We conclude that transient etiolation occurs under natural conditions. The

  15. Bioactive saponins and glycosides. III. Horse chestnut. (1): The structures, inhibitory effects on ethanol absorption, and hypoglycemic activity of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Matsuda, H; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N; Kitagawa, I

    1996-08-01

    Five bioactive triterpene oligoglycosides named escins, Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa were isolated from the seeds of horse chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae). The chemical structures of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa were determine on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, which included selective cleavage of the glucuronide linkage using photochemical reaction and lead tetraacetate decarboxylation reaction. Escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb were found to exhibit an ethanol absorption-inhibitory effect and hypoglycemic activity in the oral glucose tolerance test in rats. Some structure-activity relationships are reported. PMID:8795266

  16. Determination of Four Major Saponins in Skin and Endosperm of Seeds of Horse Chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum L.) Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Positive Confirmation by Thin Layer Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Abudayeh, Zead Helmi Mahmoud; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Naddaf, Ahmad; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna; Kislichenko, Viktoria Sergeevna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To separate and quantify four major saponins in the extracts of the skin and the endosperm of seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) with positive confirmation by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Methods: The saponins: escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib were extracted using ultrasonic extraction method. The optimized extraction conditions were: 70% methanol as extraction solvent, 80 °C as extraction temperature, and the extraction time was achieved in 4 hours. The HPLC conditions used: Zorbax SB-ODS-(150 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) column, acetonitrile and 0.10% phosphoric acid solution (39:61 v/v) as mobile phase, flow rate was 0.5 mL min−1 at 210 nm and 230 nm detection. The injection volume was 10 μL, and the separation was carried out isothermally at 30 °C in a heated chamber. Results: The results indicated that the developed HPLC method is simple, sensitive and reliable. Moreover, the content of escins in seeds decreased by more than 30% in endosperm and by more than 40% in skin upon storage for two years. Conclusion: This assay can be readily utilized as a quality control method for horse chestnut and other related medicinal plants. PMID:26819933

  17. Coumarins in horse chestnut flowers: isolation and quantification by UPLC method.

    PubMed

    Dudek-Makuch, Marlena; Matławska, Irena

    2013-01-01

    The coumarins: scopoletin, esculetin and fraxetin were isolated from the flowers of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae) and identified by spectrophotometric methods (UV, 1H, 13C NMR, ESI-MS). Their content, determined using the Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), was 0.41, 0.13 and 0.05%, respectively. PMID:23757942

  18. Acute Effusive Pericarditis due to Horse Chestnut Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Edem, Efe; Kahyaoğlu, Behlül; Çakar, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 32 Final Diagnosis: Pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal product Symptoms: Dyspnea Medication: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) Clinical Procedure: Pericardial and pleural effusions were drained through a pericardiopleural window Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: There are many well-known causes of pericardial effusion, such as cancer metastasis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, and uremic pericarditis; however, no reports exist in the literature demonstrating a pericardial effusion that led to cardiac tamponade following consumption of an herbal remedy. Case Report: A 32-year-old male patient was referred to our cardiology outpatient clinic with a complaint of dyspnea. The patient’s medical history was unremarkable; however, he had consumed 3 boxes of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) paste over the previous 1.5 months. His chest x-ray examination revealed an enlarged cardiac shadow and bilateral pleural effusion. On transthoracic echocardiographic examination, his ejection fraction was found to be 55% with circumferentially extended pericardial effusion that reached 3.9 cm at its maximal thickness. No growth had been detected in the pericardial and pleural biopsies or blood samples; there was no evidence of an infectious process in the physical examination. Based on this information, we diagnosed pericarditis resulting from the use of herbal remedies. This is the first report to demonstrate that herbal remedy consumption may cause this type of clinical condition. Conclusions: Besides other well-known causes, pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal remedies should always be considered when treating patients with pericardial effusion caused by unclear etiologies. PMID:27141926

  19. Horse chestnut extract induces contraction force generation in fibroblasts through activation of Rho/Rho kinase.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2006-06-01

    Contraction forces generated by non-muscle cells such as fibroblasts play important roles in determining cell morphology, vasoconstriction, and/or wound healing. However, few factors that induce cell contraction forces are known, such as lysophosphatidic acid and thrombin. Our study analyzed various plant extracts for ingredients that induce generation of cell contraction forces in fibroblasts populating collagen gels. We found that an extract of Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is able to induce such contraction forces in fibroblasts. The involvement of actin polymerization and stress fiber formation in the force generation was suggested by inhibition of this effect by cytochalasin D and by Rhodamine phalloidin. Rho kinase inhibitors (Y27632 and HA1077) and a Rho inhibitor (exoenzyme C3) significantly inhibited the force generation induced by the Horse chestnut extract. H7, which inhibits Rho kinase as well as other protein kinases, also significantly inhibited induction of force generation. However, inhibitors of other protein kinases such as myosin light chain kinase (ML-9), protein kinase C (Calphostin), protein kinase A (KT5720), and tyrosine kinase (Genistein, Herbimycin A) had no effect on force generation induced by Horse chestnut extract. These results suggest that the Horse chestnut extract induces generation of contraction forces in fibroblasts through stress fiber formation followed by activation of Rho protein and Rho kinase but not myosin light chain kinase or other protein kinases. PMID:16754996

  20. [Bioactive saponins and glycosides. XIII. Horse chestnut. (3): Quantitative analysis of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb by means of high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Otuki, K; Yamahara, J; Matsuda, H

    1999-01-01

    As a part of our studies on the characterization of bioactive saponin constituents of horse chestnut trees, a quantitative method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for four principle saponin constituents, such as escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb, isolated from the seeds of European horse chestnut trees (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae). As an application of this HPLC method, we examined the contents and compositions of these escins in the seeds of Japanese horse chestnut trees (A. turbinata BLUME) and in several commercial materials named as "beta-escin". Additionally, the distribution of escins in the Japanese horse chestnut trees was examined, and escins were found to be contained only in the seeds. PMID:9922711

  1. Acute Effusive Pericarditis due to Horse Chestnut Consumption.

    PubMed

    Edem, Efe; Kahyaoğlu, Behlül; Çakar, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND There are many well-known causes of pericardial effusion, such as cancer metastasis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, and uremic pericarditis; however, no reports exist in the literature demonstrating a pericardial effusion that led to cardiac tamponade following consumption of an herbal remedy. CASE REPORT A 32-year-old male patient was referred to our cardiology outpatient clinic with a complaint of dyspnea. The patient's medical history was unremarkable; however, he had consumed 3 boxes of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) paste over the previous 1.5 months. His chest x-ray examination revealed an enlarged cardiac shadow and bilateral pleural effusion. On transthoracic echocardiographic examination, his ejection fraction was found to be 55% with circumferentially extended pericardial effusion that reached 3.9 cm at its maximal thickness. No growth had been detected in the pericardial and pleural biopsies or blood samples; there was no evidence of an infectious process in the physical examination. Based on this information, we diagnosed pericarditis resulting from the use of herbal remedies. This is the first report to demonstrate that herbal remedy consumption may cause this type of clinical condition. CONCLUSIONS Besides other well-known causes, pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal remedies should always be considered when treating patients with pericardial effusion caused by unclear etiologies. PMID:27141926

  2. Horse chestnut extract contracts bovine vessels and affects human platelet aggregation through 5-HT(2A) receptors: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Felixsson, Emma; Persson, Ingrid A-L; Eriksson, Andreas C; Persson, Karin

    2010-09-01

    Extract from seeds and bark of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) is used as an herbal medicine against chronic venous insufficiency. The effect and mechanism of action on veins, arteries, and platelets are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of horse chestnut on the contraction of bovine mesenteric veins and arteries, and human platelet aggregation. Contraction studies showed that horse chestnut extract dose-dependently contracted both veins and arteries, with the veins being the most sensitive. Contraction of both veins and arteries were significantly inhibited by the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin. No effect on contraction was seen with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, the alpha(1) receptor antagonist prazosin or the angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonist saralasin neither in veins nor arteries. ADP-induced human platelet aggregation was significantly reduced by horse chestnut. A further reduction was seen with the extract in the presence of ketanserin. In conclusion, horse chestnut contraction of both veins and arteries is, at least partly, mediated through 5-HT(2A) receptors. Human platelet aggregation is reduced by horse chestnut. The clinical importance of these findings concerning clinical use, possible adverse effects, and drug interactions remains to be investigated. PMID:20148408

  3. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. PMID:25363584

  4. Environmental Fate of Emamectin Benzoate After Tree Micro Injection of Horse Chestnut Trees

    PubMed Central

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1–6. © 2014 The Authors. Published 2014 SETAC PMID:25363584

  5. A horse chestnut extract, which induces contraction forces in fibroblasts, is a potent anti-aging ingredient.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Tsukahara, Kazue; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    Contraction forces generated by non-muscle cells, such as fibroblasts, play important roles in determining cell morphology, vasoconstriction, and/or wound healing. We have searched among various plant extracts for ingredients that generate cell contraction forces using fibroblast-populated collagen gels. Using that model, we found that an extract of horse chestnuts (Aesculus hippocastanum) is able to generate such contraction forces in fibroblasts. The involvement of stress fiber formation in that response is suggested by the inhibition of such force generation by cytochalasin D and rhodamine phalloidin stain. Clinical testing of the extract was carried out using 40 healthy female volunteers. A gel formulation that included 3% of the extract was applied topically to the skin around the eye three times daily for nine weeks. The efficacy of the extract to diminish wrinkles was evaluated by visual scoring based on photo scales. After six weeks, significant decreases in the wrinkle scores at the corners of the eye or in the lower eyelid skin were observed compared with controls. After nine weeks, similar results were obtained. Taken together, our results suggest that an extract of horse chestnuts can generate contraction forces in fibroblasts and is a potent anti-aging ingredient. PMID:17111071

  6. Sequential sampling plan for Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnut tree.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    A fixed precision sequential sampling plan for estimating the density of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L., leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was developed. Data were collected from 2002 to 2004 in Turin, northwestern Italy, with the aim of developing a sampling strategy for estimating populations of C. ohridella mines. Taylor's power law was used as a regression model. Sampling parameters were estimated from 216 data sets, and an additional 110 independent data sets were used to validate the fixed precision sequential sampling plan with resampling software. Covariance analysis indicated that there were not significant differences in the coefficient of Taylor's power law between heights of the foliage, months, and years. Dispersion patterns of C. ohridella were determined to be aggregated. The parameters of the Taylor's power law were used to calculate minimum sample sizes and sampling stop lines for different precision levels. Considering a mean density value of five mines per leaf, an average sample number of only 49 leaves was necessary to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, the average sample size increased to 303 leaves. The sequential sampling plan should provide an effective management of C. ohridella in the urban areas, minimizing sampling time and cost, and at the same should be an effective tool to reduce insecticide applications and prevent the esthetic damage. PMID:18232410

  7. Aescin formation in calli and embryoids from cotyledon and stem explants of Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    PubMed

    Profumo, P; Caviglia, A M; Gastaldo, P

    1994-11-01

    Aescin in calli and embryoids obtained from both cotyledon and stem explants of Aesculus hippocastanum were investigated by HPLC. Determinations were carried out on tissues cultured in agarized medium supplemented with growth substances (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; kinetin; 1-naphthaleneacetic acid). The results indicate that aescin was produced in all the analysed samples. The amount of active principle present in some samples was higher than that found in horse-chestnut seeds. PMID:7897601

  8. The success of the horse-chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK revealed with hypothesis-led citizen science.

    PubMed

    Pocock, Michael J O; Evans, Darren M

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the 'Conker Tree Science' project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella) undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1) the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2) the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism) increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging many people with

  9. The Success of the Horse-Chestnut Leaf-Miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK Revealed with Hypothesis-Led Citizen Science

    PubMed Central

    Pocock, Michael J. O.; Evans, Darren M.

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the ‘Conker Tree Science’ project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella) undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1) the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2) the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism) increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging many people

  10. [Horse breeding: genetic tests for the coat colors chestnut, bay and black. Results from a preliminary study in the Swiss Freiberger horse breed].

    PubMed

    Henner, J; Poncet, P A; Aebi, L; Hagger, C; Stranzinger, G; Rieder, S

    2002-08-01

    Coat color played an important role during domestication and formation of breeds. Livestock breeders often had special preferences for particular color phenotypes because they believed them to be associated with performance or fitness traits. Socio-cultural reasons might have had an influence on color selection as well. Recently genetic tests on DNA level got available to genotype in any individual horse for basic horse coat colors (chestnut, bay, black). In particular, hidden carriers of the recessive chestnut and black allele are recognizable with these tests. A sample of 162 Franches-Montagnes horses from Switzerland was genotyped for the alleles for chestnut and black. The analysis of allele frequencies revealed a high prevalence of the chestnut allele and a low frequency of the black allele in this population. Rare colors are in demand on the market. The statistical analysis of 1369 offspring from five stallions indicate, that darker shades of basic color phenotypes (dark chestnut, dark bay) follow a recessive mode of inheritance in the Franches-Montagnes horse breed. PMID:12224446

  11. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Status in Androgenic Embryos of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava

    PubMed Central

    Štajner, Dubravka; Popović, Boris M.; Ćalić, Dušica; Štajner, Marijana

    2014-01-01

    In vivo (leaves and seed embryos) and in vitro (androgenic embryos) antioxidant scavenging activity of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava medical plants was examined. Here we report antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids, soluble protein contents, quantities of malondialdehyde, and •OH radical presence in the investigated plant samples. Total antioxidant capacity of all the samples of A. hippocastanum and A. flava was determined using FRAP, DPPH, and NO• radical scavenger capacity. The leaves of A. flava collected from the botanical garden exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (higher activities of SOD, and higher quantities of GSH, TSH, TPC, and scavenging abilities of DPPH and NO•, and higher FRAP values and lowest quantities of •OH and MDA) than in vitro obtained cultures. However, the leaves of A. flava showed higher antioxidant activity than the leaves of A. hippocastanum, and therefore they have a stronger tolerance of oxidative stress. Androgenic embryos of both species had low amount of antioxidants due to controlled in vitro environmental conditions (T, photoperiod, humidity, nutritive factors, and pathogen-free). Our results confirmed that we found optimal in vitro conditions for producing androgenic embryos of both Aesculus species. Also, we assume that horse chestnut androgenic embryos can be used as an alternative source for large-scale aescin production. PMID:24672369

  12. Comparative study of antioxidant status in androgenic embryos of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava.

    PubMed

    Štajner, Dubravka; Popović, Boris M; Ćalić, Dušica; Št, Marijana

    2014-01-01

    In vivo (leaves and seed embryos) and in vitro (androgenic embryos) antioxidant scavenging activity of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava medical plants was examined. Here we report antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids, soluble protein contents, quantities of malondialdehyde, and (•)OH radical presence in the investigated plant samples. Total antioxidant capacity of all the samples of A. hippocastanum and A. flava was determined using FRAP, DPPH, and NO(•) radical scavenger capacity. The leaves of A. flava collected from the botanical garden exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (higher activities of SOD, and higher quantities of GSH, TSH, TPC, and scavenging abilities of DPPH and NO(•), and higher FRAP values and lowest quantities of (•)OH and MDA) than in vitro obtained cultures. However, the leaves of A. flava showed higher antioxidant activity than the leaves of A. hippocastanum, and therefore they have a stronger tolerance of oxidative stress. Androgenic embryos of both species had low amount of antioxidants due to controlled in vitro environmental conditions (T, photoperiod, humidity, nutritive factors, and pathogen-free). Our results confirmed that we found optimal in vitro conditions for producing androgenic embryos of both Aesculus species. Also, we assume that horse chestnut androgenic embryos can be used as an alternative source for large-scale aescin production. PMID:24672369

  13. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    PubMed

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A M

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens. PMID:22808044

  14. Histological Examination of Horse Chestnut Infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and Non-Destructive Heat Treatment to Stop Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A. M.; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39°C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens. PMID:22808044

  15. Cochrane Summary of Findings: Horse Chestnut Seed Extract for Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Underland, Vigdis; Sæterdal, Ingvil

    2012-01-01

    As part of its efforts to disseminate the results of Cochrane reviews to a wider audience, the Cochrane Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Field develops Summary of Findings (SoF) tables and then uses these tables as a basis for its Plain Language Summaries. In each SoF table, the most important outcomes of the review, the effect of the intervention on each outcome, and the quality of the evidence for each outcome are presented. The process of developing the SoF table involves deciding which outcomes to present for which time points and evaluating the strength and quality of the evidence for the outcomes. The Cochrane CAM Field contacted the authors of this review to request clarification on any points that are not understood in the Cochrane review and also to request their review of the SoF. In this article, review authors in the Cochrane Collaboration reviewed the effects of horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency. PMID:24278808

  16. In vitro permeation studies of phenolics from horse chestnut seed gels prepared with different polyacrylic acid polymer derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zelbienė, Eglė; Draksiene, Gailute; Savickas, Arunas; Kopustinskiene, Dalia; Masteikova, Ruta; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of polyacrylic acid polymers (Ultrez 10, Ultrez 20, Carbopol 980, and Carbopol 940) on the viscosity and the in vitro permeation of phenolic compounds from the gel prepared from natural horse chestnut seed extract. Experiments were performed in the presence and in the absence of peppermint oil (Mentha piperita). Our results showed that peppermint oil decreased the viscosity of the gels and permeation of phenolic compounds from all gel samples. Results show that the highest content of phenolic compounds (1.758 μg cm(-2)) permeated in vitro from gel based on Carbopol Ultrez 20 without peppermint oil added (p<0.05 vs. other tested polymers). PMID:26011934

  17. Digestive enzymes activity in subsequent generations of Cameraria ohridella larvae harvested from horse chestnut trees after treatment with imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Stygar, Dominika; Michalczyk, Katarzyna; Dolezych, Bogdan; Nakonieczny, Miroslaw; Migula, Pawel; Zaak, Maria; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Karcz-Socha, Iwona; Kukla, Michal; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Buldak, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we describe the effect of chloronicotinoid pesticide (imidacloprid) on the digestive enzymes activity of the Cameraria ohridella larvae after lasting 1 year sublethal exposure to imidacloprid pesticide. Caterpillars - L4 stage (fourth instar, hyperphagic tissue-feeding phase) - were collected from chemically protected white horse chestnut trees 1 year after imidacloprid treatment, and compared with caterpillars collected from non-treated trees in a previous study. Enzymes activity of α-amylase, disaccharidases, glycosidases and proteases was assayed. The presence of pesticide in ingested food changed the digestive enzymes profile of caterpillars. The analysis of correlations between different digestive enzymes showed many significant correlations (P<0.05) among glycolytic activities like β-glucosidase and α-galactosidase activities. Statistically significant correlations for proteolytic activity were found between trypsin and chymotrypsin activity and aminopeptidase activity that occurred only in the 1st generation. PCA distinguished five primary components with eigenvalues higher than 1, from which the first two explain almost 59% of analyzed results. Surprisingly, in the pesticide treated groups significantly higher activities of sucrase and lactase in relation to control were found. In general, glycosidase (α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase) activities showed a similar pattern of activity in different generations. These results contrast with those obtained with control larvae, where significant differences in activities of α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase may result from the different quantity and quality food intake by subsequent generations of larvae. No inter-generation differences in total proteolytic activity were observed in treated larvae. The absolute value of total proteolytic activity was higher than that in the control group. The pesticide present in the vascular system of the horse chestnut

  18. Rational therapy of chronic venous insufficiency – chances and limits of the therapeutic use of horse-chestnut seeds extract

    PubMed Central

    Ottillinger, Bertram; Greeske, Karin

    2001-01-01

    Background and methods We report two clinical studies, one already published, performed in patients with early and advanced chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). In both, compression therapy and oral therapy with horse-chestnut seeds extracts (HCSE) were compared to placebo. Results The published study in early CVI (Grade I) showed HCSE and compression to be superior to placebo and to be equivalent to each other in reducing lower leg volume, a measure for oedema. In the study, in advanced CVI (Grade II and IIIa), compression appeared to be superior to placebo, whereas HCSE was not. HCSE fared better in Grade II than in Grade IIIa patients. These results are discussed in the light of data from an in vitro model, where HCSE has been able to close the intercellular gaps in the venular endothelium. Not fully specified factors lead to an opening of these gaps, resulting in oedema as well as in local coagulation and thrombosis. The subsequent inflammation keeps these gaps open and initiates and maintains a chronic disease process, which may be the starting point of CVI. Conclusion Due to its ability to close the venular endothelial gaps, HCSE seems to be a suitable and protecting therapy during the early stages of CVI. In later more severe stages compression therapy is indicated. Taking into account the observed negative impact of compression on quality of life, pharmacological CVI therapy should start early to avoid progress and to spare patients compression therapy. PMID:11747472

  19. Bioavailability of beta-aescin from horse chestnut seed extract: comparative clinical studies of two Galenic formulations.

    PubMed

    Bässler, Dagmar; Okpanyi, Samuel; Schrödter, Andreas; Loew, Dieter; Schürer, Michael; Schulz, Hans-Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    The bioavailability of beta-aescin--the main active constituent of horse chestnut seed extract--in a nonretarded test medication in comparison with that in a retarded reference formulation was evaluated in 2 randomized crossover clinical trials involving 18 healthy volunteers each. Serum concentration/time curves derived under steady-state conditions and pharmacokinetic parameters measured during both studies showed no significant difference between absorption rates for the retarded versus nonretarded preparation. In the first study, investigators found a test-to-reference ratio of 1.06 (90% confidence interval [CI] range: 99-113) for the area under the curve (AUC; the primary outcome measure). Absorption rates were diminished during the night compared with daytime rates for both study preparations. In the second study, using AUC and maximum concentration (Cmax) as the primary characteristics, investigators analyzed bioavailability based on the mean of 2 consecutive daytime periods and obtained estimates of 1.07 for AUC (90% CI range: 0.96-1.19) and 1.05 for Cmax (90% CI range: 0.90-1.21). Bioequivalence of the test and reference drug preparations was thus established according to the Note for Guidance on the Investigation of Bioavailability and Bioequivalence. Both treatments were equally well tolerated. PMID:14964349

  20. The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time.

    PubMed

    Koskella, Britt; Parr, Nicole

    2015-08-19

    Insight to the spatial and temporal scales of coevolution is key to predicting the outcome of host-parasite interactions and spread of disease. For bacteria infecting long-lived hosts, selection to overcome host defences is just one factor shaping the course of evolution; populations will also be competing with other microbial species and will themselves be facing infection by bacteriophage viruses. Here, we examine the temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial adaptation against natural phage populations from within leaves of horse chestnut trees. Using a time-shift experiment with both sympatric and allopatric phages from either contemporary or earlier points in the season, we demonstrate that bacterial resistance is higher against phages from the past, regardless of spatial sympatry or how much earlier in the season phages were collected. Similarly, we show that future bacterial hosts are more resistant to both sympatric and allopatric phages than contemporary bacterial hosts. Together, our results suggest the evolution of relatively general bacterial resistance against phages in nature and are contrasting to previously observed patterns of phage adaptation to bacteria from the same tree hosts over the same time frame, indicating a potential asymmetry in coevolutionary dynamics. PMID:26150663

  1. The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time

    PubMed Central

    Koskella, Britt; Parr, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Insight to the spatial and temporal scales of coevolution is key to predicting the outcome of host–parasite interactions and spread of disease. For bacteria infecting long-lived hosts, selection to overcome host defences is just one factor shaping the course of evolution; populations will also be competing with other microbial species and will themselves be facing infection by bacteriophage viruses. Here, we examine the temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial adaptation against natural phage populations from within leaves of horse chestnut trees. Using a time-shift experiment with both sympatric and allopatric phages from either contemporary or earlier points in the season, we demonstrate that bacterial resistance is higher against phages from the past, regardless of spatial sympatry or how much earlier in the season phages were collected. Similarly, we show that future bacterial hosts are more resistant to both sympatric and allopatric phages than contemporary bacterial hosts. Together, our results suggest the evolution of relatively general bacterial resistance against phages in nature and are contrasting to previously observed patterns of phage adaptation to bacteria from the same tree hosts over the same time frame, indicating a potential asymmetry in coevolutionary dynamics. PMID:26150663

  2. Determination of escin content in androgenic embryos and hairy root culture of Aesculus hippocastanum.

    PubMed

    Calić-Dragosavac, Dusica; Zdravković-Korać, Snezana; Savikin-Fodulović, Katarina; Radojević, Ljiljana; Vinterhalter, Branka

    2010-05-01

    Escin, a group of chemically related triterpenic glycosides, is widely used in commercial preparations for the treatment of venous insufficiency. Since the zygotic embryo cotyledons accumulate the highest amount of escin, it is currently extracted from the seeds of horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae), on a large scale. As this material is available during only short period of the year, we studied the possibility of using plant tissue culture to obtain escin. For this purpose, the content of escin in androgenic embryos and hairy root cultures of horse chestnut was studied. Escin content was found to be dependent on the stage of androgenic embryo development and the type of phytoregulator supplemented to the nutritive medium. In the absence of phytoregulators, androgenic embryos at the globular stage of development contained approximately four times less escin than those at the cotyledonary stage. Inclusion of various phytoregulators in the nutritive media stimulated escin production. Among them, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) showed the most pronounced effect, with escin content almost reaching that found in zygotic embryos (6.77% versus 6.96%). Two hairy root clones produced substantial amounts of escin (3.57% and 4.09%), less than zygotic embryos, but higher than cotyledonary embryos on phytoregulator-free medium. PMID:20645800

  3. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers reveal a Balkan origin for the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    Valade, R; Kenis, M; Hernandez-Lopez, A; Augustin, S; Mari Mena, N; Magnoux, E; Rougerie, R; Lakatos, F; Roques, A; Lopez-Vaamonde, C

    2009-08-01

    Biological invasions usually start with a small number of founder individuals. These founders are likely to represent a small fraction of the total genetic diversity found in the source population. Our study set out to trace genetically the geographical origin of the horse-chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella, an invasive microlepidopteran whose area of origin is still unkown. Since its discovery in Macedonia 25 years ago, this insect has experienced an explosive westward range expansion, progressively colonizing all of Central and Western Europe. We used cytochrome oxidase I sequences (DNA barcode fragment) and a set of six polymorphic microsatellites to assess the genetic variability of C. ohridella populations, and to test the hypothesis that C. ohridella derives from the southern Balkans (Albania, Macedonia and Greece). Analysis of mtDNA of 486 individuals from 88 localities allowed us to identify 25 geographically structured haplotypes. In addition, 480 individuals from 16 populations from Europe and the southern Balkans were genotyped for 6 polymorphic microsatellite loci. High haplotype diversity and low measures of nucleotide diversities including a significantly negative Tajima's D indicate that C. ohridella has experienced rapid population expansion during its dispersal across Europe. Both mtDNA and microsatellites show a reduction in genetic diversity of C. ohridella populations sampled from artificial habitats (e.g. planted trees in public parks, gardens, along roads in urban or sub-urban areas) across Europe compared with C. ohridella sampled in natural stands of horse-chestnuts in the southern Balkans. These findings suggest that European populations of C. ohridella may indeed derive from the southern Balkans. PMID:19627490

  4. Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    distribution of meteorological variables and parameters. In particular, more severe conditions during spring and summer are expected, especially in the Mediterranean area, with less precipitation and higher temperatures. All these changes will have impacts on chestnut fruits and wood in Europe. Dinis, L-T. J., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Peixoto, F., Costa, R. e Gomes-Laranjo, J., 2011: Study of morphological and chemical diversity in chestnut trees (var. 'Judia') as a function of temperature sum. Cyta- Journal of food, 9(3): 192-199 Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy, Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland. Proceedings of the International Chestnut Conference, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 10-14 July 1992, 175-178. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. Wilczynski, S. And Podlaski, R, 2007: The effect of climate on radial growth of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland, J.For.Res., 12, 24-23.

  5. Volatile emissions from Aesculus hippocastanum induced by mining of larval stages of Cameraria ohridella influence oviposition by conspecific females.

    PubMed

    Johne, A Bettina; Weissbecker, Bernhard; Schütz, Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Larval stages of the horse chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella can completely destroy the surface of horse chestnut leaves, Aesculus hippocastanum. This study investigated the effect of the degree of leaf browning caused by the insect's larvae on olfactory detection, aggregation, and oviposition of C. ohridella adults. The influence of A. hippocastanum flower scent on oviposition of the first generation was also evaluated. Utilizing gas chromatography coupled with parallel detection by mass spectrometry and electroantennography (GC-MS/EAD), more than 30 compounds eliciting responses from antennae of C. ohridella were detected. Oviposition and mining by C. ohridella caused significant changes in the profile of leaf volatiles of A. hippocastanum. After oviposition and subsequent mining by early larval stages (L1-L3), substances such as benzaldehyde, 1,8-cineole, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, methyl salicylate, (E)-beta-caryophyllene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene were emitted in addition to the compounds emitted by uninfested leaves. Insects were able to detect these compounds. The emitted amount of these substances increased with progressive larval development. During late larval stages (L4, L5) and severe loss of green leaf area, (E,E)-2,4-hexadienal, (E/Z)-linalool oxide (furanoid), nonanal, and decanal were also released by leaves. These alterations of the profile of volatiles caused modifications in aggregation of C. ohridella on leaves. In choice tests, leaves in early infestation stages showed no significant effect on aggregation, whereas insects avoided leaves in late infestation stages. Further choice tests with leaves treated with single compounds led to the identification of substances mediating an increase or decrease in oviposition. PMID:17001531

  6. Beta-escin, a natural triterpenoid saponin from Chinese horse chestnut seeds, depresses HL-60 human leukaemia cell proliferation and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yang P; Wu, Li M; Jiang, Yan L; Wang, Wen X; Li, Lian D

    2008-09-01

    Beta-escin, a natural triterpenoid saponin isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut, is known to generate a wide variety of biochemical and pharmacological effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the apoptotic and antiproliferative activity of beta-escin in HL-60 human acute myeloid leukaemia cells. Antiproliferative activity was examined by soft agar colony assay and the trypan blue exclusion method. Apoptotic activity was evaluated by morphological analysis, annexin V analysis, DNA fragmentation analysis and flow cytometry cell cycle analysis. The results showed that beta-escin caused a significant inhibition of HL-60 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Morphological evidence of apoptosis, including vacuolization, apoptotic nuclei fragmentation and apoptotic body formation, was observed in cells treated with 30 microg mL(-1) of beta-escin for 24, 48 and 72 h. A significant increase in the population of annexin V+ and PI- cells (early apoptotic) among the total cells was observed in cells treated with beta-escin (30-50 microg mL(-1)) for 24 h (P<0.001). Typical DNA ladders, DNA with a unit length of about 180 bp, were detected in cells treated with beta-escin (30-50 microg mL(-1)) for 48 h by agarose gel electrophoresis. Flow cytometry cell cycle analysis revealed that beta-escin (30-50 microg mL(-1)) induced G1-S arrest and led to a significant accumulation of the sub-G1 population in HL-60 cells (P<0.05). Taken together, the results demonstrate that beta-escin is a potent natural inhibitor of cell proliferation and inducer of apoptosis in HL-60 acute myeloid leukaemia cells. The results indicate that beta-escin may be a useful candidate agent for exploring potential antileukaemic drugs. PMID:18718126

  7. Orbital decompression surgery and horse chestnut seed extract improved superior orbital vein blood flow in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Jie; Wei, Xin; Xiao, Man-Yi; Xiong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy and safety of orbital decomposition (OD) surgery in combination with horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE), as compared to OD alone, in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). METHODS Sixty-two orbits from 62 TAO patients were randomly assigned to OD or OD+HCSE at 1:1 ratio (31 received OD alone, 31 received OD+HCSE). Forty-two orbits from 21 healthy subjects were used as controls. Complete ophthalmic examination and color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) were performed before surgery and 3mo post-surgery on all 62 orbits from the TAO patients. CDFI were also performed on the 42 control orbits. The effect of OD+HCSE and OD alone on TAO orbits was compared on several endpoints, including superior ophthalmic vein blood flow (SOVBF) parameters, subjective assessment, soft tissue involvement, lid retraction, diplopia, eye movement restriction, degree of exophthalmos, and intraocular pressure. The control orbits were used as reference for the SOVBF parameters. RESULTS OD surgery with or without HCSE improved SOVBF, symptoms and soft tissue involvement, decreased degree of exophthalmos and intraocular pressure in orbits of TAO patients. The OD+HCSE combination led to significantly better improvement of SOVBF than OD alone. The differences between the reductions of SOVBF in the two groups are 1.26 cm/s in max-volecity and 0.52 cm/s in min-volecity (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION SOVBF is significantly reduced in the orbits affected with TAO, indicating that congestion may be an important factor contributing to TAO pathogenesis. OD surgery improves the SOVBF, and combination of HCSE medication and OD surgery further improved venous return than OD surgery alone. PMID:27366690

  8. Assessing potential changes of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Calheiros, Tomas; Pinto, Joaquim; Caramelo, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    International Chestnut Conference, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 10-14 July 1992, 175-178. Wilczynski, S. And Podlaski, R, 2007: "The effect of climate on radial growth of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland", J.For.Res., 12, 24-23. Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: "Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy", Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Dinis, L.T,Peixoto, F., Pinto, T., Costa, R.Bennett, R. N., and Gomes-Laranjo,J., 2011: "Study of morphological and phonological diversity in chestnut trees (Judia variety) as a function of temperature sum". Environ. Exp Bot., 70, 110-120. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: "Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity". Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. This work was supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692.

  9. Horses

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of humans and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant some antibiotics. Horses carrying MRSA might not necessarily show clinical ...

  10. The content of phenolic compounds in leaf tissues of Aesculus glabra and Aesculus parviflora walt.

    PubMed

    Oszmiański, Jan; Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna; Biernat, Agata

    2015-01-01

    In plants, flavonoids play an important role in biological processes. They are involved in UV-scavenging, fertility and disease resistance. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in Aesculus parviflora Walt. leaves and Aesculus glabra leaves partly suffering from attack by a leaf mining insect (C. ohridella). A total of 28 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in Aesculus parviflora and A. glabra leaf extracts. Significantly decreased concentrations of some phenolic compounds, especially of flavan-3-ols, were observed in infected leaves compared to the non-infected ones. Additionally, a higher content of polymeric procyanidins in leaves of Aesculus parviflora than in Aesculus glabra may explain their greater resistance to C. ohridella insects. PMID:25635381

  11. 110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, WEST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  12. Influence of extrahent on antioxidant capacity of Aesculus hippocastanum seeds.

    PubMed

    Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Kędzierski, Bartosz; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the optimisation of horse chestnut seed extraction was performed to determine the best extraction solvent in the recovery of pharmacologically active escin from raw material. All extracts were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction and were analysed for their antioxidant potential (DPPH test), phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay) and escin content (ESI-TOF-MS extracts profiling). Methanol was found to recover the highest amount of escin from the plant matrix as well as to produce the most active antiradical solutions rich in polyphenols. Radical scavenging properties of methanol extracts were calculated as 2 GAE in DPPH test and 23 GAE (mg/g) in FC assay. Quantitative analysis of extracts performed by ESI-TOF-MS measurements in ion-positive mode confirmed the presence of four major escin isomers in the extracts and showed that the high antioxidant potential of methanolic extracts went hand in hand with the highest content of escin (8.92%). PMID:25109836

  13. Flavonoids from the flowers of Aesculus hippocastanum.

    PubMed

    Dudek-Makuch, Marlena; Matławska, Irena

    2011-01-01

    The flavonoids, kaempferol derivatives: 3-O-alpha-arabinofuranoside, 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-O-beta-glucopyranoside and quercetin derivatives: 3-O-alpha-arabinofuranoside, 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-O-beta-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the flowers of Aesculus hippocastanum and identified. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a chemical analysis and spectrophotometric methods (UV, 1H-, 13C-NMR, ESI-MS). The presence of free aglycones: kaempferol and quercetin was confirmed chromatographically by comparison with standards. PMID:21648195

  14. Biological control of chestnut blight.

    PubMed

    Anagnostakis, S L

    1982-01-29

    After 77 years of being attacked by the chestnut blight fungus, American chestnut trees continue to sprout from gradually declining root systems. The blight fungus in Italy is now associated with virus-like agents that limit its pathogenicity, and attempts have been made to introduce these controlling agents into the blight fungus in the United States. If a way can be found to help the spread here of strains of the fungus with controlling agents, it may be possible to save the American chestnut trees in our eastern forests. PMID:17771259

  15. Pavietin, a coumarin from Aesculus pavia with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Curir, Paolo; Galeotti, Francesco; Dolci, Marcello; Barile, Elisa; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2007-10-01

    A new prenylated coumarin, S-6-[2-(hydroxymethyl)butoxy]-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2 H-chromen-2-one ( 1), named pavietin, has been isolated from the leaves of an Aesculus pavia genotype along with three known flavonol glycosides, quercetin 3- O-alpha-rhamnoside (quercitrin, 2), quercetin 3- O-alpha-arabinoside ( 3), and isorhamnetin 3- O-alpha-arabinoside (distichin, 4). The chemical structure of compound 1 was determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods, inclusive of UV, MS, and 1D and 2D NMR experiments. It showed appreciable antimicrobial properties against several pathogens, displaying a significant antifungal activity toward one of the main fungal parasites of Aesculus species, Guignardia aesculi. The same biological tests performed with a mixture of flavonoids 2- 4 resulted in weak or no activity. Compound 1 was undetectable in Aesculus hippocastanum, a closely related species lacking resistance to fungal pathogens. The possible role of 1 in plant resistance is discussed. PMID:17914881

  16. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  17. Information Files for Old Chestnuts and Chestnut Nags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetros, John G.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of an up-to-date information file is discussed, using the quest for the name of Paul Revere's horse as an example. A list of Famous Riders and Their Horses'' is included as an indication of the type material to be included in an information file. (SM)

  18. Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum.

    PubMed

    Green, Sarah; Studholme, David J; Laue, Bridget E; Dorati, Federico; Lovell, Helen; Arnold, Dawn; Cottrell, Joan E; Bridgett, Stephen; Blaxter, Mark; Huitema, Edgar; Thwaites, Richard; Sharp, Paul M; Jackson, Robert W; Kamoun, Sophien

    2010-01-01

    A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae), is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae). On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae), isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree. PMID:20419105

  19. Chestnut, American (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Maynard, Charles A; McGuigan, Linda D; Oakes, Allison D; Zhang, Bo; Newhouse, Andrew E; Northern, Lilibeth C; Chartrand, Allison M; Will, Logan R; Baier, Kathleen M; Powell, William A

    2015-01-01

    The key to successful transformation of American chestnut is having the correct combination of explant tissue, selectable markers, a very robust DNA delivery system, and a reliable regeneration system. The most important components of this transformation protocol for American chestnut are the following: starting out with rapidly dividing somatic embryos, treating the embryos gently throughout the Agrobacterium inoculation and cocultivation steps, doing the cocultivation step in desiccation plates, and finally transferring the embryos into temporary-immersion bioreactors for selection. None of these departures from standard Agrobacterium transformation protocols is sufficient by itself to achieve transgenic American chestnut, but each component makes a difference, resulting in a highly robust protocol. The average transformation efficiency that can be expected using the described protocol is approximately 170 stable embryogenic transformation events per gram of somatic embryo tissue, a considerable improvement over the 20 transformation events per gram we reported in 2006 (Maynard et al. American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) Agrobacterium protocols, 2nd ed., 2006). We have regenerated nearly 100 of these events, containing 23 different gene constructs, into whole plants. As of the fall of 2013, we had a total of 1,275 transgenic chestnut trees planted at eight locations in New York State and one in Virginia. Based on a combination of field-trial inoculations, greenhouse small-stem inoculations, and detached-leaf assays, we have identified three transgenes that produce stronger resistance to chestnut blight than non-transgenic American chestnut. Depending on the transgene and the event, this resistance can be either intermediate between American chestnut and Chinese chestnut, approximately equal to or even higher than the resistance naturally found in Chinese chestnut. PMID:25416256

  20. Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

    2009-04-01

    Meteorological conditions play a fundamental role during entire chestnut tree vegetative cycle. Chestnut trees are well adapted to mean year temperatures of 8-15°C, requires monthly mean temperatures greater than 10°C during 6 months (Gomes-Laranjo et al. 2008) and its pollen only germinates at relatively high temperatures of 27-30°C (Bounous, 2002). Photosynthesis of an adult tree is highly dependent of temperature. Photosynthesis is maximal at 24-28°C but it is inhibited for temperatures greater than 32°C (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). Furthermore, there are significant differences between chestnut trees cultivated in northfaced orchads in relation to those cultivated in the southfaced and between leaves from different sides of the chestnut canopy because they receive different amounts of radiant energy and consequently they grow under different mean daily air temperature. The objective of this work was to assess the role of weather on chestnut production variability. This study was performed for the 28 years period defined between 1980 and 2007 and it was based on annual values of chestnut production and total area of production, at national level, provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal. The meteorological data used was provided by Meteored (http://www.meteored.com/) and includes daily values of precipitation, wind speed, and mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. All meteorological variables were tested as potential predictors by means of a simple correlation analysis. Multiple time intervals were considered in this the analysis, which consist in moving intervals of constant length and forward and backward evolutionary intervals. Results show that some meteorological variables present significant correlation with chestnut productivity particularly in the most relevant periods of the chestnut tree cycle, like the previous winter, the flushing phase and the maturation period. A regression model based on the winter (January

  1. Effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel.

    PubMed

    Kan, Lina; Li, Qian; Xie, Shuangshuang; Hu, Jiaqi; Wu, Yanwen; Ouyang, Jie

    2016-10-20

    The present study focused on the effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel. After thermal processing, the total starch content in both boiled and roasted chestnuts decreased significantly (P<0.05), while the amylose content of boiled chestnut increased and that of roasted chestnut remained stable. The granular microstructure of the starch in cooked chestnut was gradually destroyed during the thermal processing. The starch in cooked chestnut still exhibited C-type X-ray diffraction patterns, but the intensity of diffraction peaks and the crystallinity were obviously declined compared with those of fresh chestnut. Textural profile analysis of chestnut starch gel and chestnut kernel showed that the main textural characterizations of roasted chestnut were higher than those of boiled chestnuts. These results are helpful for better understanding the texture change in fresh, boiled and roasted chestnuts, which indicated that roasting is an alternative industrial thermal processing method for chestnut kernel. PMID:27474607

  2. Enhancement of American chestnut somatic seedling production.

    PubMed

    Andrade, G M; Merkle, S A

    2005-08-01

    Somatic embryogenesis holds promise for mass propagation of American chestnut trees bred or genetically engineered for resistance to chestnut blight. However, low germination frequency of chestnut somatic embryos has limited somatic seedling production for this forest tree. We tested the effects of culture regime (semi-solid versus liquid), cold treatment, AC and somatic embryo morphology (i.e., cotyledon number) on germination and conversion of the somatic embryos. Cold treatment for 12 weeks was critical for conversion of chestnut somatic embryos to somatic seedlings, raising conversion frequencies for one line to 47%, compared to 7% with no cold treatment. AC improved germination and conversion frequency for one line to 77% and 59%, respectively, and kept roots from darkening. For two lines that produced embryos with one, two or three-plus cotyledons, cotyledon number did not affect germination or conversion frequency. We also established embryogenic American chestnut suspension cultures and adapted a fractionation/plating system that allowed us to produce populations of relatively synchronous somatic embryos for multiple lines. Embryos derived from suspension cultures of two lines tested had higher conversion frequencies (46% and 48%) than those from cultures maintained on semi-solid medium (7% and 30%). The improvements in manipulation of American chestnut embryogenic cultures described in this study have allowed over a 100-fold increase in somatic seedling production efficiency over what we reported previously and thus constitute a substantial advance toward the application of somatic embryogenesis for mass clonal propagation of the tree. PMID:15789206

  3. 7. NORTH SIDE CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) BETWEEN THIRD (left) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NORTH SIDE CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) BETWEEN THIRD (left) AND BREAD (right) STS., SHOWING OLD BUILDINGS - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 16. INDEPENDENCE HALL LOOKING SOUTH ON CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INDEPENDENCE HALL LOOKING SOUTH ON CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) BETWEEN SIXTH (right) AND FIFTH (left) STS. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 8. CHESTNUT ST. (vertical line) LOOKING WEST BETWEEN FIFTH (upper) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CHESTNUT ST. (vertical line) LOOKING WEST BETWEEN FIFTH (upper) AND FOURTH (lower) STS., SHOWING SECOND BANK OF U.S. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, CHESTNUT ST. (lower horizontal line) TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, CHESTNUT ST. (lower horizontal line) TO WALNUT ST. (upper horizontal line), SHOWING SECOND BANK OF U.S. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Three new triterpene saponins from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Yang, X W; Hattori, M

    2001-05-01

    Three new triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis, and characterized as 22-tigloylprotoaescigenin 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)] [beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)]-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (escin IVg, 1), 22-angeloylprotoaescigenin 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)] [beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)]-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (escin IVh, 2) and 16-angeloyl-21-acetylprotoaescigenin 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)] [beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)]-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (escin VIb, 3), together with two known compounds, escin IIIa (4) and desacylescin 1 (5). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence. PMID:11383619

  8. Assessment of the chestnut production weather dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Caramelo, Liliana; Gouveia, Célia; Gomes-Laranjo, José

    2010-05-01

    The vegetative cycle of chestnut trees is highly dependent on weather. Photosynthesis and pollen germination are mainly conditioned by the air temperature while heavy precipitation and strong wind have significant impacts during the flushing phase period (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). In Portugal, chestnut tree orchads are located in mountainous areas of the Northeast region of Trás-os-Montes, between 600 and 1000 m of altitude. Topography controls the atmospheric environment and assures adequate conditions for the chestnut production. In the above mentioned context, remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise vegetation dynamics. A number of studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in Europe to analyse the year-to-year variations in European vegetation greenness as a function of precipitation and temperature (Gouveia et al., 2008). A previous study focusing on the relationship between meteorological variables and chestnut productivity provides indication that simulation models may benefit from the incorporation of such kind of relationships. The aim of the present work is to provide a detailed description of recent developments, in particular of the added value that may be brought by using satellite data. We have relied on regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset, at 8-km resolution, provided by the Global Inventory Monitoring and Modelling System (GIMMS) group. The data are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR), and cover the period from 1982 to 2006. Additionally we have used the chestnut productivity dataset, which includes the annual values of chestnut production and area of production provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal and the meteorological dataset which includes values of several variables from different providers (Meteorod, NCEP/NCAR, ECA&D and national Meteorological Institute). Results show that

  9. Two methods of assessing the mortality factors affecting the larvae and pupae of Cameraria ohridella in the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum in Switzerland and Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Girardoz, S; Tomov, R; Eschen, R; Quicke, D L J; Kenis, M

    2007-10-01

    The horse-chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella, is an invasive alien species defoliating horse-chestnut, a popular ornamental tree in Europe. This paper presents quantitative data on mortality factors affecting larvae and pupae of the leaf miner in Switzerland and Bulgaria, both in urban and forest environments. Two sampling methods were used and compared: a cohort method, consisting of the surveying of pre-selected mines throughout their development, and a grab sampling method, consisting of single sets of leaves collected and dissected at regular intervals. The total mortality per generation varied between 14 and 99%. Mortality was caused by a variety of factors, including parasitism, host feeding, predation by birds and arthropods, plant defence reaction, leaf senescence, intra-specific competition and inter-specific competition with a fungal disease. Significant interactions were found between mortality factors and sampling methods, countries, environments and generation. No mortality factor was dominant throughout the sites, generations and methods tested. Plant defence reactions constituted the main mortality factor for the first two larval stages, whereas predation by birds and arthropods and parasitism were more important in older larvae and pupae. Mortality caused by leaf senescence was often the dominant mortality factor in the last annual generation. The cohort method detected higher mortality rates than the grab sampling method. In particular, mortality by plant defence reaction and leaf senescence were better assessed using the cohort method, which is, therefore, recommended for life table studies on leaf miners. PMID:17916263

  10. Fossil Horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFadden, Bruce J.

    1994-06-01

    The family Equidae have an extensive fossil record spanning the past 58 million years, and the evolution of the horse has frequently been used as a classic example of long-term evolution. In recent years, however, there have been many important discoveries of fossil horses, and these, in conjunction with such new methods as cladistics, and techniques such as precise geochronology, have allowed us to achieve a much greater understanding of the evolution and biology of this important group. This book synthesizes the large body of data and research relevant to an understanding of fossil horses from several disciplines including biology, geology and paleontology. Using horses as the central theme, the author weaves together in the text such topics as modern geochronology, paleobiogeography, climate change, evolution and extinction, functional morphology, and population biology during the Cenozoic period. This book will be exciting reading for researchers and graduate students in vertebrate paleontology, evolution, and zoology.

  11. Chestnut bark tannin assays and growth of chestnut blight fungus on extracted tannin.

    PubMed

    Anagnostakis, S L

    1992-08-01

    Tannins extracted from the green bark of each of two Chinese, Japanese, and American chestnut trees were assayed in a protein-binding test. Four levels of tannins were added to a buffered, minimal growth medium, and a standard, virulent strain of the chestnut blight fungus was grown. There were only slight differences in protein binding between the extracts from different species. Fungal growth was better with tannin than without, but there was no difference between species extracts in their ability to improve fungal growth rate. There was also no inhibition of blight fungus growth by any of the tree tannins, so tannin toxicity is not the reason for Asian chestnut tree resistance. PMID:24254212

  12. 6. VIEW FROM CHESTNUT ST. (upper), WALNUT ST. (lower) THIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM CHESTNUT ST. (upper), WALNUT ST. (lower) THIRD ST. (right) AND FOURTH ST. (left), SHOWING CARPENTERS HALL, FIRST BANK OF U.S. AND SECOND BANK OF U.S. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 97. Catalog B, Higher Plants, 200 2 American Chestnut Tree, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. Catalog B, Higher Plants, 200 2 American Chestnut Tree, Negative No. 6032 (Photographer and date unknown) THIS GHOST FOREST OF BLIGHTED CHESTNUTS ONCE STOOD APPROXIMATELY AT THE LOCATION OF THE BYRD VISITOR CENTER. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  14. Islands of Chestnut Trees Castanea dentata (Marsh) Borkh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surrarrer, T. C.; Laurence, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to emphasize the importance of conserving the genetic pool of the American chestnut stock. Readers are encouraged to seek sprouts and plant them in islands so they can grow and survive. The authors describe the diseases that have effected the chestnut tree. (PR)

  15. Testing the monophyly of Aesculus L. and Billia Peyr., woody genera of tribe Hippocastaneae of the Sapindaceae.

    PubMed

    Harris, A J; Fu, Chengxin; Xiang, Qiu-Yun Jenny; Holland, LaRinda; Wen, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Hippocastaneae is a well-supported clade in Sapindaceae that comprises 15+ species; 12+ in Aesculus, two in Billia, and one in Handeliodendron Rehder. The monophyly of Aesculus and Billia were widely assumed, but a recent molecular phylogenetic study of Sapindanceae used seven species of Aesculus and one each of Billia and Handeliodendron and showed that Billia and Handeliodendron were nested within Aesculus. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Aesculus and Billia are mutually monophyletic using phylogenetic analyses of seven molecular markers and 31 accessions of Hippocastaneae representing 14 species. We performed phylogenetic analyses using a dataset of concatenated genes as well as with coalescent method for constructing a species tree from individual gene trees. The analysis of seven concatenated markers and the species tree strongly supported the mutual monophyly of Aesculus and Billia. We also recovered support for the traditional arrangement of genera within Hippocastaneae: Aesculus and Billia comprising a clade that is sister to Handeliodendron. However, the relationships among the genera remain incompletely resolved. PMID:27268715

  16. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Tian; Zheng, Fu-Shan; Qin, Jing; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby) is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.). To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb) and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC), central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC) and southwestern China (SWC) based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900-126,500 years ago. PMID:27459279

  17. Chestnut resistance to the blight disease: insights from transcriptome analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A century ago, Chestnut Blight Disease (CBD) devastated the American chestnut. Backcross breeding has been underway to introgress resistance from Chinese chestnut into surviving American chestnut genotypes. Development of genomic resources for the family Fagaceae, has focused in this project on Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut) and Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh (American chestnut) to aid in the backcross breeding effort and in the eventual identification of blight resistance genes through genomic sequencing and map based cloning. A previous study reported partial characterization of the transcriptomes from these two species. Here, further analyses of a larger dataset and assemblies including both 454 and capillary sequences were performed and defense related genes with differential transcript abundance (GDTA) in canker versus healthy stem tissues were identified. Results Over one and a half million cDNA reads were assembled into 34,800 transcript contigs from American chestnut and 48,335 transcript contigs from Chinese chestnut. Chestnut cDNA showed higher coding sequence similarity to genes in other woody plants than in herbaceous species. The number of genes tagged, the length of coding sequences, and the numbers of tagged members within gene families showed that the cDNA dataset provides a good resource for studying the American and Chinese chestnut transcriptomes. In silico analysis of transcript abundance identified hundreds of GDTA in canker versus healthy stem tissues. A significant number of additional DTA genes involved in the defense-response not reported in a previous study were identified here. These DTA genes belong to various pathways involving cell wall biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA), abscissic acid (ABA), and hormone signalling. DTA genes were also identified in the hypersensitive response and programmed cell death (PCD) pathways. These DTA genes are candidates

  18. Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gouveia, C.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Magalhães, M.

    2011-10-01

    Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i) a simulation model (R2-value = 87%) based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii) a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63%) with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

  19. Effect of chestnut extract and chestnut fiber on viability of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains under gastrointestinal tract conditions.

    PubMed

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; La Gatta, Barbara; Di Capua, Marika; Di Luccia, Aldo; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The main challenge to probiotics, during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract, are the acidic gastric secretions of the stomach, and the bile salts released into the duodenum. The survival of the strains, in this phase, is strongly influenced by the food used for their delivery. This work is part of a project studying the development of novel food processes, based on the use of chestnuts from cultivar "Castagna di Montella". In detail, the effect of indigestible chestnut fiber and of chestnut extract on the viability of selected lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated. Among 28 cultures, twelve strains were selected, on the basis of tolerance to low pH values and bile salts, and submitted to exposition to simulated gastric or bile juice in presence of chestnut extract with or without immobilization in chestnut fiber. The presence of chestnut extract proved to play a significant role on the gastric tolerance improvement of lactobacilli. The recorded protective effect could not be simply related to the starch or reducing sugars content. RP-HPLC demonstrated that in the chestnut flour, there are one or more hydrophobic peptides or oligopeptides, which specifically offer a marked resistance to simulated gastric juice, albeit present at low concentration. These beneficial effects proved to be dependent by the cultivar used to produce the flour. PMID:24010594

  20. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jing; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby) is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.). To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb) and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC), central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC) and southwestern China (SWC) based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900–126,500 years ago. PMID:27459279

  1. Yoghurt with candied chestnut: freeze drying, physical, and rheological behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sakin-Yilmazer, Melike; Dirim, S Nur; Di Pinto, Davide; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2014-12-01

    As a novel product, yoghurt powder was produced by freeze drying and with added candied chestnut puree at ratios of 5, 10, and 20 % by weight. During the freeze drying process, mass loss, water activity, and the moisture content of the samples were determined and the colour (Hunter L, a, b) of the yoghurt powder products was measured. Results showed that increasing the percentage of candied chestnut puree resulted in an increase in water activity, moisture content, and colour change values of the end product. The drying behaviour, drying rate versus free moisture content, was also investigated. It was observed that yoghurt with or without added candied chestnut puree could be satisfactorily freeze-dried. Moreover, the performance of the dried product was observed in a ready-to-use, reconstituted form. For this purpose, the obtained powders were reconstituted to their original moisture contents. Shear stress and apparent viscosity against shear rate in a range of 1-1,000 (1/sec) was then measured by a Haake-Mars rotary viscometer. According to the results, the apparent viscosities of reconstituted products, as plain yoghurt and the one with an added 5 % chestnut puree were lower than that of fresh yoghurt. However, reconstituted yoghurts containing 10 % and 20 % chestnut puree had apparent viscosities higher than fresh yoghurt. Power Law explained well the rheological behaviour of reconstituted yoghurt samples for the applied shear rate range. Based on rheological data and sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freeze dried yoghurt containing 10 % (w/w) candied chestnut puree was an acceptable novel product. PMID:25477665

  2. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana; De Sio, Antonio; Boniglia, Concetta; Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [ European Parliament and Council Directive, 1999/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of "Montella" chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  3. [Pharmaokinetics of beta-escin after administration of various Aesculus extract containing formulations].

    PubMed

    Oschmann, R; Biber, A; Lang, F; Stumpf, H; Kunz, K

    1996-08-01

    With a specific radioimmunoassay the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of escin was measured after administration of different formulations containing Aesculus-extract. Of special interest was the relative bioavailability of escin after administration of a newly developed film-coated tablet with sustained release in comparison to a reference formulation. In a cross-over steady-state study in 24 volunteers bioequivalence of test and reference preparation could be demonstrated. The 90% confidence interval of the AUC (O-tau) was 98.3 to 120.9%. PMID:8975251

  4. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelle, R H; Huff, D D

    1984-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables.

  5. Nondestructive detection of infested chestnuts based on NIR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect feeding is a significant postharvest problem for processors of Chestnuts (Castanea sativa, Miller). In most cases, damage from insects is 'hidden', i.e. not visually detectable on the fruit surface. Consequently, traditional sorting techniques, including manual sorting, are generally inadequa...

  6. Anti-obesity effects of escins extracted from the seeds of Aesculus turbinata BLUME (Hippocastanaceae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Han, Li-Kun; Saito, Masato; Sun, Yin-Shi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Zheng, Yi-Nan

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the anti-obesity effects of escins extracted from the seeds of Aesculus turbinata BLUME, anti-obesity models in vitro and in vivo were employed. In a preliminary experiment, different solvent fractions of Aesculus turbinata BlUME as well as two isolated compounds were tested for their effects on pancreatic lipase (PL) in vitro. Subsequently, female ICR mice were fed a high fat diet with or without different concentrations of total escins for 11 weeks to examine body weight, parametrial adipose tissue weight, and hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) contents. Plasma triacylglycerol levels (TG) after oral administration of lipid emulsions to rats were also investigated. The results showed that total escins (1 mg/ml) as well as two compounds isolated from total escins, namely escin Ib and IIa, showed inhibitory effects on PL activity. In vivo, total escins suppressed the increase in body weight, parametrial adipose tissue weight, TG content, and TC content in mice's liver; TG content in rat plasma was also reduced at 1, 2 and 3 h after oral administration of the lipid emulsion plus different concentrations of escins compared to those in the lipid emulsion groups. Meanwhile, mice fed a high fat diet plus 2% total escins for 3 d had an increased TG level in the feces compared to the HF group. The reason for this may be due to a delay in the intestinal absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting PL activity. PMID:18175967

  7. Electroantennographic responses of the lesser chestnut weevil curculio sayi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to volatile organic compounds identified from chestnut reproductive plant tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary insect pest of the developing chestnut industry in the central United States is the lesser chestnut weevil, Curculio sayi (Gyllenhal), which is a specialist on only Castanea trees. Recent research has shown this insect is attracted to and feeds upon the reproductive tissues of the chestn...

  8. Horse Nutrition and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...

  9. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. α-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

  10. A modified version of fluctuating asymmetry, potential for the analysis of Aesculus hippocastanum L. compound leaves.

    PubMed

    Velickovic, Miroslava

    2008-01-01

    My research interest was to create a new, simple and tractable mathematical framework for analyzing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in Aesculus hippocastanum L. palmately compound leaves (each compound leaf with 7 obviate, serrate leaflets). FA, being random differences in the development of both sides of a bilaterally symmetrical character, has been proposed as an indicator of environmental and genetic stress. In the present paper the well-established Palmer's procedure for FA has been modified to improve the suitability of the chosen index (FA1) to be used in compound leaf asymmetry analysis. The processing steps are described in detail, allowing us to apply these modifications for the other Palmer's indices of FA as well as for the compound leaves of other plant species. PMID:18604782

  11. Properties and substrate specificities of the phenylalanyl-transfer-ribonucleic acid synthetases of Aesculus species

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. W.; Fowden, L.

    1970-01-01

    1. Phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases have been partially purified from cotyledons of seeds of Aesculus californica, which contains 2-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid, and from four other species of Aesculus that do not contain this amino acid. The A. californica preparation was free from other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and the contaminating synthetase activity in preparations from A. hippocastanum was decreased to acceptable limits by conducting assays of pyrophosphate exchange activity in 0.5m-potassium chloride. 2. The phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase from each species activated 2-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid with Km 30–40 times that for phenylalanine. The maximum velocity for 2-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid was only 30% of that for phenylalanine with the A. californica enzyme, but the maximum velocities for the two substrates were identical for the other four species. 3. 2-Amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid was not found in the protein of A. californica, so discrimination against this amino acid probably occurs in the step of transfer to tRNA, though subcellular localization, or subsequent steps of protein synthesis could be involved. 4. Crotylglycine, methallylglycine, ethallylglycine, 2-aminohex-4,5-dienoic acid, 2-amino-5-methylhex-4-enoic acid, 2-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid, β-(thien-2-yl)alanine, β-(pyrazol-1-yl)alanine, phenylserine and m-fluorophenylalanine were substrates for pyrophosphate exchange catalysed by the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases of A. californica or A. hippocastanum. Allylglycine, phenylglycine and 2-amino-4-phenylbutyric acid were inactive. PMID:5493504

  12. Interaction between two invasive organisms on the European chestnut: does the chestnut blight fungus benefit from the presence of the gall wasp?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joana B; Gallien, Laure; Prospero, Simone

    2015-11-01

    The impact of invasive fungal pathogens and pests on trees is often studied individually, thereby omitting possible interactions. In this study the ecological interaction between the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was investigated. We determined if abandoned galls could be colonized by C. parasitica and thereby act as an entry point and a source of pathogen inoculum. Moreover we assessed the identity and diversity of other gall-colonizing fungal species. A total of 1973 galls were randomly sampled from 200 chestnut trees in eight Swiss stands. In a stand C. parasitica was isolated from 0.4-19.2% of the galls. The incidence of C. parasitica on the galls and the fungal diversity significantly increased with the residence time of D. kuriphilus in a stand. All but one C. parasitica cultures were virulent. The predominant fungus isolated from galls was Gnomoniopsis castanea whose abundance influenced negatively that of C. parasitica. This study shows that D. kuriphilus galls can be colonized by virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus C. parasitica. This can have effects on the chestnut blight incidence even in chestnut stands where the disease is successfully controlled by hypovirulence. The gall wasp presence influences also the fungal species composition on chestnut trees. PMID:26472577

  13. Coat colour and sex identification in horses from Iron Age Sweden.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Emma M; Telldahl, Ylva; Sjöling, Emma; Sundkvist, Anneli; Hulth, Helena; Sjøvold, Torstein; Götherström, Anders

    2012-01-20

    Domestication of animals and plants marked a turning point in human prehistory. To date archaeology, archaeozoology and genetics have shed light on when and where all of our major livestock species were domesticated. Phenotypic changes associated with domestication have occurred in all farm animals. Coat colour is one of the traits that have been subjected to the strongest human selection throughout history. Here we use genotyping of coat colour SNPs in horses to investigate whether there were any regional differences or preferences for specific colours associated with specific cultural traditions in Iron Age Sweden. We do this by identifying the sex and coat colour of horses sacrificed at Skedemosse, Öland (Sweden) during the Iron Age, as well as in horses from two sites in Uppland, Ultuna and Valsgärde (dated to late Iron Age). We show that bay, black and chestnut colours were all common and two horses with tobiano spotting were found. We also show how the combination of sex identification with genotyping of just a few SNPs underlying the basic coat colours can be used to identify the minimum number of individuals at a site on a higher level than morphological methods alone. Although separated by 500 km and from significantly different archaeological contexts the horses at Skedemosse and Ultuna are quite homogenous when it comes to coat colour phenotypes, indicating that there were no clear geographical variation in coat colouration in Sweden during the late Iron Age and early Viking Age. PMID:22154005

  14. Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pridnya, M.V.; Cherpakov, V.V.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1996-01-01

    Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

  15. Properties and substrate specificity of the leucyl-, the threonyl- and the valyl-transfer-ribonucleic acid synthetases from Aesculus species

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. W.; Fowden, L.

    1970-01-01

    1. Leucyl- and threonyl-tRNA synthetases were partially purified up to 100-fold and 30-fold respectively from cotyledons of Aesculus hippocastanum and were largely separated from the other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Valyl-tRNA synthetase was purified 25-fold from cotyledons of Aesculus californica. 2. Some properties are reported for the three enzymes when assayed by the [32P]pyrophosphate-ATP exchange technique. 3. β-(Methylenecyclopropyl)alanine, isoleucine, azaleucine, norleucine and γ-hydroxynorvaline acted as alternative substrates for the leucyl-tRNA synthetase; the enzyme's affinity for β-(methylenecyclopropyl)-alanine and for isoleucine was about 80-fold less than that exhibited for leucine. 4. α-Cyclopropylglycine and α-cyclobutylglycine acted as alternative substrates for the valyl-tRNA synthetase. PMID:5493505

  16. Ectomycorrhizal characterization of an American chestnut (Castanea dentata)-dominated community in Western Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jonathan M; Lindner, Daniel L; Volk, Thomas J

    2008-12-01

    Circa 1900, a farmer from the eastern US planted 11 American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seeds on a newly established farm near West Salem in western Wisconsin. These trees were very successful, producing a large stand of over 6,000 trees. Since this area is well outside the natural range of chestnut, these trees remained free from chestnut blight until 1987. In the West Salem stand, chestnuts are the dominant species of a mixed forest community, reminiscent of the chestnut-oak ecosystems of pre-1900 Appalachia. To identify putative mycorrhizal associates of chestnut in this unique forest, our approach was twofold: (1) an extensive fruiting body survey was conducted for four seasons that yielded approximately 100 putative mycorrhizal species and (2) a belowground molecular approach was used to generate DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region from ectomycorrhizae. Unexpectedly, chestnut did not appear to be the dominant underground ectomycorrhizal-forming plant species. This study highlights the need to identify the plant host species when conducting belowground molecular-based surveys and provides preliminary identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with a disjunct stand of American chestnut. PMID:18807258

  17. Detection of mold-damaged chestnuts by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mold infection is a significant postharvest problem for processors of chestnuts (Castanea sativa, Miller).Fungal disease causes direct loss of product or reduced value due to the lower-quality grade of the chest-nut lot. In most cases, fungal infection is not detectable using traditional sorting tec...

  18. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  19. Replacement of native oak and hickory tree species by the introduced American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Rutter, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    American chestnut was introduced at West Salem, Wisconsin, about 1880 and had begun to replace native tree species in adjacent oak-hickory woodland before 1930. Chestnut is now an important canopy species over c20 ha of forested ridge extending N and S of the original plantation. A smaller area of <5 ha is dominated by chestnut in both canopy and understory. Chestnut seedlings and small saplings are more numerous along woodland edges and in recently disturbed soil, they are rare in the interior of ungrazed pasture and entirely absent from intensively grazed areas adjacent to chestnut-dominated woodland. Random sampling of recently established seedlings indicates that 1-5 seedlings/(yr.ha) became established in undisturbed woodland between 1986-1988. The general pattern of chestnut distribution indicates the importance of woodland edges in chestnut propagation and the effects of livestock grazing in excluding chestnut. Replacement of native species by chestnut appears to have occurred in 2 steps: isolated groups of trees become established at favorable locations, after which many additional chestnut stems became established in the understory. The West Salem site may not be available for study of blight-free chestnut in the future. -from Authors

  20. Transgenic American chestnuts show enhanced blight resistance and transmit the trait to T1 progeny.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Polin-McGuigan, Linda D; Baier, Kathleen A; Valletta, Kristia E R; Rottmann, William H; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2014-11-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is a classic example of a native keystone species that was nearly eradicated by an introduced fungal pathogen. This report describes progress made toward producing a fully American chestnut tree with enhanced resistance to the blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica). The transgenic American chestnut 'Darling4,' produced through an Agrobacterium co-transformation procedure to express a wheat oxalate oxidase gene driven by the VspB vascular promoter, shows enhanced blight resistance at a level intermediate between susceptible American chestnut and resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima). Enhanced resistance was identified first with a leaf-inoculation assay using young chestnuts grown indoors, and confirmed with traditional stem inoculations on 3- and 4-year-old field-grown trees. Pollen from 'Darling4' and other events was used to produce transgenic T1 seedlings, which also expressed the enhanced resistance trait in leaf assays. Outcrossed transgenic seedlings have several advantages over tissue-cultured plantlets, including increased genetic diversity and faster initial growth. This represents a major step toward the restoration of the majestic American chestnut. PMID:25438789

  1. Effect of cooking methods on nutritional quality and volatile compounds of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume).

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Shi, Xianhe; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Cui, Yahui; Ouyang, Jie; Xu, Fang

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the content of important nutrients and volatiles in the fruit of Chinese chestnut. The nutritional compounds, including starch, water-soluble protein, free amino acids, reducing sugar, sucrose, organic acids and total flavonoids, of boiled, roasted and fried chestnuts were significantly (P<0.05) lower than those of fresh chestnuts after cooking, while the amylose, fat, crude protein and total polyphenol content varied slightly (P>0.05). L-Aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-arginine were found to be the main reduced free amino acids in cooked chestnuts. The main aromatic compositions in fresh chestnuts were aldehydes and esters, while ketones, furfural and furan were formed in cooked chestnuts due to the Maillard reaction and degradation of saccharides, amino acids and lipids. Principle component analysis demonstrated that roasting and frying had a similar effect on the nutritional composition of chestnuts, which differed from that of the boiling process. PMID:26868551

  2. Bioavailability of escin after administration of two oral formulations containing aesculus extract.

    PubMed

    Kunz, K; Lorkowski, G; Petersen, G; Samcova, E; Schaffler, K; Wauschkuhn, C H

    1998-08-01

    In a steady-state cross-over study in 18 healthy volunteers, the relative bioavailability of beta-escin (CAS 11072-93-8) after oral administration of a new immediate release enteric-coated test formulation containing aesculus extract was evaluated in comparison with a prolonged-release reference preparation. The subject received the test and the reference preparation in randomised sequence for 7 days each with no washout period in between. The daily dose was 50 mg escin b.i.d. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic profiling were taken on the 7th treatment day of each period over a full 24-h cycle of two successive dosing intervals. For the determination of beta-escin serum concentrations, a highly specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used. Generally, escin serum concentrations were lower during the second dosing interval (night) than during the first interval, probably indicating a drug by food interaction. (The morning dose was given after overnight fasting whereas the evening dose was given between meals). Test and reference demonstrated bioequivalence with regard to the extent of absorption; for the AUC (0-24 h p.a.), the 90% confidence interval ranged from 84% to 114% (point estimate: 98%). The differences observed for rate parameters can be disregarded due to the generally slow elimination and the wide therapeutic concentration range of escin. PMID:9748710

  3. Anti-HIV-1 protease triterpenoid saponins from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, X W; Zhao, J; Cui, Y X; Liu, X H; Ma, C M; Hattori, M; Zhang, L H

    1999-11-01

    Eight bioactive triterpenoid saponins (1-8) were isolated from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis, four of which are novel compounds. The major saponins were identified as escin Ia (1), Ib (2), isoescin Ia (3) and Ib (4), while the new compounds were identified as 22alpha-tigloyl-28-acetylprotoaescigenin-3beta-O-¿beta -D-glucopyranos yl (1-2) ¿beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (escin IVc, 5), 22alpha-angeloyl-28-acetylprotoaescigenin-3beta-O-¿bet a-D-glucopyrano syl (1-2) ¿beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (escin IVd, 6), 28-tigloylprotoaescigenin-3beta-O-¿beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-2) ¿beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (escin IVe, 7), and 28-angeloylprotoaescigenin-3beta-O-¿beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-2) ¿beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (escin IVf, 8). The structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods. All the above compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease. PMID:10579862

  4. Assessing fitness in endurance horses

    PubMed Central

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels. PMID:22942450

  5. Survival and growth of chestnut backcross seeds and seedlings on surface mines.

    PubMed

    Skousen, J; Cook, T; Wilson-Kokes, L; Pena-Yewtukhiw, E

    2013-01-01

    Some scientists consider the loss of the American chestnut from forests in the eastern United States as one of the greatest forest ecological disasters in the 20th century. The American Chestnut Foundation has been attempting to restore chestnut by backcrossing blight-resistant Chinese chestnut to American chestnut and selecting those strains with blight resistance. Third-generation backcross seeds and seedlings have been produced and planted by researchers. Surface-mined lands provide a land base where these backcross chestnut seedlings may be introduced back into forests. In 2008, seeds of two parent species of chestnut (100% American and 100% Chinese) and three breeding generations (BF, BF, and BF backcrosses) were planted into loosely graded mine soils with and without tree shelters. First-year establishment from seeds averaged 81%. After the fourth year, survival without shelters declined for all chestnut stock types except for Chinese (80%): American 40%, BF 70%, BF 40%, and BF 55%. Survival with shelters was only slightly better after the fourth year (average, 60% with shelters and 57% without). Height growth was not different among stock types, and average height after the fourth year was 43 cm without shelters and 56 cm with shelters. In 2009, seeds and seedlings of the same chestnut stock types were planted into brown (pH 4.5) or gray (pH 6.6) mine soils. Only six out of 250 seeds germinated, which was very poor considering 81% average seed germination in 2008. Transplanted chestnut seedling survival was much better. After the third year, seedling survival was 85% in brown and 80% in gray soil, but significant differences were found with stock types. Survival was significantly higher with American, Chinese, and BF stock types (75%) than with BF and BF (60%). Height after the third season averaged 90 cm on brown and 62 cm on gray soil. Chestnut backcrosses displayed no hybrid vigor and were not better in survival and growth than the parent stock. All five

  6. Welfare in horse breeding

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. L. H.; Sandøe, P.

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  7. Densitometric thin-layer chromatographic determination of aescin in a herbal medicinal product containing Aesculus and Vitis dry extracts.

    PubMed

    Apers, Sandra; Naessens, Tania; Pieters, Luc; Vlietinck, Arnold

    2006-04-21

    A thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) method is developed to analyze the total saponin content, also referred to as the aescin content, in a herbal medicinal product (HMP) containing two dry extracts in capsules. The capsules contain 250 mg of Aesculus hippocastanum dry extract, 120 mg of Vitis vinifera dry extract and 50mg of excipients. After a purification step using C(18) solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, the samples are analyzed on a silica-gel HPTLC plate with the upper layer of a mixture of acetic acid/water/butanol (10/40/50 v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Spots are visualized by spraying with anisaldehyde reagent and heating the plate for 5-10 min (100-105 degrees C) and measured at a wavelength of 535 nm. This method, applicable for the quality control and stability investigation of both the Aesculus dry extract and HMP capsules thereof containing Vitis dry extract in combination with the Aesculus dry extract, is validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The proposed assay method is specific for aescin in the presence of Vitis dry extract and formulation excipients. Analysis of stressed samples in forced degradation tests proves the method to be applicable for stability evaluation. The standard aescin curve is linear (r > 0.99) over a concentration range of 0.16-0.80 microg/spot. Recovery from the HMP capsules is statistically equal to 100%. The precision of the method with respect to time and concentration is acceptable, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 1.28 and 1.49%, respectively. PMID:16364347

  8. Reproductive Disorders in Horses.

    PubMed

    Snider, Timothy A

    2015-08-01

    Reproductive disease is relatively common in the horse, resulting in a variable, yet significant, economic impact on individual horsemen as well as the entire industry. Diverse expertise from the veterinary community ensures and improves individual and population health of the horse. From a pathology and diagnostics perspective, this review provides a comprehensive overview of pathology of the male and female equine reproductive tract. Recognition by clinical and gross features is emphasized, although some essential histologic parameters are included, as appropriate. Where relevant, discussion of ancillary diagnostic tests and approaches are included for some diseases and lesions. PMID:26210954

  9. [Verrucous pastern dermatitis syndrome in heavy draught horses. Part II: Clinical findings].

    PubMed

    Geburek, F; Deegen, E; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Ohnesorge, B

    2005-07-01

    In the present field study the skin of the feet of 37 heavy draught horses of different breeds showing verrucous pastern dermatitis was examined clinically. Included were the degree of severity of the disease and the prevalence of anatomically normal structures associated with the skin: fetlock tufts of hair ("feathering"), ergots, chestnuts, bulges in the pastern region, cannon circumference. Each horse was examined for Chorioptes sp. skin mites. Information was also collected on the development of the skin alterations and housing conditions and feeding. These individual data were correlated with the clinical degree of severity of verrucous pastern dermatitis, which was evaluated using a numerical code (scoring system). In addition, punch biopsies were taken from the diseased skin of the feet and from healthy skin of the neck for comparative patho-histological examination (see Part III). Verrucous pastern dermatitis is a chronic disease which can be divided into four groups: scaling (group I), hyperkeratotic and hyperplastic plaque-like lesions (group II), tuberous skin masses (group III), and verrucous skin lesions with rugged surfaces (group IV). No correlation was found between the clinical degree of severity of the skin lesions and sex, breed, amount of work, use of stallions for breeding, grooming condition of the hair, white markings in the foot region, or Chorioptes sp. infestation. In regard to feeding it was found that the amount of maize and oats fed had some influence on the clinical degree of severity. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between the clinical degree of severity and the age, the grooming condition of the hooves, and the mean cannon circumference. The prevalence of fetlock tufts of hair, chestnuts, ergots, and anatomically normal bulges in the pastern region also increased significantly with the clinical degree of severity. Furthermore the study revealed that the clinical degree of severity depended on the hygienic

  10. Trials to identify irradiated chestnut (Castanea bungena) with different analytical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hyung-Wook; Delincée, Henry; Han, Sang-Bae; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hee-Yun; Kim, Myung-Chul; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2004-09-01

    Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) measurement, DNA comet assay, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and thermoluminescence (TL) measurement were applied to identify irradiated chestnut. Samples were irradiated with 60Co γ-rays at 0-0.5kGy. The PSL photon counts for irradiated chestnuts were too low to be distinguished from those of the non-irradiated sample. There was no difference in DNA comets between non-irradiated and irradiated chestnuts. ESR spectroscopy did not show any radiation-induced specific signals but a symmetric singlet. However, using TL, the shape of the glow curve (Glow 1) made it possible to identify the irradiated chestnuts. In addition, the TL glow ratio (Glow 1/Glow 2) obtained by normalization was less than 0.01 for the non-irradiated sample and >=0.10 for irradiated ones, respectively.

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Chestnut-flanked white-eye (Zosterops erythropleurus).

    PubMed

    Li, Yumei; Yao, Jiyuan; Zhao, Xin; Li, Lingyu; Yan, Shouqing

    2016-09-01

    The Chestnut-flanked white-eye (Zosterops erythropleurus) is a species of family Zosteropidae, which is distributed widely in the world. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Chestnut-flanked white-eye was determined. It has a total length of 17 811 bp, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosome RNA genes and 2 control regions. The total base composition was 30.2% for A, 31.0% for C, 14.2% for G and 24.6% for T. The phylogenetic tree of Chestnut-flanked white-eye and 13 other species belonging to the order Passeriformes was built. The molecular data presented here will be useful to study the evolutionary relationships and genetic diversity of Chestnut-flanked white-eye. PMID:26260179

  12. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) on Chestnut Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Du, Yanli; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yan, Zengguang; Ma, Yongqiang; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Minzhao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qin, Ling; Cao, Qingqin

    2016-01-01

    Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng), we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant-volatile-mediated host

  13. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) on Chestnut Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yanli; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yan, Zengguang; Ma, Yongqiang; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Minzhao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qin, Ling; Cao, Qingqin

    2016-01-01

    Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng), we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant-volatile-mediated host

  14. Theme Unit. Horse Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flagg, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This integrated, cross-curricular theme unit has children become immersed in the equine world as they broaden their vocabulary, participate in hands-on science and math, explore art, become aware of the horse's important role in history, and learn about good grooming. A student reproducible, a poetry poster, and a poster on the coloring of horses…

  15. Hyperelastosis in the Horse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine hyperelastosis cutis, also known as dermatosporaxis and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (HERDA), is an autosomal recessive inheritable disease and has been reported in Thoroughbreds, Morgans, Haflingers , Hanoverians, a Swiss Warmblood, a mule and several Arabian cross horses in the United Kingdom, U...

  16. Non-target effects of transgenic blight-resistant American chestnut (Fagales: Fagaceae) on insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Post, K H; Parry, D

    2011-08-01

    American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen], a canopy dominant species across wide swaths of eastern North America, was reduced to an understory shrub after introduction of the blight fungus [Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr] in the early 1900s. Restoration of American chestnut by using biotechnology is promising, but the imprecise nature of transgenesis may inadvertently alter tree phenotype, thus potentially impacting ecologically dependent organisms. We quantified effects of genetic engineering and fungal inoculation of trees on insect herbivores by using transgenic American chestnuts expressing an oxalate oxidase gene and wild-type American and Chinese (C. mollissima Blume) chestnuts. Of three generalist folivores bioassayed, only gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] was affected by genetic modification, exhibiting faster growth on transgenic than on wild-type chestnuts, whereas growth of polyphemus moth [Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer)] differed between wild-type species, and fall webworm [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)] performed equally on all trees. Inoculation of chestnuts with blight fungus had no effect on the growth of two herbivores assayed (polyphemus moth and fall webworm). Enhanced fitness of gypsy moth on genetically modified trees may hinder restoration efforts if this invasive herbivore's growth is improved because of transgene expression. PMID:22251697

  17. Potential of ultrasonic pulse velocity for evaluating the dimensional stability of oak and chestnut wood.

    PubMed

    Dündar, Türker; Wang, Xiping; As, Nusret; Avcı, Erkan

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of ultrasonic velocity as a rapid and nondestructive method to predict the dimensional stability of oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein) and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) that are commonly used in flooring industry. Ultrasonic velocity, specific gravity, and radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkages were measured on seventy-four 20×20×30-mm(3) specimens obtained from freshly cut oak and chestnut stems. The ultrasonic velocities of the specimens decreased with increasing moisture content (MC). We found that specific gravity was not a good predictor of the transverse shrinkages as indicated by relatively weak correlations. Ultrasonic velocity, on the other hand, was found to be a significant predictor of the transverse shrinkages for both oak and chestnut. The best results for prediction of shrinkages of oak and chestnut were obtained when the ultrasonic velocity and specific gravity were used together. The multiple regression models we developed in this study explained 77% of volumetric shrinkages in oak and 72% of volumetric shrinkages in chestnut. It is concluded that ultrasonic velocity coupled with specific gravity can be employed as predicting parameters to evaluate the dimensional stability of oak and chestnut wood during manufacturing process. PMID:26678790

  18. Horse madness (hippomania) and hippophobia.

    PubMed

    Papakostas, Yiannis G; Daras, Michael D; Liappas, Ioannis A; Markianos, Manolis

    2005-12-01

    Anthropophagic horses have been described in classical mythology. From a current perspective, two such instances are worth mentioning and describing: Glaucus of Potniae, King of Efyra, and Diomedes, King of Thrace, who were both devoured by their horses. In both cases, the horses' extreme aggression and their subsequent anthropophagic behaviour were attributed to their madness (hippomania) induced by the custom of feeding them with flesh. The current problem of 'mad cow' disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is apparently related to a similar feed pattern. Aggressive behaviour in horses can be triggered by both biological and psychological factors. In the cases cited here, it is rather unlikely that the former were the cause. On the other hand, the multiple abuses imposed on the horses, coupled with people's fantasies and largely unconscious fears (hippophobia), may possibly explain these mythological descriptions of 'horse-monsters'. PMID:16482685

  19. The origin of ambling horses.

    PubMed

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-08-01

    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date. PMID:27505236

  20. Pedigree estimation of the (sub) population contribution to the total gene diversity: the horse coat colour case.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, E; Goyache, F; Molina, A; Cervantes, I; Valera, M; Gutiérrez, J P

    2010-06-01

    A method to quantify the contribution of subpopulations to genetic diversity in the whole population was assessed using pedigree information. The standardization of between- and within-subpopulation mean coancestries was developed to account for the different coat colour subpopulation sizes in the Spanish Purebred (SPB) horse population. The data included 166264 horses registered in the SPB Studbook. Animals born in the past 11 years (1996 to 2006) were selected as the 'reference population' and were grouped according to coat colour into eight subpopulations: grey (64 836 animals), bay (33 633), black (9414), chestnut (1243), buckskin (433), roan (107), isabella (57) and white (37). Contributions to the total genetic diversity were first assessed in the existing subpopulations and later compared with two scenarios with equal subpopulation size, one with the mean population size (13 710) and another with a low population size (100). Ancestor analysis revealed a very similar origin for the different groups, except for six ancestors that were only present in one of the groups likely to be responsible for the corresponding colour. The coancestry matrix showed a close genetic relationship between the bay and chestnut subpopulations. Before adjustment, Nei's minimum distance showed a lack of differentiation among subpopulations (particularly among the black, chestnut and bay subpopulations) except for isabella and white individuals, whereas after adjustment, white, roan and grey individuals appeared less differentiated. Standardization showed that balancing coat colours would contribute preserving the genetic diversity of the breed. The global genetic diversity increased by 12.5% when the subpopulations were size standardized, showing that a progressive increase in minority coats would be profitable for the genetic diversity of this breed. The methodology developed could be useful for the study of the genetic structure of subpopulations with unbalanced sizes and to

  1. The MC1R and ASIP Coat Color Loci May Impact Behavior in the Horse.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Lauren N; Staiger, Elizabeth A; Albright, Julia D; Brooks, Samantha A

    2016-05-01

    Shared signaling pathways utilized by melanocytes and neurons result in pleiotropic traits of coat color and behavior in many mammalian species. For example, in humans polymorphisms at MC1R cause red hair, increased heat sensitivity, and lower pain tolerance. In deer mice, rats, and foxes, ASIP polymorphisms causing black coat color lead to more docile demeanors and reduced activity. Horse (Equus caballus) base coat color is primarily determined by polymorphisms at the Melanocortin-1 Receptor (MC1R) and Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP) loci, creating a black, bay, or chestnut coat. Our goal was to investigate correlations between genetic loci for coat color and temperament traits in the horse. We genotyped a total of 215 North American Tennessee Walking Horses for the 2 most common alleles at the MC1R (E/e) and ASIP (A/a) loci using previously published PCR and RFLP methods. The horses had a mean age of 10.5 years and comprised 83 geldings, 25 stallions, and 107 mares. To assess behavior, we adapted a previously published survey for handlers to score horses from 1 to 9 on 20 questions related to specific aspects of temperament. We utilized principle component analysis to combine the individual survey scores into 4 factors of variation in temperament phenotype. A factor component detailing self-reliance correlated with genotypes at the ASIP locus; black mares (aa) were more independent than bay mares (A_) (P = 0.0063). These findings illuminate a promising and novel animal model for future study of neuroendocrine mechanisms in complex behavioral phenotypes. PMID:26884605

  2. Immune Dysfunction in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Dianne

    2016-08-01

    The aging process in people is associated with changes in adaptive and innate immune responses. Similar changes occur in aged horses. Age-related progressive impairment in the ability to respond to pathogen challenge and an increased inflammatory reactivity may predispose geriatric horses to many diseases of old age. Specific recommendations for immune modification of older horses, including an age-appropriate vaccination schedule, are not currently available. In addition, the effect of old age on risk of infectious disease is poorly documented. More work is needed to better understand the interactions of age on immunity, vaccine response, and disease risk in horses. PMID:27329495

  3. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  4. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  5. Assessment of the potential health benefits of certain total extracts from Vitis vinifera, Aesculus hyppocastanum and Curcuma longa

    PubMed Central

    MARGINĂ, DENISA; OLARU, OCTAVIAN TUDOREL; ILIE, MIHAELA; GRĂDINARU, DANIELA; GUȚU, CLAUDIA; VOICU, SORINA; DINISCHIOTU, ANCA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have illustrated the active role of food/natural components in the prevention of chronic diseases and in the improvement of the quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to obtain and characterize certain extracts from Vitis vinifera L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Curcuma longa L., focusing on their antioxidant effects in vitro. Three vegetal extracts were obtained for each plant: in water, 50% water-alcohol and in 96% ethanol. These extracts were then analyzed for their qualitative composition by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and total phenolic content by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-VIS). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; the effects of lipid peroxidation on the cell membrane were evaluated using Jurkat cells in two experimental models: normoglycemic and hyperglycemic medium, in order for the results to be able to be translated into clinical practice. In addition, the resistance of the extracts to acid and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated. The obtained extracts had 0.4–39 µg phenolics/mg total extract. The largest amount of phenolics was found in the Cucurma longa extracts, while the lowest was found in the Aesculus hippocastanum extacts. HPTLC analysis identified the main phenolic compounds in the extracts which were ferulic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid, as well as quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, curcumin, luteolin and esculetin. The Aesculus hippocastanum extracts had a low antioxidant efficacy, while both the Curcuma longa and Vitis vinifera extracts had a high antioxidant activity; the products resulting from alkaline hydrolisis were significantly more efficient in scavenging DPPH radicals compared to the products resulting from acid hydrolisis. The antioxidant effects of the Curcuma longa extracts exerted on the membranes of Jurkat cells were the most prominent under both normal and

  6. Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi causes chestnut canker symptoms in Castanea sativa shoots in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Sabrina; Calmin, Gautier; Auderset, Guy; Crovadore, Julien; Pelleteret, Pegah; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Barja, François; Paul, Bernard; Jermini, Mauro; Lefort, François

    2016-02-01

    A screening of Castanea sativa scions for grafting for the presence of endophytes showed that the opportunistic fungal pathogen Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi was the most abundant member of the endophytic flora. This fungus is known as a pathogen affecting chestnut fruits in Italy and Australia. Here, we present evidence that it causes cankers very similar to the ones due to Cryphonectria parasitica infection on twigs and scions of chestnut trees. We found natural infections of G. smithogilvyi in healthy grafted plants as well as in scions from chestnut trees. The identity of the fungus isolated from asymptomatic tissues was verified by applying Koch's postulates and corroborated by DNA sequencing of four different gene regions. In contrast to C. parasitica that appears on the bark as yellow to orange pycnidia, stromata and slimy twisted tendrils, G. smithogilvyi forms orange to red and black pycnidia, gray stromata and cream-colored to beige slimy twisted tendrils on the bark. These Swiss strains are closely related to G. smithogilvyi strains from Australia and from New Zealand, Gnomoniopsis sp. and Gnomoniopsis castanea from New Zealand, Italy, France and Switzerland. While the strains from Ticino are genetically very close to G. smithogilvyi and G. castanea from Italy, the differences between the strains from Ticino and Geneva suggest two different origins. The present study supports the hypothesis that a single species named G. smithogilvyi, which is known to be the agent of chestnut rot, also causes wood cankers on chestnut. PMID:26768710

  7. Purification and characterization of polyphenols from chestnut astringent skin.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Takahiro; Yamada, Misato; Takaku, Takeshi; Shintani, Tomoyoshi; Teramoto, Kanae; Sato, Takafumi

    2011-08-24

    Polyphenolic compounds from chestnut astringent skin (CAS) were purified by dialysis, using Diaion HP-20 and Sephadex LH-20 columns. During purification, specific α-amylase inhibitory activities were increased about 3.4-fold, and the 50% inhibition value was 5.71 μg/mL in the Sephadex LH-20 fraction (SE-fraction). The SE-fraction contained about 67% of the total polyphenols, 57.3% of the flavanol-type tannins, and 51.3% of the procyanidins. Strong antioxidant activity was observed in the SE-fraction. Oral administration of the SE-fraction in rats fed corn starch significantly suppressed an increase in blood glucose levels. The SE-fraction contained gallic acid and ellagic acid. The MALDI-TOF spectrum showed a peak series exhibiting a mass increment of 288 Da, reflecting the variation in the number of catechin/epicatechin units. Our results suggest CAS contains polyphenols with strong α-amylase inhibitory activity. The data also suggest CAS polyphenols might be oligomeric proanthocyanidins with gallic acid and ellagic acid. PMID:21777007

  8. Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Melanin Fractions from Chestnut Shell.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zeng-Yu; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Chestnut shell melanin can be used as a colorant and antioxidant, and fractionated into three fractions (Fr. 1, Fr. 2, and Fr. 3) with different physicochemical properties. Antioxidant activities of the fractions were comparatively evaluated for the first time. The fractions exhibited different antioxidative potential in different evaluation systems. Fr. 1, which is only soluble in alkaline water, had the strongest peroxidation inhibition and superoxide anion scavenging activity; Fr. 2, which is soluble in alkaline water and hydrophilic organic solvents but insoluble in neutral and acidic water, had the greatest power to chelate ferrous ions; and Fr. 3, which is soluble both in hydrophilic organic solvents and in water at any pH conditions, had the greatest hydroxyl (·OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals scavenging abilities, reducing power, and phenolic content. The pigment fractions were superior to butylated hydroxytolune (BHT) in ·OH and DPPH· scavenging and to ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) in the Fe(2+)-chelation. They were inferior to BHT in peroxidation inhibition and O₂·(-) scavenging and reducing power. However, BHT is a synthetic antioxidant and cannot play the colorant role. The melanin fractions might be used as effective biological antioxidant colorants. PMID:27110763

  9. 78 FR 36769 - Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  10. 75 FR 59258 - Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC's application for market-based...

  11. Stocking Rates for Horse Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decision on which stocking rate to graze a horse pasture is critical, particularly if the forage is expected to meet the nutrient needs of the horses. Challenges and management for targeting the optimum stocking rate, defined as the stocking rate that allows forage consumption to approximately equ...

  12. Effects of escin mixture from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum on obesity in mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Avci, Gülcan; Küçükkurt, Ismail; Küpeli Akkol, Esra; Yeşilada, Erdem

    2010-03-01

    Escins, a triterpene glycoside mixture obtained from the ethanol extract of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae) seed, was evaluated for its in vivo effects on the plasma levels of some hormones (leptin, insulin, FT(3), FT(4)) and biochemical parameters (glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C concentrations) in mice fed with a high fat diet for 5 weeks. A high fat diet induced a remarkable increment in the plasma leptin (p <0.01), total cholesterol (p <0.01) and LDL-C (p <0.001) concentrations compared to control group animals. Combined administration of a high-fat diet with escins decreased leptin (31.6%) (p<0.05) and FT(4) (36.0%) (p<0.05) levels, increased HDL-C concentration (17.0%), while remained ineffective on LDL-C concentration in mice. Results have shown that escins may have beneficial effects in the understanding of obesity. PMID:20645808

  13. Horse Hoof Protectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Power Pads, shown here, were designed to support and cushion horses' hooves while walking, rurning, and jumping, thus reducing the risk of injury. The pads utilize magnets implanted in the pads to increase blood circulation, not only reducing the chance of injury, but also speeding up the healing process if an injury does occur. Marshall Space Flight Center materials engineer Deborah Dianne Schmidt and materials technician Anthony Schaffer contributed to the design by providing fatigue stress analysis to the prototypes, thus helping determine the best configuration and maximum durability.

  14. Thoracic trauma in horses.

    PubMed

    Sprayberry, Kim A; Barrett, Elizabeth J

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic injuries involving the thorax can be superficial, necessitating only routine wound care, or they may extend to deeper tissue planes and disrupt structures immediately vital to respiratory and cardiac function. Diagnostic imaging, especially ultrasound, should be considered part of a comprehensive examination, both at admission and during follow-up. Horses generally respond well to diligent monitoring, intervention for complications, and appropriate medical or surgical care after sustaining traumatic wounds of the thorax. This article reviews the various types of thoracic injury and their management. PMID:25770070

  15. Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use

    PubMed Central

    Gounga, Mahamadou E.; Xu, Shi-ying; Wang, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption. Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample’s protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal. PMID:18763299

  16. Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. )

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., has constructed a storage facility, the Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile (CRBAWP), for mercury-contaminated soil excavated from the Oak Ridge Civic Center properties and the Oak Ridge Sewer Line Beltway. Excavation of the soil from the Civic Center began in September 1984 and was completed in early 1985. Similar soils from other areas of the city were added to the pile until 1987. Approximately 3000 yd{sup 3} are stored at the present time. An Interim Status RCRA permit was initially sought for this facility. Samples from the waste pile passed the Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test (EP Tox). The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (now the Tennessee Department of Conservation-TDC) denied the permit based on their conclusion that the waste was not a RCRA-regulated waste. On September 25, 1990 the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) superseded the EP Tox test. TCLP tests are not proposed to satisfy a request by TDC and to make a final determination of the nature of the soils in order to close the CRBAWP as a solid waste disposal facility under Tennessee State rule 1200-1-7-.04. The objectives of this work are to summarize existing site information and detail actions necessary to sample and characterize soils from the waste pile as hazardous or nonhazardous per the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Within the scope of this plan, a site investigation will be discussed; a field sampling plan will be described in terms of sampling locations, procedures, and quality assurance; and ancillary activities such as waste management, data management, and health and safety will be outlines. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Soils and geomorphology of the East Chestnut Ridge site

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R. , Rutledge, TN; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-10-01

    Soil mapping of the East Chestnut Ridge site in conjunction with subsurface soil and rock coring provides an in-depth evaluation of the site and its suitability for disposal of wastes. Landforms and surface and subsurface hydrology, the natural, undisturbed, soil-saprolite-geohydrology system beneath the zone of engineering modifications provides for the ultimate containment of wastes and a means for the filtration and purification of any leachate before it reaches the aquifer. The surface location and extent of each geologic formation on the site were mapped. These locations correlated well with projections of subsurface contacts to the surface even through the criteria used by the pedologist and geologist to identify soil and rock from the same formation may be different. Soil thickness over bedrock of the Copper Ridge, Chepultepec, Longview, and Kingsport Formations is sufficient to provide considerable buffering between trench bottoms and groundwater or rock. Soil thickness over the Mascot Formation is comparatively thin, and pinnacles and ledges exposed on steeper sideslopes are common. Soil underlain by the Mascot Formation is not suited for a trench landfill. According to soil coring and active borrow pit observations, chert beds in the soil and saprolite are preferred zones of water flow. Construction of adequate clay liners beneath disposal units sited on the Longview dolomite may require placement and compaction of other native soils to achieve sufficiently low soil permeabilities. Karst geomorphic processes that initiated the formation of dolines evidently started several million years ago. Doline formation and enlargement is episodic, with short periods of activity followed by long periods of stability. Analysis of doline soil stratigraphy suggests that most of the large dolines on the site have been stable for most of the past 10,000 to 1000,000 years. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Leptospirosis in horses in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Kitson-Piggot, A W; Prescott, J F

    1987-01-01

    Sera from Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses in southwest Ontario were tested for antibody to seven Leptospira interrogans serovars (autumnalis, bratislava, canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona), using the microscopic agglutination test. There was significantly higher seroprevalence of bratislava than of other serovars, in which prevalence was low. Seroprevalence of bratislava increased significantly with age; only 5% of two to three year old horses had titers greater than or equal to 1:80 compared to 52% of horses older than seven years. Eight of 16 foals from two farms seroconverted at low titers to bratislava between four and eight months of age. Leptospires were not detected by immunofluorescence and isolation techniques in 50 kidneys collected from horses at slaughter. Fetal tissues from 52 aborted horse fetuses were also examined by these methods and serovar kennewicki was identified by immunofluorescence and by isolation in one fetus. Serovar bratislava appears to be widespread in horses in Ontario but unimportant in abortion. The clinical significance of this infection in horses in Ontario is unclear. PMID:3330964

  19. Coprophilous fungi of the horse.

    PubMed

    Pointelli, E; Santa-maria, M A; Caretta, G

    1981-05-01

    A total of 1267 microfungi, including 35 Myxomycetes, were recorded from the fecal samples of the 60 horses; of these 395 were found on 20 saddle-horse feces, 363 on 20 race-horses and 509 on 20 working horses. Eighty two species representing 53 genera were recorded; of these 7 were Zygomycetes, 18 Ascomycetes, 1 Basidiomycetes and 25 Fungi Imperfecti: 2 Myxomycetes. Common coprophilous fungi are in decreasing order Pilobolus kleinii, Saccobolus depauperatus, Mucor hiemalis, Lasiobolus ciliatus, Podospora curvula, Petriella guttulata, M. circinelloides, Coprinus radiatus, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Sordaria fimicola, C. miser, C. stercorariusm, Acremonium sp., Coprotus granuliformis, Graphium putredinis, Iodophanus carneus, Chaetomium murorum, Podospora communis, P. inaequalis, P. setosa, Saccobolus versicolor and Cladosporium cucumerinum. Species of Myrothecium verrucaria, Actinomucor elegans, Kernia nitida, Spiculostilbella dendritica and Mucor parvispora were found exclusively in working-horses feces. Badhamia sp., Anixiopsis stercoraria, Echinobotryum state of D. stemonitis, Geotrichum candidum and Oidiodendron sp. were found only in saddle-horses feces. Chlamidomyces palmarum, Philocopra sp. were found exclusively in race-horses feces. Notes on infrequent or interesting fungi include Thamnostylum piriforme, Phialocephala dimorphospora, Rhopalomyces elegans and Spiculostilbella dendritica. PMID:7242651

  20. Horse-play: Survey of Accidents with Horses

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Hugh M.

    1973-01-01

    Horse-riding is increasing in popularity. During 1971 and 1972 154 patients had horse-related injuries of sufficient severity to warrant admission to the Radcliffe Infirmary. The injuries sustained are more common and more severe than generally appreciated and are comparable to those sustained by motor-cyclists. Supervision of children is often insufficient and protective leg and head gear is commonly quite inadequate, even when worn. ImagesFIG. 3 PMID:4795373

  1. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  2. Ectomycorrhizal inoculum potential of northeastern US forest soils for American chestnut restoration: results from field and laboratory bioassays.

    PubMed

    Dulmer, Kristopher M; Leduc, Stephen D; Horton, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once a dominant overstory tree in eastern USA but was decimated by chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica). Blight-resistant chestnut is being developed as part of a concerted restoration effort to bring this heritage tree back. Here, we evaluate the potential of field soils in the northern portion of the chestnut's former range to provide ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungus inoculum for American chestnut. In our first study, chestnut seedlings were grown in a growth chamber using soil collected from three sites dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra) as inoculum and harvested after 5 months. Of the 14 EM fungi recovered on these seedlings, four species dominated in soils from all three sites: Laccaria laccata, a Tuber sp., Cenococcum geophilum, and a thelephoroid type. Seedlings grown in the nonsterilized soils were smaller than those growing in sterilized soils. In the second study, chestnut seedlings were grown from seed planted directly into soils at the same three sites. Seedlings with intermingling roots of established trees of various species were harvested after 5 months. Seventy-one EM fungi were found on the root tips of the hosts, with 38 occurring on chestnut seedlings. Multiple versus single host EM fungi were significantly more abundant and frequently encountered. The fungi observed dominating on seedlings in the laboratory bioassay were not frequently encountered in the field bioassay, suggesting that they may not have been active in mycelial networks in the field setting but were in the soils as resistant propagules that became active in the bioassay. These results show that soil from red oak stands can be used to inoculate American chestnut with locally adapted ectomycorrhizal fungi prior to outplanting, a relatively cost effective approach for restoration efforts. PMID:23857395

  3. Functional properties and in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial effectiveness of pigskin gelatin films incorporated with hydrolysable chestnut tannin.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rodriguez, Cristina; Martucci, Josefa F; Neira, Laura M; Arbelaiz, Aitor; Eceiza, Arantxa; Ruseckaite, Roxana A

    2015-04-01

    The impact of the incorporation of 10% w/w of hydrolyzable chestnut tannin into pigskin gelatin (G) films plasticized with glycerol (Gly) on the physicochemical properties as well as the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial effectiveness against food-borne pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus aureus was investigated. A higher tendency to both redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) coloration characterized gelatin films incorporated with chestnut tannin. The reduced lightness (L) and transparency of gelatin-chestnut tannin films plasticized with 30% w/w Gly might be associated with certain degree of phase separation which provoked the migration of the plasticizer to the film surface. The incorporation of chestnut tannin and glycerol affected the chemical structure of the resultant films due to the establishment of hydrogen interactions between components as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These interactions reduced gelatin crystallinity and seemed to be involved in the substantial decrease of the water uptake of films with tannin, irrespective of the glycerol level. Such interactions had minor effect on tensile properties being similar to those of the control films (without chestnut tannin) at the same glycerol level. Films modified with 10% w/w chestnut tannin showed significant (P < 0.05) 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, ca. from 0 ± 0.033 to 87.1 ± 0.002% for chestnut tannin-free and chestnut tannin-containing gelatin films. The limited inhibitory activity of films incorporated with 10% w/w chestnut tannin against the selected bacteria evidenced by disk diffusion method probably resulted from the interactions within the film restricting the diffusion of the active agent into the agar medium. The more modest protective effect observed against a Gram-positive bacterium (S. aureus) was also discussed. PMID:24831641

  4. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.; Rolfs, C.; Typel, S.

    2006-07-12

    The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross sections in nuclear reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed and recent applications are presented.

  5. A High Density SNP Array for the Domestic Horse and Extant Perissodactyla: Utility for Association Mapping, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeny Studies

    PubMed Central

    McCue, Molly E.; Bannasch, Danika L.; Petersen, Jessica L.; Gurr, Jessica; Bailey, Ernie; Binns, Matthew M.; Distl, Ottmar; Guérin, Gérard; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hill, Emmeline W.; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Røed, Knut H.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Swinburne, June E.; Tozaki, Teruaki; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Vaudin, Mark; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    An equine SNP genotyping array was developed and evaluated on a panel of samples representing 14 domestic horse breeds and 18 evolutionarily related species. More than 54,000 polymorphic SNPs provided an average inter-SNP spacing of ∼43 kb. The mean minor allele frequency across domestic horse breeds was 0.23, and the number of polymorphic SNPs within breeds ranged from 43,287 to 52,085. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) in most breeds declined rapidly over the first 50–100 kb and reached background levels within 1–2 Mb. The extent of LD and the level of inbreeding were highest in the Thoroughbred and lowest in the Mongolian and Quarter Horse. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses demonstrated the tight grouping of individuals within most breeds, close proximity of related breeds, and less tight grouping in admixed breeds. The close relationship between the Przewalski's Horse and the domestic horse was demonstrated by pair-wise genetic distance and MDS. Genotyping of other Perissodactyla (zebras, asses, tapirs, and rhinoceros) was variably successful, with call rates and the number of polymorphic loci varying across taxa. Parsimony analysis placed the modern horse as sister taxa to Equus przewalski. The utility of the SNP array in genome-wide association was confirmed by mapping the known recessive chestnut coat color locus (MC1R) and defining a conserved haplotype of ∼750 kb across all breeds. These results demonstrate the high quality of this SNP genotyping resource, its usefulness in diverse genome analyses of the horse, and potential use in related species. PMID:22253606

  6. Fungal diseases of horses.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-11-29

    Among diseases of horses caused by fungi (=mycoses), dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are of particular concern, due their worldwide diffusion and, for some of them, zoonotic potential. Conversely, other mycoses such as subcutaneous (i.e., pythiosis and mycetoma) or deep mycoses (i.e., blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) are rare, and/or limited to restricted geographical areas. Generally, subcutaneous and deep mycoses are chronic and progressive diseases; clinical signs include extensive, painful lesions (not pathognomonic), which resemble to other microbial infections. In all cases, early diagnosis is crucial in order to achieve a favorable prognosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and diagnosis of fungal diseases is essential for the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of equine fungal infections as a support to early diagnosis and application of targeted therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:23428378

  7. "Horses for Courses"

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Joyce E.; Frost, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This commentary considers the vexed question of whether or not we should be spending time and resources on using multifaceted interventions to undertake implementation of evidence in healthcare. A review of systematic reviews has suggested that simple interventions may be just as effective as those taking a multifaceted approach. Taking cognisance of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework this commentary takes account of the evidence, context and facilitation factors in undertaking implementation. It concludes that a ‘horses for courses’ approach is necessary meaning that the specific implementation approach should be selected to fit the implementation task in hand whether it be a single or multifaceted approach and reviewed on an individual basis. PMID:26673180

  8. The exhausted horse syndrome.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H

    1998-04-01

    Exhaustion occurs in most equestrian sports, but it is more frequent in events that require sustained endurance work such as endurance racing, three-day eventing, trial riding, and hunting. Exhaustion is also more likely when an unfit, unacclimatized, or unsound horse is exercised. Mechanisms that contribute to exhaustion include heat retention, fluid and electrolyte loss, acid-base imbalance, and intramuscular glycogen depletion. Clinical signs include elevated temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate; depression; anorexia; unwillingness to continue to exercise; dehydration; weakness; stiffness; hypovolemic shock; exertional myopathy; synchronous diaphragmatic flutter; atrial fibrillation; diarrhea; colic; and laminitis. Treatment includes stopping exercise; rapid cooling; rapid large volume intravenous or oral fluid administration; and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration. PMID:9561696

  9. Widespread Distribution of Fungivorus Aphelenchoides spp. in Blight Cankers on American Chestnut Trees.

    PubMed

    Griffin, G J; Eisenback, J D; Oldham, K

    2012-12-01

    Previously we showed in laboratory studies that the fungivorus nematode, Aphelenchoides hylurgi, was attracted to and fed upon the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, from American chestnut bark cankers and was a carrier of biocontrol, white hypovirulent C. parasitica strains. In the present field study, we recovered Aphelenchoides spp. in almost all (97.0 %) of 133 blight canker tissue assays (three 5-g samples each) from four eastern states. High mean population densities (227 to 474 nematodes per 5 g tissue) of Aphelenchoides spp. were recovered from cankers in Virginia, West Virginia, and Tennessee but not from New Hampshire (mean = 75 nematodes per 5 g tissue). Overall, most canker assays yielded population densities less than 200 nematodes per 5 g tissue. All of 12 very small or young cankers yielded a few to many Aphelenchoides spp. Regression analysis indicated greatest recovery of Aphelenchoides spp. occurred in the month of May (r = 0.94). The results indicate that Aphelenchoides spp. appear to be widespread in blight cankers on American chestnut trees and could play a role in biocontrol of chestnut blight. PMID:23482428

  10. Novel insights into the emergence of pathogens: the case of chestnut blight.

    PubMed

    Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2012-08-01

    Exotic, invasive pathogens have emerged repeatedly and continue to emerge to threaten the world's forests. Ecosystem structure and function can be permanently changed when keystone tree species such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) are eliminated from a whole range by disease. The fungal ascomycete pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica is responsible for causing chestnut blight. Once the pathogen was introduced into the Eastern US, where chestnuts were predominant, chestnuts were all but eliminated. This pathogen is currently causing extensive damage in Europe. A study in this issue of Molecular Ecology sheds new light on the pattern and process of emergence of this devastating plant pathogen (Dutech et al. 2012). The authors used microsatellite markers to investigate the evolutionary history of C. parasitica populations introduced into North America and Europe. To infer sources of migrants and the migration events, the authors included putative source populations endemic to China and Japan, inferred potentially unsampled populations and conducted a multivariate population genetic and complex ABC analysis. Cryphonectria parasitica emerges as an example of an introduced pathogen with limited genotypic diversity and some admixture in the invaded ranges, yet repeated invasions into different areas of Europe and the United States. This work sheds new light on the emergence of C. parasitica providing compelling evidence that this pathogen emerged by repeated migration and occasional admixture. PMID:22835047

  11. Sexually mature transgenic American chestnut trees via embryogenic suspension-based transformation.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Gisele M; Nairn, Campbell J; Le, Huong T; Merkle, Scott A

    2009-09-01

    The availability of a system for direct transfer of anti-fungal candidate genes into American chestnut (Castanea dentata), devastated by a fungal blight in the last century, would offer an alternative or supplemental approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees resistant to the blight fungus and other pathogens. By taking advantage of the strong ability of embryogenic American chestnut cultures to proliferate in suspension, a high-throughput Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into the tree was established. Proembryogenic masses (PEMs) were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 harboring the plasmid pCAMBIA 2301, followed by stringent selection with 50 or 100 mg/l Geneticin. A protocol employing size-fractionation to enrich for small PEMs to use as target material and selection in suspension culture was applied to rapidly produce transgenic events with an average efficiency of four independent transformation events per 50 mg of target tissue and minimal escapes. Mature somatic embryos, representing 18 transgenic events and derived from multiple American chestnut target genotypes, were germinated and over 100 transgenic somatic seedlings were produced and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Multiple vigorous transgenic somatic seedlings produced functional staminate flowers within 3 years following regeneration. PMID:19578855

  12. Extraction and determination of ellagic acid contentin chestnut bark and fruit.

    PubMed

    Vekiari, S A; Gordon, M H; García-Macías, P; Labrinea, H

    2008-10-15

    Chestnuts are an important economic resource in the chestnut growing regions, not only for the fruit, but also for the wood. The content of ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring inhibitor of carcinogenesis, was determined in chestnut fruits and bark. EA was extracted with methanol and free ellagic acid was determined by HPLC with UV detection, both in the crude extract and after hydrolysis. The concentration of EA was generally increased after hydrolysis due to the presence of ellagitannins in the crude extract. The concentration varied between 0.71 and 21.6mgg(-1) (d.w.) in un-hydrolyzed samples, and between 2.83 and 18.4mgg(-1) (d.w.) in hydrolyzed samples. In chestnut fruits, traces of EA were present in the seed, with higher concentrations in the pellicle and pericarp. However, all fruit tissues had lower concentrations of EA than had the bark. The concentration of EA in the hydrolyzed samples showed a non-linear correlation with the concentration in the unhydrolyzed extracts. PMID:26047294

  13. The American Chestnut Blight: An Agent of Biological and Cultural Catastrophe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Eddie

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the history and habits of the fungus commonly referred to as the "chestnut blight." Considers the impact of the blight and efforts to control it, offers personal and cultural reflections on the blight, and gives tips for incorporating the information into cross-disciplinary lessons. Contains 17 references. (WRM)

  14. Sporulation capacity of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Branches from six 2 to 3-year old northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with ca. 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum isolate Pr-6 and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia produ...

  15. Infectivity and sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Branches from northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia production, while the other three plants w...

  16. Novel insights into the emergence of pathogens: the case of chestnut blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic, invasive pathogens have emerged repeatedly and continue to emerge to threaten the world’s forests. Ecosystem structure and function can be permanently changed when keystone tree species such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) are eliminated from a whole range by disease. The fungal ...

  17. My Kingdom for a Horse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Judith

    2004-01-01

    The "Heavenly Horse" is a work of art revered for its spirit, strength, and beauty. It is a symbol of military might and political power. The size of the object suggests that it was made for an important person. Impressive as he is, this horse was not created as an art object. He was found in the tomb of an influential person. Scholars do not know…

  18. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    PubMed

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  19. 75 FR 76453 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...-000; EG10-70-000; EG10-71-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco Wind, LLC; Arizona Solar One LLC; Criterion Power Partners, LLC; Sundevil...

  20. Distortion Effects on Trojan Horse Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Irgaziev, B. F.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.

    2011-05-01

    The widths of the spectator momentum distributions in several nuclei, which have been used as Trojan Horses, have been obtained as a function of the transferred momentum. Applications of Trojan Horse method will also be discussed.

  1. Four Legged Healers: Horse Culture as Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White Plume, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    For tribal communities to overcome the health disparities that plague them, they need to honor Indigenous healthcare paradigms. The Horse Nation Initiative at Nueta Hidatsa Sahnish College embraces the people's historical connection to the horse as an avenue to wellness.

  2. The apoptotic effects of escin in the H-Ras transformed 5RP7 cell line.

    PubMed

    Güney, G; Kutlu, H M; Işcan, A

    2013-06-01

    Extracts of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse chestnut) seed have been used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, edema and hemorrhoids. Most of the beneficial effects of horse chestnut are attributed to its principal component β-escin or escin. We have evaluated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of escin in the H-Ras 5RP7 cell line by analyzing cell growth inhibition, apoptosis and caspase-3 dependent activity. We have also shown structural and ultrastructural changes in these cell using confocal and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that escin has significant inhibitory effects on cell growth and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased after treatment with escin, and the micrographs confirmed that escin damaged these cells and induced apoptosis. PMID:22911540

  3. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found. PMID:25829553

  4. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  5. Urethrolithiasis and nephrolithiasis in a horse.

    PubMed Central

    Saam, D

    2001-01-01

    A 9-year-old, quarter horse gelding with obstructive urethrolithiasis was treated with a perineal urethrostomy. The horse's condition deteriorated and abdominocentesis confirmed septic uroperitonitis. The horse was euthanized and postmortem examination revealed peritonitis, a tear in the lateral wall of the bladder, and a nephrolith within the left renal pelvis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:11708209

  6. Ophthalmologic Disorders in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    Malalana, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Ocular abnormalities are a common finding in aged horses. Although these seldom cause overt visual deficits detected by their owners, they can be a source of chronic or acute discomfort so early detection, and treatment when available, is essential. Some of these abnormalities are specific to old horses, whereas others are a result of ongoing disease or inflammation that started earlier in life but that becomes more evident when the damage sustained to the eye is advanced. If vision is significantly affected, consideration of human safety and animal welfare is paramount. PMID:27329494

  7. Insolubilization of Chestnut Shell Pigment for Cu(II) Adsorption from Water.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zeng-Yu; Qi, Jian-Hua; Hu, Yong; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Chestnut shell pigment (CSP) is melanin from an agricultural waste. It has potential as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment but cannot be used in its original state because of its solubility in water. We developed a new method to convert CSP to insolubilized chestnut shell pigment (ICSP) by heating, and the Cu(II) adsorption performance of ICSP was evaluated. The conversion was characterized, and the thermal treatment caused dehydration and loss of carboxyl groups and aliphatic structures in CSP. The kinetic adsorption behavior obeyed the pseudo-second-order rate law, and the equilibrium adsorption data were well described with both the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. ICSP can be used as a renewable, readily-available, easily-producible, environmentally-friendly, inexpensive and effective adsorbent to remove heavy-metal from aquatic environments. PMID:27043502

  8. Alcoholic chestnut fermentation in mixed culture. Compatibility criteria between Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Murado, Miguel Anxo; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Vázquez, José Antonio; Mirón, Jesús; González, María Pilar

    2008-10-01

    The main objective of the present work consisted in the transfer to the case of the chestnut of a rice fermentative process that carried out to the Japanese traditional way to lead to an alcoholic bagasse, the moromi, capable of obtaining distilled. This way, selection assays of amylolitic Aspergillus oryzae strains and studies of compatibility between microfungi and yeast were carried out. These mixed cultivations were performed operating in batch submerged culture. Later on, using solid state system (chestnut, microfungi, yeast), a fermentative fed-batch process (koji, moto, moromi) was defined. By means of this approach a yield of 70% was reached in the conversion of total carbohydrates in ethanol. Also, the time required by the traditional operation was reduced in half. PMID:18289846

  9. Toxic effects of lasalocid in horses.

    PubMed

    Hanson, L J; Eisenbeis, H G; Givens, S V

    1981-03-01

    Lasalocid was given to horses in a series of sequentially increasing single oral doses ranging between 5 and 30 mg/kg of body weight, with an appropriate washout period between treatments. One of the 5 horses died after a dosage of 15 mg/kg, 1 of 3 horses died after 21 mg/kg, 1 of 3 horses died after 22 mg/kg, and 1 of 2 horses died after 26 mg/kg. The LD50 of lasalocid for horses was estimated to be 21.5 mg/kg. Monensin was given to horses in a similar manner at dosages of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg of body weight. One of the 2 horses died after a dosage of 2 mg/kg and 1 horse died after a dosage of 3 mg/kg. The clinical signs of toxicosis observed in horses given either drug were progressive and included depression, ataxia, paresis, and paralysis with partial anorexia. Intermittent profuse sweating was observed before death in horses given monensin. PMID:7271010

  10. Effects of Pleistocene glaciations on population structure of North American chestnut-backed chickadees.

    PubMed

    Burg, Theresa M; Gaston, Anthony J; Winker, Kevin; Friesen, Vicki L

    2006-08-01

    The postglacial recolonization of northern North America was heavily influenced by the Pleistocene glaciation. In the Pacific Northwest, there are two disjunct regions of mesic temperate forest, one coastal and the other interior. The chestnut-backed chickadee is one of the species associated with this distinctive ecosystem. Using seven microsatellite markers we found evidence of population structure among nine populations of chestnut-backed chickadees. High levels of allelic variation were found in each of the populations. Northern British Columbia and central Alaska populations contained a large number of private alleles compared to other populations, including those from unglaciated regions. The disjunct population in the interior was genetically distinct from the coastal population. Genetic and historical records indicate that the interior population originated from postglacial inland dispersal. Population structuring was found within the continuous coastal population, among which the peripheral populations, specifically those on the Queen Charlotte Islands and the central Alaska mainland, were genetically distinct. The pattern of population structure among contemporary chickadee populations is consistent with a pioneer model of recolonization. The persistence of genetic structure in western North American chestnut-backed chickadees may be aided by their sedentary behaviour, linear distribution, and dependence on cedar-hemlock forests. PMID:16842415

  11. Preparation and characterisation of the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnut polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Jun; Yu, Lin

    2015-08-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a strong oxidant that cleaves glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides. In this study, the oligosaccharides were prepared by removing the starch from Chinese water chestnuts through hydrolysis using α-amylase and then hydrolysing the remaining polysaccharides with H2O2, during which the oligosaccharide yield was monitored. The yield of oligosaccharide was affected by reaction time, temperature, and H2O2 concentration. Extended reaction times, high temperatures, and high H2O2 concentrations decreased oligosaccharide yield. Under optimum conditions (i.e., reaction time of 4h, reaction temperature of 80°C, and 2.5% H2O2 concentration), the maximum oligosaccharide yield was 3.91%. The oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides exhibited strong hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity when applied at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The results indicate that the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides possessed good antioxidant properties and can be developed as a new dietary supplement and functional food. PMID:25794714

  12. Hydrolyzable Tannins from Sweet Chestnut Fractions Obtained by a Sustainable and Eco-friendly Industrial Process.

    PubMed

    Campo, Margherita; Pinelli, Patrizia; Romani, Annalisa

    2016-03-01

    Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extracts, rich in Hydrolyzable Tannins (HTs), are traditionally used in the tanning and textile industries, but recent studies suggest additional uses. The aim of this work is the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS characterization of Sweet Chestnut aqueous extracts and fractions obtained through a membrane separation technology system without using other solvents, and the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiradical activities. Total tannins range between 2.7 and 138.4 mM; gallic acid ranges between 6% and 100%; castalagin and vescalagin range between 0% and 40%. Gallic Acid Equivalents, measured with the Folin-Ciocalteu test, range between 0.067 and 56.99 g/100 g extract weight; ORAC test results for the marketed fractions are 450.4 and 3050 µmol/g Trolox Equivalents/extract weight. EC₅₀ values, measured with the DPPH test, range between 0.444 and 2.399 µM. These results suggest a new ecofriendly and economically sustainable method for obtaining chestnut fractions with differentiated, stable and reproducible chemical compositions. Such fractions can be marketed for innovative uses in several sectors. PMID:27169194

  13. Skin grafting of the horse.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, J; Hanselka, D V

    1989-12-01

    Free autogenous skin grafting of the horse is indicated for wounds too large to heal by contraction and epithelization. Techniques of pinch, punch, tunnel, and sheet grafting are described. Allografting and storage of skin for delayed grafting are discussed. PMID:2691033

  14. Syringohydromyelia in horses: 3 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sponseller, Brett A.; Sponseller, Beatrice T.; Alcott, Cody J.; Kline, Karen; Hostetter, Jesse; Reinertson, Eric L.; Fales-Williams, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Syringomyelia and hydromyelia are cavitary lesions of the spinal cord that may be acquired or congenital. These lesions are not frequently reported in large animal species. The presenting complaints, clinical, gross pathological, and histopathologic findings of 2 cases of syringomyelia and 1 case of hydromyelia in horses are described. PMID:21532819

  15. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  16. Visual Disability and Horse Riding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Diana

    2005-01-01

    It is now commonplace for horse riding to be included in the extra-curricular activities of students with physical disabilities. In this article an account is given of how visually impaired people can derive physical, mental, and emotional benefits from this supervised activity. It is argued that the rider, in learning to exercise self-control and…

  17. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  18. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  19. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  20. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  1. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  2. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  3. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  4. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  5. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  6. Natural biosorbents (garlic stem and horse chesnut shell) for removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Parlayıcı, Şerife; Pehlivan, Erol

    2015-12-01

    The biosorption of Cr(VI) by the garlic stem (GS)-Allium sativum L. and horse chesnut shell (HCS)-Aesculus hippocastanum plant residues in a batch type reactor was studied in detail for the purpose of wastewater treatment. The influence of initial Cr(VI) concentration, time, and pH was investigated to optimize Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions and equilibrium isotherms and kinetic data. This influence was evaluated. The adsorption capacity of the GS and the HCS for Cr(VI) was determined with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, and the data was fitted to the Langmuir. The adsorption capacity of the GS and the HCS was found to be 103.09 and 142.85 mg/g of adsorbent from a solution containing 3000 ppm of Cr(VI), respectively. The GS's capacity was considerably lower than that of the HCS in its natural form. Gibbs free energy was spontaneous for all interactions, and the adsorption process exhibited exothermic enthalpy values. The HCS was shown to be a promising biosorbent for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:26581609

  7. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses' results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  8. 7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  9. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry.

  10. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses’ results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  11. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2012 (77 FR 33607-33619, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0030), and... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations... Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse...

  12. Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

  13. Systematic pain assessment in horses.

    PubMed

    de Grauw, J C; van Loon, J P A M

    2016-03-01

    Accurate recognition and quantification of pain in horses is imperative for adequate pain management. The past decade has seen a much needed surge in formal development of systematic pain assessment tools for the objective monitoring of pain in equine patients. This narrative review describes parameters that can be used to detect pain in horses, provides an overview of the various pain scales developed (visual analogue scales, simple descriptive scales, numerical rating scales, time budget analysis, composite pain scales and grimace scales), and highlights their strengths and weaknesses for potential clinical implementation. The available literature on the use of each pain assessment tool in specific equine pain states (laminitis, lameness, acute synovitis, post-castration, acute colic and post-abdominal surgery) is discussed, including any problems with sensitivity, reliability or scale validation as well as translation of results to other clinical pain states. The review considers future development and further refinement of currently available equine pain scoring systems. PMID:26831169

  14. Some nutritional problems of horses.

    PubMed

    Hintz, H F; Kallfelz, F A

    1981-07-01

    The effects of overfeeding, calcium-phosphorus imbalance, misuse of supplements and false advertising on equine nutrition are discussed. Overfeeding is known to cause disorders in several species but, although a similar relationship has been suggested on clinical evidence, no controlled trials on horses have been reported. It has also been suggested that overfeeding is a problem only for those horses with a genetic predisposition to skeletal problems. The importance of adequate calcium and phosphorus levels has been known for many years but severe cases of calcium deficiency still occur. Client education is important and should not be neglected. Excessive use of supplements containing high levels of trace minerals (eg, iodine and selenium) or fat soluble vitamins (eg, vitamin A and vitamin D) can be harmful. Some manufacturers advertise supplements in terms which may inadvertently or intentionally misrepresent their products. Supplements should, therefore, be selected carefully to ensure that they meet the particular requirements of the individual. PMID:7197619

  15. Treatment of horses with chronic diarrhea: immunologic status.

    PubMed

    Targowski, S P

    1976-01-01

    All chronically diarrheal horses given (orally) 2 series of treatments with normal horse serum recovered in 2 to 4 weeks. However, mild diarrhea sometimes persisted several months in the group of horses with severe diarrhea. Weight gains were approximately 35% in horses with severe diarrhea and approximately 10% in horses with mild diarrhea. Serum specimens from 12 diarrheal and 20 normal horses were examined for immunoglobulins by single radial immunodiffusion technique. Concentration of immunoglobulin A in serum of diarrheal horses was approximately 50% lower than that in serum of normal horses. By contrast, there was more immunoglobulin G in serum of diarrheal horses than in serum of normal horses. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA-M) responsiveness of blood lymphocytes showed transient suppression during the stage of severe diarrhea. The regaining of PHA-M responsiveness of lymphocytes was observed simultaneously with the recovery process. However, the responsiveness of lymphocytes in recovered horses remained markedly lower than that in normal horses. Allergic reactions in diarrheal and normal horses were studied by observing dermal response to injections of saline extracts from some of the horse feeds. A delayed hypersensitivity reaction to streptokinase-streptodornase and PHA-M was also studied. Allergic reactions to these extracts were not induced in either diarrheal or normal horses; however, inflammatory response to the extracts was approximately 50% greater in normal than in diarrheal horses. Response to intradermal injection of either streptokinase-streptodornase or PHA-M was significantly greater in normal horses than in diarrheal horses. PMID:1247193

  16. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed. PMID:22529137

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Water Chestnut Extract on Cytokine Responses via Nuclear Factor-κB-signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Choi, Byung-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa japonica Flerov.) is an annual aquatic plant. In the present study, we showed that the treatment of water chestnut extracted with boiling water resulted in a significant increase 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and decrease the intracellular H2O2-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, water chestnut extract (WCE) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production and suppressed mRNA and protein expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. The cytokine array results showed that WCE inhibited inflammatory cytokine secretion. Also, WCE reduced tumor necrosis factor-α-and interleukin-6-induced nuclear factor-αB activity. Furthermore, during sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritation of human skin, WCE reduced SLS-induced skin erythema and improved barrier regeneration. These results indicate that WCE may be a promising topical anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25593649

  18. Isolation, purification and identification of etiolation substrate from fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa).

    PubMed

    Pan, Yong-Gui; Li, Yi-Xiao; Yuan, Meng-Qi

    2015-11-01

    Fresh cut Chinese water-chestnut is a popular ready-to-eat fresh-cut fruit in China. However, it is prone to etiolation and the chemicals responsible for this process are not known yet. To address this problem, we extracted phytochemicals from etiolated Chinese water-chestnut and separated them using MPLC and column chromatography. Four compounds were obtained and their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, TLC, HPLC and NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. We identified these compounds as eriodictyol, naringenin, sucrose and ethyl D-glucoside. Among those, eriodictyol and naringenin were both isolated for the first time in fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut and are responsible for the yellowing of this fruit cutting. PMID:25976800

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Water Chestnut Extract on Cytokine Responses via Nuclear Factor-κB-signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Choi, Byung-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa japonica Flerov.) is an annual aquatic plant. In the present study, we showed that the treatment of water chestnut extracted with boiling water resulted in a significant increase 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and decrease the intracellular H2O2-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, water chestnut extract (WCE) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production and suppressed mRNA and protein expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. The cytokine array results showed that WCE inhibited inflammatory cytokine secretion. Also, WCE reduced tumor necrosis factor-α-and interleukin-6-induced nuclear factor-αB activity. Furthermore, during sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritation of human skin, WCE reduced SLS-induced skin erythema and improved barrier regeneration. These results indicate that WCE may be a promising topical anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25593649

  20. Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-11-01

    In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

  1. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents. The role of the cotyledonary petiole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Steele, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak ( Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ≥6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to

  2. Spectroscopy analysis of phenolic and sugar patterns in a food grade chestnut tannin.

    PubMed

    Ricci, A; Lagel, M-C; Parpinello, G P; Pizzi, A; Kilmartin, P A; Versari, A

    2016-07-15

    Tannin of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood, commonly used in winemaking was characterised with a spectroscopy qualitative approach that revealed its phenolic composition: several vibrational diagnostic bands assigned using the Attenuated Total Reflectance-Infrared Spectroscopy, and fragmentation patterns obtained using the Laser-Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight technique evidenced polygalloylglucose, e.g. castalagin/vescalagin-like structures as the most representative molecules, together with sugar moieties. The implication of these findings on winemaking application and the potential influence of the chemical structure on the sensory properties of wine are discussed. PMID:26948634

  3. Synthesis of chestnut-bur-like palladium nanostructures and their enhanced electrocatalytic activities for ethanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Seong Ji; Kim, Do Youb; Kang, Shin Wook; Choi, Kyeong Woo; Han, Sang Woo; Park, O. Ok

    2014-03-01

    We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pd nanostructures with highly open structure and huge surface area by reducing Na2PdCl4 with ascorbic acid and using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a surfactant in an aqueous solution. The prepared Pd nanostructures had an average overall size of 70 nm and were composed of dozens of needle-like thin arms, originating from the same core, with an average thickness of 2.3 nm; the arms looked like chestnut-burs. Time evolution of Pd nanostructures implied that small Pd particles generated at the early stage of the reaction by fast reduction grew via the particle attachment growth mechanism. The morphology and size of the Pd nanostructures could be readily controlled by varying the concentration of CPC; depending on the amount of CPC, the reduction rates varied the morphology of the Pd nanostructures. Because of the huge surface area and possible catalytically active sites, the prepared chestnut-bur-like Pd nanostructures exhibited greater electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation compared to other Pd nanocatalysts, including cubic and octahedral Pd nanocrystals, and even commercial Pd/C.We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pd nanostructures with highly open structure and huge surface area by reducing Na2PdCl4 with ascorbic acid and using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a surfactant in an aqueous solution. The prepared Pd nanostructures had an average overall size of 70 nm and were composed of dozens of needle-like thin arms, originating from the same core, with an average thickness of 2.3 nm; the arms looked like chestnut-burs. Time evolution of Pd nanostructures implied that small Pd particles generated at the early stage of the reaction by fast reduction grew via the particle attachment growth mechanism. The morphology and size of the Pd nanostructures could be readily controlled by varying the concentration of CPC; depending on the amount of CPC, the reduction rates varied the morphology

  4. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    PubMed

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general. PMID:26569319

  5. Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in Icelandic horses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA) syndrome is a hereditary congenital eye defect that was first described in Silver colored Rocky Mountain horses. The mutation causing this disease is located within a defined chromosomal interval, which also contains the gene and mutation that is associated with the Silver coat color (PMEL17, exon 11). Horses that are homozygous for the disease-causing allele have multiple defects (MCOA-phenotype), whilst the heterozygous horses predominantly have cysts of the iris, ciliary body or retina (Cyst-phenotype). It has been argued that these ocular defects are caused by a recent mutation that is restricted to horses that are related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. For that reason we have examined another horse breed, the Icelandic horse, which is historically quite divergent from Rocky Mountain horses. Results We examined 24 Icelandic horses and established that the MCOA syndrome is present in this breed. Four of these horses were categorised as having the MCOA-phenotype and were genotyped as being homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation. The most common clinical signs included megaloglobus, iris stromal hypoplasia, abnormal pectinate ligaments, iridociliary cysts occasionally extending into the peripheral retina and cataracts. The cysts and pectinate ligament abnormalities were observed in the temporal quadrant of the eyes. Fourteen horses were heterozygous for the PMEL17 mutation and were characterized as having the Cyst-phenotype with cysts and occasionally curvilinear streaks in the peripheral retina. Three additional horses were genotyped as PMEL17 heterozygotes, but in these horses we were unable to detect cysts or other forms of anomalies. One eye of a severely vision-impaired 18 month-old stallion, homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation was examined by light microscopy. Redundant duplication of non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium, sometimes forming cysts bulging into the posterior chamber and localized areas of

  6. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables

    PubMed Central

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary A new web tool for equine activities, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. The aim of the safety section of the web tool was to raise awareness of safety issues in daily horse stable activities. This section contains a safety checklist, stable safety map and good practices to support human health and horse welfare and to prevent injuries in horse-related activities. Reviews of the literature and statistics, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were utilized in designing the web tool. Abstract Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general. PMID:26569319

  7. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  8. Photic headshaking in the horse: 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Madigan, J E; Kortz, G; Murphy, C; Rodger, L

    1995-07-01

    Seven horses with headshaking are described. No physical abnormalities were detected in any of the cases. Six of these horses had onset of clinical signs in the spring. The role of light was assessed by application of a blindfold or dark grey lens to the eyes, covering the eyes with a face mask and observing the horse in total darkness outdoors. Cessation of headshaking was observed with blindfolding (5/5 horses), night darkness outdoors (4/4 horses) and use of grey lenses (2/3 horses). Outdoor behaviour suggested efforts to avoid light in 4/4 cases. The photic sneeze in man is suggested as a putative mechanism for equine headshaking. Five of 7 horses had improvement with cyproheptadine treatment (0.3 mg/kg bwt b.i.d.). Headshaking developed within 2 calendar weeks of the same date for 3 consecutive years in one horse. Neuropharmacological alterations associated with photoperiod mechanisms leading to optic trigeminal summation are suggested as possible reasons for spring onset of headshaking. PMID:8536668

  9. Exploring the virome of diseased horses.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; Giannitti, Federico; Low, Jason; Keyes, Casey; Ullmann, Leila S; Deng, Xutao; Aleman, Monica; Pesavento, Patricia A; Pusterla, Nicola; Delwart, Eric

    2015-09-01

    Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases. PMID:26044792

  10. Exploring the virome of diseased horses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Giannitti, Federico; Low, Jason; Keyes, Casey; Ullmann, Leila S.; Deng, Xutao; Aleman, Monica; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Pusterla, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases. PMID:26044792

  11. Soluble material secreted from Penicillium chrysogenum isolate exhibits antifungal activity against Cryphonectria parasitica- the causative agent of the American Chestnut Blight

    PubMed Central

    Florjanczyk, Aleksandr; Barnes, Rebecca; Kenney, Adam; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once the dominant canopy tree along the eastern region of the United States. Cryphonectria parasitica, the causative agent of chestnut blight, was introduced from Asia in the early 1900's, and obliterated the chestnut population within 50 years. We sought to identify environmental microbes capable of producing factors that were fungicidal or inhibited growth of C. parasitica in the hopes developing a biological control of chestnut blight. We isolated a filamentous fungus that significantly inhibited the growth of C. parasitica upon co-cultivation. Extracellular fractions of this fungal isolate prevented C. parasitica growth, indicating that a potential fungicide was produced by the novel isolate. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA identified this inhibitory fungus as Penicillium chrysogenum. Furthermore, these extracellular fractions were tested as treatments for blight in vivo using chestnut saplings. Scarred saplings that were treated with the P. chrysogenum extracellular fractions healed subjectively better than those without treatment when inoculated with C. parasitica. These data suggest that material secreted by P. chrysogenum could be used as a treatment for the American chestnut blight. This work may assist the reclamation of the American chestnut in association with breeding programs and blight attenuation. Specifically, treatment of small groves under the right conditions may allow them to remain blight free. Future work will explore the mechanism of action and specific target of the extracellular fraction. PMID:27274909

  12. Phenols, lignans and antioxidant properties of legume and sweet chestnut flours.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Turfani, Valeria; Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Carcea, Marina

    2013-10-15

    Total phenols (TPC) and antioxidant properties were determined in chick-pea, green and red lentils and sweet chestnut flours, in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues, by the Folin Ciocalteau method and by the FRAP assay, respectively. Plant lignans were quantified in flours by means of HPLC. In addition, the FRAP of plant lignans (secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol, matairesinol), their mixture and enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) were determined. In all flours, the highest TPC values were found in the residue. Specific and varietal significant differences were observed in all parameters. The highest TPC (737.32 and 1492.93mg/100gd.w.) and FRAP (140.32 and 101.25μmol/gd.w.) values were reached by green lentils in both aqueous-organic extract and residue, respectively. Sweet chestnuts had the highest total lignans (980.03μg/100gd.w.). It was also found that the plant lignans standards have a higher antioxidant activity than enterolignans standards and that matairesinol has the highest activity. PMID:23692751

  13. Species-specific duplications of NBS-encoding genes in Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yan; Li, Yingjun; Huang, Kaihui; Cheng, Zong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The disease resistance (R) genes play an important role in protecting plants from infection by diverse pathogens in the environment. The nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) class of genes is one of the largest R gene families. Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is resistant to Chestnut Blight Disease, but relatively little is known about the resistance mechanism. We identified 519 NBS-encoding genes, including 374 NBS-LRR genes and 145 NBS-only genes. The majority of Ka/Ks were less than 1, suggesting the purifying selection operated during the evolutionary history of NBS-encoding genes. A minority (4/34) of Ka/Ks in non-TIR gene families were greater than 1, showing that some genes were under positive selection pressure. Furthermore, Ks peaked at a range of 0.4 to 0.5, indicating that ancient duplications arose during the evolution. The relationship between Ka/Ks and Ks indicated greater selective pressure on the newer and older genes with the critical value of Ks = 0.4–0.5. Notably, species-specific duplications were detected in NBS-encoding genes. In addition, the group of RPW8-NBS-encoding genes clustered together as an independent clade located at a relatively basal position in the phylogenetic tree. Many cis-acting elements related to plant defense responses were detected in promoters of NBS-encoding genes. PMID:26559332

  14. Species-specific duplications of NBS-encoding genes in Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yan; Li, Yingjun; Huang, Kaihui; Cheng, Zong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The disease resistance (R) genes play an important role in protecting plants from infection by diverse pathogens in the environment. The nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) class of genes is one of the largest R gene families. Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is resistant to Chestnut Blight Disease, but relatively little is known about the resistance mechanism. We identified 519 NBS-encoding genes, including 374 NBS-LRR genes and 145 NBS-only genes. The majority of Ka/Ks were less than 1, suggesting the purifying selection operated during the evolutionary history of NBS-encoding genes. A minority (4/34) of Ka/Ks in non-TIR gene families were greater than 1, showing that some genes were under positive selection pressure. Furthermore, Ks peaked at a range of 0.4 to 0.5, indicating that ancient duplications arose during the evolution. The relationship between Ka/Ks and Ks indicated greater selective pressure on the newer and older genes with the critical value of Ks = 0.4-0.5. Notably, species-specific duplications were detected in NBS-encoding genes. In addition, the group of RPW8-NBS-encoding genes clustered together as an independent clade located at a relatively basal position in the phylogenetic tree. Many cis-acting elements related to plant defense responses were detected in promoters of NBS-encoding genes. PMID:26559332

  15. Chestnut cultivar diversification process in the Iberian Peninsula, Canary Islands, and Azores.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Lorenzo, Santiago; Costa, Rita Maria Lourenço; Ramos-Cabrer, Ana María; Ciordia-Ara, Marta; Ribeiro, Carla Alexandra Marques; Borges, Olga; Barreneche, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    This is a large-scale molecular study based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci of the diversification process in chestnut cultivars from Portugal and Spain, from the northern Iberian Peninsula to the Canary Islands and the Azores. A total of 593 grafted chestnut trees (Castanea sativa Mill.) were analysed with 10 SSRs: 292 from Portugal and 301 from Spain. Some of the trees studied were more than 300 years old. Accessions were analysed using a model-based Bayesian procedure to assess the geographical structure and to assign individuals to reconstructed populations based on the SSR genotypes. We found 356 different genotypes with a mean value of clonality of 33% owing to grafting. Mutations accounted for 6%, with hybridization being the main diversification process that can explain the great diversity found. Ten main cultivar groups were detected: four in northern Spain, five in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, and one in southern Spain related to the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This work demonstrated that cultivar origin and the diversification process was a combination of clonal propagation of selected seedlings, hybridization, and mutations, which allowed high levels of diversity to be maintained with respect to selected clones for fruit production. Furthermore, seedlings and graft sticks facilitated the transport to new destinations in the colonization process, transporting sometimes more than 3000 km if we consider the Azores and the Canary Islands. PMID:21491973

  16. Complex of solonetzes and vertic chestnut soils in the manych-gudilo depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovda, I. V.; Morgun, E. P.; Il'ina, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological, physicochemical, and isotopic properties of a two-member soil complex developed under dry steppe have been studied in the central part of the Manych Depression. The soils are formed on chocolate-colored clayey sediments, and have pronounced microrelief and the complex vegetation pattern. A specific feature of the studied soil complex is the inverse position of its components: vertic chestnut soil occupies the microhigh, while solonetz is in the microlow. The formation of such complexes is explained by the biological factor, i.e., by the destruction of the solonetzic horizon under the impact of vegetation and earth-burrowing animals with further transformation under steppe plants and dealkalinization of the soil in the microhighs. The manifestation of vertic features and shrink-swell process in soils of the complex developing in dry steppe are compared with those in the vertic soils of the Central Pre-Caucasus formed under more humid environment. It is supposed that slickensides in the investigated vertic chestnut soil are relict feature inherited from the former wetter stage of the soil development and are subjected to a gradual degradation at present. In the modern period, vertic processes are weak and cannot be distinctly diagnosed. However, their activation may take place upon an increase of precipitation or the rise in the groundwater level.

  17. Knowledge is key to safety; Plants that poison horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally they are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However, there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Other plants may be eaten by some horses even though they are unpalatable...

  18. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  19. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  20. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  1. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  2. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  3. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  4. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  5. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  6. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  7. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  8. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  9. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  10. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  11. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  12. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  13. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  14. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  15. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  16. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  17. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  18. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  19. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  20. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  1. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  2. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  3. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  4. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  5. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  6. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  7. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  8. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  9. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  10. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...