Sample records for horse chestnut aesculus

  1. Optimization of horse chestnut ( Aesculus hippocastanum L.) somatic embryo conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronique Troch; Stefaan Werbrouck; Danny Geelen; Marie-Christine Van Labeke

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting conversion of horse chestnut (A. hippocastanum L.) somatic embryos into plantlets were evaluated. Anther filament derived embryogenic tissue developed bipolar structures\\u000a with two cotyledons and a well-developed shoot and root apical meristem upon auxin omittance from the culturing medium. The\\u000a impact of carbohydrate type (glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose) and concentration (3 and 6%) on somatic embryo maturation

  2. Horse chestnut

    MedlinePLUS

    Horse chestnut is a plant. Its seed, bark, flower, and leaves are used to make medicine. Horse ... upset, and itching. Pollen from the horse chestnut flower can cause allergic reactions. Rectal (suppository) use of ...

  3. Horse Chestnut

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For centuries, horse chestnut seeds, leaves, bark, and flowers were used for a variety of conditions and ... or unprocessed horse chestnut seeds, leaves, bark, or flowers. They contain esculin, which is poisonous. When properly ...

  4. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) starch: Basic physico-chemical characteristics and use as thermoplastic material.

    PubMed

    Castańo, J; Rodríguez-Llamazares, S; Contreras, K; Carrasco, C; Pozo, C; Bouza, R; Franco, C M L; Giraldo, D

    2014-11-01

    Starch isolated from non-edible Aesculus hippocastanum seeds was characterized and used for preparing starch-based materials. The apparent amylose content of the isolated starch was 33.1%. The size of starch granules ranged from 0.7 to 35 ?m, and correlated with the shape of granules (spherical, oval and irregular). The chain length distribution profile of amylopectin showed two peaks, at polymerization degree (DP) of 12 and 41-43. Around 53% of branch unit chains had DP in the range of 11-20. A. hippocastanum starch displayed a typical C-type pattern and the maximum decomposition temperature was 317 °C. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) prepared from A. hippocastanum with glycerol and processed by melt blending exhibited adequate mechanical and thermal properties. In contrast, plasticized TPS with glycerol:malic acid (1:1) showed lower thermal stability and a pasty and sticky behavior, indicating that malic acid accelerates degradation of starch during processing. PMID:25129797

  5. EXOTICPEST ALERT Horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Desch. & Dem.

    E-print Network

    EXOTICPEST ALERT Horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Desch. & Dem. (Lepidoptera in the premature defoliation of many horse chestnut trees. Horse chestnuts are widely used in prominent amenity, becoming less frequent northwards. Occasionally a horse chestnut tree is seen with its leaflets browned

  6. Environmental Fate of Emamectin Benzoate After Tree Micro Injection of Horse Chestnut Trees

    PubMed Central

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1–6. © 2014 The Authors. Published 2014 SETAC PMID:25363584

  7. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. PMID:25363584

  8. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot®

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phenotype for most of the breeds from this region, it is important to have a fast and reliable method to detect alleles causing chestnut coat color in horses. Findings In order to assess coat color genotype in reproductive animals with a view to avoiding those bearing chestnut alleles, we have developed a reliable, fast and cost-effective screening device which involves Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) detection based on SNaPshot® (Applied Biosystems) methodology. We have applied this method to four native breeds from the Iberian Cantabrian Coast: Pottoka and Jaca Navarra pony breeds, in which only black or bay coats are acceptable, and Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia and Burguete heavy breeds, in which chestnut coats are acceptable. The frequency of the chestnut alleles ranged between f = 0.156-0.322 in pony breeds and between f = 0.604-0.716 in heavy breeds. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of the DNA methodology reported herein as a device for identifying chestnut alleles; the methodology constitutes a valuable tool for breeders to decrease the incidence of chestnut animals among Cantabrian Coast pony breeds. PMID:20015355

  9. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Status in Androgenic Embryos of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava

    PubMed Central

    Štajner, Dubravka; Popovi?, Boris M.; ?ali?, Dušica; Štajner, Marijana

    2014-01-01

    In vivo (leaves and seed embryos) and in vitro (androgenic embryos) antioxidant scavenging activity of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava medical plants was examined. Here we report antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids, soluble protein contents, quantities of malondialdehyde, and •OH radical presence in the investigated plant samples. Total antioxidant capacity of all the samples of A. hippocastanum and A. flava was determined using FRAP, DPPH, and NO• radical scavenger capacity. The leaves of A. flava collected from the botanical garden exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (higher activities of SOD, and higher quantities of GSH, TSH, TPC, and scavenging abilities of DPPH and NO•, and higher FRAP values and lowest quantities of •OH and MDA) than in vitro obtained cultures. However, the leaves of A. flava showed higher antioxidant activity than the leaves of A. hippocastanum, and therefore they have a stronger tolerance of oxidative stress. Androgenic embryos of both species had low amount of antioxidants due to controlled in vitro environmental conditions (T, photoperiod, humidity, nutritive factors, and pathogen-free). Our results confirmed that we found optimal in vitro conditions for producing androgenic embryos of both Aesculus species. Also, we assume that horse chestnut androgenic embryos can be used as an alternative source for large-scale aescin production. PMID:24672369

  10. Report on the National Survey to Assess the Presence of Bleeding Canker of Horse Chestnut Trees

    E-print Network

    Report on the National Survey to Assess the Presence of Bleeding Canker of Horse Chestnut Trees trees from 128 rural sites and 1244 trees in 112 urban sites were inspected. All regions had some symptomatic trees and overall, 44% of the trees inspected in the rural environment and 55% of the urban trees

  11. How to safely compost Cameraria ohridella-infested horse chestnut leaf litter on private compost heaps

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    How to safely compost Cameraria ohridella-infested horse chestnut leaf litter on private compost the deposition of pest-infested litter on private compost heaps was dissuaded because of the risk of leafminer emergence in the following spring. Thus, the aim of this study was to test safe ways to compost pest

  12. The Success of the Horse-Chestnut Leaf-Miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK Revealed with Hypothesis-Led Citizen Science

    PubMed Central

    Pocock, Michael J. O.; Evans, Darren M.

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the ‘Conker Tree Science’ project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella) undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1) the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2) the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism) increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging many people with science. PMID:24465973

  13. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    PubMed

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A M

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens. PMID:22808044

  14. Anti-obesity effects of highly polymeric proanthocyanidins from seed shells of Japanese horse chestnut ( Aesculus turbinata Blume)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideto Kimura; Satoshi Ogawa; Akihiko Sugiyama; Mitsuo Jisaka; Takashi Takeuchi; Kazushige Yokota

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that seed shells contain a large amount of highly polymeric proanthocyanidins having a series of heteropolyflavan-3-ols with doubly linked A-type linkages as well as single B-type bonds without gallic acid esterified to them. Here, we attempted to evaluate in vivo anti-obesity effects of the polymerized proanthocyanidins in mice. An oral starch or glucose tolerance test in

  15. Long-distance dispersal and human population density allow the prediction of invasive patterns in the horse chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gilbert; J.-C. Gregoire; J. F. Freise; W. Heitland

    2004-01-01

    Summary 1. After its initial discovery in Macedonia in 1985, during the last 19 years the leaf- miner moth Cameraria ohridella has invaded most of Central and Western Europe. The species, which causes aesthetic damage to horse chestnuts, is generally observed first in highly populated locations before colonizing the countryside. This pattern is consistent with a stratified dispersal process combining

  16. Parasitism of the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lep., Gracillariidae), in Serbia and Macedonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Heitland; I. Tosevski

    2002-01-01

    A study concerning the parasitism of Cameraria ohridella, a pest of Aesculus hippocastanum invading Europe, has been carried out in Serbia and Macedonia in 1998 and 1999. From C. ohridella 14 species of parasitoids were reared, which are polyphagous and occur in the whole of Europe. Twelve of the species found belong to the Chalcidoidean family Eulophidae. The rates of

  17. Vacuolar status and water relations in embryonic axes of recalcitrant Aesculus hippocastanum seeds during stratification and early germination

    PubMed Central

    Obroucheva, Natalie V.; Lityagina, Snezhana V.; Novikova, Galina V.; Sin'kevich, Irina A.

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims In tropical recalcitrant seeds, their rapid transition from shedding to germination at high hydration level is of physiological interest but difficult to study because of the time constraint. In recalcitrant horse chestnut seeds produced in central Russia, this transition is much longer and extends through dormancy and dormancy release. This extended time period permits studies of the water relations in embryonic axes during the long recalcitrant period in terms of vacuolar status and water transport. Methodology Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds sampled in Moscow were stratified in cold wet sand for 4 months. Vacuole presence and development in embryonic axes were examined by vital staining, light and electron microscopy. Aquaporins and vacuolar H+-ATPase were identified immunochemically. Water channel operation was tested by water inflow rate. Vacuolar acid invertase was estimated in terms of activity and electrophoretic properties. Principal results Throughout the long recalcitrant period after seed shedding, cells of embryonic axes maintained active vacuoles and a high water content. Preservation of enzyme machinery in vacuoles was evident from retention of invertase activity, substrate specificity, molecular mass and subunit composition. Plasmalemma and tonoplast aquaporins and the E subunit of vacuolar H+-ATPase were also present. In non-dormant seeds prior to growth initiation, vacuoles enlarged at first in hypocotyls, and then in radicles, with their biogenesis being similar. Vacuolation was accompanied by increasing invertase activity, leading to sugar accumulation and active osmotic functioning. After growth initiation, vacuole enlargement was favoured by enhanced water inflow through water channels formed by aquaporins. Conclusions Maintenance of high water content and desiccation sensitivity, as well as preservation of active vacuoles in embryonic axes after shedding, can be considered a specific feature of recalcitrant seeds, overlooked when studying tropical recalcitrants due to the short duration. The retained physiological activity of vacuoles allows them to function rapidly as dormancy is lost and when external conditions permit. Cell vacuolation precedes cell elongation in both hypocotyl and radicle, and provides impetus for rapid germination. PMID:22593822

  18. Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of meteorological variables and parameters. In particular, more severe conditions during spring and summer are expected, especially in the Mediterranean area, with less precipitation and higher temperatures. All these changes will have impacts on chestnut fruits and wood in Europe. Dinis, L-T. J., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Peixoto, F., Costa, R. e Gomes-Laranjo, J., 2011: Study of morphological and chemical diversity in chestnut trees (var. 'Judia') as a function of temperature sum. Cyta- Journal of food, 9(3): 192-199 Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy, Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland. Proceedings of the International Chestnut Conference, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 10-14 July 1992, 175-178. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhăes, M., 2011: Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. Wilczynski, S. And Podlaski, R, 2007: The effect of climate on radial growth of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland, J.For.Res., 12, 24-23.

  19. Host tracking or cryptic adaptation? Phylogeography of Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the highly invasive horse-chestnut leafminer

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-López, Antonio; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Augustin, Sylvie; Lees, David C; Tomov, Rumen; Kenis, Marc; Çota, Ejup; Kullaj, Endrit; Hansson, Christer; Grabenweger, Giselher; Roques, Alain; López-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Classical biological control is often advocated as a tool for managing invasive species. However, accurate evaluations of parasitoid species complexes and assessment of host specificity are impeded by the lack of morphological variation. Here, we study the possibility of host races/species within the eulophid wasp Pediobius saulius, a pupal generalist parasitoid that parasitize the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella. We analysed the population genetic structure, host associations and phylogeographic patterns of P. saulius in Europe using the COI mitochondrial gene. This marker strongly supports a division into at least five highly differentiated parasitoid complexes, within two of which clades with differing degrees of host specialization were found: a Balkan clade that mainly (but not only) attacks C. ohridella and a more generalist European group that attacks many hosts, including C. ohridella. The divergence in COI (up to 7.6%) suggests the existence of cryptic species, although this is neither confirmed by nuclear divergence nor morphology. We do not find evidence of host tracking. The higher parasitism rates observed in the Balkans and the scarcity of the Balkan–Cameraria haplotypes out of the Balkans open the possibility of using these Balkan haplotypes as biological control agents of C. ohridella elsewhere in Europe. PMID:25568046

  20. Assessing potential changes of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Calheiros, Tomas; Pinto, Joaquim; Caramelo, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    Weather conditions play an important role during different phases of the vegetative cycle of the chestnut trees and, consequently, several meteorological parameters seem to be associated chestnut productivity (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992, Cesaraccio et al., 2001, Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007, Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008, Dinis et al., 2011, Pereira et al., 2011). Observed data from European Climate Assessment and simulated data by COSMO-CLM model for the actual (C20) and future (A1B and B1) climate scenarios were used in this study to: (i) assess the model ability to reproduce weather parameters distribution; and, (ii) to assess future changes in the distribution of meteorological parameters which play an important role in the productivity of chestnut for different future periods. Results points to statistical significant changes in the mean and in variance in the future, more prominent in temperature than in precipitation based parameters. Changes in precipitation will be more significant in Northwestern Iberian Peninsula and France in the end of the 21st century for A1B scenario conditions. As expected, more significant changes will be expected to occur during spring and summer, in the Mediterranean areas and in the later period. The number of days with Tmax<28°C will generally decrease in both scenarios, while the changes in the number of days with 24°Cchestnut in Europe, in some areas of production. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: "Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland". Proceedings of the International Chestnut Conference, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 10-14 July 1992, 175-178. Wilczynski, S. And Podlaski, R, 2007: "The effect of climate on radial growth of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland", J.For.Res., 12, 24-23. Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: "Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy", Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Dinis, L.T,Peixoto, F., Pinto, T., Costa, R.Bennett, R. N., and Gomes-Laranjo,J., 2011: "Study of morphological and phonological diversity in chestnut trees (Judia variety) as a function of temperature sum". Environ. Exp Bot., 70, 110-120. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhăes, M., 2011: "Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity". Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. This work was supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692.

  1. Horses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... SLEV , and VEE are viruses carried by wild birds and transmitted by mosquitoes to horses and humans. ... WNV) West Nile virus (WNV) is carried by birds and transmitted by mosquitos. People, birds, and horses ...

  2. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in Leaf Tissues of Aesculus glabra and Aesculus parviflora Walt.

    PubMed

    Oszmia?ski, Jan; Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna; Biernat, Agata

    2015-01-01

    In plants, flavonoids play an important role in biological processes. They are involved in UV-scavenging, fertility and disease resistance. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in Aesculus parviflora Walt. leaves and Aesculus glabra leaves partly suffering from attack by a leaf mining insect (C. ohridella). A total of 28 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in Aesculus parviflora and A. glabra leaf extracts. Significantly decreased concentrations of some phenolic compounds, especially of flavan-3-ols, were observed in infected leaves compared to the non-infected ones. Additionally, a higher content of polymeric procyanidins in leaves of Aesculus parviflora than in Aesculus glabra may explain their greater resistance to C. ohridella insects. PMID:25635381

  3. Chestnut Blight (Cryphonectria parasitica)

    E-print Network

    Chestnut Blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) www.forestry.gov.uk/planthealth plant but they may be easier to see during the winter when the trees have lost their leaves. Orange sporulation.wsfl.ch. #12;Chestnut Blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) www.forestry.gov.uk/planthealth plant

  4. American Chestnut Tree

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-08-25

    This annotated slideshow adapted from KET's Electronic Field Trip to the Forest illustrates how blight decimated the American chestnut tree and the methods scientists use to identify and pollinate the remaining trees to create blight-resistant trees.

  5. 7 CFR 301.51-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and debris of half an inch or more in diameter of the following genera: Acer (maple), Aesculus (horse chestnut), Albizia (mimosa), Betula (birch), Celtis (hackberry), Fraxinus (ash), Platanus (sycamore), Populus...

  6. Frost damage and its cascading negative effects on Aesculus glabra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol K. Augspurger

    2011-01-01

    Frost damage and re-foliation are seldom quantified for forest species, but are of ecological and evolutionary importance.\\u000a This study of Aesculus glabra (Ohio buckeye) in a deciduous forest remnant in Illinois, USA, quantified frost damage to leaves and flowers after sub-freezing\\u000a temperatures in April 2007. It also documented re-foliation and later growth, reproduction, and survival in 2007–2009 for\\u000a the 355

  7. Somatic Embryogenesis in Chestnut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Corredoira; A. Ballester; F. J. Vieitez; A. M. Vieitez

    Somatic embryogenesis is an important biotechnological tool that demonstrates significant benefits\\u000a when applied to forest tree species; clonal propagation, cryostorage of valuable germoplasm and genetic\\u000a transformation are among the most promising of its applications. In this chapter, the state of the\\u000a art of somatic embryogenesis in chestnut (an important economical tree species of the genus Castanea) is assessed and discussed.

  8. Comparative Genome Analysis Provides Insights into the Evolution and Adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum

    PubMed Central

    Green, Sarah; Studholme, David J.; Laue, Bridget E.; Dorati, Federico; Lovell, Helen; Arnold, Dawn; Cottrell, Joan E.; Bridgett, Stephen; Blaxter, Mark; Huitema, Edgar; Thwaites, Richard; Sharp, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae), is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae). On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae), isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree. PMID:20419105

  9. Enhancement of American chestnut somatic seedling production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Andrade; S. A. Merkle

    2005-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis holds promise for mass propagation of American chestnut trees bred or genetically engineered for resistance to chestnut blight. However, low germination frequency of chestnut somatic embryos has limited somatic seedling production for this forest tree. We tested the effects of culture regime (semi-solid versus liquid), cold treatment, AC and somatic embryo morphology (i.e., cotyledon number) on germination and

  10. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  11. Horse Bones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2003-05-27

    Horse racing, the so-called "sport of kings," has captivated fans for centuries. One reason is the grace and agility of the horses themselves -- when they're running at top speed, they look as if they're flying down the track. In this Science Update, you'll hear how studying horses may help engineers improve human flight in air and space.

  12. Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

    2009-04-01

    Meteorological conditions play a fundamental role during entire chestnut tree vegetative cycle. Chestnut trees are well adapted to mean year temperatures of 8-15°C, requires monthly mean temperatures greater than 10°C during 6 months (Gomes-Laranjo et al. 2008) and its pollen only germinates at relatively high temperatures of 27-30°C (Bounous, 2002). Photosynthesis of an adult tree is highly dependent of temperature. Photosynthesis is maximal at 24-28°C but it is inhibited for temperatures greater than 32°C (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). Furthermore, there are significant differences between chestnut trees cultivated in northfaced orchads in relation to those cultivated in the southfaced and between leaves from different sides of the chestnut canopy because they receive different amounts of radiant energy and consequently they grow under different mean daily air temperature. The objective of this work was to assess the role of weather on chestnut production variability. This study was performed for the 28 years period defined between 1980 and 2007 and it was based on annual values of chestnut production and total area of production, at national level, provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal. The meteorological data used was provided by Meteored (http://www.meteored.com/) and includes daily values of precipitation, wind speed, and mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. All meteorological variables were tested as potential predictors by means of a simple correlation analysis. Multiple time intervals were considered in this the analysis, which consist in moving intervals of constant length and forward and backward evolutionary intervals. Results show that some meteorological variables present significant correlation with chestnut productivity particularly in the most relevant periods of the chestnut tree cycle, like the previous winter, the flushing phase and the maturation period. A regression model based on the winter (January to March) precipitation, the number of days with maximum temperature between 24°C and 28°C and the number of days of May with minimum temperature below 0°C is able to model the chestnut productivity with r2 equal to 0.79. It should be pointed out that the relation between weather/climate and chestnut productivity may change over time. Finally, it is important to express objectively the effects of temperature and precipitation extremes on the chestnut productivity since temperature is one of the global circulation models predicted variables with less uncertainty. With these tools will be possible to assess the weather related risk on chestnut production as well as infer about evolution of the adequate conditions to the chestnut trees in the actual plantations and about the expansion of this specie. Bounous, G. (2002) "Il castagno" [Chestnut.] - Edagricole, Bologna. [In Ital.] Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955.

  13. Population Statistics and Biological Traits of Endangered Kiso Horse

    PubMed Central

    TAKASU, Masaki; HIRAMATSU, Nana; TOZAKI, Teruaki; KAKOI, Hironaga; HASEGAWA, Telhisa; MAEDA, Masami; KUSUDA, Satoshi; DOI, Osamu; MURASE, Tetsuma; MUKOYAMA, Harutaka

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the current status of endangered Kiso horse, population statistics and biological traits, in order to take a step for the conservation by scientific approach. We surveyed 125 Kiso horses (86.2% of the whole breed), analyzed the construction of the population, and calculated the coefficient of inbreeding and effective population size. Moreover, we confirmed coat color variations and the traditional traits of the Kiso horse, and measured their height at the withers and chest circumference to clarify their physical characteristics. The population pyramid of the horses was stationary or contractive, suggesting a reduction of the population in the near future. The effective population size of the horse (47.9) suggested that the diversity was much less than their census size, and the high coefficient of inbreeding, 0.11 ± 0.07 on average, suggested that the horses were surely inbred. The horses had only 4 coat colors; bay, dark bay, buckskin dun, and chestnut, and 116 horses (92.8%) were bayish color, suggesting the fixation in their coat color. Moreover, the majority of them had dorsal stripe (83 horses; 66.4%), and the average heights at withers(131.9 ± 4.4 cm) and chest circumference (167.1 ± 10.1 cm) were not significantly different between males and females. PMID:24833989

  14. Paradata for 'Pets>Horses>The Horse: Featuring many breeds of horses, including working horses, ponies, racing horses, riding horses, care, feeding, books, and other info'

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This record contains paradata for the resource 'Pets>Horses>The Horse: Featuring many breeds of horses, including working horses, ponies, racing horses, riding horses, care, feeding, books, and other info'

  15. Distribution and Etiology of Aerial Stem Infections of Phytophthora ramorum and

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    aerial stem lesions on beech, Turkey oak, horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) and southern beech in woodlands in southern Britain. P. kernoviae is a newly discovered taxon, previously referred, especially European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and some Quercus species, causing bleeding lesions (Brasier

  16. Sudden Oak Death: Recent Developments on Trees in Europe1

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    obliqua (Southern beech), Aesculus hippocastanum (Horse chestnut) and Acer pseudoplatanus (European Webber2 , and Anna Brown2 Key words: beech trees, Cornwall, distribution, Netherlands, oak, Phytophthora. In October 2003, a single Q. falcata (southern red oak) with girdling bleeding stem lesions from ground level

  17. Jacek OLEKSYN1,2 , Brian D. KLOEPPEL3

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Parkowa 5, Kórnik, Poland PL-62-035, e-mail: pkarolew@man.poznan.pl 3, Dbrowskiego 165 PL-60-594 Pozna, Poland ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF HORSE CHESTNUT (AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L that stable carbon isotope discrimina- tion is of little value as an indicator of cumulative salinity

  18. Investigation of the photosynthetic activity of bark phelloderm of arboreous plants using the fluorescent method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Alekseev; D. N. Matorin; V. A. Osipov; P. S. Venediktov

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the characteristics of chlorophyll fluorescence were studied in the bark of several species of trees originating\\u000a in various climatic zones: Siberian cedar (Pinus sibirica), larch (Larix sibirica), eastern arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis), pendent white birch (Betula pendula), wild black cherry (Padus virginiana), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), red oak (Quercus rubra), Manchurian catalpa (Catalpa bungei), linden (Tilia cordata), goat

  19. Cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal herbs in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Caldas; L. L. Machado

    2004-01-01

    Samples of herbal medicine used in Brazil were analyzed, after nitric digestion, for the content of cadmium, mercury and lead, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Fifteen samples of ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo biloba), 13 of celastraceae (Maytenus ilicifolia), 14 of cascara buckthorn (Rhamnus purshiana), 13 of eggplant (Solanum melongena), 15 of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), 13 of Brazilian ginseng (Pffafia glomerata), 17

  20. The effects of desiccation on seeds of Acer saccharinum and Aesculus pavia : recalcitrance in temperate tree seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina F. Connor; Franklin T. Bonner

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine how the results from lipid, moisture, and differential scanning calorimetry analyses conducted on silver maple (Aceraceae: Acer saccharinum L.) and red buckeye (Hippocastanaceae: Aesculus pavia L.) compared with those obtained from previous studies on white and water oaks (Fagaceae: Quercus alba and Q. nigra), and the tropical zone species American muskwood (Meliaceae: Guarea guidonia)

  1. Impact of the leaf miner Cameraria ohridella on photosynthesis, water relations and hydraulics of Aesculus hippocastanum leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Raimondo; Lia A. Ghirardelli; Andrea Nardini; Sebastiano Salleo

    2003-01-01

    The mining of leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum caused by the larvae of Cameraria ohridella leads to precocious defoliation of trees. Damage to plant productivity was estimated in terms of the photosynthetic performance as well as of leaf water relations and hydraulics of increasingly mined leaves from infested plants in comparison with the same variables measured in non-mined leaves (controls). Electron

  2. The expression of dehydrin proteins in desiccation-sensitive (recalcitrant) seeds of temperate trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Finch-Savage; S. K. Pramanik; J. D. Bewley

    1994-01-01

    Proteins that have homology with dehydrins have been identified immunologically in the desiccationsensitive (recalcitrant)\\u000a seeds of English oak (Quercus robur L.), European chestnut (Castanea sativa L.), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), sycamore (Acer psuedoplatanus L.) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.), and in the desiccation-tolerant seeds of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.). The mRNA for a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA)

  3. A modified version of fluctuating asymmetry, potential for the analysis of Aesculus hippocastanum L. compound leaves.

    PubMed

    Velickovic, Miroslava

    2008-01-01

    My research interest was to create a new, simple and tractable mathematical framework for analyzing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in Aesculus hippocastanum L. palmately compound leaves (each compound leaf with 7 obviate, serrate leaflets). FA, being random differences in the development of both sides of a bilaterally symmetrical character, has been proposed as an indicator of environmental and genetic stress. In the present paper the well-established Palmer's procedure for FA has been modified to improve the suitability of the chosen index (FA1) to be used in compound leaf asymmetry analysis. The processing steps are described in detail, allowing us to apply these modifications for the other Palmer's indices of FA as well as for the compound leaves of other plant species. PMID:18604782

  4. Properties and substrate specificity of the leucyl-, the threonyl- and the valyl-transfer-ribonucleic acid synthetases from Aesculus species

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. W.; Fowden, L.

    1970-01-01

    1. Leucyl- and threonyl-tRNA synthetases were partially purified up to 100-fold and 30-fold respectively from cotyledons of Aesculus hippocastanum and were largely separated from the other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Valyl-tRNA synthetase was purified 25-fold from cotyledons of Aesculus californica. 2. Some properties are reported for the three enzymes when assayed by the [32P]pyrophosphate-ATP exchange technique. 3. ?-(Methylenecyclopropyl)alanine, isoleucine, azaleucine, norleucine and ?-hydroxynorvaline acted as alternative substrates for the leucyl-tRNA synthetase; the enzyme's affinity for ?-(methylenecyclopropyl)-alanine and for isoleucine was about 80-fold less than that exhibited for leucine. 4. ?-Cyclopropylglycine and ?-cyclobutylglycine acted as alternative substrates for the valyl-tRNA synthetase. PMID:5493505

  5. Evaluation of secondary dispersal in a large-seeded tree Aesculus turbinata: a test of directed dispersal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Hoshizaki; Wajirou Suzuki; Tohru Nakashizuka

    1999-01-01

    Among the several hypotheses on selective advantage of seed dispersal, the directed dispersal hypothesis explains the advantage of non-random seed transportation by animals to particular patch type suitable for offspring establishment. We tested this hypothesis in dispersal of a large-seeded, rodent-dispersed tree (Aesculus turbinata) in a temperate forest. We investigated the change in location of seeds through secondary dispersal, and

  6. Comparison of the transcriptomes of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) in response to the chestnut blight infection

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Abdelali; DiLoreto, Denis S; Zhang, Yi; Smith, Chris; Baier, Kathleen; Powell, William A; Wheeler, Nicholas; Sederoff, Ron; Carlson, John E

    2009-01-01

    Background1471-2229-9-51 American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was devastated by an exotic pathogen in the beginning of the twentieth century. This chestnut blight is caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, a fungus that infects stem tissues and kills the trees by girdling them. Because of the great economic and ecological value of this species, significant efforts have been made over the century to combat this disease, but it wasn't until recently that a focused genomics approach was initiated. Prior to the Genomic Tool Development for the Fagaceae project, genomic resources available in public databases for this species were limited to a few hundred ESTs. To identify genes involved in resistance to C. parasitica, we have sequenced the transcriptome from fungal infected and healthy stem tissues collected from blight-sensitive American chestnut and blight-resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) trees using ultra high throughput pyrosequencing. Results We produced over a million 454 reads, totaling over 250 million bp, from which we generated 40,039 and 28,890 unigenes in total from C. mollissima and C. dentata respectively. The functions of the unigenes, from GO annotation, cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. In silico expression analyses showed that many of the stress response unigenes were expressed more in canker tissues versus healthy stem tissues in both American and Chinese chestnut. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either American or Chinese chestnut canker tissues. Conclusion Our study resulted in the identification of a large set of cDNA unigenes from American chestnut and Chinese chestnut. The ESTs and unigenes from this study constitute an important resource to the scientific community interested in the discovery of genes involved in various biological processes in Chestnut and other species. The identification of many defense-related genes differentially expressed in canker vs. healthy stem in chestnuts provides many new candidate genes for developing resistance to the chestnut blight and for studying pathways involved in responses of trees to necrotrophic pathogens. We also identified several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to Cryphonectria parasitica between American chestnut and Chinese chestnut. PMID:19426529

  7. Chestnut resistance to the blight disease: insights from transcriptome analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A century ago, Chestnut Blight Disease (CBD) devastated the American chestnut. Backcross breeding has been underway to introgress resistance from Chinese chestnut into surviving American chestnut genotypes. Development of genomic resources for the family Fagaceae, has focused in this project on Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut) and Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh (American chestnut) to aid in the backcross breeding effort and in the eventual identification of blight resistance genes through genomic sequencing and map based cloning. A previous study reported partial characterization of the transcriptomes from these two species. Here, further analyses of a larger dataset and assemblies including both 454 and capillary sequences were performed and defense related genes with differential transcript abundance (GDTA) in canker versus healthy stem tissues were identified. Results Over one and a half million cDNA reads were assembled into 34,800 transcript contigs from American chestnut and 48,335 transcript contigs from Chinese chestnut. Chestnut cDNA showed higher coding sequence similarity to genes in other woody plants than in herbaceous species. The number of genes tagged, the length of coding sequences, and the numbers of tagged members within gene families showed that the cDNA dataset provides a good resource for studying the American and Chinese chestnut transcriptomes. In silico analysis of transcript abundance identified hundreds of GDTA in canker versus healthy stem tissues. A significant number of additional DTA genes involved in the defense-response not reported in a previous study were identified here. These DTA genes belong to various pathways involving cell wall biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA), abscissic acid (ABA), and hormone signalling. DTA genes were also identified in the hypersensitive response and programmed cell death (PCD) pathways. These DTA genes are candidates for host resistance to the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Conclusions Our data allowed the identification of many genes and gene network candidates for host resistance to the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. The similar set of GDTAs in American chestnut and Chinese chestnut suggests that the variation in sensitivity to this pathogen between these species may be the result of different timing and amplitude of the response of the two to the pathogen infection. Resources developed in this study are useful for functional genomics, comparative genomics, resistance breeding and phylogenetics in the Fagaceae. PMID:22429310

  8. Bioavailability of escin after administration of two oral formulations containing aesculus extract.

    PubMed

    Kunz, K; Lorkowski, G; Petersen, G; Samcova, E; Schaffler, K; Wauschkuhn, C H

    1998-08-01

    In a steady-state cross-over study in 18 healthy volunteers, the relative bioavailability of beta-escin (CAS 11072-93-8) after oral administration of a new immediate release enteric-coated test formulation containing aesculus extract was evaluated in comparison with a prolonged-release reference preparation. The subject received the test and the reference preparation in randomised sequence for 7 days each with no washout period in between. The daily dose was 50 mg escin b.i.d. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic profiling were taken on the 7th treatment day of each period over a full 24-h cycle of two successive dosing intervals. For the determination of beta-escin serum concentrations, a highly specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used. Generally, escin serum concentrations were lower during the second dosing interval (night) than during the first interval, probably indicating a drug by food interaction. (The morning dose was given after overnight fasting whereas the evening dose was given between meals). Test and reference demonstrated bioequivalence with regard to the extent of absorption; for the AUC (0-24 h p.a.), the 90% confidence interval ranged from 84% to 114% (point estimate: 98%). The differences observed for rate parameters can be disregarded due to the generally slow elimination and the wide therapeutic concentration range of escin. PMID:9748710

  9. Effect of chestnut extract and chestnut fiber on viability of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains under gastrointestinal tract conditions.

    PubMed

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; La Gatta, Barbara; Di Capua, Marika; Di Luccia, Aldo; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The main challenge to probiotics, during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract, are the acidic gastric secretions of the stomach, and the bile salts released into the duodenum. The survival of the strains, in this phase, is strongly influenced by the food used for their delivery. This work is part of a project studying the development of novel food processes, based on the use of chestnuts from cultivar "Castagna di Montella". In detail, the effect of indigestible chestnut fiber and of chestnut extract on the viability of selected lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated. Among 28 cultures, twelve strains were selected, on the basis of tolerance to low pH values and bile salts, and submitted to exposition to simulated gastric or bile juice in presence of chestnut extract with or without immobilization in chestnut fiber. The presence of chestnut extract proved to play a significant role on the gastric tolerance improvement of lactobacilli. The recorded protective effect could not be simply related to the starch or reducing sugars content. RP-HPLC demonstrated that in the chestnut flour, there are one or more hydrophobic peptides or oligopeptides, which specifically offer a marked resistance to simulated gastric juice, albeit present at low concentration. These beneficial effects proved to be dependent by the cultivar used to produce the flour. PMID:24010594

  10. Comparison of RAPD and morpho?nut markers for revealing genetic relationships between chestnut species (Castanea spp.) and New Zealand chestnut selections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. C. Oraguzie; D. L. Mcneil; A. M. Paterson; H. Chapman

    1998-01-01

    This study explored different character data sets (random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and morpho?nut characters), techniques, and systematic methodologies in an attempt to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and origins of New Zealand chestnut (Castanea spp.) selections. The study was prompted by confusion regarding the relationships of New Zealand chestnut selections and the introduced chestnut species in New Zealand. RAPDs demonstrated

  11. Composting Horse Manure

    E-print Network

    Auvermann, Brent W.; McDonald, Lanny; Devin, Robert; Sweeten, John M.

    1999-07-02

    Uncontrolled stockpiles of horse manure can be an unsightly, smelly and fly-infested mess. However, composting manure can eliminate the messy problems and provide a modest additional income for horse enthusiasts, operators of equine facilities...

  12. CHESTNUT AVENUE BRIDGE. BOWIE, PRINCE GEORGES CO., MD. Sec. 1201,, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHESTNUT AVENUE BRIDGE. BOWIE, PRINCE GEORGES CO., MD. Sec. 1201,, MP 120.48. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. Feasibility study of effect of ultrasound on water chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junru; Wu, Meiyin

    2006-04-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa natans L.), an annual aquatic plant with floating leaves was first introduced into North America in 1874. Since then, wild populations have quickly become established in many locations within Northeastern USA. Due to its detrimental effects on the overall health of aquatic ecosystems, millions of dollars have been spent to control the water chestnut infestations in the North America through mechanical harvesting and manual removal, with limited success. The potential for continued expansion of the infestations demonstrates an urgent need for an effective control method. This study examined the potential of ultrasound application as an alternative control strategy for water chestnut management. Various frequencies and amplitudes of ultrasound generated by submerged transducers were applied directly to water chestnuts harvested from Lake Champlain. Substantial damages on water chestnut cells as well as penetrated petitoles were observed at the following tested frequencies of ultrasound, 20 kHz, 187 kHz, 469 kHz, 519 kHz and 2.34 MHz. Among them, 20 kHz ultrasound of 1.9 MPa acoustic pressure amplitude demonstrated the most significant damages within 10 s of ultrasound exposure. The treated plants started to die within 72 h and the mortality rate of water chestnut plants treated with the ultrasound application was 100%. PMID:16616605

  14. Effects of the Harvest Method on the Infestation of Chestnuts (Castanea sativa) by Insects and Moulds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. N. Sieber Sieber; M. M. Jermini Jermini; M. M. Conedera Conedera

    2007-01-01

    Chestnuts were collected either every 7 days from sus- pended nets used to intercept the fruits, every 2 days from the ground or every 7 days from the ground. Nuts were visually inspected after collection for the presence of exit holes of the chestnut weevil (Curculio elephas) and the chestnut moth (Cydia splendana), and 20 nuts per sampling and tree

  15. Horse Genome Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What's in a horse? As it turns out, what's in a horse is quite important, and the Horse Genome Project at the University of Kentucky is currently defining the genome of this animal. The Project is a cooperative international effort which involves some 100 scientists working in 20 countries. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors can make their way through five sections, including "The People", "The Horses", "Genomics 101", and "Applications of Genome Study". "The Horses" area is a good place to start, as it gives an overview of the animals being used in the project. In "Genomics 101", interested parties will find an overview of some basic terms used in the field, such as gene, allele, and mutation. The "Applications of Genome Study" area focuses in on how their work will be used to benefit the health and welfare of horses.

  16. Chestnut extract induces apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji

    2011-01-01

    In Korea, chestnut production is increasing each year, but consumption is far below production. We investigated the effect of chestnut extracts on antioxidant activity and anticancer effects. Ethanol extracts of raw chestnut (RCE) or chestnut powder (CPE) had dose-dependent superoxide scavenging activity. Viable numbers of MDA-MD-231 human breast cancer cells, DU145 human prostate cancer cells, and AGS human gastric cancer cells decreased by 18, 31, and 69%, respectively, following treatment with 200 µg/mL CPE for 24 hr. CPE at various concentrations (0-200 µg/mL) markedly decreased AGS cell viability and increased apoptotic cell death dose and time dependently. CPE increased the levels of cleaved caspase-8, -7, -3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner but not cleaved caspase-9. CPE exerted no effects on Bcl-2 and Bax levels. The level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein decreased within a narrow range following CPE treatment. The levels of Trail, DR4, and Fas-L increased dose-dependently in CPE-treated AGS cells. These results show that CPE decreases growth and induces apoptosis in AGS gastric cancer cells and that activation of the death receptor pathway contributes to CPE-induced apoptosis in AGS cells. In conclusion, CPE had more of an effect on gastric cancer cells than breast or prostate cancer cells, suggesting that chestnuts would have a positive effect against gastric cancer. PMID:21779520

  17. Horse Gaits Flipbooks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Museum of Natural History

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners explore the gait of horses by constructing flipbooks with British photographer Eadweard Muybridge's famous photographs. Learners print out three flipbooks that showcase horses walking, trotting, and galloping. Learners will explore how many hooves leave the ground at the same time when the horse trots, walks, or gallops. This activity can also be used as part of a larger unit on animation or film.

  18. Production of fermented chestnut purees by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Blaiotta, G; Di Capua, M; Coppola, R; Aponte, M

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new chestnut-based puree, in order to seasonally adjust the offer and use the surplus of undersized production, providing, at the same time, a response to the growing demand for healthy and environmentally friendly products. Broken dried chestnuts have been employed to prepare purees to be fermented with six different strains of Lactobacillus (Lb.) rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei. The fermented purees were characterized by a technological and sensorial point of view, while the employed strains were tested for their probiotic potential. Conventional in vitro tests have indicated the six lactobacilli strains as promising probiotic candidates; moreover, being the strains able to grow and to survive in chestnut puree at a population level higher than 8 log?? CFU/mL along 40 days of storage at 4 °C, the bases for the production of a new food, lactose-free and with reduced fat content, have been laid. PMID:22874766

  19. New Quinolinone Alkaloids from Chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb) Honey.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Bae, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Myeong-Lyeol; Choi, Yong-Soo; Jin, Byung-Rae; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Jeong, Hang Yeon; Lee, Yu Geon; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-04-01

    Two new quinolinone alkaloids and 13 known compounds were isolated from chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb) honey. Two new compounds were determined to be 3-dihydro-spiro[2(1H),3'(1'H)-diquinoline]-3',4,4'-trione (spirodiquinolinone) and 3-(2'-piperidine)-kynurenic acid. In addition, 2,3-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]quinazolin-5(1H)-one was identified for the first time from nature. In addition, 2,3-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]quinazolin-5(1H)-one was newly identified from chestnut honey, although this compound has been synthesized before. The structures were determined by the NMR and electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). Three compounds were qualified and quantitated in chestnut honey by selective multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection of LC-ESI-MS using the isolated compounds as external standards. PMID:25797069

  20. Yoghurt with candied chestnut: freeze drying, physical, and rheological behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sakin-Yilmazer, Melike; Dirim, S Nur; Di Pinto, Davide; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2014-12-01

    As a novel product, yoghurt powder was produced by freeze drying and with added candied chestnut puree at ratios of 5, 10, and 20 % by weight. During the freeze drying process, mass loss, water activity, and the moisture content of the samples were determined and the colour (Hunter L, a, b) of the yoghurt powder products was measured. Results showed that increasing the percentage of candied chestnut puree resulted in an increase in water activity, moisture content, and colour change values of the end product. The drying behaviour, drying rate versus free moisture content, was also investigated. It was observed that yoghurt with or without added candied chestnut puree could be satisfactorily freeze-dried. Moreover, the performance of the dried product was observed in a ready-to-use, reconstituted form. For this purpose, the obtained powders were reconstituted to their original moisture contents. Shear stress and apparent viscosity against shear rate in a range of 1-1,000 (1/sec) was then measured by a Haake-Mars rotary viscometer. According to the results, the apparent viscosities of reconstituted products, as plain yoghurt and the one with an added 5 % chestnut puree were lower than that of fresh yoghurt. However, reconstituted yoghurts containing 10 % and 20 % chestnut puree had apparent viscosities higher than fresh yoghurt. Power Law explained well the rheological behaviour of reconstituted yoghurt samples for the applied shear rate range. Based on rheological data and sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freeze dried yoghurt containing 10 % (w/w) candied chestnut puree was an acceptable novel product. PMID:25477665

  1. Horse Nutrition and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...

  2. Original article Growth and mineral content of young chestnut trees

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    calcium deficiency (Davis, 1949; Ramalho et al, 1995). How- ever, the chestnut tree is known for its abilH. They also induce variations in cation content within different organs, eg, significant increases in calcium. calcium / Castanea sativa / fertilization / growth / mineral nutrition Résumé - Croissance et contenu

  3. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelle, R H; Huff, D D

    1984-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables.

  4. Tree Injection in the Management of HorseChestnut Leaf Miner. Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kobza; G. Juhásová; K. Adam?íková; E. Onrušková

    2011-01-01

    Insect and disease problems often occur suddenly, and frequently represent a crisis that demands immediate attention. There\\u000a are some problems with tree health care because application of sprays to shade trees in urban areas requires specialized,\\u000a expensive equipment. Microinjection is a type of trunk injection where small amounts of therapeutic chemicals are introduced\\u000a directly into a tree without any contact

  5. Coat colour and sex identification in horses from Iron Age Sweden.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Emma M; Telldahl, Ylva; Sjöling, Emma; Sundkvist, Anneli; Hulth, Helena; Sjřvold, Torstein; Götherström, Anders

    2012-01-20

    Domestication of animals and plants marked a turning point in human prehistory. To date archaeology, archaeozoology and genetics have shed light on when and where all of our major livestock species were domesticated. Phenotypic changes associated with domestication have occurred in all farm animals. Coat colour is one of the traits that have been subjected to the strongest human selection throughout history. Here we use genotyping of coat colour SNPs in horses to investigate whether there were any regional differences or preferences for specific colours associated with specific cultural traditions in Iron Age Sweden. We do this by identifying the sex and coat colour of horses sacrificed at Skedemosse, Öland (Sweden) during the Iron Age, as well as in horses from two sites in Uppland, Ultuna and Valsgärde (dated to late Iron Age). We show that bay, black and chestnut colours were all common and two horses with tobiano spotting were found. We also show how the combination of sex identification with genotyping of just a few SNPs underlying the basic coat colours can be used to identify the minimum number of individuals at a site on a higher level than morphological methods alone. Although separated by 500 km and from significantly different archaeological contexts the horses at Skedemosse and Ultuna are quite homogenous when it comes to coat colour phenotypes, indicating that there were no clear geographical variation in coat colouration in Sweden during the late Iron Age and early Viking Age. PMID:22154005

  6. Observational learning in horses

    E-print Network

    Baer, Katherine Louise

    1979-01-01

    that the horse' s value is determined by the extent of the animal's ability to perform. The horse's ability to learn has been demonstrated experimentally in various discrimination tasks (Dixon, 1970; Fiske, 1976; Gardner, 1937a; Gardner, 1937b; Rensch, 1957... and brightness cues (Fiske, 1976; Gardner, 1937a; Gardner, 1937b; Warren and Warren, 1962), or by sensory modalities as stimuli (Yeates, 1977). A decrease in errors during ac- quisition of a discrimination task is evidence of learning set forma- tion...

  7. Ethmoidal hematoma in nine horses.

    PubMed

    Specht, T E; Colahan, P T; Nixon, A J; Brown, M P; Turner, T A; Peyton, L C; Schneider, R K

    1990-09-01

    Ethmoidal hematoma was diagnosed in 9 horses by results of physical examination, endoscopy, radiography, and histologic examination of tissues. The horses had stertorous breathing (n = 4) or intermittently sanguineous nasal discharge (n = 7). All horses underwent sinusotomy and extirpation of the lesion. At reexamination 15 to 104 months after surgery (mean, 61 months), 3 horses had recurrence of ethmoidal hematoma, and 1 horse had ethmoidal hematoma involving the contralateral ethmoturbinates. One of the horses with recurrence of ethmoidal hematoma also developed a contralateral lesion; both lesions recurred and additional surgeries were performed. PMID:2211311

  8. Sexually mature transgenic American chestnut trees via embryogenic suspension-based transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisele M. Andrade; Campbell J. Nairn; Huong T. Le; Scott A. Merkle

    2009-01-01

    The availability of a system for direct transfer of anti-fungal candidate genes into American chestnut (Castanea dentata), devastated by a fungal blight in the last century, would offer an alternative or supplemental approach to conventional\\u000a breeding for production of chestnut trees resistant to the blight fungus and other pathogens. By taking advantage of the strong\\u000a ability of embryogenic American chestnut

  9. Ectomycorrhizal characterization of an American chestnut ( Castanea dentata ) -dominated community in Western Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Palmer; Daniel L. Lindner; Thomas J. Volk

    2008-01-01

    Circa 1900, a farmer from the eastern US planted 11 American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seeds on a newly established farm near West Salem in western Wisconsin. These trees were very successful, producing a large\\u000a stand of over 6,000 trees. Since this area is well outside the natural range of chestnut, these trees remained free from chestnut\\u000a blight until 1987. In

  10. 16. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the Yankee Horse Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the Yankee Horse Railroad trestle looking north. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  11. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreira, Joăo C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. ?-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

  12. Development and germination of American chestnut somatic embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zizhuo Xing; William A. Powell; Charles A. Maynard

    1999-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) plants were regenerated from developing ovules through somatic embryogenesis.\\u000a On an initiation medium containing 18.18 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1.11 ?M 6-benzyladenine (BA), 25 out of 1,576\\u000a ovules were induced to form proembryogenic masses (PEMs). These PEMs were cultivated on a development medium for 4 weeks.\\u000a Individual somatic embryos were then grown on a

  13. Mimosa and chestnut tannin extracts reacted with hexamine in solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Peńa; K. de la Caba; A. Retegi; C. Ocando; J. Labidi; J. M. Echeverria; I. Mondragon

    2009-01-01

    Autocondensation reactions of mimosa and chestnut tannin extracts solutions have been analysed at several pH by differential\\u000a scanning calorimetry (DSC). Alkaline pH promotes autocondensation reaction of these tannins. Curing reactions between these\\u000a tannins and hexamine at acid and not strongly alkaline pH have been proved by DSC. Thermal analysis gives insights not only\\u000a on reactions between tannin and hexamine, but

  14. Welfare in horse breeding.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M L H; Sandře, P

    2015-04-25

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  15. Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pridnya, M.V.; Cherpakov, V.V.; Paillet, F.L.

    1996-01-01

    Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

  16. The effect of low-temperature storage on the activity of polyphenol oxidase in Castanea henryi chestnuts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinsen Xu

    2005-01-01

    Chestnuts of Castanea henryi (Skan) Rehd. et Wils were stored at 4 and ?20°C for a duration of 6 months. The effects of such storage treatments on the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and total free phenolics content were investigated. Total phenolics content showed uneven distribution in C. henryi chestnuts. The chestnut PPO was isolated and characterized in terms of optimum

  17. Resource limitation in natural populations of phytophagous insects. A long-term study case with the chestnut weevil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debouzie, Domitien; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Oberli, Frantz; Menu, Frédéric

    2002-03-01

    The chestnut weevil, Curculio elephas (Gyll.), is a non-outbreaking species whose populations and food resources, the European chestnut, Castanea sativa, can be precisely defined. Thirteen and 17 generations of this insect were studied in two isolated sites. Field observations and experiments allowed us to estimate the absolute abundance, availability and use of chestnuts for weevil oviposition, and the number of weevil females emerging per site. Unavailable chestnuts were defined as the fruits either infested first by the chestnut moth ( Cydia splendana) larvae (because of competition between the two species) or those avoided by chestnut weevil females when selecting their egg-laying sites, independently of chestnut moth presence. From a third to a half of the chestnuts were not available on the average for weevil infestation. Only one-fourth, on the average, of those available for oviposition were actually used by chestnut weevil females. Regardless of year and site, the number of available chestnuts per weevil female was higher than that of weevil-infested fruits per female, considering global food resources independently of their temporal variation in quality. However, realized fecundity of weevil females was positively correlated with the mean number of available chestnuts per female. We concluded that food resources can be limiting without being fully exploited by females because of temporal variation in chestnut quality.

  18. Ecological status of American chestnut ( Castanea dentata ) in its native range in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey R. Tindall; John A. Gerrath; Melody Melzer; Karen McKendry; Brian C. Husband; Greg J. Boland

    2004-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) was once a dominant tree in eastern deciduous for- ests of North America and is now endangered in Canada, primarily because of the introduction of a fungal pathogen (Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr) causing chestnut blight. A recovery plan is being developed, and more accu- rate information on the status of this species in its

  19. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) to northern red oak (Quercus rubra): forest dynamics of

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    .E. Barr (chestnut blight), selective logging, livestock grazing, ice storms, wind events, and fire history. (American chestnut) during the 1930s and frequent ice storms or wind events. Although we observed fire scars on living hardwood trees, we did not find fire scars on the remnant logs. The lack of fire scars

  20. Annual Report, September 2013 27 How a Flower Becomes a Chestnut

    E-print Network

    , and American chestnut (C. dentata) and the chinquapin (C. pumila (L.) Mill.) are native to North America, temperate eastern Asia, and eastern North America (Conedera et al. 2004; Davis 2006). Chestnut species North America until it was essentially decimated in the early 20th century by chest- nut blight, caused

  1. Freeze Branding Horses

    E-print Network

    Householder, Doug; Webb, Gary; Wigington, Sam; Bruemmer, Jason

    2001-06-29

    , simpli- f_ied drawing of one hair shaft with its color (pigment) producing follicle (CF) and its growth follicle (GF), both shown below the skin. Doug Householder 1 , Gary Webb 2 , Sam Wigington 3 and Jason Bruemmer 4 Freeze Branding Horses Figure 1. Hair...

  2. Paraguayan Horse Tack

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Paraguayan cowboys use a version of the typical saddle from southern South America. The core of the saddle consists of two leather rolls that are filled with a sedge (Piri, Cyperus giganteus) for cushioning, these are laid along the horse's spine and sandwiched between several layers of wool and cot...

  3. Hyperelastosis in the Horse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine hyperelastosis cutis, also known as dermatosporaxis and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (HERDA), is an autosomal recessive inheritable disease and has been reported in Thoroughbreds, Morgans, Haflingers , Hanoverians, a Swiss Warmblood, a mule and several Arabian cross horses in the United Kingdom, U...

  4. Replacement of native oak and hickory tree species by the introduced American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.; Rutter, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    American chestnut was introduced at West Salem, Wisconsin, about 1880 and had begun to replace native tree species in adjacent oak-hickory woodland before 1930. Chestnut is now an important canopy species over c20 ha of forested ridge extending N and S of the original plantation. A smaller area of <5 ha is dominated by chestnut in both canopy and understory. Chestnut seedlings and small saplings are more numerous along woodland edges and in recently disturbed soil, they are rare in the interior of ungrazed pasture and entirely absent from intensively grazed areas adjacent to chestnut-dominated woodland. Random sampling of recently established seedlings indicates that 1-5 seedlings/(yr.ha) became established in undisturbed woodland between 1986-1988. The general pattern of chestnut distribution indicates the importance of woodland edges in chestnut propagation and the effects of livestock grazing in excluding chestnut. Replacement of native species by chestnut appears to have occurred in 2 steps: isolated groups of trees become established at favorable locations, after which many additional chestnut stems became established in the understory. The West Salem site may not be available for study of blight-free chestnut in the future. -from Authors

  5. Transgenic American chestnuts show enhanced blight resistance and transmit the trait to T1 progeny.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Polin-McGuigan, Linda D; Baier, Kathleen A; Valletta, Kristia E R; Rottmann, William H; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2014-11-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is a classic example of a native keystone species that was nearly eradicated by an introduced fungal pathogen. This report describes progress made toward producing a fully American chestnut tree with enhanced resistance to the blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica). The transgenic American chestnut 'Darling4,' produced through an Agrobacterium co-transformation procedure to express a wheat oxalate oxidase gene driven by the VspB vascular promoter, shows enhanced blight resistance at a level intermediate between susceptible American chestnut and resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima). Enhanced resistance was identified first with a leaf-inoculation assay using young chestnuts grown indoors, and confirmed with traditional stem inoculations on 3- and 4-year-old field-grown trees. Pollen from 'Darling4' and other events was used to produce transgenic T1 seedlings, which also expressed the enhanced resistance trait in leaf assays. Outcrossed transgenic seedlings have several advantages over tissue-cultured plantlets, including increased genetic diversity and faster initial growth. This represents a major step toward the restoration of the majestic American chestnut. PMID:25438789

  6. Discrimination learning in horses

    E-print Network

    Yeates, B. F

    1976-01-01

    of individual dif- ferences between sheep. Liddell and Anderson (1931) found conditioned leg re iexes were established most rapidly in the pig followed in order by the goat, sheep and rabbit. Koniukhora (1957) demonstrated that reflexes in pigs devel- oped.... liaze learning in quarter horses. J. Anim. Sci. (Personal Communication). Kudryavtzev, A. A. 1962. Higher nervcus activity and the physiology of the senses in lactating cows. 16th International Dairy Con- gress (Copeniiagen, Denmark). Liddell, H, S...

  7. Stocking Rates for Horse Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decision on which stocking rate to graze a horse pasture is critical, particularly if the forage is expected to meet the nutrient needs of the horses. Challenges and management for targeting the optimum stocking rate, defined as the stocking rate that allows forage consumption to approximately equ...

  8. Ecological status of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in its native range in Canada

    E-print Network

    Boland, Greg J.

    . Individuals were statistically most likely to occur in deciduous forest habitats with high canopy cover (>50: American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) was once a dominant tree in eastern deciduous for

  9. 76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ...primarily used in the training of Tennessee Walking Horses, racking horses, and related breeds. Although a gait similar...requires the DQP to reinspect all Tennessee Walking Horses or racking horses tyed first in their class or event at any horse...

  10. Virginia 4-H Horse Activities for K-3 Youth Do You Have Horse Sense!

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    for K-3 Youth Do You Have Horse Sense! Experience / What to Do Ask the children if they know how horsesVirginia 4-H Horse Activities for K-3 Youth Do You Have Horse Sense! Do You Have Horse Sense! www to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs

  11. Non-target effects of transgenic blight-resistant American chestnut (Fagales: Fagaceae) on insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Post, K H; Parry, D

    2011-08-01

    American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen], a canopy dominant species across wide swaths of eastern North America, was reduced to an understory shrub after introduction of the blight fungus [Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr] in the early 1900s. Restoration of American chestnut by using biotechnology is promising, but the imprecise nature of transgenesis may inadvertently alter tree phenotype, thus potentially impacting ecologically dependent organisms. We quantified effects of genetic engineering and fungal inoculation of trees on insect herbivores by using transgenic American chestnuts expressing an oxalate oxidase gene and wild-type American and Chinese (C. mollissima Blume) chestnuts. Of three generalist folivores bioassayed, only gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] was affected by genetic modification, exhibiting faster growth on transgenic than on wild-type chestnuts, whereas growth of polyphemus moth [Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer)] differed between wild-type species, and fall webworm [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)] performed equally on all trees. Inoculation of chestnuts with blight fungus had no effect on the growth of two herbivores assayed (polyphemus moth and fall webworm). Enhanced fitness of gypsy moth on genetically modified trees may hinder restoration efforts if this invasive herbivore's growth is improved because of transgene expression. PMID:22251697

  12. The influence of silvicultural treatments and site conditions on American chestnut ( Castanea dentata) seedling establishment in eastern Kentucky, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuck Rhoades; David Loftis; Jeffrey Lewis; Stacy Clark

    2009-01-01

    After more than 50 years of research and selective breeding, blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata) trees will soon be available for planting into the species’ pre-blight range. Increased understanding of the regeneration requirements of pure American chestnut (C. dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) will increase the success of future efforts to establish blight-resistant chestnut. We quantified survival and initial growth of bare-root

  13. Biomechanical analysis of horse shoeing.

    PubMed

    Aoki, O

    1999-07-01

    Most of the principles of farriery have been derived from practical experience and traditional skills of individual farriers. To date, there has been little done in the way of good science and few publications have appeared to advance the discipline. Therefore, opinions or policies on horse shoeing vary greatly between farriers and members of the veterinary profession. The aim of this workshop was to present the latest information on biomechanical analysis of horse shoeing as it relates to modern day farriery and could have direct benefits for the future of shoeing in performance horses. PMID:10659332

  14. Fungal diseases of horses.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-11-29

    Among diseases of horses caused by fungi (=mycoses), dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are of particular concern, due their worldwide diffusion and, for some of them, zoonotic potential. Conversely, other mycoses such as subcutaneous (i.e., pythiosis and mycetoma) or deep mycoses (i.e., blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) are rare, and/or limited to restricted geographical areas. Generally, subcutaneous and deep mycoses are chronic and progressive diseases; clinical signs include extensive, painful lesions (not pathognomonic), which resemble to other microbial infections. In all cases, early diagnosis is crucial in order to achieve a favorable prognosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and diagnosis of fungal diseases is essential for the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of equine fungal infections as a support to early diagnosis and application of targeted therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:23428378

  15. Disease transmission in horses.

    PubMed

    Samper, Juan C; Tibary, Ahmed

    2006-08-01

    Bacterial, viral and protozoal infections may cause severe reproductive losses. The present paper reviews the risk factors, clinical signs and preventive measures for the most important venereal or potential sexually transmitted diseases in horses. The stallion and use of semen for artificial insemination represent major risk factors for the transmission of bacterial contaminants of the penis, including Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, known to cause endometritis and infertility in the mare. The role of the stallion in disease transmission is also due to the non-clinical manifestation of diseases such as contagious equine metritis and equine viral arteritis. Dourine has been eradicated from many countries, but continues to be a problem in other areas of the globe. Strategies for the prevention of introduction and transmission of diseases in breeding operation are discussed. PMID:16837034

  16. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  17. Effect of cooking on total vitamin C contents and antioxidant activity of sweet chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    PubMed

    Barros, Ana I R N A; Nunes, Fernando M; Gonçalves, Berta; Bennett, Richard N; Silva, Ana Paula

    2011-09-01

    In this work the total vitamin C contents (ascorbic acid+dehydroascorbic acid) and antioxidant activity of raw and cooked chestnuts was evaluated. The vitamin C contents of raw chestnuts varied significantly between the different cultivars (cv) studied and it varied from 400mg/kg dry weight (cv Lada) to 693mg/kg dry weight (cv Martaínha). The different cultivars behave differently during the cooking process concerning the loss of vitamin C. A significant decrease in the vitamin C content of the chestnuts was observed, 25-54% for the boiling process and 2-77% for the roasting process. Boiled and roasted chestnuts can be good sources of vitamin C since it may represent 22.4%, 16.2%, 26.8% and 19.4%, respectively, of the recommended dietary intake for an adult man and woman. The cooking process significantly changed the antioxidant activity of the chestnuts. A difference was observed between the cultivars during the cooking processes, concerning the antioxidant activity. For the raw chestnuts the variation in vitamin C content of the chestnuts explains 99% of the antioxidant activity variation but for the roasted and boiled chestnuts this percentage significantly decreases to 51% and 88%, respectively. Although a high antioxidant activity is still present in the cooked chestnuts, the cause for this antioxidant activity is less dependent on the vitamin C content of the chestnuts, probably due to the conversion of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. The increase in gallic acid during the cooking process, presumably transferred from the peels to the fruit, also contributes to the high antioxidant activity observed for the cooked chestnuts. PMID:25214344

  18. Competitiveness of gamma irradiation with fumigation for chestnuts associated with quarantine and quality security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Jung; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2004-09-01

    Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation were determined for fresh chestnut on mortality of pests and quality stability. Chestnut was exposed to both irradiation at 0-10 kGy and MeBr fumigation in commercial conditions, and then subjected to the corresponding study during storage at 5°C for 6 months. Pests with quarantine importance for chestnut were found Curculio sikkimensis Heller and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee, which showed 100% mortality by MeBr at the 3rd day after fumigation and by irradiation at 0.5 kGy in about 4 weeks. Sprouting was controlled for 6 months with treatments of 0.25 kGy or more and of MeBr, but rotting rate dramatically increased from 2 months after fumigation. Irradiation over 1 kGy as well as fumigation significantly caused changes in the color of stored chestnut. Considering the cumulative mortality of chestnut pests, irradiation at the range of 0.5 kGy is recommendable as one of alternatives to MeBr fumigation for both quarantine and sprout control purposes.

  19. American Museum of Natural History: The Horse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The online exhibit that accompanied "The Horse" at American Museum of Natural History is quite informative and useful. Visitors who are not necessarily that interested in horses, may just be won over by this beautiful and educational online exhibit. The "Evolution of Horses" link explains how horses evolved from being multi-toed to single-toed, and how horses as small as a dog, and larger horses, coexisted. Visitors will find the "Horses and Hunters" link dispels the myth about the hunting tactic of Ice Age people that involved corralling the horses to the edge of a cliff and forcing them to jump off to their deaths. Visitors shouldn't miss the subcategories of "Horses and Hunters", as there is much information here, along with great photos of European cave paintings depicting horses. Horses appear more often than any other animal in European cave paintings. The "Epilogue" shows the influence of horses around the world, by showing toy horses from Afghanistan, India, Japan, Italy, Canada, and North America.

  20. A High Density SNP Array for the Domestic Horse and Extant Perissodactyla: Utility for Association Mapping, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeny Studies

    PubMed Central

    McCue, Molly E.; Bannasch, Danika L.; Petersen, Jessica L.; Gurr, Jessica; Bailey, Ernie; Binns, Matthew M.; Distl, Ottmar; Guérin, Gérard; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hill, Emmeline W.; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Rřed, Knut H.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Swinburne, June E.; Tozaki, Teruaki; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Vaudin, Mark; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    An equine SNP genotyping array was developed and evaluated on a panel of samples representing 14 domestic horse breeds and 18 evolutionarily related species. More than 54,000 polymorphic SNPs provided an average inter-SNP spacing of ?43 kb. The mean minor allele frequency across domestic horse breeds was 0.23, and the number of polymorphic SNPs within breeds ranged from 43,287 to 52,085. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) in most breeds declined rapidly over the first 50–100 kb and reached background levels within 1–2 Mb. The extent of LD and the level of inbreeding were highest in the Thoroughbred and lowest in the Mongolian and Quarter Horse. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses demonstrated the tight grouping of individuals within most breeds, close proximity of related breeds, and less tight grouping in admixed breeds. The close relationship between the Przewalski's Horse and the domestic horse was demonstrated by pair-wise genetic distance and MDS. Genotyping of other Perissodactyla (zebras, asses, tapirs, and rhinoceros) was variably successful, with call rates and the number of polymorphic loci varying across taxa. Parsimony analysis placed the modern horse as sister taxa to Equus przewalski. The utility of the SNP array in genome-wide association was confirmed by mapping the known recessive chestnut coat color locus (MC1R) and defining a conserved haplotype of ?750 kb across all breeds. These results demonstrate the high quality of this SNP genotyping resource, its usefulness in diverse genome analyses of the horse, and potential use in related species. PMID:22253606

  1. Temporal and spatial variations in the parasitoid complex of the horse chestnut leafminer during its invasion of Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giselher Grabenweger; Patrik Kehrli; Irene Zweimüller; Sylvie Augustin; Nikolaos Avtzis; Sven Bacher; Jona Freise; Sandrine Girardoz; Sylvain Guichard; Werner Heitland; Christa Lethmayer; Michaela Stolz; Rumen Tomov; Lubomir Volter; Marc Kenis

    2010-01-01

    The enemy release hypothesis posits that the initial success of invasive species depends on the scarcity and poor adaptation\\u000a of native natural enemies such as predators and parasitoids. As for parasitoids, invading hosts are first attacked at low\\u000a rates by a species-poor complex of mainly generalist species. Over the years, however, parasitoid richness may increase either\\u000a because the invading host

  2. Salicylic acid inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) by competitively inhibiting polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Li, Lin; Wu, Yanwen; Fan, Junfeng; Ouyang, Jie

    2015-03-15

    The inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of salicylic acid (SA) on the browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut were investigated. Shelled and sliced chestnuts were immersed in different concentrations of an SA solution, and the browning of the chestnut surface and interior were inhibited. The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) extracted from chestnuts were measured in the presence and absence of SA. SA at concentrations higher than 0.3g/L delayed chestnut browning by significantly inhibiting the PPO activity (P<0.01), and the POD activity was not significantly affected (P>0.05). The binding and inhibition modes of SA with PPO and POD, determined by AUTODOCK 4.2 and Lineweaver-Burk plots, respectively, established SA as a competitive inhibitor of PPO. PMID:25308637

  3. 79 FR 3071 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-01-17

    ...general applicability and legal effect, most of which...APHIS-2011-0030] RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring...shoe. Hollow shoes or artificial extensions filled with...should be assessed when a horse is found to be in violation...Part 11 Animal welfare, Horses, Reporting and recordkeeping...amendment: PART 11--HORSE PROTECTION...

  4. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ...be shown or exhibited); (2) show or exhibit a horse at a horse show, public auction, or exhibition such as a college football game or parade; (3) judge a horse show; (4) enter the show ring during the course of a horse show; (5) enter...

  5. Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use

    PubMed Central

    Gounga, Mahamadou E.; Xu, Shi-ying; Wang, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption. Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample’s protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal. PMID:18763299

  6. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found. PMID:25829553

  7. Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses.

    PubMed

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Davis, Elizabeth G; Beard, Laurie A; Vander Werf, Karie A; Bianco, Alex W; Giger, Urs

    2014-02-01

    Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses. PMID:24489393

  8. The importance of social relationships in horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. van Dierendonck

    2006-01-01

    Feral horses are social animals, which have to rely on survival strategies centered on the formation of cohesive social bonds within their bands. Many problems in the husbandry of social animals such as horses, are due to the fact that the limits of their adaptive abilities are exceeded. Evidence suggests that the fundamental social characteristics of domestic horses have remained

  9. Serum cortisol concentrations in horses with colic.

    PubMed

    Mair, T S; Sherlock, C E; Boden, L A

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated cortisol concentrations in horses with colic. In humans with septic shock, high cortisol levels are associated with an increased risk of death. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum total cortisol concentrations (STCCs) in horses with colic to those without colic, and to assess whether the STCC relates to the pathological nature or outcome of the disease. STCCs were determined at presentation in horses with colic and in systemically healthy 'control' horses. Horses with colic were grouped based on clinical and clinico-pathological parameters at admission, treatment, lesion type and location, and outcome. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed using two different outcome measures: (a) whether the horse had colic or not (yes vs. no), and (b) horse STCC (?200?nmol/L vs.?<200?nmol/L). Horses were more likely to have colic if they presented with high STCCs (?200?nmol/L compared with <200?nmol/L). Horses with colic and with STCCs??200nmol/L were more likely to have moderate or severe colic signs (compared with mild colic) and heart rates?>45 beats per min (compared with ?45 beats per min). It was concluded that colic in horses is associated with elevated STCCs, and increased STCC in horses with colic appears to relate to the severity of the disease. STCCs may provide additional decision-making and prognostic information in horses with colic but further studies are required to avoid misinterpretations associated with the wide variation in STCCs. PMID:24986316

  10. Dominant curly coat in horses DP Sponenberg

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    with a dominant gene causing curly coat in horses, although a separate previously documented recessive gene a recessive gene in Percheron horses (Blakeslee et al, 1943). A further report concerning curliness of Lokai for curliness also exists. The symbol Crd for dominant curliness is suggested for the dominant gene. horse

  11. Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., has constructed a storage facility, the Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile (CRBAWP), for mercury-contaminated soil excavated from the Oak Ridge Civic Center properties and the Oak Ridge Sewer Line Beltway. Excavation of the soil from the Civic Center began in September 1984 and was completed in early 1985. Similar soils from other areas of the city were added to the pile until 1987. Approximately 3000 yd{sup 3} are stored at the present time. An Interim Status RCRA permit was initially sought for this facility. Samples from the waste pile passed the Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test (EP Tox). The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (now the Tennessee Department of Conservation-TDC) denied the permit based on their conclusion that the waste was not a RCRA-regulated waste. On September 25, 1990 the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) superseded the EP Tox test. TCLP tests are not proposed to satisfy a request by TDC and to make a final determination of the nature of the soils in order to close the CRBAWP as a solid waste disposal facility under Tennessee State rule 1200-1-7-.04. The objectives of this work are to summarize existing site information and detail actions necessary to sample and characterize soils from the waste pile as hazardous or nonhazardous per the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Within the scope of this plan, a site investigation will be discussed; a field sampling plan will be described in terms of sampling locations, procedures, and quality assurance; and ancillary activities such as waste management, data management, and health and safety will be outlines. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Soils and geomorphology of the East Chestnut Ridge site

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R. (Lietzke (D.A.), Rutledge, TN (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Soil mapping of the East Chestnut Ridge site in conjunction with subsurface soil and rock coring provides an in-depth evaluation of the site and its suitability for disposal of wastes. Landforms and surface and subsurface hydrology, the natural, undisturbed, soil-saprolite-geohydrology system beneath the zone of engineering modifications provides for the ultimate containment of wastes and a means for the filtration and purification of any leachate before it reaches the aquifer. The surface location and extent of each geologic formation on the site were mapped. These locations correlated well with projections of subsurface contacts to the surface even through the criteria used by the pedologist and geologist to identify soil and rock from the same formation may be different. Soil thickness over bedrock of the Copper Ridge, Chepultepec, Longview, and Kingsport Formations is sufficient to provide considerable buffering between trench bottoms and groundwater or rock. Soil thickness over the Mascot Formation is comparatively thin, and pinnacles and ledges exposed on steeper sideslopes are common. Soil underlain by the Mascot Formation is not suited for a trench landfill. According to soil coring and active borrow pit observations, chert beds in the soil and saprolite are preferred zones of water flow. Construction of adequate clay liners beneath disposal units sited on the Longview dolomite may require placement and compaction of other native soils to achieve sufficiently low soil permeabilities. Karst geomorphic processes that initiated the formation of dolines evidently started several million years ago. Doline formation and enlargement is episodic, with short periods of activity followed by long periods of stability. Analysis of doline soil stratigraphy suggests that most of the large dolines on the site have been stable for most of the past 10,000 to 1000,000 years. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Progressive ethmoidal haematoma in horses.

    PubMed

    Laing, J A; Hutchins, D R

    1992-03-01

    Progressive ethmoidal haematoma was diagnosed in 12 Thoroughbreds, 1 part- Arab and 1 stock horse. Ages ranged from 3 to 18 years and both males and females were affected. Diagnosis was based on history, clinical signs, endoscopic and radiographic findings, and was confirmed histologically in 10 cases. Eleven (78%) of the lesions were unilateral and 3 (22%) were bilateral. Two horses were euthanased on diagnosis, 4 were treated conservatively. Of the latter, 3 were euthanased 6 to 24 months after diagnosis, due to progression of the lesions, while 1 case resolved completely within 13 months. Eight horses were treated by surgical excision of the lesion. Three died in the post-operative period, 3 were euthanased within 48 months after recurrence of the condition, and 2 had no recurrence within 60 and 72 months, respectively. PMID:1586315

  14. Mature, Senior and Geriatric Horses: Management, Care and Use

    E-print Network

    Martin, M. T.; Scrutchfield, W. L.; Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.

    2005-04-18

    horses. The Horse?s Mouth ? Equine Dentistry At least once a year, every horse?s mouth should be examined by an equine practitioner or a qualified equine dentist, who will initiate needed corrective procedures. Such dental exams should start before.... Dental problems that may particularly plague older horses include: ? Bit problems ? During dental exams, owners rou- tinely may be asked about older horses? responses to bit placement and bit pressure while being ridden. Such problems may be related...

  15. Texas 4-H Horse Project Teaching Outlines

    E-print Network

    Howard, Jeff W.; Johnson, Ken; Mason, Vanessa; Mitchell, Julianne

    2000-06-15

    Minimizing Weaning Stress in Foals 131 Psychological Principles for Training Young Foals 137 Physiology and Management of the Stallion 143 Preservation of Stallion Semen 149 Aging Horses by Teeth 155 Minimizing Equine Internal Parasite Problems 161 Buying... for more than 1 month. 3. Feed concentrates and hay by weight, not by volume; concentrates differ in weights. 4. Never feed more than 0.75 percent of the horse?s body weight at any one feeding. F. Manage the horse?s eating behavior. 1. Space multiple...

  16. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  17. Functional properties and in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial effectiveness of pigskin gelatin films incorporated with hydrolysable chestnut tannin.

    PubMed

    Peńa-Rodriguez, Cristina; Martucci, Josefa F; Neira, Laura M; Arbelaiz, Aitor; Eceiza, Arantxa; Ruseckaite, Roxana A

    2015-04-01

    The impact of the incorporation of 10%?w/w of hydrolyzable chestnut tannin into pigskin gelatin (G) films plasticized with glycerol (Gly) on the physicochemical properties as well as the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial effectiveness against food-borne pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus aureus was investigated. A higher tendency to both redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) coloration characterized gelatin films incorporated with chestnut tannin. The reduced lightness (L) and transparency of gelatin-chestnut tannin films plasticized with 30%?w/w Gly might be associated with certain degree of phase separation which provoked the migration of the plasticizer to the film surface. The incorporation of chestnut tannin and glycerol affected the chemical structure of the resultant films due to the establishment of hydrogen interactions between components as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These interactions reduced gelatin crystallinity and seemed to be involved in the substantial decrease of the water uptake of films with tannin, irrespective of the glycerol level. Such interactions had minor effect on tensile properties being similar to those of the control films (without chestnut tannin) at the same glycerol level. Films modified with 10%?w/w chestnut tannin showed significant (P?chestnut tannin-free and chestnut tannin-containing gelatin films. The limited inhibitory activity of films incorporated with 10%?w/w chestnut tannin against the selected bacteria evidenced by disk diffusion method probably resulted from the interactions within the film restricting the diffusion of the active agent into the agar medium. The more modest protective effect observed against a Gram-positive bacterium (S. aureus) was also discussed. PMID:24831641

  18. Influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and skins.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Amilcar L; Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, Joăo C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-01

    As seasonal products chestnuts have to be post-harvest treated to increase their shelf-life. The most common preservation method for chestnuts is the chemical fumigation with methyl bromide, a toxic agent that is under strictly Montreal Protocol due to its adverse effects on human health and environment. Food irradiation is a possible feasible alternative to substitute the traditional quarantine chemical fumigation treatment. This preliminary study evaluated the influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnut fruits and skins, through several chemical and biochemical parameters. The bioactive compounds (phenolics and flavonoids) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of ?-carotene bleaching capacity were determined. The obtained results seem to indicate that the storage favoured chestnuts antioxidant potential. Furthermore, the application of gamma irradiation also seems to be advantageous for antioxidant activity, independently of the dose used (0.27 ± 0.04 kGy or 0.54 ± 0.04 kGy). PMID:21371520

  19. Hourly and daily variations of xylem sapflow in sweet chestnut coppices

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hourly and daily variations of xylem sapflow in sweet chestnut coppices using a thermal measurement, France Introduction A new method for measuring xylem sap- flow (Granier, 1985) has been tested as a control. This paper presents preliminary results of hourly and daily variations of xylem sapflow

  20. Indirect effects of the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin on reproductive success of chestnut-collared longspurs

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Dan L.

    Indirect effects of the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin on reproductive success of chestnut to determine whether spraying with a broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide in grassland habitat for the control by 93%. After spraying, parent birds switched to other arthropod taxa less affected by insecticide

  1. Effect of chestnut tannin on the fermentability of soyabean meal nitrogen in the rumen

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of chestnut tannin on the fermentability of soyabean meal nitrogen in the rumen F Mathieu) was then atomized. Using an in vitro technique (Jouany and Thi- vend, 1986) the fermentability of soyabean meal (SM the fermentability of the nitrogen in the meal, but had no effect on microbial metabolites (table I). The dose at 5

  2. Thyreophagus corticalis as a vector of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica in chestnut stands.

    PubMed

    Simoni, Sauro; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Turchetti, Tullio; Bouneb, Mabrouk

    2014-03-01

    The natural spread of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. occurs in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) stands and orchards in Italy and other European countries, leading to spontaneous recovery of the diseased trees. Little is known about how hypovirulence spreads in chestnut stands but various corticolous mite species frequently detected on chestnut cankers could be one of the many factors playing a role in the spread. Artificial virulent cankers created in inoculation field tests and treated with Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Sarcoptiformes, Acaridae) raised on hypovirulent cultures showed similar growth to those treated with mycelia of the hypovirulent strain over 18 months of inoculation. Cultures re-isolated from virulent cankers treated with mites were found to contain hypovirus like those derived from pairings of virulent and hypovirulent strains. Viral dsRNA could be carried externally and/or ingested by mites from the hypovirulent mycelia and then transmitted to the mycelia of virulent strains, causing their conversion. In a laboratory study, all fecal pellets collected from mites reared on hypovirulent and virulent strains grown on semi-selective media gave rise to colonies of C. parasitica with similar morphological characters and virulence to the original cultures. Field inoculation of stump sprouts with the resulting colonies revealed that mite digestive tract passage did not alter the virulence of the studied strains. These results are of interest for the biological control of chestnut blight. PMID:24114335

  3. Effects of Pleistocene glaciations on population structure of North American chestnut-backed chickadees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THERESA M. B URG; ANTHONY J. G ASTON; KEVIN WINKER; VICKI L. F RIESEN

    2006-01-01

    The postglacial recolonization of northern North America was heavily influenced by the Pleistocene glaciation. In the Pacific Northwest, there are two disjunct regions of mesic temperate forest, one coastal and the other interior. The chestnut-backed chickadee is one of the species associated with this distinctive ecosystem. Using seven microsatellite markers we found evidence of population structure among nine populations of

  4. Infectivity and sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Branches from northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia production, while the other three plants w...

  5. Galerucella birmanica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a promising potential biological control agent of water chestnut, Trapa natans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianqing Ding; Bernd Blossey; Yuzhou Du; Fushan Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Water chestnut, Trapa natans, has become a major invasive plant in shallow water bodies in the northeastern United States. The failure of chemical and mechanical means to provide long-term and economically sustainable suppression of the species resulted in interest in the development of biological control. Field surveys in Asia and Europe identified a number of potential biological control agents in

  6. The use of crushing equipments for soil management practice in chestnut orchards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Santos; Afonso Martins; Olga Borges; Isabel Linhares

    Chestnut orchards have an important role on the rural economy and landscape ecology of Northern Portugal. Previous studies have shown the need of new management practices in those agro-ecosystems in order to improve its productivity and sustainability and, one of the envisaged techniques is the use of new equipment that destroys the vegetation under canopy and crushes the organic residues

  7. Fine root growth in a sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) coppice

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fine root growth in a sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) coppice P. Montpied Laboratoire d'Ecotogie V6g6tale, CNRS URAt2t,Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay, France Introduction The root growth and turnover of fine roots are known to be a major carbon pathway in forest ecosystems (Fogel, 1985). Dubroca (1983

  8. The American Chestnut Blight: An Agent of Biological and Cultural Catastrophe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Eddie

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the history and habits of the fungus commonly referred to as the "chestnut blight." Considers the impact of the blight and efforts to control it, offers personal and cultural reflections on the blight, and gives tips for incorporating the information into cross-disciplinary lessons. Contains 17 references. (WRM)

  9. Horse traction in Victorian London

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Turvey

    ork horses have not received the attention they deserve in studies of transport history. Nor did contemporary descriptions of life pay much attention to them, for, like the cars that line the streets today, they were too ubiquitous and too much a part of everyday experience to be worth writing about. Traffic congestion, the loud clatter of horseshoes and iron-

  10. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  11. Cattle Tyrant Perched on Horse

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Cattle tyrant perched on horse near Asuncion Bay, Paraguay. Cattle tyrants feed on parasitic arthropods on mammals, an example of mutualism. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Palm Savanna, Pas...

  12. Hepatoprotective Potential of Chestnut Bee Pollen on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Damages in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Y?ld?z, Oktay; Can, Zehra; Saral, Özlem; Yulu?, Esin; Öztürk, Ferhat; Aliyaz?c?o?lu, Rezzan; Canpolat, Sinan; Kolayl?, Sevgi

    2013-01-01

    Bee pollen has been used as an apitherapy agent for several centuries to treat burns, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, and various other diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of chestnut bee pollen against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4)-induced liver damage. Total phenolic content, flavonoid, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and DPPH radical activity measurements were used as antioxidant capacity determinants of the pollen. The study was conducted in rats as seven groups. Two different concentrations of chestnut bee pollens (200 and 400?mg/kg/day) were given orally and one group was administered with silibinin (50?mg/kg/day, i.p.) for seven days to the rats following the CCI4 treatment. The protective effect of the bee pollen was monitored by aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (AST) activities, histopathological imaging, and antioxidant parameters from the blood and liver samples of the rats. The results were compared with the silibinin-treated and untreated groups. We detected that CCI4 treatment induced liver damage and both the bee pollen and silibinin-treated groups reversed the damage; however, silibinin caused significant weight loss and mortality due, severe diarrhea in the rats. The chestnut pollen had showed 28.87?mg GAE/g DW of total phenolic substance, 8.07?mg QUE/g DW of total flavonoid, 92.71?mg Cyn-3-glu/kg DW of total anthocyanins, and 9?mg ?-carotene/100?g DW of total carotenoid and substantial amount of antioxidant power according to FRAP and DPPH activity. The results demonstrated that the chestnut bee pollen protects the hepatocytes from the oxidative stress and promotes the healing of the liver damage induced by CCI4 toxicity. Our findings suggest that chestnut bee pollen can be used as a safe alternative to the silibinin in the treatment of liver injuries. PMID:24250716

  13. A review of the human–horse relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martine Hausberger; Hélčne Roche; Séverine Henry; E. Kathalijne Visser

    2008-01-01

    Despite a long history of human–horse relationship, horse-related incidents and accidents do occur amongst professional and non professional horse handlers. Recent studies show that their occurrence depend more on the frequency and amount of interactions with horses than on the level of competency, suggesting a strong need for specific research and training of individuals working with horses. In the present

  14. 61 FR 52236 - Importation of Horses from CEM Countries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-10-07

    ...approved to receive such horses in accordance with...section; (ii) The horses are accompanied at...collected from each horse within 30 days prior...collection of semen for artificial insemination in the...While in transit, the horse must be moved in either...other stalls containing horses, either by an empty...purposes (including artificial......

  15. 61 FR 28073 - Importation of Horses From CEM Countries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-06-04

    ...approved to receive such horses in accordance with...section; (ii) The horses are accompanied at...collected from each horse within 30 days prior...collection of semen for artificial insemination in the...While in transit, the horse must be moved in either...other stalls containing horses, either by an empty...purposes (including artificial......

  16. Genetic Variation and Differentiation in Mexican Populations of Common Bush-Tanagers and Chestnut-Capped Brush-Finches

    E-print Network

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Escalante P., Patricia; Navarro S., Adolfo

    1992-02-01

    Genetic differentiation among four Mexican populations each of Common Bush-tanagers (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus) and Chestnut-capped Brush-finches (Atlapetes brunneinucha) was evaluated using allozyme electrophoresis. In both species, although...

  17. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

  18. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

  19. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

  20. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

  1. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

  2. Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

  3. Feeding Young Horses For Sound Development

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.

    2005-05-25

    . However, horse owners should be alert for mold or insects in hay. Even slightly moldy hay should not be fed. Alfalfa hay can contain blister beetles, which produce cantharidin, a compound highly toxic to horses. Before purchasing alfalfa hay, horse... owners should ask hay producers whether steps were taken to avoid blister beetles. Blister beetles can be found in other hays, but they are found more often in alfalfa than in other roughage sources. Young foals nurse up to 70 times daily, indicating...

  4. Copy number variation in the horse genome.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G; Lear, Teri L; Adelson, David L; Chowdhary, Bhanu P; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-10-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

  5. Virginia 4-H Horse Activities for K-3 Youth Puzzling Horse Parts!

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    and interactions with horses require you to know what the parts of the horse are, where they're located, and how to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs Program, Virginia State, Petersburg. Publication 380-109 Knowing the parts of the horse and how

  6. Thiamin supplementation for exercising horses

    E-print Network

    Topliff, Donald Ray

    1981-01-01

    detected in either fecal thiamin concen- tration or total fecal thiamin excretion. Horses receiving treatment III did have significantly higher (P? ~ 05) amounts of thiamin unaccounted for in feces and urine. Mean heart and respiration rates were... exercise challenge. No treatment effect on heart rate was detected. Barborka et al. (1943) also found decreased work output in trained subjects fed diets containing . 65 mg thiamin/day. ", /ork output was measured on an electrodynamic brake bicycle...

  7. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

  8. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

  9. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

  10. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

  11. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

  12. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed. PMID:22529137

  13. Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-11-01

    In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

  14. Chestnut flowers as functionalizing agents to enhance the antioxidant properties of highly appreciated traditional pastry.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, Joăo C M; Bento, Albino; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-11-01

    Some studies have proven the antioxidant and antimicrobial potency of chestnut flowers both in the raw matrix and after extraction, and the consumption of their decoctions has been related to beneficial effects towards health. In recent years, due to controversy and ambiguous legislation of chemical conservatives, plant extracts have been successfully used as functionalizing agents in different matrixes by displaying their various beneficial effects towards the foodstuff and/or the consumer. In this paper, decoctions of chestnut flowers as well as the dried flower were added to Portuguese traditional cakes that were then stored for 15 and 30 days, after which they were analysed for their antioxidant potential. The results were analysed by means of a 2 way ANOVA and a linear discriminant analysis, concluding that storage time had a slightly higher influence on alteration of the antioxidant activity. DPPH and TBARS were the most improved parameters, regardless of the concentration added. PMID:25255210

  15. Utilization of water chestnut for reclamation of water environment and control of cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Akao, Satoshi; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Fujiwara, Taku

    2014-02-01

    Overgrowth of water chestnut (Trapa spp.) is a regional problem throughout Asia and North America because of waterway blockage and water fouling upon decomposition. In the present study, we investigated the potential of water chestnut to control cyanobacterial blooms, via a high content of phenolic compounds. In addition, we assessed the impact of biomass harvesting and crude extract application on nutrient balance. We showed that the floating parts of water chestnut contained high concentrations of total phenolics (89.2 mg g(-1) dry weight) and exhibited strong antioxidant activity (1.31 mmol g(-1) dry weight). Methanol-extracted phenolics inhibited growth of Microcystis aeruginosa; the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of the extracted phenolics was 5.8 mg L(-1), which was obtained from only 103 mg L(-1) of dry biomass (the floating and submerged parts). However, the crude extracts also added important quantities of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (1.49, 1.05, and 16.3 mg g(-1), respectively; extracted dry biomass weight basis); therefore, in practice, nutrient removal before and/or after the extraction is essential. On the other hand, biomass harvesting enables recovery of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from the water environment (23.1, 2.9, and 18.7 mg g(-1), respectively; dry biomass weight basis). Our findings indicate that water chestnut contains high concentrations of phenolics and exhibits strong antioxidant activity. Utilization of these resources, including nutrients, will contribute to reclamation of the water environment, and also to disposal of wet biomass. PMID:24046225

  16. Crypt1, an active Ac -like transposon from the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Linder-Basso; R. Foglia; P. Zhu; B. Hillman

    2001-01-01

    A moderately repetitive element was identified previously in the nuclear genome of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, and has been used as a probe for population studies of the fungus. We report here that the repetitive element is a class II transposon of the hAT family of Activator (Ac)-like transposable elements. The element, named Crypt1, has a size of

  17. Technological Assessment of Chestnut Flour Doughs Regarding to Doughs from Other Commercial Flours and Formulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramón Moreira; Francisco Chenlo; María D. Torres; Diego M. Prieto

    The technological assessment of chestnut flour doughs was studied using Mixolab® apparatus, establishing a comparison with\\u000a gluten (soft, hard and whole wheat) and gluten-free (rice and yellow corn) flour doughs as well as corn starch pastrymaking\\u000a and breadmaking formulations. This equipment measures the torque in function of temperature and time, firstly at 30 °C (mixing\\u000a curve) and secondly the mixing during

  18. Effects of Pleistocene glaciations on population structure of North American chestnut-backed chickadees.

    PubMed

    Burg, Theresa M; Gaston, Anthony J; Winker, Kevin; Friesen, Vicki L

    2006-08-01

    The postglacial recolonization of northern North America was heavily influenced by the Pleistocene glaciation. In the Pacific Northwest, there are two disjunct regions of mesic temperate forest, one coastal and the other interior. The chestnut-backed chickadee is one of the species associated with this distinctive ecosystem. Using seven microsatellite markers we found evidence of population structure among nine populations of chestnut-backed chickadees. High levels of allelic variation were found in each of the populations. Northern British Columbia and central Alaska populations contained a large number of private alleles compared to other populations, including those from unglaciated regions. The disjunct population in the interior was genetically distinct from the coastal population. Genetic and historical records indicate that the interior population originated from postglacial inland dispersal. Population structuring was found within the continuous coastal population, among which the peripheral populations, specifically those on the Queen Charlotte Islands and the central Alaska mainland, were genetically distinct. The pattern of population structure among contemporary chickadee populations is consistent with a pioneer model of recolonization. The persistence of genetic structure in western North American chestnut-backed chickadees may be aided by their sedentary behaviour, linear distribution, and dependence on cedar-hemlock forests. PMID:16842415

  19. Preparation and characterisation of the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnut polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Jun; Yu, Lin

    2015-08-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a strong oxidant that cleaves glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides. In this study, the oligosaccharides were prepared by removing the starch from Chinese water chestnuts through hydrolysis using ?-amylase and then hydrolysing the remaining polysaccharides with H2O2, during which the oligosaccharide yield was monitored. The yield of oligosaccharide was affected by reaction time, temperature, and H2O2 concentration. Extended reaction times, high temperatures, and high H2O2 concentrations decreased oligosaccharide yield. Under optimum conditions (i.e., reaction time of 4h, reaction temperature of 80°C, and 2.5% H2O2 concentration), the maximum oligosaccharide yield was 3.91%. The oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides exhibited strong hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity when applied at a concentration of 100?g/mL. The results indicate that the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides possessed good antioxidant properties and can be developed as a new dietary supplement and functional food. PMID:25794714

  20. Postanaesthetic cerebral necrosis in five horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. McKay; D. F. Kelly; M. Senior; R. S. Jones; T. W. Forest; A. de Lahunta; B. A. Summers

    2002-01-01

    After being anaesthetised for between one hour 40 minutes and seven hours, five adult horses developed acute neurological signs and extensive cerebrocortical necrosis. Four of them had had abdominal surgery for colic and one had had repeated orthopaedic interventions. Between five hours and seven days after the surgery, all five horses suddenly developed severe signs of a predominantly prosencephalic disturbance:

  1. Feeding value of pastures for horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SO Hoskin; EK Gee

    2004-01-01

    The feeding value of fresh pasture grazed in situ is determined by animal performance or productivity and could be relatively easily established for growing and lactating horses. Despite this, there is a lack of published information on the relative feeding value of different pastures and forages grazed by horses in New Zealand and the world. In addition, for adult breeding

  2. Influenza in horses, birds, and humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Naylor; Charles S. Rhodes; David G. Wilson

    Influenza is a common and sometimes fatal disease of horses, humans, birds, and swine. In horses, recent advances in vaccination technology, coupled with new diagnostic tests and new information about the course of the disease, allows veterinarians to better diagnose, treat, and control this disease. Avian influenza has been prominent in the news with outbreaks in poultry in Asia and

  3. THE HORSE AND THE ARYAN DEBATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Danino

    The presence or absence of the horse in the Indus-Sarasvati civilization has been a bone of contention for decades, especially in the context of the Aryan invasion theory. The argument is familiar: the Rig-Veda uses the word ashva over 200 times, ergo the Vedic society must have been full of horses, ergo the Harappan civilization, from which the noble animal

  4. Market Efficiency in Finnish Harness Horse Racing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niko Suhonen

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the efficiency of betting markets in harness horse racing during the transition from on-track betting to Internet gambling. In order to test the market efficiency hypotheses, an alternative testing approach to other grouping methods is introduced. The betting market efficiency is tested by using a database accumulated from the Finnish harness horse racing. The results imply that

  5. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  6. Acceptability of Teff Hay by Horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawna McCown; Mieke Brummer; Susan Hayes; Gene Olson; S. Ray Smith; Laurie Lawrence

    Teff (Eragrostis tef) is a productive warm season annual grass. Because teff is relatively new to the horse industry in the US, horses unaccustomed to teff hay were used in two sets of two-choice preference tests comparing teff to alfalfa hay or teff to timothy hay. A second experiment used mature mares to compare voluntary dry matter intake of teff

  7. Cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal herbs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caldas, E D; Machado, L L

    2004-04-01

    Samples of herbal medicine used in Brazil were analyzed, after nitric digestion, for the content of cadmium, mercury and lead, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Fifteen samples of ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo biloba), 13 of celastraceae (Maytenus ilicifolia), 14 of cascara buckthorn (Rhamnus purshiana), 13 of eggplant (Solanum melongena), 15 of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), 13 of Brazilian ginseng (Pffafia glomerata), 17 of centella asiatic (Hydrocotyle asiatica), 13 of guarana (Paullinia cupana), 12 of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) and five samples of chlorella (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) were analyzed. Cadmium, mercury and lead were not detected (limit of quantifications of 0.20, 0.01 and 2.0 mg/kg, respectively) in any sample of artichoke, eggplant and guarana. Cadmium was found in samples of the other medicinal herbs at levels up to 0.74 microg/g and mercury up to 0.087 microg/g. Three samples of horse chestnut contained 153, 156 and 1480 microg Pb/g, while the highest concentration found in the other samples analyzed was 22 microg Pb/g. The estimated lead intake through the consumption of horse chestnut reached 440% of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI), and might be of concern to consumers if the medicine was taken on a long-term basis. Cadmium and mercury exposure through the herbal medicines does not appear to be of health concern. PMID:15019183

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel.

    PubMed

    Weese, J Scott

    2004-12-01

    Fortunately, MRSA infection and colonization are currently uncommon in veterinary medicine. Nevertheless, the increasing reports of the occurrence of MRSA infection in horses, veterinarians, and equine personnel dictate that serious consideration be given to the control of this pathogen in veterinary hospitals as well as in the equine community. It is unclear whether extrapolation from human hospitals and people in the community is appropriate; however, given the rapid increase in nosocomial MRSA in human hospitals and the recent shift of certain clones of MRSA into the community, it would be unwise to ignore this potential pathogen. If equine MRSA did, indeed, originate in the human population, complete eradication in the equine population is unlikely, regardless of the prevalence of infection in horses and the intensity of infection control measures, without concurrent eradication of MRSA in the human population, which is surely an impossible feat. Early institution of appropriate surveillance and other infection control measures should be used to attempt to limit the impact of MRSA in veterinary medicine, however. It has been stated, "The time to act is now, before the prevalence of MRSA in the community begins to rise and we end up with 50% of the community strains becoming methicillin-resistant". This statement was directed at control of MRSA in people; however, it is equally relevant in the veterinary context and should receive strong consideration. PMID:15519821

  9. Laryngeal reinnervation in the horse.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Ian C; Stick, John A; Derksen, Fredrik J

    2003-04-01

    Left laryngeal hemiplegia is a frustrating condition for the equine athlete and equine veterinarian. Treatment for the past 30 years has centered on the prosthetic laryngoplasty ("tie-back") with or without ventriculectomy. Laryngeal reinnervation has been used successfully in people and has been shown experimentally to benefit affected horses. This article reviews equine laryngeal reinnervation using the nerve muscle pedicle graft and describes the surgical technique, its complications, and the follow-up in 146 cases treated over the past 10 years. Also discussed is ongoing research into stimulation studies to improve the success of equine laryngeal reinnervation. PMID:12747668

  10. Feeding the Arena Performance Horse

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.; Scott, Brett D.

    2003-11-04

    be improved by adding fat to a high-carbohydrate diet. With proper adaptation time, fat supplementa- tion can influence the amount of stored muscle energy in the form of muscle glycogen, which is the fuel supply for anaerobic work. A horse must take in energy.... Grain feeds provide carbohydrates that can be either used directly as glucose or stored in the mus- cles and liver in the form of glycogen, to be used during all-out exercise performance. Ideally, cereal grains should be processed so the starches in them...

  11. Periocular neurofibrosarcoma in a horse.

    PubMed

    Strubbe, D T

    2001-12-01

    A periocular neurofibrosarcoma was debulked and treated with intralesional cisplatin in a 5-year-old Thoroughbred mare. The horse presented with a 1-year history of a large slowly progressing subcutaneous mass over the right supraorbital process. The mass was surgically debulked, and intralesional cisplatin (1.0 mg/cm3) was injected in 3 doses at 2 weeks, 5 weeks, and 8 weeks postoperatively. No recurrence was noted over a 15-month follow-up period. Histopathology of the mass indicated neurofibrosarcoma. PMID:11906658

  12. Aldosterone plasma concentration in horses with heart valve insufficiencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidrun Gehlen; Till Sundermann; Karl Rohn; Peter Stadler

    2008-01-01

    In humans and small animals, heart disease can lead to an increase in aldosterone, and the aldosterone level correlates with the severity of the heart disease. In horses similar interactions may be possible and may lead to an increase in aldosterone in horses with heart valve insufficiencies.In a prospective clinical trial eight healthy horses (control group) and 40 horses with

  13. Knowledge is key to safety; Plants that poison horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally they are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However, there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Other plants may be eaten by some horses even though they are unpalatable...

  14. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

    2015-01-24

    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue. PMID:25376504

  15. Anti-elastase and anti-hyaluronidase activities of saponins and sapogenins from Hedera helix, Aesculus hippocastanum, and Ruscus aculeatus: factors contributing to their efficacy in the treatment of venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Facino, R M; Carini, M; Stefani, R; Aldini, G; Saibene, L

    1995-10-01

    Triterpene and steroid saponins and sapogenins of medicinal plants (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hedera helix L., Ruscus aculeatus L.) are claimed to be effective for the treatment/prevention of venous insufficiency. In this work we evaluated the inhibitory effects of these plant constituents on the activity of elastase and hyaluronidase, the enzyme systems involved in the turnover of the main components of the perivascular amorphous substance. The results evidence that for Hedera helix L., the sapogenins only non-competitively inhibit hyaluronidase activity in a dose-dependent fashion, showing comparable IC50 values (hederagenin IC50 = 280.4 microM; oleanolic acid IC50 = 300.2 microM); both the saponins hederacoside C and alpha-hederin are very weak inhibitors. The same behaviour is observed for serine protease porcine pancreatic elastase: the glycosides are devoid of inhibitory action, while genins are potent competitive inhibitors (oleanolic acid IC50 = 5.1 microM; hederagenin IC50 = 40.6 microM). Constituents from Aesculus hippocastanum L. show inhibitory effects only on hyaluronidase, and this activity is mainly linked to the saponin escin (IC50 = 149.9 microM), less to its genin escinol (IC50 = 1.65 mM). By contrast, ruscogenins from Ruscus aculeatus L., ineffective on hyaluronidase activity, exhibit remarkable anti-elastase activity (IC50 = 119.9 microM; competitive inhibition). The mechanism of elastase inhibition by triterpene and steroid aglycones, with a nitroanilide derivative as substrate, is discussed. PMID:8554461

  16. Protopine alkaloids in horse urine.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Paul M; Vine, John H; Amiet, R Gary

    2004-11-01

    Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9-hydroxy-10-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-l][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, chelianthifoline, isochelianthifoline and 2-O-desmethylchelianthifoline. The metabolic formation of the tetrahydroprotoberberines by closure of the bridge across N5 and C13 is rate limited and protopine-like metabolites accumulate only when the route is overloaded. Metabolism was qualitatively similar in the horse and human. PMID:15458726

  17. Diversity of vegetative compatibility types, distribution of mating types and occurrence of hypovirulence of Cryphonectria parasitica in chestnut stands in NW Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Montenegro; O. Aguín; M. J. Sainz; M. Hermida; J. P. Mansilla

    2008-01-01

    An extensive survey on chestnut stands in NW Spain was carried out to study the population biology of Cryphonectria parasitica in order to design future biological control programmes of chestnut blight based on the field introduction of native hypovirulent strains. Five hundred and thirty-nine Cryphonectria parasitica isolates, belonging to five populations (A Coruńa, Lugo, Ourense, Pontevedra and León), were obtained.

  18. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry.

  19. Pheochromocytoma in the Horse and Measurement of Norepinephrine Levels in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Yovich, J. V.; Horney, F. D.; Hardee, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    Ten cases of pheochromocytoma in horses were obtained from the literature and a computer search of medical records. The clinical, laboratory and pathological features of pheochromocytoma in horses were reviewed. Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine secreting tumor which tends to occur in older horses without breed or sex predisposition. It is usually unilateral adrenal medullary in location and benign. Malignancy was present in one horse. The most common clinical signs were sweating, tachycardia, tachypnea, muscle tremor and anxiety; however the tumor may be asymptomatic. Clinical signs were nonspecific and could be confused with other diseases, especially abdominal pain. Hyperglycemia is a consistent finding. Venous norepinephrine levels were measured in normal horses. Norepinephrine measurements may prove to be a diagnostic aid in horses with pheochromocytoma. PMID:17422350

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Water Chestnut Extract on Cytokine Responses via Nuclear Factor-?B-signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Choi, Byung-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa japonica Flerov.) is an annual aquatic plant. In the present study, we showed that the treatment of water chestnut extracted with boiling water resulted in a significant increase 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and decrease the intracellular H2O2-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, water chestnut extract (WCE) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production and suppressed mRNA and protein expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. The cytokine array results showed that WCE inhibited inflammatory cytokine secretion. Also, WCE reduced tumor necrosis factor-?-and interleukin-6-induced nuclear factor-?B activity. Furthermore, during sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritation of human skin, WCE reduced SLS-induced skin erythema and improved barrier regeneration. These results indicate that WCE may be a promising topical anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25593649

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Water Chestnut Extract on Cytokine Responses via Nuclear Factor-?B-signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Choi, Byung-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa japonica Flerov.) is an annual aquatic plant. In the present study, we showed that the treatment of water chestnut extracted with boiling water resulted in a significant increase 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and decrease the intracellular H2O2-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, water chestnut extract (WCE) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production and suppressed mRNA and protein expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. The cytokine array results showed that WCE inhibited inflammatory cytokine secretion. Also, WCE reduced tumor necrosis factor-?-and interleukin-6-induced nuclear factor-?B activity. Furthermore, during sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritation of human skin, WCE reduced SLS-induced skin erythema and improved barrier regeneration. These results indicate that WCE may be a promising topical anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25593649

  2. The effect of feed moisture and temperature on tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extruded chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Obiang-Obounou, Brice Wilfried; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2013-12-15

    This study focuses on the effect of extrusion processing on tannin reduction, phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant and anitimicrobial activity. Extrusion temperature (120 and 140 °C) and feed moisture (25% and 28%) were used on the tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Extrusion cooking reduced tannin content up to 78%, and improved antioxidant activity from 12.89% to 21.17% in a concentration dependant manner without affecting its antimicrobial activity that varied from 250 to 500 mg. The time-kill assay confirmed the ability of extruded chestnut to reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa count below detectable limit that reduced the original inoculum by 3log10 CFU/mL. Overall, the results showed that extrusion cooking might serve as a tool for tannin reduction and could improve the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of chestnut, which might be helpful for chestnut related products in the food industry. PMID:23993601

  3. Horse Theft Awareness and Prevention - 15 Steps to Minimizing Theft of Horses and Equipment

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.

    2003-09-26

    of horses, trucks, trailers, saddles and other tack. Horses and equipment are sto- len from barns, farms, pastures, boarding and training facilities, competitive events?even from backyards. Tracking stolen horses can be dif_f_icult because theft re- ports..., expensive headstalls and other valuable items. While it will not prevent theft, locking the tack room does deter it by increasing the time a thief must be on your property. Make horse and livestock trailers inac- cessible, hide them from view and be able...

  4. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents. The role of the cotyledonary petiole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Steele, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak ( Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ?6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to produce seedlings suggests a far greater resilience of white oaks to seed predation than previously anticipated.

  5. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents: The role of the cotyledonary petiole.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W; Agosta, Salvatore J; Steele, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak (Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ?6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to produce seedlings suggests a far greater resilience of white oaks to seed predation than previously anticipated. PMID:23179950

  6. A Song for the Horse Nation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website accompanies an exhibition at the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) George Gustav Heye Center in New York City, and presents "the epic story of the horse's influence on American Indian tribes from the 1600s to the present." Divided into five thematic sections, the exhibition draws on the riches of NMAI, using both historical objects, such as drawings, hoof ornaments, beaded bags, hide robes, and paintings, as well as new pieces by contemporary Native artists. For example, in the "Native Arts & the Horse", 1840-1900 section, visitors can see images of bridles, saddles and saddle blankets, and other clothing, along with photos of these being used and worn. The section "The Horse Nation Lives On" includes works by contemporary Native American artists, such as a painting by Jim Yellowhawk (Cheyenne River Lakota, b. 1958), Lakota Horse Mask, 2008, and beaded rawhide bags made by Jackie Bread (Piikuni, b. 1960) in 2009.

  7. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in horses.

    PubMed

    Medina-Torres, Carlos E; Weese, J Scott; Staempfli, Henry R

    2011-08-26

    Fecal samples were collected to establish the apparent prevalence of Clostridium difficile shedding in Standardbred and Thoroughbred racehorses housed at 4 racetracks and 2 breeding facilities, and in horses admitted to a referral large animal clinic. Forty-one (7.59%) of 540 racetrack horses, seven (5.83%) of 120 breeding farm horses, and four (4.88%) out of 82 horses admitted to the referral clinic were culture-positive for C. difficile. An overall fecal culture prevalence of 7.01% for C. difficile was identified in 742 fecal samples. PCR-ribotyping and toxin gene identification was performed and seventeen 17 PCR-ribotypes were identified among the 52 C. difficile isolates. PMID:21570780

  8. Paraguayan Horse Tack and Ranch Hand

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Paraguayan cowboys often make their own rawhide tack. The cowboy in this picture is braiding rawhide tied to a tree. The cowboys' quarters can be seen in the background. The typical ranch horse in Paraguay is the

  9. Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

  10. Discrimination reversal learning in yearling horses

    E-print Network

    Fiske, Jeanna Chastain

    1976-01-01

    species studied include opposums (James, 1960), rats (Dufort, 1953& Greenway, 1975& Khavari, 1967), prairie dogs (Cain, 1975) and bats (Ellins, 1971) ~ All mammalian species have demonstrated progressive reduction in trials and errors to learning... differences in learning ability of horses would provide very useful information for producers and trainers in assessing an individual animal's ultimate potential. Thorough knowledge of the learning mechanism in the horse would aid in the development...

  11. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

  12. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

  13. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

  14. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

  15. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. 93.313...CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the...

  16. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Horses from Central America and the West Indies. 93.320 Section 93.320...Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central...

  17. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Horses from Central America and the West Indies. 93.320 Section 93.320...Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central...

  18. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Horses from Central America and the West Indies. 93.320 Section 93.320...Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central...

  19. Comparison between the robo-horse and real horse movements for hippotherapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji H; Shurtleff, Timothy; Engsberg, Jack; Rafferty, Sandy; You, Joshua Y; You, Isaac Y; You, Sung H

    2014-01-01

    While the novel robotic hippotherapy system has gradually gained clinical application for therapeutic intervention on postural and locomotor control in individuals with neurological or musculoskeletal impairments, the system's validity and reliability for the robotic hippotherapy system has not been well established. The objective of the current study was to investigate the validity and test-retest reliability of the robotic hippotherapy system by comparing with real horse movements. The 3-axis accelerometer sensors attached on the robotic and real horse saddles were used to collect 3-dimensional acceleration data at a preferred walking velocity. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation in the time-to-peak acceleration (TPA) (R(2)=0.997), but little correlation in X-axis acceleration between the real and robotic horses (R(2)=0.177), thus confirming consistent time control and a certain degree of variability between the robotic and real horse movements. The mean resultant accelerations for a real horse and robotic horse were 3.22 m/s(2) and 0.67 m/s(2), respectively, accounting for almost five times greater acceleration in the real horse than the robotic horse. PMID:25226963

  20. Diversity in horse enthusiasts with respect to horse welfare: an explorative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. K. Visser; E. E. C. van Wijk-Jansen

    A reduced level of welfare of horses is related to management factors, such as low forage feeding, short feeding time, social isolation and lack of unrestrained exercise. It has been assumed that welfare problems can be reduced and\\/or partly prevented by improving the knowledge and skills of horse enthusiasts. It has also been assumed that to improve the provision of

  1. HorsesHorses Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette IN, 47907

    E-print Network

    can increase its heart rate 5-6 times resting levels, both advantages for emergency situations. When have a tremendous capacity for exercise and activity for long periods of time and quickly recover from exercise when they are healthy and fit. The spleen of the horse can hold new red blood cells and the horse

  2. Virginia 4-H Horse Activities for K-3 Youth Horses Wear Clothes, Too!

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs-3 Learner Outcomes 1. Identify equipment used for different types of work with horses. 2. Explain how different tack allows horses to do different jobs. Science Standard(s): Life Science

  3. Virginia 4-H Horse Activities for K-3 Youth A Horse of a Different Color!

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Magazines or books with examples of horse colors and markings How many markings can you identify? #12 Administrator, 1890 Extension Program, Virginia State, Petersburg. Publication 380-104 How do you tell the difference between horses? If you go into a herd, how do you know which one you're looking for? Introduction

  4. Pyrosequencing of environmental soil samples reveals biodiversity of the Phytophthora resident community in chestnut forests.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Andrea; Bruni, Natalia; Tomassini, Alessia; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria

    2013-09-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis was performed on soils from Italian chestnut groves to evaluate the diversity of the resident Phytophthora community. Sequences analysed with a custom database discriminated 15 pathogenic Phytophthoras including species common to chestnut soils, while a total of nine species were detected with baiting. The two sites studied differed in Phytophthora diversity and the presence of specific taxa responded to specific ecological traits of the sites. Furthermore, some species not previously recorded were represented by a discrete number of reads; among these species, Phytophthora ramorum was detected at both sites. Pyrosequencing was demonstrated to be a very sensitive technique to describe the Phytophthora community in soil and was able to detect species not easy to be isolated from soil with standard baiting techniques. In particular, pyrosequencing is an highly efficient tool for investigating the colonization of new environments by alien species, and for ecological and adaptive studies coupled with biological detection methods. This study represents the first application of pyrosequencing for describing Phytophthoras in environmental soil samples. PMID:23560715

  5. Complex of solonetzes and vertic chestnut soils in the manych-gudilo depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovda, I. V.; Morgun, E. P.; Il'ina, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological, physicochemical, and isotopic properties of a two-member soil complex developed under dry steppe have been studied in the central part of the Manych Depression. The soils are formed on chocolate-colored clayey sediments, and have pronounced microrelief and the complex vegetation pattern. A specific feature of the studied soil complex is the inverse position of its components: vertic chestnut soil occupies the microhigh, while solonetz is in the microlow. The formation of such complexes is explained by the biological factor, i.e., by the destruction of the solonetzic horizon under the impact of vegetation and earth-burrowing animals with further transformation under steppe plants and dealkalinization of the soil in the microhighs. The manifestation of vertic features and shrink-swell process in soils of the complex developing in dry steppe are compared with those in the vertic soils of the Central Pre-Caucasus formed under more humid environment. It is supposed that slickensides in the investigated vertic chestnut soil are relict feature inherited from the former wetter stage of the soil development and are subjected to a gradual degradation at present. In the modern period, vertic processes are weak and cannot be distinctly diagnosed. However, their activation may take place upon an increase of precipitation or the rise in the groundwater level.

  6. [Molecular genetic studies of the "Einsiedler" horse population].

    PubMed

    Riggenbach, Ch; Stranzinger, G; Poncet, P A; Glowatzki, M L; Muntwyler, J; Gaillard, C; Rieder, S

    2005-05-01

    In this study it was investigated whether the "Einsiedler" warmblood horse, a historically old horse population from central Switzerland (Abbey of Einsiedeln), is distinguishable from micellaneous horse breeds, using molecular genetic techniques. The breeding history of Einsiedler horses is characterised by systematic line breeding through the dams. Therefore, two Einsiedler dam lines (N = 28), going back to the middle of the 19th century according to pedigree entries, were the focus of the survey. Random samples of diverse warmblood horse populations, but also samples from more distinct types of horse breeds, served as comparison populations (N = 52). Variation in the mitochondrial genome appeared to be only partially informative to demarcate the studied horses, as horses of distinct breeds may share identical mtDNA sequence fragments. Both dam lines revealed haplotypes commonly found in Iberian horse breeds. This is to take as an indication on the genetic origin of Einsiedler horses. Furthermore, the Klima dam line held a homologous mtDNA sequence fragment with E. ferus przewalskii. Therefore, this seems to be a phylogenetically old haplotype. The analysis of microsatellite loci revealed that horses from the two Einsiedler dam lines were in fact distinguishable from more distinct types of horses, but not from closely related European warmblood horse breeds and English thoroughbred. PMID:15929600

  7. ABUNDANCE OF NON-BREEDING HORNED LARKS AND CHESTNUT-COLLARED LONGSPURS ON GRAZED AND RESTED SEMIARID GRASSLAND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; David L. Hawksworth; Raymond A. Meyer; Timothy Brush

    2006-01-01

    We counted birds monthly from October through April of 1999-2000 and 2000- 2001 on regularly grazed and rested (since 1973) semiarid grassland of central New Mexico. Horned larks (Eremophila alpestris) and chestnut-collared longspurs (Calcarius ornatus) accounted for 66% and 10% of all birds detected, respectively. We examined variation in counts of these species relative to grazing history, site, and vegetation

  8. 75 FR 76453 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EG10-65-000...EG10-70-000; EG10-71-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco Wind, LLC; Arizona...

  9. Transcriptomic identification and expression of starch and sucrose metabolism genes in the seeds of chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) seed provides a rich source of carbohydrates as food and feed. However, little is known about starch biosynthesis in the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine seed composition profiles and identify genes involved in starch and sucrose metabo...

  10. Effect of Concentrate Form on Gastric Ulcer Syndrome in Horses

    E-print Network

    Huth, Lindsey

    2012-02-14

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is common amongst equine athletes of various disciplines and linked to decreased performance. Prevalence among racehorses has been reported to be over 90%, performance horses at 60%, and endurances horses...

  11. 15. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the trail crossing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the trail crossing the Yankee Horse Railroad bed. Facing south. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  12. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...custody of or responsibility for any horse detained by APHIS for further examination, testing, or the taking of evidence...walking, grooming, etc., for such detained horse: Provided...application, or injection of any drugs or other medication for...

  13. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...custody of or responsibility for any horse detained by APHIS for further examination, testing, or the taking of evidence...walking, grooming, etc., for such detained horse: Provided...application, or injection of any drugs or other medication for...

  14. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...custody of or responsibility for any horse detained by APHIS for further examination, testing, or the taking of evidence...walking, grooming, etc., for such detained horse: Provided...application, or injection of any drugs or other medication for...

  15. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...custody of or responsibility for any horse detained by APHIS for further examination, testing, or the taking of evidence...walking, grooming, etc., for such detained horse: Provided...application, or injection of any drugs or other medication for...

  16. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...custody of or responsibility for any horse detained by APHIS for further examination, testing, or the taking of evidence...walking, grooming, etc., for such detained horse: Provided...application, or injection of any drugs or other medication for...

  17. Article original Exercise-related parameters of horses competing

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Article original Exercise-related parameters of horses competing in show jumping events ranging — The present study investigated cardiovascular, metabolic and hematological respons- es in 14 horses participating in show jumping competitions. In order to compare physiological re- sponses

  18. Activity of group-transported horses during onboard rest stops

    E-print Network

    Keen, Heidi A.

    2007-04-25

    Activity of group-transported horses was evaluated during onboard rest stops to determine if horses derive meaningful rest. A single-deck semi-trailer separated into three compartments was used for all shipments. In Experiment One, twelve video...

  19. Original article Chiral inversion of fenoprofen in horses and dogs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Chiral inversion of fenoprofen in horses and dogs: an in vivo-in vitro study geldings and three male beagle dogs, following intravenous doses of racemic FPF (1 mg/kg in horses), R(-)FPF (0.5 mg/kg in horses, 1 mg/kg in dogs), and S(+)FPF (0.5 mg/kg in horses, 1 mg/kg in dogs

  20. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all. PMID:22767092

  1. Histamine inhalation challenge in normal horses and in horses with small airway disease.

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, M Y; Vrins, A A; Ford-Hutchinson, A W

    1991-01-01

    A histamine inhalation challenge (HIC) procedure was developed to assess hyperreactive states in horses. Following clinical evaluation, percutaneous lung biopsies were performed on nine light breed mares aged 6 to 15 years. Five horses, with normal small airways, were classified as group A and four subjects with small airway disease (SAD) lesions formed group B. Pulmonary mechanics parameters were monitored following an aerosol of 0.9% saline and every 5 min for up to 30 min after HIC with 0.5% w/v of histamine diphosphate, administered through a face mask for 2.5 min. Tidal volume (VT) and airflow (V) values were obtained with a pneumotachograph. Transpulmonary pressure (delta Ppl) was measured by the esophageal balloon catheter method. Dynamic compliance (Cdyn), total pulmonary resistance (RL), end expiratory work of breathing (EEW) and respiratory rate (f) were calculated by a pulmonary mechanics computer. Group A horses had increases in RL, and decreases in Cdyn whereas horses in group B were hyperreactive and showed greater changes in EEW, Cdyn, and delta Ppl but with a relatively lower variation of RL. One horse in clinical remission from SAD, but with a high biopsy score (group B), and one clinically normal horse belonging to group A showed marked hyperreactivity as shown by increases in EEW, maximum change in delta Ppl and RL and decreases in Cdyn. These results suggest that the HIC described can be used as a method to investigate airway hyperreactivity and SAD in horses. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1889039

  2. Antifeedants and feeding stimulants in bark extracts of ten woody non-host species of the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Carina; Mĺnsson, Per E; Sjödin, Kristina; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2008-10-01

    Bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a Soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. Species were alder (Alnus glutinosa), aspen (Populus tremula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), holly (Ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (Evonymus europaeus), walnut (Juglans regia), and yew (Taxus baccata). Bark of each species was collected in southern Scandinavia during the summer. Resulting extracts were tested for antifeedant activity against the pine weevil by a micro-feeding choice assay. At a dose corresponding to that in the bark, methanol extracts from Aesculus, Taxus, Ilex, and Populus were antifeedant active, while pentane extracts of Aesculus, Fagus, Syringa, and Viburnum were stimulatory. Four known antifeedants against H. abietis, the straight-chained carboxylic acids, hexanoic and nonanoic acid (C6 and C9), carvone, and carvacrol were identified by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in several extracts. The major constituents were identified and tested for feeding deterrence. The aromatic compounds benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol are new non-host plant-derived feeding deterrents for the pine weevil. Additionally, two feeding stimulants, beta-sitosterol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, were identified. One active methanol extract of Aesculus bark was sequentially fractionated by liquid chromatography, and major compounds were tentatively identified as branched alcohols and esters of hexanoic acid. Five commercially available hexanoate esters and two commercially available branched alcohols were identified as new active antifeedants. Both stimulatory and inhibiting compounds were found in the same extracts and co-eluted in the same or adjacent fractions. The mix of semiochemicals of opposite activity in each extract or fraction could explain the stimulatory-, inhibitory-, or sometimes neutral activity. Generally, such co-occurrence confounds the isolation of antifeedants. PMID:18719963

  3. FIELD STUDY OF HOOF WALL PROBLEMS IN UNSHOD WORKING HORSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. BIGHAM; A. N. TABATABAEI

    A population of 100 native breed unshod working horses was examined for hoof wall problems. The diagnosis of hoof wall defects was performed by close visual observation and via physical examina- tion. The location, extent and types of defects were then determined and recorded. Out of 100 horses, 124 hoof wall defects were noted in ninety working horses. The number

  4. 75 FR 26990 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ...INFORMATION CONTACT: Ramona DeLorme, Wild Horse and Burro Administrative...authority of 43 CFR part 1784, the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board...management and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and...p.m.) 2:45 p.m.--Animal Welfare 3:35...

  5. A zoonotic genotype of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in an equid species. Feces from 195 horses from four locations in Colombia were examined for E. bieneusi by PCR. Of these, 21 horses (10.8 percent) were found positive for E. bieneusi. The prevalence of E. bieneusi in horses <1 yr of age was signif...

  6. body condition score Evaluating your miniature horse's body

    E-print Network

    is the mainstay of a horse's diet, but horses may also need a grain mix (concentrate) to supplement their energy requirements as well as help balance for other nutrients such as protein, vitamins and minerals. When selecting horse tends to get fat, try a supplement that is designed to balance nutrients for the forage you

  7. Orthopaedic Health, Conformation and Longevity in Riding Horses

    E-print Network

    Lina Jönsson Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science Department of Animal Breeding a central role for animal welfare, sport performance and horse owner economy. Routine registration of health of health and conformation at the Riding Horse Quality Test (RHQT) of 8238 tested 4-5-year-old horses

  8. Impacts of feral horse use on rangelands and riparian areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feral (wild) horse impacts on rangelands and riparian areas are largely unknown. The impacts of feral horses are often indistinguishable from domestic livestock impacts because livestock grazing occurs across most horse herd management areas. However, the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge has a lar...

  9. Impacts of feral horse use on rangelands and riparian areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feral (wild) horse impacts on rangelands and riparian areas are largely unknown. The impacts of feral horses are often indistinguishable from domestic livestock impacts because livestock grazing occurs across most horse herd management areas. However, the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge has a large...

  10. Standing enucleation in the horse: A report of 5 cases

    PubMed Central

    Hewes, Christina A.; Keoughan, G. Curry; Gutierrez–Nibeyro, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Enucleation was performed in 5 horses under local anesthesia and sedation with the horse standing. Minimal hemorrhage occurred during the surgical procedure, and there were no other reported complications. Standing enucleation is a surgery that is safe to perform in horses. PMID:17542371

  11. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO ENCEPHALITOZOON CUNICULI IN HORSES IN BRAZIL.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi has been associated with natural cases of abortion and still-birth in horses. However, little is known abut the prevalence of this parasite in horses. We examined serva from 559 horses from Brazil for antibodies to E. cuniculi using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody ...

  12. Short communication Toxicokinetics of ergovaline in the horse after

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Short communication Toxicokinetics of ergovaline in the horse after an intravenous administration in four gelding horses. Plasma ergovaline concentrations were measured by high performance liquid. According to the toxicological data previously reported in the horse, and in spite of the very low dose

  13. Comparison of Sarcocystis neurona isolates derived from horse neural tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S Mansfield; H. C Schott; A. J Murphy; M. G Rossano; S. M Tanhauser; J. S Patterson; K Nelson; S. L Ewart; J. V Marteniuk; D. D Bowman; J. B Kaneene

    2001-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a protozoan parasite that can cause neurological deficits in infected horses. The route of transmission is by fecal–oral transfer of sporocysts from opossums. However, the species identity and the lifecycle are not completely known. In this study, Sarcocystis merozoites from eight isolates obtained from Michigan horses were compared to S. neurona from a California horse (UCD1), Sarcocystis

  14. Monensin poisoning in horses — an international incident

    PubMed Central

    Doonan, Gordon R.; Brown, Christopher M.; Mullaney, Thomas P.; Brooks, David B.; Ulmanis, Eugene G.; Slanker, Michael R.

    1989-01-01

    Several hundred Michigan horses were accidentally exposed to varying levels of monensin. Severity of effects was proportional to the level of feed contamination; sudden death resulted on at least two premises. Acute signs of cardiovascular impairment occurred on one premises having received feed containing over 200 grams of monensin per tonne. Gross and histological postmortem lesions consisted of acute myocardial necrosis. Although only circumstantially confirmed, investigations led to the suspicion that the source of poisoning was a ration formulation error in a feedmill in southwestern Ontario. Concern over possible undetected heart damage in exposed horses led to clinical monitoring on one farm over a period of several months. Electrocardiographic and serum enzyme monitoring were used soon after the incident to implicate exposure in some horses; they were poor prognostic indicators. Applicable legislation, the cooperative role of government departments, and legal implications relative to potential prosecution and lawsuits arising from sale of contaminated feed between Canada and the USA are summarized. PMID:17423238

  15. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  16. Y-Chromosome Analysis in Retuertas Horses

    PubMed Central

    Brandariz-Fontes, Claudia; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vega-Pla, José Luis; Backström, Niclas; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lippold, Sebastian; Rico, Ciro

    2013-01-01

    Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France) or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY) and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects. PMID:23741439

  17. Y-chromosome analysis in Retuertas horses.

    PubMed

    Brandariz-Fontes, Claudia; Leonard, Jennifer A; Vega-Pla, José Luis; Backström, Niclas; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lippold, Sebastian; Rico, Ciro

    2013-01-01

    Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France) or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY) and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects. PMID:23741439

  18. Comparisons of ectomycorrhizal colonization of transgenic american chestnut with those of the wild type, a conventionally bred hybrid, and related fagaceae species.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Katherine M; Horton, Thomas R; Maynard, Charles A; Stehman, Stephen V; Oakes, Allison D; Powell, William A

    2015-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) dominated the eastern forests of North America, serving as a keystone species both ecologically and economically until the introduction of the chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica, functionally eradicated the species. Restoration efforts include genetic transformation utilizing genes such as oxalate oxidase to produce potentially blight-resistant chestnut trees that could be released back into the native range. However, before such a release can be undertaken, it is necessary to assess nontarget impacts. Since oxalate oxidase is meant to combat a fungal pathogen, we are particularly interested in potential impacts of this transgene on beneficial fungi. This study compares ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization on a transgenic American chestnut clone expressing enhanced blight resistance to a wild-type American chestnut, a conventionally bred American-Chinese hybrid chestnut, and other Fagaceae species. A greenhouse bioassay used soil from two field sites with different soil types and land use histories. The number of colonized root tips was counted, and fungal species were identified using morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and DNA sequencing. Results showed that total ectomycorrhizal colonization varied more by soil type than by tree species. Individual fungal species varied in their colonization rates, but there were no significant differences between colonization on transgenic and wild-type chestnuts. This study shows that the oxalate oxidase gene can increase resistance against Cryphonectria parasitica without changing the colonization rate for ectomycorrhizal species. These findings will be crucial for a potential deregulation of blight-resistant American chestnuts containing the oxalate oxidase gene. PMID:25326296

  19. Effects of extrusion temperature and feed composition on the functional, physical and sensory properties of chestnut and rice flour-based snack-like products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Sacchetti; G. G. Pinnavaia; E. Guidolin; M. Dalla Rosa

    2004-01-01

    Snack-like products were obtained by extrusion-cooking of chestnut–rice flour blend-based doughs, by forming the extruded dough in pellets and then baking them in a toaster, in order to obtain adequate puffing. The effects of chestnut flour content and of extrusion temperature on functional (water adsorption index, water-holding capacity and water solubility index) and physical (density, moisture content and color) properties

  20. Volatile compounds and bacterial community dynamics of chestnut-flour-based sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Aponte, M; Boscaino, F; Sorrentino, A; Coppola, R; Masi, P; Romano, A

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were the monitoring of the microbial dynamics by means of a polyphasic approach based on conventional isolation techniques and PCR-DGGE-based methods in different chestnut-based sourdoughs and the evaluation of the impact of fermentation on volatile organic compounds formation during sourdoughs ripening. Members of the Lactobacillus plantarum group and Pediococcus pentosaceous dominated the sourdough ecosystems. Nevertheless, RAPD-PCR allowed recording a relevant genotypic biodiversity among strains coming from gluten-free flour combinations. Volatile compounds were characterised by GC/MS. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified, mainly alcohols, esters, acids, aldehydes and ketones. Principal component analysis of samples at the beginning and at the end of ripening offered a good separation of the samples and highlighted the effect of fermentation on the sensorial profile. PMID:23870973

  1. Wolbachia Infections and Mitochondrial Diversity of Two Chestnut Feeding Cydia Species

    PubMed Central

    Bourtzis, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    Cydia splendana and C. fagiglandana are two closely related chestnut feeding lepidopteran moth species. In this study, we surveyed the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia in these two species. Infection rates were 31% in C. splendana and 77% in C. fagiglandana. MLST analysis showed that these two species are infected with two quite diverse Wolbachia strains. C. splendana with Sequence Type (ST) 409 from the A-supergroup and C. fagiglandana with ST 150 from the B-supergroup. One individual of C. splendana was infected with ST 150, indicating horizontal transfer between these sister species. The mitochondrial DNA of the two Cydia species showed a significantly different mtDNA diversity, which was inversely proportional to their infection rates. PMID:25405506

  2. The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

    2013-04-01

    Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results, as expected, show that management didn't affect root mechanical properties, whereas root distribution within the soil profile did. In terms of additional root cohesion, values are higher in the managed stand, and lower in the abandoned one, at least in the first 50 cm of soil. In the abandoned stand, in fact, roots reach deeper layers of soil (100 cm) than the managed one (50 cm), mainly because of an unexpected greater soil depth. To assess the implication of such results in terms of slope stability, a simple infinite slope model was applied to the two conditions. The results showed that the abandoned stand is prone to instability also with a low level of saturation. On the contrary, by applying the additional root cohesion profile obtained in the managed stand to the steeper slopes, stability should be guaranteed, except in the case of total saturation. In conclusion, although more investigations are required especially to extend the number of stands, coppicing practice seem to be fundamental to prevent shallow landsliding in sweet chestnut forests over cohesionless slopes.

  3. Structure of Oxalacetate Acetylhydrolase, a Virulence Factor of the Chestnut Blight Fungus*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nuss, Donald L.; Herzberg, Osnat

    2010-01-01

    Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxalacetate is the main OAH substrate, but the enzyme also acts as a lyase of (2R,3S)-dimethyl malate with ?1000-fold lower efficacy. The crystal structure of OAH was determined alone, in complex with a mechanism-based inhibitor, 3,3-difluorooxalacetate (DFOA), and in complex with the reaction product, oxalate, to a resolution limit of 1.30, 1.55, and 1.65 ?, respectively. OAH assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit exhibiting an (?/?)8 barrel fold and each pair swapping the 8th ?-helix. An active site “gating loop” exhibits conformational disorder in the ligand-free structure. To obtain the structures of the OAH·ligand complexes, the ligand-free OAH crystals were soaked briefly with DFOA or oxalacetate. DFOA binding leads to ordering of the gating loop in a conformation that sequesters the ligand from the solvent. DFOA binds in a gem-diol form analogous to the oxalacetate intermediate/transition state. Oxalate binds in a planar conformation, but the gating loop is largely disordered. Comparison between the OAH structure and that of the closely related enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, suggests potential determinants of substrate preference. PMID:20558740

  4. Structure of Oxalacetate Acetylhydrolase, a Virulence Factor of the Chestnut Blight Fungus

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nuss, Donald L.; Herzberg, Osnat (UMBI)

    2010-11-15

    Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxalacetate is the main OAH substrate, but the enzyme also acts as a lyase of (2R,3S)-dimethyl malate with {approx}1000-fold lower efficacy. The crystal structure of OAH was determined alone, in complex with a mechanism-based inhibitor, 3,3-difluorooxalacetate (DFOA), and in complex with the reaction product, oxalate, to a resolution limit of 1.30, 1.55, and 1.65 {angstrom}, respectively. OAH assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit exhibiting an ({alpha}/{beta})8 barrel fold and each pair swapping the 8th {alpha}-helix. An active site 'gating loop' exhibits conformational disorder in the ligand-free structure. To obtain the structures of the OAH {center_dot} ligand complexes, the ligand-free OAH crystals were soaked briefly with DFOA or oxalacetate. DFOA binding leads to ordering of the gating loop in a conformation that sequesters the ligand from the solvent. DFOA binds in a gem-diol form analogous to the oxalacetate intermediate/transition state. Oxalate binds in a planar conformation, but the gating loop is largely disordered. Comparison between the OAH structure and that of the closely related enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, suggests potential determinants of substrate preference.

  5. Horseless Horse Projects I don't own a horse, but . . .

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, religion, sex, age at least two horse films or video tapes. Name them. F. Give at least two visual presentations or speeches

  6. Equine herpes virus 2 infection in horse populations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ruszczyk, A; Cywinska, A; Banbura, M W

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) infections in the horse populations in Poland was investigated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of 139 horses were tested. The animals were divided into four groups: clinically healthy horses, horses suffering from respiratory disorders, mares with a recent abortion and horses with diagnosed ataxia. Thirty-four virus isolates were obtained from leukocytes of the tested animals by cocultivation with equine dermal cells and were identified as EHV-2 by PCR using primers for the gB gene of EHV-2 and/or primers for the sequence located upstream of the gene homologous to the equine interleukin 10 (IL-10) gene. These results indicate that EHV-2 is prevalent in horse populations in Poland. As the virus was most frequently isolated from horses with respiratory disorders its etiological importance may be considered. PMID:15595214

  7. Original article Chromosome analysis of horse oocytes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Chromosome analysis of horse oocytes cultured in vitro* WA King1 M Desjardins2 KP%) and fixed for chromosome analysis. To determine the time required for nuclear maturation, oocytes were fixed of culture and MII was reached by 24 h. To examine the chromosome features, an additional 113 oocyte- cumulus

  8. Theory of the Trojan-Horse Method

    E-print Network

    Baur, G; Baur, Gerhard; Typel, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The Trojan-Horse method is an indirect approach to determine the energy dependence of S factors of astrophysically relevant two-body reactions. This is accomplished by studying closely related three-body reactions under quasi-free scattering conditions. The basic theory of the Trojan-Horse method is developed starting from a post-form distorted wave Born approximation of the T-matrix element. In the surface approximation the cross section of the three-body reaction can be related to the S-matrix elements of the two-body reaction. The essential feature of the Trojan-Horse method is the effective suppression of the Coulomb barrier at low energies for the astrophysical reaction leading to finite cross sections at the threshold of the two-body reaction. In a modified plane wave approximation the relation between the two-body and three-body cross sections becomes very transparent. Applications of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed. It is of special interest that electron screening corrections are negligible due...

  9. Theory of the Trojan-Horse Method

    E-print Network

    Typel, S

    2003-01-01

    The Trojan-Horse method is an indirect approach to determine the energy dependence of S-factors of astrophysically relevant two-body reactions. This is accomplished by studying closely related three-body reactions under quasi-free scattering conditions. The basic theory of the Trojan-Horse method is developed starting from a post-form distorted wave Born approximation of the T-matrix element. In the surface approximation the cross section of the three-body reaction can be related to the S-matrix elements of the two-body reaction. The essential feature of the Trojan-Horse method is the effective suppression of the Coulomb barrier at low energies for the astrophysical reaction leading to finite cross sections at the threshold of the two-body reaction. In a modified plane wave approximation the relation between the two-body and three-body cross sections becomes very transparent. The appearing Trojan-Horse integrals are studied in detail.

  10. The pharmacokinetics of glycopyrrolate in Standardbred horses.

    PubMed

    Rumpler, M J; Colahan, P; Sams, R A

    2014-06-01

    The disposition of plasma glycopyrrolate (GLY) is characterized by a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model after a 1-mg bolus intravenous dose to Standardbred horses. The median (range) plasma clearance (Clp), volume of distribution of the central compartment (V1 ), volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss), and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-inf ) were 16.7 (13.6-21.7) mL/min/kg, 0.167 (0.103-0.215) L/kg, 3.69 (0.640-38.73) L/kg, and 2.58 (2.28-2.88) ng*h/mL, respectively. Renal clearance of GLY was characterized by a median (range) of 2.65 (1.92-3.59) mL/min/kg and represented approximately 11.3-24.7% of the total plasma clearance. As a result of these studies, we conclude that the majority of GLY is cleared through hepatic mechanisms because of the limited extent of renal clearance of GLY and absence of plasma esterase activity on GLY metabolism. Although the disposition of GLY after intravenous administration to Standardbred horses was similar to that in Thoroughbred horses, differences in some pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were evident. Such differences could be attributed to breed differences or study conditions. The research could provide valuable data to support regulatory guidelines for GLY in Standardbred horses. PMID:24325462

  11. Investigating the origins of horse domestication.

    PubMed

    Levine, M A

    1999-04-01

    Before the development of firearms, the horse was crucial to warfare and, before the invention of the steam engine, it was the fastest and most reliable form of land transport. It is crucial to the life of nomadic pastoralists on the Eurasian steppe and played a major role in the evolution of human society during the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Understanding the human past requires knowledge of the origins and development of horse husbandry. The problem of being able to identify the early stages of horse domestication is one that many researchers have grappled with for the most part unsuccessfully. Until recently the most important criteria used had been that of increased relative abundance. That is, around 3500 BC, in some parts of Eurasia, there was an apparent increase in the proportions of horse bones and teeth found in archaeological deposits by comparison with preceding periods. However, other evidence suggests that the observed increase during the Copper Age could be explained as well, or even better, by increased hunting rather than by domestication. PMID:11314236

  12. Potentially Novel Ehrlichia Species in Horses, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    O’Nion, Victoria L.; Montilla, Hernan J.; Qurollo, Barbara A.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Tornquist, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichia sp. DNA was amplified from 4 Ehrlichia-seroreactive horses from Mérida, Nicaragua. Sequencing of 16S rDNA, sodB, and groEL genes indicated that the bacterium is most likely a novel Ehrlichia species. The tick vector and the potential for canine and human infection remain unknown. PMID:25625228

  13. Intrathoracic pulsion diverticulum in a horse.

    PubMed

    Yamout, Sawsan Z; Magdesian, K Gary; Tokarz, Debra A; le Jeune, Sarah S

    2012-04-01

    This is a report of a 12-year-old Swedish Warmblood gelding with a ruptured esophageal pulsion diverticulum associated with atypical clinical signs of colic and septic peritonitis on presentation. The location of this diverticulum at the hiatus was unique and was most likely responsible for the unusual presentation of this horse. PMID:23024389

  14. Use of a 3-D dispersion model for calculation of distribution of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities.

    PubMed

    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

    2014-04-01

    The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/mł). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority--80%-90%--detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

  15. Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m3). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority—80%–90%—detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

  16. Microvascular circulation of the cecum in horses.

    PubMed

    Dart, A J; Snyder, J R; Julian, D; Hinds, D M

    1991-09-01

    The microvascular circulation of the cecum was studied in 15 adult horses, using microangiography and light microscopy combined with gross studies and scanning electron microscopy of vascular replicas. After heparinization, the horses were euthanatized and the cecum was transected at the cecocolic junction. Blood was flushed free of the circulation with isotonic NaCl and the cecal lumen was slightly distended. In 6 horses, the vascular system was injected with a modified radiopaque medium and evaluated radiographically. Sections evaluated radiographically were also prepared for histologic examination by standard methods. Eight horses were injected with 1 of 2 types of plastics and studied grossly or by scanning electron microscopy. In 1 additional horse, the lateral and medial arteries were injected with different colored plastic for gross studies. The lateral and medial cecal arteries appear to supply the respective areas of the cecum with minimal mixing of the 2 circulations. The major vascular supply to the cecal apex appeared to be through the medial cecal artery. Both the lateral and medial cecal arteries gave rise to cecal retia, which formed a mesh-like network around the respective veins. Vessels from these retia supplied the cecal tissue and the cecal lymph nodes. The continuation of the retia was through long terminal arteries that coursed around the circumference in the submucosa, forming an extensive submucosal plexus. This plexus supplied both the mucosa, and the tunica muscularis and serosa. Vessels within the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the muscularis externa ran parallel to the muscle fibers, and consequently, perpendicular to each other.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1952348

  17. Polyphenolic compounds as chemical markers of wine ageing in contact with cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Martínez, J; Esteruelas, E; Muńoz, A M

    2014-01-15

    The nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of four red wines, one white, and one rosé aged using barrels and chips of cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS, to identify the phenolic compounds that woods other than oak contribute to wines, and if some of them can be used as chemical markers of ageing with them. A total of 68 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were identified, 15 found only in wines aged with acacia wood, 6 with cherry wood, and 1 with chestnut wood. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify wines aged in contact with these woods. In addition, some differences in the nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of wines were detected related to both the levels of compounds provided by each wood species and the different evolution of flavonols and flavanols in wines during ageing in barrels or in contact with chips. PMID:24054214

  18. Influence of 4-H Horse Project Involvement on Development of Life Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, K. P.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.

    2011-01-01

    Four-H horse project members who competed in non-riding horse contests were surveyed to evaluate the influence of their horse project participation on life-skill development. Contests in which youth competed included Horse Bowl, Demonstrations, Public Speaking, and Art. Youth indicated a positive influence on both life-skill development and horse

  19. Dissociation of testosterone and aggressive behavior during the breeding season in male chestnut-collared longspurs, Calcarius ornatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon E. Lynn; John C. Wingfield

    2008-01-01

    In many species of birds, expression of male–male aggression during breeding elicits increased secretion of testosterone. Elevations in testosterone in turn enhance expression of aggressive behavior in appropriate contexts. However, in other species, the relationship between elevated plasma testosterone and aggressive behavior is subtle or nonexistent. We examined the relationship between high testosterone and male–male aggression in the chestnut-collared longspur,

  20. Deformation induced by ethanol substitution in normal and tension wood of chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill.) and simarouba ( Simarouba amara Aubl.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shan Shan Chang; Bruno Clair; Joseph Gril; Hiroyuki Yamamoto; Françoise Quignard

    2009-01-01

    Wood deformation in the longitudinal and tangential directions induced by ethanol substitution and oven-drying was measured\\u000a in normal wood (NW) and tension wood (TW) of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) (TW with G-fibres) and simarouba (Simarouba amara Aubl.) (TW without G-fibres). The results show that with increased concentration of ethanol solution TW tends to contract,\\u000a regardless of the presence or absence

  1. Deletion of the cpku80 gene in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica , enhances gene disruption efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiuwan Lan; Ziting Yao; Yan Zhou; Jinjie Shang; Haiyan Lin; Donald L. Nuss; Baoshan Chen

    2008-01-01

    The chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, and associated virulence-attenuating hypoviruses have emerged as an important model system for studying molecular mechanisms\\u000a underlying fungal–plant pathogenic interactions. As more gene sequence information becomes available as a result of C. parasitica express sequence tags (ESTs) and ongoing whole genome sequencing projects, the development of an efficient gene disruption\\u000a system has become an urgent

  2. Exploration of a rare population of Chinese chestnut in North America: stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Miller, Amy C; Woeste, Keith E; Anagnostakis, Sandra L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2014-01-01

    With the transport of plants around the globe, exotic species can readily spread disease to their native relatives; however, they can also provide genetic resistance to those relatives through hybrid breeding programmes. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was an abundant tree species in North America until its decimation by introduced chestnut blight. To restore chestnut in North America, efforts are ongoing to test putative blight-resistant hybrids of Castanea dentata and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima), but little is known about the ecology of C. mollissima. In a forest in northeastern USA in which C. mollissima has become established, we explored questions of stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships of C. mollissima offspring to an adjacent parent orchard. We found that C. mollissima was adapted and randomly distributed among native species in this relatively young forest. The genetics of the C. mollissima population compared with its parents indicated little effect of selection pressure as each of the parent trees contributed at least one offspring. The ease with which this exotic species proliferated calls to question why C. mollissima is rare elsewhere in forests of North America. It is likely that a time window of low animal predation allowed seedlings to establish, and the shallow soil at this site limited the maximum forest canopy height, permitting the characteristically short-statured C. mollissima to avoid suppression. Our results indicate that because C. mollissima exhibited pioneer species characteristics, hybrids between C. mollissima and C. dentata have the potential to be successful pioneer species of future forests in North America, and we challenge the paradigm that exotic tree species are wholly detrimental to native biodiversity. We contend that exotic tree species should be assessed not only by their level of threat to native species, but also by their potential positive impacts on ecosystems via hybrid breeding programmes. PMID:25336337

  3. Class I chitinases with hevein-like domain, but not class II enzymes, are relevant chestnut and avocado allergens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Araceli Diaz-Perales; Carmen Collada; Carlos Blanco; Rosa Sánchez-Monge; Teresa Carrillo; Cipriano Aragoncillo; Gabriel Salcedo

    1998-01-01

    Background: Several foods associated with the latex-fruit syndrome present relevant allergens of around 30 kd. Neither these components nor any other responsible for the reported cross-reactions have been identified and purified.Objective: We sought to isolate and characterize the 30 kd allergens from avocado fruit and chestnut seed, two of the main allergenic foods linked with latex allergy.Methods: Sera from patients

  4. Multiple introductions and recombination in Cryphonectria hypovirus 1: perspective for a sustainable biological control of chestnut blight.

    PubMed

    Feau, Nicolas; Dutech, Cyril; Brusini, Jérémie; Rigling, Daniel; Robin, Cécile

    2014-05-01

    Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) is a mycovirus which decreases the virulence of its fungal host Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight recently introduced in Europe. The understanding of the evolutionary processes which have shaped CHV1 populations in Europe is required to develop a sustainable biocontrol strategy targeting chestnut blight and effective in European chestnut forests. To retrace the evolutionary history of CHV1, we analyzed sequences from two genomic regions on a collection of 55 CHV1 strains from France and northern Spain, two countries where multiple introductions of C. parasitica occurred. Several recombination events and variable selection pressures contributed to CHV1 evolution, agreeing with a non-clock-like diversification rate. These two mechanisms may be at the origin of CHV1 population diversity observed in western Europe. Considering the actual prevalence of CHV1 and its association with host genotypes, multiple introductions of CHV1 may have occurred in Europe, some of them directly from Asia and some of them through North America. Although some viral strains remained with low frequency in their introduction area, multiple infections might have allowed homologous recombination within parental sequences. Some of these recombinant lineages are associated with the spread of CHV1 in European regions. PMID:24944571

  5. Invasion history and demographic pattern of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 across European populations of the chestnut blight fungus

    PubMed Central

    Bryner, Sarah F; Rigling, Daniel; Brunner, Patrick C

    2012-01-01

    We reconstructed the invasion history of the fungal virus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1) in Europe, which infects the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. The pattern of virus evolution was inferred based on nucleotide sequence variation from isolates sampled across a wide area in Europe at different points in time. Phylogeny and time estimates suggested that CHV-1 was introduced together with its fungal host to Europe and that it rapidly colonized the central range along the south facing slopes of the Alps and the north-east facing slopes of the Dinaric Alps. These central populations were the source for two waves of simultaneous invasions toward the southern Balkans and Turkey, as indicated by migration rates. Our results showed that the evolutionary scenarios for CHV-1 and C. parasitica were spatially congruent. As infection with CHV-1 reduces the pathogenicity of C. parasitica toward the chestnut tree, CHV-1 invasions of the newly established C. parasitica populations probably prevented the development of devastating chestnut blight epidemics in Europe. We propose that in this, and supposedly in other pathosystems, geographic, vegetation-related, demographic, economic, and political factors may help explain the correlated invasion pattern of a parasite and its host. PMID:23301186

  6. Multiple introductions and recombination in Cryphonectria hypovirus 1: perspective for a sustainable biological control of chestnut blight

    PubMed Central

    Feau, Nicolas; Dutech, Cyril; Brusini, Jérémie; Rigling, Daniel; Robin, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) is a mycovirus which decreases the virulence of its fungal host Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight recently introduced in Europe. The understanding of the evolutionary processes which have shaped CHV1 populations in Europe is required to develop a sustainable biocontrol strategy targeting chestnut blight and effective in European chestnut forests. To retrace the evolutionary history of CHV1, we analyzed sequences from two genomic regions on a collection of 55 CHV1 strains from France and northern Spain, two countries where multiple introductions of C. parasitica occurred. Several recombination events and variable selection pressures contributed to CHV1 evolution, agreeing with a non-clock-like diversification rate. These two mechanisms may be at the origin of CHV1 population diversity observed in western Europe. Considering the actual prevalence of CHV1 and its association with host genotypes, multiple introductions of CHV1 may have occurred in Europe, some of them directly from Asia and some of them through North America. Although some viral strains remained with low frequency in their introduction area, multiple infections might have allowed homologous recombination within parental sequences. Some of these recombinant lineages are associated with the spread of CHV1 in European regions. PMID:24944571

  7. Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus) in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Results Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Conclusion Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that < 30 horses used > 25 km2 of trails in our study area. PMID:19903355

  8. Emerging outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus in adult horses.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, N; Mapes, S; Wademan, C; White, A; Ball, R; Sapp, K; Burns, P; Ormond, C; Butterworth, K; Bartol, J; Magdesian, K G

    2013-02-22

    The purpose of this study was to describe clinical, hematological and fecal PCR results from 161 horses involved in outbreaks associated with ECoV. The outbreaks happened at four separate boarding facilities between November 2011 and April 2012 in the States of CA, TX, WI and MA. Following the molecular detection of ECoV in the feces from the initial index cases, the remaining herdmates were closely observed for the development of clinical signs. Fecal samples were collected from sick and healthy horses for the PCR detection of ECoV. All four outbreaks involved primarily adult horses. Fifty-nine horses developed clinical signs with 12-16 sick horses per outbreak. The main clinical signs reported were anorexia, lethargy and fever. Four horses from 3 different outbreaks were euthanized or died due to rapid progression of clinical signs. The cause of death could not be determined with necropsy evaluation in 2 horses, while septicemia secondary to gastrointestinal translocation was suspected in 2 horses. Blood work was available from 10 horses with clinical disease and common hematological abnormalities were leucopenia due to neutropenia and/or lymphopenia. Feces were available for ECoV testing by real-time PCR from 44 and 96 sick and healthy horses, respectively. 38/44 (86%) horses with abnormal clinical signs tested PCR positive for ECoV, while 89/96 (93%) healthy horses tested PCR negative for ECoV. The overall agreement between clinical status and PCR detection of ECoV was 91%. The study results suggest that ECoV is associated with self-limiting clinical and hematological abnormalities in adult horses. PMID:23123176

  9. Cloning and phylogenetic analyses of serine/threonine kinase class defense-related genes in a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose'

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a promising wild fruit crop in Southwest China. However, chestnut rose suffers from several important diseases such as powdery mildew and black spot. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of plant immunity related genes will strengthen the evolutionary knowledge of plant immune system and will facilitate the utilization of candidate genes in disease resistance breeding programs. Findings Serine/threonine kinase (STK) genes, encoding one of the important proteins for defense signal transduction, were cloned from 'chestnut rose'. Fifteen STK sequences were obtained by degenerate PCR. Sequence analysis showed that nine of them have continued open reading frames, and they are separated into five classes based on sequence analysis. Interestingly, one of the classes (STK V) showed less than 40% similarity to any other class, possibly representing new type genes from chestnut rose. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the new type STK V genes are single copy, while all the other genes have several copies in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of STK genes from chestnut rose and 21 plant species revealed that most chestnut rose genes show close relationship with Rosaceae homologs, while the STK V genes are rather ancient and form a unique clade distantly from plant homologs. Conclusions We cloned nine STK genes from a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose', of which a new type of STK genes was identified. The new type STK genes exist as single copies in the genome, and they are phylogenetically distant to plant homologs. The polymorphic STK genes, combined with other plant immunity genes, provide plenty of resources to be utilized to defend against pathogens attack. PMID:20637125

  10. 43 CFR 4710.7 - Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...lands within areas occupied by wild horses and burros may allow wild horses or burros to use these lands. Individuals who maintain wild free-roaming horses and burros...estimate of the number of such animals so maintained. Individuals...

  11. 43 CFR 4710.7 - Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...lands within areas occupied by wild horses and burros may allow wild horses or burros to use these lands. Individuals who maintain wild free-roaming horses and burros...estimate of the number of such animals so maintained. Individuals...

  12. 77 FR 58863 - Notice of Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board...management and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and...Nation's public lands. The Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board...Work Groups (Comprehensive Animal Welfare Program;...

  13. 78 FR 8187 - Notice of Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board...management and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and...Nation's public lands. The Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board...Work Groups (Comprehensive Animal Welfare Program;...

  14. 43 CFR 4710.7 - Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...lands within areas occupied by wild horses and burros may allow wild horses or burros to use these lands. Individuals who maintain wild free-roaming horses and burros...estimate of the number of such animals so maintained. Individuals...

  15. 77 FR 16063 - Notice of Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ...management and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and...Nation's public lands. The Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board...Updates Director's Challenge Wild Horse and Burro Strategy and...a.m. Break Comprehensive Animal Welfare Program Litigation...

  16. 43 CFR 4710.7 - Maintenance of wild horses and burros on privately controlled lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...lands within areas occupied by wild horses and burros may allow wild horses or burros to use these lands. Individuals who maintain wild free-roaming horses and burros...estimate of the number of such animals so maintained. Individuals...

  17. Gastric ulcer syndrome in exercising horses fed different types of hay

    E-print Network

    Lybbert, Travis Craig

    2009-05-15

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is highly prevalent in horses and most commonly found in racing and performance horses. This condition may negatively impact the health and athletic performance of affected horses (Vatistas et al. 1999). Proton...

  18. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  19. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

  20. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

  1. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  2. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

  3. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

  4. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  5. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  6. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  7. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  8. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  9. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  10. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

  11. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

  12. 75 FR 35078 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ...Natural Resource Management; Wild Horse...with special knowledge of equine behavior...Experience or knowledge of wild horse and burro management and the issues...Experience or knowledge of horses or...training and management). 11....

  13. Immunodiffusion test for diagnosing and monitoring pythiosis in horses.

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, L; Kaufman, L; Standard, P G

    1986-01-01

    A practical, sensitive, and specific immunodiffusion test was developed for diagnosing and monitoring pythiosis in horses. Culture filtrates, a soluble cell mass, and trypsinized Pythium sp. antigens were evaluated against prepared rabbit anti-Pythium sp. serum and pythiosis horse case sera. The culture filtrate antigens demonstrated the greatest capacity for detecting precipitins and the greatest stability during storage. In contrast, the trypsinized antigens had the weakest capability for detecting multiple precipitins and the poorest stability. The 13 sera from horses with proven active pythiosis were positive in immunodiffusion tests with the culture filtrate antigens. Each serum contained from three to six precipitins. Treated horses lost precipitins, and some became antibody negative. No false-positive reactions were noted in tests with sera from normal horses and humans or with sera from a variety of heterologous horse and human infections. Images PMID:3086368

  14. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cańón, Javier; Cortés, Oscar

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino. PMID:23271940

  15. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cańón, Javier; Cortés, Óscar

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino. PMID:23271940

  16. Horses naturally infected by Trypanosoma vivax in southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandro S. Da Silva; Herakles A. Garcia Perez; Márcio M. Costa; Raqueli T. França; Diego De Gasperi; Régis A. Zanette; Joăo A. Amado; Sonia T. A. Lopes; Marta M. G. Teixeira; Silvia G. Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we reported the first outbreak of the infection by Trypanosoma vivax in horses in southern Brazil, a non-endemic region where bovines have only recently been found infected by this trypanosome\\u000a species. We evaluated 12 horses from a farm in southern Brazil, where four horses displayed pale mucous membranes, fever,\\u000a weight loss, and swelling of abdomen, prepuce, or

  17. Experimental inoculation of equine coronavirus into Japanese draft horses.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Manabu; Oue, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yoshinori; Kanno, Toru; Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Ueno, Takanori; Katayama, Yoshinari; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrheic fecal sample to confirm infection after inoculation and to investigate the clinical course and virus shedding patterns of ECoV. Virus neutralization tests showed that all three horses became infected with ECoV. Two of the three horses developed clinical signs similar to those observed during ECoV outbreaks, including fever, anorexia, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. All horses excreted a large amount of virus into their feces for more than 9 days after inoculation regardless of the presence or absence of clinical signs, which suggests that feces are an important source of ECoV infection. ECoV was also detected in nasal swabs from all horses, suggesting that respiratory transmission of ECoV may occur. Both symptomatic horses developed viremia, while the asymptomatic horse did not. White blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentrations changed relative to the clinical condition of the inoculated horses; these may be useful markers for monitoring the clinical status of horses infected with ECoV. This is the first report of induction of clinical signs of ECoV infection in horses by experimental inoculation. These clinical and virological findings should aid further investigation of the pathogenesis of ECoV. PMID:25139547

  18. Aortic-Iliac Thrombosis in a Horse

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    A horse with a history of chronic lameness was presented with signs of abdominal pain. A diagnosis of intestinal obstruction was initially made and treatment was ineffective. Further examination revealed an aortic obstruction in the area of the bifurcation of the iliac vessels. Postmortem results supported the clinical findings. The clinical signs of aortic-iliac thrombosis are consistent with the lameness pattern and abdominal distress. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422112

  19. Laryngeal hemiplegia in draft horses. A review of 27 cases.

    PubMed

    Bohanon, T C; Beard, W L; Robertson, J T

    1990-01-01

    Case records of 27 draft horses with laryngeal hemiplegia were reviewed. Twenty-one horses were treated by ventriculectomy with or without prosthetic laryngoplasty, and 17 owners were contacted to determine the results. Fifteen horses improved after surgery and were able to perform to the owners' expectations. Performance improved significantly and hospitalization was shorter after ventriculectomy alone. Results of this study indicate that the clinical signs of exercise intolerance and excessive inspiratory noise associated with left laryngeal hemiplegia in draft horses can be treated successfully by ventriculectomy without prosthetic laryngoplasty. PMID:2264284

  20. Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

  1. Impaired instrumental choice in crib-biting horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew; Redhead, Edward S; Goodwin, Deborah; McBride, Sebastian D

    2008-08-01

    Horses displaying an oral stereotypy were tested on an instrumental choice paradigm to examine differences in learning from non-stereotypic counterparts. Stereotypic horses are known to have dysfunction of the dorsomedial striatum, and lesion studies have shown that this region may mediate response-outcome learning. The paradigm was specifically applied in order to examine learning that requires maintenance of response-outcome judgements. The non-stereotypic horses learned, over three sessions, to choose a more immediate reinforcer, whereas the stereotypic horses failed to do so. This suggests an initial behavioural correlate for dorsomedial striatum dysregulation in the stereotypy phenotype. PMID:18430476

  2. Summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis) poisoning in three horses.

    PubMed

    Woods, L W; Filigenzi, M S; Booth, M C; Rodger, L D; Arnold, J S; Puschner, B

    2004-05-01

    Three horses died as a result of eating grass hay containing summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis L.), a plant containing cardenolides similar to oleander and foxglove. A 9-year-old thoroughbred gelding, a 20-year-old appaloosa gelding, and a 5-year-old quarter horse gelding initially presented with signs of colic 24-48 hours after first exposure to the hay. Gastrointestinal gaseous distension was the primary finding on clinical examination of all three horses. Two horses became moribund and were euthanatized 1 day after first showing clinical signs, and the third horse was euthanatized after 4 days of medical therapy. Endocardial hemorrhage and gaseous distension of the gastrointestinal tract were the only necropsy findings in the first two horses. On microscopic examination, both horses had scattered foci of mild, acute myocardial necrosis and neutrophilic inflammation associated with endocardial and epicardial hemorrhage. The third horse that survived for 4 days had multifocal to coalescing, irregular foci of acute, subacute, and chronic myocardial degeneration and necrosis. A. aestivalis (pheasant's eye, summer adonis) was identified in the hay. Strophanthidin, the aglycone of several cardenolides present in Adonis spp., was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry in gastrointestinal contents from all three horses. Although Adonis spp. contain cardiac glycosides, cardiac lesions have not previously been described in livestock associated with consumption of adonis, and this is the first report of adonis toxicosis in North America. PMID:15133169

  3. Pharmacokinetics of valacyclovir in the adult horse.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, L K; Bentz, B G; Bourne, D W A; Erkert, R S

    2008-08-01

    Recent outbreaks of equine herpes virus type-1 infections have stimulated renewed interest in the use of effective antiherpetic drugs in horses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of valacyclovir (VCV), the prodrug of acyclovir (ACV), in horses. Six adult horses were used in a randomized cross-over design. Treatments consisted of 10 mg/kg ACV infused intravenously, 5 g (7.7-11.7 mg/kg) VCV delivered intragastrically (IG) and 15 g (22.7-34.1 mg/kg) VCV administered IG. Serum samples were obtained at predetermined times for acyclovir assay using high-performance liquid chromatography. Following the administration of 5 g VCV, the mean observed maximum serum ACV concentration (C(max)) was 1.45 +/- 0.38 (SD) microg/mL, at 0.74 +/- 0.43 h. At a dose of 15 g VCV, the mean C(max) was 5.26 +/- 2.82 microg/mL, at 1 +/- 0.27 h. The mean bioavailability of ACV from oral VCV was 60 +/- 12% after 5 g of VCV and 48 +/- 12% after 15 g VCV, and did not differ significantly between dose rates (P > 0.05). Superposition suggested that a loading dose of 27 mg/kg VCV every 8 h for 2 days, followed by a maintenance dose of 18 mg/kg every 12 h, will maintain effective serum ACV concentrations. PMID:18638291

  4. Trojan Horse particle invariance in fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleril, C.; Bertulani, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Blokhintsev, L.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Spartá, R.; Tumino, A.

    2015-01-01

    Trojan Horse method plays an important part for the measurement of several charged particle induced reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest. In order to better understand its cornerstones and the related applications to different astrophysical scenarios several tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance for the binary reactions d(d,p)t, 6,7Li(p,?)3,4He was therefore tested using the appropriate quasi free break- ups, respectively. In the first cases results from 6Li and 3He break up were used, while for the lithium fusion reactions break-ups of 2H and 3He were compared. The astrophysical S(E)-factors for the different processes were then extracted in the framework of the PlaneWave Approximation applied to the different break-up schemes. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement between data coming from different break-up schemes confirms the applicability of the plane wave approximation and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nucleus also for the present cases. Moreover the astrophysical implications of the results will also be discussed in details.

  5. Stimulus discrimination by horses under scotopic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

    2009-09-01

    Scotopic vision in horses (Equus caballus) was investigated using behavioral measurements for the first time. Four horses were tested for the ability to make simple visual discriminations of geometric figures (circles and triangles) under various brightness levels within an enclosed building. Measurements of brightness ranging from 10.37 to 24.12 magnitudes per square arcsecond (mag/arcsec(2); in candelas per square meter-7.70 to 2.43E-05cd/m(2)) were taken using a Sky Quality Meter. These values approximated outdoor conditions ranging from twilight in open country to a dark moonless night in dense forest. The horses were able to solve the discrimination problems in all brightness settings up to 23.77mag/arcsec(2) (3.35E-05cd/m(2)). Moreover, they easily navigated their way around obstacles located within the testing area in extremely dim light (>23.50mag/arcsec(2); 4.30E-05cd/m(2)), which were in conditions too dark for the human experimenters to see. These findings support physiological data that reveal a rod-dominated visual system as well as observations of equine activity at night. PMID:19389464

  6. Differential outcome effect in the horse.

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Y; Nakajima, S; Imada, H

    2000-01-01

    Three horses were trained with a discrimination task in which the color (blue or yellow) of a center panel signaled the correct (left or right) response (lever press). Reinforcing outcomes for the two correct color-position combinations (blue-left and yellow-right) were varied across phases. Discrimination performance was better when the combinations were differentially reinforced by two types of food (chopped carrot pieces and a solid food pellet) than when the combinations were randomly reinforced by these outcomes or when there was a common reinforcer for each of the correct combinations. However, the discrimination performance established by the differential outcome procedure was still 80% to 90% correct, and an analysis of two-trial sequences revealed that the stimulus color of the preceding trial interfered with discrimination performance on a given trial. Our demonstration of the differential outcome effect in the horse and its further analysis might contribute to more efficient control of equine behavior in the laboratory as well as in horse sports. PMID:11029025

  7. Australian bat lyssavirus infection in two horses.

    PubMed

    Shinwari, Mustaghfira Wafa; Annand, Edward J; Driver, Luke; Warrilow, David; Harrower, Bruce; Allcock, Richard J N; Pukallus, Dennis; Harper, Jennifer; Bingham, John; Kung, Nina; Diallo, Ibrahim S

    2014-10-10

    In May 2013, the first cases of Australian bat lyssavirus infections in domestic animals were identified in Australia. Two horses (filly-H1 and gelding-H2) were infected with the Yellow-bellied sheathtail bat (YBST) variant of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). The horses presented with neurological signs, pyrexia and progressing ataxia. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Negri bodies) were detected in some Purkinje neurons in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections from the brain of one of the two infected horses (H2) by histological examination. A morphological diagnosis of sub-acute moderate non-suppurative, predominantly angiocentric, meningo-encephalomyelitis of viral aetiology was made. The presumptive diagnosis of ABLV infection was confirmed by the positive testing of the affected brain tissue from (H2) in a range of laboratory tests including fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and real-time PCR targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Retrospective testing of the oral swab from (H1) in the real-time PCR also returned a positive result. The FAT and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed an abundance of ABLV antigen throughout the examined brain sections. ABLV was isolated from the brain (H2) and oral swab/saliva (H1) in the neuroblastoma cell line (MNA). Alignment of the genome sequence revealed a 97.7% identity with the YBST ABLV strain. PMID:25195190

  8. Differential accumulation of Phytophthora cambivora cox II gene transcripts in infected chestnut tissue.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Andrea; Tomassini, Alessia; Bruni, Natalia; Vettraino, Anna M

    2014-04-01

    This study provides a novel qRT-PCR protocol for specific detection and proof of viability of Phytophthora in environmental samples based on differential accumulation of cox II transcripts. Chemical and physical treatments were tested for their ability to induce in vitro the accumulation of cytochrome oxidase genes encoding subunits II (cox II) transcripts in Phytophthora cambivora. Glucose 170 mM, KNO3 0.25 mM and K3 PO3 0.5 and 0.8 mM induced the transcription of cox II in P. cambivora living mycelium while no transcription was observed in mycelium previously killed with 0.5% (p/v) RidomilGold(®) R WG. Living chestnut tissue was artificially infected with P. cambivora and treated with inducers. In vivo experiments confirmed the ability of glucose to induce the accumulation of P. cambivora cox II transcripts. Based on these results, pretreatment of environmental samples with glucose prior to nucleic acid extraction increased the accumulation of specific cox II transcripts, and therefore the sensitivity of qRT-PCR assay for detection of P. cambivora in living tissues. Furthermore, differential accumulation of transcripts between treated and untreated samples represents an unequivocal proof of inoculum viability. PMID:24527950

  9. Characterization and antimicrobial properties of water chestnut starch-chitosan edible films.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun; Yuan, Yilin; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei; Yu, Huaning

    2013-10-01

    The characterization and antimicrobial properties of water chestnut starch-chitosan (WSC) films containing Cornus officinalis fruit extract (COE 1% w/w), glycerol monolaurate (GML 1% w/w), nisin (10,000 IU/g), pine needle essential oil (PNEO 0.35% v/v), and their combinations were evaluated. Incorporation of COE decreased pH value of the film-forming solution, the moisture content and the water absorption expansion ability (WAEA). GML-incorporated film had lower WAEA, tensile strength, elongation and puncture strength. However, films with nisin displayed good mechanical properties. All the treated films were less transparent and higher in water vapour permeability values. For film microstructure, the presence of PNEO caused discontinuities with lipid droplets or holes embedded in a continuous network and the incorporation of GML led to abaisse-like structures. The COE, GML, nisin, PNEO and their combinations incorporated in the WSC films are effective in inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes at different levels. The results showed that WSC films containing COE and GML, GML and nisin, COE and nisin were able to reduce the number of E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. This research has potential applications to the extension of the shelf life of food products. PMID:23831899

  10. Corneal cross-linking in 9 horses with ulcerative keratitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Corneal ulcers are one of the most common eye problems in the horse and can cause varying degrees of visual impairment. Secondary infection and protease activity causing melting of the corneal stroma are always concerns in patients with corneal ulcers. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), induced by illumination of the corneal stroma with ultraviolet light (UVA) after instillation of riboflavin (vitamin B2) eye drops, introduces crosslinks which stabilize melting corneas, and has been used to successfully treat infectious ulcerative keratitis in human patients. Therefore we decided to study if CXL can be performed in sedated, standing horses with ulcerative keratitis with or without stromal melting. Results Nine horses, aged 1 month to 16 years (median 5 years) were treated with a combination of CXL and medical therapy. Two horses were diagnosed with mycotic, 5 with bacterial and 2 with aseptic ulcerative keratitis. A modified Dresden-protocol for CXL could readily be performed in all 9 horses after sedation. Stromal melting, diagnosed in 4 horses, stopped within 24 h. Eight of nine eyes became fluorescein negative in 13.5 days (median time; range 4–26 days) days after CXL. One horse developed a bacterial conjunctivitis the day after CXL, which was successfully treated with topical antibiotics. One horse with fungal ulcerative keratitis and severe uveitis was enucleated 4 days after treatment due to panophthalmitis. Conclusions CXL can be performed in standing, sedated horses. We did not observe any deleterious effects attributed to riboflavin or UVA irradiation per se during the follow-up, neither in horses with infectious nor aseptic ulcerative keratitis. These data support that CXL can be performed in the standing horse, but further studies are required to compare CXL to conventional medical treatment in equine keratitis and to optimize the CXL protocol in this species. PMID:23803176

  11. HorsesHorses Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette IN, 47907

    E-print Network

    $7 per square foot of floor space as the absolute minimum cost to build an enclosed barn for horses have fewer problems with respiratory diseases and more normal bone development when they are housed percent of their body weight per day. As an animal that evolved as a nibbler and grazer, it is best

  12. West Nile virus Epidemic in Horses, Tuscany Region, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gian Luca Autorino; Antonio Battisti; Vincent Deubel; Giancarlo Ferrari; Riccardo Forletta; Armando Giovannini; Rossella Lelli; Severine Murri; Maria Teresa Scicluna

    During the late summer of 1998, veterinary authorities in Tuscany, Italy, received reports of cases of neuro- logic disease among horses residing in a large wetland area located in the provinces of Florence and Pis- toia. West Nile virus was isolated from two of the six horses that died or were euthanized. A retrospective epidemiologic study identified 14 clinical neurologic

  13. 2004 EASTERN NATIONAL 4-H HORSE BOWL ONE ON ONE

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    of the protective boots that fit over the coronet band and bulbs of the heel? A. Bell boots S. IDET, p. 26 2. Q including the coronary band S. AYHCLM B101 ­ 2L 18. Q. The domestic horse belongs to which species? A. Equus and is characterized by movements of the horse's flanks in synchrony with each heart beat? A: Thumps (Diaphragmatic

  14. Rapid PCR detection of Salmonella in horse faecal samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Amavisit; G. F Browning; D Lightfoot; S Church; G. A Anderson; K. G Whithear; P. F Markham

    2001-01-01

    A rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting Salmonella in faeces of horses and assessed on samples from horses admitted to a veterinary hospital. Direct detection was achieved by amplification of part of ompC after extraction of DNA from faeces using a spin column method to reduce the amount of inhibitory substances in samples. An internal positive

  15. Emergency evacuation of horses -A Madison County, Kentucky survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R D Linnabary; New John C. Jr; B M Vogt; C Griffiths-Davies; L Williams

    1993-01-01

    Information was collected by interview from 26 farms (about 10% of the estimated number of premises with horses) in 1987. The information was then analysed. The survey points out that emergency plans should address the unique needs of horse owners. Although most respondents indicated they would leave an evacuation zone, some, if given the time, would either evacuate some animals

  16. Horse Soleus Muscle: Postural Sensor or Vestigial Structure?

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Ron

    Horse Soleus Muscle: Postural Sensor or Vestigial Structure? RON A. MEYERS1 AND JOHN W. HERMANSON2, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York ABSTRACT The soleus muscle of horses-oxidative fibers, we hypothesized that the soleus muscle could have a significant role in proprio- ceptive function

  17. A changing pattern of injuries to horse riders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P S Moss; A Wan; M R Whitlock

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the demographics and nature of injuries occurring on or around horses, to examine the nature of protective clothing in relation to these injuries, and to compare our data with previously published work in this area.Methods: Patients were identified using the term “sports injury–horse riding” from the departmental database for one calendar year from February 2000. Data were

  18. Welfare issues of horses: an overview and practical recommendations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michela Minero; Elisabetta Canali

    2010-01-01

    The largest proportion of the world's horses are still used for work in agriculture and traction, however in the western countries they are increasingly kept for recreational and social purposes, breeding, sport and com - petition. It is often assumed that horses enjoys better farming conditions than other species, yet they have specific needs which should be fulfilled in order

  19. Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    As stated in the Wild Horse Fertility Control Field Trial Plan, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has an immediate need for a safe, effective contraceptive agent to assist in the management of the large number of wild horses on western rangelands. The BLM and the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) are testing the immunecontraceptive agent Porcine Zonae Pellucida (PZP) in field trials with three free-roaming herds of western wild horses. Extensive research has already been conducted on the safety, efficacy, and duration of the PZP applications in both domestic and feral horses on eastern barrier islands and in some select trials with wild horses in Nevada managed by the BLM. However, significant questions remain concerning the effects of PZP application at the population level in the wild, as well as effects at the individual level on behavior, social structure, and harem dynamics of free-ranging animals. These questions are best answered with field trials on wild horse herds under a tight research protocol. The ultimate goal is to provide the BLM with the protocols and information necessary to being using fertility control to regulate population growth rates in wild horse herds on a broader scale. Fertility control is intended to assist the conventional capture, removal, and adoption process as a means of controlling excess numbers of wild horses and burros, and to greatly reduce the adoption costs and numbers of animals handled. Fertility control is not intended to totally replace the removal and adoption processa?|

  20. Equine gastric ulcer syndrome in adult horses: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RJW Bell; TD Mogg

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, gastric ulceration has been recognised as a common, possibly performance-limiting disease of adult horses. Here, we aim to provide the reader with a useful review of recent literature covering all aspects of equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) in adult horses. The anatomy and physiology of the stomach, with particular reference to secretion of acid and mu- cosal

  1. Adaptation to a fat-supplemented diet by cutting horses

    E-print Network

    Julen, Tiffany Rochele

    1994-01-01

    , there was an increase (Pglycogen storage from d 0 to d 28, however, values on a given d were not different from values when the horses were fed C. There was no increase in muscle glycogen over time when horses were fed C. On d 7, 14 and 28, muscle...

  2. Thoroughbred Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database: HSDB

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon-Ho; Lee, Taeheon; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Cho, Byung-Wook; Shin, Dong-Hyun; Do, Kyoung-Tag; Sung, Samsun; Kwak, Woori; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Park, Kyung-Do

    2014-01-01

    Genetics is important for breeding and selection of horses but there is a lack of well-established horse-related browsers or databases. In order to better understand horses, more variants and other integrated information are needed. Thus, we construct a horse genomic variants database including expression and other information. Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database (HSDB) (http://snugenome2.snu.ac.kr/HSDB) provides the number of unexplored genomic variants still remaining to be identified in the horse genome including rare variants by using population genome sequences of eighteen horses and RNA-seq of four horses. The identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were confirmed by comparing them with SNP chip data and variants of RNA-seq, which showed a concordance level of 99.02% and 96.6%, respectively. Moreover, the database provides the genomic variants with their corresponding transcriptional profiles from the same individuals to help understand the functional aspects of these variants. The database will contribute to genetic improvement and breeding strategies of Thoroughbreds. PMID:25178365

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging features of sinonasal disorders in horses.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Caroline; Brühschwein, Andreas; Lang, Johann; Konar, Martin; Wilke, Markus; Brehm, Walter; Kircher, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Diseases of paranasal sinuses and nasal passages in horses can be a diagnostic challenge because of the complex anatomy of the head and limitations of many diagnostic modalities. Our hypothesis was that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging would provide excellent anatomical detail and soft tissue resolution, and would be accurate in the diagnosis of diseases of the paranasal sinuses and nasal passages in horses. Fourteen horses were imaged. Inclusion criteria were lesions located to the sinuses or nasal passages that underwent MR imaging and subsequent surgical intervention and/or histopathologic examination. A low field, 0.3 tesla open magnet was used. Sequences in the standard protocol were fast spin echo T2 sagittal and transverse, spin echo T1 transverse, short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) dorsal, gradient echo 3D T1 MPR dorsal (plain and contrast enhanced), spin echo T1 fatsat (contrast enhanced). Mean scan time to complete the examination was 53 min (range 39-99 min). Lesions identified were primary or secondary sinusitis (six horses), paranasal sinus cyst (four horses), progressive ethmoid hematoma (two horses), and neoplasia (two horses). The most useful sequences were fast spin echo T2 transverse and sagittal, STIR dorsal and FE3D MPR (survey and contrast enhanced). Fluid accumulation, mucosal thickening, presence of encapsulated contents, bone deformation, and thickening were common findings observed in MR imaging. In selected horses, magnetic resonance imaging is a useful tool in diagnosing lesions of the paranasal sinuses and nasal passages. PMID:22994147

  4. Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a stable of eight horses in Northern Iceland, six horses presented with clinical signs, such as ataxia and reduced appetite, leading to euthanasia of one severely affected horse. Serological investigations revealed no evidence of active equine herpes virus type 1 infection, a common source of central nervous system disease in horses, nor equine arteritis virus and West Nile virus. Another neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus, was therefore included in the differential diagnosis list. Findings Serological investigations revealed antibodies against Borna disease virus in four of five horses with neurological signs in the affected stable. One horse without clinical signs was seronegative. Four clinically healthy horses in the stable that arrived and were sampled one year after the outbreak were found seronegative, whereas one of four investigated healthy horses in an unaffected stable was seropositive. Conclusions This report contains the first evidence of antibodies to Borna disease virus in Iceland. Whether Borna disease virus was the cause of the neurological signs could however not be confirmed by pathology or molecular detection of the virus. As Iceland has very restricted legislation regarding animal imports, the questions of how this virus has entered the country and to what extent markers of Bornavirus infection can be found in humans and animals in Iceland remain to be answered. PMID:24180621

  5. Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race

    PubMed Central

    Trigo, Pablo; Muńoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities. PMID:22547844

  6. Adverse effects of zilpaterol administration in horses: three cases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three healthy horses were fed 0.17 mg/kg body weight of the beta-adrenergic agonist zilpaterol to determine zilpaterol elimination kinetics. Shortly after treatment, each horse developed skeletal muscle tremors, tachycardia, and serological abnormalities lasting several days. A 75% to 87.5% reduced ...

  7. Moxidectin: a review of chemistry, pharmacokinetics and use in horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rami Cobb; Albert Boeckh

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the current knowledge of the use of moxidectin (MOX) in horses, including its mode of action, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, efficacy, safety and resistance profile. Moxidectin is a second generation macrocyclic lactone (ML) with potent endectocide activity. It is used for parasite control in horses in an oral gel formulation. The principal mode of action of MOX

  8. The toxicity of Datura stramonium (thorn apple) to horses.

    PubMed

    Williams, S; Scott, P

    1984-04-01

    Meal contaminated by Datura stramonium seeds at the rate of 0.5% by weight was fed to two horses. Both horses showed clinical signs of depression, anorexia, weight loss, rapid heart and respiration rates, mydriasis, polyuria, polydipsia and diarrhoea. Both recovered with treatment. Maize screenings contaminated by the seeds had been used in the manufacture of the meal. PMID:16031044

  9. Job Title: Ranch Hand Name: Howard Owens' Cutting Horses

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    Job Title: Ranch Hand Name: Howard Owens' Cutting Horses Openings: 1 Time: 2-3 hours a day, 7 days a week Salary: $200/month Start Date: Immediately Supervisor: Howard Owens Description: Job entails daily cleaning of horse stalls, keeping grass mowed, and odd jobs around the ranch. Approximately 2 to 3 hours

  10. Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, John R.

    A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski's…

  11. Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Franklin; Hailu Kinde; Michele T. Jay; Laura D. Kramer; Emily-Gene N. Green; Robert E. Chiles; Eileen Ostlund; Stan Husted; Jonathan Smith; Michael D. Parker

    2002-01-01

    A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for pre- vention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed. A vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was later suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neuro-

  12. 17. VIEW SHOWING CAPTION AT UPPER RIGHT THAT READS, 'HORSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW SHOWING CAPTION AT UPPER RIGHT THAT READS, 'HORSE MESA DAM -5/15/27FLOATING 2-YD. ELECTRICALLY-OPERATED CLAM-SHELL DERRICK UNLOADING GRAVEL SCOWS' May 15, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. Nontargeted GC-MS approach for volatile profile of toasting in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, and ash wood.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muńoz, Angel María

    2014-05-01

    By using a nontargeted GC-MS approach, 153 individual volatile compounds were found in extracts from untoasted, light toasted and medium-toasted cherry, chestnut, false acacia, as well as European and American ash wood, used in cooperage for aging wines, spirits and other beverages. In all wood types, the toasting provoked a progressive increase in carbohydrate derivatives, lactones and lignin constituents, along with a variety of other components, thus increasing the quantitative differences among species with the toasting intensity. The qualitative differences in the volatile profiles allow for identifying woods from cherry (being p-anisylalcohol, p-anisylaldehyde, p-anisylacetone, methyl benzoate and benzyl salicylate detected only in this wood), chestnut (cis and trans whisky lactone) and false acacia (resorcinol, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol, 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde, 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone, 2,4-dihydroxypropiophenone and 2,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone), but not those from ash, because of the fact that all compounds present in this wood are detected in at least one other. However, the quantitative differences can be clearly used to identify toasted ash wood, with tyrosol being most prominent, but 2-furanmethanol, 3- and 4-ethylcyclotene, ?-methylcrotonolactone, solerone, catechol, 3-methylcatechol and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde as well. Regarding oak wood, its qualitative volatile profile could be enough to distinguish it from cherry and acacia woods, and the quantitative differences from chestnut (vanillyl ethyl ether, isoacetovanillone, butirovanillone, 1-(5-methyl-2-furyl)-2-propanone and 4-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-(2H)-pyran-2-one) and ash toasted woods. PMID:24809897

  14. A controlled trial on the effect of feeding dietary chestnut extract and glycerol monolaurate on liver function in newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Wieland, M; Weber, B K; Hafner-Marx, A; Sauter-Louis, C; Bauer, J; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Metzner, M

    2015-02-01

    Beginning in the fall of 2010, an increasing and alarming number of cases of calves suffering from liver dystrophy were reported in the south of Germany. An epidemiological investigation was carried out by the authors between November 2010 and July 2011, leading to the implication of a commercial dietary supplement as the potential cause for this outbreak. The components of this product were first tested in a cell culture model and two of them (dietary chestnut extract and glycerol monolaurate) showed a cytotoxic effect. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding of both components alone or in combination on liver function in newborn calves on a commercial dairy farm. Ten calves were enrolled in each of the three treatment groups and the control group (group O) following a blocked design. Treatment consisted of supplementation with chestnut extract at 0.02% of birth body mass (BM) (group C), supplementation with glycerol monolaurate at 0.006% of BM (group G) or a combined treatment (group CG) for five consecutive days. The effect of treatments on liver function was evaluated clinically and by measurement of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities as well as the determination of the concentrations of glucose, L-lactate and total bilirubin in serum. There was a significant increase in GLDH and AST activities and a significant decrease in glucose concentration in treatment groups C and CG compared with the control group (p ? 0.035), whereas no difference was shown for group G. Survival was significantly decreased in groups C (p = 0.029) and CG (p = 0.001) compared with both group G and the control group. These results suggest that dietary chestnut extract in an amount of 0.02% of BM alone or in combination has a toxic effect on liver function in newborn calves. PMID:24605953

  15. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL CONDITIONS FOR THE ADSORPTION OF CADMIUM IONS AND PHENOL ON CHESTNUT (CASTANEA SATIVA) SHELL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. VÁZQUEZ; M. S. FREIRE; G. ANTORRENA

    Adsorption of cadmium ions and phenol from aqueous solutions on chestnut (Castanea sativa) shell was studied. An incomplete 33 factorial design was applied to investigate the influence of the initial cadmium ions (20-60-100 mg L-1) or phenol concentration (0.01-0.255- 0.5 g L-1), temperature (10-25-40şC for cadmium and 10-35-60şC for phenol) and pH (5.5-7.0- 8.5 for Cd2+ ions and 2.5-6.0-9.5 for

  16. Sugars Profiles of Different Chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill.) and Almond ( Prunus dulcis ) Cultivars by HPLC-RI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joăo C. M. Barreira; José Alberto Pereira; M. Beatriz P. P. Oliveira; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),\\u000a by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples.\\u000a The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH2 column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile\\/water (70:30, v\\/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml\\/min. All

  17. Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii exposure among horses in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Seo, Min-Goo; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi; Lee, Won-Ja

    2014-12-01

    The present study investigated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibodies by ELISA in horses reared in Korea. Serum samples were collected from 2009 through 2013 from 816 horses reared in Korea. Analysis was performed using a commercial toxoplasmosis ELISA kit to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies. Overall, 24 out of 816 horses (2.9%) were seropositive for T. gondii. The result was analyzed by age, gender, breed and region. Significant differences were observed according to breed and region (P<0.05). This is the first nationwide serological investigation of T. gondii in horses reared in Korea. The study results reveal that T. gondii occurs nationwide in Korean horses. PMID:25649954

  18. Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii Exposure among Horses in Korea

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Seung-Hun; LEE, Sang-Eun; SEO, Min-Goo; GOO, Youn-Kyoung; CHO, Kwang-Hyun; CHO, Gil-Jae; KWON, Oh-Deog; KWAK, Dongmi; LEE, Won-Ja

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibodies by ELISA in horses reared in Korea. Serum samples were collected from 2009 through 2013 from 816 horses reared in Korea. Analysis was performed using a commercial toxoplasmosis ELISA kit to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies. Overall, 24 out of 816 horses (2.9%) were seropositive for T. gondii. The result was analyzed by age, gender, breed and region. Significant differences were observed according to breed and region (P<0.05). This is the first nationwide serological investigation of T. gondii in horses reared in Korea. The study results reveal that T. gondii occurs nationwide in Korean horses. PMID:25649954

  19. Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area

    SciTech Connect

    Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

  20. Effect of chestnut tannin on fermentation quality, proteolysis, and protein rumen degradability of alfalfa silage.

    PubMed

    Tabacco, E; Borreani, G; Crovetto, G M; Galassi, G; Colombo, D; Cavallarin, L

    2006-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted on alfalfa to investigate the effects of the addition of commercial chestnut hydrolyzable tannin at ensiling on 1) silage fermentation quality in lab-scale silos and protein degradation in the rumen, and 2) silage fermentation quality and proteolysis in bale silages. Wilted alfalfa was prepared with 4 tannin levels (0, 2, 4, and 6% on a dry matter (DM) basis; T0, T1, T2, T3, respectively) and ensiled in lab-scale silos. Silages (33% DM) were analyzed for fermentation quality, protein rumen degradability in situ, and organic matter digestibility in vitro through gas production after 120 d of conservation. Wilted alfalfa containing 0 and 4% tannin (T0 and T2) was harvested at 40% DM (wilting level I) and 53% DM (wilting level II) for bale (600 mm diameter) silage. Silages were analyzed for fermentation quality after 78 d of conservation. All the silages were well fermented with no butyric acid. Lab-scale silages showed reductions in ammonia, nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) and DM losses in T2 and T3 treatments, while the fermentation acid profiles were unaffected. In experiment 1, the untreated silage (T0) had the highest protein degradability after being incubated in the rumen. The addition of tannin reduced crude protein ruminal disappearance in a dose-dependent manner. However, the tannin reduced the organic matter digestibility by 5.1% for all of the tannin addition levels. The tannin positively affected the silage quality in the round bale silages, in particular reducing ammonia and NPN in the lowest wilting level. In both experiments, T2 treatment reduced proteolysis without any influence of DM on the binding reaction and reduced the NPN by 15% in comparison to the control. PMID:17106105

  1. Bit-related lesions in Icelandic competition horses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral lesions related to the use of the bit and bridle are reported to be common findings in horses worldwide and represent an important animal welfare issue. In order to provide an overview of bit-related lesions in Icelandic competition horses, a field examination of the rostral part of the oral cavity was performed in 424 competition horses coming to the two major national horse events in Iceland in 2012. Records from repeated examination of 77 horses prior to the finals were used to assess potential risk factors. Results Mild lesions were recorded in 152 horses (36%) prior to the preliminary rounds. They were most often located in the commissures of the lips and the adjacent buccal mucosa (n?=?111). Severe lesions were found in 32 (8%) horses. For 77 horses examined prior to the finals, the frequency of findings in the area of the mandibular interdental space (bars of the mandible) had increased from 8% to 31% (P?horses. The type of bits used influenced both the location and the severity of the lesions. The use of curb bits with a port was found to be a decisive risk factor for lesions on the bars of the mandible, most of which were regarded as severe. The results also raised questions about the head and neck carriage demanded for the competition horses. PMID:25116656

  2. Comparison of Sarcocystis neurona isolates derived from horse neural tissue.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, L S; Schott, H C; Murphy, A J; Rossano, M G; Tanhauser, S M; Patterson, J S; Nelson, K; Ewart, S L; Marteniuk, J V; Bowman, D D; Kaneene, J B

    2001-02-26

    Sarcocystis neurona is a protozoan parasite that can cause neurological deficits in infected horses. The route of transmission is by fecal-oral transfer of sporocysts from opossums. However, the species identity and the lifecycle are not completely known. In this study, Sarcocystis merozoites from eight isolates obtained from Michigan horses were compared to S. neurona from a California horse (UCD1), Sarcocystis from a grackle (Cornell), and five Sarcocystis isolates from feral opossums from Michigan. Comparisons were made using several techniques. SDS-PAGE analysis with silver staining showed that Sarcocystis spp. from the eight horses appeared the same, but different from the grackle isolate. One Michigan horse isolate (MIH6) had two bands at 72 and 25kDa that were more prominent than the UCD1 isolate and other Michigan horse isolates. Western blot analysis showed that merozoites of eight of eight equine-derived isolates, and the UCD1 S. neurona isolate had similar bands when developed with serum or CSF of an infected horse. Major bands were seen at 60, 44, 30, and 16kDa. In the grackle (Cornell) isolate, bands were seen at 60, 44, 29, and 16kDa. DNA from merozoites of each of the eight equine-derived isolates and the grackle-derived isolate produced a 334bp PCR product (Tanhauser et al., 1999). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of these horse isolates showed banding patterns characteristic for S. neurona. The grackle (Cornell) isolate had an RFLP banding pattern characteristic of other S. falcatula species. Finally, electron microscopy examining multiple merozoites of each of these eight horse isolates showed similar morphology, which differed from the grackle (Cornell) isolate. We conclude that the eight Michigan horse isolates are S. neurona species and the grackle isolate is an S. falcatula species. PMID:11223197

  3. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    PubMed

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals. PMID:25320481

  4. Habitat Suitability Model for Bighorn Sheep and Wild Horses in Bighorn Canyon and the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Lee

    winters, predation, and other stochastic events cause stress in wild animals, larger goals for Ne (e.g. Ne1 Habitat Suitability Model for Bighorn Sheep and Wild Horses in Bighorn Canyon and the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range October 6, 2003 Gary Wockner1 , Francis Singer2 , Kate Schoenecker2 1 Natural

  5. The force and contact stress on the navicular bone during trot locomotion in sound horses and horses with navicular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. WILSON; M. P. McGUIGAN; L. FOURACRE; L. MacMAHON

    2010-01-01

    Summary Mechanical overload due to poor conformation or shoeing has been suggested to contribute to the development of navicular disease. While studies have determined the compressive force exerted on the navicular bone in normal horses, this has not been reported for horses with navicular disease. Also, the force has not been converted to stress by correction for contact area. In

  6. Cutaneous pythiosis in a nontravelled California horse.

    PubMed

    White, Stephen D; Ghoddusi, Majid; Grooters, Amy M; Jones, Kathryn

    2008-12-01

    An 18-year-old Arabian mare was examined with a large mass on the left hind pastern and fetlock. The mare was located in the Central Valley of northern California, and had never been out of the state. Routine histopathological processing and examination of biopsy samples from the mass showed several hyphal organisms that were delineated with a silver stain. Using immunohistochemistry the organism was diagnosed as Pythium insidiosum. The owner declined debulking surgery, and despite treatment with an immunotherapeutic vaccine, the horse's condition deteriorated leading to euthanasia. PMID:18699814

  7. A Trojan Horse for Parkinson's Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Youren Tong (Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital REV)

    2010-04-06

    Pathogenic mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are common genetic causes of late-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). Initial studies indicated that the intrinsic kinase activity of LRRK2 is associated with LRRK2-mediated PD pathogenesis. However, LRRK2 kinase activity may be dispensable for neuron survival and may not be required for its protective activity against neurotoxicity. Thus, the intrinsic kinase activity of LRRK2 appears to be a Trojan horse for PD, and inhibition of its kinase activity could potentially be therapeutically beneficial.

  8. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the West Indies. 93.320 Section...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from...

  9. THE IMPACT OF REGIONAL CLIMATE ON THE EVOLUTION OF MAMMALS: A CASE STUDY USING FOSSIL HORSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jussi T. Eronen; Alistair R. Evans; Mikael Fortelius; Jukka Jernvall

    2009-01-01

    One of the classic examples of faunal turnover in the fossil record is the Miocene transition from faunas dominated by anchitheriine horses with low-crowned molar teeth to faunas with hipparionine horses characterized by high-crowned teeth. The spread of hipparionine horses is associated with increased seasonality and the expansion of open habitats. It is generally accepted that anchitheriine horses did not

  10. Immunoconversion against Sarcocystis neurona in normal and dexamethasone-treated horses challenged with S. neurona sporocysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim J. Cutler; Robert J. MacKay; Pamela E. Ginn; Karen Gillis; Susan M. Tanhauser; Erin V. LeRay; John B. Dame; Ellis C. Greiner

    2001-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a common neurologic disease of horses in the Americas usually caused by Sarcocystis neurona. To date, the disease has not been induced in horses using characterized sporocysts from Didelphis virginiana, the definitive host. S. neurona sporocysts from 15 naturally infected opossums were fed to horses seronegative for antibodies against S. neurona. Eight horses were given 5×105

  11. Infection of Immunodeficient Horses with Sarcocystis neurona Does Not Result in Neurologic Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra C. Sellon; Donald P. Knowles; Ellis C. Greiner; Maureen T. Long; Melissa T. Hines; Tressa Hochstatter; Ahmed Tibary; John B. Dame

    2004-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a progressive neurologic disease of horses most commonly caused by infection with the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Factors affecting neuroinvasion and neuroviru- lence have not been determined. We investigated the pathogenesis of infection with S. neurona in horses with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). Two immunocompetent (IC) Arabian horses and two Arabian horses with SCID were

  12. Ocular findings in quarter horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare ocular structures of Quarter Horses homozygous for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) with those of Quarter Horses not affected by HERDA (control horses) and to determine the frequency of new corneal ulcers for horses with and without HERDA ...

  13. Genetic variation in the feral horses of the Namib Desert, Namibia.

    PubMed

    Cothran, E G; van Dyk, E; van der Merwe, F J

    2001-03-01

    Genetic variation at 7 blood-group and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 30 horses from a feral herd from the Namib Desert of Namibia, Africa. The observed genetic variability was extremely low compared with that found in domestic horse breeds. The low variation was most probably a result of recent small population size and a small founding population size. Genetic comparison of the Namib horses, which were of unknown origins, to domestic horse breeds, showed that the Namib horses had the highest genetic similarity to Arabian type horses, although they did not closely resemble this type of horse in conformation. PMID:11563711

  14. Thermal stability studies of hyperimmune horse antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Silva, R; Antunes, G F; Velarde, D T; Santoro, M M

    1999-01-01

    Ampoules of horse antivenoms raised against Bothrops spp and Crotalus durissus (final product) produced by Fundaçăo Ezequiel Dias (FUNED) were fractionated on the molecular filtration chromatography (SUPEROSE 12) and the expected MW species of F(ab')2 fragments were observed. It has been known that high temperatures promote aggregation and formation of protein precipitates. Phenol is used in preparations of antivenoms as preservative; however, as thus is a hydrophobic substance, it can also induce an increase in protein denaturation. Sorbitol and glycerol were used as osmolyte (natural substance or organic compound capable of stabilizing proteins) and decreased the formation of protein precipitates in solutions of antibodies; as judged by a spectrophotometric assay (280 nm), by nephelometry or when tested by the ELISA. In 1.0 M concentration, the sorbitol presented the best results when compared with glycerol. Circular Dichroism (CD) was used to study the spectra of antibodies in the presence of PBS, glycerol or sorbitol. Up to 1.0 M concentration of the osmolyte, there is no significant perturbation of the antibodies spectra in the amide region, in control samples not incubated (kept at room temperature with no phenol added) or incubated at 62 degrees C in presence of phenol. Nephelometry and gel SDS-PAGE techniques were used in assays that demonstrated the effects of phenol (denaturing) and the osmolytes (stabilizing) in horse antivenoms in high temperatures. PMID:9920478

  15. Movement initiation in groups of feral horses.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often. PMID:24220794

  16. Compositional analysis of Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) cell-wall material from parenchyma, epidermis, and subepidermal tissues.

    PubMed

    Grassby, Terri; Jay, Andrew J; Merali, Zara; Parker, Mary L; Parr, Adrian J; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2013-10-01

    Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis (Burman f.) Trin ex Henschel) is a corm consumed globally in Oriental-style cuisine. The corm consists of three main tissues, the epidermis, subepidermis, and parenchyma; the cell walls of which were analyzed for sugar, phenolic, and lignin content. Sugar content, measured by gas chromatography, was higher in the parenchyma cell walls (931 ?g/mg) than in the subepidermis (775 ?g/mg) or epidermis (685 ?g/mg). The alkali-extractable phenolic content, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, was greater in the epidermal (32.4 ?g/mg) and subepidermal cell walls (21.7 ?g/mg) than in the cell walls of the parenchyma (12.3 ?g/mg). The proportion of diferulic acids was higher in the parenchyma. The Klason lignin content of epidermal and subepidermal cell walls was ~15%. Methylation analysis of Chinese water chestnut cell-wall polysaccharides identified xyloglucan as the predominant hemicellulose in the parenchyma for the first time, and also a significant pectin component, similar to other nongraminaceous monocots. PMID:24066627

  17. Serologic prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in horses slaughtered for food in North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P Dubey; P Thulliez; S Romand; O. C. H Kwok; S. K Shen; H. R Gamble

    1999-01-01

    Serum samples from 1788 horses slaughtered for food in North America were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the modified direct agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii were found by the MAT in 124 (6.9%) of 1788 sera; the titers were 1:20 (69 horses), 1:40 (37 horses), 1:80 (9 horses), and ?1:160 (9 horses). A total of 339

  18. Silicone ocular prosthesis in horses: 11 cases (1983-1987).

    PubMed

    Provost, P J; Ortenburger, A I; Caron, J P

    1989-06-15

    Horses experience a number of ophthalmic diseases and injuries that may result in loss of function of the eye. In the treatment of end-stage ophthalmic disease or injury that precludes salvage of the eye, the use of an inert, silicone prosthetic implant is a cosmetic alternative to simple enucleation. Eleven horses treated either by enucleation and insertion of an intraorbital prosthesis (n = 9) or by evisceration and insertion of an intraocular prosthesis (n = 2) were evaluated for postoperative complications and for long-term cosmetic results. Of the 11 horses treated, complication rate was low; during hospitalization, 1 horse with an intraorbital implant developed a localized incisional infection that resolved in response to antimicrobial therapy. Nine horses were available for follow-up evaluation. Cosmetic appearance was rated as excellent in 5 horses and good in 4 horses. Insertion of an intraocular implant had the best cosmetic result. Complications were not reported by any owner or caretaker. Routine use of intraorbital and intraocular implants is encouraged because of their modest cost and ease of insertion. PMID:2753804

  19. A Comparative Gene Map of the Horse (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Alexandre R.; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Lyons, Leslie A.; O'Brien, Steven J.; Laughlin, Thomas F.; Bowling, Ann T.; Murray, James D.

    1999-01-01

    A comparative gene map of the horse genome composed of 127 loci was assembled based on the new assignment of 68 equine type I loci and on data published previously. PCR primers based on consensus gene sequences conserved across mammalian species were used to amplify markers for assigning 68 equine type I loci to 27 horse synteny groups established previously with a horse-mouse somatic cell hybrid panel (SCHP, UC Davis). This increased the number of coding genes mapped to the horse genome by over 2-fold and allowed refinements of the comparative mapping data available for this species. In conjunction with 57 previous assignments of type I loci to the horse genome map, these data have allowed us to confirm the assignment of 24 equine synteny groups to their respective chromosomes, to provisionally assign nine synteny groups to chromosomes, and to further refine the genetic composition established with Zoo-FISH of two horse chromosomes. The equine type I markers developed in this study provide an important resource for the future development of the horse linkage and physical genome maps. PMID:10613847

  20. Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Ko?ár, Petr; Ko?árová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybní?ek, Michal; S?vová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavr?ík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

  1. Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research

    PubMed Central

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Ko?ár, Petr; Ko?árová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybní?ek, Michal; S?vová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavr?ík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

  2. Control of Strongylidae in horses by pasture rotation and chemotherapy

    E-print Network

    Sharp, Marvin Lafayette

    1964-01-01

    stndy were to determine: 1. The length of ths props?eat period and its imper tents in the control of strongyles in horses. Tha effect of pastnre rotation as a means of controlling strongylosis in horses. S. The efficacy and tonicity of certain... of the larvae survival. AHTEgLM TNT X C EVAI Qk'T ZQN The efficiency and tonicity of various chemicals uss4 ss anthslmintics in the treatment of strongylas were determined by using horses with a heavy pretreatment in~ faction as svidsnce4 by egg per gram...

  3. Genetic transformation of European chestnut somatic embryos with a native thaumatin-like protein (CsTL1) gene isolated from Castanea sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Allona, Isabel; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    The availability of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) would offer an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. For the first time, a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1), isolated from chestnut cotyledons, has been overexpressed in three chestnut somatic embryogenic lines. Transformation experiments have been performed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Smith and Townsend vector harboring the neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) selectable and the green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter genes. The transformation efficiency, determined on the basis of the fluorescence of surviving explants, was clearly genotype dependent and ranged from 32.5% in the CI-9 line to 7.1% in the CI-3 line. A total of 126 independent transformed lines were obtained. The presence and integration of chestnut CsTL1 in genomic DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CsTL1 expression was up to 13.5-fold higher in a transgenic line compared with its corresponding untransformed line. In only one of the 11 transformed lines tested, expression of the CsTL1 was lower than the control. The remaining 115 transformed lines were successfully subjected to cryopreservation. Embryo proliferation was achieved in all of the transgenic lines regenerated and the transformed lines showed a higher mean number of cotyledonary stage embryos and total number of embryos per embryo clump than their corresponding untransformed lines. Transgenic plants were regenerated after maturation and germination of transformed somatic embryos. Furthermore, due to the low plantlet conversion achieved, axillary shoot proliferation cultures were established from partially germinated embryos (only shoot development), which were multiplied and rooted according to procedures already established. Transgenic plants were acclimatized and grown in a greenhouse. No phenotypic differences were found with control plants, suggesting no potential cytotoxic effects of the green fluorescent protein. The results reported in the present work could be considered as a first step toward the production of fungal-disease tolerant cisgenic chestnut plants. PMID:23086811

  4. Needlestick and infection with horse vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Robin N; McNicholl, Brian P

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a case of accidental needlestick injury involving a live equine vaccination, Equilis StrepE. A vet presented herself to the Emergency Department having accidentally injected herself with an equine vaccination. Her left thumb (injury site) was inflamed and had lymphangitis progressing proximally along her left arm. Her inflammatory markers were not raised. The swelling, erythma and lymphangitis had improved markedly with intravenous antibiotics. She had no sequelae at follow-up. Equilis StrepE is a vaccine for submucosal administration containing a modified live avirulent strain of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (Strain TW). Group C streptococci infections are pathogenic in horses and uncommon in humans. A search of the literature revealed no prior case report of similar adverse reaction to this vaccine. The vaccine may have harmful effect on human health, if injected accidentally but more evidence needs to be collected. PMID:22767480

  5. Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehy...

  6. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

  7. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

  8. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

  9. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

  10. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

  11. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

  12. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses...

  13. 15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 6. Horse camp looking W. Great Smoky Mountains National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Horse camp looking W. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. The genetics of skeletal muscle disorders in horses.

    PubMed

    Mickelson, James R; Valberg, Stephanie J

    2015-02-16

    Horses are remarkable athletes and a fascinating species in which to study the genetic bases of athletic performance, skeletal muscle biology, and neuromuscular disease. Genetic selection in horses has resulted in many breeds that possess anatomical, physiological, and metabolic variations linked to speed, power, and endurance that are beginning to be defined at the molecular level. Along with the concentration of positive traits, equine breeding programs have also inadvertently concentrated heritable muscle diseases for which mutations impacting electrical conduction, muscle contraction, and energy metabolism within and across breeds have been characterized. The study of heritable muscle diseases in horses has provided exciting insights into the normal structure and function of muscle and important diagnostic tools for veterinarians. Results empower breeders and breed associations to make difficult decisions about how to use this information to improve the overall health and well-being of horses. PMID:25387114

  16. I don't own a horse, but . . . . . . . . Directions

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , regardless of race, color, religion, sex, age, veteran status, national origin, disability, or political was most informative or interesting in the book. E. View at least one horse film or video tape. Name

  17. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...terms of viticultural significance. (b) Approved Maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Horse Heaven...Geological Survey (USGS) 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Umatilla Quadrangle,...

  18. Hematological and Biochemical Reference Values for the Endangered Kiso Horse

    PubMed Central

    TAKASU, Masaki; NAGATANI, Nana; TOZAKI, Teruaki; KAKOI, Hironaga; MAEDA, Masami; MURASE, Tetsuma; MUKOYAMA, Harutaka

    2013-01-01

    To establish blood and biochemical references for the endangered Kiso horse, blood samples were collected from 111 adult Kiso horses, 74.5% of the existing breed. The samples were analyzed for 23 hematological and biochemical parameters to determine their means and standard deviations (SD). We compared the mean ± 2SD with the reference values cited in one of the most commonly used veterinary textbooks in Japan. The hematology of Kiso horses is characterized by lower erythrocyte count and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. In addition, their serum biochemistry showed lower levels of aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and ?-glutamyl transferase. Whether these propensities are attributed to breed-specific factors or are acquired factors remains unclear. Nevertheless, this study provides useful diagnostic indices for the endangered Kiso horse. PMID:24834006

  19. Review article Adaptive strategies of African horse sickness virus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ............................................................................................ 6 3. Adaptation for transmission from host to vector ................................................................... 9 5. Adaptation for transmission from vector to hostReview article Adaptive strategies of African horse sickness virus to facilitate vector

  20. Epidemiology of Airborne Virulent Rhodococcus equi at Horse Breeding Farms

    E-print Network

    Kuskie, Kyle Ryan

    2012-02-14

    Rhodococcus equi causes severe pneumonia, resulting in disease and sometimes death of foals. Infection is thought to occur by inhalation of dust contaminated with virulent R equi. A recent study of 3 horse breeding farms in Ireland found airborne...

  1. 4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE AT THE FAR RIGHT, AND THE STORE ROOM DOOR IS AT THE NEAR RIGHT. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  2. The horse as a model of naturally occurring osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    McIlwraith, C. W.; Frisbie, D. D.; Kawcak, C. E.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is an important cause of pain, disability and economic loss in humans, and is similarly important in the horse. Recent knowledge on post-traumatic OA has suggested opportunities for early intervention, but it is difficult to identify the appropriate time of these interventions. The horse provides two useful mechanisms to answer these questions: 1) extensive experience with clinical OA in horses; and 2) use of a consistently predictable model of OA that can help study early pathobiological events, define targets for therapeutic intervention and then test these putative therapies. This paper summarises the syndromes of clinical OA in horses including pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, and details controlled studies of various treatment options using an equine model of clinical OA. PMID:23610661

  3. Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection in a Horse from California

    PubMed Central

    Kinde, Hailu; Jay, Michele T.; Kramer, Laura D.; Green, Emily-Gene N.; Chiles, Robert E.; Ostlund, Eileen; Husted, Stan; Smith, Jonathan; Parker, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    A yearling quarter horse, which was raised in southern California, received routine vaccinations for prevention of infection by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV). One week later, severe neurologic signs developed, and the horse was humanely destroyed because vaccine-related encephalomyelitis was suspected. A final diagnosis of EEEV infection was established on the basis of acute onset of the neurologic signs, histopathologic and serologic testing, and isolation and molecular characterization of EEEV from brain tissue. The vaccine was extensively tested for viral inactivation. Nucleotide sequences from the vaccine and the virus isolated in the affected horse were also compared. In California, arboviral encephalomyelitides are rarely reported, and EEEV infection has not previously been documented. This report describes the occurrence of EEEV infection in the horse and the investigation to determine the source of infection, which was not definitively identified. PMID:11927026

  4. Outbreak of trichinosis in France associated with eating horse meat.

    PubMed

    Laurichesse, H; Cambon, M; Perre, D; Ancelle, T; Mora, M; Hubert, B; Beytout, J; Rey, M

    1997-05-01

    The investigation of a trichinosis outbreak in Auvergne, France identified 23 cases in 12 households living in two cities-Clermont-Ferrand and Montluçon-between 15 February and 7 March 1991. One patient required intensive care, 15 had major symptoms, and seven had minor or no symptoms. Two case control studies demonstrated a significant (p < 0.01) association between eating horse meat and acute trichinosis. Veterinary services found that three supermarkets where the patients had bought horse meat during the suspected period had been supplied by a single wholesaler. The analysis of the wholesaler's records revealed that the implicated horse meat had been imported from a slaughterhouse in the United States. This outbreak occurred despite a requirement in France for all meat from horses slaughtered in France and in countries exporting meat to France to be examined systematically for trichinella. PMID:9175309

  5. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...the horse and its accompanying equipment to be disinfected as a precautionary measure against the introduction of foot-and-mouth disease or any other disease dangerous to the livestock of the United States. [61 FR 52245, Oct. 7,...

  6. Plasma Citrulline Levels in Horses at Risk of Acute Laminitis

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Amy Lynn

    2013-04-10

    Laminitis is a painful and irreversible disease in horses in which the soft tissue structures of the foot, called the laminae (connecting the coffin bone to the hoof wall), lose blood flow and deteriorate. Without the support of these laminae...

  7. Infection of Immunodeficient Horses with Sarcocystis neurona Does Not Result in Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sellon, Debra C.; Knowles, Donald P.; Greiner, Ellis C.; Long, Maureen T.; Hines, Melissa T.; Hochstatter, Tressa; Tibary, Ahmed; Dame, John B.

    2004-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a progressive neurologic disease of horses most commonly caused by infection with the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Factors affecting neuroinvasion and neurovirulence have not been determined. We investigated the pathogenesis of infection with S. neurona in horses with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). Two immunocompetent (IC) Arabian horses and two Arabian horses with SCID were infected orally with 5 × 105 sporocysts of S. neurona. Four IC horses and one SCID horse were infected intravenously (i.v.) with 5 × 108 merozoites of the WSU-1 isolate of S. neurona. Despite prolonged parasitemia and persistent infection of visceral tissues (skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, lung, liver, and spleen) as demonstrated by PCR and culture, SCID horses did not develop neurologic signs after oral or i.v. infection. S. neurona was undetectable in the neuronal tissues of SCID horses by either PCR, immunohistochemistry, or culture. In contrast, although parasitemia was undetectable in orally infected IC horses and of only short duration in i.v. infected IC horses, four of six IC horses developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was detectable by PCR and/or culture of neural tissue but not visceral tissue of IC horses with neurologic disease. Infected SCID horses are unable to clear S. neurona from visceral tissues, but the infection does not result in neurologic signs; in contrast, IC horses rapidly control parasitemia and infection of visceral tissues but frequently experience neuroinvasion and exhibit clinical signs of neurologic disease. PMID:15539518

  8. Infection of immunodeficient horses with Sarcocystis neurona does not result in neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    Sellon, Debra C; Knowles, Donald P; Greiner, Ellis C; Long, Maureen T; Hines, Melissa T; Hochstatter, Tressa; Tibary, Ahmed; Dame, John B

    2004-11-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a progressive neurologic disease of horses most commonly caused by infection with the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Factors affecting neuroinvasion and neurovirulence have not been determined. We investigated the pathogenesis of infection with S. neurona in horses with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). Two immunocompetent (IC) Arabian horses and two Arabian horses with SCID were infected orally with 5 x 10(5) sporocysts of S. neurona. Four IC horses and one SCID horse were infected intravenously (i.v.) with 5 x 10(8) merozoites of the WSU-1 isolate of S. neurona. Despite prolonged parasitemia and persistent infection of visceral tissues (skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, lung, liver, and spleen) as demonstrated by PCR and culture, SCID horses did not develop neurologic signs after oral or i.v. infection. S. neurona was undetectable in the neuronal tissues of SCID horses by either PCR, immunohistochemistry, or culture. In contrast, although parasitemia was undetectable in orally infected IC horses and of only short duration in i.v. infected IC horses, four of six IC horses developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was detectable by PCR and/or culture of neural tissue but not visceral tissue of IC horses with neurologic disease. Infected SCID horses are unable to clear S. neurona from visceral tissues, but the infection does not result in neurologic signs; in contrast, IC horses rapidly control parasitemia and infection of visceral tissues but frequently experience neuroinvasion and exhibit clinical signs of neurologic disease. PMID:15539518

  9. Crystallization and preliminary diffraction data for horse heart metmyoglobin.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, C; Mauk, A G; Brayer, G D

    1987-01-01

    Reddish-brown crystals of metmyoglobin from horse heart have been obtained by both the hanging drop and batch crystallization methods in the space group P2(1), having a = 64.3 A, b = 28.9 A and c = 35.9 A, with beta = 107.1 degree. Morphologically similar crystal forms have been obtained for three derivatives of horse heart myoglobin having modified heme prosthetic groups. PMID:3586021

  10. Wild Horse Protection Policies: Environmental and Animal Ethics in Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine M. Reed

    2008-01-01

    Wild horse protection policies in the United States and the Netherlands reflect ethical claims and scientific arguments, often cast as opposing positions favoring the integrity of self-sustaining ecosystems versus the welfare of individual animals. Neither holistic eco-centric, nor individualistic bio-centric ethical claims provide guidance to public sector practitioners who care for wild horses removed from U.S. public rangelands and living

  11. Nitrogen balance in mature horses at varying levels of work

    E-print Network

    Freeman, David Wayne

    1981-01-01

    NITROGEN BALANCE IN MATURE HORSES AT VARYING LEVELS OF WORK A Thesis by David Wayne Freeman Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1981 Major Subject: Animal Science NITROGEN BALANCE IN NATURE HORSES AT VARYING LEVELS OF WORK A Thesis by David Wayne Freeman Approved as to style and content by: (Chai an o Committee) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Head of Departmen ) December...

  12. On the Pleistocene extinctions of Alaskan mammoths and horses.

    PubMed

    Solow, Andrew R; Roberts, David L; Robbirt, Karen M

    2006-05-01

    The fossil record has been used to shed light on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America and elsewhere. It is therefore important to account for variability due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and error in dating fossil remains. Here, a joint confidence region for the extinction times of horses and mammoths in Alaska is constructed. The results suggest that a prior claim that the extinction of horses preceded the arrival of humans cannot be made with confidence. PMID:16651534

  13. The effect of colic on oxygen extraction in horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Cambier; M. Wierinckx; S. Grulke; T. Clerbaux; D. Serteyn; B. Detry; M.-P. Liardet; A. Frans; P. Gustin

    2008-01-01

    Blood oxygen transport and oxygen extraction were assessed in horses with colic. A gravity score (GS) ranging from 1 to 3 was attributed to each colic case with healthy horses used as controls. Jugular venous and carotid arterial blood samples were collected and concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, adenosine triphosphate, inorganic phosphate and chloride were determined. pH and partial pressures of carbon

  14. Mitochondrial DNA lineages of Italian Giara and Sarcidano horses.

    PubMed

    Morelli, L; Useli, A; Sanna, D; Barbato, M; Contu, D; Pala, M; Cancedda, M; Francalacci, P

    2014-01-01

    Giara and Sarcidano are 2 of the 15 extant native Italian horse breeds with limited dispersal capability that originated from a larger number of individuals. The 2 breeds live in two distinct isolated locations on the island of Sardinia. To determine the genetic structure and evolutionary history of these 2 Sardinian breeds, the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced and analyzed in 40 Giara and Sarcidano horses and compared with publicly available mtDNA data from 43 Old World breeds. Four different analyses, including genetic distance, analysis of molecular variance, haplotype sharing, and clustering methods, were used to study the genetic relationships between the Sardinian and other horse breeds. The analyses yielded similar results, and the FST values indicated that a high percentage of the total genetic variation was explained by between-breed differences. Consistent with their distinct phenotypes and geographic isolation, the two Sardinian breeds were shown to consist of 2 distinct gene pools that had no gene flow between them. Giara horses were clearly separated from the other breeds examined and showed traces of ancient separation from horses of other breeds that share the same mitochondrial lineage. On the other hand, the data from the Sarcidano horses fit well with variation among breeds from the Iberian Peninsula and North-West Europe: genetic relationships among Sarcidano and the other breeds are consistent with the documented history of this breed. PMID:25366719

  15. Four Loci Explain 83% of Size Variation in the Horse

    PubMed Central

    Makvandi-Nejad, Shokouh; Hoffman, Gabriel E.; Allen, Jeremy J.; Chu, Erin; Gu, Esther; Chandler, Alyssa M.; Loredo, Ariel I.; Bellone, Rebecca R.; Mezey, Jason G.; Brooks, Samantha A.; Sutter, Nathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS) that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication. PMID:22808074

  16. Outcome of treatment in 23 horses with progressive ethmoidal haematoma.

    PubMed

    Greet, T R

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes the outcome of treatment in 23 horses with an ethmoidal haematoma. In 22 cases a diagnosis could be made by endoscopic means alone but in 1 horse the lesion was confined to the maxillary sinus and a diagnosis was made only at surgery. One horse was destroyed at the owner's request but the other 22 underwent radical excision of the lesion via a facial flap approach under general anaesthesia. Post-operative haemorrhage was controlled by nasal packing with a gauze bandage and this was removed between the 2nd and 4th post-operative day. One horse died from encephalitis the day after surgery. Other complications included facial wound dehiscence, sequestration and suture periostitis. Of 21 horses followed up post-operatively there was definite recurrence of lesion in 2 cases and possibly a third. However, in 18 horses there was no evidence of recurrence (follow up times were 2 to 85 months). It is suggested that radical excision of the lesion provides an effective means of treatment. PMID:1459061

  17. Analysis of MHC class I genes across horse MHC haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Tallmadge, Rebecca L.; Campbell, Julie A.; Miller, Donald C.; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    The genomic sequences of 15 horse Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I genes and a collection of MHC class I homozygous horses of five different haplotypes were used to investigate the genomic structure and polymorphism of the equine MHC. A combination of conserved and locus-specific primers was used to amplify horse MHC class I genes with classical and non-classical characteristics. Multiple clones from each haplotype identified three to five classical sequences per homozygous animal, and two to three non-classical sequences. Phylogenetic analysis was applied to these sequences and groups were identified which appear to be allelic series, but some sequences were left ungrouped. Sequences determined from MHC class I heterozygous horses and previously described MHC class I sequences were then added, representing a total of ten horse MHC haplotypes. These results were consistent with those obtained from the MHC homozygous horses alone, and 30 classical sequences were assigned to four previously confirmed loci and three new provisional loci. The non-classical genes had few alleles and the classical genes had higher levels of allelic polymorphism. Alleles for two classical loci with the expected pattern of polymorphism were found in the majority of haplotypes tested, but alleles at two other commonly detected loci had more variation outside of the hypervariable region than within. Our data indicate that the equine Major Histocompatibility Complex is characterized by variation in the complement of class I genes expressed in different haplotypes in addition to the expected allelic polymorphism within loci. PMID:20099063

  18. IHH gene polymorphism among three horse breeds and its application for association test in horses with osteochondrosis.

    PubMed

    Zabek, T; Golonka, P; Fornal, A; Semik, E

    2013-06-01

    Genetic polymorphism of IHH gene were investigated in Angloarabian, Polish Coldblood and Polish Halfbred horses with the inclusion of a group of Polish Halfbreds affected by osteochondrosis. IHH is a good candidate gene for association study of developmental disorders mainly affecting skeleton development. DNA sequence spanning IHH gene annotated in the horse genome and its putative promoter were investigated using SANGER sequencing. Analysis of genetic variability at polymorphic sites in the IHH gene body and the promoter region confirmed genetic differences between warmblood and coldblood horse breeds. A test for allelic and genotypic association at particular SNP sites revealed no association with osteochondrosis in investigated group of Polish Halfbreds. It was concluded that participation of different warmblood breeds in pedigrees of Polish Halfbreds make it difficult to search for genetic variants being associated with this complex disorder in this breed. IHH gene polymorphism investigated among three different horse populations would be valuable for further studies on equine bone developmental disorders. PMID:23865964

  19. 36 CFR 222.26 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private... RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.26 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from...

  20. 36 CFR 222.66 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private... RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.66 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from...

  1. 36 CFR 222.66 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private... RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.66 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from...

  2. 36 CFR 222.26 - Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from private... RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.26 Removal of wild free-roaming horses and burros from...

  3. Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a Pain Assessment Tool in Horses Undergoing Routine Castration

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Minero, Michela; Lebelt, Dirk; Stucke, Diana; Canali, Elisabetta; Leach, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of pain is critical for the welfare of horses, in particular when pain is induced by common management procedures such as castration. Existing pain assessment methods have several limitations, which reduce the applicability in everyday life. Assessment of facial expression changes, as a novel means of pain scoring, may offer numerous advantages and overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a standardised pain scale based on facial expressions in horses (Horse Grimace Scale [HGS]). Methodology/Principal Findings Forty stallions were assigned to one of two treatments and all animals underwent routine surgical castration under general anaesthesia. Group A (n?=?19) received a single injection of Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia. Group B (n?=?21) received Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia and then again, as an oral administration, six hours after the surgery. In addition, six horses were used as anaesthesia controls (C). These animals underwent non-invasive, indolent procedures, received the same treatment as group A, but did not undergo surgical procedures that could be accompanied with surgical pain. Changes in behaviour, composite pain scale (CPS) scores and horse grimace scale (HGS) scores were assessed before and 8-hours post-procedure. Only horses undergoing castration (Groups A and B) showed significantly greater HGS and CPS scores at 8-hours post compared to pre operatively. Further, maintenance behaviours such as explorative behaviour and alertness were also reduced. No difference was observed between the two analgesic treatment groups. Conclusions The Horse Grimace Scale potentially offers an effective and reliable method of assessing pain following routine castration in horses. However, auxiliary studies are required to evaluate different painful conditions and analgesic schedules. PMID:24647606

  4. Volatile compounds and sensorial characterisation of red wine aged in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Martínez, J; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Esteruelas, E; Muńoz, A M

    2014-03-15

    The wood-related volatile profile of wines aged in cherry, acacia, ash, chestnut and oak wood barrels was studied by GC-MS, and could be a useful tool to identify the wood specie used. Thus, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in wines aged in acacia barrels, and ethyl-2-benzoate in cherry barrels could be used as chemical markers of these wood species, for authenticity purposes. Also, the quantitative differences obtained in the volatile profiles allow a good classification of all wines regarding wood species of barrels, during all aging time, and they contributed with different intensities to aromatic and gustative characteristics of aged wines. Wines aged in oak were the best valuated during all aging time, but the differences were not always significant. The lowest scores were assigned to wines aged in cherry barrels from 6 months of aging, so this wood could be more suitable in short aging times. PMID:24206729

  5. Effect of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on rheological properties of gels from blends of chestnut and rice flours.

    PubMed

    Torres, M D; Raymundo, A; Sousa, I

    2013-10-15

    The development of high quality gluten-free products requires the understanding of the phenomena that dictate the ingredient interactions commonly used in foodstuff. In this work, the main objective was to develop alternative gluten-free gelled desserts from blends of chestnut flour (Cf) and whole (Rw), Agulha (Ra) or Carolino (Rc) rice flours. The impact of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on textural, rheological and structural properties of selected gels was investigated. Texture results indicated that studied gels in the presence of sucrose and xylitol decreased significantly the firmness. Rheological outcomes showed that the temperature ramps on heating of Cf/Rw gels were similar to those obtained for Cf/Ra, whereas Cf/Rc gels presented a particular pattern. The presence of sucrose resulted in a significant decrease in the values of storage and loss moduli. Confocal microscopic images showed that the sugar addition leads to a less aggregated structure with fracture lines well marked. PMID:23987342

  6. Effect of addition of green tea, chestnut and grape extract on the shelf-life of pig liver pâté.

    PubMed

    Pateiro, M; Lorenzo, J M; Amado, I R; Franco, D

    2014-03-15

    The effect of the addition of natural antioxidants (tea, chestnut and grape seed extracts) on physico-chemical and oxidative stability of refrigerated stored pig pâtés was studied. This effect was compared with that showed by the synthetic antioxidant BHT. Pâté samples were analysed at 0, 4, 8 and 24 weeks of refrigerated storage (4°C). Colour parameters were affected by storage period and antioxidant extract. Samples with CHE and GRA extracts showed lower total colour difference between 0 and 24 weeks. The amount of TBARS gradually increased during refrigerated storage with the exception of pâtés that have CHE extract in composition. At the sampling end point, the lower TBARS values were obtained in samples with TEA and GRA extracts. Finally, the evolution of volatile compounds during storage showed an increase in the lipid-derived volatile values after refrigerated storage, since samples with TEA and GRA extract showed the lowest values. PMID:24206734

  7. Evaluation of Calendar Year 1997 Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1997. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge bordered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) to the north, Scarboro Road to the eas~ Bethel Valley Road to the south, and an unnamed drainage basin southwest of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater quality monitoring is performed at hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities in the regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The CY 1997 monitoring data are presented in Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeolo~"c Regime at the US. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (MA Technical Services, Inc. 1998), which also presents results of site-specific monitoring data evaluations required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCIL4) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Regime

  8. A comparative evaluation of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mallardo, Karina; Nizza, Sandra; Fiorito, Filomena; Pagnini, Ugo; De Martino, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) which is a potencial risk factor of transmission between animals and humans in different types of horses (harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses) and to compare the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. Methods A total of 191 healthy horses, housed at different locations of the Campania Region (Italy), were included in the study. Nasal swab samples were collected from each nostril of the horses. The mecA gene was detected by a nested PCR technique. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for each isolate. Results MRS was isolated from nasal samples of 68/191 (35.6%; 95% CI: 28.9%-42.9%) healthy horses. All isolates were coagulase-negative with the exception of two coagulase-positive MRS strains, identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, 2/83 (2.4%; 95% CI: 0.4%-9.2%). Interestingly, both coagulase-positive MRS isolates were from harness racing-horses. These horses also presented a significantly higher positivity for MRS (53.3%; 95% CI: 40.1%-66.1%) than the breeding mares and riding-horses groups. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed difference between isolates due to different origins except for an almost common high resistance to aminopenicillins, such as ampicillin and amoxicillin. Conclusions It can be concluded that harness racing-horses may act as a significant reservoir of MRS as compared to breeding mares and riding-horses. PMID:23620832

  9. Influence of Equine Conformation on Rider Oscillation and Evaluation of Horses for Therapeutic Riding

    PubMed Central

    MATSUURA, Akihiro; OHTA, Emiko; UEDA, Koichiro; NAKATSUJI, Hiroki; KONDO, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    To obtain basic knowledge about selecting horses for therapeutic riding, the influence of equine conformation on rider oscillation and relationships between these factors and the evaluation on horses as the therapeutic riding were studied. Thirty-five riding horses were used. Equine conformation was estimated by 24 indices. Rider oscillation was measured by an accelerometer fixed at the rider’s waist. The spatial position of the oscillation was estimated by a double integration of the acceleration. Horses were evaluated for therapeutic riding by a Riding for the Disabled Association instructor as a rider. Evaluations were on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being the highest score for 27 items. Horses were classified into 4 groups: the short and narrow (SN), short and wide (SW), tall and narrow (TN), and tall and wide (TW). The frequencies of rider oscillation both at walk and trot were higher (P<0.01), and the vertical (P<0.01) and longitudinal (P<0.05) amplitudes at trot were smaller, on short horses than on tall horses. The vertical amplitude at walk was smaller (P<0.05) and the lateral amplitude at trot was larger (P<0.01) on wide horses than on narrow horses. Short horses could be used for the rider who requires side walkers. Wide horses could be used for relieving muscular tension and for the rider who could not maintain good balance on the horse. Short and wide horses should be suitable for therapeutic riding. PMID:24833950

  10. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum , the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. We used direct and indirect methods to compare and evaluate exposure to A. phagocytophilum in horses in northern Tunisia. Methods Serum from 60 horses was tested by IFA for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum , and whole blood was tested for A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene using a nested-PCR. To examine the risk of A. phagocytophilum transmission, 154 ticks that had been collected from horses were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by nested-PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene. Results This is the first time that A. phagocytophilum has been detected in horses in Tunisia, with an overall seroprevalence of 40/60 (67%). Six of the seroreactive samples (10%) had an IFA titer of 1:80, 14 (23%) of 1:160, 8 (13%) of 1:320 and 12 (20%) a titer 1???640. The seroprevalence revealed no significant regional and sex differences. In contrast, a significant difference was observed between breeds. Eight (13%) of the horses were positive for A. phagocytophilum in the PCR, with no significant breed and age differences. Hyalomma marginatum was a predominant tick species (130/154), and 3 were infected by A. phagocytophilum (a prevalence of 2.3%). The concordance rate of A. phagocytophilum detection between IFA and PCR had a k value of ?0.07. Conclusions The results presented in this study suggest that horses infested by ticks in Tunisia are exposed to A. phagocytophilum. PMID:22935132

  11. Rabies in horses: 21 cases (1970-1990).

    PubMed

    Green, S L; Smith, L L; Vernau, W; Beacock, S M

    1992-04-15

    The records of 21 horses with rabies were reviewed. Results of fluorescent antibody testing for rabies antigen in brain tissue were positive in each case. According to the histories, 5 of the horses had been vaccinated for rabies between 4 to 24 months prior to the onset of the clinical signs. Bite wounds were not observed on any of the horses, and exposure to a suspected rabid animal was witnessed in only 5 cases. Clinical signs of disease at the time of initial examination included ataxia and paresis of the hindquarters (9/21, 43%), lameness (5/21, 24%), recumbency (3/21, 14%), pharyngeal paralysis (2/21, 10%), and colic (2/21, 10%). The major clinical signs observed over the course of hospitalization included recumbency (21/21; 100%), hyperesthesia (17/21; 81%), loss of tail and anal sphincter tone (12/21; 57%), fever (11/21; 52%), and ataxia and paresis of the hindquarters (11/21; 52%). Mean survival time after the onset of clinical signs was 4.47 days (range, 1 to 7 days). Supportive treatment, given to 9 horses, had no effect on survival time and did not correlate with the detection of negri bodies at necropsy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained from 6 horses and was determined to be abnormal in 5. The most common abnormality was a slightly high total cell count (5/6), with a predominance of lymphocytes (4/6). The CSF total protein concentration was high in only 2 horses. At necropsy, there was gross evidence of diffuse brain edema, meningeal congestion, and focal areas of hemorrhage in 5 horses (24%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1607322

  12. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: undergraduate student outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L

    2012-12-01

    Equine teaching and research programs are popular but expensive components of most land grant universities. External funding for equine research, however, is limited and restricts undergraduate research opportunities that enhance student learning. In 1999, a novel undergraduate teaching and research program was initiated at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. A unique aspect of this program was the use of young horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue but of relatively low value. The media interest in such horses was utilized to advantage to obtain funding for the program. The use of horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs held the risks of attracting negative publicity, potential of injury while training previously unhandled young horses, and uncertainty regarding re-sale value; however, none of these concerns were realized. For 12 years the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program received extensive positive press and provided invaluable learning opportunities for students. Over 500 students, at least 80 of which were minorities, participated in not only horse management and training but also research, event planning, public outreach, fund-raising, and website development. Public and industry support provided program sustainability with only basic University infrastructural support despite severe economic downturns. Student research projects generated 25 research abstracts presented at national and international meetings and 14 honors theses. Over 100 students went on to veterinary school or other higher education programs, and more than 100 others pursued equine- or science-related careers. Laudatory popular press articles were published in a wide variety of breed/discipline journals and in local and regional newspapers each year. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses yielded positive outcomes for all, especially the undergraduate students. PMID:22767090

  13. Prevalence and species of ticks on horses in central Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Duell, Jason R; Carmichael, Robert; Herrin, Brian H; Holbrook, Todd C; Talley, Justin; Little, Susan E

    2013-11-01

    Ticks are common on horses, but there is a dearth of contemporary data on infestation prevalence, predominant species, and tick-borne disease agents important in this host. To determine the species of ticks most common on horses and the prevalence of equine exposure to and infection with tick-borne disease agents, ticks and blood samples were collected from 73 horses during May, June, and July of 2010. Adult ticks were identified to species, and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi were identified using indirect fluorescence antibody assay, a commercial point-of-care enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or both. In total, 1,721 ticks were recovered at the majority (85%) of equid examinations. Amblyomma americanum (L.) was the most common tick collected (1,598 out of 1,721; 92.9%) followed by Dermacentor variabilis (Say, 1821) (85 out of 1,721; 4.9%) and Amblyomma maculatum Koch, 1844 (36 out of 1,721; 2.1%); single specimens of Ixodes scapularis Say, 1821 and Dermacentor albipictus (Packard, 1869) were also identified. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were found in 18 out of 73 (24.7%) of horses tested, and were more commonly identified in horses with moderate or high tick infestations than those with low tick infestations (P < 0.001). These data support A. americanum as the most common tick species infesting horses in central Oklahoma from May through July and suggest horses are also commonly exposed to an Ehrlichia sp. PMID:24843940

  14. 76 FR 78692 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northeast California Resource Advisory Council Wild Horse and Burro...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ...Council's wild horse and burro management subcommittee will meet as indicated...work on issues associated with management of wild horses and burros on...through the BLM, on a variety of planning and management issues associated with...

  15. Body composition and nutrient metabolism in juvenile athletic horses treated with exogenous equine somatotropin

    E-print Network

    Sutfin, Jonathan Arthur

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-nine long-yearling horses completed 128 days of conventional race training. Horses were assigned by age to treatment groups; fifteen were injected daily with exogenous equine somatotropin, while fourteen received saline injections...

  16. Selection and Use of Hay and Processed Roughage in Horse Feeding

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Pete G.

    2005-04-15

    Roughage, fed on a regular basis, helps a horse's digestive system function properly and meets some percentage of the horse's daily nutrient requirements. Proper selection of roughage, avoiding inferior quality foodstuffs, and daily roughage intake...

  17. 9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.319 Import permit and declaration for horses...importation from regions of Central America or of the West Indies, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  18. 9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.319 Import permit and declaration for horses...importation from regions of Central America or of the West Indies, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  19. 9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.319 Import permit and declaration for horses...importation from regions of Central America or of the West Indies, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  20. 9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.319 Import permit and declaration for horses...importation from regions of Central America or of the West Indies, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  1. Physiological responses of reining horses to interval training versus conventional training procedures

    E-print Network

    Haney, Elizabeth anne

    1998-01-01

    Eight mature Quarter Horses were used in a cross-over hics. experiment to determine the efficacy of an interval training program versus a conventional training program to enhance fitness in the reining performance horse. The two training treatments...

  2. Use of a novel serological test for exposure to Streptococcus equi subspecies equi in hospitalised horses.

    PubMed

    Knowles, E J; Mair, T S; Butcher, N; Waller, A S; Wood, J L N

    2010-03-01

    Thirty horses with no external signs of strangles were tested for exposure to Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S equi) using a new, commercially available serological test. The horses were also tested for persistent carriage of S equi by endoscopy of the guttural pouches and PCR analysis of lavage samples. The owners were questioned about the recent medical history of the horses. Serology suggested that four horses had been recently exposed to S equi. None of the horses had a known history of strangles but three of the four seropositive horses had recently shown non-specific signs of respiratory disease. One asymptomatic horse was positive for S equi by PCR, but none had both guttural pouch abnormalities and a positive PCR result. Ten additional horses known to have strangles were all seropositive by the serological test. PMID:20208076

  3. 76 FR 48174 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ...Board; 10. Experience or knowledge of wild horse and burro management and the issues facing the BLM; 11. Experience or knowledge of horses or burros: (equine health, training and management); 12. Experience in...

  4. 78 FR 39768 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...qualify you to serve on the Board; 10. Experience or knowledge of wild horse and burro management; 11. Experience or knowledge of horses or burros: (Equine health, training, and management); 12. Experience in working with disparate...

  5. 77 FR 37705 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ...qualify you to serve on the Board; 10. Experience or knowledge of wild horse and burro management; 11. Experience or knowledge of horses or burros (Equine health, training, and management); 12. Experience in working with disparate...

  6. 78 FR 59058 - Second Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ...qualify you to serve on the Board; 10. Experience or knowledge of wild horse and burro management; 11. Experience or knowledge of horses or burros: Equine health, training, and management; 12. Experience in working with disparate...

  7. 77 FR 41473 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Lion Attacking a Horse

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ...Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Lion Attacking a Horse'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the...15, 2003), I hereby determine that the object entitled ``Lion Attacking a Horse,'' to be imported by The J. Paul...

  8. Assessment of electron beam-induced DNA damage in larvae of chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hasan, Mahbub; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Hayashi, Toru

    2006-02-01

    Effect of electron beam treatment on DNA damage in mature larvae of chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) was assessed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet assay). Electrons at acceleration voltages of 0 (control), 300, 750, 1000, and 1500 kV at radiation doses of 1 and 4 kGy were used. Electron beam-treated chestnut larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation, compared with cells from non-treated ones which showed a more intact DNA. Investigations using the comet assay showed that the parameters including tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment as well as the quota of DNA damage at both the doses were significantly larger than the control batch larvae. Thus, this technique could contribute to analytical identification of an effective disinfestation and quarantine treatment.

  9. Analysis of stomach bacterial communities in Australian feral horses.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Benoit; de la Fuente, Gabriel; O'Neill, Sean; Wright, André-Denis G; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the community structure of bacteria that populate the stomach of the Brumby, a breed of feral horses from the Australian outback. Using a 16S rRNA gene clone library, we identified 155 clones that were assigned to 26 OTUs based on a 99.0 % sequence identity cutoff. Two OTUs represented 73.5 % of clones, while 18 OTUs were each assigned only a single clone. Four major bacterial types were identified in the Brumby stomach: Lactobacillaceae, Streptococcaceae, Veillonellaceae and Pasteurellaceae. The first three groups, which represented 98.1 % of the Brumby stomach library clones, belonged to the bacterial phylum Firmicutes. We found that 49.7 % of clones were related to bacterial species previously identified in the equine hindgut, and that 44.5 % of clones were related to symbiotic bacterial species identified in the mouth or throat of either horses or other mammals. Our results indicated that the composition of mutualistic bacterial communities of feral horses was consistent with other studies on domestic horses. In addition to bacterial sequences, we also identified four plastid 16S rRNA gene sequences, which may help in further characterizing the type of vegetation consumed by Brumby horses in their natural environment. PMID:23065252

  10. Dietary change and evolution of horses in North America.

    PubMed

    Mihlbachler, Matthew C; Rivals, Florent; Solounias, Nikos; Semprebon, Gina M

    2011-03-01

    The evolution of high-crowned molars among horses (Family Equidae) is thought to be an adaptation for abrasive diets associated with the spread of grasslands. The sharpness and relief of the worn cusp apices of teeth (mesowear) are a measure of dietary abrasion. We collected mesowear data for North American Equidae for the past 55.5 million years to test the association of molar height and dietary abrasion. Mesowear trends in horses are reflective of global cooling and associated vegetation changes. There is a strong correlation between mesowear and crown height in horses; however, most horse paleopopulations had highly variable amounts of dietary abrasion, suggesting that selective pressures for crown height may have been weak much of the time. However, instances of higher abrasion were observed in some paleopopulations, suggesting intervals of stronger selection for the evolution of dentitions, including the early Miocene shortly before the first appearance of Equinae, the horse subfamily in which high-crowned dentitions evolved. PMID:21385712

  11. Invasive Plants, Species and Conditions Fact Sheets: Cheatgrass Brome, Bamboo Reed, Butternut Canker, Dutch Elm, Chestnut Blight, Asian Cycad Scale, Crazy Ant, Red Fox

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource from ATEEC provides a number of fact sheets on invasive plants, species and conditions which may be printed out or used as presentation material. The plants, species and conditions described here are cheatgrass brome, bamboo reed, butternut canker, dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, Asian cycad scale, crazy ant and red fox. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

  12. Effects of Gap-Size Classes on Long-Term Litter Decomposition Rates of Beech, Oak and Chestnut Species at High Elevations in Northeast Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Temel Sariyildiz

    2008-01-01

    Effects of gap-size classes on litter decomposition rates were investigated in a high-elevation forest for 4 years by placing\\u000a leaf litter of beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.), oak (Quercus robur L.), and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in (1) a closed canopy, (2) small gaps with a diameter of less than 15 m, (3) intermediate gaps with a diameter of\\u000a 15–30 m, and (4) large

  13. Long-term changes in forest composition and diversity following early logging (1919–1923) and the decline of American chestnut ( Castanea dentata )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine J. Elliott; Wayne T. Swank

    2008-01-01

    Chestnut blight fungus (Endothia parasitica [Murr.] P.J. And. & H.W. And.)) is a classic example of an invasive species, which severely damaged populations of its host,\\u000a Castanea dentata, and had widespread and long-term impacts on eastern North American forests. Concurrently, forests were further disturbed\\u000a by lumbering, which was common across the region from the mid 1800s to the early 1900s.

  14. Infectious cDNA Clone of Hypovirus CHV1Euro7: a Comparative Virology Approach To Investigate Virus-Mediated Hypovirulence of the Chestnut Blight Fungus Cryphonectria parasitica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BAOSHAN CHEN; DONALD L. NUSS

    1999-01-01

    We report the construction of a full-length infectious cDNA clone for hypovirus CHV1-Euro7, which is associated with reduced virulence (hypovirulence) of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. Field strains infected with CHV1-Euro7 are more virulent and exhibit less severe phenotypic changes (hypoviru- lence-associated traits) than strains infected with the prototypic hypovirus CHV1-EP713, for which the first infectious cDNA clone was

  15. Sorghum Bran, Chestnut Wood Powder, and Chardonnay Grape Seed Flour Addition Effect on Lipid Oxidation and Color in Ground Beef Patties

    E-print Network

    Roybal, Tabitha Lynn

    2012-02-14

    &M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2010 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology SORGHUM BRAN, CHESTNUT WOOD POWDER, AND CHARDONNAY GRAPE SEED FLOUR ADDITION EFFECT... by: Chair of Committee, Rhonda K. Miller Committee Members, Lloyd Rooney Joseph M. Awika Peter S. Murano Intercollegiate Faculty Chair, Jimmy Keeton December 2010 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology iii ABSTRACT...

  16. with Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy present 2014 NORTHEAST WILD HORSE ADOPTION

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    with Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy present 2014 NORTHEAST WILD HORSE ADOPTION Management Wild Horses Friday, March 28 7:00PM­ 9:00PM Viewing of "Wild Horse, Wild Ride" and Discussion Animals Tour - Carl Kirker-Head, VetMB, MA, DACVS, DECVS 10:30AM ­4:15PM Panel Discussions

  17. 43 CFR 4740.2 - Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...used for transport of wild horses and burros. ...vehicles for transport of wild horses or burros shall...protrusion that could injure animals; (2) Equipment shall...sufficient protection to animals from inclement weather...officer shall not load wild horses or burros if...

  18. 43 CFR 4740.2 - Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...used for transport of wild horses and burros. ...vehicles for transport of wild horses or burros shall...protrusion that could injure animals; (2) Equipment shall...sufficient protection to animals from inclement weather...officer shall not load wild horses or burros if...

  19. 43 CFR 4740.2 - Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...used for transport of wild horses and burros. ...vehicles for transport of wild horses or burros shall...protrusion that could injure animals; (2) Equipment shall...sufficient protection to animals from inclement weather...officer shall not load wild horses or burros if...

  20. 43 CFR 4740.2 - Standards for vehicles used for transport of wild horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...used for transport of wild horses and burros. ...vehicles for transport of wild horses or burros shall...protrusion that could injure animals; (2) Equipment shall...sufficient protection to animals from inclement weather...officer shall not load wild horses or burros if...

  1. Haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against African horse sickness virus in domestic

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    96 camels, 81 horses, 80 dogs and 4 donkeys was carried out in Nigeria. The ani- mals had no history of antibody against AHS virus. Of these, 77 (95.1%) horse, 4 (100%) donkey, 10 (10.4%) camel and 28 (35%) dog in horses, donkeys, cam- els and dogs sampled in different localities in Nigeria. On the basis of its ease

  2. VARIATION OF SOME BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN CATTLE, HORSES AND DOGS,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VARIATION OF SOME BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN CATTLE, HORSES AND DOGS, AND CAUSES cattle. A few examples will also be given concerning horses and dogs. NORMAL RANGE In biology the concept the normal ranges for dairy cattle (Swedish Red and White Breed), horses (standardbred trotters) and dogs

  3. Management and long-term outcome of partial glossectomy in 2 horses

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Hayley M.; Panizzi, Luca; Smyth, Travis T.; Plaxton, Andrea E.; Lohmann, Katharina L.; Barber, Spencer M.

    2014-01-01

    Records were reviewed for 2 horses with partial glossectomy, 1 traumatic and 1 elective. According to long-term follow-up by telephone, both horses had recovered well, experiencing only temporary difficulty while eating, and went on to be ridden successfully using mouth bits. Partial glossectomy, therefore, had a favorable prognosis in 2 performance horses. PMID:24587510

  4. EFFECTS OF RACTOPAMINE HCL ON PHYSICAL AND REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS IN THE HORSE

    E-print Network

    Kriewald, Russell D.

    2010-01-14

    to Anabolic Steroids ................................................................... 8 A Comparison to Clenbuterol (CBL)................................................................ 10 A Reproductive Perspective... task. One of the most recognized products used to obtain these effects is an anabolic steroid. Though these steroids can have a therapeutic use for debilitated horses, they also present the possibility to enhance a horse?s maximal athletic...

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii infection in domestic horses in Durango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in horses in Mexico is unknown. Therefore, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 495 horses in Durango State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Horses were from 18 farms in 3 municipalities in the valley region of Durango State...

  6. Genetic diversity in a feral horse population from Sable Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Plante, Yves; Vega-Pla, Jose Luis; Lucas, Zoe; Colling, Dave; de March, Brigitte; Buchanan, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    The present-day Sable Island horse population, inhabiting an island off the eastern coast of Canada, is believed to have originated mainly from horses confiscated from the early French settlers in Nova Scotia in the latter half of the 18th century. In 1960, the Sable Island horses were given legal protected status and no human interference has since been allowed. The objective of this study was to characterize the current genetic diversity in Sable Island horses in comparison to 15 other horse breeds commonly found in Canada and 5 Spanish breeds. A total of 145 alleles from 12 microsatellite loci were detected in 1093 horses and 40 donkeys. The average number of alleles per locus ranged from 4.67 in the Sable Island horse population to 8.25 in Appaloosas, whereas the mean observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.626 in the Sable Island population to 0.787 in Asturcons. Various genetic distance estimates and clustering methods did not permit to support that the Sable Island horses originated from shipwrecked Spanish horses, according to a popular anecdote, but closely resemble light draft and multipurpose breeds commonly found in eastern Canada. Based on the Weitzman approach, the loss of the Sable Island horse population to the overall diversity in Canada is comparable or higher than any other horse breed. The Sable Island horse population has diverged enough from other breeds to deserve special attention by conservation interest groups. PMID:17855732

  7. Management and long-term outcome of partial glossectomy in 2 horses.

    PubMed

    Lang, Hayley M; Panizzi, Luca; Smyth, Travis T; Plaxton, Andrea E; Lohmann, Katharina L; Barber, Spencer M

    2014-03-01

    Records were reviewed for 2 horses with partial glossectomy, 1 traumatic and 1 elective. According to long-term follow-up by telephone, both horses had recovered well, experiencing only temporary difficulty while eating, and went on to be ridden successfully using mouth bits. Partial glossectomy, therefore, had a favorable prognosis in 2 performance horses. PMID:24587510

  8. Distribution of Trichinella spiralis larvae in muscles from a naturally infected horse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Pozio; G. V. Celano; L. Sacchi; C. Pavia; P. Rossi; A. Tamburrini; S. Corona; G. La Rosa

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations conducted during 10 trichinellosis outbreaks between 1975 and 1994 showed that horse-meat was the probable source of infection. Though hundreds of thousands of horses have been examined at abattoirs in America and Europe to detect Trichinella infection by artificial digestion or trichinelloscopy, an infected horse has never been detected during routine analysis, which consists of examining 1 g

  9. Rhodococcus equi-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Immune Horses and Development in Asymptomatic Foals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin M. Patton; Travis C. McGuire; Melissa T. Hines; Robert H. Mealey; Stephen A. Hines

    2005-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important cause of pneumonia in young horses; however, adult horses are immune due to their ability to mount protective recall responses. In this study, the hypothesis that R. equi-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are present in the lung of immune horses was tested. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-derived pulmonary T lymphocytes stimulated with R. equi lysed infected alveolar

  10. An assessment of mucosal immunisation in protection against Streptococcus equi (‘Strangles’) infections in horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona J. Wallace; Julie D. Emery; Allan W. Cripps; Alan J. Husband

    1995-01-01

    The ability of mucosally administered antigen to provide protection against Streptococcus equi (‘Strangles’) infections in horses was examined. First, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect the immune status of horses to S. equi. This assay was used to select Strangles-naive horses for the study and also to monitor their response to immunisation. Potential vaccine candidates were:

  11. Comparative utilization of horse-bean and soyabean oil-meal by lactating sows

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparative utilization of horse-bean and soyabean oil-meal by lactating sows II. &mdash either in form of soyabean oil-meal !5 or horse-bean of the variety « Pavane difference between the two groups, confirming the good digestibility and metabolic utilization of the horse-bean

  12. Note types and coding in Parid vocalizations: the chick-a-dee call of the chestnut-backed chickadee (Poecile rufuscens).

    PubMed

    Hoeschele, Marisa; Gammon, David E; Moscicki, Michele K; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2009-10-01

    A first step to understanding how a species communicates acoustically is to identify, categorize, and quantify the acoustic parameters of the elements that make up their vocalizations. The "chick-a-dee" call notes of the chestnut-backed chickadee (Poecile rufescens) were sorted into four call note categories, A, C, D, and Dh notes, based on their acoustic structure as observed in sound spectrograms, and evaluated based on the syntactical ordering of the note types within calls. The notes were then analyzed using quantitative measures and it was determined which features have the potential to convey information to discriminate note type, individual, and the geographic origin of the producer. The findings were comparable to previous research of congeners in that chestnut-backed chickadee calls were produced with a relatively fixed syntax and contained similarly structured note types across all geographic regions. Overall this information will form a base for future research on chestnut-backed chickadee vocalizations and will strengthen the foundation for future comparative evolutionary studies. PMID:19813818

  13. [Phylogeny, form and function of canine teeth in the horse].

    PubMed

    Vollmerhaus, B; Roos, H; Gerhards, H; Knospe, C

    2003-08-01

    The canine teeth of the horse developed phylogenically from the simple, pointed, short-rooted tooth form of the leaf eating, in pairs living, Eocene horse Hyracotherium and served up to the Oligocene as a means of defense (self preservation). In the Miocene the living conditions of the Merychippus changed and they took to eating grass and adopted as a new behavior the life in a herd. The canine teeth possibly played an important role in fights for social ranking; they changed from a crown form to knife-like shape. In the Pliohippus the canine tooth usually remained in male horses and since the Pliocene, it contributed to the fights between stallions, to ensure that the offspring only came from the strongest animals (preservation of the species). Form and construction of the canine tooth are described and discussed in detail under the above mentioned phylogenic and ethologic aspects. PMID:12919071

  14. Immune response against equine gammaherpesvirus in Icelandic horses.

    PubMed

    Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Roelse, Mieke; Olafsdóttir, Gudbjörg; Thorsteinsdóttir, Lilja; Torfason, Einar G; Torsteinsdóttir, Sigurbjörg

    2009-06-12

    Horses are hosts to two types of gammaherpesviruses, equine herpes virus (EHV) 2 and 5. While EHV-2 is ubiquitous in adult horses, EHV-5 has been less frequently described. Due to strong serological cross-reactivity, EHV-2 and -5 cannot be discriminated in broad spectrum antibody tests and are thus commonly referred to as gamma-EHV. Total IgG and IgG subclass response against gamma-EHV were determined in serum from 41 healthy Icelandic horses, thereof 20 adults, 10 foals aged 10 months, and 11 foals aged 1-4 months. Additionally, in 10 of the adult horses, interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 expression were measured by real-time PCR in white blood cells upon in vitro stimulation with EHV-2. With the exception of one orphan foal, all tested individuals were seropositive for gamma-EHV. All but one adult had high titer of EHV-specific IgG4/7 (IgGb) in combination with much lower titer of IgG1 (IgGa) and IgG3/5 (IgG(T)), indicating a stabilized response. IgG titer and subclasses in the foals showed considerably more variation, possibly dependant on maternal antibodies and/or recent infection. In all the 10 horses tested for cytokine expression, IFN-gamma production exceeds production of IL-4. These results indicate that equine gammaherpesvirus infection is characterized by an induction of IgG1, IgG4/7 and IgG3/5 with prevailing IgG4/7 and cytokine profile dominated by IFN-gamma. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cytokine and IgG subclass response against gamma-EHV in horses. PMID:19217222

  15. Genome-Wide Detection of Copy Number Variations among Diverse Horse Breeds by Array CGH

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chenglin; Xing, Yanping; Cao, Junwei; Wu, Kaifeng; Liu, Chunxia; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yanru; Zhou, Huanmin

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have found that copy number variations (CNVs) are widespread in human and animal genomes. CNVs are a significant source of genetic variation, and have been shown to be associated with phenotypic diversity. However, the effect of CNVs on genetic variation in horses is not well understood. In the present study, CNVs in 6 different breeds of mare horses, Mongolia horse, Abaga horse, Hequ horse and Kazakh horse (all plateau breeds) and Debao pony and Thoroughbred, were determined using aCGH. In total, seven hundred CNVs were identified ranging in size from 6.1 Kb to 0.57 Mb across all autosomes, with an average size of 43.08 Kb and a median size of 15.11 Kb. By merging overlapping CNVs, we found a total of three hundred and fifty-three CNV regions (CNVRs). The length of the CNVRs ranged from 6.1 Kb to 1.45 Mb with average and median sizes of 38.49 Kb and 13.1 Kb. Collectively, 13.59 Mb of copy number variation was identified among the horses investigated and accounted for approximately 0.61% of the horse genome sequence. Five hundred and eighteen annotated genes were affected by CNVs, which corresponded to about 2.26% of all horse genes. Through the gene ontology (GO), genetic pathway analysis and comparison of CNV genes among different breeds, we found evidence that CNVs involving 7 genes may be related to the adaptation to severe environment of these plateau horses. This study is the first report of copy number variations in Chinese horses, which indicates that CNVs are ubiquitous in the horse genome and influence many biological processes of the horse. These results will be helpful not only in mapping the horse whole-genome CNVs, but also to further research for the adaption to the high altitude severe environment for plateau horses. PMID:24497987

  16. Thirteen cases of botulism in horses fed big bale silage.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, S W; Greet, T R; Glyn, P J; Ginnett, C D; McAllister, E P; McCaig, J; Skinner, P H; Webbon, P M; Frape, D L; Smith, G R

    1984-11-01

    An outbreak of pharyngeal and limb paresis involving four horses and nine ponies in the south east of England is described. Nine of the animals died or were destroyed on humane grounds. The clinical features suggested a diagnosis of botulism and mouse innoculation tests confirmed the presence of type B toxin in the serum of one case. All animals were fed big bale silage. It is describe how, in plastic wrapped silage manufacture, conditions of fermentation may be inadequate to prevent the growth of Clostridium botulism. Examination of a sample of silage fed to the affected horses suggested that this was probably the source of the toxin. PMID:6394315

  17. Trojan Horse attacks on Quantum Key Distribution systems

    E-print Network

    Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, B; Zbinden, H; Ribordy, G

    2005-01-01

    General Trojan horse attacks on quantum key distribution systems are analyzed. We illustrate the power of such attacks with today's technology and conclude that all system must implement active counter-measures. In particular all systems must include an auxiliary detector that monitors any incoming light. We show that such counter-measures can be efficient, provided enough additional privacy amplification is applied to the data. We present a practical way to reduce the maximal information gain that an adversary can gain using Trojan horse attacks.

  18. Experimental intraspinal trypanosoma equiperdum infection in a horse.

    PubMed

    Barrowman, P R

    1976-12-01

    To establish the ability of Trypanosoma equiperdum to cross the blood-brain-barrier in the horse, a susceptible stallion was infected via the cerebrospinal fluid of the subarachnoid space by lumbosacral puncture. Cerebrospinal fluid with low detectable levels of trypanosomes removed from a dourine-infected mare by lumbosacral puncture was used for infecting the animal. The parasite was detected in blood smears of the recipient 13 days after infection and the subsequent parasitaemia and clinical course of the disease followed that of naturally infected horses. PMID:1023092

  19. Evaluation of pulmonary ventilation in horses during methoxyflurane anesthesia

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Don Reed

    1976-01-01

    OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Veterinary Medicine and Surgery EVALUATION OF PULMONARY VENTILATION IN HORSES DURING METHOXYFLURANE ANESTHESIA A Thesis by DON REED McDONALD Approved as to style and content by; Chairman o Committee Head... adequate anesthesia and analges1a for equine surgery. Horses maintained w1th methoxyflurane anesthes1a and spon- taneous resp1ration developed a resp1ratory acidosis due to an elevated pCOp. Controlled ventilat1on corrected the resp1ratory acidosis...

  20. The effect of double bridles and jaw-clamping crank nosebands on facial cutaneous and ocular temperature in horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul McGreevy; Amanda Warren-Smith; Yann Guisard

    Any apparatus that restricts a horse’s movement can compromise welfare. Eye temperature as measured remotely using infrared thermography is emerging as a correlate of salivary cortisol concentrations in horses. This article explores the effect on the temperature of the eyes and facial skin of horses wearing devices that restrict jaw movements. In certain equestrian disciplines, unacceptable equine oral activity, such

  1. Salmonella Oranienburg isolated from horses, wild turkeys and an edible home garden fertilized with raw horse manure.

    PubMed

    Jay-Russell, M T; Madigan, J E; Bengson, Y; Madigan, S; Hake, A F; Foley, J E; Byrne, B A

    2014-02-01

    In July 2010, a horse from a rural farm (Farm A) in coastal Northern California was diagnosed with Salmonella Oranienburg infection following referral to a veterinary hospital for colic surgery. Environmental sampling to identify potential sources and persistence of Salmonella on the farm was conducted from August 2010 to March 2011. Salmonella was cultured using standard enrichment and selective plating. Pure colonies were confirmed by biochemical analysis, serotyped and compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. A total of 204 clinical and environmental samples at Farm A were analysed, and Salmonella spp. was isolated from six of eight (75%) horses, an asymptomatic pet dog, two of seven (28.6%) water samples from horse troughs, nine of 20 (45%) manure storage pile composites, 16 of 71 (22.5%) wild turkey faeces and four of 39 (10.3%) soil samples from the family's edible home garden. Well water and garden vegetable samples and horse faecal samples from a neighbouring ranch were negative. S. Oranienburg with a PFGE pattern indistinguishable from the horse clinical strain was found in all positive sample types on Farm A. The investigation illustrates the potential for widespread dissemination of Salmonella in a farm environment following equine infections. We speculate that a recent surge in the wild turkey population on the property could have introduced S. Oranienburg into the herd, although we cannot rule out the possibility wild turkeys were exposed on the farm or to other potential sources of Salmonella. Findings from the investigation indicated that raw horse manure applied as fertilizer was the most likely source of garden soil contamination. Viable S. Oranienburg persisted in garden soil for an estimated 210 days, which exceeds the 120-day standard between application and harvest currently required by the National Organic Program. The study underscores the need to educate the public about potential food safety hazards associated with using raw animal manure to fertilize edible home gardens. PMID:23425126

  2. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  3. A microsatellite analysis of five Colonial Spanish horse populations of the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Conant, E K; Juras, R; Cothran, E G

    2012-02-01

    The domestic horse (Equus caballus) was re-introduced to the Americas by Spanish explorers. Although horses from other parts of Europe were subsequently introduced, some New World populations maintain characteristics ascribed to their Spanish heritage. The southeastern United States has a history of Spanish invasion and settlement, and this influence on local feral horse populations includes two feral-recaptured breeds: the Florida Cracker and the Marsh Tacky, both of which are classified as Colonial Spanish horses. The feral Banker horses found on islands off the coast of North Carolina, which include, among others, the Shackleford Banks, the Corolla and the Ocracoke, are also Colonial Spanish horses. Herein we analyse 15 microsatellite loci from 532 feral and 2583 domestic horses in order to compare the genetic variation of these five Colonial Spanish Horse populations to 40 modern horse breeds. We find that the Corolla horse has very low heterozygosity and that both the Corolla and Ocracoke populations have a low mean number of alleles. We also find that the Florida Cracker population has a heterozygosity deficit. In addition, we find evidence of similarity of the Shackleford Banks, Marsh Tacky and Florida Cracker populations to New World Iberian horse breeds, while the origins of the other two populations are less clear. PMID:22221025

  4. Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers' Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience.

    PubMed

    Gille, Claudia; Kayser, Maike; Spiller, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the "amateurs", the "experienced" and the "experts". Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the "amateur" group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside "measureable" qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the "amateur" group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses. PMID:24833979

  5. Suspensory ligament degeneration associated with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in horses.

    PubMed

    Hofberger, Sina; Gauff, Felicia; Licka, Theresia

    2015-03-01

    In older horses, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and suspensory ligament (SL) degeneration are common. The aim of the present study was to identify histopathological changes in the SL in horses with PPID. SLs of four horses with clinical signs of PPID (17-26 years of age) were compared with SLs from four old horses (18-31 years of age) and three young horses (4-9 years of age). In horses with PPID, there was reduced longitudinal arrangement of collagen fibres in SLs, along with inclusions of cartilage, extracellular matrix and haemorrhage, as well as significant proteoglycan accumulations between SL fibres. These changes are similar to the degeneration of connective tissues in Peruvian Paso horses with SL degeneration and in humans with Cushing's disease or after long term high dose corticosteroid treatments. These findings indicate an association between degeneration of the SL and PPID. PMID:25641552

  6. The purification of cholinesterase from horse serum

    PubMed Central

    Main, A. Russell; Soucie, William G.; Buxton, Ian L.; Arinc, Emel

    1974-01-01

    A relatively simple method is described by which cholinesterase was purified about 19000-fold starting from horse serum. Typically 20 litres of serum were processed to yield 15–18mg of electrophoretically pure cholinesterase in the form of an active salt-free dry powder. The method included two stages: fractionation with (NH4)2SO4 and ion-exchange chromatography. The (NH4)2SO4 stage included, in principle, the acid (pH3) step of the Strelitz (1944) procedure. The step took advantage of the stabilizing effect that 33%-satd. (NH4)2SO4 has on cholinesterase activity at pH3 and it is recognized that in the absence of (NH4)2SO4 the enzyme is rapidly destroyed at pH3. Cholinesterase was significantly more stable to pH3.0 at 2°C than at 24°C, and the acid step was done at both temperatures. The specific activities of the final products obtained by way of acid steps were the same at either temperature, thus indicating that the step has not harmed the enzyme active sites. The product from the first two stages was purified over 18000-fold and was 85–90% cholinesterase. The remaining impurities were removed by preparative gel electrophoresis. The product was about 40% more active and contained 40% more active sites per unit weight than electrophoretically pure cholinesterase prepared from partially purified commercial starting material. Although the number of active sites per molecule was not determined with certainty, a value of at least 3 and possibly 4 was indicated. The partial specific volumes were determined with a precision density meter, on the ultracentrifuge and from the amino acid and carbohydrate composition. The values by these independent methods were 0.688, 0.71 and 0.712ml/g, respectively. The amino acid and carbohydrate composition was determined. The cholinesterase contained 17.4% carbohydrate including 3.2% N-acetylneuraminic acid. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2Fig. 3. PMID:4462752

  7. Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Ludovic; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Zhang, Guojie; Froese, Duane; Albrechtsen, Anders; Stiller, Mathias; Schubert, Mikkel; Cappellini, Enrico; Petersen, Bent; Moltke, Ida; Johnson, Philip L F; Fumagalli, Matteo; Vilstrup, Julia T; Raghavan, Maanasa; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Vogt, Josef; Szklarczyk, Damian; Kelstrup, Christian D; Vinther, Jakob; Dolocan, Andrei; Stenderup, Jesper; Velazquez, Amhed M V; Cahill, James; Rasmussen, Morten; Wang, Xiaoli; Min, Jiumeng; Zazula, Grant D; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Mortensen, Cecilie; Magnussen, Kim; Thompson, John F; Weinstock, Jacobo; Gregersen, Kristian; Rřed, Knut H; Eisenmann, Véra; Rubin, Carl J; Miller, Donald C; Antczak, Douglas F; Bertelsen, Mads F; Brunak, Sřren; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Ryder, Oliver; Andersson, Leif; Mundy, John; Krogh, Anders; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Kjćr, Kurt; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Olsen, Jesper V; Hofreiter, Michael; Nielsen, Rasmus; Shapiro, Beth; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

    2013-07-01

    The rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes. Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr BP). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43?kyr BP), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalski's horse (E. f. przewalskii) and a donkey (E. asinus). Our analyses suggest that the Equus lineage giving rise to all contemporary horses, zebras and donkeys originated 4.0-4.5?million years before present (Myr BP), twice the conventionally accepted time to the most recent common ancestor of the genus Equus. We also find that horse population size fluctuated multiple times over the past 2?Myr, particularly during periods of severe climatic changes. We estimate that the Przewalski's and domestic horse populations diverged 38-72?kyr BP, and find no evidence of recent admixture between the domestic horse breeds and the Przewalski's horse investigated. This supports the contention that Przewalski's horses represent the last surviving wild horse population. We find similar levels of genetic variation among Przewalski's and domestic populations, indicating that the former are genetically viable and worthy of conservation efforts. We also find evidence for continuous selection on the immune system and olfaction throughout horse evolution. Finally, we identify 29 genomic regions among horse breeds that deviate from neutrality and show low levels of genetic variation compared to the Przewalski's horse. Such regions could correspond to loci selected early during domestication. PMID:23803765

  8. Effects of a natural extract of chestnut wood on digestibility, performance traits, and nitrogen balance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, A; Guo, K; Tassone, S; Gasco, L; Hernandez, E; Denti, R; Zoccarato, I

    2008-03-01

    Currently, feed ingredients containing tannin are attracting more interest as substitutes for antibiotic growth promoters in animal and poultry feeding. This study investigated the influence of a natural extract of chestnut wood (Silvafeed ENC) on broiler digestibility (experiment 1) and on the growth performance, carcass quality, and nitrogen balance of broilers (experiment 2). Results showed that the inclusion of ENC did not influence the apparent digestibility of organic matter, CP, and ether extract. Chick growth performance showed a quadratic or cubic response with increasing levels of ENC. When chicks were fed ENC from 14 to 56 d of age, the ENC had a positive effect on average daily gain in the first 2 wk of addition, whereas this effect was not evident in the last 2 wk compared with the control group. Similar trends were also shown for daily feed intake. Overall, the chicks fed 0.20% ENC had significantly better growth performance than the control group. Carcass analysis showed no gross lesions in organs and no significant differences in thigh and breast composition among groups. Noteworthy is the fact that the ENC-treated groups had less total litter nitrogen; in particular, chicks fed 0.15 and 0.20% ENC showed a significant difference in total litter nitrogen compared with the control group. No significant difference in nitrogen balance was observed. Addition of 0.20% ENC seemed to have a positive influence on chick feeding. PMID:18281579

  9. A tangled tale of two teal: Population history of the grey Anas gracilis and chestnut teal a. castanea of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joseph, L.; Adcock, G.J.; Linde, C.; Omland, K.E.; Heinsohn, R.; Terry, Chesser R.; Roshier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two Australian species of teal (Anseriformes: Anatidae: Anas), the grey teal Anas gracilis and the chestnut teal A. castanea, are remarkable for the zero or near-zero divergence recorded between them in earlier surveys of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. We confirmed this result through wider geographical and population sampling as well as nucleotide sampling in the more rapidly evolving mtDNA control region. Any data set where two species share polymorphism as is the case here can be explained by a model of gene flow through hybridization on one hand or by incomplete lineage sorting on the other hand. Ideally, analysis of such shared polymorphism would simultaneously estimate the likelihood of both phenomena. To do this, we used the underlying principle of the IMa package to explore ramifications to understanding population histories of A. gracilis and A. castanea. We cannot reject that hybridization occurs between the two species but an equally or more plausible finding for their nearly zero divergence is incomplete sorting following very recent divergence between the two, probably in the mid-late Pleistocene. Our data add to studies that explore intermediate stages in the evolution of reciprocal monophyly and paraphyletic or polyphyletic relationships in mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian birds. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  10. Optimization of water curing for the preservation of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) and evaluation of microbial dynamics during process.

    PubMed

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Capua, Marika; Romano, Annalisa; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lactobacillus pentosus strain was selected for its ability to inhibit fungi, and used as a starter culture during water curing. As second goal, a reduction of the environmental impact of the process was evaluated by using water that had been re-cycled from a previous curing treatment. Experiments were performed on pilot as well as on farm scale. In all trials, microbial dynamics were evaluated by means of a polyphasic approach including conventional and molecular-based analyses. According to results, the employment of an adjunct culture appears as a very promising opportunity. Even if no reduction in the duration of the process was achieved, waters exhibited a minor microbial complexity and fruits did not lose the natural lustre after the process. PMID:24929716

  11. Immunoconversion against Sarcocystis neurona in normal and dexamethasone-treated horses challenged with S. neurona sporocysts.

    PubMed

    Cutler, T J; MacKay, R J; Ginn, P E; Gillis, K; Tanhauser, S M; LeRay, E V; Dame, J B; Greiner, E C

    2001-02-26

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a common neurologic disease of horses in the Americas usually caused by Sarcocystis neurona. To date, the disease has not been induced in horses using characterized sporocysts from Didelphis virginiana, the definitive host. S. neurona sporocysts from 15 naturally infected opossums were fed to horses seronegative for antibodies against S. neurona. Eight horses were given 5x10(5) sporocysts daily for 7 days. Horses were examined for abnormal clinical signs, and blood and cerebrospinal fluid were harvested at intervals for 90 days after the first day of challenge and analyzed both qualitatively (western blot) and quantitatively (anti-17kDa) for anti-S. neurona IgG. Four of the challenged horses were given dexamethasone (0.1mg/kg orally once daily) for the duration of the experiment. All challenged horses immunoconverted against S. neurona in blood within 32 days of challenge and in CSF within 61 days. There was a trend (P = 0.057) for horses given dexamethasone to immunoconvert earlier than horses that were not immunosuppressed. Anti-17kDa was detected in the CSF of all challenged horses by day 61. This response was statistically greater at day 32 in horses given dexamethasone. Control horses remained seronegative throughout the period in which all challenged horses converted. One control horse immunoconverted in blood at day 75 and in CSF at day 89. Signs of neurologic disease were mild to equivocal in challenged horses. Horses given dexamethasone had more severe signs of limb weakness than did horses not given dexamethasone; however, we could not determine whether these signs were due to spinal cord disease or to effects of systemic illness. At necropsy, mild-moderate multifocal gliosis and neurophagia were found histologically in the spinal cords of 7/8 challenged horses. No organisms were seen either in routinely processed sections or by immunohistochemistry. Although neurologic disease comparable to naturally occurring equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) was not produced, we had clear evidence of an immune response to challenge both systemically and in the CNS. Broad immunosuppression with dexamethasone did not increase the severity of histologic changes in the CNS of challenged horses. Future work must focus on defining the factors that govern progression of inapparent S. neurona infection to EPM. PMID:11223200

  12. TRYPANOSOMES FROM ELK AND HORSE FLIES IN NEW MEXICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERT B. DAVIEStand; GARY G. CLARKD

    A Trypanosoma sp. was isolated from five of seven yearling elk (Cervus canadensis) at Red Rock Wildlife Area and 29 of 31 horse flies (Hybomitra laticor- nis) collected in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico. To our knowledge, this represents the first isolation of trypanosomes from elk.

  13. The Size of Horses during the Industrial Revolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Komlos

    2004-01-01

    The size of military horses declined at the end of the eighteenth century, induced by climatic, agricultural, and demographic trends. The finding has important implications for our estimation of agricultural output and of food consumption during the period, insofar as the size of other domestic livestock might well have experienced a similar trend. An inference is made that the production

  14. Pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir and valganciclovir in the adult horse.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, R J; Whitfield, C; Maxwell, L K

    2013-10-01

    Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy, resulting from equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1) infection, is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in the horse. As compared to other antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir, ganciclovir has enhanced potency against EHV-1. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir and its oral prodrug, valganciclovir, in six adult horses in a randomized cross-over design. Ganciclovir sodium was administered intravenously as a slow bolus at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg, and valganciclovir was administered orally at a dose of 1800 mg per horse. Intravenously administered ganciclovir disposition was best described by a three-compartment model with a prolonged terminal half-life of 72 ± 9 h. Following the oral administration of valganciclovir, the mean observed maximum serum ganciclovir concentration was 0.58 ± 0.37 ?g/mL, and bioavailability of ganciclovir from oral valganciclovir was 41 ± 20%. Superposition predicted that oral dosing of 1800-mg valganciclovir two times daily would fail to produce and maintain effective plasma concentrations of ganciclovir. However, superposition suggested that i.v. administration of ganciclovir at 2.5 mg/kg every 8 h for 24 h followed by maintenance dosing of 2.5 mg/kg every 12 h would maintain effective ganciclovir serum concentrations in most horses throughout the dosing interval. PMID:23301502

  15. Use of supplemental intravenous anaesthesia\\/analgesia in horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Auckburally; Derek Flaherty

    2011-01-01

    General anaesthesia in horses is associated with a significant risk of both morbidity and mortality. One major factor contributing to this is the marked cardiopulmonary depression that occurs in this species in association with the use of volatile anaesthetic agents. Attempts to minimise the required volatile concentration for the maintenance of unconsciousness by administering additional injectable agents may have beneficial

  16. West Nile Virus Infection in Humans and Horses, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Maria Guadalupe; Fernández, Roberto; Llop, Alina; Dickinson, Félix Orlando; Pérez, Daniel; Cruz, Raúl; González, Tayri; Estévez, Gonzalo; González, Hiram; Santos, Paulino; Kourí, Gustavo; Andonova, Maya; Lindsay, Robbin; Artsob, Harvey; Drebot, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A surveillance system to detect West Nile virus (WNV) was established in Cuba in 2002. WNV infection was confirmed by serologic assays in 4 asymptomatic horses and 3 humans with encephalitis in 2003 and 2004. These results are the first reported evidence of WNV activity in Cuba. PMID:16707068

  17. LYMPHOCYTE RESPONSES AND IMMUNOPHENOTYPES IN HORSES WITH SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of horses with Sarcocystis neurona (S. neurona) is relatively widespread based on the prevalence of serum antibodies, but development of associated clinical disease is much less common. The host immune response is likely to be an important factor in determining outcome of infection with t...

  18. Equine Rabies: What Every Horse Owner Should Know

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    1 Equine Rabies: What Every Horse Owner Should Know Amanda M. House, DVM Diplomate ACVIM (Large.) ­ 2 ­ Bat variant · Worldwide distribution except UK, Ireland, Australia, NZ, Iceland, Scandanavia** · 93% were wildlife (raccoons ­ 34.9%, bats, skunks, foxes ) · 7% domestic animals (cats ­ 4.3%, dogs

  19. QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF THE PHOTOCHEMICAL DESPECIATION OF HORSE SERUM

    PubMed Central

    Henry, J. P.

    1942-01-01

    1. Normal horse serum was irradiated for periods of 3 to 4 days, with visible light or with ultraviolet light of known intensity and wave length. The photosensitizer hematoporphyrin was employed in some instances. The serum was exposed to the air in thin layers, and thoroughly agitated throughout irradiation. 2. The irradiated sera were unchanged in color, and over 90 per cent of the original protein content remained precipitable by phosphotungstic acid. 3. Studies of the antigenicity of the sera were carried out on guinea pigs and rabbits. Fresh antigenicities of deviated specificity and of an activity of the order of 1/50th, 1/1,000th, and less than 1/20,000th that of normal horse serum were obtained. The residual content of material having the same antigenic specificity as normal horse serum was estimated as approximately equivalent in activity to dilutions of normal horse serum of 1 cc., 1/10 cc., and less than 1/100 cc. per litre respectively. PMID:19871250

  20. Horse gram- an underutilized nutraceutical pulse crop: a review.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Saroj Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Horse gram is an underutilized pulse crop grown in wide range of adverse climatic conditions. It occupies an important place in human nutrition and has rich source of protein, minerals, and vitamins. Besides nutritional importance, it has been linked to reduced risk of various diseases due to presence of non-nutritive bioactive substances. These bioactive substances such as phytic acid, phenolic acid, fiber, enzymatic/proteinase inhibitors have significant metabolic and/or physiological effects. The importance of horse gram was well recognized by the folk/alternative/traditional medicine as a potential therapeutic agent to treat kidney stones, urinary diseases, piles, common cold, throat infection, fever etc. The inception of nutraceutical concept and increasing health consciousness the demand of nutraceutical and functional food is increased. In recent years, isolation and utilization of potential antioxidants from legumes including horse gram are increased as it decreases the risk of intestinal diseases, diabetes, coronary heart disease, prevention of dental caries etc. Keeping in view the increasing demand of food having nutraceutical values, the present review ascribed with recent scientific knowledge towards the possibilities of exploring the horse gram, as a source of food and nutraceuticals compounds. PMID:25892749

  1. Health Concerns of Migrant Backstretch Workers at Horse Racetracks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BA Nathaniel Dickey

    2010-01-01

    Background. Backstretch workers are part of an itinerant labor community that cares for horses at racetracks across the U.S. Since the 1970s, this workforce has increasingly been composed of migrants, especially from Mexico and Guatemala. No studies have focused systematic attention on health concerns of this population and how illness is influenced by unique working and living conditions. Methods. We

  2. Health Concerns of Migrant Backstretch Workers at Horse Racetracks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nolan Kline; Nathaniel Dickey

    2010-01-01

    :Background. Backstretch workers are part of an itinerant labor community that cares for horses at racetracks across the U.S. Since the 1970s, this workforce has increasingly been composed of migrants, especially from Mexico and Guatemala. No studies have focused systematic attention on health concerns of this population and how illness is influenced by unique working and living conditions. Methods. We

  3. Upper airway conditions in older horses, broodmares, and stallions.

    PubMed

    Embertson, R M

    1991-04-01

    Upper respiratory tract conditions of the older horse that are not necessarily associated with athletic exercise intolerance are discussed. Some of the diseases described include ethmoid hematoma, sinus disease, guttural pouch empyema and mycosis, retropharyngeal abscess, nasopharyngeal cicatrix, arytenoid chondropathy, and neoplasia. PMID:2054706

  4. Hematopoietic Neoplasias in Horses: Myeloproliferative and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    MUŃOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJÓN, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia. PMID:24833969

  5. On the Pleistocene Extinctions of Alaskan Mammoths and Horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew R. Solow; David L. Roberts; Karen M. Robbirt

    2006-01-01

    The fossil record has been used to shed light on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America and elsewhere. It is therefore important to account for variability due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and error in dating fossil remains. Here, a joint confidence region for the extinction times of horses and mammoths in Alaska is constructed. The

  6. On the Pleistocene extinctions of Alaskan mammoths and horses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew R. Solow; David L. Roberts; Karen M. Robbirt

    2006-01-01

    The fossil record has been used to shed light on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America and elsewhere. It is therefore important to account for variability due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and error in dating fossil remains. Here, a joint confidence region for the extinction times of horses and mammoths in Alaska is constructed. The

  7. CUTLEAF NIGHTSHADE (SOLANUM TRIFLORUMM NUTT.) TOXICITY IN HORSES AND HAMSTERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum triflorum Nutt. (cutleaf nightshade) poisoning has been associated with gastroenteritis, but poisoned horses have severe salivation, frequent urination, diarrhea and colic. The purpose of this study was to develop a small animal model of poisoning and if possible, identify the neurotoxin. ...

  8. Experimental transmission of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in horses by house flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The route of infection of pigeon fever remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to investigate house flies (Musca domestica L.) as vectors of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in horses. Eight ponies were used in a randomized, controlled, blinded experimental study. Ten wounds were creat...

  9. Streptococcal Meningitis Resulting from Contact with an Infected Horse

    PubMed Central

    Downar, James; Willey, Barbara M.; Sutherland, Jeffrey W.; Mathew, Kelly; Low, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of group C streptococcal meningitis in a woman with a history of close animal contact as well as head trauma as a result of a kick by a horse. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures grew Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, as did a throat culture taken from the colt that had kicked her 2 weeks prior to admission. PMID:11376093

  10. Wild Horses: Stories and Activities. The Wonder Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorehead, Carol Ann

    This curriculum guide is all about wild horses and provides information through the telling of stories about these animals and their history and folklore. The activities contained in this guide employ an interdisciplinary approach and use mazes, puzzles, model-building, and board games to interest and inform students. Topics covered include the…

  11. Dietary Change and Evolution of Horses in North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew C. Mihlbachler; Florent Rivals; Nikos Solounias; Gina M. Semprebon

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of high-crowned molars among horses (Family Equidae) is thought to be an adaptation for abrasive diets associated with the spread of grasslands. The sharpness and relief of the worn cusp apices of teeth (mesowear) are a measure of dietary abrasion. We collected mesowear data for North American Equidae for the past 55.5 million years to test the association

  12. Original article Cytogenetic analysis of horse oocytes matured

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by in vitro fertilization (IVF) has become a source of embryos for embryo transfer (ET) and geneticOriginal article Cytogenetic analysis of horse oocytes matured in vitro for different periods by aspiration and maturation in vitro for 24, 30, 36 or 42 h. A total of 522 oocytes were recovered from 2211

  13. African horse sickness in Portugal: a successful eradication programme.

    PubMed Central

    Portas, M.; Boinas, F. S.; Oliveira E Sousa, J.; Rawlings, P.

    1999-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) was diagnosed for the first time in southern Portugal in autumn 1989, following outbreaks in Spain. AHS virus presence was confirmed by virus isolation and serotyping. An eradication campaign with four sanitary zones was set up by Central Veterinary Services in close collaboration with private organizations. Vaccination began on 6 October. In February 1990, vaccination was extended to all Portuguese equines (170000 animals). There were 137 outbreaks on 104 farms: 206 of the equidae present died (16%) or were slaughtered (14%); 81.5% were horses, 10.7% were donkeys and 7.8% were mules. Clinical AHS occurred more frequently in horses than donkeys and mules. In the vaccinated population, 82 animals (62.2% horses and 37.8% mules and donkeys), died or were slaughtered due to suspected or confirmed AHS. One year after ending vaccination, December 1991, Portugal was declared free of AHS. Cost of eradication was US$1955513 (US$11.5/Portuguese equine). PMID:10579455

  14. Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in Horses, Austria, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, James O.; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Hubálek, Zdenek; Svobodová, Petra; Lussy, Helga

    2013-01-01

    An unexpectedly high infection rate (26.1%) of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was identified in a herd of 257 horses of the same breed distributed among 3 federal states in Austria. Young age (p<0.001) and male sex (p = 0.001) were positively associated with infection. PMID:23631894

  15. TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICANAMERICAN SOLDIERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICAN-AMERICAN SOLDIERS, POST IN 1939 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1939.00.00.06, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  16. Physical Fitness and Mitochondrial Respiratory Capacity in Horse Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Hélčne; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Background Within the animal kingdom, horses are among the most powerful aerobic athletic mammals. Determination of muscle respiratory capacity and control improves our knowledge of mitochondrial physiology in horses and high aerobic performance in general. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied high-resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration protocols to study mitochondrial physiology in small (1.0–2.5 mg) permeabilized muscle fibres sampled from triceps brachii of healthy horses. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity (pmol O2•s?1•mg?1 wet weight) with combined Complex I and II (CI+II) substrate supply (malate+glutamate+succinate) increased from 77±18 in overweight horses to 103±18, 122±15, and 129±12 in untrained, trained and competitive horses (N?=?3, 8, 16, and 5, respectively). Similar to human muscle mitochondria, equine OXPHOS capacity was limited by the phosphorylation system to 0.85±0.10 (N?=?32) of electron transfer capacity, independent of fitness level. In 15 trained horses, OXPHOS capacity increased from 119±12 to 134±37 when pyruvate was included in the CI+II substrate cocktail. Relative to this maximum OXPHOS capacity, Complex I (CI)-linked OXPHOS capacities were only 50% with glutamate+malate, 64% with pyruvate+malate, and 68% with pyruvate+malate+glutamate, and ?78% with CII-linked succinate+rotenone. OXPHOS capacity with glutamate+malate increased with fitness relative to CI+II-supported ETS capacity from a flux control ratio of 0.38 to 0.40, 0.41 and 0.46 in overweight to competitive horses, whereas the CII/CI+II substrate control ratio remained constant at 0.70. Therefore, the apparent deficit of the CI- over CII-linked pathway capacity was reduced with physical fitness. Conclusions/Significance The scope of mitochondrial density-dependent OXPHOS capacity and the density-independent (qualitative) increase of CI-linked respiratory capacity with increased fitness open up new perspectives of integrative and comparative mitochondrial respiratory physiology. PMID:22529950

  17. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. Are common in Oklahoma horses.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Robert C; Duell, Jason R; Holbrook, Todd C; Herrin, Brian H; Leutenegger, Christian M; O'Connor, Thomas P; Little, Susan E

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Tick infestations and infection with tick-borne agents are commonly recognized in horses in North America, but equine infection with true Ehrlichia spp. has not been described. To determine the degree to which horses in the south-central United States are naturally exposed to and infected with tick-borne disease agents, serum samples were collected at random (n=240) or from horses with active tick infestations (n=73) and tested by immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for evidence of antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi. Positive samples were further evaluated by species-specific serology for antibodies reactive to E. canis and E. chaffeensis, and whole blood samples were tested by PCR for evidence of infection with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and an E. ruminantium-like organism referred to as the Panola Mountain Ehrlichia. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were identified in 8.75% (21/240) of the randomly acquired samples and 24.7% (18/73) of the serum samples from tick-infested horses, but species-specific ELISA and PCR failed to confirm exposure to or infection with any known Ehrlichia spp. Antibodies to Anaplasma spp. (5/313; 1.6%) and B. burgdorferi (3/313; 1.0%) were uncommon. These data suggest that horses in the south-central United States are likely exposed to a novel Ehrlichia sp. Further research is needed to identify the etiologic agent responsible for the serologic activity seen and to determine the clinical significance, if any, of this finding. PMID:25072984

  18. Immunoblot analysis of the humoral immune response to Pythium insidiosum in horses with pythiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, L; Nicholson, V; Prescott, J F

    1992-01-01

    Reactions to Pythium insidiosum by sera from horses with active pythiosis were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. Five strains of P. insidiosum were grown in nutrient broth and then sonicated. After centrifugation, supernatant antigens were separated by SDS-PAGE. An exoantigen of Conidiobolus coronatus was also tested. Bands with molecular weights between 97,000 and 14,000 were identified by Coomassie blue and silver staining. After being transferred to nitrocellulose, the antigens were reacted against sera from six horses with pythiosis, sera from four horses cured a year earlier by vaccination, and sera from five healthy horses. The sera from horses with pythiosis recognized at least 20 antigens in all strains. Three antigens with molecular weights of 32,000, 30,000, and 28,000 appeared to be immunodominant and specific. Sera from horses cured by immunotherapy showed only five very weak bands, three of them the 32,000-molecular-weight (32K), 30K, and 28K antigens. No bands were observed with sera from healthy horses or sera from horses with a variety of other infections. Sera from horses with pythiosis cross-reacted with the 44K antigen of C. coronatus. The immunodominant antigens described here may be useful for diagnostic purposes and in immunotherapy for this oomycotic infection in horses. Images PMID:1452669

  19. Immune response to Sarcocystis neurona infection in naturally infected horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jibing; Ellison, Siobhan; Gogal, Robert; Norton, Heather; Lindsay, David S; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Witonsky, Sharon

    2006-06-15

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is one of the most common neurologic diseases of horses in the United States. The primary etiologic agent is Sarcocystis neurona. Currently, there is limited knowledge regarding the protective or pathophysiologic immune response to S. neurona infection or the subsequent development of EPM. The objectives of this study were to determine whether S. neurona infected horses with clinical signs of EPM had altered or suppressed immune responses compared to neurologically normal horses and if blood sample storage would influence these findings. Twenty clinically normal horses and 22 horses with EPM, diagnosed by the presence of S. neurona specific antibodies in the serum and/or cerebrospinal (CSF) and clinical signs, were evaluated for differences in the immune cell subsets and function. Our results demonstrated that naturally infected horses had significantly (P<0.05) higher percentages of CD4 T-lymphocytes and neutrophils (PMN) in separated peripheral blood leukocytes than clinically normal horses. Leukocytes from naturally infected EPM horses had significantly lower proliferation responses, as measured by thymidine incorporation, to a non-antigen specific mitogen than did clinically normal horses (P<0.05). Currently, studies are in progress to determine the role of CD4 T cells in disease and protection against S. neurona in horses, as well as to determine the mechanism associated with suppressed in vitro proliferation responses. Finally, overnight storage of blood samples appears to alter T lymphocyte phenotypes and viability among leukocytes. PMID:16563631

  20. Radiographic and scintigraphic evaluation of the third carpal bone of control horses and horses with carpal lameness.

    PubMed

    Simon, Valerie; Dyson, Sue J

    2012-01-01

    We compared the radiographic and scintigraphic findings in the third carpal bone of horses performing different work disciplines and investigated their relationship with lameness. Horses had undergone carpal radiography including acquisition of a dorsoproximal-dorsodistal oblique (DPr-DDiO) image of the distal row of carpal bones and/or scintigraphic examination of the carpi. Cause of lameness, breed, age, and work discipline were recorded. Increased opacity in the third carpal bone was graded, ratio of radiopharmaceutical uptake calculated objectively, and increased radiopharmaceutical uptake graded subjectively. Relationships between radiographic, scintigraphic, and clinical findings were assessed statistically. Increased opacity in the third carpal bone (P = 0.003) and ratio of radiopharmaceutical uptake (P = 0.015) were associated with the work discipline. Increased opacity in the third carpal bone was associated with both increased radiopharmaceutical uptake grade (P = 0.002; rs = 0.59) and ratio of radiopharmaceutical uptake (P = 0.013; rs = 0.46). Increased radiopharmaceutical uptake and increased opacity in the third carpal bone were not always observed concurrently. Lameness related to the middle carpal joint was associated with increased opacity (P < 0.001), ratio of radiopharmaceutical uptake (P = 0.037), and increased radiopharmaceutical uptake grade (P < 0.001). Radiographic and scintigraphic abnormalities were observed in horses performing all disciplines, indicating that high-speed exercise may not be the only factor determining the development of osseous disease in the third carpal bone. Both increased opacity and increased radiopharmaceutical uptake were more likely to be seen in horses with lameness related to the middle carpal joint than in horses with other sources of pain. PMID:22540637