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1

Antiinflammatory effect of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds.  

PubMed

The antiinflammatory effects of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds were examined in vivo and in vitro. The extract of this seed (HCSE) inhibited croton oil-induced swelling of the mouse concha. HCSE inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX) -1 and -2 activities, but had no effect on 15-lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 activities. Inhibition of COX-2 occurred at a lower concentration of HCSE than for COX-1. Japanese horse chestnut seeds contain coumarins and saponins, but these chemicals did not inhibit COX activities. These results suggest that the antiinflammatory effect of Japanese horse chestnut seeds is caused, at least partly, by the inhibition of COX. The inhibitor of COX in this seed may be a chemical(s) other than coumarins and saponins. PMID:16757892

Sato, Itaru; Kofujita, Hisayoshi; Suzuki, Tadahiko; Kobayashi, Haruo; Tsuda, Shuji

2006-05-01

2

Triazole induced drought tolerance in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum).  

PubMed

We determined the influence of the triazole derivatives paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole, propiconazole and myclobutanil on the drought tolerance and post drought recovery of container-grown horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) saplings. Myclobutanil neither conferred drought resistance, as assessed by its effects on a number of physiological and biochemical parameters, nor affected growth parameters measured after recovery from drought. Chlorophyll fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)), photosynthetic rates, total foliar chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, foliar proline concentration and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were consistently higher and leaf necrosis and cellular electrolyte leakage was lower at the end of a 3-week drought in trees treated with paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole or propiconazole than in control trees. Twelve weeks after drought treatment, leaf area and shoot, root and total plant dry masses were greater in triazole-treated trees than in control trees with the exception of those treated with myclobutanil. In a separate study, trees were subjected to a 2-week drought and then sprayed with paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole, propiconazole or myclobutanil. Chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic rate, foliar chlorophyll concentration and catalase activity over the following 12 weeks were 20 to 50% higher in triazole-treated trees than in control trees. At the end of the 12-week recovery period, leaf area and shoot, root and total plant dry masses were higher in triazole-treated trees than in control trees, with the exception of trees treated with myclobutanil. Application of triazole derivatives, with the exception of myclobutanil, enhanced tolerance to prolonged drought and, when applied after a 2-week drought, hastened recovery from drought. The magnitude of treatment effects was in the order epixiconazole approximately propiconazole > penconazole > paclobutrazol > myclobutanil. PMID:18765373

Percival, Glynn C; Noviss, Kelly

2008-11-01

3

Identification of COX inhibitors in the hexane extract of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds.  

PubMed

Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seed extract inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), but its active constituents have not been identified. In the present study, COX inhibitors were isolated from the hexane extract of this seed by means of 4 steps of liquid chromatography and were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The COX inhibitors in the extract of Japanese horse chestnut seeds were identified as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic acid. Their efficacies were in the following order: linolenic acid = linoleic acid > oleic acid. These active constituents are C18 unsaturated fatty acids; stearic acid, a C18 saturated fatty acid, had no activity. Linolenic acid and linoleic acid had high selectivity toward COX-2 (selectivity index = 10), whereas oleic acid had no selectivity. Considering the efficacy and yield of each fatty acid, linoleic acid may be the principal COX inhibitor in this seed. PMID:17675801

Sato, Itaru; Kofujita, Hisayoshi; Tsuda, Shuji

2007-07-01

4

Phylogeography of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) in the Japanese Archipelago based on chloroplast DNA haplotypes.  

PubMed

Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata: Hippocastanaceae) is one of the typical woody plants that grow in temperate riparian forests in the Japanese Archipelago. To analyze the phylogeography of this plant in the Japanese Archipelago, we determined cpDNA haplotypes for 337 samples from 55 populations covering the entire distribution range. Based on 1,313 bp of two spacers, we determined ten haplotypes that are distinguished from adjacent haplotypes by one or two steps. Most of the populations had a single haplotype, suggesting low diversity. Spatial analysis of molecular variance suggested three obvious phylogeographic structures in western Japan, where Japanese horse chestnut is scattered and isolated in mountainous areas. Conversely, no clear phylogeographic structure was observed from the northern to the southern limit of this species, including eastern Japan, where this plant is more common. Rare and private haplotypes were also found in southwestern Japan, where Japanese horse chestnuts are distributed sparsely. These findings imply that western Japan might have maintained a relatively large habitat for A. turbinata during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, while northerly regions could not. PMID:20549293

Sugahara, Kanako; Kaneko, Yuko; Ito, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Sakio, Hitoshi; Hoshizaki, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Wajiro; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

2011-01-01

5

[Micrococcus sp.--the pathogen of leaf necrosis of horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.) in Kiev].  

PubMed

A group of phytopathogenic bacteria was isolated from patterns of drying horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.), which grow in Kyiv. The properties of slowly growing, highly aggressive microorganisms have been described in the paper. They grow up on the 8-10th day after sowing. The investigated microorganisms form very small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) colonies on the potato agar. Bacteria are protuberant, shining, smooth with flat edges, they are pale yellow, yellow, or pink. The bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical, are disposed in smears singly, in pairs, as accumulations, or netting. They are aerobes, do not form spores, are not mobile. They are inert in respect of different sources of carbon. They reduce nitrates, do not dilute gelatin, do not hydrolyze starch, do not release hydrogen sulphide and indole. The bacteria are catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. They do not cause potato and carrot rot. They lose quickly their viability under the laboratory conditions. The saturated acids C 14:0; C 15:0; C16:0; C18:0 have been revealed in the composition of cellular fatty acids. Microorganisms are identified as Micrococcus sp. Under artificial inoculation this highly aggressive pathogen causes drying of the horse-chestnut buds and necrosis, which occupies 1/3-1/2 of the leaf plate. A wide zone of chlorosis, surrounding necrosis, may occupy the whole leaf surface. The infected leaves use to twist up from the top (apex) or along a midrib and to dry. PMID:23866588

Iakovleva, L M; Makhinia, L V; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

2013-01-01

6

Flavonoids in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds and powdered waste water byproducts.  

PubMed

Horse chestnut extracts are widely used in pharmacy and cosmetic industries. The main active constituents are saponins of oleane type, but seeds of horse chestnut also contain flavonoids, being glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Their contribution to the overall activity of the extracts was not clear. In the present work, the main flavonoids from horse chestnut seeds were isolated and their structures established with spectral methods. Seven glycosides were isolated, out of which six ( 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 13) were previously reported and one ( 9) was identified as a new tamarixetin 3- O- [beta- d-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)]- O-beta- d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)- O-beta- d-glucopyranoside. The structures of three additional compounds 1, 10, and 12, not previously reported, were deduced on the basis of their LC-ESI/MS/MS fragmentation characteristics. A new ultraperformance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method has been developed for profiling and quantitation of horse chestnut flavonoids. The method allowed good separation over 4.5 min. Thirteen compounds could be identified in the profile, out of which di- and triglycoisdes of quercetin and kaempferol were the dominant forms and their acylated forms occurred in just trace amounts. The total concentration of flavonoids in the powdered horse chestnut seed was 0.88% of dry matter. The alcohol extract contained 3.46%, and after purification on C18 solid phase, this concentration increased to 9.40% of dry matter. The flavonoid profile and their content were also measured in the horse chestnut wastewater obtained as byproduct in industrial processing of horse chestnut seeds. The total flavonoid concentration in the powder obtained after evaporation of water was 2.58%, while after purification on solid phase, this increased to 11.23% dry matter. It was concluded that flavonoids are present in a horse chestnut extract in a relatively high amount and have the potential to contribute to the overall activity of these extracts. Industrial horse chestnut wastewater can be used to obtain quercetine and kaempferol glycosides for cosmetic, nutraceutical, and food supplement industries. PMID:17867637

Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo; Franceschi, Federico; Franz, Chlodwig; Oleszek, Wieslaw

2007-10-17

7

Fractionation and structural characterization of polyphenolic antioxidants from seed shells of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata BLUME).  

PubMed

Seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata BLUME) contain high levels of polyphenolic antioxidants. These compounds were extracted, fractionated, and finally separated into three fractions, F1, F2, and F3, according to their degrees of polymerization. The structures of the isolated fractions were characterized by a combination of mass spectrometric analyses. F1 contained mainly low molecular weight phenolic substances, including procyanidin trimers. The predominant fractions F2 and F3 consisted of polymeric proanthocyanidins having a series of heteropolyflavan-3-ols, (+)-catechin/(-)-epicatechin units, and polymerization degrees of 19 and 23, respectively. The polyphenol polymers had doubly linked A-type interflavan linkages in addition to single B-type bonds without gallic acid esterified to them. The isolated polyphenolic compounds exhibited potent antioxidative activities comparable to monomeric (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, or more efficacious than those monomers. The results suggest the potential usefulness of polyphenol polymers from seed shells as a source for nutraceutical factors. PMID:19053354

Ogawa, Satoshi; Kimura, Hideto; Niimi, Ai; Katsube, Takuya; Jisaka, Mitsuo; Yokota, Kazushige

2008-12-24

8

Antiobese effects of novel saponins from edible seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata BLUME) after treatment with wood ashes.  

PubMed

Recently, we have identified novel saponins from edible seeds of Japanese horse chestnut ( Aesculus turbinata BLUME) after processing the natural seeds with wood ashes to remove bitterness. We attempted to determine anti-obesity effects of those saponins from edible seeds as well as natural seeds. The purified individual components of saponins from natural and edible seeds inhibited pancreatic lipase in vitro. The potency was in the order of escins > desacylescins > deacetylescins. Escins Ib and IIb as well as deacetylescins Ib and IIb with the angeloyl moiety were more potent than the corresponding Ia and IIa series with the tigloyl moiety. Moreover, in vivo anti-obesity effects of the saponin fractions were monitored for 8 weeks in mice fed high-fat diets. Saponin fractions from both seeds significantly attenuated the elevation in body weight, the mass of peritoneal adipose tissues, and plasma triacylglycerol, which was accompanied by higher contents of undigested fats in feces without changes in food intake, indicating the effective inhibition of fat digestion in vivo. Taken together, saponin fractions including desacylescins and deacetylescins from edible seeds are potentially useful for the development of nutraceutical foods with anti-obesity effects and more attenuated bitter taste. PMID:18512932

Kimura, Hideto; Ogawa, Satoshi; Katsube, Takuya; Jisaka, Mitsuo; Yokota, Kazushige

2008-06-25

9

Transient etiolation: protochlorophyll(ide) and chlorophyll forms in differentiating plastids of closed and breaking leaf buds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum).  

PubMed

An accompanying paper reports the accumulation of photoactive protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) in the innermost leaf primordia of buds of many tree species. In this paper, we describe plastid differentiation, changes in pigment concentrations and spectral properties of bud scales and leaf primordia of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) from January until the end of bud break in April. The bud scales contained plastids with grana, stroma thylakoids characteristic of chloroplasts and large dense bodies within the stroma. In January, proplastids and young chloroplasts were present in the leaf primordia, and the fluorescence spectra of the primordia were similar to those of green leaves except for a minor band at 630 nm, indicative of a protochlorophyll(ide). During bud break, the pigment concentrations of the green bud scales and the outermost leaf primordia increased, and Pchlide forms with emission maxima at 633, 644 and 655 nm accumulated in the middle and innermost leaf primordia. Depending on the position of the leaf primordia within the bud, their plastids and their pigment concentrations varied. Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and prothylakoids with developing grana were observed in the innermost leaves. Besides the above-mentioned Pchlide forms, the middle and innnermost leaf primordia contained only a Chl band with an emission maximum at 686 nm. The outermost leaf primordia contained etio-chloroplasts with well-developed grana and small, narrow-type PLBs. These outermost leaves contained only chlorophyll forms like the mature green leaves. No Pchlide accumulation was observed after bud break, indicating that etiolation of the innermost and middle leaves is transient. The Pchlide forms and the plastid types of the primordia in buds grown in nature were similar to those of leaves of dark-germinated seedlings and to those of the leaf primordia of dark-forced buds. We conclude that transient etiolation occurs under natural conditions. The formation of PLBs and etio-chloroplasts and the accumulation of the light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase are involved in the natural greening process and ontogenesis of young leaf primordia of horse chestnut buds. PMID:16651258

Solymosi, Katalin; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

2006-08-01

10

Effects of polyphenols from seed shells of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata BLUME) on methotrexate-induced intestinal injury in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of polyphenols from seed shells of Japanese horse chestnut (JHP) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced intestinal injury in rats. MTX application caused intestinal morphological injury and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, decrease in levels of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in small intestine. However, oral administration of JHP ameliorated MTX-induced intestinal injury and inhibited the increase in MDA and the decrease in GSH and GSH-Px activity in small intestine. In conclusion, our results indicated that oral administration of JHP alleviated MTX-induced intestinal injury through its antioxidant properties. PMID:21173553

Sugiyama, Akihiko; Kimura, Hideto; Ogawa, Satoshi; Yokota, Kazushige; Takeuchi, Takashi

2011-05-01

11

Coumarins in horse chestnut flowers: isolation and quantification by UPLC method.  

PubMed

The coumarins: scopoletin, esculetin and fraxetin were isolated from the flowers of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae) and identified by spectrophotometric methods (UV, 1H, 13C NMR, ESI-MS). Their content, determined using the Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), was 0.41, 0.13 and 0.05%, respectively. PMID:23757942

Dudek-Makuch, Marlena; Mat?awska, Irena

2013-01-01

12

Horse Chestnut: Cultivation for Ornamental Purposes and Non-Food Crop Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) is a common ornamental tree that possesses numerous useful derivatives (escin, cholesterol-escin complex, glycolic, soft and dry extracts, esculin) in different parts of the plant, especially the seeds and trunk bark. These derivatives are widely used in dermatology and pharmacology, mainly for the treatment of peripheral chronic venous insufficiency, but also in the cosmetic

E. Bellini; S. Nin

2005-01-01

13

[The study of horse chestnut leaf parameters].  

PubMed

In order to prepare the new remedy--the tincture of leafs of horse-chestnut, we studied technological parameters of the vegetal material. With the purpose of definition of optimal conditions of extraction of operating substance from vegetative raw materials, calculation of norm of raw material charge and extractive by development technological regulations, and also for management for process of extracting have been studied some technological properties of horse-chestnut. In the course of experimental works, there were specified relative density, bulk weight and volume weight; porosity, free volume of a layer of a raw material, rate of water absorption. The results of studies are used in development of technology of tincture of horse-chestnut leaves. PMID:17261894

Goletiani, K; Bashura, A; Polovko, N; Bashura, A; Tsagareishvili, G

2006-12-01

14

Horse chestnut extract induces contraction force generation in fibroblasts through activation of Rho/Rho kinase.  

PubMed

Contraction forces generated by non-muscle cells such as fibroblasts play important roles in determining cell morphology, vasoconstriction, and/or wound healing. However, few factors that induce cell contraction forces are known, such as lysophosphatidic acid and thrombin. Our study analyzed various plant extracts for ingredients that induce generation of cell contraction forces in fibroblasts populating collagen gels. We found that an extract of Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is able to induce such contraction forces in fibroblasts. The involvement of actin polymerization and stress fiber formation in the force generation was suggested by inhibition of this effect by cytochalasin D and by Rhodamine phalloidin. Rho kinase inhibitors (Y27632 and HA1077) and a Rho inhibitor (exoenzyme C3) significantly inhibited the force generation induced by the Horse chestnut extract. H7, which inhibits Rho kinase as well as other protein kinases, also significantly inhibited induction of force generation. However, inhibitors of other protein kinases such as myosin light chain kinase (ML-9), protein kinase C (Calphostin), protein kinase A (KT5720), and tyrosine kinase (Genistein, Herbimycin A) had no effect on force generation induced by Horse chestnut extract. These results suggest that the Horse chestnut extract induces generation of contraction forces in fibroblasts through stress fiber formation followed by activation of Rho protein and Rho kinase but not myosin light chain kinase or other protein kinases. PMID:16754996

Fujimura, Tsutomu; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

2006-06-01

15

Growth Capacity of Embryo Axes Excised from Dormant and Germinating Horse Chestnut Seeds and Their Response to Exogenous Abscisic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In embryo axes excised from mature horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) seeds, both freshly-fallen and subjected to cold stratification, the ability for growth was studied. While excised axes were kept on water at 28°C for 3 days, their fresh weight and length increased, the polypeptide composition of soluble proteins changed, the content of some heat-stable polypeptides decreased, and the capacity

N. A. Gumilevskaya; M. I. Azarkovich

2004-01-01

16

Horse chestnut:a multidisciplinary clinical review.  

PubMed

Horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE) is widely used in Europe for the management of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Although traditionally recommended for a variety of medical conditions, CVI is the only indication for which there is strong supportive scientific evidence. Review of the literature reveals 14 randomized controlled trials, of which seven are methodologically of high quality, albeit limited by small sample sizes and short durations. These studies support the superiority of HCSE over placebo, and suggest equivalence to compression stockings and to oral oxerutins. In the future, a longer and adequately powered randomized trial is warranted to compare HCSE to standard of care, and to further assess safety and long-term efficacy. There are no data to suggest that horse chestnut flower, raw seed, branch bark, or leaf are effective for any indication, and it is recommended that these products not be used, as they are known to be toxic when ingested. PMID:15277109

Tiffany, Natasha; Boon, Heather; Ulbricht, Catherine; Basch, Ethan; Bent, Steve; Barrette, E P; Smith, Michael; Sollars, David; Dennehy, Cathi E; Szapary, Philippe

2002-01-01

17

[Bioactive saponins and glycosides. XIII. Horse chestnut. (3): Quantitative analysis of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb by means of high performance liquid chromatography].  

PubMed

As a part of our studies on the characterization of bioactive saponin constituents of horse chestnut trees, a quantitative method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for four principle saponin constituents, such as escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb, isolated from the seeds of European horse chestnut trees (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae). As an application of this HPLC method, we examined the contents and compositions of these escins in the seeds of Japanese horse chestnut trees (A. turbinata BLUME) and in several commercial materials named as "beta-escin". Additionally, the distribution of escins in the Japanese horse chestnut trees was examined, and escins were found to be contained only in the seeds. PMID:9922711

Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Otuki, K; Yamahara, J; Matsuda, H

1999-01-01

18

Horse chestnut extract contracts bovine vessels and affects human platelet aggregation through 5-HT(2A) receptors: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Extract from seeds and bark of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) is used as an herbal medicine against chronic venous insufficiency. The effect and mechanism of action on veins, arteries, and platelets are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of horse chestnut on the contraction of bovine mesenteric veins and arteries, and human platelet aggregation. Contraction studies showed that horse chestnut extract dose-dependently contracted both veins and arteries, with the veins being the most sensitive. Contraction of both veins and arteries were significantly inhibited by the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin. No effect on contraction was seen with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, the alpha(1) receptor antagonist prazosin or the angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonist saralasin neither in veins nor arteries. ADP-induced human platelet aggregation was significantly reduced by horse chestnut. A further reduction was seen with the extract in the presence of ketanserin. In conclusion, horse chestnut contraction of both veins and arteries is, at least partly, mediated through 5-HT(2A) receptors. Human platelet aggregation is reduced by horse chestnut. The clinical importance of these findings concerning clinical use, possible adverse effects, and drug interactions remains to be investigated. PMID:20148408

Felixsson, Emma; Persson, Ingrid A-L; Eriksson, Andreas C; Persson, Karin

2010-09-01

19

[Horse chestnut--remedy for chronic venous insufficiency].  

PubMed

Horse- chestnut seed extract is widely used throughout Europe, and has been used to treat a variety of medical conditions. The most common indication is currently chronic venous insufficiency, for which conventional therapy includes use of compression stockings. Horse chestnut seed extract is generally well tolerated; the most common side effects are gastrointestinal disturbances, dizziness and calf-muscle spasms. Clinical trials have shown that horse- chestnut seed extract and placebo are associated with similar side effects Horse- chestnut may interact with anticoagulants and antidiabetics, and caution is advised in patients taking these drugs. A number of clinical trials have shown that horse- chestnut seed extract may be beneficial to patients with mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency. However, inadequate randomization, short duration and use of different end-points in these trials makes it difficult to conclude regarding effectiveness and safety, especially in long-term use. Horse- chestnut seed extract appears to be a short-term treatment option in patients with mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency, but more rigorous trials are required to confirm the efficacy of this treatment. PMID:19247403

Methlie, Camilla Borthen; Schjøtt, Jan

2009-02-26

20

Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot®  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E

Fernando Rendo; Mikel Iriondo; Carmen Manzano; Andone Estonba

2009-01-01

21

A horse chestnut extract, which induces contraction forces in fibroblasts, is a potent anti-aging ingredient.  

PubMed

Contraction forces generated by non-muscle cells, such as fibroblasts, play important roles in determining cell morphology, vasoconstriction, and/or wound healing. We have searched among various plant extracts for ingredients that generate cell contraction forces using fibroblast-populated collagen gels. Using that model, we found that an extract of horse chestnuts (Aesculus hippocastanum) is able to generate such contraction forces in fibroblasts. The involvement of stress fiber formation in that response is suggested by the inhibition of such force generation by cytochalasin D and rhodamine phalloidin stain. Clinical testing of the extract was carried out using 40 healthy female volunteers. A gel formulation that included 3% of the extract was applied topically to the skin around the eye three times daily for nine weeks. The efficacy of the extract to diminish wrinkles was evaluated by visual scoring based on photo scales. After six weeks, significant decreases in the wrinkle scores at the corners of the eye or in the lower eyelid skin were observed compared with controls. After nine weeks, similar results were obtained. Taken together, our results suggest that an extract of horse chestnuts can generate contraction forces in fibroblasts and is a potent anti-aging ingredient. PMID:17111071

Fujimura, Tsutomu; Tsukahara, Kazue; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

2006-01-01

22

Sequential sampling plan for Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnut tree.  

PubMed

A fixed precision sequential sampling plan for estimating the density of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L., leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was developed. Data were collected from 2002 to 2004 in Turin, northwestern Italy, with the aim of developing a sampling strategy for estimating populations of C. ohridella mines. Taylor's power law was used as a regression model. Sampling parameters were estimated from 216 data sets, and an additional 110 independent data sets were used to validate the fixed precision sequential sampling plan with resampling software. Covariance analysis indicated that there were not significant differences in the coefficient of Taylor's power law between heights of the foliage, months, and years. Dispersion patterns of C. ohridella were determined to be aggregated. The parameters of the Taylor's power law were used to calculate minimum sample sizes and sampling stop lines for different precision levels. Considering a mean density value of five mines per leaf, an average sample number of only 49 leaves was necessary to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, the average sample size increased to 303 leaves. The sequential sampling plan should provide an effective management of C. ohridella in the urban areas, minimizing sampling time and cost, and at the same should be an effective tool to reduce insecticide applications and prevent the esthetic damage. PMID:18232410

Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

2007-12-01

23

Antiproliferative and antiangiogenic properties of horse chestnut extract.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the in vitro antiproliferative effect of the horse chestnut extract (HCE) on cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we have investigated the in vitro effect of HCE on some angiogenic events by using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The cell proliferation was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and anchorage-independent growth by colony-forming assay. To understand the growth inhibitory effects, carcinoma cell lines (Jurkat, CEM, HeLa, and MCF-7) were treated with various concentrations of HCE. Incubation of Jurkat, CEM, HeLa, and MCF-7 cancer cells with HCE at 125?µg/mL for 72?h caused 93.7%, 32.3%, 20.4% and 40.4% reduction in cell survival. Colony-forming assay also confirmed growth-inhibitory effects of the compound studied. In HeLa HCE-treated cells, we found a significant increase in cells having sub-G(0) /G(1) DNA content which is considered to be a marker of apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis was also further confirmed by DNA fragmentation analysis.Furthermore, HCE inhibited migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells as well as decreased secretion of matrix metalloproteinase and vascular endothelial growth factor.In conclusion, the present study has assessed the in vitro antiproliferative/antiangiogenic potential of HCE. These results generate a rationale for in vivo efficacy studies with horse chestnut in preclinical cancer models. PMID:22451355

Mojžišová, Gabriela; Mojžiš, Ján; Pilátová, Martina; Varinská, Lenka; Ivanová, Lenka; Strojný, Ladislav; Richnavský, Ján

2013-02-01

24

Impact of the leaf miner Cameraria ohridella on whole-plant photosynthetic productivity of Aesculus hippocastanum : insights from a model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf miner Cameraria ohridella causes premature defoliation of Aesculus hippocastanum trees. In order to assess the whole-plant loss of productivity caused by the parasite, we monitored seasonal changes of leaf gas exchange and leaf area losses in horse chestnut trees freely infested or chemically treated to prevent moth infestation (controls). Data were integrated in a model and the annual

Andrea Nardini; Fabio Raimondo; Mauro Scimone; Sebastiano Salleo

2004-01-01

25

Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot®  

PubMed Central

Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phenotype for most of the breeds from this region, it is important to have a fast and reliable method to detect alleles causing chestnut coat color in horses. Findings In order to assess coat color genotype in reproductive animals with a view to avoiding those bearing chestnut alleles, we have developed a reliable, fast and cost-effective screening device which involves Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) detection based on SNaPshot® (Applied Biosystems) methodology. We have applied this method to four native breeds from the Iberian Cantabrian Coast: Pottoka and Jaca Navarra pony breeds, in which only black or bay coats are acceptable, and Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia and Burguete heavy breeds, in which chestnut coats are acceptable. The frequency of the chestnut alleles ranged between f = 0.156-0.322 in pony breeds and between f = 0.604-0.716 in heavy breeds. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of the DNA methodology reported herein as a device for identifying chestnut alleles; the methodology constitutes a valuable tool for breeders to decrease the incidence of chestnut animals among Cantabrian Coast pony breeds.

2009-01-01

26

The Success of the Horse-Chestnut Leaf-Miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK Revealed with Hypothesis-Led Citizen Science  

PubMed Central

Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the ‘Conker Tree Science’ project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella) undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1) the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2) the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism) increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging many people with science.

Pocock, Michael J. O.; Evans, Darren M.

2014-01-01

27

Comparative Study of Antioxidant Status in Androgenic Embryos of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava  

PubMed Central

In vivo (leaves and seed embryos) and in vitro (androgenic embryos) antioxidant scavenging activity of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava medical plants was examined. Here we report antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids, soluble protein contents, quantities of malondialdehyde, and •OH radical presence in the investigated plant samples. Total antioxidant capacity of all the samples of A. hippocastanum and A. flava was determined using FRAP, DPPH, and NO• radical scavenger capacity. The leaves of A. flava collected from the botanical garden exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (higher activities of SOD, and higher quantities of GSH, TSH, TPC, and scavenging abilities of DPPH and NO•, and higher FRAP values and lowest quantities of •OH and MDA) than in vitro obtained cultures. However, the leaves of A. flava showed higher antioxidant activity than the leaves of A. hippocastanum, and therefore they have a stronger tolerance of oxidative stress. Androgenic embryos of both species had low amount of antioxidants due to controlled in vitro environmental conditions (T, photoperiod, humidity, nutritive factors, and pathogen-free). Our results confirmed that we found optimal in vitro conditions for producing androgenic embryos of both Aesculus species. Also, we assume that horse chestnut androgenic embryos can be used as an alternative source for large-scale aescin production.

Stajner, Dubravka; Popovic, Boris M.; Calic, Dusica; Stajner, Marijana

2014-01-01

28

Horse Chestnut  

MedlinePLUS

... Is CAM? Safety Information For Health Care Professionals Clinical Practice Guidelines Literature Reviews More » Research NCCAM Research ... at NCCAM Division of Intramural Research Policies & Guidelines Clinical Trials Labs at NCCAM More » Grants & Funding Funding ...

29

Histological Examination of Horse Chestnut Infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and Non-Destructive Heat Treatment to Stop Disease Progression  

PubMed Central

Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39°C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens.

de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A. M.; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, Andre A. M.

2012-01-01

30

Cochrane Summary of Findings: Horse Chestnut Seed Extract for Chronic Venous Insufficiency  

PubMed Central

As part of its efforts to disseminate the results of Cochrane reviews to a wider audience, the Cochrane Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Field develops Summary of Findings (SoF) tables and then uses these tables as a basis for its Plain Language Summaries. In each SoF table, the most important outcomes of the review, the effect of the intervention on each outcome, and the quality of the evidence for each outcome are presented. The process of developing the SoF table involves deciding which outcomes to present for which time points and evaluating the strength and quality of the evidence for the outcomes. The Cochrane CAM Field contacted the authors of this review to request clarification on any points that are not understood in the Cochrane review and also to request their review of the SoF. In this article, review authors in the Cochrane Collaboration reviewed the effects of horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency.

Underland, Vigdis; Saeterdal, Ingvil

2012-01-01

31

[Acid vacuolar invertase in hibernating and germinating seeds of the horse chestnut].  

PubMed

A high water content is maintained in the tissues of the axial organs of horse chestnut seeds after the fruit is shed and down to the time the seeds germinate. The plant cell vacuoles, features of whose metabolism can influence the cells' preparation to initiate growth in germination, are preserved. It was shown that the activity of acid invertase and its capacity to digest both sucrose and raphinose remain stable throughout the period of hibernation and the transition to germination, as do the molecular weight of its subunits (63 and 65 kDa) and multimer (500 to 550 kDa). The activity of the enzyme increases when the seeds swell under optimal conditions for germination; this is associated with the synthesis of new molecules of the enzyme in long-lived mRNA matrices. The storability of the enzyme in the vacuoles of hibernating seeds, together with the increase in its activity when seeds coming out of hibernation swell, ensures the rapid hydrolysis of sucrose issuing from the seeds' cotyledons, thus leading to increased osmotic pressure and, as a result, the beginning of cell elongation, i.e., germination. PMID:20058784

Obrucheva, N V; Litiagina, S V

2009-01-01

32

Cochrane summary of findings: horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency.  

PubMed

As part of its efforts to disseminate the results of Cochrane reviews to a wider audience, the Cochrane Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Field develops Summary of Findings (SoF) tables and then uses these tables as a basis for its Plain Language Summaries. In each SoF table, the most important outcomes of the review, the effect of the intervention on each outcome, and the quality of the evidence for each outcome are presented. The process of developing the SoF table involves deciding which outcomes to present for which time points and evaluating the strength and quality of the evidence for the outcomes. The Cochrane CAM Field contacted the authors of this review to request clarification on any points that are not understood in the Cochrane review and also to request their review of the SoF. In this article, review authors in the Cochrane Collaboration reviewed the effects of horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency. PMID:24278808

Underland, Vigdis; Sæterdal, Ingvil; Nilsen, Elin Strømme

2012-03-01

33

Possibilities to control the horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella) in urban environments.  

PubMed

The continuous epidemic infestation of horse chestnuts by C. ohridella is a serious aesthetic and economic problem in urban environments. The aim of the presented studies was therefore to develop control measures which meet the special needs of urban plant protection. Removal of infested leaves in autumn and appropriate disposal of the leaflitter is the only practicable measure to reduce infestation levels so far. Another two methods, which are currently in an experimental stage, had an impact on the leafminer populations. A gelformulated combination of the C. ohridella-pheromone with a contact insecticide as attract-and-kill-system proved to be efficient at low population levels. Easily applicable and safe banks of systemic insecticides turned out to be effective in killing preimaginal stages of the leafminer on young trees. The complex of parasitoids attacking C. ohridella is comparable to that of other leafminers. Nevertheless, parasitism rates are very low at present and far away from having any controlling effect on the pest insect. PMID:16628897

Grabenweger, G; Koch, T; Balder, H; Hopp, H; Jäckel, B; Schmolling, S

2005-01-01

34

Determination of escin content in androgenic embryos and hairy root culture of Aesculus hippocastanum.  

PubMed

Escin, a group of chemically related triterpenic glycosides, is widely used in commercial preparations for the treatment of venous insufficiency. Since the zygotic embryo cotyledons accumulate the highest amount of escin, it is currently extracted from the seeds of horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae), on a large scale. As this material is available during only short period of the year, we studied the possibility of using plant tissue culture to obtain escin. For this purpose, the content of escin in androgenic embryos and hairy root cultures of horse chestnut was studied. Escin content was found to be dependent on the stage of androgenic embryo development and the type of phytoregulator supplemented to the nutritive medium. In the absence of phytoregulators, androgenic embryos at the globular stage of development contained approximately four times less escin than those at the cotyledonary stage. Inclusion of various phytoregulators in the nutritive media stimulated escin production. Among them, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) showed the most pronounced effect, with escin content almost reaching that found in zygotic embryos (6.77% versus 6.96%). Two hairy root clones produced substantial amounts of escin (3.57% and 4.09%), less than zygotic embryos, but higher than cotyledonary embryos on phytoregulator-free medium. PMID:20645800

Cali?-Dragosavac, Dusica; Zdravkovi?-Kora?, Snezana; Savikin-Fodulovi?, Katarina; Radojevi?, Ljiljana; Vinterhalter, Branka

2010-05-01

35

Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers reveal a Balkan origin for the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae).  

PubMed

Biological invasions usually start with a small number of founder individuals. These founders are likely to represent a small fraction of the total genetic diversity found in the source population. Our study set out to trace genetically the geographical origin of the horse-chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella, an invasive microlepidopteran whose area of origin is still unkown. Since its discovery in Macedonia 25 years ago, this insect has experienced an explosive westward range expansion, progressively colonizing all of Central and Western Europe. We used cytochrome oxidase I sequences (DNA barcode fragment) and a set of six polymorphic microsatellites to assess the genetic variability of C. ohridella populations, and to test the hypothesis that C. ohridella derives from the southern Balkans (Albania, Macedonia and Greece). Analysis of mtDNA of 486 individuals from 88 localities allowed us to identify 25 geographically structured haplotypes. In addition, 480 individuals from 16 populations from Europe and the southern Balkans were genotyped for 6 polymorphic microsatellite loci. High haplotype diversity and low measures of nucleotide diversities including a significantly negative Tajima's D indicate that C. ohridella has experienced rapid population expansion during its dispersal across Europe. Both mtDNA and microsatellites show a reduction in genetic diversity of C. ohridella populations sampled from artificial habitats (e.g. planted trees in public parks, gardens, along roads in urban or sub-urban areas) across Europe compared with C. ohridella sampled in natural stands of horse-chestnuts in the southern Balkans. These findings suggest that European populations of C. ohridella may indeed derive from the southern Balkans. PMID:19627490

Valade, R; Kenis, M; Hernandez-Lopez, A; Augustin, S; Mari Mena, N; Magnoux, E; Rougerie, R; Lakatos, F; Roques, A; Lopez-Vaamonde, C

2009-08-01

36

Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of meteorological variables and parameters. In particular, more severe conditions during spring and summer are expected, especially in the Mediterranean area, with less precipitation and higher temperatures. All these changes will have impacts on chestnut fruits and wood in Europe. Dinis, L-T. J., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Peixoto, F., Costa, R. e Gomes-Laranjo, J., 2011: Study of morphological and chemical diversity in chestnut trees (var. 'Judia') as a function of temperature sum. Cyta- Journal of food, 9(3): 192-199 Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy, Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland. Proceedings of the International Chestnut Conference, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 10-14 July 1992, 175-178. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. Wilczynski, S. And Podlaski, R, 2007: The effect of climate on radial growth of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland, J.For.Res., 12, 24-23.

Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

2012-04-01

37

Vacuolar status and water relations in embryonic axes of recalcitrant Aesculus hippocastanum seeds during stratification and early germination  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds and aims In tropical recalcitrant seeds, their rapid transition from shedding to germination at high hydration level is of physiological interest but difficult to study because of the time constraint. In recalcitrant horse chestnut seeds produced in central Russia, this transition is much longer and extends through dormancy and dormancy release. This extended time period permits studies of the water relations in embryonic axes during the long recalcitrant period in terms of vacuolar status and water transport. Methodology Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds sampled in Moscow were stratified in cold wet sand for 4 months. Vacuole presence and development in embryonic axes were examined by vital staining, light and electron microscopy. Aquaporins and vacuolar H+-ATPase were identified immunochemically. Water channel operation was tested by water inflow rate. Vacuolar acid invertase was estimated in terms of activity and electrophoretic properties. Principal results Throughout the long recalcitrant period after seed shedding, cells of embryonic axes maintained active vacuoles and a high water content. Preservation of enzyme machinery in vacuoles was evident from retention of invertase activity, substrate specificity, molecular mass and subunit composition. Plasmalemma and tonoplast aquaporins and the E subunit of vacuolar H+-ATPase were also present. In non-dormant seeds prior to growth initiation, vacuoles enlarged at first in hypocotyls, and then in radicles, with their biogenesis being similar. Vacuolation was accompanied by increasing invertase activity, leading to sugar accumulation and active osmotic functioning. After growth initiation, vacuole enlargement was favoured by enhanced water inflow through water channels formed by aquaporins. Conclusions Maintenance of high water content and desiccation sensitivity, as well as preservation of active vacuoles in embryonic axes after shedding, can be considered a specific feature of recalcitrant seeds, overlooked when studying tropical recalcitrants due to the short duration. The retained physiological activity of vacuoles allows them to function rapidly as dormancy is lost and when external conditions permit. Cell vacuolation precedes cell elongation in both hypocotyl and radicle, and provides impetus for rapid germination.

Obroucheva, Natalie V.; Lityagina, Snezhana V.; Novikova, Galina V.; Sin'kevich, Irina A.

2012-01-01

38

Volatile emissions from Aesculus hippocastanum induced by mining of larval stages of Cameraria ohridella influence oviposition by conspecific females.  

PubMed

Larval stages of the horse chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella can completely destroy the surface of horse chestnut leaves, Aesculus hippocastanum. This study investigated the effect of the degree of leaf browning caused by the insect's larvae on olfactory detection, aggregation, and oviposition of C. ohridella adults. The influence of A. hippocastanum flower scent on oviposition of the first generation was also evaluated. Utilizing gas chromatography coupled with parallel detection by mass spectrometry and electroantennography (GC-MS/EAD), more than 30 compounds eliciting responses from antennae of C. ohridella were detected. Oviposition and mining by C. ohridella caused significant changes in the profile of leaf volatiles of A. hippocastanum. After oviposition and subsequent mining by early larval stages (L1-L3), substances such as benzaldehyde, 1,8-cineole, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, methyl salicylate, (E)-beta-caryophyllene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene were emitted in addition to the compounds emitted by uninfested leaves. Insects were able to detect these compounds. The emitted amount of these substances increased with progressive larval development. During late larval stages (L4, L5) and severe loss of green leaf area, (E,E)-2,4-hexadienal, (E/Z)-linalool oxide (furanoid), nonanal, and decanal were also released by leaves. These alterations of the profile of volatiles caused modifications in aggregation of C. ohridella on leaves. In choice tests, leaves in early infestation stages showed no significant effect on aggregation, whereas insects avoided leaves in late infestation stages. Further choice tests with leaves treated with single compounds led to the identification of substances mediating an increase or decrease in oviposition. PMID:17001531

Johne, A Bettina; Weissbecker, Bernhard; Schütz, Stefan

2006-10-01

39

Host tracking or cryptic adaptation? Phylogeography of Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the highly invasive horse-chestnut leafminer  

PubMed Central

Classical biological control is often advocated as a tool for managing invasive species. However, accurate evaluations of parasitoid species complexes and assessment of host specificity are impeded by the lack of morphological variation. Here, we study the possibility of host races/species within the eulophid wasp Pediobius saulius, a pupal generalist parasitoid that parasitize the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella. We analysed the population genetic structure, host associations and phylogeographic patterns of P. saulius in Europe using the COI mitochondrial gene. This marker strongly supports a division into at least five highly differentiated parasitoid complexes, within two of which clades with differing degrees of host specialization were found: a Balkan clade that mainly (but not only) attacks C. ohridella and a more generalist European group that attacks many hosts, including C. ohridella. The divergence in COI (up to 7.6%) suggests the existence of cryptic species, although this is neither confirmed by nuclear divergence nor morphology. We do not find evidence of host tracking. The higher parasitism rates observed in the Balkans and the scarcity of the Balkan–Cameraria haplotypes out of the Balkans open the possibility of using these Balkan haplotypes as biological control agents of C. ohridella elsewhere in Europe.

Hernandez-Lopez, Antonio; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Augustin, Sylvie; Lees, David C; Tomov, Rumen; Kenis, Marc; Cota, Ejup; Kullaj, Endrit; Hansson, Christer; Grabenweger, Giselher; Roques, Alain; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

2012-01-01

40

Assessing potential changes of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather conditions play an important role during different phases of the vegetative cycle of the chestnut trees and, consequently, several meteorological parameters seem to be associated chestnut productivity (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992, Cesaraccio et al., 2001, Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007, Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008, Dinis et al., 2011, Pereira et al., 2011). Observed data from European Climate Assessment and simulated data by COSMO-CLM model for the actual (C20) and future (A1B and B1) climate scenarios were used in this study to: (i) assess the model ability to reproduce weather parameters distribution; and, (ii) to assess future changes in the distribution of meteorological parameters which play an important role in the productivity of chestnut for different future periods. Results points to statistical significant changes in the mean and in variance in the future, more prominent in temperature than in precipitation based parameters. Changes in precipitation will be more significant in Northwestern Iberian Peninsula and France in the end of the 21st century for A1B scenario conditions. As expected, more significant changes will be expected to occur during spring and summer, in the Mediterranean areas and in the later period. The number of days with Tmax<28°C will generally decrease in both scenarios, while the changes in the number of days with 24°Cchestnut in Europe, in some areas of production. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: "Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland". Proceedings of the International Chestnut Conference, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 10-14 July 1992, 175-178. Wilczynski, S. And Podlaski, R, 2007: "The effect of climate on radial growth of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland", J.For.Res., 12, 24-23. Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: "Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy", Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Dinis, L.T,Peixoto, F., Pinto, T., Costa, R.Bennett, R. N., and Gomes-Laranjo,J., 2011: "Study of morphological and phonological diversity in chestnut trees (Judia variety) as a function of temperature sum". Environ. Exp Bot., 70, 110-120. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: "Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity". Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. This work was supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692.

Pereira, Mário; Calheiros, Tomas; Pinto, Joaquim; Caramelo, Liliana

2013-04-01

41

Beta-escin, a natural triterpenoid saponin from Chinese horse chestnut seeds, depresses HL-60 human leukaemia cell proliferation and induces apoptosis.  

PubMed

Beta-escin, a natural triterpenoid saponin isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut, is known to generate a wide variety of biochemical and pharmacological effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the apoptotic and antiproliferative activity of beta-escin in HL-60 human acute myeloid leukaemia cells. Antiproliferative activity was examined by soft agar colony assay and the trypan blue exclusion method. Apoptotic activity was evaluated by morphological analysis, annexin V analysis, DNA fragmentation analysis and flow cytometry cell cycle analysis. The results showed that beta-escin caused a significant inhibition of HL-60 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Morphological evidence of apoptosis, including vacuolization, apoptotic nuclei fragmentation and apoptotic body formation, was observed in cells treated with 30 microg mL(-1) of beta-escin for 24, 48 and 72 h. A significant increase in the population of annexin V+ and PI- cells (early apoptotic) among the total cells was observed in cells treated with beta-escin (30-50 microg mL(-1)) for 24 h (P<0.001). Typical DNA ladders, DNA with a unit length of about 180 bp, were detected in cells treated with beta-escin (30-50 microg mL(-1)) for 48 h by agarose gel electrophoresis. Flow cytometry cell cycle analysis revealed that beta-escin (30-50 microg mL(-1)) induced G1-S arrest and led to a significant accumulation of the sub-G1 population in HL-60 cells (P<0.05). Taken together, the results demonstrate that beta-escin is a potent natural inhibitor of cell proliferation and inducer of apoptosis in HL-60 acute myeloid leukaemia cells. The results indicate that beta-escin may be a useful candidate agent for exploring potential antileukaemic drugs. PMID:18718126

Niu, Yang P; Wu, Li M; Jiang, Yan L; Wang, Wen X; Li, Lian D

2008-09-01

42

Auftreten von viren in Aesculus hippocastanum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In den Jahren 1992 bis 1995 wurden 954 Roßkastanien (Aesculus hippocastanum L. und A. × carnea Hayne) auf Befall mit Viren geprüft. Als Untersuchungsmethoden kamen eine Simultanvariante des DAS?ELISA sowie ein biologischer Test (mechanische Inokulation von Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) zum Einsatz. Insgesamt ergab sich eine relativ geringe Virusbelastung. Etwa 1% aller geprüften Bäume waren mit dem strawberry latent ringspot virus

Torsten Hentsch; Egon Fuchs; Maria Grüntzig; Frank Otto

1996-01-01

43

Removal of water turbidity by natural coagulants obtained from chestnut and acorn.  

PubMed

The ability of seed extracts of several species of chestnut and acorn to act as natural coagulants was tested using a synthetic turbid water. Active components were extracted from ground seeds of Horse chestnut and acorns of some species of family Fagaceae: Common oak, Turkey oak, Northern red oak and European chestnut. All investigated extracts had coagulation capabilities and their amounts depended on pH values and initial turbidities. The seed extracts from European chestnut and Common oak acorn were the most efficient expressing the highest coagulation activities, about 80% and 70%, respectively, in both low and medium investigated water turbidities at the lowest coagulant dose 0.5 ml/L. PMID:19604691

S?iban, Marina; Klasnja, Mile; Antov, Mirjana; Skrbi?, Biljana

2009-12-01

44

Das strawberry latent ringspot (?) nepovirus (SLRSV) an aesculus hippocastanum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In den Jahren 1993 bis 1995 wurden vorwiegend in Mitteldeutschland Erhebungen zum Vorkommen des strawberry latent ringspot (?) nepovirus an Aesculus hippocastanum L. durchgeführt. Mit einem durchschnittlichen Befall von 0,84 % war nur ein geringes Auftreten zu verzeichnen. Der serologische Nachweis des SLRSV gelingt im Verlaufe des Jahres mit hoher Sicherheit unter Verwendung unterschiedlicher Pflanzenorgane (Laubblätter, Rinde, Knospen, jüngste Triebe,

Torsten Hentsch; Egon Fuchs; Maria Grüntzig

1997-01-01

45

Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum.  

PubMed

A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae), is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae). On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae), isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree. PMID:20419105

Green, Sarah; Studholme, David J; Laue, Bridget E; Dorati, Federico; Lovell, Helen; Arnold, Dawn; Cottrell, Joan E; Bridgett, Stephen; Blaxter, Mark; Huitema, Edgar; Thwaites, Richard; Sharp, Paul M; Jackson, Robert W; Kamoun, Sophien

2010-01-01

46

Recognition of worm-eaten chestnuts based on machine vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall qualities of chestnuts are greatly affected by worm-eaten chestnuts, as they lead to a reduction of profits. Hence a fast, accurate and non-destructive method for sorting chestnuts is in great demand. In this study, the technology of machine vision was employed to grade chestnuts. A recognition method to identify worm-eaten chestnuts is presented based on the edge image

Chenglong Wang; Xiaoyu Li; Wei Wang; Yaoze Feng; Zhu Zhou; Hui Zhan

2011-01-01

47

Hypersensitivity to latex, chestnut, and banana.  

PubMed

The incidence of latex-allergic patients is probably higher than suspected. A spectrum of IgE-dependent allergic reactions to latex products including urticaria, rhinitis, asthma, angioedema, and life-threatening anaphylaxis has been increasingly reported in recent years. We describe three patients with rubber hypersensitivity and allergy to fruit (banana and chestnut). Immediate positive responses were obtained in prick tests with latex, banana, and chestnut extracts. Histamine release was positive and specific IgE antibodies to all three extracts were detected by fluorescence radioimmunoassay. In the RAST-inhibition studies, the extract of latex inhibited the binding of chestnut and banana, but chestnut and banana extracts did not inhibit the binding of latex. These results suggest a sensitivity to crossreacting antigens in latex allergy associated with allergy to certain fruits. PMID:7678723

Rodríguez, M; Vega, F; García, M T; Panizo, C; Laffond, E; Montalvo, A; Cuevas, M

1993-01-01

48

Population Statistics and Biological Traits of Endangered Kiso Horse  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to clarify the current status of endangered Kiso horse, population statistics and biological traits, in order to take a step for the conservation by scientific approach. We surveyed 125 Kiso horses (86.2% of the whole breed), analyzed the construction of the population, and calculated the coefficient of inbreeding and effective population size. Moreover, we confirmed coat color variations and the traditional traits of the Kiso horse, and measured their height at the withers and chest circumference to clarify their physical characteristics. The population pyramid of the horses was stationary or contractive, suggesting a reduction of the population in the near future. The effective population size of the horse (47.9) suggested that the diversity was much less than their census size, and the high coefficient of inbreeding, 0.11 ± 0.07 on average, suggested that the horses were surely inbred. The horses had only 4 coat colors; bay, dark bay, buckskin dun, and chestnut, and 116 horses (92.8%) were bayish color, suggesting the fixation in their coat color. Moreover, the majority of them had dorsal stripe (83 horses; 66.4%), and the average heights at withers(131.9 ± 4.4 cm) and chest circumference (167.1 ± 10.1 cm) were not significantly different between males and females.

TAKASU, Masaki; HIRAMATSU, Nana; TOZAKI, Teruaki; KAKOI, Hironaga; HASEGAWA, Telhisa; MAEDA, Masami; KUSUDA, Satoshi; DOI, Osamu; MURASE, Tetsuma; MUKOYAMA, Harutaka

2012-01-01

49

Fossil Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family Equidae have an extensive fossil record spanning the past 58 million years, and the evolution of the horse has frequently been used as a classic example of long-term evolution. In recent years, however, there have been many important discoveries of fossil horses, and these, in conjunction with such new methods as cladistics, and techniques such as precise geochronology,

Bruce J. MacFadden

1994-01-01

50

Fossil Horses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The family Equidae have an extensive fossil record spanning the past 58 million years, and the evolution of the horse has frequently been used as a classic example of long-term evolution. In recent years, however, there have been many important discoveries of fossil horses, and these, in conjunction with such new methods as cladistics, and techniques such as precise geochronology, have allowed us to achieve a much greater understanding of the evolution and biology of this important group. This book synthesizes the large body of data and research relevant to an understanding of fossil horses from several disciplines including biology, geology and paleontology. Using horses as the central theme, the author weaves together in the text such topics as modern geochronology, paleobiogeography, climate change, evolution and extinction, functional morphology, and population biology during the Cenozoic period. This book will be exciting reading for researchers and graduate students in vertebrate paleontology, evolution, and zoology.

MacFadden, Bruce J.

1994-06-01

51

Cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal herbs in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of herbal medicine used in Brazil were analyzed, after nitric digestion, for the content of cadmium, mercury and lead, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Fifteen samples of ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo biloba), 13 of celastraceae (Maytenus ilicifolia), 14 of cascara buckthorn (Rhamnus purshiana), 13 of eggplant (Solanum melongena), 15 of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), 13 of Brazilian ginseng (Pffafia glomerata), 17

E. D. Caldas; L. L. Machado

2004-01-01

52

Antifeedants and Feeding Stimulants in Bark Extracts of Ten Woody Non-host Species of the Pine Weevil, Hylobius abietis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a Soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. Species were alder (Alnus glutinosa), aspen (Populus tremula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), holly (Ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (Evonymus europaeus),

Carina Eriksson; Per E. Månsson; Kristina Sjödin; Fredrik Schlyter

2008-01-01

53

The cytoskeleton facilitates a three-dimensional symplasmic continuum in the long-lived ray and axial parenchyma cells of angiosperm trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microtubule (MT), microfilament (MF) and myosin components of the cytoskeleton were studied in the long-lived ray and axial parenchyma cells of the secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem of two angiosperm trees, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse-chestnut) and Populus tremula L. 2 P. tremuloides Michx. (hybrid aspen), using indirect immunofluorescence localisation and transmission electron microscopy. MTs and MFs were bundled

Nigel Chaffey; Peter Barlow

2001-01-01

54

Mathematics and Your Horse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is designed to help middle school students care for a real or imaginary horse while they review basic mathematics skills. Sections in this unit include: (1) "Statistics of Your Horse"; (2) "A Home for Your Horse"; (3) "Feeding Your Horse"; (4) "Equipping Your Horse"; (5) "Showing at Halter"; (6) "Working Hunter"; (7) "Open Jumping"; (8)…

Barkley, Cathy A.

55

An Open Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Aesculus hippocastanum Tablets (Aesculaforce® 50 mg) in the Treatment of Chronic Venous Insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open study was carried out to assess, primarily, the safety and tolerability of Aesculus hippocastanum in the treatment of CVI. Patients underwent 8 consecutive weeks of treatment and were asked to take one 50 mg Aesculus hippocastanum tablet, twice daily. In total, 91 adverse events were reported, of which only 4 were rated as probably related to the study

Sylvia Dickson; Julie Gallagher; Lorna McIntyre; Andy Suter; Jen Tan

2004-01-01

56

Chestnut resistance to the blight disease: insights from transcriptome analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A century ago, Chestnut Blight Disease (CBD) devastated the American chestnut. Backcross breeding has been underway to introgress resistance from Chinese chestnut into surviving American chestnut genotypes. Development of genomic resources for the family Fagaceae, has focused in this project on Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut) and Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh (American chestnut) to aid in the backcross breeding effort and in the eventual identification of blight resistance genes through genomic sequencing and map based cloning. A previous study reported partial characterization of the transcriptomes from these two species. Here, further analyses of a larger dataset and assemblies including both 454 and capillary sequences were performed and defense related genes with differential transcript abundance (GDTA) in canker versus healthy stem tissues were identified. Results Over one and a half million cDNA reads were assembled into 34,800 transcript contigs from American chestnut and 48,335 transcript contigs from Chinese chestnut. Chestnut cDNA showed higher coding sequence similarity to genes in other woody plants than in herbaceous species. The number of genes tagged, the length of coding sequences, and the numbers of tagged members within gene families showed that the cDNA dataset provides a good resource for studying the American and Chinese chestnut transcriptomes. In silico analysis of transcript abundance identified hundreds of GDTA in canker versus healthy stem tissues. A significant number of additional DTA genes involved in the defense-response not reported in a previous study were identified here. These DTA genes belong to various pathways involving cell wall biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA), abscissic acid (ABA), and hormone signalling. DTA genes were also identified in the hypersensitive response and programmed cell death (PCD) pathways. These DTA genes are candidates for host resistance to the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Conclusions Our data allowed the identification of many genes and gene network candidates for host resistance to the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. The similar set of GDTAs in American chestnut and Chinese chestnut suggests that the variation in sensitivity to this pathogen between these species may be the result of different timing and amplitude of the response of the two to the pathogen infection. Resources developed in this study are useful for functional genomics, comparative genomics, resistance breeding and phylogenetics in the Fagaceae.

2012-01-01

57

Volatiles of Common Horsechestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) (Hippocastanaceae) Peels and Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The headspace, the essential oil and a dichloromethane extract of horsechestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) peels as well as the seed oil were analyzed by GC, GC\\/FTIR\\/MS and GC-sniffing techniques. The headspace was found to be rich in 3-hexenol (8.2%), 2-heptanol (5.2%), 2-heptenone (4.7%), benzyl alcohol (4.1%), 2-methylbutanal (3.7%), 2-phenyl ethanol (3.5%), isovaleraldehyde (3.3%) and 2-octanol (3.3%). The oil as well

Gerhard Buchbauer; Leopold Jirovetz; Michael Wasicky; Alexej Nikiforov

1994-01-01

58

Latex hypersensitivity in a horse farmer.  

PubMed

Latex immediate hypersensitivity has been documented in 28% to 67% of spina bifida patients, 2.6%-16.9% of health care workers and at least 1% of the general population. Additionally, it has been confirmed in food-sensitive individuals sensitive to cross-reacting foods such as chestnut, avocado, banana, and passion fruits. Recently it has been observed even in low risk populations that are defined by absence of the conventional risk factors of atopy and exposure. We report the first documented case of latex allergy in a horse farmer who had the joint factors of atopy and exposure. This case exemplifies the paramount importance of screening all patients with a careful history first and appropriate testing for latex allergy when possible. PMID:8934800

Randolph, C; Fraser, B

1996-01-01

59

Impact of the leaf miner Cameraria ohridella on photosynthesis, water relations and hydraulics of Aesculus hippocastanum leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mining of leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum caused by the larvae of Cameraria ohridella leads to precocious defoliation of trees. Damage to plant productivity was estimated in terms of the photosynthetic performance as well as of leaf water relations and hydraulics of increasingly mined leaves from infested plants in comparison with the same variables measured in non-mined leaves (controls). Electron

Fabio Raimondo; Lia A. Ghirardelli; Andrea Nardini; Sebastiano Salleo

2003-01-01

60

Polline fossile di Aesculus aff. hippocastanum L. nel Bacino di Leffe (Pleistocene inferiore). Posizione sistematica e significato paleoecologico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil pollen of Aesculus aff. hippocastanum L. in the Leffe Basin (Early Pleistocene). Systematic position and palaeocology. A new pollen analysis has been undertaken in the lacustrine and palustrine deposits of Leffe (Northern Italy), in order to re-evaluate the flora, the vegetation dynamics and the climatic change at the southern margin of the Alps during the lowermost Pleistocene.The present paper

Cesare Ravazzi

1994-01-01

61

Effect of chestnut extract and chestnut fiber on viability of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains under gastrointestinal tract conditions.  

PubMed

The main challenge to probiotics, during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract, are the acidic gastric secretions of the stomach, and the bile salts released into the duodenum. The survival of the strains, in this phase, is strongly influenced by the food used for their delivery. This work is part of a project studying the development of novel food processes, based on the use of chestnuts from cultivar "Castagna di Montella". In detail, the effect of indigestible chestnut fiber and of chestnut extract on the viability of selected lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated. Among 28 cultures, twelve strains were selected, on the basis of tolerance to low pH values and bile salts, and submitted to exposition to simulated gastric or bile juice in presence of chestnut extract with or without immobilization in chestnut fiber. The presence of chestnut extract proved to play a significant role on the gastric tolerance improvement of lactobacilli. The recorded protective effect could not be simply related to the starch or reducing sugars content. RP-HPLC demonstrated that in the chestnut flour, there are one or more hydrophobic peptides or oligopeptides, which specifically offer a marked resistance to simulated gastric juice, albeit present at low concentration. These beneficial effects proved to be dependent by the cultivar used to produce the flour. PMID:24010594

Blaiotta, Giuseppe; La Gatta, Barbara; Di Capua, Marika; Di Luccia, Aldo; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

2013-12-01

62

Feasibility study of effect of ultrasound on water chestnuts.  

PubMed

Water chestnut (Trapa natans L.), an annual aquatic plant with floating leaves was first introduced into North America in 1874. Since then, wild populations have quickly become established in many locations within Northeastern USA. Due to its detrimental effects on the overall health of aquatic ecosystems, millions of dollars have been spent to control the water chestnut infestations in the North America through mechanical harvesting and manual removal, with limited success. The potential for continued expansion of the infestations demonstrates an urgent need for an effective control method. This study examined the potential of ultrasound application as an alternative control strategy for water chestnut management. Various frequencies and amplitudes of ultrasound generated by submerged transducers were applied directly to water chestnuts harvested from Lake Champlain. Substantial damages on water chestnut cells as well as penetrated petitoles were observed at the following tested frequencies of ultrasound, 20 kHz, 187 kHz, 469 kHz, 519 kHz and 2.34 MHz. Among them, 20 kHz ultrasound of 1.9 MPa acoustic pressure amplitude demonstrated the most significant damages within 10 s of ultrasound exposure. The treated plants started to die within 72 h and the mortality rate of water chestnut plants treated with the ultrasound application was 100%. PMID:16616605

Wu, Junru; Wu, Meiyin

2006-04-01

63

Development of a method for simultaneously genotyping multiple horse coat colour loci and genetic investigation of basic colour variation in Thoroughbred and Misaki horses in Japan.  

PubMed

In order to develop a genotyping method that can be used in the registration procedure for Thoroughbreds, we developed a method for simultaneously genotyping multiple coat colour genes on the basis of single nucleotide polymorphism typing by using the SNaPshot(TM) technique. This method enabled precise and reasonable detection of causal mutations; it was effective for genotyping of MC1R, ASIP, and SLC45A2 at the Extension (E), Agouti (A), Cream dilution (C) loci, and the possibility of identification of rare variants of MC1R, EDNRB and KIT at the E, Overo (O) and Sabino 1 (SB1) loci, respectively, was also indicated. It was considered that this genotyping method would provide information not only for the registration of Thoroughbreds but also for the preservation of phenotypic characters, such as coat colour, of endangered Misaki native horses in Japan. Therefore, genetic variations at the five coat colour loci were investigated in 1111 Thoroughbred and 99 Misaki native horses. Allele frequencies at the polymorphic E and A loci were estimated, and the proportions of basic coat colours that could be expected in the Thoroughbred population were bay, 0.662; black, 0.070; chestnut, 0.268. In the Misaki population, they were bay, 0.792; black, 0.129; chestnut, 0.080. The data presented were the first of its kind on genetic coat colour variation, and will be important with regard to the registration of Thoroughbreds and the management of Misaki horses. PMID:19912416

Kakoi, H; Tozaki, T; Nagata, S; Gawahara, H; Kijima-Suda, I

2009-12-01

64

Effect of soil compaction and moisture on incidence of phytophthora root rot on American chestnut ( Castanea dentata) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

American chestnut is one of hundreds of plant species plagued by root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phytophthora root rot is thought to have contributed to chestnut dieback prior to the arrival of chestnut blight, and it may now present a serious limitation to establishment of blight-resistant hybrid chestnut. We manipulated soil compaction and moisture to evaluate the effect of

C. C. Rhoades; S. L. Brosia; A. J. Dattilo; P. Vincelli

2003-01-01

65

Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [ European Parliament and Council Directive, 1999/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of "Montella" chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana; De Sio, Antonio; Boniglia, Concetta; Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro

2009-07-01

66

The effects of logging and disease on American chestnut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbance histories drive spatiotemporal patterns of species distributions, and multiple disturbances can have complex effects on these patterns of distribution. The introduction of the chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica (Murril.) Barr.) to the eastern United States in the early 1900s coincided with an increase in logging, thus presenting an ideal situation for studying the effect of two disturbance events, logging and

Katie L. Burke

2011-01-01

67

Dyeing of flax fabric with natural dye from chestnut shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop an environmentally friendly dyeing process using brown pigment from chestnut shells (BPFCS). This material is obtained from foodstuff residues and can make a significant contribution to reusing a reproducible biomass resource, economizing petroleum, avoiding water pollution and protecting human health. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The brown pigment is extracted from the raw

Lijuan Wang; Jian Li; Hao Feng

2009-01-01

68

BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF CHESTNUT OAK TO A GALLING CYNIPID  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized the distribution of nutritional and defensive biochemical traits in galls elicited on chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) by the gall wasp Andricus petiolicolus Basse (Cynipidae) in comparison with gypsy moth-wounded and unwounded leaves. Gall cortex and epidermis exhibited elevated soluble peroxidase (POX) and soluble invertase activities, and greater condensed tannin concentrations than did nutritive tissues or leaves. Nutritive

STEVEN D. ALLISON; JACK C. SCHULTZ

2005-01-01

69

Theme Unit. Horse Sense.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This integrated, cross-curricular theme unit has children become immersed in the equine world as they broaden their vocabulary, participate in hands-on science and math, explore art, become aware of the horse's important role in history, and learn about good grooming. A student reproducible, a poetry poster, and a poster on the coloring of horses

Flagg, Ann

1999-01-01

70

Densitometric thin-layer chromatographic determination of aescin in a herbal medicinal product containing Aesculus and Vitis dry extracts.  

PubMed

A thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) method is developed to analyze the total saponin content, also referred to as the aescin content, in a herbal medicinal product (HMP) containing two dry extracts in capsules. The capsules contain 250 mg of Aesculus hippocastanum dry extract, 120 mg of Vitis vinifera dry extract and 50mg of excipients. After a purification step using C(18) solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, the samples are analyzed on a silica-gel HPTLC plate with the upper layer of a mixture of acetic acid/water/butanol (10/40/50 v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Spots are visualized by spraying with anisaldehyde reagent and heating the plate for 5-10 min (100-105 degrees C) and measured at a wavelength of 535 nm. This method, applicable for the quality control and stability investigation of both the Aesculus dry extract and HMP capsules thereof containing Vitis dry extract in combination with the Aesculus dry extract, is validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The proposed assay method is specific for aescin in the presence of Vitis dry extract and formulation excipients. Analysis of stressed samples in forced degradation tests proves the method to be applicable for stability evaluation. The standard aescin curve is linear (r > 0.99) over a concentration range of 0.16-0.80 microg/spot. Recovery from the HMP capsules is statistically equal to 100%. The precision of the method with respect to time and concentration is acceptable, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 1.28 and 1.49%, respectively. PMID:16364347

Apers, Sandra; Naessens, Tania; Pieters, Luc; Vlietinck, Arnold

2006-04-21

71

Coat colour and sex identification in horses from Iron Age Sweden.  

PubMed

Domestication of animals and plants marked a turning point in human prehistory. To date archaeology, archaeozoology and genetics have shed light on when and where all of our major livestock species were domesticated. Phenotypic changes associated with domestication have occurred in all farm animals. Coat colour is one of the traits that have been subjected to the strongest human selection throughout history. Here we use genotyping of coat colour SNPs in horses to investigate whether there were any regional differences or preferences for specific colours associated with specific cultural traditions in Iron Age Sweden. We do this by identifying the sex and coat colour of horses sacrificed at Skedemosse, Öland (Sweden) during the Iron Age, as well as in horses from two sites in Uppland, Ultuna and Valsgärde (dated to late Iron Age). We show that bay, black and chestnut colours were all common and two horses with tobiano spotting were found. We also show how the combination of sex identification with genotyping of just a few SNPs underlying the basic coat colours can be used to identify the minimum number of individuals at a site on a higher level than morphological methods alone. Although separated by 500 km and from significantly different archaeological contexts the horses at Skedemosse and Ultuna are quite homogenous when it comes to coat colour phenotypes, indicating that there were no clear geographical variation in coat colouration in Sweden during the late Iron Age and early Viking Age. PMID:22154005

Svensson, Emma M; Telldahl, Ylva; Sjöling, Emma; Sundkvist, Anneli; Hulth, Helena; Sjøvold, Torstein; Götherström, Anders

2012-01-20

72

A mutation in the MATP gene causes the cream coat colour in the horse.  

PubMed

In horses, basic colours such as bay or chestnut may be partially diluted to buckskin and palomino, or extremely diluted to cream, a nearly white colour with pink skin and blue eyes. This dilution is expected to be controlled by one gene and we used both candidate gene and positional cloning strategies to identify the "cream mutation". A horse panel including reference colours was established and typed for different markers within or in the neighbourhood of two candidate genes. Our data suggest that the causal mutation, a G to A transition, is localised in exon 2 of the MATP gene leading to an aspartic acid to asparagine substitution in the encoded protein. This conserved mutation was also described in mice and humans, but not in medaka. PMID:12605854

Mariat, Denis; Taourit, Sead; Guérin, Gérard

2003-01-01

73

Hoof Comfort for Horses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called 'Power Pads,' which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads...

2002-01-01

74

Postanesthetic Myonecrosis in Horses  

PubMed Central

Two horses died of massive myonecrosis following surgery. The hematological, biochemical and pathological changes are described and compared with those previously reported in the literature. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.

Friend, S. C. E.

1981-01-01

75

Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. ?-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

2012-09-01

76

New chestnut-based chips optimization: Effects of ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to develop, produce and optimize new chestnut-based chips. The effect of three ingredients, lipids (x1), glucose syrup (x2) and albumin (x3), was investigated in a mixture experiment. The sum of the component proportions (x1+x2+x3) was always equal to one. Experimental design points were determined by the extreme vertices design. The effect of three different

Rossella Di Monaco; Nicoletta Antonella Miele; Silvana Cavella; Paolo Masi

2010-01-01

77

16. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the Yankee Horse Railroad ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the Yankee Horse Railroad trestle looking north. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

78

Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

Pridnya, M. V.; Cherpakov, V. V.; Paillet, F. L.

1996-01-01

79

Resource limitation in natural populations of phytophagous insects. A long-term study case with the chestnut weevil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chestnut weevil, Curculio elephas (Gyll.), is a non-outbreaking species whose populations and food resources, the European chestnut, Castanea sativa, can be precisely defined. Thirteen and 17 generations of this insect were studied in two isolated sites. Field observations and experiments allowed us to estimate the absolute abundance, availability and use of chestnuts for weevil oviposition, and the number of weevil females emerging per site. Unavailable chestnuts were defined as the fruits either infested first by the chestnut moth ( Cydia splendana) larvae (because of competition between the two species) or those avoided by chestnut weevil females when selecting their egg-laying sites, independently of chestnut moth presence. From a third to a half of the chestnuts were not available on the average for weevil infestation. Only one-fourth, on the average, of those available for oviposition were actually used by chestnut weevil females. Regardless of year and site, the number of available chestnuts per weevil female was higher than that of weevil-infested fruits per female, considering global food resources independently of their temporal variation in quality. However, realized fecundity of weevil females was positively correlated with the mean number of available chestnuts per female. We concluded that food resources can be limiting without being fully exploited by females because of temporal variation in chestnut quality.

Debouzie, Domitien; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Oberli, Frantz; Menu, Frédéric

2002-03-01

80

Ectomycorrhizal inoculum potential of northeastern U.S. forest soils for American chestnut: results from field and laboratory bioassays  

EPA Science Inventory

American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once a dominant overstory tree in the eastern United States but was decimated by chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica). Blight resistant chestnut is being developed as part of a concerted restoration effort to bring this heritage tree...

81

Assessing fitness in endurance horses  

PubMed Central

A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels.

Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

2012-01-01

82

Assessing fitness in endurance horses.  

PubMed

A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels. PMID:22942450

Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

2012-03-01

83

Chestnut blight in Europe: Diversity of Cryphonectria parasitica, hypovirulence and biocontrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Review article) A review of the chestnut blight situation in Europe is given. Since its introduction in 1938 into Italy, the blight has spread throughout Europe with the exception of the UK, the Netherlands and northern France. Recently the blight has begun to have much more impact on chestnut in north- west Spain and Portugal. Hypovirulence is widespread. In most

Cécile Robin; Ursula Heiniger

2001-01-01

84

Training Methods and Horse Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aspects of horse care and handling are based upon convenience and traditional practices. Many of these methods of management and practice do not take into account the natural behaviour of horses. This is despite the belief that although domestic horses are probably more docile, stronger, faster growing and faster moving than their ancestors, they are unlikely to have lost

N. Waran; P. McGreevy; R. Casey

85

African horse sickness.  

PubMed

African horse sickness (AHS) is a reportable, noncontagious, arthropod-borne viral disease that results in severe cardiovascular and pulmonary illness in horses. AHS is caused by the orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV), which is transmitted primarily by Culicoides imicola in Africa; potential vectors outside of Africa include Culicoides variipennis and biting flies in the genera Stomoxys and Tabanus. Infection with AHSV has a high mortality rate. Quick and accurate diagnosis can help prevent the spread of AHS. AHS has not been reported in the Western Hemisphere but could have devastating consequences if introduced into the United States. This article reviews the clinical signs, pathologic changes, diagnostic challenges, and treatment options associated with AHS. PMID:23705175

Stern, Adam W

2011-08-01

86

Besnoitiosis in a horse.  

PubMed

Besnoitiosis was confirmed in a pony which presented with inspiratory dyspnoea, scleroderma and ventral oedema. Numerous cysts were visible in the sclerae. Histological examination of the skin confirmed the presence of numerous cysts. The parasite could not be transmitted by subcutaneous injection of homogenised skin from the infected horse to rabbits and a horse. Ultrastructural morphology of the crescent-shaped bradyzoites was not compatable with Besnoitia besnoiti or B. jellisoni and it is proposed that the infection was caused by B. bennetti. PMID:8410950

van Heerden, J; Els, H J; Raubenheimer, E J; Williams, J H

1993-06-01

87

Ageing Arab horses by their dentition.  

PubMed

The dentition of 170 Arab horses of known ages was examined and compared with the dental characteristics of trotter horses and Belgian draft horses of the same ages. The results indicated that inaccuracies in the determination of the age of horses by their dentition may result, at least partly, from differences between the breeds of horse involved because there were some major differences between the three breeds examined. These differences increased as the horses' true age increased. In general, the rate of dental wear was slower in the Arab horses than in trotter horses and Belgian draft horses. PMID:9670444

Muylle, S; Simoens, P; Lauwers, H; Van Loon, G

1998-06-13

88

[Verrucous pastern dermatitis syndrome in heavy draught horses. Part II: Clinical findings].  

PubMed

In the present field study the skin of the feet of 37 heavy draught horses of different breeds showing verrucous pastern dermatitis was examined clinically. Included were the degree of severity of the disease and the prevalence of anatomically normal structures associated with the skin: fetlock tufts of hair ("feathering"), ergots, chestnuts, bulges in the pastern region, cannon circumference. Each horse was examined for Chorioptes sp. skin mites. Information was also collected on the development of the skin alterations and housing conditions and feeding. These individual data were correlated with the clinical degree of severity of verrucous pastern dermatitis, which was evaluated using a numerical code (scoring system). In addition, punch biopsies were taken from the diseased skin of the feet and from healthy skin of the neck for comparative patho-histological examination (see Part III). Verrucous pastern dermatitis is a chronic disease which can be divided into four groups: scaling (group I), hyperkeratotic and hyperplastic plaque-like lesions (group II), tuberous skin masses (group III), and verrucous skin lesions with rugged surfaces (group IV). No correlation was found between the clinical degree of severity of the skin lesions and sex, breed, amount of work, use of stallions for breeding, grooming condition of the hair, white markings in the foot region, or Chorioptes sp. infestation. In regard to feeding it was found that the amount of maize and oats fed had some influence on the clinical degree of severity. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between the clinical degree of severity and the age, the grooming condition of the hooves, and the mean cannon circumference. The prevalence of fetlock tufts of hair, chestnuts, ergots, and anatomically normal bulges in the pastern region also increased significantly with the clinical degree of severity. Furthermore the study revealed that the clinical degree of severity depended on the hygienic conditions of the stables and of the ground where the horses were kept outdoors. PMID:16124697

Geburek, F; Deegen, E; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Ohnesorge, B

2005-07-01

89

Inhaled anesthetics in horses.  

PubMed

Inhaled agents represent an important and useful class of drugs for equine anesthesia. This article reviews the ether-type anesthetics in contemporary use, their uptake and elimination, their mechanisms of action, and their desirable and undesirable effects in horses. PMID:23498046

Brosnan, Robert J

2013-04-01

90

Cantharidin toxicosis in horses.  

PubMed

Cantharidin toxicosis in horses has become an increasing problem in certain regions of the United States. Toxicosis occurs when horses ingest alfalfa hay or products that are contaminated with "blister" beetles. Clinical signs may vary from depression to severe shock and death, depending upon the amount of toxin ingested. The most frequently observed signs include varying degrees of abdominal pain, anorexia, depression, and signs suggestive of oral irritation. Many horses make frequent attempts to void urine. Less commonly observed signs include synchronous diaphragmatic flutter and erosions of the oral mucosal surfaces. Clinical laboratory abnormalities suggestive of cantharidin toxicosis include persistent hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, development of hypoproteinemia, microscopic hematuria, and mild azotemia with inappropriate urine specific gravity. Chemical analysis for cantharidin is accomplished by evaluation of urine or stomach contents. Treatment of cantharidin toxicosis is symptomatic, but must include removal of toxin source. Gastrointestinal protectants, laxative, intravenous fluids, analgesics, diuretics, calcium gluconate, and magnesium are all included in the treatment regimen. Early and vigorous therapy is imperative if it is to be successful. In horses that remain alive for several days, persistence of elevated heart and respiratory rates and increasing serum creatine kinase concentration are associated with a deteriorating condition. Prevention is aimed at timely harvesting of alfalfa hay. Hay fields should be inspected for the presence of beetle clusters before harvesting. Involved areas of the field should not be harvested. PMID:2685272

Schmitz, D G

1989-01-01

91

[Intersexuality in horses].  

PubMed

Intersexuality is a rare congenital anomaly of horses. Diagnosis of intersexuality is difficult because there are usually no specific changes in the reproductive tract visible. During a period of five years, ten patients with reduced fertility or suspected intersexuality respectively were investigated using cytogenetic, molecular genetic, histopathological and endocrinological methods. In one case a 64,XX/63,X0 mosaicism was found. In six cases male pseudohermaphroditism was verified. These patients showed a male karyotype, testes and rudimentary parts of a female reproductive tract were present. One horse was suspected to be a male pseudohermaphrodite but the gonads were not examined. One horse was suspected to be affected by an XX-sex several syndrome and in one case a SRY-negative XY-sex reversal syndrome was most likely. In the case of an XX-sex reversal syndrome, there is a female chromosomal constitution, an uterus and cranial parts of the vagina are present but also testes tissue and possibly an enlarged penis like clitoris. Here an XX-sex reversal syndrome was suspected but not confirmed as it was not possible to examine the gonads and verify tissue from testes. Therefore a pseudohermaphroditismus femininus could not be excluded. In cases of XY-sex reversal syndrome the patients show a male chromosomal constitution, parts of a female reproductive tract but no testes tissue is present. For the horse described here, a deletion of the SRY gene was the most likely cause for the XY-sex reversal syndrome. PMID:17341020

Kuiper, H; Distl, O

2007-02-01

92

Tannin analysis of chestnut bark samples (Castanea sativa Mill.) by HPLC-DAD-MS.  

PubMed

In the present investigation, an HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS method for the complete analysis of tannins and other phenolic compounds of different commercial chestnut bark samples was developed. A total of seven compounds (vescalin, castalin, gallic acid, vescalagin, 1-O-galloyl castalagin, castalagin and ellagic acid) were separated and quantified, being 1-O-galloyl castalagin tentatively identified and found for the first time in chestnut bark samples. Thus, this method provided information regarding the composition and quality of chestnut bark samples, which is required since these samples are commercialised due to their biochemical properties as ingredients of food supplements. PMID:24679783

Comandini, Patrizia; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

2014-08-15

93

Training Methods and Horse Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aspects of horse care and handling are based upon convenience and traditional practices. Many of these methods of management\\u000a and practice do not take into account the natural behaviour of horses. This is despite the belief that although domestic horses\\u000a are probably more docile, stronger, faster growing and faster moving than their ancestors, they are unlikely to have lost

N. Waran; P. McGreevy; R. Casey

94

Trials to identify irradiated chestnut (Castanea bungena) with different analytical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) measurement, DNA comet assay, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and thermoluminescence (TL) measurement were applied to identify irradiated chestnut. Samples were irradiated with 60Co ?-rays at 0-0.5kGy. The PSL photon counts for irradiated chestnuts were too low to be distinguished from those of the non-irradiated sample. There was no difference in DNA comets between non-irradiated and irradiated chestnuts. ESR spectroscopy did not show any radiation-induced specific signals but a symmetric singlet. However, using TL, the shape of the glow curve (Glow 1) made it possible to identify the irradiated chestnuts. In addition, the TL glow ratio (Glow 1/Glow 2) obtained by normalization was less than 0.01 for the non-irradiated sample and >=0.10 for irradiated ones, respectively.

Chung, Hyung-Wook; Delincée, Henry; Han, Sang-Bae; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hee-Yun; Kim, Myung-Chul; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

2004-09-01

95

Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut ( Castanea mollissima ) fruit for commercial use  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed\\u000a to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption. Chocolate\\u000a coating significantly improved the nutritional value of

Mahamadou E. Gounga; Shi-ying Xu; Zhang Wang

2008-01-01

96

Parasitoid Recruitment to the Globally Invasive Chestnut Gall Wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a global pest of chestnut (Castanea). Established as a pest in the mid 20th century in Japan, Korea and the USA, this species has now reached Europe. Successful\\u000a deployment of a biocontrol agent, Torymus sinensis, in Japan has led to its early release in Italy. Here we provide the first overview of the

Alexandra Aebi; Karsten Schönrogge; George Melika; Alberto Alma; Giovanni Bosio; Ambra Quacchia; Luca Picciau; Yoshihisa Abe; Seichii Moriya; Kaori Yara; Gabrijel Seljak; Graham N. Stone

97

Treatments affecting maturation and germination of American chestnut somatic embryos.  

PubMed

The effects of amino acids, abscisic acid (ABA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and elevated sucrose were tested on the maturation and germination of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) somatic embryos. Somatic embryos from three lines were matured over an eight week period through a two-stage process. After maturation, somatic embryos were randomly divided into three groups to measure dry weight/ fresh weight ratios, starch levels, and germination rates. Prior to transfer to germination medium, somatic embryos received a four week cold treatment. While some treatments with amino acids, elevated sucrose, PEG or ABA increased either dry weight/fresh weight ratios, starch content or both, only addition of 25mM L-asparagine significantly increased germination rate and taproot length, and this response was only obtained with one of the three lines tested. Six plants survived the transfer to potting mix, acclimatization to greenhouse conditions and field planting. PMID:15384407

Robichaud, Rodney L; Lessard, Veronica C; Merkle, Scott A

2004-08-01

98

ENERGY METABOLISM IN LIGHT HORSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Q UALITATIVE information regarding en- ergy metabolism of the equine is lacking. Feeding standards have been recommended for light horses; however, these were derived pri- marily from extrapolation of data collected from other classes of livestock, mainly sheep and cattle. Although the horse is classified as a herbivore, certain anatomic characteristics of this species suggest that the nutritional requirements must

G. R. WOODEN; K. L. KNOX; C. L. WILD

2010-01-01

99

Salmonella shed by horses with colic.  

PubMed

Salmonella was isolated from 13 of 100 colicky horses admitted to a referral hospital. Seven horses were shedding the microorganism at or soon after hospital admission. A unique serotype was introduced into the hospital by a horse not shedding Salmonella at admission. It was concluded that 8 horses were infected before admission. Whether the remaining 5 horses were infected before or after admission could not be determined. Salmonella senftenberg was the most commonly isolated serotype from colicky horses and from horses with salmonellosis that were not colicky on hospital admission during the survey period. This organism was rarely isolated at the hospital before initiation of this survey. PMID:4030461

Palmer, J E; Benson, C E; Whitlock, R H

1985-08-01

100

Horse Hoof Protectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power Pads, shown here, were designed to support and cushion horses' hooves while walking, rurning, and jumping, thus reducing the risk of injury. The pads utilize magnets implanted in the pads to increase blood circulation, not only reducing the chance of injury, but also speeding up the healing process if an injury does occur. Marshall Space Flight Center materials engineer Deborah Dianne Schmidt and materials technician Anthony Schaffer contributed to the design by providing fatigue stress analysis to the prototypes, thus helping determine the best configuration and maximum durability.

2004-01-01

101

Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

Not Available

1993-09-01

102

Standing ophthalmic surgeries in horses.  

PubMed

Standing ophthalmic surgery without general anesthesia allows for several routine ophthalmic procedures including eyelid lacerations and enucleations to be performed in the horse, but does contain increased risk of causing tissue damage arising from the inability to eliminate eye and head movements. Heavy sedation and local nerve blocks of the involved motor and sensory nerves are essential in achieving a good outcome from ophthalmic surgery in the nonanesthetized horse. The inability to use an operating microscope in standing surgery in horses prevents performing precise corneal and intraocular microsurgeries. PMID:24680208

de Linde Henriksen, Michala; Brooks, Dennis E

2014-04-01

103

Reserpine toxicosis in a horse.  

PubMed

A single injection of reserpine in an adult horse was believed to induce toxicosis for several days. Clinical signs included erratic, colic-like behavior followed by depression, bradycardia, miosis, ptosis, and paraphimosis. Diarrhea was not observed and may have been due to the effect of xylazine given with the reserpine. The horse was supported with IV fluids and intensive nursing care. Gradual improvement was noted 72 hours after the horse received the drug. Qualitative analysis via high-performance liquid chromatography was positive for reserpine. Methamphetamine is the recommended antidote but was not used in this case. PMID:3997654

Lloyd, K C; Harrison, I; Tulleners, E

1985-05-01

104

African horse sickness in naturally infected, immunised horses.  

PubMed

To determine whether subclinical cases, together with clinical cases, of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in immunised horses in field conditions, whole blood samples were collected and rectal temperatures recorded weekly from 50 Nooitgedacht ponies resident in open camps at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, during 2008-2010. The samples were tested for the presence of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) RNA by a recently developed real-time RT-PCR. It was shown that 16% of immunised horses in an AHS endemic area were infected with AHSV over a 2 year period, with half of these (8%) being subclinically infected. The potential impact of such cases on the epidemiology of AHS warrants further investigation. PMID:22612775

Weyer, C T; Quan, M; Joone, C; Lourens, C W; MacLachlan, N J; Guthrie, A J

2013-01-01

105

Characteristics of Hypovirulent Strains of Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, Isolated in Korea.  

PubMed

Chestnut blight disease caused by Cryphonectria parasitica is widely distributed throughout chestnut tree plantations in Korea. We surveyed 65 sites located at 9 provinces in South Korea, and isolated 248 virulent and 3 hypovirulent strains of chestnut blight fungus. Hypovirulent strains had dsRNA virus in the cytoplasm, which is one of the typical characteristics of hypovirulent strains. In addition, they showed more characteristics of hypovirulent strains, i.e., suppressed conidiation, reduced pigmentation in colony color, and reduced phenol oxidase activity as well as reduced pathogenicity. Hypovirulent strains, KCPH-22, KCPH-135 and KCPH-136, had a genomic dsRNA band with the molecular weight of 12.7 kb, which is the L-dsRNA of CHV1. They also had a 2.7 kb defective dsRNA band. Single conidia isolated from hypovirulent strains were cultured and various phenotypes and absence of dsRNA bands were obtained from single conidial cultures, which means that hypovirulence transmission is unstable in asexual reproduction and variations in viral heredity by asexual reproduction. Biocontrol trial using hypovirulent strains was also carried out in the chestnut tree plantations, and canker expansion in the treated trees was stopped and healed by callus formation at the margin of the canker. These results show the potentials in successful biocontrol of chestnut blight if the vegetatively compatible hypovirulent strains could be directly used around the canker formed by compatible virulent strains. PMID:24039472

Lee, Sang Hyun; Moon, Byung Ju; Lee, Jong Kyu

2006-06-01

106

Characteristics of Hypovirulent Strains of Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, Isolated in Korea  

PubMed Central

Chestnut blight disease caused by Cryphonectria parasitica is widely distributed throughout chestnut tree plantations in Korea. We surveyed 65 sites located at 9 provinces in South Korea, and isolated 248 virulent and 3 hypovirulent strains of chestnut blight fungus. Hypovirulent strains had dsRNA virus in the cytoplasm, which is one of the typical characteristics of hypovirulent strains. In addition, they showed more characteristics of hypovirulent strains, i.e., suppressed conidiation, reduced pigmentation in colony color, and reduced phenol oxidase activity as well as reduced pathogenicity. Hypovirulent strains, KCPH-22, KCPH-135 and KCPH-136, had a genomic dsRNA band with the molecular weight of 12.7 kb, which is the L-dsRNA of CHV1. They also had a 2.7 kb defective dsRNA band. Single conidia isolated from hypovirulent strains were cultured and various phenotypes and absence of dsRNA bands were obtained from single conidial cultures, which means that hypovirulence transmission is unstable in asexual reproduction and variations in viral heredity by asexual reproduction. Biocontrol trial using hypovirulent strains was also carried out in the chestnut tree plantations, and canker expansion in the treated trees was stopped and healed by callus formation at the margin of the canker. These results show the potentials in successful biocontrol of chestnut blight if the vegetatively compatible hypovirulent strains could be directly used around the canker formed by compatible virulent strains.

Lee, Sang Hyun; Moon, Byung Ju

2006-01-01

107

Toward development of silvical strategies for forest restoration of American chestnut ( Castanea dentata) using blight-resistant hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backcross breeding has provided a viable means to restore American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) to eastern North American forests, where the foundation species was essentially extirpated by an introduced pathogen. With the prospect of American chestnut reintroduction imminent, it is critical to formulate restoration strategies based on the ecology and silvics of the species, operational confines, social or policy

Douglass F. Jacobs

2007-01-01

108

Biochemical responses of chestnut oak to a galling cynipid.  

PubMed

We characterized the distribution of nutritional and defensive biochemical traits in galls elicited on chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) by the gall wasp Andricus petiolicolus Basse (Cynipidae) in comparison with gypsy moth-wounded and unwounded leaves. Gall cortex and epidermis exhibited elevated soluble peroxidase (POX) and soluble invertase activities, and greater condensed tannin concentrations than did nutritive tissues or leaves. Nutritive tissue, on which the insect feeds, contained few polyphenols, and lower POX and invertase activities compared with other gall tissues and leaves. Elevated total POX activity arose from a complex pattern of enhanced and suppressed isoform activities in galls. Invertase enzyme activity decreased in all tissues over the course of the 7-d study, although gypsy moth wounding suppressed this decline slightly in ungalled leaves. Our results indicate that the distribution of biochemical defenses in this typical cynipid gall differs significantly from the leaf tissue from which it is formed and support a role for invertases in establishing the gall as a sink. A. petiolicolus larvae do not induce, and may suppress, plant defense responses in nutritive tissue, while enzymatic activity and phenolic accumulation are enhanced in gall tissues surrounding feeding sites. These patterns suggest that the gall is manipulated by the insect to enhance its food and protective value. PMID:15839487

Allison, Steven D; Schultz, Jack C

2005-01-01

109

Artificially dehydrated lucerne for horses.  

PubMed

Artificially dehydrated lucerne produced in the United Kingdom has been shown to be a better source of nutrients for horses than grass hay. Horses eat more lucerne when it is pelleted, and the processing has little effect on its nutritive value. Lucerne does not appear to contain any antinutritional factors of significance to horses. Lucerne contains readily available calcium and protein and can thus be used as a cereal-balancer or to upgrade poor quality roughages. Because lucerne is a good source of digestible nutrients it has therapeutic applications, including the correction of electrolyte imbalances and hoof horn problems, and it can be used for intragastric nutrition and for feeding old horses. PMID:7846834

Cuddeford, D

1994-10-29

110

My Kingdom for a Horse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Heavenly Horse" is a work of art revered for its spirit, strength, and beauty. It is a symbol of military might and political power. The size of the object suggests that it was made for an important person. Impressive as he is, this horse was not created as an art object. He was found in the tomb of an influential person. Scholars do not know…

King, Judith

2004-01-01

111

A High Density SNP Array for the Domestic Horse and Extant Perissodactyla: Utility for Association Mapping, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeny Studies  

PubMed Central

An equine SNP genotyping array was developed and evaluated on a panel of samples representing 14 domestic horse breeds and 18 evolutionarily related species. More than 54,000 polymorphic SNPs provided an average inter-SNP spacing of ?43 kb. The mean minor allele frequency across domestic horse breeds was 0.23, and the number of polymorphic SNPs within breeds ranged from 43,287 to 52,085. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) in most breeds declined rapidly over the first 50–100 kb and reached background levels within 1–2 Mb. The extent of LD and the level of inbreeding were highest in the Thoroughbred and lowest in the Mongolian and Quarter Horse. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses demonstrated the tight grouping of individuals within most breeds, close proximity of related breeds, and less tight grouping in admixed breeds. The close relationship between the Przewalski's Horse and the domestic horse was demonstrated by pair-wise genetic distance and MDS. Genotyping of other Perissodactyla (zebras, asses, tapirs, and rhinoceros) was variably successful, with call rates and the number of polymorphic loci varying across taxa. Parsimony analysis placed the modern horse as sister taxa to Equus przewalski. The utility of the SNP array in genome-wide association was confirmed by mapping the known recessive chestnut coat color locus (MC1R) and defining a conserved haplotype of ?750 kb across all breeds. These results demonstrate the high quality of this SNP genotyping resource, its usefulness in diverse genome analyses of the horse, and potential use in related species.

McCue, Molly E.; Bannasch, Danika L.; Petersen, Jessica L.; Gurr, Jessica; Bailey, Ernie; Binns, Matthew M.; Distl, Ottmar; Guerin, Gerard; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hill, Emmeline W.; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; R?ed, Knut H.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Swinburne, June E.; Tozaki, Teruaki; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Vaudin, Mark; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

2012-01-01

112

A high density SNP array for the domestic horse and extant Perissodactyla: utility for association mapping, genetic diversity, and phylogeny studies.  

PubMed

An equine SNP genotyping array was developed and evaluated on a panel of samples representing 14 domestic horse breeds and 18 evolutionarily related species. More than 54,000 polymorphic SNPs provided an average inter-SNP spacing of ?43 kb. The mean minor allele frequency across domestic horse breeds was 0.23, and the number of polymorphic SNPs within breeds ranged from 43,287 to 52,085. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) in most breeds declined rapidly over the first 50-100 kb and reached background levels within 1-2 Mb. The extent of LD and the level of inbreeding were highest in the Thoroughbred and lowest in the Mongolian and Quarter Horse. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses demonstrated the tight grouping of individuals within most breeds, close proximity of related breeds, and less tight grouping in admixed breeds. The close relationship between the Przewalski's Horse and the domestic horse was demonstrated by pair-wise genetic distance and MDS. Genotyping of other Perissodactyla (zebras, asses, tapirs, and rhinoceros) was variably successful, with call rates and the number of polymorphic loci varying across taxa. Parsimony analysis placed the modern horse as sister taxa to Equus przewalski. The utility of the SNP array in genome-wide association was confirmed by mapping the known recessive chestnut coat color locus (MC1R) and defining a conserved haplotype of ?750 kb across all breeds. These results demonstrate the high quality of this SNP genotyping resource, its usefulness in diverse genome analyses of the horse, and potential use in related species. PMID:22253606

McCue, Molly E; Bannasch, Danika L; Petersen, Jessica L; Gurr, Jessica; Bailey, Ernie; Binns, Matthew M; Distl, Ottmar; Guérin, Gérard; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hill, Emmeline W; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Penedo, M Cecilia T; Røed, Knut H; Ryder, Oliver A; Swinburne, June E; Tozaki, Teruaki; Valberg, Stephanie J; Vaudin, Mark; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Wade, Claire M; Mickelson, James R

2012-01-01

113

Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use  

PubMed Central

In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption. Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample’s protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal.

Gounga, Mahamadou E.; Xu, Shi-ying; Wang, Zhang

2008-01-01

114

Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile work plan  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., has constructed a storage facility, the Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile (CRBAWP), for mercury-contaminated soil excavated from the Oak Ridge Civic Center properties and the Oak Ridge Sewer Line Beltway. Excavation of the soil from the Civic Center began in September 1984 and was completed in early 1985. Similar soils from other areas of the city were added to the pile until 1987. Approximately 3000 yd{sup 3} are stored at the present time. An Interim Status RCRA permit was initially sought for this facility. Samples from the waste pile passed the Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test (EP Tox). The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (now the Tennessee Department of Conservation-TDC) denied the permit based on their conclusion that the waste was not a RCRA-regulated waste. On September 25, 1990 the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) superseded the EP Tox test. TCLP tests are not proposed to satisfy a request by TDC and to make a final determination of the nature of the soils in order to close the CRBAWP as a solid waste disposal facility under Tennessee State rule 1200-1-7-.04. The objectives of this work are to summarize existing site information and detail actions necessary to sample and characterize soils from the waste pile as hazardous or nonhazardous per the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Within the scope of this plan, a site investigation will be discussed; a field sampling plan will be described in terms of sampling locations, procedures, and quality assurance; and ancillary activities such as waste management, data management, and health and safety will be outlines. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Johnson, R. (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States))

1991-08-01

115

Soils and geomorphology of the East Chestnut Ridge site  

SciTech Connect

Soil mapping of the East Chestnut Ridge site in conjunction with subsurface soil and rock coring provides an in-depth evaluation of the site and its suitability for disposal of wastes. Landforms and surface and subsurface hydrology, the natural, undisturbed, soil-saprolite-geohydrology system beneath the zone of engineering modifications provides for the ultimate containment of wastes and a means for the filtration and purification of any leachate before it reaches the aquifer. The surface location and extent of each geologic formation on the site were mapped. These locations correlated well with projections of subsurface contacts to the surface even through the criteria used by the pedologist and geologist to identify soil and rock from the same formation may be different. Soil thickness over bedrock of the Copper Ridge, Chepultepec, Longview, and Kingsport Formations is sufficient to provide considerable buffering between trench bottoms and groundwater or rock. Soil thickness over the Mascot Formation is comparatively thin, and pinnacles and ledges exposed on steeper sideslopes are common. Soil underlain by the Mascot Formation is not suited for a trench landfill. According to soil coring and active borrow pit observations, chert beds in the soil and saprolite are preferred zones of water flow. Construction of adequate clay liners beneath disposal units sited on the Longview dolomite may require placement and compaction of other native soils to achieve sufficiently low soil permeabilities. Karst geomorphic processes that initiated the formation of dolines evidently started several million years ago. Doline formation and enlargement is episodic, with short periods of activity followed by long periods of stability. Analysis of doline soil stratigraphy suggests that most of the large dolines on the site have been stable for most of the past 10,000 to 1000,000 years. 8 refs., 9 figs.

Lietzke, D.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R. (Lietzke (D.A.), Rutledge, TN (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-10-01

116

Coordination dynamics in horse-rider dyads.  

PubMed

The sport of equestrianism is defined through close horse-rider interaction. However, no consistent baseline parameters currently exist describing the coordination dynamics of horse-rider movement across different equine gaits. The study aims to employ accelerometers to investigate and describe patterns of motor coordination between horse and rider across the equine gaits of walk, rising trot, sitting trot and canter. Eighteen female (N=18; mean age±SD: 37.57±13.04) Dutch horse-rider combinations were recruited to participate in the study. Horse-rider coordination was recorded using two tri-axial wireless accelerometers during a standard ridden protocol. Multiple measures of horse-rider coordination were calculated to investigate the relationship between the horse and rider, while the unpredictability of the acceleration-time series of the horse and rider during task performance were determined separately by means of approximate entropy analysis. The kinematic variables of horse-rider correlation, mean relative phase, mean standard deviation of the relative phase, approximate entropy rider, approximate entropy horse and spectral edge frequency at 95% of the power in the 0-10 Hz frequency band were examined using multiple correlational analyses and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Findings showed significantly different coordination dynamics between equine gaits, with the gait of canter allowing for the highest levels of horse-rider synchronicity. It may be concluded that accelerometers are a valuable tool to map distinct coordination patterns of horse-rider combinations. PMID:23290116

Wolframm, Inga A; Bosga, Jurjen; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J

2013-02-01

117

Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses  

PubMed Central

Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses.

Ohmes, Cameon M.; Davis, Elizabeth G.; Beard, Laurie A.; Vander Werf, Karie A.; Bianco, Alex W.; Giger, Urs

2014-01-01

118

Subsurface structure of the north Summit gas field, Chestnut Ridge anticline of the Appalachian Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chestnut Ridge anticline is the westernmost of the High Plateau folds in southwestern Pennsylvania and north-central West Virginia that are detached primarily in the Marcellus Shale, and the Martinsburg, Salina, and Rome Formations. The primary, basal detachment at the Summit field occurs in the Salina salt. Production from fracture porosity in the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone commenced in 1936. During

G. Zhou; R. C. Shumaker; W. K. Staub

1996-01-01

119

Parasitic Attachments by Overwintering Silver Lampreys, Ichthyomyzon unicuspis , and Chestnut Lampreys, Ichthyomyzon castaneus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence that at least some parasitic-phase silver lampreys, Ichthyomyzon unicuspis, and chestnut lampreys, I. castaneus, remain attached to host fish during the winter. Lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, harvested through the ice by spearfishers in the Lake Winnebago system in Wisconsin may bear silver lampreys or fresh lamprey wounds, and sturgeon with lamprey marks were significantly larger than sturgeon

Philip A. Cochran; John Lyons; Matthew R. Gehl

2003-01-01

120

Antioxidative and gastroprotective activities of anti-inflammatory formulations derived from chestnut honey in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug formulations Alimento Supervis (AS) and Alimento Mieleucalipto (AM), which are derived from chestnut honey, have been used as vehicle and supplemented with ginseng, propolis, royal jelly and propolis, and eucalyptus, respectively. These substances are traditionally used as anti-inflammatory medicine and were commercialized before conducting preclinical studies on their efficacy. The antioxidant properties of AS, AM, honey, and their respective

Cinzia Nasuti; Rosita Gabbianelli; Giancarlo Falcioni; Franco Cantalamessa

2006-01-01

121

Chemical composition and functional properties of native chestnut starch (Castanea sativa Mill).  

PubMed

Starch isolation methods can change their physico-chemical and functional characteristics hindering the establishment of a starch-food functionality relation. A simple high yield and soft isolation method was applied for chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) starch consisting in steeping and fruit disintegration in a 25 mM sodium bisulfite solution and purification by sedimentation. Starch integrity, physico-chemical composition, morphology and functional properties were determined, being observed significant differences from previous described methods for chestnut starch isolation. The X-ray pattern was of B-type, with a degree of crystallinity ranging from 51% to 9%, dependent on the starch moisture content. The onset, peak, and conclusion gelatinization temperatures were 57.1°C, 61.9°C and 67.9°C, respectively. Total amylose content was 26.6%, and there was not found any evidence for lipid complexed amylose. Swelling power at 90°C was 19 g/g starch, and the amount of leached amylose was 78% of the total amylose content. Native chestnut starch presents a type B pasting profile similar to corn starch but with a lower gelatinization (56.1°C) and peak viscosity (79.5°C) temperatures, making native chestnut starch a potential technological alternative to corn starch, especially in application where lower processing temperatures are needed. PMID:23544579

Cruz, Bruno R; Abraão, Ana S; Lemos, André M; Nunes, Fernando M

2013-04-15

122

Widespread Distribution of Fungivorus Aphelenchoides spp. in Blight Cankers on American Chestnut Trees  

PubMed Central

Previously we showed in laboratory studies that the fungivorus nematode, Aphelenchoides hylurgi, was attracted to and fed upon the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, from American chestnut bark cankers and was a carrier of biocontrol, white hypovirulent C. parasitica strains. In the present field study, we recovered Aphelenchoides spp. in almost all (97.0 %) of 133 blight canker tissue assays (three 5-g samples each) from four eastern states. High mean population densities (227 to 474 nematodes per 5 g tissue) of Aphelenchoides spp. were recovered from cankers in Virginia, West Virginia, and Tennessee but not from New Hampshire (mean = 75 nematodes per 5 g tissue). Overall, most canker assays yielded population densities less than 200 nematodes per 5 g tissue. All of 12 very small or young cankers yielded a few to many Aphelenchoides spp. Regression analysis indicated greatest recovery of Aphelenchoides spp. occurred in the month of May (r = 0.94). The results indicate that Aphelenchoides spp. appear to be widespread in blight cankers on American chestnut trees and could play a role in biocontrol of chestnut blight.

Griffin, G. J.; Eisenback, J. D.; Oldham, K.

2012-01-01

123

Influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and skins.  

PubMed

As seasonal products chestnuts have to be post-harvest treated to increase their shelf-life. The most common preservation method for chestnuts is the chemical fumigation with methyl bromide, a toxic agent that is under strictly Montreal Protocol due to its adverse effects on human health and environment. Food irradiation is a possible feasible alternative to substitute the traditional quarantine chemical fumigation treatment. This preliminary study evaluated the influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnut fruits and skins, through several chemical and biochemical parameters. The bioactive compounds (phenolics and flavonoids) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of ?-carotene bleaching capacity were determined. The obtained results seem to indicate that the storage favoured chestnuts antioxidant potential. Furthermore, the application of gamma irradiation also seems to be advantageous for antioxidant activity, independently of the dose used (0.27 ± 0.04 kGy or 0.54 ± 0.04 kGy). PMID:21371520

Antonio, Amilcar L; Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-09-01

124

Thickness of Knox Group overburden on Central Chestnut Ridge, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thickness of residual soil overlying the Knox Group along Central Chestnut Ridge was estimated by a conventional seismic refraction survey. The purpose of this survey was to identify sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation where ample overburden exists above the water table for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste. The results of the survey

W. P. Staub; R. A. Hopkins

1984-01-01

125

Hydrologic study and evaluation of Ish Creek watershed (West Chestnut Ridge proposed disposal site)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility, hydrologic information has been assembled from literature sources and direct field measurements. Earlier studies provide the basis for estimating flow frequency and expected high and low flows for catchments on Knox Group formations. Seven waterflow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns

D. D. Huff; J. L. Elmore; D. C. Farmer

1984-01-01

126

Spectrofluorometric investigation of trace metal complexation by an aqueous chestnut leaf litter extract. [Castanea sativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated as a method for quantitating trace metal complexes with the organic ligands in a water extract of chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) leaf litter. Copper(II) and aluminum(III) were selected as environmentally significant metals with which to characterize the method as applied to the leaf litter extract. Solutions of Cu or Al mixed with the extract exhibited fluorescence

P. Blaser; G. Sposito

2009-01-01

127

Horner's syndrome in ten horses  

PubMed Central

Ten cases of equine Horner's syndrome were reviewed. None of the clinical signs in this series were transient (<48 hours). Sweating and ptosis were consistently observed by the attending clinician in over half of the affected horses. Enophthalmos and prolapse of the third eyelid were not reported consistently. The average duration of the clinical signs was 4.94 months and ranged from 14 days to 15 months. Eight of the ten horses developed associated complications, some of which affected performance. Airway obstruction and impedance of passage of a fiberoptic endoscope due to nasal mucosal edema occurred in five horses. Facial paralysis (4/10) and laryngeal hemiplegia (2/10), which are not direct features of Horner's syndrome, were also observed.

Green, Sherril L.; Cochrane, Susan M.; Smith-Maxie, Laura

1992-01-01

128

Blister beetle poisoning in horses.  

PubMed

Case records of 21 horses with acute illness following ingestion of hay containing dead striped blister beetles (Epicauta spp) were selected for review. Abdominal pain, fever, depression, frequent urination, shock, and, occasionally, synchronous diaphragmatic flutter characterized clinical illness. Hematologic findings included hemoconcentration, neutrophilic leukocytosis, and hypocalcemia. Hematuria and low urine specific gravity were abnormal urinalysis results. Sloughing of the epithelium of the esophageal part of the stomach, hemorrhagic and ulcerative cystitis, enterocolitis, and myocardial necrosis were important post-mortem findings. Signs and lesions in 5 horses experimentally poisoned were similar to those of the natural disease. The findings were regarded as sufficiently characteristic of blister beetle poisoning to be useful in differential diagnosis but were not constant in all cases. Therefore, when blister beetle poisoning is suspected, access of affected horses to hay containing striped blister beetles should be demonstrated. PMID:670055

Schoeb, T R; Panciera, R J

1978-07-01

129

Suspected tremetol poisoning in horses.  

PubMed

Of 10 horses in a heavily overgrazed pasture, 4 died within 1 week. Clinical signs included muscle tremors, ataxia, reluctance to walk, heavy sweating, and myoglobinuria. Serum creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were high. Histopathologic findings were nonspecific. On the basis of clinical signs, clinicopathologic findings, nonspecific histopathologic findings, the condition of the pasture, the identification of numerous white snakeroot plants from which trematone was extracted, and evidence that these plants had been heavily browsed, it was believed that the horses died from ingestion of Eupatorium rugosum. PMID:6542560

Olson, C T; Keller, W C; Gerken, D F; Reed, S M

1984-11-01

130

Hepatoprotective Potential of Chestnut Bee Pollen on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Damages in Rats  

PubMed Central

Bee pollen has been used as an apitherapy agent for several centuries to treat burns, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, and various other diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of chestnut bee pollen against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4)-induced liver damage. Total phenolic content, flavonoid, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and DPPH radical activity measurements were used as antioxidant capacity determinants of the pollen. The study was conducted in rats as seven groups. Two different concentrations of chestnut bee pollens (200 and 400?mg/kg/day) were given orally and one group was administered with silibinin (50?mg/kg/day, i.p.) for seven days to the rats following the CCI4 treatment. The protective effect of the bee pollen was monitored by aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (AST) activities, histopathological imaging, and antioxidant parameters from the blood and liver samples of the rats. The results were compared with the silibinin-treated and untreated groups. We detected that CCI4 treatment induced liver damage and both the bee pollen and silibinin-treated groups reversed the damage; however, silibinin caused significant weight loss and mortality due, severe diarrhea in the rats. The chestnut pollen had showed 28.87?mg GAE/g DW of total phenolic substance, 8.07?mg QUE/g DW of total flavonoid, 92.71?mg Cyn-3-glu/kg DW of total anthocyanins, and 9?mg ?-carotene/100?g DW of total carotenoid and substantial amount of antioxidant power according to FRAP and DPPH activity. The results demonstrated that the chestnut bee pollen protects the hepatocytes from the oxidative stress and promotes the healing of the liver damage induced by CCI4 toxicity. Our findings suggest that chestnut bee pollen can be used as a safe alternative to the silibinin in the treatment of liver injuries.

Y?ld?z, Oktay; Can, Zehra; Saral, Ozlem; Yulug, Esin; Ozturk, Ferhat; Aliyaz?c?oglu, Rezzan; Canpolat, Sinan; Kolayl?, Sevgi

2013-01-01

131

75 FR 76453 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco Wind, LLC; Arizona Solar One LLC; Criterion Power Partners, LLC; Sundevil Power Holdings, LLC; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status December...

2010-12-08

132

Urethrorectal fistula in a horse.  

PubMed Central

Anomalies of the urethra are uncommon. Urethrorectal fistula in horses has only been reported in foals and only in conjunction with other congenital anomalies. This report describes the diagnosis, surgical management, and possible etiologies of a unique case of urethrorectal fistula in a mature gelding.

Cruz, A M; Barber, S M; Kaestner, S B; Townsend, H G

1999-01-01

133

Syringohydromyelia in horses: 3 cases  

PubMed Central

Syringomyelia and hydromyelia are cavitary lesions of the spinal cord that may be acquired or congenital. These lesions are not frequently reported in large animal species. The presenting complaints, clinical, gross pathological, and histopathologic findings of 2 cases of syringomyelia and 1 case of hydromyelia in horses are described.

Sponseller, Brett A.; Sponseller, Beatrice T.; Alcott, Cody J.; Kline, Karen; Hostetter, Jesse; Reinertson, Eric L.; Fales-Williams, Amanda

2011-01-01

134

[Plasma gastrin levels in horses with colic].  

PubMed

The plasma gastrin levels in fasted horses (21.1 +/- 15.6 pg/ml), in horses with spasmodic colic (7.3 +/- 5.4 pg/ml) and in horses with impaction of the left ventral large colon and/or pelvic flexure (11.4 +/- 3.1 pg/ml) were not significantly different. The plasma gastrin concentrations of horses with strangulation obstruction of the small intestine, large colon displacement or adynamic ileus, and which had no gastric reflux, were 12.9 +/- 8.7 pg/ml and did not differ from fasted gastrin levels. Horses which had 5-10 litres of stomach content reflux had a higher mean gastrin level (32.2 +/- 22.6 pg/ml) (range 8.7-83.0) than the fasted horses. The mean plasma gastrin level (69.0 +/- 32.2 pg/ml) (range 27.0-122.0 pg/ml) in horses which had gastric reflux and 11-20 litres of stomach content outflow through the nasogastric tube were significantly higher (P less than 0.0004) than in fasted horses or in horses with spasmodic colic, impaction of the left ventral large colon or in horses from which no gastric reflux could be obtained. PMID:1412432

Schusser, G F; Obermayer-Pietsch, B

1992-08-01

135

[Stomach ulcers in the horse--clinical and gastroscopic findings in 12 horses (1989-1990)].  

PubMed

Twelve horses with clinical symptoms of a gastric disorder were studied by gastroscopy. Symptoms of gastric disorders were periprandial colic, bruxism, ructus and reflux. Preliminary to gastroscopy the horses were fasted for 24 h. Access to water was not restricted. The gastroscopy could be conducted easily using a fiberscope 2.5 m in length and 11 mm in outer diameter. While ulcers were present in the squamous fundus of all horses only one horse showed ulceration of the glandular fundus. Solitary ulcers near the margo plicatus were found in horses with mild clinical symptoms. In contrast, diffuse gastroesophageal ulceration was accompanied by severe clinical symptoms. Four horses were affected by an acute gastroesophageal ulceration with gastric reflux and subsequent aspiration pneumonia. Two of those horses suffered from acute gastric ulceration 3-4 days following laparatomy. All horses were treated with cimetidine (5 mg/kg bwt/q.i.d.) until clinical symptoms ceased. PMID:1948986

Dieckmann, M; Deegen, E

1991-08-01

136

Xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris w.t. fermentation from chestnut extract.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas campestris w.t. was used for production of xanthan gum in fermentations with chestnut flour for the first time. Fermentations were carried out with either chestnut flour or its soluble sugars (33.5%) and starch (53.6%), respectively, at 28 degrees C and 200 rpm at initial pH 7.0 in flasks. The effect of agitation rate (at 200, 400, and 600 rpm) on xanthan gum production was also studied in a 2-L batch reactor. It was found that xanthan production reaches a maximum value of 3.3 g/100 mL at 600 rpm and 28 degrees C at 45 h. PMID:15304770

Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, M; Psomas, S K; Kyriakidis, D A

1999-12-01

137

Phosphorus bioavailability in diets for growing horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of phosphorus (P) metabolism was carried out using 12 month old Brasileiro de Hipismo breed of horses to determine the P bioavailability available from feeds commonly fed to horses in Brazil. Five different diets were formulated to contain approximately equivalent levels of crude protein and digestible energy, as well as to supply at least 22 g P\\/horse\\/day (NRC, 1989). All

A. A. M. A. Oliveira; C. E. Furtado; D. M. S. S. Vitti; F. D. Resende; S. L. S Cabral Filho; H. Tosi; B. Winkler

2008-01-01

138

Effects of elevated CO 2 on growth, photosynthesis and respiration of sweet chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two year old sweet chestnut seedlings (Castanea sativa Mill) were grown in pots at ambient (350 µmol·mol-1) and double (700 µmol·mol-1) atmospheric CO2 concentration in constantly ventilated greenhouses during entire growing seasons. CO2 enrichment caused either no significant change or a decrease in shoot response, depending on yearly weather conditions. Similarly, leaf area was either reduced or unchanged under elevated

M. Mousseau; H. Lambers

1993-01-01

139

A study on freeze–thaw characteristics and microstructure of Chinese water chestnut starch gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the repeatedly freeze-thawed (FT) treatment on the microstructure, crystallinity, thermal properties, textural properties and resistant starch content of Chinese water chestnut starch (CWCS) gels were investigated, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and textural analysis (TA). The microstructure of the native starch gel was a compact and random phase. Freeze-thawed starch gels

Lan Wang; Zhihua Yin; Jia Wu; Zhida Sun; Bijun Xie

2008-01-01

140

Exogenous salicylic acid inhibits browning of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential usage of salicylic acid (SA) as a powerful anti-browning agent in fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut (CWC) was investigated. The fresh-cut CWC were dipped for 1min in solutions of 0,1,2 or 4 mM SA, then placed in trays over-wrapped with plastic films, and finally stored at 4°C. Changes in color, eating quality, and disease incidence were evaluated, while activities

Litao Peng; Yueming Jiang

2006-01-01

141

Thickness of Knox Group overburden on Central Chestnut Ridge, Oak Ridge Reservation  

SciTech Connect

The thickness of residual soil overlying the Knox Group along Central Chestnut Ridge was estimated by a conventional seismic refraction survey. The purpose of this survey was to identify sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation where ample overburden exists above the water table for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste. The results of the survey suggest that the upper slopes of the higher ridges in the area have a minimum of 16 to 26 m (52 to 85 ft) of overburden and that the crests of these ridges may have more than 30 m (100 ft). Therefore, it is unlikely that sound bedrock would be encountered during trench excavation (maximum of 10 m (32 ft)) along Central Chestnut Ridge. Also, the relatively low seismic wave velocities measured in the overburden suggest that the water table is generally deep. On the basis of these preliminary results, Central Chestnut Ridge appears to be suitable for further site characterization for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste. 3 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Staub, W.P.; Hopkins, R.A.

1984-05-01

142

Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.  

PubMed

In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

2013-11-01

143

Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in Icelandic horses  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA) syndrome is a hereditary congenital eye defect that was first described in Silver colored Rocky Mountain horses. The mutation causing this disease is located within a defined chromosomal interval, which also contains the gene and mutation that is associated with the Silver coat color (PMEL17, exon 11). Horses that are homozygous for the disease-causing allele have multiple defects (MCOA-phenotype), whilst the heterozygous horses predominantly have cysts of the iris, ciliary body or retina (Cyst-phenotype). It has been argued that these ocular defects are caused by a recent mutation that is restricted to horses that are related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. For that reason we have examined another horse breed, the Icelandic horse, which is historically quite divergent from Rocky Mountain horses. Results We examined 24 Icelandic horses and established that the MCOA syndrome is present in this breed. Four of these horses were categorised as having the MCOA-phenotype and were genotyped as being homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation. The most common clinical signs included megaloglobus, iris stromal hypoplasia, abnormal pectinate ligaments, iridociliary cysts occasionally extending into the peripheral retina and cataracts. The cysts and pectinate ligament abnormalities were observed in the temporal quadrant of the eyes. Fourteen horses were heterozygous for the PMEL17 mutation and were characterized as having the Cyst-phenotype with cysts and occasionally curvilinear streaks in the peripheral retina. Three additional horses were genotyped as PMEL17 heterozygotes, but in these horses we were unable to detect cysts or other forms of anomalies. One eye of a severely vision-impaired 18 month-old stallion, homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation was examined by light microscopy. Redundant duplication of non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium, sometimes forming cysts bulging into the posterior chamber and localized areas of atrophy in the peripheral retina were seen. Conclusions The MCOA syndrome is segregating with the PMEL17 mutation in the Icelandic Horse population. This needs to be taken into consideration in breeding decisions and highlights the fact that MCOA syndrome is present in a breed that are more ancient and not closely related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed.

2011-01-01

144

Photic headshaking in the horse: 7 cases.  

PubMed

Seven horses with headshaking are described. No physical abnormalities were detected in any of the cases. Six of these horses had onset of clinical signs in the spring. The role of light was assessed by application of a blindfold or dark grey lens to the eyes, covering the eyes with a face mask and observing the horse in total darkness outdoors. Cessation of headshaking was observed with blindfolding (5/5 horses), night darkness outdoors (4/4 horses) and use of grey lenses (2/3 horses). Outdoor behaviour suggested efforts to avoid light in 4/4 cases. The photic sneeze in man is suggested as a putative mechanism for equine headshaking. Five of 7 horses had improvement with cyproheptadine treatment (0.3 mg/kg bwt b.i.d.). Headshaking developed within 2 calendar weeks of the same date for 3 consecutive years in one horse. Neuropharmacological alterations associated with photoperiod mechanisms leading to optic trigeminal summation are suggested as possible reasons for spring onset of headshaking. PMID:8536668

Madigan, J E; Kortz, G; Murphy, C; Rodger, L

1995-07-01

145

Exercise and the height of horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heights of 89 horses were measured at the withers before and after half a furlong of trotting exercise. The mean (+\\/- sd) height increase after exercise was 1.75 +\\/- 0.86 cm and the horses returned to their resting height within seven minutes. There was no linear relationship between gain in height and pre-exercise height.

AA Hodges; AG Harrison; CM Wathes

1986-01-01

146

Genetic characterisation of the Uruguayan Creole horse and analysis of relationships among horse breeds.  

PubMed

The genetic variability within the Uruguayan Creole horse and its relationship to a group of geographically or historically related breeds (Spanish Pure-bred, Barb, Quarter horse, Paso Fino, Peruvian Paso, Arabian and Thoroughbred horse), was evaluated using 25 loci (seven of blood groups, nine of protein polymorphisms and nine microsatellites) analyzed on a total of 145 Uruguayan Creole horses. In this study, blood group and protein polymorphism variants that are considered to be breed markers of Spanish Pure-bred and Barb horses were detected in the Creole breed. Conversely, some microsatellites and protein polymorphisms alleles were found uniquely in the Creole horse. American horse breeds together with Barb and Arabian horses clearly formed a separate cluster from the Spanish pure-bred and Thoroughbred breeds, as shown by an UPGMA dendrogram based on Nei's standard genetic distance. Data in this study provided evidence for considerable genetic variation within Uruguayan Creole horses and of a distinctive breed profile. Both traits were most likely inherited from the XVIth century Spanish horses, more closely related to Barb than to Spanish Pure-bred. PMID:12002640

Kelly, L; Postiglioni, A; De Andrés, D F; Vega-Plá, J L; Gagliardi, R; Biagetti, R; Franco, J

2002-02-01

147

Inhibitory effects of polyphenols from water chestnut (Trapa japonica) husk on glycolytic enzymes and postprandial blood glucose elevation in mice.  

PubMed

Water chestnut is an annual aquatic plant that grows in Asia and Europe. Although water chestnut has been used as food and herbal medicine, its physiological functions and active ingredients are unknown. Here, we extracted polyphenols from the husk of the Japanese water chestnut (Trapa japonica) and assessed their effects on blood glucose levels. Three hydrolysable polyphenolics (WCPs), eugeniin, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-?-d-glucopyranose, and trapain, were predominant with dry-weight contents of 2.3±0.0, 2.7±0.1, and 1.2±0.1g/100g, respectively. These WCPs exhibited inhibitory activity against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. Whereas (-)-epigallocatechin gallate does not inhibit ?-amylase, WCPs exhibited high inhibitory activity (>80% at 0.15mg/mL). In mice, administration of WCPs (40mg/kg) significantly reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels as assessed by the carbohydrate tolerance test. PMID:25038647

Yasuda, Midori; Yasutake, Kenichiro; Hino, Madoka; Ohwatari, Hitomi; Ohmagari, Nozomi; Takedomi, Kazumi; Tanaka, Takashi; Nonaka, Gen-Ichiro

2014-12-15

148

Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents: The role of the cotyledonary petiole.  

PubMed

Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak (Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ?6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to produce seedlings suggests a far greater resilience of white oaks to seed predation than previously anticipated. PMID:23179950

Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W; Agosta, Salvatore J; Steele, Michael A

2013-01-01

149

Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents. The role of the cotyledonary petiole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak ( Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ?6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to produce seedlings suggests a far greater resilience of white oaks to seed predation than previously anticipated.

Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Steele, Michael A.

2013-01-01

150

Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.  

PubMed Central

Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed each to provide the delivery of a tactile stimulus, a repetitive light tapping, at different locations (spaced 10.0 cm apart) along the horse's back. Two preliminary steps were necessary before generalization testing: training a measurable response (lip pressing) and training on several reinforcement schedules in the presence of a training stimulus (tapping by one of the solenoids). We then gave each horse two generalization test sessions. Results indicated that the horses' behavior was effectively controlled by the training stimulus. Horses made the greatest number of responses to the training stimulus, and the tendency to respond to the other test stimuli diminished as the stimuli became farther away from the training stimulus. These findings are discussed in the context of behavioral principles and their relevance to the training of horses.

Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

1993-01-01

151

Horse-rider interaction in dressage riding.  

PubMed

In dressage riding the pelvis of the rider interacts with the horse physically. However, there is little information about the influence of riding skill on the interaction of the human pelvis with the horse. Therefore this paper aims to study the interaction between horse and rider in professional riders (PRO) and beginners (BEG). Twenty riders rode in walk, trot, and canter in an indoor riding hall with inertial sensors attached to their pelvis and to the horses' trunk. Statistical analysis of waveform parameters, qualitative interpretation of angle-angle plots, and cross-correlation of horse and rider were applied to the data. Significant differences between PRO and BEG could be found for specific waveform parameters. Over all gaits PRO kept their pelvis closer to the mid-position and further forward whereas BEG tilted their pelvis further to the right and more backwards. The coupling intensity of horse and rider revealed differences between the gaits. Furthermore phase shifts were found between PRO and BEG. This paper describes a sensor-based approach for the investigation of interactions of the human pelvis with the trunk of a horse under in-field conditions. First the results show that the riding level influences the posture of a rider and secondly that differences can be detected with contemporary available sensor technology and methods. PMID:24290612

Münz, Andreas; Eckardt, Falko; Witte, Kerstin

2014-02-01

152

Hepatic sarcocystosis in a horse.  

PubMed

Hepatic sarcocystosis was diagnosed in a horse in association with refractory bacterial osteomyelitis and plasma cell tumor of the maxilla and hepatic salmonellosis. Gross lesions included pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal effusions, hepatomegaly, gastric ulceration, colonic edema, and proliferative tissues filling 2 maxillary dental alveoli. Histologically, liver was characterized by severe suppurative, necrotizing, periportal hepatitis, and severe periacinar necrosis. Hepatocytes frequently contained protozoal schizonts in various stages of development. In mature schizonts, merozoites were often arranged radially around a central residual body, consistent with asexual division by endopolygeny. Ultrastructural features of merozoites included an apical conoid and polar ring, anterior micronemes, central nuclei, and absence of rhoptries. These protozoa did not react to antisera raised against Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii, or Hammondia hammondi. The microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics and immunoreactivity of this organism are consistent with a Sarcocystis sp. other than S. neurona. This is the first report of Sarcocystis-associated hepatitis in a horse. The life cycle of this organism and source of infection are unknown. PMID:10577737

Davis, C R; Barr, B C; Pascoe, J R; Olander, H J; Dubey, J P

1999-10-01

153

Isolation and characterization of polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps).  

PubMed

We describe 18 microsatellite markers isolated in the cooperatively breeding chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps). The number of alleles ranged from seven to 16 per locus (mean N(a)  = 10.4 ± 0.54 SE) and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.732 to 0.889 (mean H(E)  = 0.836 ± 0.01 SE). Three of the 18 loci exhibited significant heterozygote deficiency, but the remaining 15 will be used to analyse population genetic structure and the mating system of this highly social species. PMID:21564816

Holleley, C E; Russell, A F; Griffith, S C

2009-05-01

154

Synthesis of chestnut-bur-like palladium nanostructures and their enhanced electrocatalytic activities for ethanol oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pd nanostructures with highly open structure and huge surface area by reducing Na2PdCl4 with ascorbic acid and using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a surfactant in an aqueous solution. The prepared Pd nanostructures had an average overall size of 70 nm and were composed of dozens of needle-like thin arms, originating from the same core, with an average thickness of 2.3 nm; the arms looked like chestnut-burs. Time evolution of Pd nanostructures implied that small Pd particles generated at the early stage of the reaction by fast reduction grew via the particle attachment growth mechanism. The morphology and size of the Pd nanostructures could be readily controlled by varying the concentration of CPC; depending on the amount of CPC, the reduction rates varied the morphology of the Pd nanostructures. Because of the huge surface area and possible catalytically active sites, the prepared chestnut-bur-like Pd nanostructures exhibited greater electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation compared to other Pd nanocatalysts, including cubic and octahedral Pd nanocrystals, and even commercial Pd/C.We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pd nanostructures with highly open structure and huge surface area by reducing Na2PdCl4 with ascorbic acid and using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a surfactant in an aqueous solution. The prepared Pd nanostructures had an average overall size of 70 nm and were composed of dozens of needle-like thin arms, originating from the same core, with an average thickness of 2.3 nm; the arms looked like chestnut-burs. Time evolution of Pd nanostructures implied that small Pd particles generated at the early stage of the reaction by fast reduction grew via the particle attachment growth mechanism. The morphology and size of the Pd nanostructures could be readily controlled by varying the concentration of CPC; depending on the amount of CPC, the reduction rates varied the morphology of the Pd nanostructures. Because of the huge surface area and possible catalytically active sites, the prepared chestnut-bur-like Pd nanostructures exhibited greater electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation compared to other Pd nanocatalysts, including cubic and octahedral Pd nanocrystals, and even commercial Pd/C. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional TEM images of Pd nanostructures (Fig. S1-S4). See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06410g

Ye, Seong Ji; Kim, Do Youb; Kang, Shin Wook; Choi, Kyeong Woo; Han, Sang Woo; Park, O. Ok

2014-03-01

155

Genetics of swayback in American Saddlebred horses.  

PubMed

Extreme lordosis, also called swayback, lowback or softback, can occur as a congenital trait or as a degenerative trait associated with ageing. In this study, the hereditary aspect of congenital swayback was investigated using whole genome association studies of 20 affected and 20 unaffected American Saddlebred (ASB) Horses for 48,165 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A statistically significant association was identified on ECA20 (corrected P=0.017) for SNP BIEC2-532523. Of the 20 affected horses, 17 were homozygous for this SNP when compared to seven homozygotes among the unaffected horses, suggesting a major gene with a recessive mode of inheritance. The result was confirmed by testing an additional 13 affected horses and 166 unaffected horses using 35 SNPs in this region of ECA20 (corrected P=0.036). Combined results for 33 affected horses and 287 non-affected horses allowed identification of a region of homozygosity defined by four SNPs in the region. Based on the haplotype defined by these SNPs, 80% of the 33 affected horses were homozygous, 21% heterozygous and 9% did not possess the haplotype. Among the non-affected horses, 15% were homozygous, 47% heterozygous and 38% did not possess the haplotype. The differences between the two groups were highly significant (P<0.00001). The region defined by this haplotype includes 53 known and predicted genes. Exons from three candidate genes, TRERF1, RUNX2 and CNPY3 were sequenced without finding distinguishing SNPs. The mutation responsible for swayback may lie in other genes or in regulatory regions outside exons. This information can be used by breeders to reduce the occurrence of swayback among their livestock. This condition may serve as a model for investigation of congenital skeletal deformities in other species. PMID:21070278

Cook, D; Gallagher, P C; Bailey, E

2010-12-01

156

Gastric ulcers in horses: a comparison of endoscopic findings in horses with and without clinical signs.  

PubMed

Gastroendoscopic examinations were performed on 187 horses, ranging from one to 24 years. Eighty-seven horses had clinical problems including chronic, recurrent colic for seven or more days (25), one or more episodes of colic within the previous seven days (13), or acute colic (10), diminished appetite (53), poor bodily condition (40), and/or chronic diarrhoea (9). One hundred horses that had no signs of gastrointestinal problems were examined as part of a gastroendoscopic survey. Lesions observed in the squamous fundus, squamous mucosa adjacent to the margo plicatus along the greater curvature, glandular fundus, and the squamous mucosa along the lesser curvature were scored on a scale of 0-4, with 0 representing no lesions and 4 representing the most severe lesions. The mean endoscopic scores for the squamous fundus, margo plicatus and lesser curvature were significantly greater (P < 0.001) in horses with clinical signs than those without signs. This was because of the greater number of horses with lesions in the symptomatic group (80/87) compared to those without signs (52/100), and the greater severity of lesions in the horses with clinical signs. Of the horses, 74 were in race training. There was a significantly (P < 0.01) greater prevalence and severity of lesions at all sites except the glandular fundus in horses in training compared to those not in training, and in the horses in training with clinical signs (n = 37) compared to those in training without clinical signs (n = 37). PMID:9118110

Murray, M J; Grodinsky, C; Anderson, C W; Radue, P F; Schmidt, G R

1989-06-01

157

Massive pulmonary thromboembolism in six horses.  

PubMed

This report involves 6 cases in which medical records and post mortem findings were reviewed leading to the diagnosis of massive pulmonary thromboembolism (MPTE). All horses were mature and MPTE has not been recognised previously as a sequel to generalised systemic illness in mature horses. The clinical data and pathological findings of the cases are reported and the authors conclude that MPTE is an uncommon but important complication of medical and surgical disorders in mature horses. In 3 of the cases, the condition was nonfatal suggesting that some horses having developed PTE survive and the condition may not be recognised in such cases. The incidence of the condition might be higher than supposed. PMID:18482899

Norman, T E; Chaffin, M K; Perris, E E; Edwards, J F; David, J B; Cohen, N D; Reuss, S

2008-07-01

158

Phenols, lignans and antioxidant properties of legume and sweet chestnut flours.  

PubMed

Total phenols (TPC) and antioxidant properties were determined in chick-pea, green and red lentils and sweet chestnut flours, in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues, by the Folin Ciocalteau method and by the FRAP assay, respectively. Plant lignans were quantified in flours by means of HPLC. In addition, the FRAP of plant lignans (secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol, matairesinol), their mixture and enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) were determined. In all flours, the highest TPC values were found in the residue. Specific and varietal significant differences were observed in all parameters. The highest TPC (737.32 and 1492.93mg/100gd.w.) and FRAP (140.32 and 101.25?mol/gd.w.) values were reached by green lentils in both aqueous-organic extract and residue, respectively. Sweet chestnuts had the highest total lignans (980.03?g/100gd.w.). It was also found that the plant lignans standards have a higher antioxidant activity than enterolignans standards and that matairesinol has the highest activity. PMID:23692751

Durazzo, Alessandra; Turfani, Valeria; Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Carcea, Marina

2013-10-15

159

Inertial properties of Dutch Warmblood horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete set of three-dimensional inertial properties (mass, density, contre of mass, inertial tensor) was determined in 26 segments of six Dutch Warmblood horses. The measurements were performed with frozen segments similar to the procedure described by Lephart (1984, J. Biomechanics17, 537–543). Based on these data linear regression models were developed for the estimation of inertial properties in living horses.The

H. H. F. Buchner; H. H. C. M. Savelberg; H. C. Schamhardt; A. Barneveld

1997-01-01

160

Contested Realities: Feral Horses in Outback Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to 1980, feral horse numbers in the Northern Territory of Australia were thought to be low, between 40,000 and 60,000. Based on research done by an American geographer, these estimates should have been critically scrutinized by Australian scientists. They were, however, accepted uncritically. Then in the early 1980s, helicopter censuses showed that the feral horse population was more than

Richard Symanski

1994-01-01

161

Effects of chestnut tannins on carcass characteristics, meat quality, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy two male Bianca Italiana rabbits were used to study the effects of the inclusion (0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%) of a natural extract of chestnut wood (Silvafeed ENC) in the diet on productive traits, carcass characteristics, meat quality, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of rabbit meat. Results showed ENC had no significant effect on live weight, productive traits, hot

Hua Wei Liu; Francesco Gai; Laura Gasco; Alberto Brugiapaglia; Carola Lussiana; Kai Jun Guo; Jian Ming Tong; Ivo Zoccarato

2009-01-01

162

Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (D-025): Summary of closure under Rules Governing Hazardous Waste Management in Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

On February 29, 1988, the Revised Closure Plan for Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin,'' Y/TS-390 (Reference 1) was submitted to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for review and transmittal to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE). The closure activities described in the closure plan have been performed. The purpose of this document is to summarize the closure activities for the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal (CRSDB). The closure of CRSDB is a final closure. The Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB), Unit D-025, was an unlined, man-made sediment disposal facility on Chestnut Ridge, south of New Hope Pond (NHP). The CRSDB was constructed during 1972--73 for the disposal of sediments hydraulically dredged from NHP. It was designed to hold approximately 30,000 cubic yards of sediments. Since 1973, the basin had been used for the periodic disposal of sediments excavated from NHP and its appurtenant structures. NHP has previously received discharges form RCRA-related waste streams. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Stone, J.E.

1989-07-01

163

Effect of pasture on chestnut woods on meat quality and fatty acid composition of fat in Cinta Senese pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Seven Cinta Senese pigs were reared in a paddock and fed on barley; other 7 pigs were reared in the woods and fed on chestnuts. A sample cut was removed from the loin and dissected. The following analyses were carried out on Longissimus lumborum (LI): colour measurements, moisture, intramuscular fat, water-holding capacity and shear force. Colour measurements and

C. Pugliese; F. Sirtori; A. Acciaioli; R. Bozzi; O. Franci

164

Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (D-025): Summary of closure under Rules Governing Hazardous Waste Management in Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On February 29, 1988, the ''Revised Closure Plan for Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin,'' Y/TS-390 (Reference 1) was submitted to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for review and transmittal to the Tennessee Department of Health and Enviro...

J. E. Stone

1989-01-01

165

Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in working horses.  

PubMed

Fecal samples for detection of gastrointestinal parasites were collected from 221 working horses from September 2002 to May 2003 from 14 villages in Urmia, North West of Iran. Fecal samples of 46 horses (20.8%) were negative for parasite eggs or oocysts. One hundred and seventy five positive horses (48.9%) were infected with a single parasite type and 49 (22.2%) and 18 (8.1%) of horses had multiple infections with two and three parasites, respectively. The highest prevalence and intensity rate belonged to small strongyles. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites eggs and oocyst in the positive horses were: strongyles 72.9%, Oxyuris equi 22.6%, Parascaris equorum 12.2%, Anoplocephalidae 6.3%, Fasciola spp. 3.2% and Eimeria leuckarti 0.5%. Larval identification showed that small strongyle larvae were most frequent (97.6%) followed by Strongylus edentatus (22.6%), S. equinus (18.5%) and S. vulgaris (6.5%). This study suggests that the high rate of infection with gastrointestinal parasites could contribute to low performance and life expectancy of working horses in the region. PMID:20731187

Tavassoli, M; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Esmaeili-Sani, S

2010-01-01

166

Extension Large Colon Resection in 12 Horses  

PubMed Central

Extensive resection (50-75%) of the large colon was performed in 12 horses. Indications for resection were: loss of viability due to large colon volvulus (seven), thromboembolic episode (three), impairment of flow of ingesta due to adhesions (one), or congenital abnormalities (one). The time required to correct the primary cause of abdominal pain and complete the resection ranged from 2.5 to 4.75 hours. Three horses had severe musculoskeletal problems postoperatively and were euthanized in the recovery stall. Four other horses were euthanized early in the postoperative period because of: further large colon infarction (two), ileus (one), or small intestinal problems (one). Five horses survived with no apparent nutritional or metabolic problems during two to three weeks of hospitalization. Clinical data were obtained from these horses from nine months to eighteen months postoperatively and revealed no clinical or clinicopathological abnormalities in four of them; the fifth horse exhibited diarrhea and weight loss four months postoperatively but responded to diet change.

Arighi, Mimi; Ducharme, Norman G.; Horney, F. Donald.; Livesey, Michael A.

1987-01-01

167

WAR HORSE and IRON HORSE at Camp Shelby: data collection and associated processing results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following paper describes a recent data collection exercise in which the WAR HORSE visible-near-infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor and IRON HORSE short-wave-infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor were employed in the collection of wide-area hyperspectral data sets. A preliminary analysis of the data has been performed and results are discussed.

Stellman, Christopher M.; Olchowski, Frederick M.; Hazel, Geoffrey G.; Allman, E. C.; Surratt, M. L.

2003-09-01

168

15. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the trail crossing the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the trail crossing the Yankee Horse Railroad bed. Facing south. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

169

Effects of extrusion temperature and feed composition on the functional, physical and sensory properties of chestnut and rice flour-based snack-like products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snack-like products were obtained by extrusion-cooking of chestnut–rice flour blend-based doughs, by forming the extruded dough in pellets and then baking them in a toaster, in order to obtain adequate puffing. The effects of chestnut flour content and of extrusion temperature on functional (water adsorption index, water-holding capacity and water solubility index) and physical (density, moisture content and color) properties

G. Sacchetti; G. G. Pinnavaia; E. Guidolin; M. Dalla Rosa

2004-01-01

170

19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for...Provisions Articles Exported for Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported...

2014-04-01

171

19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for...Provisions Articles Exported for Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported...

2012-04-01

172

19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for...Provisions Articles Exported for Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported...

2010-04-01

173

19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for...Provisions Articles Exported for Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported...

2013-04-01

174

19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for...Provisions Articles Exported for Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported...

2009-04-01

175

Extra- and Intracellular Laccases of the Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica  

PubMed Central

A double-stranded RNA virus of the chestnut blight pathogen, Cryphonectria parasitica, has been shown previously to reduce accumulation of mRNAs of extracellular laccase (laccase A) produced by this fungus. Both extra- and intracellular laccases have been detected after growth of the fungus in liquid culture. In addition to cellular localization, the two laccases are distinguishable by time of appearance during growth and electrophoretic mobility. Laccase A was purified from the culture filtrate by standard protein purification procedures. The enzyme was characterized as a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of approximately 77 kDa. Both laccase A and laccase B activities were significantly reduced in the hypovirulent (double-stranded RNA-infected) strain UEP1 compared with the isogenic virulent (double-stranded RNA-free) strain EP155/2. Images

Rigling, Daniel; Van Alfen, Neal K.

1993-01-01

176

Large-scale expressed sequence tag analysis for the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica.  

PubMed

Cryphonectria parasitica is the causal fungal agent responsible for the chestnut blight disease. We report the generation of 14,263 expressed sequence tags representing 6318 unisequences for the fungus. Functional annotation of these unisequences revealed different gene expression patterns for wild-type and hypovirus-infected cultures at the sporulation stage and allowed the reconstruction of key C. parasitica signal transduction pathways conserved in the Sorbidaryomycetes. A list of homologous genes implicated in pathogenicity, sporulation, and virus replication in other fungi were also identified. A large-scale gene comparison indicated that C. parasitica is most closely related to the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum but more closely related to the non-pathogen Neurospora crassa than to the rice pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. This transcriptional information lays a new and solid ground for further investigation of both the biology of the fungus and interaction between a hypovirus and the host fungus. PMID:18166491

Shang, Jinjie; Wu, Xiaosong; Lan, Xiuwan; Fan, Yunyan; Dong, Haitao; Deng, Ye; Nuss, Donald L; Chen, Baoshan

2008-03-01

177

Volatile compounds and bacterial community dynamics of chestnut-flour-based sourdoughs.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were the monitoring of the microbial dynamics by means of a polyphasic approach based on conventional isolation techniques and PCR-DGGE-based methods in different chestnut-based sourdoughs and the evaluation of the impact of fermentation on volatile organic compounds formation during sourdoughs ripening. Members of the Lactobacillus plantarum group and Pediococcus pentosaceous dominated the sourdough ecosystems. Nevertheless, RAPD-PCR allowed recording a relevant genotypic biodiversity among strains coming from gluten-free flour combinations. Volatile compounds were characterised by GC/MS. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified, mainly alcohols, esters, acids, aldehydes and ketones. Principal component analysis of samples at the beginning and at the end of ripening offered a good separation of the samples and highlighted the effect of fermentation on the sensorial profile. PMID:23870973

Aponte, M; Boscaino, F; Sorrentino, A; Coppola, R; Masi, P; Romano, A

2013-12-01

178

The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results, as expected, show that management didn't affect root mechanical properties, whereas root distribution within the soil profile did. In terms of additional root cohesion, values are higher in the managed stand, and lower in the abandoned one, at least in the first 50 cm of soil. In the abandoned stand, in fact, roots reach deeper layers of soil (100 cm) than the managed one (50 cm), mainly because of an unexpected greater soil depth. To assess the implication of such results in terms of slope stability, a simple infinite slope model was applied to the two conditions. The results showed that the abandoned stand is prone to instability also with a low level of saturation. On the contrary, by applying the additional root cohesion profile obtained in the managed stand to the steeper slopes, stability should be guaranteed, except in the case of total saturation. In conclusion, although more investigations are required especially to extend the number of stands, coppicing practice seem to be fundamental to prevent shallow landsliding in sweet chestnut forests over cohesionless slopes.

Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

2013-04-01

179

Comparison of Sarcocystis neurona isolates derived from horse neural tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcocystis neurona is a protozoan parasite that can cause neurological deficits in infected horses. The route of transmission is by fecal–oral transfer of sporocysts from opossums. However, the species identity and the lifecycle are not completely known. In this study, Sarcocystis merozoites from eight isolates obtained from Michigan horses were compared to S. neurona from a California horse (UCD1), Sarcocystis

L. S Mansfield; H. C Schott; A. J Murphy; M. G Rossano; S. M Tanhauser; J. S Patterson; K Nelson; S. L Ewart; J. V Marteniuk; D. D Bowman; J. B Kaneene

2001-01-01

180

9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93.317 Animals and...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

2009-01-01

181

9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93.317 Animals and...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

2010-01-01

182

Illness in horses following spraying with amitraz.  

PubMed

Sickness occurred in 3 of 4 horses within 24 h of being sprayed with an 0.025% w/v aqueous suspension of amitraz. The latter consisted of a portion of an amitraz aqueous suspension made up some 3 weeks previously, to which some freshly prepared spray fluid had been added. It seemed likely that the amitraz in the older solution had broken down to the highly toxic N-3, 5- dimethylphenyl N-methyl formamadine derivative and that this was in fact the main cause of the untoward effects observed. The horses displayed typical clinical signs of tranquillisation, depression, ataxia, muscular incoordination and impaction colic lasting up to 6 days. Subcutaneous oedema of the face occurred in one horse. The syndrome was accompanied by mild dehydration and acidosis. All horses survived after persistent symptomatic treatment including the giving of intravenous fluids, enemas, analgesics every 3 h, multiple doses of paraffin oil per os and dexamethasone intravenously. Following the eventual relief of constipation the horses scoured profusely for 24 h before their condition returned to normal. PMID:6508668

Auer, D E; Seawright, A A; Pollitt, C C; Williams, G

1984-08-01

183

Structure of oxalacetate acetylhydrolase, a virulence factor of the chestnut blight fungus.  

PubMed

Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxalacetate is the main OAH substrate, but the enzyme also acts as a lyase of (2R,3S)-dimethyl malate with approximately 1000-fold lower efficacy. The crystal structure of OAH was determined alone, in complex with a mechanism-based inhibitor, 3,3-difluorooxalacetate (DFOA), and in complex with the reaction product, oxalate, to a resolution limit of 1.30, 1.55, and 1.65 A, respectively. OAH assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit exhibiting an (alpha/beta)(8) barrel fold and each pair swapping the 8th alpha-helix. An active site "gating loop" exhibits conformational disorder in the ligand-free structure. To obtain the structures of the OAH.ligand complexes, the ligand-free OAH crystals were soaked briefly with DFOA or oxalacetate. DFOA binding leads to ordering of the gating loop in a conformation that sequesters the ligand from the solvent. DFOA binds in a gem-diol form analogous to the oxalacetate intermediate/transition state. Oxalate binds in a planar conformation, but the gating loop is largely disordered. Comparison between the OAH structure and that of the closely related enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, suggests potential determinants of substrate preference. PMID:20558740

Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nuss, Donald L; Herzberg, Osnat

2010-08-20

184

Structure of Oxalacetate Acetylhydrolase, a Virulence Factor of the Chestnut Blight Fungus*  

PubMed Central

Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxalacetate is the main OAH substrate, but the enzyme also acts as a lyase of (2R,3S)-dimethyl malate with ?1000-fold lower efficacy. The crystal structure of OAH was determined alone, in complex with a mechanism-based inhibitor, 3,3-difluorooxalacetate (DFOA), and in complex with the reaction product, oxalate, to a resolution limit of 1.30, 1.55, and 1.65 ?, respectively. OAH assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit exhibiting an (?/?)8 barrel fold and each pair swapping the 8th ?-helix. An active site “gating loop” exhibits conformational disorder in the ligand-free structure. To obtain the structures of the OAH·ligand complexes, the ligand-free OAH crystals were soaked briefly with DFOA or oxalacetate. DFOA binding leads to ordering of the gating loop in a conformation that sequesters the ligand from the solvent. DFOA binds in a gem-diol form analogous to the oxalacetate intermediate/transition state. Oxalate binds in a planar conformation, but the gating loop is largely disordered. Comparison between the OAH structure and that of the closely related enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, suggests potential determinants of substrate preference.

Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nuss, Donald L.; Herzberg, Osnat

2010-01-01

185

Occurrence of Borrelia lusitaniae infection in horses.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infection in horses exposed to heavy tick infestations. Blood samples of 98 healthy horses from 5 stud farms were examined by SNAP(®) 4D× and PCR to detect antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. and Borrelia DNA, respectively. Ten samples (15.3%) were antibody positive and 5 samples (5.1%) were both antibody and PCR positive. Sequence analysis showed the highest homology with the B. lusitaniae genospecies. No differences were found between sexes and stud farms, while age was significantly related to seropositivity (p<0.05). Our data confirms the presence of B. lusitaniae infection in horses, previously not clearly demonstrated. PMID:22789679

Veronesi, Fabrizia; Laus, Fulvio; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Tesei, Beniamino; Piergili Fioretti, Daniela; Genchi, Claudio

2012-12-01

186

Monensin poisoning in horses -- an international incident  

PubMed Central

Several hundred Michigan horses were accidentally exposed to varying levels of monensin. Severity of effects was proportional to the level of feed contamination; sudden death resulted on at least two premises. Acute signs of cardiovascular impairment occurred on one premises having received feed containing over 200 grams of monensin per tonne. Gross and histological postmortem lesions consisted of acute myocardial necrosis. Although only circumstantially confirmed, investigations led to the suspicion that the source of poisoning was a ration formulation error in a feedmill in southwestern Ontario. Concern over possible undetected heart damage in exposed horses led to clinical monitoring on one farm over a period of several months. Electrocardiographic and serum enzyme monitoring were used soon after the incident to implicate exposure in some horses; they were poor prognostic indicators. Applicable legislation, the cooperative role of government departments, and legal implications relative to potential prosecution and lawsuits arising from sale of contaminated feed between Canada and the USA are summarized.

Doonan, Gordon R.; Brown, Christopher M.; Mullaney, Thomas P.; Brooks, David B.; Ulmanis, Eugene G.; Slanker, Michael R.

1989-01-01

187

Skeletal atavism in a miniature horse.  

PubMed

An 8-month-old miniature horse filly was presented for evaluation of severe rotational and angular limb deformities of the thoracic and pelvic limbs. On radiographic examination, complete ulnas and fibulas were identified. These findings are consistent with a condition previously described as a form of atavism. The term atavism is used to describe the reappearance of a trait or character that was seen in all earlier evolutionary specimens of a particular species, but has not been seen in recent ancestors. The atavistic traits of complete ulnas and fibulas have previously been described in Welsh and Shetland Ponies, all of which had severe rotational and angular limb deformities. In this horse, bilateral osteochondritis dissecans of the medial trochlear ridge of the talii were also identified. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the atavistic traits of complete ulnas and fibulas seen in the miniature horse. PMID:15373256

Tyson, Reid; Graham, John P; Colahan, Patrick T; Berry, Clifford R

2004-01-01

188

Y-Chromosome Analysis in Retuertas Horses  

PubMed Central

Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France) or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY) and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects.

Brandariz-Fontes, Claudia; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vega-Pla, Jose Luis; Backstrom, Niclas; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lippold, Sebastian; Rico, Ciro

2013-01-01

189

European domestic horses originated in two holocene refugia.  

PubMed

The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both. PMID:21479181

Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim A; Cañon, Javier; Cothran, Gus; Distl, Ottmar; Glowatzki-Mullis, Marie-Louise; Hunt, Harriet; Luís, Cristina; do Mar Oom, Maria; Yupanqui, Isabel Tupac; Z?bek, Tomasz; Manica, Andrea

2011-01-01

190

European Domestic Horses Originated in Two Holocene Refugia  

PubMed Central

The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both.

Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim A.; Canon, Javier; Cothran, Gus; Distl, Ottmar; Glowatzki-Mullis, Marie-Louise; Hunt, Harriet; Luis, Cristina; do Mar Oom, Maria; Yupanqui, Isabel Tupac; Zabek, Tomasz; Manica, Andrea

2011-01-01

191

Ageing draft and trotter horses by their dentition.  

PubMed

The accuracy of ageing horses by their dentition was assessed by comparing the dental features with the known dates of birth of 212 trotter horses and 189 Belgian draft horses. The horses ranged in age from two to 25 years. In both breeds it was observed that the shedding of the incisors and the appearance of the dental stars were the most reliable features for age determination. In young animals, the dental configuration was similar in both breeds. With increasing age the incisor teeth of draft horses were more liable to abrasion than those of trotter horses. The sequential changes in appearance of the permanent incisors occurred earlier in draft horses than in trotters. PMID:9248018

Muylle, S; Simoens, P; Lauwers, H; Van Loon, G

1997-07-01

192

Alterations of epidermal proliferation and cytokeratin expression in skin biopsies from heavy draught horses with chronic pastern dermatitis.  

PubMed

We report the historical, clinical and histopathological characteristics of skin lesions in biopsies from 37 heavy draught horses with chronic pastern dermatitis. The skin lesions were divided into four macroscopic groups: scaling (group I, n=5), hyperkeratotic and hyperplastic plaque-like lesions (group II, n=14), nodular skin masses (group III, n=16) and verrucous skin lesions (group IV, n=2). The principal histological findings were hyperkeratosis and epidermal hyperplasia. There was a gradual increase in epidermal hyperplasia from groups I to IV, suggesting that the lesions represent different stages of disease. In all cases, there was perivascular dermatitis dominated by T lymphocytes with an increase in MHC class II-positive dendritic-like cells. Immunohistochemical labelling for cytokeratins CK5/6(4), CK10 and CK14 indicated a change in their expression pattern. This correlated with the degree of epidermal hyperplasia, indicating abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes. There was a statistically significant correlation between the severity of skin lesions and several other factors including increasing age, increasing cannon circumference, prominence of anatomical structures such as fetlock tufts of hairs, ergots and chestnuts, and bulges in the fetlock region. PMID:16359304

Geburek, Florian; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Deegen, Eckehard; Doeleke, Renate; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion

2005-12-01

193

Class I chitinases with hevein-like domain, but not class II enzymes, are relevant chestnut and avocado allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several foods associated with the latex-fruit syndrome present relevant allergens of around 30 kd. Neither these components nor any other responsible for the reported cross-reactions have been identified and purified.Objective: We sought to isolate and characterize the 30 kd allergens from avocado fruit and chestnut seed, two of the main allergenic foods linked with latex allergy.Methods: Sera from patients

Araceli Diaz-Perales; Carmen Collada; Carlos Blanco; Rosa Sánchez-Monge; Teresa Carrillo; Cipriano Aragoncillo; Gabriel Salcedo

1998-01-01

194

Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and mineral nutrition on growth and CO2 exchange of sweet chestnut seedlings (Castanea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 (700 pmol mol-') and fertilization were investigated on 2-year-old sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) seedlings grown outdoors in pots in constantly ventilated open-sided chambers. Plants were divided into four groups: fertilized controls (+F\\/-CO& unfertilized controls (-F\\/-CO& fertilized + COz-treated plants (+F\\/+CO2) and unfertilized + COz- treated plants (-F\\/+CO$. Dry matter accumulation and allocation

A. El Kohen; M. Mousseau

195

Radionuclide migration pathways analysis for the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dose-to-man pathways analysis is performed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge Site. Both shallow land burial (trench) and aboveground (tumulus) disposal methods are considered. The waste volumes, characteristics, and radionuclide concentrations are those of waste streams anticipated from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, and the

F. G. Pin; J. P. Witherspoon; D. W. Lee; J. B. Cannon; R. H. Ketelle

1984-01-01

196

Multiple introductions and recombination in Cryphonectria hypovirus 1: perspective for a sustainable biological control of chestnut blight  

PubMed Central

Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) is a mycovirus which decreases the virulence of its fungal host Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight recently introduced in Europe. The understanding of the evolutionary processes which have shaped CHV1 populations in Europe is required to develop a sustainable biocontrol strategy targeting chestnut blight and effective in European chestnut forests. To retrace the evolutionary history of CHV1, we analyzed sequences from two genomic regions on a collection of 55 CHV1 strains from France and northern Spain, two countries where multiple introductions of C. parasitica occurred. Several recombination events and variable selection pressures contributed to CHV1 evolution, agreeing with a non-clock-like diversification rate. These two mechanisms may be at the origin of CHV1 population diversity observed in western Europe. Considering the actual prevalence of CHV1 and its association with host genotypes, multiple introductions of CHV1 may have occurred in Europe, some of them directly from Asia and some of them through North America. Although some viral strains remained with low frequency in their introduction area, multiple infections might have allowed homologous recombination within parental sequences. Some of these recombinant lineages are associated with the spread of CHV1 in European regions.

Feau, Nicolas; Dutech, Cyril; Brusini, Jeremie; Rigling, Daniel; Robin, Cecile

2014-01-01

197

Analysis of organic acids in electron beam irradiated chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.): Effects of radiation dose and storage time.  

PubMed

Since 2010, methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant was banned from the European Union under the Montreal Protocol guidelines, due to its deleterious effects on health and risk to the environment. Since then, many alternatives for chestnut conservation have been studied (hot water dip treatment being the most common), among them, electron beam irradiation has been proposed as being a safe, clean and cheap alternative. Herein, the effects of this radiation at different doses up to 6kGy and over storage up to 60days in the amounts and profile of nutritionally important organic acids were evaluated. Chestnuts contained important organic acids with quinic and citric acids as main compounds. Storage time, which is traditionally well accepted by consumers, caused a slight decrease on quinic (13-9mg/g), ascorbic (1.2-0.8mg/g), malic (5-4mg/g), fumaric (0.4-0.3mg/g) and total organic (33-26mg/g) acids content. Otherwise, irradiation dose did not cause appreciable changes, either individually or in total (28-27mg/g) organic acid contents. Electron beam irradiation might constitute a valuable alternative for chestnut conservation. PMID:23376134

Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2013-05-01

198

Multiple introductions and recombination in Cryphonectria hypovirus 1: perspective for a sustainable biological control of chestnut blight.  

PubMed

Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) is a mycovirus which decreases the virulence of its fungal host Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight recently introduced in Europe. The understanding of the evolutionary processes which have shaped CHV1 populations in Europe is required to develop a sustainable biocontrol strategy targeting chestnut blight and effective in European chestnut forests. To retrace the evolutionary history of CHV1, we analyzed sequences from two genomic regions on a collection of 55 CHV1 strains from France and northern Spain, two countries where multiple introductions of C. parasitica occurred. Several recombination events and variable selection pressures contributed to CHV1 evolution, agreeing with a non-clock-like diversification rate. These two mechanisms may be at the origin of CHV1 population diversity observed in western Europe. Considering the actual prevalence of CHV1 and its association with host genotypes, multiple introductions of CHV1 may have occurred in Europe, some of them directly from Asia and some of them through North America. Although some viral strains remained with low frequency in their introduction area, multiple infections might have allowed homologous recombination within parental sequences. Some of these recombinant lineages are associated with the spread of CHV1 in European regions. PMID:24944571

Feau, Nicolas; Dutech, Cyril; Brusini, Jérémie; Rigling, Daniel; Robin, Cécile

2014-05-01

199

Effects of gamma radiation on the biological, physico-chemical, nutritional and antioxidant parameters of chestnuts - a review.  

PubMed

Gamma radiation has been used as a post-harvest food preservation process for many years. Chestnuts are a seasonal product consumed fresh or processed, and gamma irradiation emerged recently as a possible alternative technology for their post-harvest processing, to fulfil the requirements of international phytosanitary trade laws. After harvest and storage, several problems may occur, such as the presence of infestations and development of microorganisms, namely rotting and fungi. These diminish the quality and safety of the product, decreasing the yield along the production chain. In fruits, gamma irradiation treatment is for two main purposes: conservation (ripening delay) and insect disinfestation (phytosanitary treatment). In this review, the application of gamma irradiation to chestnuts is discussed, including production data, the irradiated species and the effects on biological (sprouting, rotting, respiration rate, insects, worms and fungi), physico-chemical (color, texture, and drying rate), nutritional (energetic value, proteins, sugars and fatty acids) and antioxidant (tocopherols, ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) parameters. These changes are the basis for detecting if the food product has been irradiated or not. The validation of standards used for detection of food irradiation, as applied to chestnuts, is also discussed. PMID:22735498

Antonio, Amilcar L; Carocho, Márcio; Bento, Albino; Quintana, Begoña; Luisa Botelho, M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2012-09-01

200

Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities  

PubMed Central

The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m3). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority—80%–90%—detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution.

Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

2014-01-01

201

Use of a 3-D dispersion model for calculation of distribution of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities.  

PubMed

The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m³). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority--80%-90%--detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

2014-04-01

202

A Study of Horse Racing in California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An expansion of horse racing in California would serve to benefit horsemen through an increase in purse opportunities, facilitate the maximization of state revenues by increasing the size of the handle on which license fees are based, and provide for indi...

R. M. Bell R. L. Harris B. P. Donnelly

1977-01-01

203

Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of dantrolene in horses.  

PubMed

Dantrolene is a skeletal muscle relaxant used commonly in performance horses to prevent exertional rhabdomyolysis. The goal of the study reported here was to begin to characterize cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of dantrolene in the horse and describe the pharmacokinetics of the compound, formulated as a capsule or a compounded paste formulation, following oral administration. Dantrolene is rapidly metabolized to 5-hydroxydantrolene both in vivo and in vitro. Preliminary work with equine liver microsomes suggest that two enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of dantrolene, as evidenced by two distinct K(m) values, one at high and one at low substrate concentrations. For the pharmacokinetic portion of the study, a randomized, balanced 2-way crossover design was employed wherein eight healthy horses received a single oral dose of either capsules or paste followed by a 4 week washout period prior to administration of the second formulation to the same horse. Blood samples were collected at time 0 (prior to drug administration) and at various times up to 96 h postdrug administration. Plasma samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and data analyzed using both noncompartmental and compartmental analysis. Peak plasma concentrations were 28.9 ± 21.6 and 37.8 ± 12.8 ng/mL for capsules and paste, respectively and occurred at 3.8 h for both formulations. Dantrolene and its major metabolite were both below the limit of detection in both plasma and urine by 168 h postadministration. PMID:21492188

DiMaio Knych, H K; Arthur, R M; Taylor, A; Moeller, B C; Stanley, S D

2011-06-01

204

Polyomavirus-associated nephritis in 2 horses.  

PubMed

Polyomaviruses produce latent and asymptomatic infections in many species, but productive and lytic infections are rare. In immunocompromised humans, polyomaviruses can cause tubulointerstitial nephritis, demyelination, or meningoencephalitis in the central nervous system and interstitial pneumonia. This report describes 2 Standardbred horses with tubular necrosis and tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with productive equine polyomavirus infection that resembles BK polyomavirus nephropathy in immunocompromised humans. PMID:23381926

Jennings, S H; Wise, A G; Nickeleit, V; Maes, R K; Cianciolo, R E; Del Piero, F; Law, J M; Kim, Y; McCalla, A C; Breuhaus, B A; Roberts, M C; Linder, K E

2013-09-01

205

Do Horses Have a Concept of Person?  

PubMed Central

Background Animals' ability for cross-modal recognition has recently received much interest. Captive or domestic animals seem able to perceive cues of human attention and appear to have a multisensory perception of humans. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we used a task where horses have to remain immobile under a vocal order to test whether they are sensitive to the attentional state of the experimenter, but also whether they behave and respond differently to the familiar order when tested by a familiar or an unknown person. Horses' response varied according to the person's attentional state when the order was given by an unknown person: obedience levels were higher when the person giving the order was looking at the horse than when he was not attentive. More interesting is the finding that whatever the condition, horses monitored much more and for longer times the unknown person, as if they were surprised to hear the familiar order given by an unknown voice. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that recognition of humans may lie in a global, integrated, multisensory representation of specific individuals, that includes visual and vocal identity, but also expectations on the individual's behaviour in a familiar situation.

Sankey, Carol; Henry, Severine; Andre, Nicolas; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Hausberger, Martine

2011-01-01

206

Intrathoracic pulsion diverticulum in a horse  

PubMed Central

This is a report of a 12-year-old Swedish Warmblood gelding with a ruptured esophageal pulsion diverticulum associated with atypical clinical signs of colic and septic peritonitis on presentation. The location of this diverticulum at the hiatus was unique and was most likely responsible for the unusual presentation of this horse.

Yamout, Sawsan Z.; Magdesian, K. Gary; Tokarz, Debra A.; le Jeune, Sarah S.

2012-01-01

207

Horse Training and Management: Program of Excellence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on Lamar Community College's Horse Training and Management (HTM) program assesses the quality of the educational experience provided by the program, the quality of the faculty and students, institutional financial commitment to the program, contribution of the HTM program to state and local economic development, and external funding…

Lane, Marvin

208

A Dark Horse Medium in Basic Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Dark Horse (DH) board is described and discussed as one medium which may be utilized in the classroom. The DH Board holds fairly heavy three-dimensional display objects and consists of two components: a special material which serves as the display surface and an adhesive material which is fixed to objects displayed. (SC)

Eckert, Sidney W.

1974-01-01

209

The pharmacokinetics of glycopyrrolate in Standardbred horses.  

PubMed

The disposition of plasma glycopyrrolate (GLY) is characterized by a three-compartment pharmacokinetic model after a 1-mg bolus intravenous dose to Standardbred horses. The median (range) plasma clearance (Clp), volume of distribution of the central compartment (V1 ), volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss), and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-inf ) were 16.7 (13.6-21.7) mL/min/kg, 0.167 (0.103-0.215) L/kg, 3.69 (0.640-38.73) L/kg, and 2.58 (2.28-2.88) ng*h/mL, respectively. Renal clearance of GLY was characterized by a median (range) of 2.65 (1.92-3.59) mL/min/kg and represented approximately 11.3-24.7% of the total plasma clearance. As a result of these studies, we conclude that the majority of GLY is cleared through hepatic mechanisms because of the limited extent of renal clearance of GLY and absence of plasma esterase activity on GLY metabolism. Although the disposition of GLY after intravenous administration to Standardbred horses was similar to that in Thoroughbred horses, differences in some pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were evident. Such differences could be attributed to breed differences or study conditions. The research could provide valuable data to support regulatory guidelines for GLY in Standardbred horses. PMID:24325462

Rumpler, M J; Colahan, P; Sams, R A

2014-06-01

210

Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

Symington, Ashley

2012-01-01

211

Laryngeal rhinosporidiosis in a Belgian warmblood horse.  

PubMed

In Belgium and even in northern Europe Rhinosporidium seeberi has not been reported in autochtonous people or animals. In this paper, the authors report the first observation of laryngeal masses, caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, in a Belgian Warmblood horse. Moreover, laryngeal rhinosporidiosis is extremely rare since this localisation is only described in four human cases. PMID:18454748

Nollet, H; Vercauteren, G; Martens, A; Vanschandevijl, K; Schauvliege, S; Gasthuys, F; Ducatelle, R; Deprez, P

2008-06-01

212

Cloning and phylogenetic analyses of serine/threonine kinase class defense-related genes in a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose'  

PubMed Central

Background Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a promising wild fruit crop in Southwest China. However, chestnut rose suffers from several important diseases such as powdery mildew and black spot. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of plant immunity related genes will strengthen the evolutionary knowledge of plant immune system and will facilitate the utilization of candidate genes in disease resistance breeding programs. Findings Serine/threonine kinase (STK) genes, encoding one of the important proteins for defense signal transduction, were cloned from 'chestnut rose'. Fifteen STK sequences were obtained by degenerate PCR. Sequence analysis showed that nine of them have continued open reading frames, and they are separated into five classes based on sequence analysis. Interestingly, one of the classes (STK V) showed less than 40% similarity to any other class, possibly representing new type genes from chestnut rose. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the new type STK V genes are single copy, while all the other genes have several copies in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of STK genes from chestnut rose and 21 plant species revealed that most chestnut rose genes show close relationship with Rosaceae homologs, while the STK V genes are rather ancient and form a unique clade distantly from plant homologs. Conclusions We cloned nine STK genes from a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose', of which a new type of STK genes was identified. The new type STK genes exist as single copies in the genome, and they are phylogenetically distant to plant homologs. The polymorphic STK genes, combined with other plant immunity genes, provide plenty of resources to be utilized to defend against pathogens attack.

2010-01-01

213

Variation in Tolerance and Virulence in the Chestnut Blight Fungus-Hypovirus Interaction  

PubMed Central

Chestnut blight, caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, has been effectively controlled with double-stranded RNA hypoviruses in Europe for over 40 years. The marked reduction in the virulence of C. parasitica by hypoviruses is a phenomenon known as hypovirulence. This virus-fungus pathosystem has become a model system for the study of biological control of fungi with viruses. We studied variation in tolerance to hypoviruses in fungal hosts and variation in virulence among virus isolates from a local population in Italy. Tolerance is defined as the relative fitness of a fungal individual when infected with hypoviruses (compared to being uninfected); virulence is defined for each hypovirus as the reduction in fitness of fungal hosts relative to virus-free hosts. Six hypovirus-infected isolates of C. parasitica were sampled from the population, and each hypovirus was transferred into six hypovirus-free recipient isolates. The resulting 36 hypovirus-fungus combinations were used to estimate genetic variation in tolerance to hypoviruses, in hypovirus virulence, and in virus-fungus interactions. Four phenotypes were evaluated for each virus-fungus combination to estimate relative fitness: (i) sporulation, i.e., the number of asexual spores (conidia) produced; (ii) canker area on field-inoculated chestnut trees, (iii) vertical transmission of hypoviruses into conidia, and (iv) conidial germination. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant interactions (P < 0.001) between viruses and fungal isolates for sporulation and canker area but not for conidial germination or transmission. One-way ANOVA among hypoviruses (within each fungal isolate) and among fungal isolates (within each hypovirus) revealed significant genetic variation (P < 0.01) in hypovirus virulence and fungal tolerance within several fungal isolates, and hypoviruses, respectively. These interactions and the significant genetic variation in several fitness characters indicate the potential for future evolution of these characters. However, biological control is unlikely to break down due to evolution of tolerance to hypoviruses in the fungus because the magnitudes of tolerance and interactions were relatively small.

Peever, Tobin L.; Liu, Yir-Chung; Cortesi, Paolo; Milgroom, Michael G.

2000-01-01

214

Clinical assessment of gas exchange in mature horses.  

PubMed

There are limited methods of assessing pulmonary function in horses at rest. We developed clinical techniques to measure gas exchange efficiency in horses and evaluated 3 groups of horses that were 1) asymptomatic based on auscultation with rebreathing, transtracheal aspirate cytology, and thoracic radiographs (n = 6), 2) asymptomatic at rest but symptomatic with rebreathing (n = 11) and 3) symptomatic at rest (n = 9). Blood samples were obtained from the transverse facial artery and jugular vein. Maximal end-tidal CO2 tension (PETCO2) was measured by an infrared capnograph through a facemask. Alveolar O2 tension, dead space fraction (V(D)/V(T)), and physiological shunt fraction (Q(S)/Q(T)) were calculated using standard formulae. Arterial O2 tension in Group 1 horses (mean +/-s.d.103+/-3 mmHg) was significantly higher than in Group 2 or Group 3 horses. Q(S)/Q(T) in Group 1 horses (0.37+/-0.98%) was significantly lower than in Group 2 and Group 3 horses. Mean +/-s.d.V(D)/V(T) in Group 1 horses (-18.2+/-3.1) was significantly lower than Group 3 horses but not Group 2 horses. PMID:9758096

Davis, M S; Murray, M J; Donaldson, L L

1998-09-01

215

Gastric ulceration in horses: 91 cases (1987-1990).  

PubMed

Gastroendoscopy was performed on 111 horses (1 to 22 years old) that had signs of abdominal discomfort of variable duration and severity. At least 1 episode of colic had been observed within 48 hours of examination in 31 horses. Recurrent episodes of colic were observed in 28 horses within 2 to 10 days of examination, 31 horses within 11 to 30 days, 12 horses within 31 to 60 days, and in 9 horses at more than 60 days after the initial examination. Gastric ulceration was found in 91 of 111 horses examined. Other abnormalities involving the gastrointestinal tract or other abdominal viscera were not found on examination in 57 of 91 horses with gastric ulcers. The most frequent concurrent abnormalities found in the remaining 34 horses with gastric ulcers were impaction of the large colon (n = 6), colonic tympany (n = 6), peritonitis (n = 6), gastric impaction (n = 4), ileocecal intussusception (n = 3), small-colon impaction (n = 4), and proximal enteritis (n = 2). Thirteen horses with gastric ulceration underwent abdominal surgery, and in 5 horses, lesions were not found at surgery. Gastric ulceration was determined to be the primary cause of colic in 31 horses on the basis of the lack of other abnormalities, clinical response to treatment with histamine type-2 receptor (H2) antagonists, and confirmation of improvement or resolution of gastric ulceration via endoscopy. Gastric ulceration was the suspected cause of colic in 26 other horses on the basis of the lack of other abnormalities, severity of lesions, and clinical response to treatment with H2 antagonists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1644631

Murray, M J

1992-07-01

216

Emerging outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus in adult horses.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe clinical, hematological and fecal PCR results from 161 horses involved in outbreaks associated with ECoV. The outbreaks happened at four separate boarding facilities between November 2011 and April 2012 in the States of CA, TX, WI and MA. Following the molecular detection of ECoV in the feces from the initial index cases, the remaining herdmates were closely observed for the development of clinical signs. Fecal samples were collected from sick and healthy horses for the PCR detection of ECoV. All four outbreaks involved primarily adult horses. Fifty-nine horses developed clinical signs with 12-16 sick horses per outbreak. The main clinical signs reported were anorexia, lethargy and fever. Four horses from 3 different outbreaks were euthanized or died due to rapid progression of clinical signs. The cause of death could not be determined with necropsy evaluation in 2 horses, while septicemia secondary to gastrointestinal translocation was suspected in 2 horses. Blood work was available from 10 horses with clinical disease and common hematological abnormalities were leucopenia due to neutropenia and/or lymphopenia. Feces were available for ECoV testing by real-time PCR from 44 and 96 sick and healthy horses, respectively. 38/44 (86%) horses with abnormal clinical signs tested PCR positive for ECoV, while 89/96 (93%) healthy horses tested PCR negative for ECoV. The overall agreement between clinical status and PCR detection of ECoV was 91%. The study results suggest that ECoV is associated with self-limiting clinical and hematological abnormalities in adult horses. PMID:23123176

Pusterla, N; Mapes, S; Wademan, C; White, A; Ball, R; Sapp, K; Burns, P; Ormond, C; Butterworth, K; Bartol, J; Magdesian, K G

2013-02-22

217

75 FR 35078 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Natural Resource Management; Wild Horse...with special knowledge of equine behavior...Experience or knowledge of wild horse and burro management and the issues...Experience or knowledge of horses or...training and management). 11....

2010-06-21

218

33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. 147.843 Section...147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description . Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi Canyon 778 (MC...

2010-07-01

219

33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. 147.843 Section...147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description . Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi Canyon 778 (MC...

2009-07-01

220

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2010-01-01

221

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2009-01-01

222

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2010-01-01

223

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2009-01-01

224

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2010-01-01

225

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2009-01-01

226

A viral gene confers hypovirulence-associated traits to the chestnut blight fungus.  

PubMed Central

A viral double-stranded (ds)RNA associated with reduced virulence (hypovirulence) and the accompanying biological control of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, was shown recently to contain two contiguous coding domains designated ORF A and ORF B. We report here that transformation of an isogenic virulent, dsRNA-free C. parasitica strain with a cDNA copy of ORF A conferred traits similar to those exhibited by the dsRNA-containing hypovirulent strain: characteristics included reduced pigmentation, reduced laccase accumulation and suppressed conidiation. However virulence was not reduced, indicating an apparent uncoupling of associated traits from hypovirulence. These results establish a direct cause and effect relationship between a viral dsRNA genetic element present in a hypovirulent C. parasitica strain and specific phenotypic traits. They demonstrate further that these traits are not the result of a general reaction of the fungus to the presence of the replicating viral RNA, but are caused by a specific viral coding domain. Images

Choi, G H; Nuss, D L

1992-01-01

227

Altered transcriptional response to nutrient availability in hypovirus-infected chestnut blight fungus.  

PubMed Central

The gene lac-1, encoding the enzyme laccase, is one of several genes of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, that are suppressed by virulence-attenuating mycoviruses of the hypovirus group. Two antagonistic regulatory pathways have been shown to govern the activity of the lac-1 promoter: a positive pathway that stimulates transcription and a negative pathway that represses transcription. We now report that these two regulatory pathways respond independently to specific changes in the nutritional environment. These newly defined conditions were used to confirm that a hypovirus suppresses the activity of the positive regulatory pathway, and to implicate calmodulin and calcineurin as components of the signal transduction cascades regulating lac-1 transcription. Significantly, lac-1 transcript accumulation was shown to be affected by amino acid availability. Further analysis revealed that transcriptional repression mediated by the negative regulatory pathway is relieved under conditions of amino acid deprivation. Thus, by blocking the positive pathway, hypovirus infection prevents increased lac-1 transcript accumulation in response to amino acid deficiency. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that hypoviruses alter the transcriptional response of the host fungus to changes in nutrient availability. Images

Larson, T G; Nuss, D L

1994-01-01

228

Analysis of population structure of the chestnut blight fungus based on vegetative incompatibility genotypes  

PubMed Central

Vegetative incompatibility is a self/nonself-recognition system in fungi that has often been used for describing phenotypic diversity in fungal populations. A common hypothesis is that vegetative incompatibility polymorphisms are maintained by balancing selection. However, understanding the evolutionary significance of vegetative incompatibility and the factors that maintain these polymorphisms has been limited by a lack of knowledge of the underlying genetics of vegetative compatibility (vc) types. Genotypes of 64 vc types, controlled by six unlinked vegetative incompatibility (vic) loci, have been identified in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. By interpreting vc type survey data in terms of vic genotypes, we estimated vic-allele frequencies and analyzed the multilocus genetic structure of 13 populations in Europe and 3 populations in the U.S. European populations have less vc type diversity than the US populations because of a combination of lower vic-allele diversity and limited recombination. Genotypic diversity of 10 populations in Italy correlated to the abundance of sexual structures; however, significant deviations from random mating suggest that either sexual reproduction may not contribute many offspring in these populations or that vic genes (or vic genotypes) are under selection. Most vic-allele frequencies deviated from 0.5, the equilibrium frequency predicted under frequency-dependent selection, providing no evidence for selection acting on these loci.

Milgroom, Michael G.; Cortesi, Paolo

1999-01-01

229

Subsurface structure of the north Summit gas field, Chestnut Ridge anticline of the Appalachian Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Chestnut Ridge anticline is the westernmost of the High Plateau folds in southwestern Pennsylvania and north-central West Virginia that are detached primarily in the Marcellus Shale, and the Martinsburg, Salina, and Rome Formations. The primary, basal detachment at the Summit field occurs in the Salina salt. Production from fracture porosity in the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone commenced in 1936. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, 14 wells were drilled preparatory to conversion of the reservoir to gas storage. Schlumberger`s Formation MicroScanner (FMS) logs were run in each of these wells to provide information on the structural configuration and fracture patterns of the reservoir. These data indicate that two inward-facing, tight folds at the Oriskany level form the upper flanks and core of the anticline at the northern end of the field, whereas the main part of the field to the south is a comparatively simple, broad closure at the Oriskany level. The structure is a broad, slightly asymmetric open fold in the Mississippian Greenbrier Formation at the surface. Fracture patterns mapped using FMS logs indicate a complex fracture system which varies slightly along the trend of the fold and among the units analyzed, including the Helderberg Formation, Huntersville Chert, Oriskany Sandstone, and Onondaga Formation. An orthogonal joint system strikes toward the northwest and northeast slightly askew to the trend of the fold`s crestal trace. A similar, but more complex fracture pattern is found in an oriented core of these units.

Zhou, G.; Shumaker, R.C. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Staub, W.K. [Consolidated Gas Transmission Co., Clarksburg, WV (United States)

1996-09-01

230

Chestnut shell as unexploited source of fermentable sugars: effect of different pretreatment methods on enzymatic saccharification.  

PubMed

Chestnut shell (CS) is an agronomic residue mainly used for extraction of antioxidants or as adsorbent of metal ions. It also contains some polysaccharide that has not been considered as potential source of fermentable sugars for biofuel production until now. In this study, the effect of different pretreatment methods on CS was evaluated in order to obtain the greatest conversion of cellulose and xylan into fermentable sugars. Hot acid impregnation, steam explosion (acid-catalysed or not), and aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) were selected as pretreatments. The pretreated biomass was subjected to saccharification with two enzyme cocktails prepared from commercial preparations, and evaluation of the best pretreatment and enzyme cocktail was based on the yield of fermentable sugars produced. As AAS provided the best result after preliminary experiments, enhancement of sugar production was attempted by changing the concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, enzymes, and CS. The optimal pretreatment condition was 10 % ammonium hydroxide, 70 °C, 22 h with CS at 5 % solid loading. After saccharification of the pretreated CS for 72 h at 50 °C and pH 5.0 with a cocktail containing cellulase (Accellerase 1500), beta-glucosidase (Accellerase BG), and xylanase (Accellerase XY), glucose and xylose yields were 67.8 and 92.7 %, respectively. PMID:23640265

Maurelli, Luisa; Ionata, Elena; La Cara, Francesco; Morana, Alessandra

2013-07-01

231

Novel in situ fabrication of chestnut-like carbon nanotube spheres from polypropylene and nickel formate.  

PubMed

A novel in situ approach to mass fabrication of carbon nanotubes was reported. Composites of polypropylene (PP)/organomontmorillonite (OMMT)/nickel formate (NF) were prepared by mixing these components in a Brabender mixer at an elevated temperature. Chestnut-like carbon nanotube (CNT) spheres were in situ fabricated in high yields by heating the PP/OMMT/NF composites at 900 degrees C without adding any additional pre-synthesized nickel nanocatalysts. The products were studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The results showed that nickel nanoparticles were in situ produced, which catalyzed the formation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in an autoclave-like microreactor formed by OMMT. These in situ formed nickel nanoparticles were found to be more catalytically active than pre-synthesized nickel nanocatalysts, resulting in higher yields of CNTs. The obtained CNT spheres have a high surface area, which makes them a good catalyst support. Loading of metal nanoparticles was preliminarily tried, and Pt nanoparticles of ca. 2.65 nm in size were successfully deposited on CNTs. The applications of these nanocatalysts in chemical reactions are currently being studied in our laboratory. PMID:17064126

Chen, Xuecheng; He, Junhui; Yan, Chunxiao; Tang, Huamin

2006-11-01

232

Antimicrobial resistance in commensal faecal Escherichia coli of hospitalised horses  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the impact of hospitalisation and antimicrobial drug administration on the prevalence of resistance in commensal faecal E. coli of horses. Faecal samples were collected from ten hospitalised horses treated with antimicrobials, ten hospitalised horses not treated with antimicrobials and nine non-hospitalised horses over a consecutive five day period and susceptibility testing was performed on isolated E. coli. Results revealed that hospitalisation alone was associated with increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance in commensal E. coli of horses. Due to the risk of transfer of resistance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, veterinarians need to be aware of possible resistance in commensal bacteria when treating hospitalised horses.

2010-01-01

233

Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues  

PubMed Central

The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference “Twilight”. In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms.

Malla, Sunir; Aboobaker, A. Aziz; Tarlinton, Rachael E.; Emes, Richard D.

2014-01-01

234

Isolation and identification of African horse sickness virus during an outbreak in Lagos, Nigeria.  

PubMed

An outbreak of African horse sickness involving two horse stables in Lagos, Nigeria, was investigated. Inoculation of blood from infected horses into suckling albino mice resulted in isolation of a virus which was identified as African horse sickness virus by the complement fixation test. The clinical, pathological and epizootiological findings (reported elsewhere) were consistent with African horse sickness. Potential threats of the epidemic to international horse trade are briefly highlighted. PMID:8219337

Oladosu, L A; Olayeye, O D; Baba, S S; Omilabu, S A

1993-09-01

235

Antifeedants and feeding stimulants in bark extracts of ten woody non-host species of the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.  

PubMed

Bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a Soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. Species were alder (Alnus glutinosa), aspen (Populus tremula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), holly (Ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (Evonymus europaeus), walnut (Juglans regia), and yew (Taxus baccata). Bark of each species was collected in southern Scandinavia during the summer. Resulting extracts were tested for antifeedant activity against the pine weevil by a micro-feeding choice assay. At a dose corresponding to that in the bark, methanol extracts from Aesculus, Taxus, Ilex, and Populus were antifeedant active, while pentane extracts of Aesculus, Fagus, Syringa, and Viburnum were stimulatory. Four known antifeedants against H. abietis, the straight-chained carboxylic acids, hexanoic and nonanoic acid (C6 and C9), carvone, and carvacrol were identified by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in several extracts. The major constituents were identified and tested for feeding deterrence. The aromatic compounds benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol are new non-host plant-derived feeding deterrents for the pine weevil. Additionally, two feeding stimulants, beta-sitosterol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, were identified. One active methanol extract of Aesculus bark was sequentially fractionated by liquid chromatography, and major compounds were tentatively identified as branched alcohols and esters of hexanoic acid. Five commercially available hexanoate esters and two commercially available branched alcohols were identified as new active antifeedants. Both stimulatory and inhibiting compounds were found in the same extracts and co-eluted in the same or adjacent fractions. The mix of semiochemicals of opposite activity in each extract or fraction could explain the stimulatory-, inhibitory-, or sometimes neutral activity. Generally, such co-occurrence confounds the isolation of antifeedants. PMID:18719963

Eriksson, Carina; Månsson, Per E; Sjödin, Kristina; Schlyter, Fredrik

2008-10-01

236

Experimental Infection of Horses With West Nile virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 12 horses of different breeds and ages were infected with West Nile virus (WNV) via the bites of infected Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Half the horses were infected with a viral isolate from the brain of a horse (BC787), and half were infected with an isolate from crow brain (NY99-6625); both were NY99 iso- lates. Postinfection, uninfected female

Michel L. Bunning; Richard A. Bowen; C. Bruce Cropp; Kevin G. Sullivan; Brent S. Davis; Nicholas Komar; Marvin S. Godsey; Dale Baker; Danielle L. Hettler; Derek A. Holmes; Brad J. Biggerstaff; Carl J. Mitchell

2002-01-01

237

Dental wear in horses in relation to the microhardness of enamel and dentine.  

PubMed

The microhardness of enamel, primary dentine and secondary dentine was determined in the incisor teeth of 39 horses of three different breeds, trotter horses, Belgian draft horses and Arab horses. Using a microhardness tester fitted with a Knoop diamond indenter, the overall Knoop Hardness Number was determined for each tissue, and the influence of breed and age on the hardness were evaluated. Enamel and secondary dentine were significantly harder in Arab horses than in trotters and Belgian draft horses, but there were no significant differences between draft horses and trotter horses in the hardness of their enamel and dentine. PMID:10371014

Muylle, S; Simoens, P; Verbeeck, R; Ysebaert, M T; Lauwers, H

1999-05-15

238

Actinomyces species as a cause of abscesses in nine horses.  

PubMed

The characteristics, history, clinical signs, treatment and outcome of nine horses with abscesses caused by Actinomyces species were reviewed. dna sequencing was used to determine the species of one of the isolates. The horses were one to 11 years of age, and the abscesses were most commonly located in the submandibular and retropharyngeal regions. The bacterium was usually cultured as the sole isolate and the horses were most often affected in the autumn. Most of the abscesses were treated with antimicrobials and drainage, but some of them recurred. The horses with submandibular abscesses had residual scar tissue that in some cases did not resolve. PMID:18178933

Fielding, C L; Magdesian, K G; Morgan, R A; Ruby, R E; Sprayberry, K A

2008-01-01

239

Foreign body obstruction of the small colon in six horses.  

PubMed

Six horses, which had a foreign body obstruction of the small colon showed abdominal pain of progressing severity and intestinal tympany. On rectal examination the caecum and large colon were distended with ingesta and gas but the obstructing mass could be palpated in only 3 cases. All horses had elevated indirect blood pressure and in 3 there was also fluid distension of the stomach. Only one horse had known access to foreign material in the diet, but a further 3 were related to an exceptionally dry climate period. Five of the 6 horses recovered following surgery. PMID:428366

Gay, C C; Speirs, V C; Christie, B A; Smyth, B; Parry, B

1979-01-01

240

Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda

2005-01-01

241

Horse flies (Tabanidae) of Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

PubMed

The horse fly (Diptera: Tabanidae) fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 62 species belonging to ten genera. The present study adds eight new records for the fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina. These new records are Chrysops flavipes Meigen, Hybomitra tropica (Linnaeus), Tabanus darimonti Leclercq, Tabanus eggeri Schiner, Tabanus miki Brauer in Brauer and Bergenstamm, Tabanus shannonellus Kröber, Haematopota bigoti Gobert, and Haematopota subcylindrica Pandellé. Most of the species belong to the Boreal-Eurasian group (28), followed by the Mediterranean group with 17 species, the South European group with 13 species, the Afro-Eurasian arid group and the European group with two species each. This paper presents the first comprehensive collection data on the horse fly fauna of this part of the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:19263857

Mikuska, Alma; Krcmar, Stjepan; Mikuska, József

2008-12-01

242

Observations on headshaking in the horse.  

PubMed

The clinical records of 100 cases of headshaking in horses were reviewed. Possible causes of the abnormal behaviour were identified in 11 animals; these included ear mite infestation, otitis interna, cranial nerve dysfunction, cervical injury, ocular disease, guttural pouch mycosis, dental periapical osteitis and suspected vasomotor rhinitis. However, in only two of these could it be shown that correction of the abnormality led to elimination of the headshaking. The additional clinical signs exhibited by the other idiopathic cases of headshaking included evidence of nasal irritation, sneezing and snorting, nasal discharge, coughing and excessive lacrimation. Many of these horses also showed a marked seasonal pattern with respect to the onset of the disease and the recurrence of signs in subsequent years. The clinical presentation of idiopathic headshakers and the seasonal incidence of the signs closely resemble allergic rhinitis in man. PMID:3622462

Lane, J G; Mair, T S

1987-07-01

243

Hemangiopericytoma in the eyelid of a horse.  

PubMed

Hemangiopericytoma (HP) is a well-recognized neoplasm arising from vascular pericytes that has been reported only in the dog and man. In this study, we describe a 14-year-old female Arabian horse that was presented for surgical excision of a 2-cm-diameter expansile subcuticular mass in the right lower eyelid. Histologically, the mass consisted of loosely arranged interlacing streams and storiform bundles of spindle cells that often formed distinct whorls around a central capillary and bundles of collagen (Antoni A-like pattern). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong diffuse cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for vimentin and focal immunoreactivity for smooth muscle actin, whereas neoplastic cells did not stain for Factor VIII-related antigen, Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), or S100. On the basis of histomorphology and immunohistochemical reactivity, the present tumor was diagnosed as HP. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a HP in a horse. PMID:16847005

Serena, A; Joiner, K S; Schumacher, J

2006-07-01

244

(PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Horse Serum Albumin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.

1995-01-01

245

Nutrition Assessment of HorseRacing Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes involved in horse racing face weight restrictions like wrestlers and dancers, however, the literature is sparse pertaining\\u000a to nutritional habits of jockeys. The practice of “making weight” causes these athletes to engage in potentially unhealthy\\u000a practices. A gap in nutritionally sound practices and methods used by jockeys was identified and a desire for nutrition education\\u000a was expressed to Cooperative

Nancy CotugnaO; O. Sue Snider; Jennifer Windish

2011-01-01

246

Thermal stability studies of hyperimmune horse antivenoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ampoules of horse antivenoms raised against Bothrops spp and Crotalus durissus (final product) produced by Fundação Ezequiel Dias (FUNED) were fractionated on the molecular filtration chromatography (SUPEROSE 12) and the expected MW species of F(ab')2 fragments were observed.It has been known that high temperatures promote aggregation and formation of protein precipitates. Phenol is used in preparations of antivenoms as preservative;

R. Rodrigues-Silva; G. F. C. Antunes; D. T. Velarde; M. M. Santoro

1999-01-01

247

Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic relationships and population structure of 8 horse breeds in the Czech and Slovak Republics were investigated using\\u000a classification methods for breed discrimination. To demonstrate genetic differences among these breeds, we used genetic information\\u000a — genotype data of microsatellite markers and classification algorithms — to perform a probabilistic prediction of an individual’s\\u000a breed. In total, 932 unrelated animals were genotyped

M. Burócziová; J. ?íha

2009-01-01

248

Scintigraphical evaluation of alveolar clearance in horses.  

PubMed

This study proposed a standardized method for measuring alveolar epithelium membrane permeability in the horse. The normal rate of clearance (%.min-1) from lung into blood of nebulized 99mTc-DTPA has been established for healthy horses (Group A) compared with values obtained with horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; Group B). The 99mTc-DTPA clearance was measured in the caudoventral (R1) and in the half caudal (R2) parts of the left lung during different time intervals. The two regions aimed to define the influence of the airways on measured clearance (R2 contained proportionally more conducting airways than R1). It was concluded that a comparison of groups of subjects may be performed in R2 and on data collected during a 20 min period. The normal clearance rate in R2 was 1.80 +/- 0.46%.min-1 (T1/2R2 = 40.99 +/- 12.45 min) in Group A. In Group B, a significantly faster 99mTc-DTPA transfer rate was found (4.17 +/- 0.83%.min-1 or T1/2R2 = 17.17 +/- 3.38min). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) suggested that the increased permeability measured in Group B could be the result of lung inflammatory responses. Our results have demonstrated the ability of the 99mTc-DTPA clearance test to detect alveolar epithelial damage in horses. Furthermore, we were able to show that a regional analysis of the alveolar-capillary barrier integrity may be performed satisfactorily in the equine patient. PMID:9691851

Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Duvivier, D H; Lambert, P; Art, T; Lekeux, P

1998-07-01

249

A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab)  

PubMed Central

Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output.

Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

2010-01-01

250

A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab).  

PubMed

Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output. PMID:20492428

Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

2010-07-01

251

Iberian origins of New World horse breeds.  

PubMed

Fossil records, archaeological proofs, and historical documents report that horses persisted continuously in the Iberian Peninsula since the Pleistocene and were taken to the American continent (New World) in the 15th century. To investigate the variation within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of Iberian and New World horse breeds, to analyze their relationships, and to test the historical origin of New World horses, a total of 153 samples, representing 30 Iberian and New World breeds, were analyzed by sequencing mtDNA control region fragments. Fifty-four haplotypes were found and assigned to seven haplogroups. Reduced levels of variation found for the Menorquina, Sorraia, and Sulphur Mustang breeds are consistent with experienced bottlenecks or limited number of founders. For all diversity indices, Iberian breeds showed higher diversity values than South American and North American breeds. Although, the results show that the Iberian and New World breeds stem from multiple origins, we present a set of genetic data revealing a high frequency of Iberian haplotypes in New World breeds, which is consistent with historical documentation. PMID:16489143

Luís, Cristina; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Cothran, E Gus; Oom, Maria do Mar

2006-01-01

252

Stimulus discrimination by horses under scotopic conditions.  

PubMed

Scotopic vision in horses (Equus caballus) was investigated using behavioral measurements for the first time. Four horses were tested for the ability to make simple visual discriminations of geometric figures (circles and triangles) under various brightness levels within an enclosed building. Measurements of brightness ranging from 10.37 to 24.12 magnitudes per square arcsecond (mag/arcsec(2); in candelas per square meter-7.70 to 2.43E-05cd/m(2)) were taken using a Sky Quality Meter. These values approximated outdoor conditions ranging from twilight in open country to a dark moonless night in dense forest. The horses were able to solve the discrimination problems in all brightness settings up to 23.77mag/arcsec(2) (3.35E-05cd/m(2)). Moreover, they easily navigated their way around obstacles located within the testing area in extremely dim light (>23.50mag/arcsec(2); 4.30E-05cd/m(2)), which were in conditions too dark for the human experimenters to see. These findings support physiological data that reveal a rod-dominated visual system as well as observations of equine activity at night. PMID:19389464

Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

2009-09-01

253

Volatile compounds in acacia, chestnut, cherry, ash, and oak woods, with a view to their use in cooperage.  

PubMed

Extracts of wood from acacia, European ash, American ash, chestnut, cherry, and three oak species (Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus alba and Quercus petraea) before and after toasting in cooperage were studied by GC-MS. 110 compounds were detected, and 97 of them were identified. In general, all studied woods showed more lignin derivatives than lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, with a higher variety of compounds detected and abundance of them. The toasting led to an increase in the concentrations of most of these compounds, and this increase is especially important in acacia, chestnut and ash woods. The cis and trans isomers of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone and isobutyrovanillone were only detected in oak wood, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde only in acacia wood, and p-anisaldehyde and benzylsalicylate only in cherry wood, before and after toasting, and these compounds could be considered chemical markers for each one of these woods. Moreover, each wood has a characteristic volatile composition, from a quantitative point of view, and therefore we can expect a characteristic sensorial profile. The oak wood turned out to be the most balanced, since although it provides a lot of volatile compounds to the aroma and flavor of aged wine, it can do so without masking their primary and secondary aroma. On the whole, toasted acacia and chestnut woods showed a very high richness of studied compounds, as lignin as lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, while cherry and ash were much richer than toasted oak wood in lignin derivatives, but much poorer in lipid and carbohydrate derivatives. PMID:19290598

de Simón, Brígida Fernández; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel M; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam

2009-04-22

254

Nontargeted GC-MS approach for volatile profile of toasting in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, and ash wood.  

PubMed

By using a nontargeted GC-MS approach, 153 individual volatile compounds were found in extracts from untoasted, light toasted and medium-toasted cherry, chestnut, false acacia, as well as European and American ash wood, used in cooperage for aging wines, spirits and other beverages. In all wood types, the toasting provoked a progressive increase in carbohydrate derivatives, lactones and lignin constituents, along with a variety of other components, thus increasing the quantitative differences among species with the toasting intensity. The qualitative differences in the volatile profiles allow for identifying woods from cherry (being p-anisylalcohol, p-anisylaldehyde, p-anisylacetone, methyl benzoate and benzyl salicylate detected only in this wood), chestnut (cis and trans whisky lactone) and false acacia (resorcinol, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol, 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde, 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone, 2,4-dihydroxypropiophenone and 2,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone), but not those from ash, because of the fact that all compounds present in this wood are detected in at least one other. However, the quantitative differences can be clearly used to identify toasted ash wood, with tyrosol being most prominent, but 2-furanmethanol, 3- and 4-ethylcyclotene, ?-methylcrotonolactone, solerone, catechol, 3-methylcatechol and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde as well. Regarding oak wood, its qualitative volatile profile could be enough to distinguish it from cherry and acacia woods, and the quantitative differences from chestnut (vanillyl ethyl ether, isoacetovanillone, butirovanillone, 1-(5-methyl-2-furyl)-2-propanone and 4-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-(2H)-pyran-2-one) and ash toasted woods. PMID:24809897

Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel María

2014-05-01

255

l-Ascorbic acid metabolism during fruit development in an ascorbate-rich fruit crop chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).  

PubMed

Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a fruit crop that contains unusually high levels of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; ?1300mg 100g(-1) FW). To explore the mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism, we investigated the distribution and abundance of AsA during fruit development. We also analyzed gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and content of metabolites related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling. AsA first accumulated during late fruit development and continued to accumulate during ripening, with the highest accumulation rate near fruit maturity. The redox state of AsA in fruit was also enhanced during late fruit development, while leaf and other tissues had much lower levels of AsA and the redox state of AsA was lower. In mature fruit, AsA was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the mesocarp. Correlation analysis suggested that the gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and related metabolite concentrations involved in the l-galactose pathway showed relatively high correlations with the accumulation rate of AsA. The gene expression pattern and activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) correlated strongly with AsA concentration, possibly indicating the crucial role of DHAR in the accumulation of high levels of AsA in chestnut rose fruit. Over expression of DHAR in Arabidopsis significantly increased the reduced AsA content and redox state. This was more effective than over expression of the l-galactose pathway gene GDP-d-mannose-3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18). These findings will enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating accumulation of AsA in chestnut rose. PMID:25019249

Huang, Ming; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

2014-09-01

256

Corneal cross-linking in 9 horses with ulcerative keratitis  

PubMed Central

Background Corneal ulcers are one of the most common eye problems in the horse and can cause varying degrees of visual impairment. Secondary infection and protease activity causing melting of the corneal stroma are always concerns in patients with corneal ulcers. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), induced by illumination of the corneal stroma with ultraviolet light (UVA) after instillation of riboflavin (vitamin B2) eye drops, introduces crosslinks which stabilize melting corneas, and has been used to successfully treat infectious ulcerative keratitis in human patients. Therefore we decided to study if CXL can be performed in sedated, standing horses with ulcerative keratitis with or without stromal melting. Results Nine horses, aged 1 month to 16 years (median 5 years) were treated with a combination of CXL and medical therapy. Two horses were diagnosed with mycotic, 5 with bacterial and 2 with aseptic ulcerative keratitis. A modified Dresden-protocol for CXL could readily be performed in all 9 horses after sedation. Stromal melting, diagnosed in 4 horses, stopped within 24 h. Eight of nine eyes became fluorescein negative in 13.5 days (median time; range 4–26 days) days after CXL. One horse developed a bacterial conjunctivitis the day after CXL, which was successfully treated with topical antibiotics. One horse with fungal ulcerative keratitis and severe uveitis was enucleated 4 days after treatment due to panophthalmitis. Conclusions CXL can be performed in standing, sedated horses. We did not observe any deleterious effects attributed to riboflavin or UVA irradiation per se during the follow-up, neither in horses with infectious nor aseptic ulcerative keratitis. These data support that CXL can be performed in the standing horse, but further studies are required to compare CXL to conventional medical treatment in equine keratitis and to optimize the CXL protocol in this species.

2013-01-01

257

Development of SCAR Markers for the Identification of Phytophthora katsurae Causing Chestnut Ink Disease in Korea  

PubMed Central

Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers are one of the most effective and accurate tools for microbial identification. In this study, we applied SCAR markers for the rapid and accurate detection of Phytophthora katsurae, the casual agent of chestnut ink disease in Korea. In this study, we developed seven SCAR markers specific to P. katsurae using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and assessed the potential of the SCAR markers to serve as tools for identifying P. katsurae. Seven primer pairs (SOPC 1F/SOPC 1R, SOPC 1-1F/SOPC 1-1R, SOPC 3F/SOPC 3R, SOPC 4F/SOPC 4R, SOPC 4F/SOPC 4-1R, SOPD 9F/SOPD 9R, and SOPD 10F/SOPD 10R) from a sequence derived from RAPD fragments were designed for the analysis of the SCAR markers. To evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the SCAR markers, the genomic DNA of P. katsurae was serially diluted 10-fold to final concentrations from 1 mg/mL to 1 pg/mL. The limit of detection using the SCAR markers ranged from 100 µg/mL to 100 ng/mL. To identify the limit for detecting P. katsurae zoospores, each suspension of zoospores was serially diluted 10-fold to final concentrations from 10 × 105 to 10 × 101 zoospores/mL, and then extracted. The limit of detection by SCAR markers was approximately 10 × 101 zoospores/mL. PCR detection with SCAR markers was specific for P. katsurae, and did not produce any P. katsurae-specific PCR amplicons from 16 other Phytophthora species used as controls. This study shows that SCAR markers are a useful tool for the rapid and effective detection of P. katsurae.

Lee, Dong Hyeon; Lee, Sun Keun; Lee, Sang Yong

2013-01-01

258

Genetic control of horizontal virus transmission in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica.  

PubMed Central

Vegetative incompatibility in fungi has long been known to reduce the transmission of viruses between individuals, but the barrier to transmission is incomplete. In replicated laboratory assays, we showed conclusively that the transmission of viruses between individuals of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica is controlled primarily by vegetative incompatibility (vic) genes. By replicating vic genotypes in independent fungal isolates, we quantified the effect of heteroallelism at each of six vic loci on virus transmission. Transmission occurs with 100% frequency when donor and recipient isolates have the same vic genotypes, but heteroallelism at one or more vic loci generally reduces virus transmission. Transmission was variable among single heteroallelic loci. At the extremes, heteroallelism at vic4 had no effect on virus transmission, but transmission occurred in only 21% of pairings that were heteroallelic at vic2. Intermediate frequencies of transmission were observed when vic3 and vic6 were heteroallelic (76 and 32%, respectively). When vic1, vic2, and vic7 were heteroallelic, the frequency of transmission depended on which alleles were present in the donor and the recipient. The effect of heteroallelism at two vic loci was mostly additive, although small but statistically significant interactions (epistasis) were observed in four pairs of vic loci. A logistic regression model was developed to predict the probability of virus transmission between vic genotypes. Heteroallelism at vic loci, asymmetry, and epistasis were the dominant factors controlling transmission, but host genetic background also was statistically significant, indicating that vic genes alone cannot explain all the variation in virus transmission. Predictions from the logistic regression model were highly correlated to independent transmission tests with field isolates. Our model can be used to estimate horizontal transmission rates as a function of host genetics in natural populations of C. parasitica.

Cortesi, P; McCulloch, C E; Song, H; Lin, H; Milgroom, M G

2001-01-01

259

Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland  

PubMed Central

Background In a stable of eight horses in Northern Iceland, six horses presented with clinical signs, such as ataxia and reduced appetite, leading to euthanasia of one severely affected horse. Serological investigations revealed no evidence of active equine herpes virus type 1 infection, a common source of central nervous system disease in horses, nor equine arteritis virus and West Nile virus. Another neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus, was therefore included in the differential diagnosis list. Findings Serological investigations revealed antibodies against Borna disease virus in four of five horses with neurological signs in the affected stable. One horse without clinical signs was seronegative. Four clinically healthy horses in the stable that arrived and were sampled one year after the outbreak were found seronegative, whereas one of four investigated healthy horses in an unaffected stable was seropositive. Conclusions This report contains the first evidence of antibodies to Borna disease virus in Iceland. Whether Borna disease virus was the cause of the neurological signs could however not be confirmed by pathology or molecular detection of the virus. As Iceland has very restricted legislation regarding animal imports, the questions of how this virus has entered the country and to what extent markers of Bornavirus infection can be found in humans and animals in Iceland remain to be answered.

2013-01-01

260

Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski's…

Milton, John R.

261

Skeletal Growth Rates of Weanling and Yearling Thoroughbred Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to deter- mine normal rates of growth of different skeletal segments in the Thoroughbred horse. Growth of body weight and eight skeletal segments (wither height, hip height, body length, knee to pastern length, hock to pastern length, shoulder to pastern length, width of chest, depth of girth) were monitored in 106 horses (60 colts, 46 fillies)

Kent N. Thompson

2010-01-01

262

Actinomyces species as a cause of abscesses in nine horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics, history, clinical signs, treatment and outcome of nine horses with abscesses caused by Actinomyces species were reviewed. dna sequencing was used to determine the species of one of the isolates. The horses were one to 11 years of age, and the abscesses were most commonly located in the submandibular and retropharyngeal regions. The bacterium was usually cultured as

C. L. Fielding; K. G. Magdesian; R. A. Morgan; R. E. Ruby; K. A. Sprayberry

2008-01-01

263

Systematics and distribution of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan.  

PubMed

The horse fly fauna of Jordan consists of 24 species belonging to seven genera. The present study adds two new records; Tabanus unifasciatus and Tabanus lunatus. Keys and illustrations for the horse flies of Jordan are presented based on examined materials. Distribution and geographic ranges for each species is also given. PMID:16007956

Al-Talafha, H; Amr, Z S; Baker, M Abu; Bader, A Katbeh

2005-06-01

264

HorseRace Polls and Audience Issue Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media critics often complain about too much coverage of “horse-race” polls. A common assumption sustaining this criticism is that such coverage competes with issue coverage. We propose the opposite, that horse-race polls might increase voters' attention to other election messages, including issue information, which in turn leads to a better understanding of public policies. To test these competing theories, we

Xinshu Zhao; Glen L. Bleske

1998-01-01

265

Caudal vena cava thrombosis-like syndrome in a horse  

PubMed Central

A 9-year-old Quarter horse was presented for chronic refractory pneumonia. On necropsy, an hepatic abscess, caudal vena cava thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, and embolic pneumonia were identified. Similar lesions have been reported in cattle as caudal vena cava thrombosis syndrome, however this syndrome has not previously been reported in horses.

Schoster, Angelika; Anderson, Maureen E.C.

2010-01-01

266

Tansy ragwort poisoning in a horse in southern Ontario.  

PubMed Central

Bizarre behavior, apparent lameness, and colic were noticed in 1 of 3 horses on a pasture overgrown by weeds during a drought. Liver failure and hepatoencephalopathy were diagnosed, caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis associated with consumption of tansy ragwort. The horse made a full recovery when removed from the pasture.

de Lanux-Van Gorder, V

2000-01-01

267

Suspected systemic calcinosis and calciphylaxis in 5 horses  

PubMed Central

Five horses were presented with signs of myopathy along with systemic malaise, hyperfibrinogenemia, hyperphosphatemia, and an elevated calcium phosphorus product (Ca*P). Postmortem findings were consistent with systemic calcinosis, a syndrome of calcium deposition in the tissue of organs including lungs, kidneys, muscle, and heart that has not been previously described in horses.

Tan, Jean-Yin; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Sebastian, Manu M.; Davis, Gordon D.; Kelly, Jenny R.; Goehring, Lutz S.; Harland, Malte M.; Kuebelbeck, K. Leann; Waldridge, Bryan M.; Newton, Joseph C.; Reimer, Johanna M.

2010-01-01

268

5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ARE AT CENTER AND CONCRETE TOWER LINES. AGGREGATE OPERATION IS VISIBLE ABOVE CONSTRUCTION SITE July 22, 1926 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

269

36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16 Section 2.16 Parks...RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as...

2013-07-01

270

36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-07-01 true Horses and pack animals. 1002.16 Section 1002.16 Parks...RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as...

2013-07-01

271

Economics of using horse manure and MSW as primary fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of removing horse manure, which in the past was sold to mushroom growers as compost, has placed a serious financial drain on many race track facilities. Additionally, energy costs have risen rapidly in the past several years due to increased fuel costs and time-of-day pricing schemes utilized in various states. Communities which must dispose of the horse manure

M. C. Lints; R. M. Desmond; B. V. Karlekar; R. C. Kholman

1982-01-01

272

Influence of horse stable environment on human airways  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions

Lena Elfman; Miia Riihimäki; John Pringle; Robert Wålinder

2009-01-01

273

Complete Genome Sequence of a Polyomavirus Isolated from Horses  

PubMed Central

A polyomavirus was isolated from the eyes of horses, and the sequence was determined. A nearly identical VP1 sequence was amplified from the kidney of another animal. We report the complete genome sequence of the first polyomavirus to be isolated from a horse. Analysis shows it to be most closely related overall to human and nonhuman primate polyomaviruses.

Wise, Annabel G.; Maes, Roger K.

2012-01-01

274

Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As stated in the Wild Horse Fertility Control Field Trial Plan, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has an immediate need for a safe, effective contraceptive agent to assist in the management of the large number of wild horses on western rangelands. The BLM and the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) are testing the immunecontraceptive agent Porcine Zonae Pellucida (PZP) in field trials with three free-roaming herds of western wild horses. Extensive research has already been conducted on the safety, efficacy, and duration of the PZP applications in both domestic and feral horses on eastern barrier islands and in some select trials with wild horses in Nevada managed by the BLM. However, significant questions remain concerning the effects of PZP application at the population level in the wild, as well as effects at the individual level on behavior, social structure, and harem dynamics of free-ranging animals. These questions are best answered with field trials on wild horse herds under a tight research protocol. The ultimate goal is to provide the BLM with the protocols and information necessary to being using fertility control to regulate population growth rates in wild horse herds on a broader scale. Fertility control is intended to assist the conventional capture, removal, and adoption process as a means of controlling excess numbers of wild horses and burros, and to greatly reduce the adoption costs and numbers of animals handled. Fertility control is not intended to totally replace the removal and adoption processa?|

Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

2004-01-01

275

17. VIEW SHOWING CAPTION AT UPPER RIGHT THAT READS, 'HORSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. VIEW SHOWING CAPTION AT UPPER RIGHT THAT READS, 'HORSE MESA DAM -5/15/27FLOATING 2-YD. ELECTRICALLY-OPERATED CLAM-SHELL DERRICK UNLOADING GRAVEL SCOWS' May 15, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

276

Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.  

PubMed

This paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. After plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. There is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (Pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. Plant extracts from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), green tea (Camellia sinensis), the fern Polypodium leucotomos and others contain antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that may protect the skin from sunburn and photoaging when administered topically or systemically. Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies. Some plant extracts have also been investigated in the treatment of vitiligo, various forms of hair loss and pigmentation disorders, and in aesthetic dermatology. PMID:20707877

Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Korting, Hans Christian; Schempp, Christoph

2010-11-01

277

Contribution to biomonitoring of some trace metals by deciduous tree leaves in urban areas.  

PubMed

Leaves of the deciduous tree species, horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and Turkish hazel (Corylus colurna L.) were used as accumulative biomonitors of trace metal pollution in the urban area of Belgrade. Using differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry, trace metal concentrations (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd) were determined at the single leaf level (ten leaves per species, per month), during two successive years with markedly different atmospheric level of trace metals. Increased trace metal concentrations in the leaves of A. hippocastanum reflected elevated atmospheric trace metal pollution, whereas C. colurna L. did not respond accordingly. The contents of Pb and Zn in soil over the same period also followed this trend. Anatomical analyses, in young as well as in old leaves of both species, indicated typical foliar injuries of plants exposed to stressful air conditions. Water relations that correspond to leaf age may have contributed to the considerable trace metal accumulation in leaves. PMID:17505898

Tomasevi?, M; Vukmirovi?, Z; Rajsi?, S; Tasi?, M; Stevanovi?, B

2008-02-01

278

[Physiological and biochemical characteristics of recalcitrant seed under the condition of true dormancy: a review].  

PubMed

The review considers and sums up the results of studies of physiological and biochemical characteristics of dormant and germinating recalcitrant seed (the object of the study, the seed of common horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L., is viewed as an exemplary case). The results of analysis of the proteomes of the axis and cotyledons have been studied and the effects of the stratification, assessed. Gene expression has been studied at the level of protein synthesis; the protein-synthesizing capacity of the cells of the embryonic axis and cotyledon storage parenchyma of mature seed and seed undergoing stratification. The extent to which the functionally active translation machinery of ripe seed depends on transcription has been assessed, and the ability to synthesize protein under the conditions of stratification has been established. It is concluded that the embryonic axis of dormant seed lacks innate dormancy and that the isolated axis exhibits diverse sensitivity to exogenous abscisic acid and other physiologically active compounds. PMID:17619586

Gumilevskaia, N A; Azarkovich, M I

2007-01-01

279

Perspectives for the biological control of Cameraria ohridella.  

PubMed

The horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) is a serious invasive pest of Aesculus hippocastanum in Europe. The larvae of this species feed on leaf parenchyma and can reduce the tree growth. We studied the impact of parasitoids on C. ohridella in the Czech Republic and also searched for entomopathogenic fungi associated with this pest. The results showed that the rate of parasitism varied between 5% and 15% in most cases. The most parasitized stages of C. ohridella were spinning stages and especially pupae. The most abundant parasitoid species were Minotetrastichus frontalis, Pnigalio sp. and Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae). All species are polyphagous. Using the Galleria-bait method we isolated many strains of entomopathogenic fungi. Dominant species were Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Paecilomyces farinosus and Beauveria bassiana. The perspectives of fungal bioagents in control of C. ohridella is discussed. PMID:18399483

Zemek, Rostislav; Prenerová, Eva; Volter, Lubomír; Weyda, Frantisek; Skuhravý, Václav

2007-01-01

280

76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department reserves the right to inform the Attorney...to ensure that these animals are not being abused...Subjects in 9 CFR Part 11 Animal welfare, Horses...Department reserves the right to inform the Attorney...Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health...

2011-05-27

281

Disorders of sexual development in the domestic horse, Equus caballus.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of sexual development causing infertility in horses have been investigated since the early 1970's. Conventional cytogenetic analysis by karyotyping has been the primary tool used to investigate these horses. Abnormalities have a broad range, from a phenotypically normal mare with gonadal dysgenesis to a horse with ambiguous external genitalia and internal male and female organs. Cytogenetic analysis can determine genetic sex but cannot identify mutations or deletions of genes involved in the sex determination pathway. Molecular technologies have been developed to confirm cytogenetic results and to aid in identifying the genetic causes of abnormal sex determination in horses. In this paper, we review the historical development of methods used to understand abnormal sexual development in the horse as well as summarize cases reported over the last 40-50 years. PMID:22095202

Lear, T L; McGee, R B

2012-01-01

282

Infection of Immunodeficient Horses with Sarcocystis neurona Does Not Result in Neurologic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a progressive neurologic disease of horses most commonly caused by infection with the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Factors affecting neuroinvasion and neuroviru- lence have not been determined. We investigated the pathogenesis of infection with S. neurona in horses with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). Two immunocompetent (IC) Arabian horses and two Arabian horses with SCID were

Debra C. Sellon; Donald P. Knowles; Ellis C. Greiner; Maureen T. Long; Melissa T. Hines; Tressa Hochstatter; Ahmed Tibary; John B. Dame

2004-01-01

283

Stirrup forces during horse riding: A comparison between sitting and rising trot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injuries of horses might be related to the force the rider exerts on the horse. To better understand the loading of the horse by a rider, a sensor was developed to measure the force exerted by the rider on the stirrups. In the study, five horses and 23 riders participated. Stirrup forces measured in sitting trot and rising trot were

Femke E. van Beek; Patricia de Cocq; Mark Timmerman; Mees Muller

2012-01-01

284

ACCEPTABILITY AND DIGESTIBILITY OF DRIED CITRUS PULP BY HORSES 1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two acceptability trials with eight mature horses were used to compare coarse grain con- centrates containing 0 or 30% dried citrus pulp in place of oats. All of the horses consumed the control concentrate readily and two of the eight horses consumed the concentrate contain- ing dried citrus pulp. Six horses refused the citrus pulp concentrate, consuming only 8.6%

E. A. Ott; J. P. Feaster; Sandi Lieb

2010-01-01

285

Immunoconversion against Sarcocystis neurona in normal and dexamethasone-treated horses challenged with S. neurona sporocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a common neurologic disease of horses in the Americas usually caused by Sarcocystis neurona. To date, the disease has not been induced in horses using characterized sporocysts from Didelphis virginiana, the definitive host. S. neurona sporocysts from 15 naturally infected opossums were fed to horses seronegative for antibodies against S. neurona. Eight horses were given 5×105

Tim J. Cutler; Robert J. MacKay; Pamela E. Ginn; Karen Gillis; Susan M. Tanhauser; Erin V. LeRay; John B. Dame; Ellis C. Greiner

2001-01-01

286

9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Horses from Central America and the West Indies. 93.320 Section 93.320...CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America...

2009-01-01

287

Nuchal crest avulsion fracture in 2 horses: a cause of headshaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical records of 2 Thoroughbred horses that developed headshaking after blunt trauma to the occipital region are reviewed. The history, signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic methods, diagnosis and treatment were recorded in each case. Both horses displayed head- shaking, while one horse repeatedly lifted its upper lip and pawed excessively at the ground. In both horses, diagnostic imaging of the

A Voigt; M N Saulez; C M Donnellan

2009-01-01

288

Comparison of Quantitative Trait Loci for Adaptive Traits Between Oak and Chestnut Based on an Expressed Sequence Tag Consensus Map  

PubMed Central

A comparative genetic and QTL mapping was performed between Quercus robur L. and Castanea sativa Mill., two major forest tree species belonging to the Fagaceae family. Oak EST-derived markers (STSs) were used to align the 12 linkage groups of the two species. Fifty-one and 45 STSs were mapped in oak and chestnut, respectively. These STSs, added to SSR markers previously mapped in both species, provided a total number of 55 orthologous molecular markers for comparative mapping within the Fagaceae family. Homeologous genomic regions identified between oak and chestnut allowed us to compare QTL positions for three important adaptive traits. Colocation of the QTL controlling the timing of bud burst was significant between the two species. However, conservation of QTL for height growth was not supported by statistical tests. No QTL for carbon isotope discrimination was conserved between the two species. Putative candidate genes for bud burst can be identified on the basis of colocations between EST-derived markers and QTL.

Casasoli, Manuela; Derory, Jeremy; Morera-Dutrey, Caroline; Brendel, Oliver; Porth, Ilga; Guehl, Jean-Marc; Villani, Fiorella; Kremer, Antoine

2006-01-01

289

Reservoir performance in Ordovician Red River Formation, Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields, Bowman County, North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contiguous Horse Creek and South Horse Creek fields produce oil from the Ordovician Red River Formation's 'D' zone (equal to the 'C' Burrowed Member). These fields produce from dolomite reservoirs at depths of about 9000 ft (3000 m) in the southern Williston basin on the northeastern flank of the southern end of the Cedar Creek anticline. Gentle (>1°) northeast

M. W. Longman; T. G. Fertal; J. R. Stell

1992-01-01

290

Population structure of the Trakehner Horse breed.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the population structure of the Trakehner Horse breed. A total of 13 793 pedigree records were used for analysing the active breeding population and their ancestors dating back to 1950. Ancestors that were born before 1950 were called as base animals. The average generation interval was calculated as 10.2 years. The effective population size (Ne) was estimated by the increase in average year-wise inbreeding coefficient and average coancestry, respectively. Two methods were applied to estimate the effective population size: 1. Numerator-relationship-matrix (NRM), which did not consider missing ancestries. 2. Uncertain-parentage-matrix (UPM), which considered a probabilistic correction for unknown ancestors. There were no major differences between these two methods with respect to the rate of increase in inbreeding although the global levels using the UPM method were observed to be higher. Estimates for the inbreeding coefficients and the average coancestries varied little between both methods. The estimates of the effective population size per generation based on the rate of inbreeding ranged from 169 (NRM) to 150 (UPM) and 158 (NRM) to 144 (UPM) calculated by the average coancestry. From the early 1990s onwards, a strong increase in the rate of inbreeding was observed. This may be due to an increasing variance of the family size of sires and may be interpreted as a consequence of the growing use of artificial insemination. Analysing coancestries within and between the centrally managed regional breeding societies in Germany further revealed the Trakehner horse breed to be a genetically fragmented population with a main partition corresponding to formerly divided East and West Germany. The average rate of gene contributions (Thoroughbred (xx), Arab Horse breed (ox)) to the defined actual breeding population was calculated to be 22.3% xx-genes and 11.7% ox-genes. PMID:22444167

Teegen, R; Edel, C; Thaller, G

2009-01-01

291

Wrist loading patterns during pommel horse exercises.  

PubMed

Gymnastics is a sport which involves substantial periods of upper extremity support as well as frequent impacts to the wrist. Not surprisingly, wrist pain is a common finding in gymnasts. Of all events, the pommel horse is the most painful. In order to study the forces of wrist impact, a standard pommel horse was instrumented with a specially designed load cell to record the resultant force of the hand on the pommel during a series of basic skills performed by a group of seventeen elite male gymnasts. The highest mean peak forces were recorded during the front scissors and flair exercises (1.5 BW) with peaks of up to 2.0 BW for some gymnasts. The mean peak force for hip circles at the center or end of the horse was 1.1 BW. The mean overall loading rate (initial contact to first loading peak) ranged from 5.2 BWs-1 (hip circles) to 10.6 BW s-1 (flairs). However, many recordings displayed localized initial loading spikes which occurred during 'hard' landings on the pommel. When front scissors were performed in an aggressive manner, the initial loading spikes averaged 1.0 BW in magnitude (maximum 1.8 BW) with an average rise time of 8.2 ms; calculated localized loading rates averaged 129 BW s-1 (maximum 219 BW s-1). These loading parameters are comparable to those encountered at heel strike during running. These impact forces and loading rates are remarkably high for an upper extremity joint not normally exposed to weight-bearing loads, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of wrist injuries in gymnastics. PMID:2229083

Markolf, K L; Shapiro, M S; Mandelbaum, B R; Teurlings, L

1990-01-01

292

The emission of corrosive vapours by wood. Sweet-chestnut (Castanea stiva) and wych-elm (Ulmusglabrau) O-acetyl-4-O-methylglucuronoxylans extracted with dimethyl sulphoxide.  

PubMed

1. O-Acetylated 4-O-methylglucuronoxylans were isolated from sweet chestnut and wych elm, either green or incubated at 48 degrees and 100% relative humidity for 36 weeks. 2. The chlorine-ethanolamine method of delignification resulted in a 50% loss of O-acetyl groups from green wych elm compared with an 18% loss from green sweet chestnut. 3. The acid-chlorite method gave an acceptable loss of O-acetyl groups in three cases, but incubated sweet chestnut showed a 44.6% loss. However, it is believed that this is due to the loss of simple O-acetylated xylose sugars resulting from glycosidic hydrolysis, rather than removal of O-acetyl groups by direct hydrolysis. Assuming that this occurs in a random manner, it is unlikely to have much structural significance. 4. Dimethyl sulphoxide extraction of chestnut holocellulose and elm holocellulose, green and incubated, yielded O-acetyl glucuronoxylans containing 10.2, 3.8, 13.1 and 7.7% O-acetyl groups respectively. 5. The location of these O-acetyl groups was determined by Bouveng's method in which phenyl isocyanate is used as a blocking group. PMID:5808312

Cochrane, G C; Gray, J D; Arni, P C

1969-06-01

293

Latrogenic lipoid pneumonia in an adult horse  

PubMed Central

A 20-year-old gelding presented with a history of acute respiratory distress which began immediately after administration of a mineral oil and water mix, via nasogastric intubation, for treatment of suspected gastrointestinal dysfunction. An initial presumptive diagnosis of acute lipoid pneumonia was made; this was further supported by evidence of arterial hypoxaemia and oxygen desaturation on arterial blood gas analysis, ultrasonographic signs of bilateral ventral lung consolidation and a mixed bronchoalveolar-interstitial lung pattern seen on thoracic radiographs. Despite intensive supportive therapy the horse's condition continued to deteriorate and the decision was made for humane euthanasia. Gross necropsy findings supported the clinical diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia.

2010-01-01

294

Cholelith causing duodenal obstruction in a horse.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old Appaloosa stallion was referred for evaluation of colic. At admission, the heart rate, capillary refill time, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were high. Fifteen liters of reflux was obtained by nasogastric intubation. Palpation of an abdominal mass per rectum elicited signs of pain. At exploratory laparotomy, a mass was palpated in the ascending portion of the duodenum. The small intestine ruptured at the site of obstruction during manipulation. The horse was euthanatized. A large cholelith was the cause of the duodenal obstruction. At necropsy, multiple choleliths of various sizes were found in the pancreatic and common bile ducts and in the stomach. PMID:1399780

Laverty, S; Pascoe, J R; Williams, J W; Funk, K A

1992-09-01

295

Vacuolar myopathy in an adult Warmblood horse.  

PubMed

Histopathological interpretation of semimembranosus muscle samples from an adult Warmblood mare with clinical signs suggestive of exertional rhabdomyolysis and intermittent mild elevations in muscle enzyme activities revealed abundant sarcoplasmic vacuoles in all fibre-types containing fine, apparently proteinaceous debris. Vacuolar contents stained lightly with PAS, but did not appear to contain amylopectate, lipid or acid phosphatase and their periphery was unstained with dystrophin immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy revealed that vacuoles were not membrane bound. No vacuoles were detected in muscle samples evaluated at post mortem following 4 months of rest. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a presumed primary vacuolar myopathy in a horse. PMID:23623568

Massey, C A; Walmsley, G L; Gliddon, T P; Piercy, R J

2013-06-01

296

Trema micrantha toxicity in horses in Brazil.  

PubMed

After ingesting green leaves of T. micrantha, 2 horses showed apathy, locomotor deficit, blindness, recumbency, paddling, coma and death. The main gross findings were scattered haemorrhages, enhanced lobular pattern of the liver, and cerebral oedema. Histological changes included disseminated haemorrhages, massive hepatocellular necrosis, neuronal degeneration, Alzheimer type II astrocytes and cerebral perivascular oedema. Clinicopathological findings which were comparable with those observed in Trema micrantha poisoned ruminants, associated with epidemiological evidence suggested the diagnosis.Trema micrantha poisoning should be evaluated as a possible cause in the diagnosis of equine hepatopathy and occasional secondary encephalopathy. PMID:20636784

Bandarra, P M; Pavarini, S P; Raymundo, D L; Corrêa, A M R; Pedroso, P M O; Driemeier, D

2010-07-01

297

Cutaneous pythiosis in a nontravelled California horse.  

PubMed

An 18-year-old Arabian mare was examined with a large mass on the left hind pastern and fetlock. The mare was located in the Central Valley of northern California, and had never been out of the state. Routine histopathological processing and examination of biopsy samples from the mass showed several hyphal organisms that were delineated with a silver stain. Using immunohistochemistry the organism was diagnosed as Pythium insidiosum. The owner declined debulking surgery, and despite treatment with an immunotherapeutic vaccine, the horse's condition deteriorated leading to euthanasia. PMID:18699814

White, Stephen D; Ghoddusi, Majid; Grooters, Amy M; Jones, Kathryn

2008-12-01

298

Trichinella britovi and Trichinella spiralis mixed infection in a horse from Poland.  

PubMed

Trichinella infections in horses continue to represent a health problem and, despite the rarity of infection, it is necessary to continue to control properly horse meat. In 2008, a 10-year-old horse imported from Poland to Italy for consumption found to have been positive at the digestion test. Both Trichinella britovi and Trichinella spiralis larvae in a proportion of 4:1 were detected in the horse muscles. This is the first report of a mixed Trichinella species infection in a horse. The epidemiological investigation revealed that the infected horse originated from a small farm about 120km from Warsaw and the horse owner had bought the horse at a horse market. The findings suggest that the horse was fed more than once with infected meat. PMID:19217211

Liciardi, M; Marucci, G; Addis, G; Ludovisi, A; Gomez Morales, M A; Deiana, B; Cabaj, W; Pozio, E

2009-05-12

299

Analysis of clinical and perioperative findings in 576 horses subjected to surgical treatment of colic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colic was treated surgically in 576 horses (545 individuals). Twenty-seven horses were subjected to surgery twice and two horses three times during the period of this study. A total of 371 horses (64.4%) were discharged from the hospital, 205 animals (35.6%) died or were euthanised; 16 of them died during anaesthesia, 102 horses were subjected to euthanasia during surgery, 24

J. Mezerova; Z. Zert; R. Kabes; L. Ottova

300

Visual laterality in the domestic horse ( Equus caballus ) interacting with humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most horses have a side on which they are easier to handle and a direction they favour when working on a circle, and recent\\u000a studies have suggested a correlation between emotion and visual laterality when horses observe inanimate objects. As such\\u000a lateralisation could provide important clues regarding the horse’s cognitive processes, we investigated whether horses also\\u000a show laterality in association

Kate Farmer; Konstanze Krueger; Richard W. Byrne

2010-01-01

301

Effects of inbreeding on fighting ability measured in Aosta Chestnut and Aosta Black Pied cattle.  

PubMed

Aosta Black Pied (ABP) and Aosta Chestnut (AC) are dual-purpose cattle indigenous to the western Alps and famous for their fighting ability in traditional Italian Batailles de Reines. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of inbreeding on breeding values for fighting ability achieved in participants. Inbreeding (F) and average relatedness (AR) were obtained from the entire pedigree information available (19,554 and 87,967 records for ABP and AC, respectively). Data (n = 23,998) relating to 8,259 cows competing in years 2001-2009 were analyzed to obtain heritability (h(2)) estimates and breeding values for the trait. A placement score was chosen as a phenotype for fighting ability and both a classical quantitative model (NORM) and its implementation, used to identify its indirect genetic effects (COMP), were analyzed using the expectation maximization-REML (EM-REML) method. The F and AR trends in animals born between 1990 and 2009 were generally low and were greater for ABP (+0.06%/yr) than for AC (+0.03%/yr) populations, which also presented a greater mean F (about 2.8% ± 1.7% vs. 0.8% ± 1.5% for ABP and AC, respectively) and mean AR among individuals (about 1.0% ± 0.8% vs. 0.4% ± 0.3% for ABP and AC, respectively). Heritability estimates from 0.083 ± 0.036 to 0.120 ± 0.037 were obtained using the NORM model, accounting for or not accounting for F, respectively. Similar results were obtained also for the COMP model, with h(2) estimates of 0.12 ± 0.037, whether or not F was taken into consideration. Linear regression analyses carried out on the 33 major lineages to which most of participants belonged (n = 6,087) revealed an overall negative trend of EBV compared with the increase of either F (b = -21.3, P < 0.01) or AR (b = -50.1, P < 0.01). However, a great variability in the relationship between EBV and F or AR was found by analyzing data within lineages. Despite the variability, an unfavorable effect of inbreeding was detected in the fighting ability trait of both ABP and AC cattle, and this should be carefully considered in the breeding management of both breeds. PMID:22859764

Sartori, C; Mantovani, R

2012-09-01

302

Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research  

PubMed Central

A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle.

Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisa, Lenka; Fisakova Nyvltova, Miriam; Bajer, Ales; Petr, Libor; Kocar, Petr; Kocarova, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybnicek, Michal; Suvova, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrcik, Hanus

2014-01-01

303

Measurement of Horse Allergen (Equ cx) in Schools  

PubMed Central

Background. The presence of horse allergen in public places is not well-known, unlike for instance cat and dog allergens, which have been studied extensively. The aim was to investigate the presence of horse allergen in schools and to what extent the influence of number of children with regular horse contact have on indoor allergen levels. Methods. Petri dishes were used to collect airborne dust samples during one week in classrooms. In some cases, vacuumed dust samples were also collected. All samples were extracted, frozen and analysed for Equ cx content shortly after sampling, and some were re-analysed six years later with a more sensitive ELISA assay. Results. Horse allergen levels were significantly higher in classrooms, in which many children had horse contact, regardless of sampling method. Allergen levels in extracts from Petri dish samples, which had been kept frozen, dropped about 53% over a six-year period. Conclusion. Horse allergen was present in classrooms and levels were higher in classrooms where many children had regular horse contact in their leisure time. This suggests that transfer of allergens takes place via contaminated clothing. Measures should be taken to minimize possible transfer and deposition of allergens in pet-free environments, such as schools.

Merritt, Anne-Sophie; Emenius, Gunnel; Elfman, Lena; Smedje, Greta

2011-01-01

304

Weighted boots influence performance in show-jumping horses.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of weighted boots on horses (n=6) jumping a 1.25 m oxer fence. The horses had similar training experience and were assigned to two groups of three subjects (groups G1 and G2). All horses performed 10 jumping efforts: G1 horses made attempts 1-5 without boots and 6-10 with boots; G2 made attempts 1-5 with boots and 6-10 without boots. Data were available via sagittal plane S-VHS recordings and t test analyses focussed on limb-placement dimensions. There were no differences among performances of the horses in the horizontal plane, but there were significant differences in the vertical plane. All horses achieved significantly greater hindlimb elevation with the weighted boots (1.60 m) compared with no boots (1.46 m; P<0.05). Although not measured directly, the significantly greater elevation during the jump stride flight phase appears to be a consequence of increased kinetic energy associated with the horses' hindlimbs. PMID:19375964

Murphy, Jack

2009-07-01

305

Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.  

PubMed

A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Ko?ár, Petr; Ko?árová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybní?ek, Michal; S?vová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavr?ík, Hanuš

2014-01-01

306

Movement initiation in groups of feral horses.  

PubMed

Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often. PMID:24220794

Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

2014-03-01

307

The fibrous tapetum of the horse eye.  

PubMed

The tapetum lucidum is a light-reflective tissue in the eyes of many animals. Many ungulates have a fibrous tapetum. The horse has one of the largest eyes of any living animal and also has excellent vision in low-light environments. This study aimed to clarify the macroscopic tapetal shape, relationship between the tapetal thickness and the degree of pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), spatial relationship between the visual streak and the tapetum, and wavelength of the light reflected from the tapetum in the horse. Macroscopically, weak light revealed the tapetum as a horizontal band located dorsal to and away from the optic disc. The tapetum expanded dorsally as the illumination increased. The tapetal tissue consisted of lamellae of collagen fibrils running parallel to the retinal surface; these spread over almost the entire ocular fundus and were thicker in the horizontal band dorsal to the disc. Only the horizontal band of the tapetum was covered by unpigmented RPE, suggesting that this band reflects light and is responsible for mesopic and scotopic vision. The visual streak was located in the ventral part of the horizontal band, ventral to the thickest part of the tapetum. The wavelength of the light reflected from the horizontal band of the tapetum was estimated from the diameter and interfibrous distance of the collagen fibrils to be approximately 468?nm. Therefore, the light reflected from the tapetum should be more effectively absorbed by rods than by cones, and should not interfere with photopic vision. PMID:24102505

Shinozaki, Aya; Takagi, Satoshi; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z; Uehara, Masato

2013-11-01

308

Evaluation of the community of native eulophid parasitoids on Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic in urban areas.  

PubMed

The parasitoid complex associated with the exotic leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), which attacks horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), was studied in the urban environment of Turin (northern Italy). The studies were carried out over 5 yr after the first detection of the pest in our region in 1999. To evaluate parasitism, 438,029 leaf mines were examined over the 5-yr period, of which 29,033 were found to be parasitized (6.6%). Also, ornamental broadleaf trees attacked by other native gracillariid leafminers and located in the proximity of the target horse chestnut trees were sampled. A total of 11 parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were recorded on C. ohridella, and the most common species were Minotetrastichus frontalis (Nees), Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, and Pnigalio agraules (Walker). The first species accounted for >77.5% of all parasitoids collected. Cirrospilus talitzkii Boucek was found for the first time in 2005. The high population level of the pest and the low parasitism rate show that the parasitoid complex is currently inadequate to contain C. ohridella populations effectively. The most frequent parasitoids of the moth were also found on the most common broadleaf trees in the studied area, showing how native leafminer parasitoid species are able to switch to other hosts. These results show that both native and broadleaf plants species may potentially provide an important reservoir of parasitic wasps to help protect a simple biotope, such as the urban environment, from pests. PMID:18284739

Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

2007-10-01

309

Differences in salt sensitivity of four deciduous tree species to soil or airborne salt.  

PubMed

Seedlings of four deciduous tree species maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) and lime (Tilia cordata) were exposed to de-icing salt (NaCl) either through the soil or applied to the above ground plant parts. A soil solution of 1.65 g l-1 NaCl was maintained from the start of the experiment in January 1999 until termination in June 1999. The main effects caused by salt treatment through the soil were a reduction in photosynthesis of up to 50% and the development of leaf chlorosis or necrosis covering up to 50% of the total leaf area for the most sensitive species (lime and beech); maple and horse chestnut were relatively tolerant. There was no significant correlation between Cl or Na concentration in leaves and the relative sensitivity of the species. Saturated salt solution was applied to bark, buds or leaf scars on two occasions three weeks apart during the winter season. This affected the timing of bud break with delays of up to eight days compared with the controls. In the most sensitive species the above ground salt treatments partly prevented bud break (beech) or reduced photosynthesis (lime). Uptake through the bark was most important for the development of stress effects, compared with uptake through the other above ground plant parts. PMID:11903969

Paludan-Müller, Georg; Saxe, Henrik; Pedersen, Lars Bo; Randrup, Thomas Barfoed

2002-02-01

310

Changes in the salt status of meadow-chestnut soils under the impact of saline groundwater in a model experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous upward inflow and ascending capillary movement of sodium-sulfate groundwater through the profile of an initially nonsaline meadow-chestnut soil entail the displacement of exchangeable calcium by sodium in the lower Bca and BCca horizons; therefore, the content of sodium in the SEC increases to 60% and more. No unfavorable changes in the physical properties of the soils are observed because of the high salt concentration. Dissolved calcium is partially precipitated as calcite and gypsum in the Bca and BCca horizons and partially migrates, together with Cl- ions, to the upper horizons with the ascending solution flow. In the Al horizon, Ca and Mg chlorides are accumulated as poorly crystallized strongly hydrated compounds, which give no peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns, and gypsum is deposited.

Volodina, I. V.; Sokolova, T. A.

2007-08-01

311

Effect of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on rheological properties of gels from blends of chestnut and rice flours.  

PubMed

The development of high quality gluten-free products requires the understanding of the phenomena that dictate the ingredient interactions commonly used in foodstuff. In this work, the main objective was to develop alternative gluten-free gelled desserts from blends of chestnut flour (Cf) and whole (Rw), Agulha (Ra) or Carolino (Rc) rice flours. The impact of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on textural, rheological and structural properties of selected gels was investigated. Texture results indicated that studied gels in the presence of sucrose and xylitol decreased significantly the firmness. Rheological outcomes showed that the temperature ramps on heating of Cf/Rw gels were similar to those obtained for Cf/Ra, whereas Cf/Rc gels presented a particular pattern. The presence of sucrose resulted in a significant decrease in the values of storage and loss moduli. Confocal microscopic images showed that the sugar addition leads to a less aggregated structure with fracture lines well marked. PMID:23987342

Torres, M D; Raymundo, A; Sousa, I

2013-10-15

312

39. VIEW OF HORSE AND ESCAPE STEPS ON ARIZONA CANAL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. VIEW OF HORSE AND ESCAPE STEPS ON ARIZONA CANAL, LOOKING NORTH ON THE SALT RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION Photographer: James Eastwood, June 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

313

Hematological and Biochemical Reference Values for the Endangered Kiso Horse  

PubMed Central

To establish blood and biochemical references for the endangered Kiso horse, blood samples were collected from 111 adult Kiso horses, 74.5% of the existing breed. The samples were analyzed for 23 hematological and biochemical parameters to determine their means and standard deviations (SD). We compared the mean ± 2SD with the reference values cited in one of the most commonly used veterinary textbooks in Japan. The hematology of Kiso horses is characterized by lower erythrocyte count and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. In addition, their serum biochemistry showed lower levels of aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and ?-glutamyl transferase. Whether these propensities are attributed to breed-specific factors or are acquired factors remains unclear. Nevertheless, this study provides useful diagnostic indices for the endangered Kiso horse.

TAKASU, Masaki; NAGATANI, Nana; TOZAKI, Teruaki; KAKOI, Hironaga; MAEDA, Masami; MURASE, Tetsuma; MUKOYAMA, Harutaka

2013-01-01

314

Removal of a nasal polyp in a standing horse.  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis and removal of a nasal polyp in a horse using standing chemical restraint and readily available equipment are described. Histopathology of the polyp and differential diagnoses are discussed. Images Figure 1.

Watt, B C; Beck, B E

1997-01-01

315

Cell Therapy for Tendon Repair in Horses: An Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crovace, A., Lacitignola, L., De siena, R., Rossi, G. and Francioso, E., 2007. Cell therapy for tendon repair in horses: An\\u000a experimental study. Veterinary Research Communications, 31(Suppl. 1), 281–283

A. Crovace; L. Lacitignola; R. De siena; G. Rossi; E. Francioso

2007-01-01

316

Management of Wild Horses by Fertility Control: The Assateague Experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was initiated in 1986 with the global of managing the Assateague wild horses using fertility control. Initial experiments with steroid hormones designed to reduce sperm counts in stallions and to prevent ovilation in mares did not show promise. I...

J. F. Kirkpatrick

1995-01-01

317

The horse as a model of naturally occurring osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is an important cause of pain, disability and economic loss in humans, and is similarly important in the horse. Recent knowledge on post-traumatic OA has suggested opportunities for early intervention, but it is difficult to identify the appropriate time of these interventions. The horse provides two useful mechanisms to answer these questions: 1) extensive experience with clinical OA in horses; and 2) use of a consistently predictable model of OA that can help study early pathobiological events, define targets for therapeutic intervention and then test these putative therapies. This paper summarises the syndromes of clinical OA in horses including pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, and details controlled studies of various treatment options using an equine model of clinical OA.

McIlwraith, C. W.; Frisbie, D. D.; Kawcak, C. E.

2012-01-01

318

View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of EPA Farm cattle shelter (featuring horse trailer), facing northwest - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

319

15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. Great ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

320

Acinar cell carcinoma of exocrine pancreas in two horses.  

PubMed

Two horses were presented with non-specific clinical signs of several weeks' duration and were humanely destroyed due to a poor prognosis. At necropsy examination, both horses had multiple small, white nodules replacing pancreatic tissue and involving the serosal surface of the abdominal cavity, the liver and the lung. Microscopically, neoplastic cells were organized in acini and contained abundant (case 1) or sparse (horse 2) intracytoplasmic zymogen granules. Immunohistochemically, both tumours expressed amylase and pan-cytokeratin, but not insulin or neuron-specific enolase. In case 2, a low percentage of neoplastic cells expressed glucagon and synaptophysin. The presence of zymogen granules was confirmed in both cases by electron microscopy and occasional fibrillary or glucagon granules were observed in cases 1 and 2, respectively. A diagnosis of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma was established in both horses. PMID:24572625

de Brot, S; Junge, H; Hilbe, M

2014-05-01

321

Population Structure and Disease Development of Cryphonectria parasitica in European Chestnut Forests in the Presence of Natural Hypovirulence.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The Cryphonectria parasitica populations in two 6-year-old European chestnut (Castanea sativa) coppices were investigated in southern Switzerland over a period of 4 years. Occurrence of white isolates indicating an infection with Cryphonectria hypovirus, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), hypovirulence conversion capacity, and mating types were used to characterize the populations. Sampling of randomly chosen cankers in the first year yielded 59% white isolates in one and 40% in the other population. The distribution of the VCGs and mating types was similar among white and orange isolates, indicating a homogeneous infection of the two populations by the hypovirus. Fourteen VCGs were found in the first population, 16 VCGs in the second. Altogether, 21 VCGs were determined. The same three VCGs dominated in both populations, comprising more than 60% of all isolates. Several VCGs were represented only by white isolates. Five of the six most common VCGs were clustered in two hypovirulence conversion groups, with almost 100% hypovirus transmission within each cluster. Repeated sampling of the same cankers in 1990, 1992, and 1994 did not reveal an increase of white isolates. The portion of blighted stems rose from 37% to about 60% in both plots within 4 years. In this time, chestnut blight killed 15% and competition an additional 21% of the sprouts. Predominantly, sprouts with low diameters at breast height were killed. The growth rate of new cankers was high in their first year and decreased gradually in the following years. A role of hypovirulence in the decline of disease severity was evident since (i) cankers yielding white isolates grew slower and killed considerably fewer sprouts than cankers with orange isolates; and (ii) the majority of the cankers yielded white isolates at least once during the 4-year observation period. PMID:18945153

Bissegger, M; Rigling, D; Heiniger, U

1997-01-01

322

Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI.  

PubMed

Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH(2) column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. All the compounds were separated in 16 min. The method was optimized and proved to be reproducible and accurate. Generally, more than 95% of sugars were identified for both matrixes. Sugars profiles were quite homogeneous for almond cultivars; sucrose was the main sugar (11.46 +/- 0.14 in Marcona to 22.23 +/- 0.59 in Ferragnes g/100 g of dried weight), followed by raffinose (0.71 +/- 0.05 in Ferraduel to 2.11 +/- 0.29 in Duro Italiano), glucose (0.42 +/- 0.12 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 1.47 +/- 0.19 in Ferragnes) and fructose (0.11 +/- 0.02 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 0.59 +/- 0.05 in Gloriette). Commercial cultivars proved to have higher sucrose contents, except in the case of Marcona. Nevertheless, chestnut cultivars revealed a high heterogeneity. Sucrose was the main sugar in Aveleira (22.05 +/- 1.48), Judia (23.30 +/- 0.83) and Longal (9.56 +/- 0.91), while glucose was slightly prevalent in Boa Ventura (6.63 +/- 0.49). The observed variance could serve for inter-cultivar discrimination. PMID:20033298

Barreira, João C M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2010-03-01

323

Thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis in a horse.  

PubMed

A 5-year-old Quarter Horse mare was examined because of lethargy, fever, and weight loss of 1 month's duration. Thoracic auscultation revealed decreased lung sounds cranioventrally. Thoracic ultrasonography revealed bilateral anechoic areas with hyperechoic strands, consistent with pleural effusion and fibrin tags. A large amount of free fluid was evident during abdominal ultrasonography. Abnormalities included anemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Thoracic radiography revealed alveolar infiltrates in the cranial and caudoventral lung fields. A cavitary mass, consistent with an abscess, could be seen caudodorsal to the crura of the diaphragm. Ultrasonographic evaluation of this area revealed a hypoechoic mass with septations. Bilateral thoracocentesis was performed. Bacterial culture of the pleural fluid did not yield growth, but Blastomyces dermatitidis was isolated from pleural fluid, abdominal fluid, and an aspirate of the abscess. The mare was euthanatized, and a diagnosis of thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis was confirmed at necropsy. PMID:10319179

Toribio, R E; Kohn, C W; Lawrence, A E; Hardy, J; Hutt, J A

1999-05-01

324

Needlestick and infection with horse vaccine.  

PubMed

This report describes a case of accidental needlestick injury involving a live equine vaccination, Equilis StrepE. A vet presented herself to the Emergency Department having accidentally injected herself with an equine vaccination. Her left thumb (injury site) was inflamed and had lymphangitis progressing proximally along her left arm. Her inflammatory markers were not raised. The swelling, erythma and lymphangitis had improved markedly with intravenous antibiotics. She had no sequelae at follow-up. Equilis StrepE is a vaccine for submucosal administration containing a modified live avirulent strain of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (Strain TW). Group C streptococci infections are pathogenic in horses and uncommon in humans. A search of the literature revealed no prior case report of similar adverse reaction to this vaccine. The vaccine may have harmful effect on human health, if injected accidentally but more evidence needs to be collected. PMID:22767480

Thompson, Robin N; McNicholl, Brian P

2010-01-01

325

Does Work Affect Personality? A Study in Horses  

PubMed Central

It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as “interpersonal” conflicts or “suppressed emotions”. An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food), were of the same sex (geldings), and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile). Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be given to work characteristics when evaluating personalities.

Hausberger, Martine; Muller, Christine; Lunel, Christophe

2011-01-01

326

Does work affect personality? A study in horses.  

PubMed

It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as "interpersonal" conflicts or "suppressed emotions". An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food), were of the same sex (geldings), and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile). Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be given to work characteristics when evaluating personalities. PMID:21347405

Hausberger, Martine; Muller, Christine; Lunel, Christophe

2011-01-01

327

Origin and History of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in Domestic Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic horses represent a genetic paradox: although they have the greatest number of maternal lineages (mtDNA) of all domestic species, their paternal lineages are extremely homogeneous on the Y-chromosome. In order to address their huge mtDNA variation and the origin and history of maternal lineages in domestic horses, we analyzed 1961 partial d-loop sequences from 207 ancient remains and 1754

Michael Cieslak; Melanie Pruvost; Norbert Benecke; Michael Hofreiter; Arturo Morales; Monika Reissmann; Arne Ludwig; Manfred Kayser

2010-01-01

328

Gastrojejunostomy for management of acute proximal enteritis in a horse.  

PubMed

A 5-year-old Arabian stallion was treated medically 6 days for proximal enteritis. On the sixth day, exploratory celiotomy verified the diagnosis and ruled out other intraluminal and extraluminal gastrointestinal tract obstructions. A gastrojejunostomy was performed. The horse had trouble maintaining and gaining weight in the first year after surgery, but 8 years after surgery, the owner reported that the horse was doing well. PMID:8163421

Gillis, J P; Taylor, T S; Puckett, M J

1994-02-15

329

Chemotherapy of surra in horses and mules with diminazene aceturate  

Microsoft Academic Search

During June–July 2000, an outbreak of surra occurred on an equine breeding farm in Khonkaen Province, Thailand. Forty-two percent of pregnant mares aborted or gave stillbirth and 40% (19\\/47) of horses and 10% (1\\/10) of mules died from surra. In August 2000 Trypanosoma evansi were detected in the remaining animals (28 horses and nine mules) on the farm by blood

D Tuntasuvan; W Jarabrum; N Viseshakul; K Mohkaew; S Borisutsuwan; A Theeraphan; N Kongkanjana

2003-01-01

330

On the Pleistocene extinctions of Alaskan mammoths and horses.  

PubMed

The fossil record has been used to shed light on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America and elsewhere. It is therefore important to account for variability due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and error in dating fossil remains. Here, a joint confidence region for the extinction times of horses and mammoths in Alaska is constructed. The results suggest that a prior claim that the extinction of horses preceded the arrival of humans cannot be made with confidence. PMID:16651534

Solow, Andrew R; Roberts, David L; Robbirt, Karen M

2006-05-01

331

Four Loci Explain 83% of Size Variation in the Horse  

PubMed Central

Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS) that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication.

Makvandi-Nejad, Shokouh; Hoffman, Gabriel E.; Allen, Jeremy J.; Chu, Erin; Gu, Esther; Chandler, Alyssa M.; Loredo, Ariel I.; Bellone, Rebecca R.; Mezey, Jason G.; Brooks, Samantha A.; Sutter, Nathan B.

2012-01-01

332

Gastric rupture in horses: 50 cases (1979-1987).  

PubMed

A computer-based search was conducted of medical and necropsy records of horses admitted to the teaching hospital from Jan 1, 1979, to Dec 31, 1987, to obtain the records of all horses admitted to the hospital for colic and subsequently found to have gastric rupture. Fifty cases of gastric rupture were found. The records were reviewed to obtain data regarding peritoneal fluid analysis. Cell counts of these samples were often erroneous because debris and clumps of bacteria were counted when most WBC were lysed. A cross-sectional study of gastric rupture cases versus all other colic cases regarding season of admission revealed that there was no association between season and the occurrence of gastric rupture. There was also no increased risk associated with age, gender, breed, and the occurrence of gastric rupture. One hundred colic cases, matched with the gastric rupture cases by year of admission, were randomly selected via a table of random numbers. A questionnaire regarding age, breed, gender, use of the horse, housing, diet, water source, deworming schedule, and medical history was completed from the medical records and phone conversations with the horse owners. The results indicated that horses on a diet of grass hay or grass/alfalfa hay only or those that drank water from a bucket, stream, or pond were at increased risk for having gastric rupture. In contrast, horses fed grain had a reduced risk. PMID:2298661

Kiper, M L; Traub-Dargatz, J; Curtis, C R

1990-01-15

333

Prevalence of tick borne pathogens in horses from Italy.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne diseases, equine piroplasmosis, equine granulocytic anaplasmosis and Lyme borreliosis in Central Italy, blood samples from 300 horses were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi using the IFAT. The blood samples were also subjected to PCR assays in order to detect pathogen DNA. A total of 78 (26.0%) and 123 (41.0%) horses were found to be seropositive for B. caballi and T. equi, respectively, while 41 (13. 4%) and 21 (7.0%) horses were, respectively, seropositive for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi. Seropositivity for more than one agent was detected in 76 horses using IFAT. The most common association observed was between T. equi and B. caballi (14.7%). In addition, 54 horses (18.0%) were found to be positive for one or more tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) using PCR testing. Among these, 28 (9.3%) harbored single infections, while 26 (8.7%) were found to be co-infected with two or more pathogens. The correlation (K value) between IFAT and PCR results was 0.32 for T. equi, 0.34 for B. caballi, 0.62 for B. burgdorferi and 0.48 for A. phagocytophilum, reflecting an unprecedented degree of multiple exposures to TBPs in horses. PMID:23328633

Laus, Fulvio; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Paggi, Emanuele; Cerquetella, Matteo; Hyatt, Doreene; Tesei, Beniamino; Fioretti, Daniela Piergili

2013-01-01

334

Horses naturally infected by Trypanosoma vivax in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, we reported the first outbreak of the infection by Trypanosoma vivax in horses in southern Brazil, a non-endemic region where bovines have only recently been found infected by this trypanosome species. We evaluated 12 horses from a farm in southern Brazil, where four horses displayed pale mucous membranes, fever, weight loss, and swelling of abdomen, prepuce, or vulva. The diagnosis of T. vivax was confirmed in four horses by morphological parameters of trypomastigotes in blood smears and species-specific PCR. All T. vivax-infected animals showed anemia, and most showed increased levels of beta-1, beta-2, and gamma globulins. Horses were treated with diminazene aceturate, but cure was not achieved, and the disease relapsed after therapy. These findings demonstrated that Brazilian T. vivax isolates, which were already reported infecting cattle, buffaloes, goats, and sheep, can be highly pathogenic for horses, causing severe disease and even death of the animals due to the recurrence of the infection. PMID:20820805

Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Garcia Perez, Herakles A; Costa, Márcio M; França, Raqueli T; De Gasperi, Diego; Zanette, Régis A; Amado, João A; Lopes, Sonia T A; Teixeira, Marta M G; Monteiro, Silvia G

2011-01-01

335

[The epidemiology of gasterophilosis of horses in Switzerland].  

PubMed

Between March 1988 and December 1989, 198 gastrointestinal tracts from slaughtered horses from different areas of Switzerland have been analysed for the presence and the frequency of Gasterophilus spp. During the same period--always between July and November--200 horses from selected areas of Western Switzerland have been checked for the presence of eggs and their subsequent developmental stages in order to investigate further clinical and biological aspects of this infection. The evaluation has been performed according to origin, age, sex, colour of the horse and seasonal pattern of the cases and the various larval stages, respectively. The prevalence of Gasterophilus spp. amounts to 64.6%, showing a marked seasonal distribution. Only Gasterophilus intestinalis has been detected and the Western part of Switzerland appears to be considerably more contaminated than the other areas of the country. The reasons are discussed. It is possible that an intensive horse-traffic at the border is partly responsible. Horses with a dark coat are more often parasitized whereas no difference occurs with regard to age and sex. The observed high prevalence of this parasite infection in the Swiss horse population confirms that gasterophilosis has to be taken into serious consideration and prophylactic measures might be indicated. PMID:1771404

Brocard, P; Pfister, K

1991-01-01

336

IHH gene polymorphism among three horse breeds and its application for association test in horses with osteochondrosis.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphism of IHH gene were investigated in Angloarabian, Polish Coldblood and Polish Halfbred horses with the inclusion of a group of Polish Halfbreds affected by osteochondrosis. IHH is a good candidate gene for association study of developmental disorders mainly affecting skeleton development. DNA sequence spanning IHH gene annotated in the horse genome and its putative promoter were investigated using SANGER sequencing. Analysis of genetic variability at polymorphic sites in the IHH gene body and the promoter region confirmed genetic differences between warmblood and coldblood horse breeds. A test for allelic and genotypic association at particular SNP sites revealed no association with osteochondrosis in investigated group of Polish Halfbreds. It was concluded that participation of different warmblood breeds in pedigrees of Polish Halfbreds make it difficult to search for genetic variants being associated with this complex disorder in this breed. IHH gene polymorphism investigated among three different horse populations would be valuable for further studies on equine bone developmental disorders. PMID:23865964

Zabek, T; Golonka, P; Fornal, A; Semik, E

2013-06-01

337

Neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)  

PubMed Central

Background Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Reduction of inflammatory cell apoptosis or a dysregulation of this process could lead to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis and necrosis of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from seven horses suffering from RAO (study group) and seven control horses. Results We demonstrated that neutrophil/macrophage apoptosis is altered in RAO-affected horses compared with the control group in the BAL fluid. We found a significant difference between the median percentage of early and late apoptosis of neutrophils between the study and control group of horses. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the rate of apoptosis and the median percentage of macrophages in RAO-affected horses. Conclusion The findings suggest that apoptosis dysregulation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAO. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of altered apoptosis in the course of equine recurrent airway obstruction.

2014-01-01

338

Influence of Equine Conformation on Rider Oscillation and Evaluation of Horses for Therapeutic Riding  

PubMed Central

To obtain basic knowledge about selecting horses for therapeutic riding, the influence of equine conformation on rider oscillation and relationships between these factors and the evaluation on horses as the therapeutic riding were studied. Thirty-five riding horses were used. Equine conformation was estimated by 24 indices. Rider oscillation was measured by an accelerometer fixed at the rider’s waist. The spatial position of the oscillation was estimated by a double integration of the acceleration. Horses were evaluated for therapeutic riding by a Riding for the Disabled Association instructor as a rider. Evaluations were on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being the highest score for 27 items. Horses were classified into 4 groups: the short and narrow (SN), short and wide (SW), tall and narrow (TN), and tall and wide (TW). The frequencies of rider oscillation both at walk and trot were higher (P<0.01), and the vertical (P<0.01) and longitudinal (P<0.05) amplitudes at trot were smaller, on short horses than on tall horses. The vertical amplitude at walk was smaller (P<0.05) and the lateral amplitude at trot was larger (P<0.01) on wide horses than on narrow horses. Short horses could be used for the rider who requires side walkers. Wide horses could be used for relieving muscular tension and for the rider who could not maintain good balance on the horse. Short and wide horses should be suitable for therapeutic riding.

MATSUURA, Akihiro; OHTA, Emiko; UEDA, Koichiro; NAKATSUJI, Hiroki; KONDO, Seiji

2008-01-01

339

Infectious cDNA Clone of Hypovirus CHV1Euro7: a Comparative Virology Approach To Investigate Virus-Mediated Hypovirulence of the Chestnut Blight Fungus Cryphonectria parasitica  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the construction of a full-length infectious cDNA clone for hypovirus CHV1-Euro7, which is associated with reduced virulence (hypovirulence) of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. Field strains infected with CHV1-Euro7 are more virulent and exhibit less severe phenotypic changes (hypoviru- lence-associated traits) than strains infected with the prototypic hypovirus CHV1-EP713, for which the first infectious cDNA clone was

BAOSHAN CHEN; DONALD L. NUSS

1999-01-01

340

Comparison of results of two dye-tracer tests at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Personnel from Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) manage a closed hazardous waste disposal unit the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP), located on the crest of Chestnut Ridge near the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. To investigate the discharge of groundwater from CRSP to springs and streams located along the flanks and base of Chestnut Ridge, an initial dye-tracer study was conducted during 1990. A hydraulic connection was inferred to exist between the injection well (GW-178) on Chestnut Ridge and several sites to the east-northeast, east, and southeast of CRSP. A second dye-tracer study was conducted in 1992 to verify the results of the initial test and identify additional discharge points that are active during wet-weather conditions. No definitive evidence for the presence of dye was identified at any of the 35 locations monitored during the second dye study. Although interpretations of the initial dye test suggest a hydraulic connection with several sites and CRSP, reevaluation of the spectrofluorescence data from this test suggests that dye may not have been detected during the initial test. A combination of relatively high analytical detection limits during the initial test, and high natural background interference spectral peaks observed during the second test, suggest that high natural background emission spectra near the wavelength of the dye used during the initial test may have caused the apparently high reported concentrations. The results of these two tests do not preclude that a hydraulic connection exists; dye may be present in concentrations below the analytical detection limits or has yet to emerge from the groundwater system. The dye injection well is not completed within any significant karst features. Dye migration therefore, may be within a diffuse, slow-flow portion of the aquifer, at least in the immediate vicinity of the source well.

Goldstrand, P.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Haas, J. [EIC Laboratories, Norwood, MA (United States)

1994-01-01

341

Effect of the inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured "Lacón" from Celta pig breed.  

PubMed

The effect of the finishing diet on the volatile compounds throughout the manufacture of dry-cured "lacón" (a Spanish traditional meat product), from the Celta pig breed was studied. Thirty-six pigs were separated into three groups according to the type of feeding during the finish-fattening period of three months (concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut). From the pigs of each diet, four batches of dry-cured "lacón" were manufactured. From each batch, samples of fresh meat, meat after salting, after post-salting, and after 14, 28, 56 and 84 days of drying-ripening were taken. Volatiles were extracted by a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seventy-six volatile compounds were identified and quantified from dry-cured "lacón" samples in pigs finished with chestnut, eighty-two for concentrate fed pigs and eighty in pigs fed with the mixed diet. The number of identified volatile compounds increased during the manufacturing process; at 84 days of drying-ripening, in the dry-cured "lacón" samples from pigs finished with concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut, 54, 58 and 62 volatile compounds were detected, respectively. The most abundant group of flavour compounds at the end of the manufacturing process was hydrocarbons in the three feeding systems, followed by aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Discriminant analysis selected six variables (dodecane, butadienol, pentenol, 2-pentenal, decen-3-ona and pyridine-2-methyl) and calculated two discriminating functions which allowed verification of chestnut in the finishing diet. PMID:23911930

Lorenzo, José M; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier

2014-01-01

342

Invasive Plants, Species and Conditions Fact Sheets: Cheatgrass Brome, Bamboo Reed, Butternut Canker, Dutch Elm, Chestnut Blight, Asian Cycad Scale, Crazy Ant, Red Fox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from ATEEC provides a number of fact sheets on invasive plants, species and conditions which may be printed out or used as presentation material. The plants, species and conditions described here are cheatgrass brome, bamboo reed, butternut canker, dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, Asian cycad scale, crazy ant and red fox. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

2013-06-12

343

Hendra Virus and Horse Owners - Risk Perception and Management  

PubMed Central

Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic novel paramyxovirus causing sporadic fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Species of fruit-bats (genus Pteropus), commonly known as flying-foxes, are the natural host of the virus. We undertook a survey of horse owners in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia to assess the level of adoption of recommended risk management strategies and to identify impediments to adoption. Survey questionnaires were completed by 1431 respondents from the target states, and from a spectrum of industry sectors. Hendra virus knowledge varied with sector, but was generally limited, with only 13% of respondents rating their level of knowledge as high or very high. The majority of respondents (63%) had seen their state’s Hendra virus information for horse owners, and a similar proportion found the information useful. Fifty-six percent of respondents thought it moderately, very or extremely likely that a Hendra virus case could occur in their area, yet only 37% said they would consider Hendra virus if their horse was sick. Only 13% of respondents stabled their horses overnight, although another 24% said it would be easy or very easy to do so, but hadn’t done so. Only 13% and 15% of respondents respectively had horse feed bins and water points under solid cover. Responses varied significantly with state, likely reflecting different Hendra virus history. The survey identified inconsistent awareness and/or adoption of available knowledge, confusion in relation to Hendra virus risk perception, with both over-and under-estimation of true risk, and lag in the uptake of recommended risk minimisation strategies, even when these were readily implementable. However, we also identified frustration and potential alienation by horse owners who found the recommended strategies impractical, onerous and prohibitively expensive. The insights gained from this survey have broader application to other complex risk-management scenarios.

Kung, Nina; McLaughlin, Amanda; Taylor, Melanie; Moloney, Barbara; Wright, Therese; Field, Hume

2013-01-01

344

Horse (Equus caballus) whinnies: a source of social information.  

PubMed

Many animal species that rely mainly on calls to communicate produce individual acoustic structures, but we wondered whether individuals of species better known as visual communicants, with small vocal repertoires, would also exhibit individual distinctiveness in calls. Moreover, theoretical advances concerning the evolution of social intelligence are usually based on primate species data, but relatively little is known about the social cognitive capacities of non-primate mammals. However, some non-primate species demonstrate auditory recognition of social categories and possess mental representation of their social network. Horses (Equus caballus) form stable social networks and although they display a large range of visual signals, they also use long-distance whinny calls to maintain contact. Here, we investigated the potential existence of individual acoustic signatures in whinny calls and the ability of horses to discriminate by ear individuals varying in their degree of familiarity. Our analysis of the acoustic structure of whinnies of 30 adult domestic horses (ten stallions, ten geldings, ten mares) revealed that some of the frequency and temporal parameters carried reliable information about the caller's sex, body size and identity. However, no correlations with age were found. Playback experiments evaluated the behavioural significance of this variability. Twelve horses heard either control white noise or whinnies emitted by group members, familiar neighbours or unfamiliar horses. While control sounds did not induce any particular response, horses discriminated the social category of the callers and reacted with a sound-specific behaviour (vigilance and attraction varied with familiarity). Our results support the existence of social knowledge in horses and suggest a process of vocal coding/decoding of information. PMID:19449192

Lemasson, Alban; Boutin, Anaïs; Boivin, Sarah; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Hausberger, Martine

2009-09-01

345

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum , the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. We used direct and indirect methods to compare and evaluate exposure to A. phagocytophilum in horses in northern Tunisia. Methods Serum from 60 horses was tested by IFA for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum , and whole blood was tested for A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene using a nested-PCR. To examine the risk of A. phagocytophilum transmission, 154 ticks that had been collected from horses were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by nested-PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene. Results This is the first time that A. phagocytophilum has been detected in horses in Tunisia, with an overall seroprevalence of 40/60 (67%). Six of the seroreactive samples (10%) had an IFA titer of 1:80, 14 (23%) of 1:160, 8 (13%) of 1:320 and 12 (20%) a titer 1???640. The seroprevalence revealed no significant regional and sex differences. In contrast, a significant difference was observed between breeds. Eight (13%) of the horses were positive for A. phagocytophilum in the PCR, with no significant breed and age differences. Hyalomma marginatum was a predominant tick species (130/154), and 3 were infected by A. phagocytophilum (a prevalence of 2.3%). The concordance rate of A. phagocytophilum detection between IFA and PCR had a k value of ?0.07. Conclusions The results presented in this study suggest that horses infested by ticks in Tunisia are exposed to A. phagocytophilum.

2012-01-01

346

78 FR 39768 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...qualify you to serve on the Board; 10. Experience or knowledge of wild horse and burro management; 11. Experience or knowledge of horses or burros: (Equine health, training, and management); 12. Experience in working with disparate...

2013-07-02

347

77 FR 37705 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...qualify you to serve on the Board; 10. Experience or knowledge of wild horse and burro management; 11. Experience or knowledge of horses or burros (Equine health, training, and management); 12. Experience in working with disparate...

2012-06-22

348

78 FR 59058 - Second Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...qualify you to serve on the Board; 10. Experience or knowledge of wild horse and burro management; 11. Experience or knowledge of horses or burros: Equine health, training, and management; 12. Experience in working with disparate...

2013-09-25

349

76 FR 48174 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Board; 10. Experience or knowledge of wild horse and burro management and the issues facing the BLM; 11. Experience or knowledge of horses or burros: (equine health, training and management); 12. Experience in...

2011-08-08

350

Leptospirosis in the Phillipines. VII. Serologic and Isolation Studies on Horses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of 12 horses showed 8 with agglutination titers of 1:100 or greater. The serological evidence of leptospirosis is corroborated by the isolation of leptospira australis from one horse. (Author)

E. R. Carlos C. C. Tsai W. D. Kundin R. H. Watten G. S. Irving

1971-01-01

351

Horse Welfare: Action Needed to Address Unintended Consequences from Cessation of Domestic Slaughter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since fiscal year 2006, Congress has annually prohibited the use of federal funds to inspect horses destined for food, effectively prohibiting domestic slaughter. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for overseeing the welfare of horse...

2011-01-01

352

Validation of Ageing Techniques on Otoliths of Horse Mackerel ('Trachurus trachurus L.').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Except in young fish, age determination in the horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus L.) presented considerable difficulties. At the Horse Mackerel Age Determination Workshop in Lowestoft (UK) in 1987 ten otolith readers participated. Nine used the same and...

A. Eltink C. J. Kuiter

1989-01-01

353

Scintigraphic detection of equine orthopedic infection using Tc-HMPAO labeled leukocytes in 14 horses.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of 99mTc-HMPAO leukocyte scintigraphy (LS) by means of a retrospective review of its use in 14 horses that were evaluated for orthopedic infection as a cause of lameness. A total of 17 LS exams were performed in 14 horses. LS studies were positive in 10 of 14 horses. A bacterial infection was confirmed with cytology or culture in 9 of 10 positive horses. Negative LS studies occurred in 4 of 14 horses. Necropsy confirmed the lack of infection in 2 of the 4 horses. Other clinical data and a favorable clinical outcome supported a negative study in the other 2 horses. No false negative or false positive studies were identified. It may be concluded that HMPAO-LS is an effective tool for the diagnosis of orthopedic infection in horses. PMID:10955500

Long, C D; Galuppo, L D; Waters, N K; Hornof, W J

2000-01-01

354

Analysis of therapeutic results and complications after colic surgery in 434 horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of the total number of 434 horses that underwent colic surgery, small intestine was operated in 195 (44.9%) patients, caecum in 10 (2.3%) horses, large colon surgery was performed in 196 (45.2%) cases and small colon surgery in 14 (3.2%) horses. In 12 patients (2.8%) two different parts of the gastrointestinal tract were affected simultaneously, one horse suffered from

J. Mezerova; Z. Zert; R. Kabes; L. Ottova

355

Behavioural and physiological responses to an acute stressor in crib-biting and control horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of eleven pairs of crib-biting and non-crib-biting horses (controls) to an arousal-inducing stimulus were studied. Video-observation of the horses revealed that crib-biting horses spent between 10.4 and 64.7% of their stabling time performing the stereotypy. During the first 2 days of an experimental period, the horses were conditioned to receive food from a special bucket. On the third

I. Bachmann; P. Bernasconi; R. Herrmann; M. A. Weishaupt; M. Stauffacher

2003-01-01

356

Human Direct Actions May Alter Animal Welfare, a Study on Horses (Equus caballus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBack pain is the cause of bad welfare in humans and animals. Although vertebral problems are regularly reported on riding horses, these problems are not always identified nor noticed enough to prevent these horses to be used for work.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsNineteen horses from two riding centres were submitted to chiropractic examinations performed by an experienced chiropractor and both horses' and riders'

Clémence Lesimple; Carole Fureix; Hervé Menguy; Martine Hausberger; Georges Chapouthier

2010-01-01

357

Immunophysiological responses of horses to a 12-hour rest during 24 hours of road transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-eight mature horses were assigned to one of two equal groups to evaluate two treatments consisting of either 24 hours of continuous road transport (24T) or two 12-hour periods of transport separated by off-loading, resting and feeding the horses for 12 hours (12\\/12T). A subset of six horses from each group served as controls for the other group. The horses

C. L. Stull; J. Morrow; B. A. Aldridge; J. L. Stott; J. J. McGlone

2008-01-01

358

The genetic structure of Spanish Celtic horse breeds inferred from microsatellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partition of the genetic variability, genetic structure and relationships among seven Span- ish Celtic horse breeds were studied using PCR amplification of 13 microsatellites on 481 ran- dom individuals. In addition, 60 thoroughbred horses were included. The average observed heterozygosity and the mean number of alleles were higher for the Atlantic horse breeds than for the Balearic Islands breeds. Only

J Canon; M L Checa; C Carleos; J L Vega-Pla; M Vallejo; S Dunner

2000-01-01

359

Evaluation of two vaccines for the treatment of pythiosis insidiosi in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two vaccines to treat pythiosis insidiosi in horses were evaluated in 71 Costa Rican horses between 1982 to 1988. One vaccine used a cell-mass (CMV) as antigen and the other a soluble concentrated antigen (SCAV). Both vaccines cured horses infected with Pythium insidiosum (p value ~ 14%). The age of lesions prior to vaccination was important in the response of

Leonel Mendoza; Jaime Villalobos; Carlos E. Calleja; Alejandro Solis

1992-01-01

360

Heart Rate Variability in Horses Engaged in Equine-Assisted Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been a recent surge in using horses to treat mental and emotional human health issues, the consequences of horse-assisted interventions on the stress response of horses have not been well documented. Assessment of the autonomic nervous system and its regulation of cardiovascular function has been used as an indicator of acute and chronic stress in human beings

Ellen Kaye Gehrke; Ann Baldwin; Patric M. Schiltz

2011-01-01

361

Corralling Your Camp Horse Program: Reviewing Your Policies and Procedures and Creating a Written Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Camps offering horse programs need to have written policies and procedures to ensure quality control and risk minimization. Basic elements of a horse program manual include routine care of horses; general guidelines relating to participants, program, and staff; and emergency plans. Four information resources are presented. (TD)

Glunt, Jim

2000-01-01

362

Some Men's Daughters: Teaching D. H. Lawrence's "The Horse Dealer's Daughter."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Horse Dealer's Daughter" is usually taught as being about love's redeeming power. Usual interpretations of this story, however, ignore its title. It is also about a woman who discovers and uses her sexual power. To begin discussion, students are asked how many have ridden a horse and whether they have ever bought or sold a horse at auction.…

Mallett, Sandra-Lynne J.

363

Nutritional composition, processing, and utilization of horse gram and moth bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horse gram and moth bean are the unexploited legumes of the tropics and subtropics grown mostly under dry?land agriculture. The chemical composition is comparable with commonly cultivated legumes. Like other legumes, these are deficient in methionine and tryptophan. Horse gram is an excellent source of iron and molybdenum. Comparatively, horse gram seeds have higher trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinin activities and

S. S. Kadam; D. K. Salunkhe; Joseph A. Maga

1985-01-01

364

Seasonal dynamics of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on horses in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural tick infestations were assessed every 14 days on horses over a 2-year period. Amblyomma cajennense adult ticks were counted individually, without detachment from the horses. Larvae and nymphs of A. cajennense were collected using a rubber scraper that scratched engorged immature ticks from the host. Adult females of Anocentor nitens larger than 4mm length were counted on the horses.

Marcelo B Labruna; Nobuko Kasai; Fernando Ferreira; João L. H Faccini; Solange M Gennari

2002-01-01

365

Strongyle egg shedding consistency in horses on farms using selective therapy in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of horses that shed the same number of strongyle eggs over time can lead to the optimization of parasite control strategies. This study evaluated shedding of strongyle eggs in 424 horses on 10 farms when a selective anthelmintic treatment regime was used over a 3-year period. Faecal egg counts were performed twice yearly, and horses exceeding 200eggs per gram

M. K. Nielsen; N. Haaning; S. N. Olsen

2006-01-01

366

The use of age-clustered pooled faecal samples for monitoring worm control in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was performed on two horse farms to evaluate the use of age-clustered pooled faecal samples for monitoring worm control in horses. In total 109 horses, 57 on farm A and 52 on farm B, were monitored at weekly intervals between 6 and 14 weeks after ivermectin treatment.This was performed through pooled faecal samples of pools of up to

M. Eysker; J. Bakker; M. van den Berg; D. C. K. van Doorn; H. W. Ploeger

2008-01-01

367

Shedding consistency of strongyle-type eggs in dutch boarding horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faeces of 484 horses were sampled twice with an interval of 6 weeks while anthelmintic therapy was halted. Faecal eggs counts revealed that 267 (55.2%) horses had consistently low numbers of eggs per gram faeces (EPG) (EPG 100). Horses with consistently high EPGs were more often mares with access to pasture, aged less than 6 or more than 23 years,

D. D. V. Dopfer; C. M. Kerssens; Y. G. M. Meijer; J. H. Boersema; M. Eysker

2004-01-01

368

STUDIES OF GENETIC VARIATION AT THE KIT LOCUS AND WHITE SPOTTING PATTERNS IN THE HORSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are numerous different white spotting patterns in the horse, including two of particular interest tobiano and sabino. In the mouse, genetic variation in the gene KIT causes many white spotting patterns. Due to the phenotypic similarity among white spotting patterns in horses and mice, KIT was investigated as the cause of the tobiano and sabino spotting patterns in horses.

Samantha Ann Brooks

2006-01-01

369

Arytenoid mucosal injury in young Thoroughbred horses — investigation of a proposed aetiology and clinical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To determine whether trauma to the larynx caused by nasotracheal intubation induced mucosal ulceration of the arytenoid cartilages of adult horses, and to determine the incidence of such ulceration in yearling Thoroughbred horses and its effect on athletic performance.METHODS: Laryngeal trauma was induced in a group of 21 adult horses by introduction of a nasogastric tube into the trachea

RL Smith; NR Perkins; EC Firth; BH Anderson

2006-01-01

370

Strategic Analysis of the U.S. Quarter Horse Industry, Emphasizing California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Quarter Horse is the most popular breed of horse in California, as well as nationwide. This breed has shaped agricultural history and has had a major impact on the agricultural economy because. The objective of this report is to provide strategic information about the U.S. quarter horse industry, with an emphasis on California. This report provides information on

Jon C. Phillips; Flynnie Kolb; Chelsea Bicknell

2011-01-01

371

Clinical and therapeutic studies on mange in horses.  

PubMed

At Kafr El-Sheikh province, Egypt, out of 117 examined drafting horses, mites were detected in 20 (17.09%) horses. The recovered mites were 14 Chorioptes, four Psoroptes and two Sarcoptes whereas mites were not detected in four cases clinically showed typical mange lesions. Interestingly, neither the age nor the sex of the examined horses had a clear influence on the prevalence of the infection. Clinical signs observed in mange infested horses were in the form of irregular skin lesions, severe itching and sometimes biting of affected skin areas and decrease feed consumption. The skin lesions mainly start as erythematous area followed by developing of papules and crust formation. Skin scratches as a result of traumatized lesions usually occurred. Hair was lost on the affected parts developing irregular alopecic areas. Distribution of the lesions was varied according to the type of mite. Chorioptic mite was detected in para-anal fold, distal portion of legs and tail lesions, Psoroptic mite was detected in withers, mane, shoulder and flank lesions whereas Sarcoptic mite was isolated mainly from lesions on the head and neck. Complete clinical and parasitological cure for mite infestation were obtained within 2 weeks in both moxidectin and ivermectin treated groups with 100% recovery rate. Our results indicated that moxidectin oral gel is effective and good alternative for the treatment of chorioptic mange in horse to avoid drug resistance that may develop as a result of the intensive use of ivermectin alone for long periods. PMID:16782277

Osman, S A; Hanafy, A; Amer, S E

2006-10-10

372

Cardiac troponin I concentrations in horses with colic.  

PubMed

Objective-To determine prevalence of myocardial injury in horses with colic on the basis of high concentrations of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), frequency of cardiac arrhythmias within the first 24 to 48 hours after hospital admission or surgery because of colic, and associations between high cTnI concentrations and cardiac arrhythmias, clinical course, and outcome (survival to discharge from hospital vs nonsurvival [death or euthanasia]). Design-Prospective observational study. Animals-111 horses with colic. Procedures-Blood was drawn at admission and 12 and 24 hours after admission if horses were treated medically or 12 and 24 hours after surgery if treated surgically. A 24-hour ambulatory ECG was recorded beginning the morning after admission in medically treated cases or after surgery and evaluated for arrhythmias. Clinical and clinicopathologic data and outcome were obtained. Associations between cTnI concentrations and other variables were determined. Results-An abnormal cTnI concentration (? 0.10 ng/mL) at admission was significantly associated with the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias, outcome, and surgical treatment. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-The data suggested that horses with colic and high cTnI concentrations at admission were more likely to have ventricular arrhythmias and have a less favorable prognosis for recovery. High cTnI concentrations in horses with colic were suggestive of myocardial damage. PMID:24941396

Díaz, Olga M Seco; Durando, Mary M; Birks, Eric K; Reef, Virginia B

2014-07-01

373

Production of embryos by assisted reproduction in the horse.  

PubMed

In vitro embryo production is not yet successful in the horse, largely due to low rates of fertilization in vitro. However, methods to produce embryos from isolated oocytes have been developed. Oocytes may be recovered from living mares by aspiration of the dominant preovulatory follicle by trans-abdominal puncture, and from both preovulatory and immature follicles by trans-vaginal ultrasound-guided puncture. Transfer of in vivo-matured oocytes to the oviducts of bred recipient mares has resulted in good pregnancy rates (75-85%). Little work has been done on transfer of horse oocytes matured in vitro. Recovery rates of immature oocytes from mares in vivo are lower than those for cattle. In addition, work on oocytes recovered from horse ovaries post-mortem has shown that horse oocytes from smaller (< 20 mm diameter) viable follicles may not yet be meiotically competent. Methods for in vitro fertilization and for obtaining adequate numbers of competent immature oocytes from the mare must be developed before in vitro embryo production can become a useful clinical and research procedure in the horse. PMID:10732117

Hinrichs, K

1998-01-01

374

Horses (Equus caballus) discriminate body odour cues from conspecifics.  

PubMed

Knowledge about social recognition and memory in animals can help us to determine appropriate management and husbandry techniques. In this study, we used a habituation-discrimination procedure to investigate the ability of horses (Equus caballus) to distinguish between the body odour samples of unfamiliar conspecifics. To pick up body odour, we rubbed material on the coat of horses and presented these unknown body odours to 16 different conspecifics of the same sex and similar age. The test consisted of two successive two-min presentations of a sample from one individual (e.g. individual 'A') and a simultaneous presentation of samples from individual 'A' and a novel individual (e.g. individual 'B') during a final third presentation. The results showed that horses, regardless of sex, decreased the time they spent investigating conspecific body odour across the initial two presentations-demonstrating habituation. In the final presentation, the results demonstrated successful discrimination of the previously experienced odour because horses investigated the novel olfactory sample ('B') significantly more than the pre-exposed sample ('A'). Taken together, these findings suggest, for the first time, that horses are able to discriminate two stimuli derived from body odours of unfamiliar conspecifics over short period of time. PMID:24305997

Péron, F; Ward, R; Burman, O

2014-07-01

375

[The horse as an aid in therapy].  

PubMed

Physiotherapy on the back of the moved horse has two important dimensions: 1) The somatotropic effect regards mainly spasticity, ataxia, the vertebral column, the basis of the pelvis and the skin. 2) A general psychotherapeutic and psychohygienic effect is created by joy, change and new impetus in rehabilitation and by the emotional contact with the "comrade animal". Or unit was the first to introduce hippotherapy with adults in Austria. There is specially good experience with the spastic atactic component in multiple sclerosis. However other diagnosis as well showed good profit, such as stroke, etc. Some good effects in cephalaea patients indicate transition to riding as a medical pedagogic instrument with further transitions to psychosomatic patients. We want to proceed in this direction. Well organized hippotherapy is cheaper than the hydrotherapy (being current almost everywhere. Therefore opposition against the valuable hippotherapy by reasons of economics should be ruled out. Today's medicine goes farther and farther away from natural possibilities (slogan: "overtechnologized"). We see in hippotherapy an important counterweight in the sense of a valuable methodology towards holistic therapy especially in rehabilitation. PMID:1763515

Barolin, G S; Samborski, R

1991-01-01

376

Assisted reproduction techniques in the horse.  

PubMed

This paper reviews current equine assisted reproduction techniques. Embryo transfer is the most common equine ART, but is still limited by the inability to superovulate mares effectively. Immature oocytes may be recovered by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of immature follicles, or from ovaries postmortem, and can be effectively matured in vitro. Notably, the in vivo-matured oocyte may be easily recovered from the stimulated preovulatory follicle. Standard IVF is still not repeatable in the horse; however, embryos and foals can be produced by surgical transfer of mature oocytes to the oviducts of inseminated recipient mares or via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Currently, ICSI and in vitro embryo culture are routinely performed by only a few laboratories, but reported blastocyst development rates approach those found after bovine IVF (i.e. 25%-35%). Nuclear transfer can be relatively efficient (up to 26% live foal rate per transferred embryo), but few laboratories are working in this area. Equine blastocysts may be biopsied via micromanipulation, with normal pregnancy rates after biopsy, and accurate genetic analysis. Equine expanded blastocysts may be vitrified after collapsing them via micromanipulation, with normal pregnancy rates after warming and transfer. Many of these recently developed techniques are now in clinical use. PMID:23244831

Hinrichs, Katrin

2012-01-01

377

Toxicoinfectious botulism in foals and adult horses.  

PubMed

Toxicoinfectious botulism was proved to be the cause of a neuromuscular paralytic syndrome in foals and adult horses. In eight successive cases, Clostridium botulinum type B was isolated at necropsy. Foals were either found dead without premonitory signs of illness or, most often, they had signs of progressive and symmetric motor paralysis. Stilted gait, muscular tremors, and the inability to stand longer than 4 to 5 minutes were the salient clinical signs. Other clinical manifestations included dysphagia, constipation, mydriasis, and frequent urination. As the disease progressed, dyspnea with extension of the head and neck, tachycardia, and respiratory arrest occurred. Death occurred most often 24 to 72 hours after the onset of clinical signs. The most consistent postmortem findings were congestion and edema of the lungs and excessive pericardial fluid, which contained free-floating strands of fibrin. Gastric ulcers, foci of necrosis in the liver, abscesses in the navel and lungs, and wounds of the skin and muscle were predisposing sites for development of toxicoinfectious botulism. PMID:6988376

Swerczek, T W

1980-02-01

378

Corneal invasion by hemangiosarcoma in a horse.  

PubMed

A 15-year-old gray Arabian gelding presented for evaluation of a lateral limbal mass extending across approximately 30% of the cornea. Grossly, the raised mass appeared nonpigmented, smooth, and irregular in shape, with an area of central necrosis and serosanguinous discharge. The mass was removed via lamellar keratectomy and histopathologic evaluation revealed features characteristic of hemangiosarcoma (HSA), including irregular vascular channels lined by a plump spindle cell population. Immunohistochemistry results showed that the neoplastic cells lining the vascular channels present diffuse and strong cytoplasmic reaction with von Willebrand Factor and the perivascular spindle cells exhibit moderate cytoplasmic reaction for smooth muscle actin. A lack of cytokeratin staining definitively excluded a diagnosis of atypical squamous cell carcinoma. Smooth muscle actin staining of the perivascular cells adjacent to the neoplastic endothelial cells is not a feature commonly described in HSA and has not been reported in previous cases of equine HSA. The horse remained in good health 21 months postkeratectomy and has exceeded the survival time of previously documented equine ocular HSA cases where more extreme surgical excision was performed. PMID:21521445

Pinn, Toby L; Cushing, Tim; Valentino, Lorie Moore; Koch, Seth A

2011-05-01

379

A preliminary study of the effects of handling type on horses' emotional reactivity and the human-horse relationship.  

PubMed

Handling is a crucial component of the human-horse relationship. Here, we report data from an experiment conducted to assess and compare the effect of two training methods. Two groups of six Welsh mares were trained during four sessions of 50 min, one handled with traditional exercises (halter leading, grooming/brushing, lifting feet, lunging and pseudo-saddling (using only girth and saddle pad) and the second group with natural horsemanship exercises (desensitization, yielding to body pressure, lunging and free-lunging). Emotional reactivity (ER) and the human-horse relationship (HHR) were assessed both prior to and following handling. A social isolation test, a neophobia test and a bridge test were used to assess ER. HHR was assessed through test of spontaneous approach to, and forced approach by, an unknown human. Horses' ER decreased after both types of handling as indicated by decreases in the occurrence of whinnying during stressful situations. Head movement (jerk/shake) was the most sensitive variable to handling type. In the spontaneous approach tests, horses in the traditional handling group showed higher latencies to approach a motionless person after handling than did the natural horsemanship group. Our study suggests that natural horsemanship exercises could be more efficient than traditional exercises for improving horses' HHR. PMID:19591910

Fureix, Carole; Pagès, Magali; Bon, Richard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel; Kuntz, Philippe; Gonzalez, Georges

2009-10-01

380

[New drugs for horses and production animals in 2010].  

PubMed

In 2010, three new active pharmaceutical ingredients were released on the German market for horses and food-producing animals. These were gamithromycin (Zactran®), a new macrolide antibiotic, Monepantel (Zolvix®), a broad spectrum anthelmintic with a novel mechanism, and Pergolide (Prascend®), the first dopamine receptor agonist for animals. Two substances have been approved for additional species. The tetracycline antibiotic doxycycline is now also authorized for turkeys and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug firocoxib from the group of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors is now available for horses. Furthermore, four new preparations with an interesting new pharmaceutical form, one drug with a new formulation and two drugs, which are interesting because of other criteria, were added to the market for horses and food producing animals. PMID:22167083

Emmerich, I U

2011-01-01

381

The horse as a modality for occupational therapy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of a horse as a therapeutic activity in the treatment of persons with physical disabilities. Occupational therapists have traditionally used goal-directed activities for treatment to achieve for patient gains in functional independence, both in specific dysfunctions and in the holistic manner of the patient interacting with the environment. The motivation of the patient to partake actively in the therapy is seen as a significant factor in the outcome of treatment. Hippotherapy involves the active participation of the patient in specifically prescribed activities with goal-directed results. The horse and the riding ring provide a non-traditional setting which can increase motivation of the patient and be ideal for the development of perceptual-motor coordination and sensory integration. The effective treatment of physical dysfunction using a horse to facilitate positive functional changes in patients will be discussed. PMID:23952118

Engel, B T

1984-01-01

382

Meperidine prolongs lidocaine caudal epidural anaesthesia in the horse.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the effects of caudal epidural administration of meperidine (MP), lidocaine (LD), and a combination of the two (MPLD) in six mature saddle horses. Horses were randomly assigned to receive three treatments (MP 0.3 mg/kg; LD 0.2 mg/kg; and MPLD: MP 0.3 mg/kg and LD 0.2 mg/kg), with at least 1 week between treatments. Drugs were injected into the epidural space between the first and second coccygeal areas in conscious standing horses. Analgesia, ataxia, sedation, cardiovascular and respiratory effects, and rectal temperature were recorded at different intervals before (baseline) and after administration. Epidural administration of MPLD resulted in a longer duration of analgesia of the tail, perineum, and upper hind limb regions than did administration of MP or LD alone. PMID:17892957

Derossi, Rafael; Medeiros, Ulisses; de Almeida, Ricardo G; Righetto, Fernando R; Frazílio, Fabrício O

2008-11-01

383

Physical and chemical characterization of horse serum carboxylesterase  

SciTech Connect

The serine carboxylesterase from horse serum was characterized by amino acid composition, peptide mapping, molecular and subunit weights, C- and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and partial sequencing of the amino acids around the essential serine residue at the active site. A protocol was developed for using reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography to obtain homogeneous preparation of horse serum carboxylesterase. In addition, a number of kinetic properties were determined, including the substrate specificity, effect of pH, and activation energies. The horse serum carboxylesterase was characterized by unusually low turnover numbers with substrates commonly used with serine carboxylesterases. A variety of criteria were used to confirm the low turnover numbers and the concomitant high concentration of the esterase in the serum. These included reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography, disc-gel electrophoresis, and labelling with (/sup 14/C) diisopropylphosphofluoridate.

Torres, J.L.

1987-01-01

384

Salmonellosis in hospitalized horses: seasonality and case fatality rates.  

PubMed

Salmonellosis was studied during an 11-year period (July 1971 through June 1982) in 245 hospitalized horses. Ten years' data (207 cases) were analyzed in a time series study. Peak seasonality of the disease was from June through September. The cycle curve revealed 3 major outbreaks, with no apparent periodicity. Eighteen Salmonella serotypes caused clinical salmonellosis in horses, but 84% of the cases and 90% of the deaths were caused by 5 serotypes: Salmonella typhimurium, S typhimurium var copenhagen, S anatum, S kottbus, and S saint-paul. Overall, the case fatality rate was 44.9%. Excluding mixed infections, horses infected with S typhimurium and S typhimurium var copenhagen, had a significantly higher (P less than 0.001) case fatality rate (60.4%) than those infected with other Salmonella serotypes (32.3%). PMID:3700212

Carter, J D; Hird, D W; Farver, T B; Hjerpe, C A

1986-01-15

385

Genome-wide detection of copy number variations among diverse horse breeds by array CGH.  

PubMed

Recent studies have found that copy number variations (CNVs) are widespread in human and animal genomes. CNVs are a significant source of genetic variation, and have been shown to be associated with phenotypic diversity. However, the effect of CNVs on genetic variation in horses is not well understood. In the present study, CNVs in 6 different breeds of mare horses, Mongolia horse, Abaga horse, Hequ horse and Kazakh horse (all plateau breeds) and Debao pony and Thoroughbred, were determined using aCGH. In total, seven hundred CNVs were identified ranging in size from 6.1 Kb to 0.57 Mb across all autosomes, with an average size of 43.08 Kb and a median size of 15.11 Kb. By merging overlapping CNVs, we found a total of three hundred and fifty-three CNV regions (CNVRs). The length of the CNVRs ranged from 6.1 Kb to 1.45 Mb with average and median sizes of 38.49 Kb and 13.1 Kb. Collectively, 13.59 Mb of copy number variation was identified among the horses investigated and accounted for approximately 0.61% of the horse genome sequence. Five hundred and eighteen annotated genes were affected by CNVs, which corresponded to about 2.26% of all horse genes. Through the gene ontology (GO), genetic pathway analysis and comparison of CNV genes among different breeds, we found evidence that CNVs involving 7 genes may be related to the adaptation to severe environment of these plateau horses. This study is the first report of copy number variations in Chinese horses, which indicates that CNVs are ubiquitous in the horse genome and influence many biological processes of the horse. These results will be helpful not only in mapping the horse whole-genome CNVs, but also to further research for the adaption to the high altitude severe environment for plateau horses. PMID:24497987

Wang, Wei; Wang, Shenyuan; Hou, Chenglin; Xing, Yanping; Cao, Junwei; Wu, Kaifeng; Liu, Chunxia; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yanru; Zhou, Huanmin

2014-01-01

386

A Massively Parallel Sequencing Approach Uncovers Ancient Origins and High Genetic Variability of Endangered Przewalski's Horses  

PubMed Central

The endangered Przewalski's horse is the closest relative of the domestic horse and is the only true wild horse species surviving today. The question of whether Przewalski's horse is the direct progenitor of domestic horse has been hotly debated. Studies of DNA diversity within Przewalski's horses have been sparse but are urgently needed to ensure their successful reintroduction to the wild. In an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the phylogenetic position and genetic diversity of Przewalski's horses, we used massively parallel sequencing technology to decipher the complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes for all four surviving maternal lineages of Przewalski's horses. Unlike single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing usually affected by ascertainment bias, the present method is expected to be largely unbiased. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were discovered—two similar ones, haplotypes I/II, and one substantially divergent from the other two, haplotype III. Haplotypes I/II versus III did not cluster together on a phylogenetic tree, rejecting the monophyly of Przewalski's horse maternal lineages, and were estimated to split 0.117–0.186 Ma, significantly preceding horse domestication. In the phylogeny based on autosomal sequences, Przewalski's horses formed a monophyletic clade, separate from the Thoroughbred domestic horse lineage. Our results suggest that Przewalski's horses have ancient origins and are not the direct progenitors of domestic horses. The analysis of the vast amount of sequence data presented here suggests that Przewalski's and domestic horse lineages diverged at least 0.117 Ma but since then have retained ancestral genetic polymorphism and/or experienced gene flow.

Goto, Hiroki; Ryder, Oliver A.; Fisher, Allison R.; Schultz, Bryant; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

2011-01-01

387

Economic benefit of fertility control in wild horse populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I projected costs for several contraceptive treatments that could be used by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage 4 wild horse (Equus caballus) populations. Potential management alternatives included existing roundup and selective removal methods combined with contraceptives of different duration and effectiveness. I projected costs for a 20-year economic life using the WinEquus?? wild horse population model and state-by-state cost estimates reflecting BLM's operational expenses. Findings revealed that 1) currently available 2-year contraceptives in most situations are capable of reducing variable operating costs by 15%, 2) experimental 3-year contraceptives may be capable of reducing costs by 18%, and 3) combining contraceptives with modest changes to herd sex ratio (e.g., 55-60% M) could trim costs by 30%. Predicted savings can increase when contraception is applied in conjunction with a removal policy that targets horses aged 0-4 years instead of 0-5 years. However, reductions in herd size result in greater variation in annual operating expenses. Because the horse program's variable operating costs make up about half of the total program costs (which include other fixed costs), contraceptive application and management can only reduce total costs by 14%, saving about $6.1 million per year. None of the contraceptive options I examined eliminated the need for long-term holding facilities over the 20-year period simulated, but the number of horses held may be reduced by about 17% with contraceptive treatment. Cost estimates were most sensitive to the oldest age adoptable and per-day holding costs. The BLM will experience significant cost savings as carefully designed contraceptive programs become widespread in the wild horse herds it manages.

Bartholow, J.

2007-01-01

388

Review of furosemide in horse racing: its effects and regulation.  

PubMed

Furosemide has been used empirically and has been legally approved for many years by the US racing industry for the control of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) or bleeding. Its use in horses for this purpose is highly controversial and has been criticized by organizations outside and inside of the racing industry. This review concentrates on its renal and extra-renal actions and the possible relationship of these actions to the modification of EIPH and changes in performance of horses. The existing literature references suggest that furosemide has the potential of increasing performance in horses without significantly changing the bleeding status. The pulmonary capillary transmural pressure in the exercising horse is estimated to be over 100 mmHg. The pressure reduction produced by the administration of furosemide is not of sufficient magnitude to reduce transmural pressures within the capillaries to a level where pressures resulting in rupture of the capillaries, and thus haemorrhage, would be completely prevented. This is substantiated by clinical observations that the administration of furosemide to horses with EIPH may reduce haemorrhage but does not completely stop it. The unanswered question is whether the improvement of racing times which have been shown in a number of studies are due to the reduction in bleeding or to other actions of furosemide. This review also discusses the difficulties encountered in furosemide regulation, in view of its diuretic actions and potential for the reduction in the ability of forensic laboratories to detect drugs and medications administered to a horse within days or hours before a race. Interactions between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and furosemide have also been examined, and the results suggest that the effects of prior administration of NSAID may partially mitigate the renal and extra-renal effects which may contribute to the effects of furosemide on EIPH. PMID:9673965

Soma, L R; Uboh, C E

1998-06-01

389

Nuchal crest avulsion fracture in 2 horses: a cause of headshaking.  

PubMed

The medical records of 2 Thoroughbred horses that developed headshaking after blunt trauma to the occipital region are reviewed. The history, signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic methods, diagnosis and treatment were recorded in each case. Both horses displayed headshaking, while one horse repeatedly lifted its upper lip and pawed excessively at the ground. In both horses, diagnostic imaging of the occipital region revealed avulsion fragments of the nuchal crest and a nuchal desmitis in association with hyperfibrinogenaemia. The presence of an avulsion fragment of the nuchal crest with associated nuchal desmitis should be considered in horses presenting with headshaking and may respond favourably to conservative therapy. PMID:19831275

Voigt, A; Saulez, M N; Donnellan, C M

2009-06-01

390

[New drugs for horses and production animals in 2012].  

PubMed

In 2012, two newly developed active pharmaceutical ingredients for horses and food producing animals were released on the German market for veterinary drug products. Those are the parenterally applicable first generation cephalosporin Cefalonium (Cepravin®) and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Suxibuzone (Danilon®). Furthermore, one established veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredient is applicable to additional species: The anticoccidial Amprolium (Eimeryl®) has again been authorized for chicken and turkeys. Additionally, two veterinary drugs with a new formulation as well as three products with a new strength and one product with a new indication have recently been released to the veterinary drugs market for horses and food producing animals. PMID:23959620

Emmerich, I U

2013-01-01

391

Analysis of horse-related injuries in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of the present study was to investigate factors affecting the nature, characteristics, severity and outcome of\\u000a horseback and horse care injuries in paediatric patients and to create guidelines for injury prevention.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods   Detailed clinical records of 265 children sustained horse-riding related injuries have been analysed. Questionnaires were\\u000a mailed to provide follow-up information for patients who have been treated

Katalin Kiss; Paul Swatek; Imre Lénárt; Johannes Mayr; Barbara Schmidt; András Pintér; Michael E. Höllwarth

2008-01-01

392

Optimization of water curing for the preservation of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) and evaluation of microbial dynamics during process.  

PubMed

Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lactobacillus pentosus strain was selected for its ability to inhibit fungi, and used as a starter culture during water curing. As second goal, a reduction of the environmental impact of the process was evaluated by using water that had been re-cycled from a previous curing treatment. Experiments were performed on pilot as well as on farm scale. In all trials, microbial dynamics were evaluated by means of a polyphasic approach including conventional and molecular-based analyses. According to results, the employment of an adjunct culture appears as a very promising opportunity. Even if no reduction in the duration of the process was achieved, waters exhibited a minor microbial complexity and fruits did not lose the natural lustre after the process. PMID:24929716

Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Capua, Marika; Romano, Annalisa; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

2014-09-01

393

Purification and in vitro chaperone activity of a class I small heat-shock protein abundant in recalcitrant chestnut seeds.  

PubMed Central

A 20-kD protein has been purified from cotyledons of recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) chestnut (Castanea sativa) seeds, where it accumulates at levels comparable to those of major seed storage proteins. This protein, termed Cs smHSP 1, forms homododecameric complexes under nondenaturing conditions and appears to be homologous to cytosolic class I small heat-shock proteins (smHSPs) from plant sources. In vitro evidence has been obtained that the isolated protein can function as a molecular chaperone; it increases, at stoichiometric levels, the renaturation yields of chemically denatured citrate synthase and also prevents the irreversible thermal inactivation of this enzyme. Although a role in desiccation tolerance has been hypothesized for seed smHSPs, this does not seem to be the case for Cs smHSP 1. We have investigated the presence of immunologically related proteins in orthodox and recalcitrant seeds of 13 woody species. Our results indicate that the presence of Cs smHSP 1-like proteins, even at high levels, is not enough to confer desiccation tolerance, and that the amount of these proteins does not furnish a reliable criterion to identify desiccation-sensitive seeds. Additional proteins or mechanisms appear necessary to keep the viability of orthodox seeds upon shedding.

Collada, C; Gomez, L; Casado, R; Aragoncillo, C

1997-01-01

394

A Study on the Presence of Ferritin-binding Proteins in Fetal Horse Plasma  

PubMed Central

In mammal circulation, ferritin-binding proteins (FBPs) are thought to be involved in clearance of circulating ferritin after complex formation with it through receptor-mediated uptake. However, there is no report on fetal FBP in fetal circulation. Although iron concentrations of fetal horse plasma were higher than those of adult horse plasma, plasma ferritin concentrations and ferritin-binding activities were found to be significantly lower in fetus than in adult. FBPs were purified from fetal or adult horse plasma on horse spleen ferritin-Sepharose 4B affinity column. Partially affinity-purified fetal horse plasma FBPs were mainly separated into 65 and 41 kDa bands in addition to minor bands with higher molecular masses ranged from 102 to 140 kDa on SDS-PAGE under reducing condition. The adult horse plasma FBPs were separated into 74, 54 and 28 kDa bands, and the 74 and 54 kDa bands reacted with antibodies specific for horse IgM and IgG heavy chains, respectively, by immunoblotting analyses. On the other hand, no antibodies to horse immunoglobulin classes detected any bands in fetal horse plasma FBPs. The affinity-purified adult and fetal horse plasma FBPs did not contain fibrinogen as a plasma specific FBP, probably due to its lower affinity to the ligand ferritin. These results demonstrate the presence of FBPs which are different from adult horse plasma FBPs including anti-ferritin autoantibodies in fetal plasma.

HASHIMOTO, Masafumi; NAMBO, Yasuo; KONDO, Takashi; WATANABE, Kiyotaka; ORINO, Koichi

2011-01-01

395

Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers' Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience  

PubMed Central

Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the “amateurs”, the “experienced” and the “experts”. Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the “amateur” group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside “measureable” qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the “amateur” group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses.

GILLE, Claudia; KAYSER, Maike; SPILLER, Achim

2011-01-01

396

Evaluation of FOXC2 as a candidate gene for chronic progressive lymphedema in draft horses.  

PubMed

Chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL) is a debilitating condition identified in Clydesdales, Shires and Belgian draft horses and results in progressive swelling of the lower legs associated with the development of thick skin folds, ulcerations, fibrosis and marked hyperkeratosis. The result is severe discomfort and recurrent secondary infection, often requiring euthanasia. Due to the delayed onset, many horses are bred prior to diagnosis. CPL has only been documented in three related draft horse breeds, suggesting a genetic cause. Determining the molecular basis would enable owners to test horses prior to breeding and facilitate the elimination of CPL. Mutations in the FOXC2 gene cause a comparable condition in humans, lymphedema-distichiasis. This gene was sequenced in affected and unaffected draft horses and a control horse. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in unaffected draft horses and the control horse, indicating that they were not associated with CPL. A fifth SNP was seen in a single affected draft horse and the control horse. Since it was not seen in all affected draft horses, this SNP is not associated with the CPL phenotype. PMID:16884936

Young, Amy E; Bower, Leslie P; Affolter, Verena K; De Cock, Hilde E V; Ferraro, Gregory L; Bannasch, Danika L

2007-09-01

397

Salmonella Oranienburg isolated from horses, wild turkeys and an edible home garden fertilized with raw horse manure.  

PubMed

In July 2010, a horse from a rural farm (Farm A) in coastal Northern California was diagnosed with Salmonella Oranienburg infection following referral to a veterinary hospital for colic surgery. Environmental sampling to identify potential sources and persistence of Salmonella on the farm was conducted from August 2010 to March 2011. Salmonella was cultured using standard enrichment and selective plating. Pure colonies were confirmed by biochemical analysis, serotyped and compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. A total of 204 clinical and environmental samples at Farm A were analysed, and Salmonella spp. was isolated from six of eight (75%) horses, an asymptomatic pet dog, two of seven (28.6%) water samples from horse troughs, nine of 20 (45%) manure storage pile composites, 16 of 71 (22.5%) wild turkey faeces and four of 39 (10.3%) soil samples from the family's edible home garden. Well water and garden vegetable samples and horse faecal samples from a neighbouring ranch were negative. S. Oranienburg with a PFGE pattern indistinguishable from the horse clinical strain was found in all positive sample types on Farm A. The investigation illustrates the potential for widespread dissemination of Salmonella in a farm environment following equine infections. We speculate that a recent surge in the wild turkey population on the property could have introduced S. Oranienburg into the herd, although we cannot rule out the possibility wild turkeys were exposed on the farm or to other potential sources of Salmonella. Findings from the investigation indicated that raw horse manure applied as fertilizer was the most likely source of garden soil contamination. Viable S. Oranienburg persisted in garden soil for an estimated 210 days, which exceeds the 120-day standard between application and harvest currently required by the National Organic Program. The study underscores the need to educate the public about potential food safety hazards associated with using raw animal manure to fertilize edible home gardens. PMID:23425126

Jay-Russell, M T; Madigan, J E; Bengson, Y; Madigan, S; Hake, A F; Foley, J E; Byrne, B A

2014-02-01

398

Could adults be used to improve social skills of young horses, Equus caballus?  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of the introduction of foreign adults on the behavior of young horses. First, we observed the behavior of 1- and 2-year-old domestic horses housed in same-age and same-sex groups (a standard housing system, but different from a natural situation). Then, two same-sex adults were introduced into each experimental group. Observations made before, during and after an introduction indicated that young horses reared in homogeneous groups of young had different behaviors compared to other domestic horses reared under more socially natural conditions. After the introduction of adults, young horses expressed new behaviors, preferential social associations emerged, positive social behavior increased and agonistic interactions decreased. These results have important implications both for understanding the influence that adults may have on the behavior of young horses, and in terms of husbandry, indicating the importance of keeping young horses with adults, although further studies are still necessary. PMID:18393282

Bourjade, Marie; Moulinot, Maïc; Henry, Séverine; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Hausberger, Martine

2008-05-01

399

Multiplexed LC-MS/MS analysis of horse plasma proteins to study doping in sport.  

PubMed

The development of protein biomarkers for the indirect detection of doping in horse is a potential solution to doping threats such as gene and protein doping. A method for biomarker candidate discovery in horse plasma is presented using targeted analysis of proteotypic peptides from horse proteins. These peptides were first identified in a novel list of the abundant proteins in horse plasma. To monitor these peptides, an LC-MS/MS method using multiple reaction monitoring was developed to study the quantity of 49 proteins in horse plasma in a single run. The method was optimised and validated, and then applied to a population of race-horses to study protein variance within a population. The method was finally applied to longitudinal time courses of horse plasma collected after administration of an anabolic steroid to demonstrate utility for hypothesis-driven discovery of doping biomarker candidates. PMID:19526555

Barton, Chris; Beck, Paul; Kay, Richard; Teale, Phil; Roberts, Jane

2009-06-01

400

Anorectal lymphadenopathy causing colic, perirectal abscesses, or both in five young horses.  

PubMed

Enlarged anorectal lymph nodes can cause colic in young horses by obstructing the caudal aspect of the rectum. Dyschezia and clinical signs consistent with abdominal pain were the predominant reasons for evaluation of the 5 young (3 to 15 month old) horses of this report. Digital transrectal palpation revealed a firm mass obstructing the caudal aspect of the rectum in each horse. Results of cytologic evaluation of the masses revealed a lymphoid population of cells in 4 of 5 horses. These nodes regressed over time or became abscesses and drained into the rectum. In 1 horse, detection of a mature abscess and concomitant dysuria necessitated immediate surgical drainage of the mass; however, the other 4 horses were successfully managed medically, thereby avoiding risks associated with surgery of the perirectal area. Anorectal lymphadenopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis in young horses with colic. PMID:9074684

Magee, A A; Ragle, C A; Hines, M T; Madigan, J E; Booth, L C

1997-03-15

401

Effect of exercise on concentrations of immunoreactive endothelin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of normal horses and horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a major cause of loss of performance in the horse. The role of endothelin (ET), a potent bronchoconstrictive and vasoactive peptide, is currently being investigated in asthma and other obstructive respiratory diseases in man. We have previously found elevated systemic and pulmonary endothelin levels in horses during exacerbation of COPD. In the present study, our aim was to examine possible variations in ET concentrations occurring during exercise in COPD horses. We compared the effects of intense treadmill exercise on the recovery of endothelin (ET) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as in arterial and venous blood, in a group of 5 healthy horses and a group of 5 COPD horses studied alternately in remission and while symptomatic. We also investigated the possible correlations between ET levels and pulmonary function tests during the study. While exercise did not affect the ET levels recovered in BALF among controls, it caused a significant increase (P = 0.02) among symptomatic COPD horses. During remission, wide variations of ET levels among horses, at rest and during exercise, made any significant interpretation difficult. No correlation could be found between exercise-induced changes in ET concentrations and pulmonary function tests or changes in arterial oxygen tension with exercise. We conclude that exercise appears to affect the release of ET by the airways in COPD horses, in contrast to healthy horses. It is still unclear, however, whether these differences relate to adjustments of lung function during exercise. PMID:10659230

Benamou, A E; Art, T; Marlin, D J; Roberts, C A; Lekeux, P

1999-07-01

402

TRYPANOSOMES FROM ELK AND HORSE FLIES IN NEW MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Trypanosoma sp. was isolated from five of seven yearling elk (Cervus canadensis) at Red Rock Wildlife Area and 29 of 31 horse flies (Hybomitra laticor- nis) collected in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico. To our knowledge, this represents the first isolation of trypanosomes from elk.

ERT B. DAVIEStand; GARY G. CLARKD

403

Lessons Learned: The 'Pale Horse' Bioterrorism Response Exercise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In August 2002, the city of San Antonio, Texas, and the Fort Sam Houston Army Post (located within the city) conducted Pale Horse, one of the most ambitious, city-based, large-scale, tabletop bioterrorism response exercises to date. The exercise used sign...

D. Jarrett

2003-01-01

404

Hematopoietic Neoplasias in Horses: Myeloproliferative and Lymphoproliferative Disorders  

PubMed Central

Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia.

MUNOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJON, Francisco

2010-01-01

405

General anesthesia in horses on fluid and electrolyte therapy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to update the community of veterinarians performing general anesthesia in horses on fluid therapy. The rationale behind intraoperative fluid therapy, fluid dynamics, and various fluid options (crystalloids, hypertonic saline, colloids) is discussed. Additionally, electrolytes (calcium, potassium, and sodium) are included in the discussion in relation to general anesthesia and intraoperative fluid management. PMID:23498051

Snyder, Lindsey B C; Wendt-Hornickle, Erin

2013-04-01

406

RED CLOUD AND CRAZY HORSE: WARRIORS DOWN DIFFERENT PATHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only miles from the town of Custer, South Dakota, named after the Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer who died at the hands of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians at the Battle of Little Big Horn, stands a tall, handsome face etched into the stone of the Black Hills. The face is of a man named Crazy Horse, ironically one of the

Dylan F. Huisken

407

Pollination: Rotting smell of dead-horse arum florets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deceit by resource mimicry has evolved as a pollination strategy in several plant species and is particularly elaborate in a plant known as dead-horse arum (Helicodiceros muscivorus; Araceae: Aroideae), which may fool flies into pollinating it by emitting a smell like a dead animal - an important oviposition resource for these insects. Here we confirm that the composition of volatiles

Marcus C. Stensmyr; Isabella Urru; Ignazio Collu; Malin Celander; Bill S. Hansson; Anna-Maria Angioy

2002-01-01

408

TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICANAMERICAN SOLDIERS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICAN-AMERICAN SOLDIERS, POST IN 1939 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1939.00.00.06, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

409

Methods, Applications and Limitations of Gait Analysis in Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 30 years, the increase in interest in horses for racing and riding activities has stimulated scientific research in equine locomotion. This paper presents a review of the measurement methods and their applications used to assess equine locomotion. After describing gaits and velocity-related changes in stride variables, the current applications of gait analysis are presented. The economic consequences

E. BARREY

1999-01-01

410

Stallion harassment and the mating system of horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feral horse, Equus caballus, breeding groups, called bands, usually include one but sometimes up to five stallions. We found that mares were loyal to single-stallion (SS) or multistallion (MS) bands or were social dispersers (maverick mares, Mv). The spacing and social behaviour of mares and stallions in single- and multistallion bands was measured. Indices of mare well-being were also measured

Wayne L. Linklater; Elissa Z. Cameron; Edward O. Minot; Kevin J. Stafford

1999-01-01

411

Report to Congress on the Depreciation of Horses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tax Reform Act of 1986, required the Treasury to establish an office to study the depreciation of all depreciable assets, and when appropriate, to assign or modify the existing class lives of assets. The report discusses the depreciation of horses. Th...

L. Dworin

1990-01-01

412

Assessing the rider's seat and horse's behavior: difficulties and perspectives.  

PubMed

A correct seat and position are the basis for a good performance in horseback riding. This study aimed to measure deviations from the correct seat, test a seat improvement program (dismounted exercises), and investigate whether horse behavior was affected by the rider's seat. Five experienced trainers defined 16 seat deviations and scored the occurrence in 20 riders in a dressage test. Half the riders then carried out an individual training program; after 9 weeks, riders were again scored. The study took no video or heart-rate recordings of horses and riders. Panel members did not agree on the deviations in the rider's seat; the study detected no differences-with the exception of improvement of backward-tilted pelvis-between the groups. Horse behavior, classified as "evasive," increased; horse heart rate decreased in the experimental group. Heart rates of riders in both groups decreased. Seven of 9 riders in the experimental group had the impression that the exercises improved their riding performance. There is a clear need to develop a robust system that allows trainers to objectively evaluate the rider's seat. PMID:18569215

Blokhuis, Mari Zetterqvist; Aronsson, Agneta; Hartmann, Elke; Van Reenen, Cornelis G; Keeling, Linda

2008-01-01

413

Training-induced changes in clotting parameters of athletic horses  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogen (Fb) concentrations in horses to assess potential adaptive response to training. Fifteen clinically healthy horses were enrolled in the present study and equally divided into three groups. Group A completed an intense training program, group B participated in a light training program, and group C included sedentary horses. After 5 weeks, group B was subjected to the same training program completed by group A and renamed group B1. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture from each animal at rest and analyzed within 2 h after sampling. A two-way ANOVA for repeated measures showed a significant effect of training (p < 0.05) on Fb concentrations in group B1 alone during the first week after changing the training program. Our findings demonstrated that Fb is a parameter susceptible to training. Fb plasma levels increase with a more intense training program. However, Fb plasma levels decreased after the first week and returned to basel levels, suggesting that the horses had adapted to the new training program.

Bazzano, Marilena; Giannetto, Claudia; Marafioti, Simona; Fazio, Francesco

2014-01-01

414

Obstructive pulmonary disease in 18 horses at summer pasture.  

PubMed

The clinical features of 18 cases of summer pasture associated obstructive pulmonary disease were reviewed. The horses had signs of obstructive pulmonary disease (expiratory dyspnoea, wheezing and crackling lung sounds and coughing) during the spring, summer or autumn while they were kept permanently at grass with no access to hay or straw, for at least two consecutive years. In nine cases there was a seasonal incidence with the disease occurring during April and May. Eleven of the horses were affected by bouts of severe dyspnoea. Eleven of the horses also suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and two were affected by idiopathic headshaking. Endoscopy revealed evidence of lower airway inflammation, and a cytological examination of tracheal aspirates and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed a neutrophilia. Moving the horses into a stable controlled the clinical disease effectively in only two of the 16 cases. Oral clenbuterol was effective in only seven of 15 cases. Systemic dexamethasone or oral prednisolone, in combination with clenbuterol, was the most effective treatment. PMID:8650894

Mair, T S

1996-01-27

415

Obstructive pulmonary disease in 18 horses at summer pasture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical features of 18 cases of summer pasture associated obstructive pulmonary disease were reviewed. The horses had signs of obstructive pulmonary disease (expiratory dyspnoea, wheezing and crackling lung sounds and coughing) during the spring, summer or autumn while they were kept permanently at grass with no access to hay or straw, for at least two consecutive years. In nine

T. S. Mair

1996-01-01

416

Blastomycotic osteomyelitis associated with severe lameness in a horse  

PubMed Central

A 12-year-old Quarter horse gelding was presented for evaluation of severe right forelimb lameness, 2 draining tracts over the lateral aspect of the right proximal antebrachium, and weight loss. A presumptive diagnosis of blastomycotic osteomyelitis was established based on radiographs and cytology of the exudate. This diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy.

Mendez-Angulo, Jose L.; Swaab, Megan E.; Malone, Erin; Olson, Erik J.; Chalkley, Mark D.; Aird, Betsy; Ward, Christie

2011-01-01

417

On the Pleistocene extinctions of Alaskan mammoths and horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fossil record has been used to shed light on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America and elsewhere. It is therefore important to account for variability due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and error in dating fossil remains. Here, a joint confidence region for the extinction times of horses and mammoths in Alaska is constructed. The

Andrew R. Solow; David L. Roberts; Karen M. Robbirt

2006-01-01

418

On the Pleistocene Extinctions of Alaskan Mammoths and Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fossil record has been used to shed light on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America and elsewhere. It is therefore important to account for variability due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and error in dating fossil remains. Here, a joint confidence region for the extinction times of horses and mammoths in Alaska is constructed. The

Andrew R. Solow; David L. Roberts; Karen M. Robbirt

2006-01-01

419

Multifocal myositis associated with Sarcocystis sp in a horse.  

PubMed

Multifocal myositis was diagnosed in a 7-year-old Quarter Horse gelding on the basis of history and findings on physical examination, serum biochemical analysis, electromyography, and microscopic examination of frozen sections of muscle biopsy specimens. Histologic examination of the muscle specimen revealed multifocal accumulations of histiocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells, with attendant myofiber degeneration and necrosis. Parasitic cysts with morphologic characteristics of Sarcocystis sp were found in regions of myocyte degeneration and necrosis, and in regions of normal muscle. Based on a tentative diagnosis of Sarcocystis sp-induced myositis, the horse was treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and pyrimethamine for 28 days, phenylbutazone for 5 days, and paddock rest for 30 days. At the end of treatment, the horse had gained 35 kg, its appetite had returned to normal, and muscle mass was returning to normal. Sarcocystis fayeri is the only Sarcocystis sp reported in equine muscle in the United States and is rarely associated with acute myositis or muscle atrophy. The development of clinical signs in this horse could have been the result of an underlying immunosuppression or infection with a particularly pathogenic strain or large infective dose of S fayeri. PMID:7730127

Traub-Dargatz, J L; Schlipf, J W; Granstrom, D E; Ingram, J T; Shelton, G D; Getzy, D M; Lappin, M R; Baker, D C

1994-12-01

420

Physical Fitness and Mitochondrial Respiratory Capacity in Horse Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Background Within the animal kingdom, horses are among the most powerful aerobic athletic mammals. Determination of muscle respiratory capacity and control improves our knowledge of mitochondrial physiology in horses and high aerobic performance in general. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied high-resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration protocols to study mitochondrial physiology in small (1.0–2.5 mg) permeabilized muscle fibres sampled from triceps brachii of healthy horses. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity (pmol O2•s?1•mg?1 wet weight) with combined Complex I and II (CI+II) substrate supply (malate+glutamate+succinate) increased from 77±18 in overweight horses to 103±18, 122±15, and 129±12 in untrained, trained and competitive horses (N?=?3, 8, 16, and 5, respectively). Similar to human muscle mitochondria, equine OXPHOS capacity was limited by the phosphorylation system to 0.85±0.10 (N?=?32) of electron transfer capacity, independent of fitness level. In 15 trained horses, OXPHOS capacity increased from 119±12 to 134±37 when pyruvate was included in the CI+II substrate cocktail. Relative to this maximum OXPHOS capacity, Complex I (CI)-linked OXPHOS capacities were only 50% with glutamate+malate, 64% with pyruvate+malate, and 68% with pyruvate+malate+glutamate, and ?78% with CII-linked succinate+rotenone. OXPHOS capacity with glutamate+malate increased with fitness relative to CI+II-supported ETS capacity from a flux control ratio of 0.38 to 0.40, 0.41 and 0.46 in overweight to competitive horses, whereas the CII/CI+II substrate control ratio remained constant at 0.70. Therefore, the apparent deficit of the CI- over CII-linked pathway capacity was reduced with physical fitness. Conclusions/Significance The scope of mitochondrial density-dependent OXPHOS capacity and the density-independent (qualitative) increase of CI-linked respiratory capacity with increased fitness open up new perspectives of integrative and comparative mitochondrial respiratory physiology.

Lemieux, Helene; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier

2012-01-01

421

Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1994 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration  

SciTech Connect

This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y- 12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts: Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference containing the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 of the annual groundwater report, to be issued mid-year, will contain a regime-wide evaluation of groundwater quality, present the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describe changes in monitoring priorities, and present planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

NONE

1995-02-01

422

Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

Not Available

1993-09-01

423

Hordenine: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioural effects in the horse.  

PubMed

Hordenine is an alkaloid occurring naturally in grains, sprouting barley, and certain grasses. It is occasionally found in post race urine samples, and therefore we investigated its pharmacological actions in the horse. Hordenine (2.0 mg/kg bodyweight [bwt]) was administered by rapid intravenous (iv) injection to 10 horses. Typically, dosed horses showed a flehmen response and defecated within 60 secs. All horses showed substantial respiratory distress. Respiratory rates increased about 250 per cent and heart rates were approximately double that of resting values. All animals broke out in a sweat shortly after iv injection, but basal body temperature was not affected. These effects were transient, and the animals appeared normal within 30 mins of dosing. Treated horses were tested in a variable interval responding apparatus 30 mins after dosing and no residual stimulation or depressant effects of hordenine were apparent. Animals dosed orally with 2.0 mg/kg bwt of hordenine showed no changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, basal body temperature or behaviour. After iv injection of hordenine, (2.0 mg/kg bwt) plasma reached a maximum value of about 1.0 micrograms/ml, and declined thereafter in a biexponential fashion. Kinetics of plasma concentration satisfied the concept of a two compartment open system, with an alpha-phase half-life of about 3 mins, and a beta-phase half-life of about 35 mins. Total urinary concentrations of hordenine (free and conjugated) peaked at about 400 micrograms/ml, and then declined exponentially to background levels by 24 h after dosing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2269269

Frank, M; Weckman, T J; Wood, T; Woods, W E; Tai, C L; Chang, S L; Ewing, A; Blake, J W; Tobin, T

1990-11-01

424

Antibodies Reactive to Ehrlichia spp. Are Common in Oklahoma Horses.  

PubMed

Abstract Tick infestations and infection with tick-borne agents are commonly recognized in horses in North America, but equine infection with true Ehrlichia spp. has not been described. To determine the degree to which horses in the south-central United States are naturally exposed to and infected with tick-borne disease agents, serum samples were collected at random (n=240) or from horses with active tick infestations (n=73) and tested by immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for evidence of antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi. Positive samples were further evaluated by species-specific serology for antibodies reactive to E. canis and E. chaffeensis, and whole blood samples were tested by PCR for evidence of infection with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and an E. ruminantium-like organism referred to as the Panola Mountain Ehrlichia. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were identified in 8.75% (21/240) of the randomly acquired samples and 24.7% (18/73) of the serum samples from tick-infested horses, but species-specific ELISA and PCR failed to confirm exposure to or infection with any known Ehrlichia spp. Antibodies to Anaplasma spp. (5/313; 1.6%) and B. burgdorferi (3/313; 1.0%) were uncommon. These data suggest that horses in the south-central United States are likely exposed to a novel Ehrlichia sp. Further research is needed to identify the etiologic agent responsible for the serologic activity seen and to determine the clinical significance, if any, of this finding. PMID:25072984

Carmichael, Robert C; Duell, Jason R; Holbrook, Todd C; Herrin, Brian H; Leutenegger, Christian M; O'Connor, Thomas P; Little, Susan E

2014-08-01

425

Effects of clopidogrel on horses with experimentally induced endotoxemia.  

PubMed

Objective-To evaluate the effects of clopidogrel on clinical and clinicopathologic variables in healthy horses with experimentally induced endotoxemia. Animals-12 adult mares. Procedures-Horses were assigned with a randomization procedure to receive clopidogrel (4 mg/kg, once, then 2 mg/kg, q 24 h; n = 6) or a placebo (6) through a nasogastric tube. After 72 hours of treatment, horses received lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 30 ng/kg, IV). Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, CBC variables, plasma fibrinogen concentration, serum tumor necrosis factor-? concentration, plasma von Willebrand factor concentration, and measures of platelet activation (including ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and closure times, thrombelastography variables, and results of flow cytometric detection of platelet membrane P-selectin, phosphatidylserine, and microparticles) were determined at various times before and after LPS administration by investigators unaware of the treatment groups. Statistical analyses were performed with repeated-measures ANOVA. Results-4 of 6 clopidogrel-treated horses had significant decreases in ADP-induced platelet aggregation before and after LPS administration. Heart rate increased significantly after LPS administration only for the placebo group. No significant differences were detected between groups for CBC variables, closure time, and plasma concentration of fibrinogen or serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-?, and no clinically relevant differences were detected for other hemostatic variables. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-In this study, administration of LPS did not induce platelet hyperreactivity in horses on the basis of measures of platelet adhesion, aggregation, degranulation, and procoagulant activity. Administration of clopidogrel was associated with variable platelet antiaggregatory activity and attenuated some clinical signs of endotoxemia. PMID:25061708

Watts, Ashlee E; Ness, Sally L; Divers, Thomas J; Fubini, Susan L; Frye, Amelia H; Stokol, Tracy; Cummings, Kevin J; Brooks, Marjory B

2014-08-01

426

Groundwater quality assessment for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration  

SciTech Connect

This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste- management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR), which is one of the three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division of the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

Not Available

1992-02-01

427

Comparison of the Fecal Microbiota of Healthy Horses and Horses with Colitis by High Throughput Sequencing of the V3-V5 Region of the 16S rRNA Gene  

PubMed Central

The intestinal tract houses one of the richest and most complex microbial populations on the planet, and plays a critical role in health and a wide range of diseases. Limited studies using new sequencing technologies in horses are available. The objective of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiome of healthy horses and to compare the fecal microbiome of healthy horses to that of horses with undifferentiated colitis. A total of 195,748 sequences obtained from 6 healthy horses and 10 horses affected by undifferentiated colitis were analyzed. Firmicutes predominated (68%) among healthy horses followed by Bacteroidetes (14%) and Proteobacteria (10%). In contrast, Bacteroidetes (40%) was the most abundant phylum among horses with colitis, followed by Firmicutes (30%) and Proteobacteria (18%). Healthy horses had a significantly higher relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Spirochaetes while horses with colitis had significantly more Fusobacteria. Members of the Clostridia class were more abundant in healthy horses. Members of the Lachnospiraceae family were the most frequently shared among healthy individuals. The species richness reported here indicates the complexity of the equine intestinal microbiome. The predominance of Clostridia demonstrates the importance of this group of bacteria in healthy horses. The marked differences in the microbiome between healthy horses and horses with colitis indicate that colitis may be a disease of gut dysbiosis, rather than one that occurs simply through overgrowth of an individual pathogen.

Costa, Marcio C.; Arroyo, Luis G.; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Stampfli, Henry R.; Kim, Peter T.; Sturgeon, Amy; Weese, J. Scott

2012-01-01

428

Alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity in horses: clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings.  

PubMed

The objective of this observational study is to describe clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings of horses affected with alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity. Twenty horses naturally exposed to alfalfa dodder toxicity were examined and information was collected on history and clinical signs. Physical examination was done on horses in the premises (n=20), and venous blood samples of 12 horses were submitted for haematology and serum biochemical examination for each horse. Abnormal clinical signs started around 36 hours after horses were fed the contaminated alfalfa. Abnormal signs were seen in 11 horses and those included diarrhoea (n=8), decreased appetite (n=7), neurological signs (n=4) and abdominal pain (n=1). Some horses had multiple clinical signs of the above. The results of complete blood cell count revealed leukocytopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Serum biochemical analysis revealed decreased ALP, AST and CPK levels and increased direct bilirubin level. The used alfalfa was stopped immediately and a different alfalfa from a new container that did not contain any weeds was fed. Horses on the premises were observed closely, and the abnormal clinical signs resolved within three days. No treatment was implemented. Knowledge about toxicity of horses by Cuscuta species is scarce in the English veterinary literature and very limited. PMID:23800626

Abutarbush, S M

2013-07-27

429

The selenium and vitamin E status of horses in Prince Edward Island  

PubMed Central

Serum selenium (Se), vitamin E, and resting thyroid hormone concentrations were measured in 201 horses in Prince Edward Island (PEI). Selenium concentrations were either marginal (0.0053 to 0.1200 ppm) or deficient (< 0.0053 ppm) in 79% of horses based on current reference ranges for Se in serum. Aged and young adult pleasure horses had a higher prevalence of inadequate Se concentrations compared to racehorses and broodmares (82% and 97% versus 45% and 72%, respectively). Overall, 13% of horses had inadequate (< 200 ?g/dL) serum vitamin E concentrations; most of these were young pleasure horses. No horses were hypothyroid and, contrary to findings in other species, there was a positive relationship between serum thyroxine and Se concentrations (P < 0.05). We conclude that Se deficiency is widespread in PEI horse populations, especially in pleasure horses, and vitamin E deficiency is more common in young pleasure horses. Micronutrient supplementation practices employed by PEI horse owners appear inadequate to ensure sufficiency.

Muirhead, Tammy L.; Wichtel, Jeffrey J.; Stryhn, Henrik; McClure, J. Trenton

2010-01-01

430

Immunoblot analysis of the humoral immune response to Pythium insidiosum in horses with pythiosis.  

PubMed Central

Reactions to Pythium insidiosum by sera from horses with active pythiosis were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. Five strains of P. insidiosum were grown in nutrient broth and then sonicated. After centrifugation, supernatant antigens were separated by SDS-PAGE. An exoantigen of Conidiobolus coronatus was also tested. Bands with molecular weights between 97,000 and 14,000 were identified by Coomassie blue and silver staining. After being transferred to nitrocellulose, the antigens were reacted against sera from six horses with pythiosis, sera from four horses cured a year earlier by vaccination, and sera from five healthy horses. The sera from horses with pythiosis recognized at least 20 antigens in all strains. Three antigens with molecular weights of 32,000, 30,000, and 28,000 appeared to be immunodominant and specific. Sera from horses cured by immunotherapy showed only five very weak bands, three of them the 32,000-molecular-weight (32K), 30K, and 28K antigens. No bands were observed with sera from healthy horses or sera from horses with a variety of other infections. Sera from horses with pythiosis cross-reacted with the 44K antigen of C. coronatus. The immunodominant antigens described here may be useful for diagnostic purposes and in immunotherapy for this oomycotic infection in horses. Images

Mendoza, L; Nicholson, V; Prescott, J F

1992-01-01

431

Immune response to Sarcocystis neurona infection in naturally infected horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.  

PubMed

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is one of the most common neurologic diseases of horses in the United States. The primary etiologic agent is Sarcocystis neurona. Currently, there is limited knowledge regarding the protective or pathophysiologic immune response to S. neurona infection or the subsequent development of EPM. The objectives of this study were to determine whether S. neurona infected horses with clinical signs of EPM had altered or suppressed immune responses compared to neurologically normal horses and if blood sample storage would influence these findings. Twenty clinically normal horses and 22 horses with EPM, diagnosed by the presence of S. neurona specific antibodies in the serum and/or cerebrospinal (CSF) and clinical signs, were evaluated for differences in the immune cell subsets and function. Our results demonstrated that naturally infected horses had significantly (P<0.05) higher percentages of CD4 T-lymphocytes and neutrophils (PMN) in separated peripheral blood leukocytes than clinically normal horses. Leukocytes from naturally infected EPM horses had significantly lower proliferation responses, as measured by thymidine incorporation, to a non-antigen specific mitogen than did clinically normal horses (P<0.05). Currently, studies are in progress to determine the role of CD4 T cells in disease and protection against S. neurona in horses, as well as to determine the mechanism associated with suppressed in vitro proliferation responses. Finally, overnight storage of blood samples appears to alter T lymphocyte phenotypes and viability among leukocytes. PMID:16563631

Yang, Jibing; Ellison, Siobhan; Gogal, Robert; Norton, Heather; Lindsay, David S; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Witonsky, Sharon

2006-06-15

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