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1

Identification of COX inhibitors in the hexane extract of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds.  

PubMed

Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seed extract inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), but its active constituents have not been identified. In the present study, COX inhibitors were isolated from the hexane extract of this seed by means of 4 steps of liquid chromatography and were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The COX inhibitors in the extract of Japanese horse chestnut seeds were identified as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic acid. Their efficacies were in the following order: linolenic acid = linoleic acid > oleic acid. These active constituents are C18 unsaturated fatty acids; stearic acid, a C18 saturated fatty acid, had no activity. Linolenic acid and linoleic acid had high selectivity toward COX-2 (selectivity index = 10), whereas oleic acid had no selectivity. Considering the efficacy and yield of each fatty acid, linoleic acid may be the principal COX inhibitor in this seed. PMID:17675801

Sato, Itaru; Kofujita, Hisayoshi; Tsuda, Shuji

2007-07-01

2

Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

1987-01-01

3

Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) starch: Basic physico-chemical characteristics and use as thermoplastic material.  

PubMed

Starch isolated from non-edible Aesculus hippocastanum seeds was characterized and used for preparing starch-based materials. The apparent amylose content of the isolated starch was 33.1%. The size of starch granules ranged from 0.7 to 35 ?m, and correlated with the shape of granules (spherical, oval and irregular). The chain length distribution profile of amylopectin showed two peaks, at polymerization degree (DP) of 12 and 41-43. Around 53% of branch unit chains had DP in the range of 11-20. A. hippocastanum starch displayed a typical C-type pattern and the maximum decomposition temperature was 317 °C. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) prepared from A. hippocastanum with glycerol and processed by melt blending exhibited adequate mechanical and thermal properties. In contrast, plasticized TPS with glycerol:malic acid (1:1) showed lower thermal stability and a pasty and sticky behavior, indicating that malic acid accelerates degradation of starch during processing. PMID:25129797

Castaño, J; Rodríguez-Llamazares, S; Contreras, K; Carrasco, C; Pozo, C; Bouza, R; Franco, C M L; Giraldo, D

2014-11-01

4

Predator complex of the horse chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella: identification and impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) by natural enemies in Europe is poor. Thus, in the past 15 years epidemic population densities of the moth regularly caused a continuous pre- mature defoliation of horse chestnut trees, Aesculus hippocastanum L.. Whereas several studies investigated the parasitoid complex of the leafminer and revealed its inefficiency, only little is

G. Grabenweger; P. Kehrli; B. Schlick-Steiner; F. Steiner; M. Stolz; S. Bacher

2005-01-01

5

Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.  

PubMed

Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1-6. © 2014 The Authors. Published 2014 SETAC. PMID:25363584

Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

2015-02-01

6

Impact of the leaf miner Cameraria ohridella on whole-plant photosynthetic productivity of Aesculus hippocastanum : insights from a model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf miner Cameraria ohridella causes premature defoliation of Aesculus hippocastanum trees. In order to assess the whole-plant loss of productivity caused by the parasite, we monitored seasonal changes of leaf gas exchange and leaf area losses in horse chestnut trees freely infested or chemically treated to prevent moth infestation (controls). Data were integrated in a model and the annual

Andrea Nardini; Fabio Raimondo; Mauro Scimone; Sebastiano Salleo

2004-01-01

7

Comparative study of antioxidant status in androgenic embryos of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava.  

PubMed

In vivo (leaves and seed embryos) and in vitro (androgenic embryos) antioxidant scavenging activity of Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus flava medical plants was examined. Here we report antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids, soluble protein contents, quantities of malondialdehyde, and (•)OH radical presence in the investigated plant samples. Total antioxidant capacity of all the samples of A. hippocastanum and A. flava was determined using FRAP, DPPH, and NO(•) radical scavenger capacity. The leaves of A. flava collected from the botanical garden exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (higher activities of SOD, and higher quantities of GSH, TSH, TPC, and scavenging abilities of DPPH and NO(•), and higher FRAP values and lowest quantities of (•)OH and MDA) than in vitro obtained cultures. However, the leaves of A. flava showed higher antioxidant activity than the leaves of A. hippocastanum, and therefore they have a stronger tolerance of oxidative stress. Androgenic embryos of both species had low amount of antioxidants due to controlled in vitro environmental conditions (T, photoperiod, humidity, nutritive factors, and pathogen-free). Our results confirmed that we found optimal in vitro conditions for producing androgenic embryos of both Aesculus species. Also, we assume that horse chestnut androgenic embryos can be used as an alternative source for large-scale aescin production. PMID:24672369

Štajner, Dubravka; Popovi?, Boris M; ?ali?, Dušica; Št, Marijana

2014-01-01

8

How to safely compost Cameraria ohridella-infested horse chestnut leaf litter on private compost heaps  

E-print Network

How to safely compost Cameraria ohridella-infested horse chestnut leaf litter on private compost the deposition of pest-infested litter on private compost heaps was dissuaded because of the risk of leafminer emergence in the following spring. Thus, the aim of this study was to test safe ways to compost pest

Richner, Heinz

9

The Success of the Horse-Chestnut Leaf-Miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK Revealed with Hypothesis-Led Citizen Science  

PubMed Central

Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the ‘Conker Tree Science’ project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella) undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1) the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2) the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism) increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging many people with science. PMID:24465973

Pocock, Michael J. O.; Evans, Darren M.

2014-01-01

10

Histological Examination of Horse Chestnut Infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and Non-Destructive Heat Treatment to Stop Disease Progression  

PubMed Central

Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39°C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens. PMID:22808044

de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A. M.; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A. M.

2012-01-01

11

Horse chestnut  

MedlinePLUS

... include alpha-lipoic acid, chromium, devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and ... some people. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, red clover, and others.

12

75 FR 34320 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...hardwood trees, including maple, horse chestnut, birch, poplar, willow, and elm...genera: Acer (maple), Aesculus (horse chestnut), Albizia (mimosa), Betula (birch...genera: Acer (maple), Aesculus (horse chestnut), Albizia (mimosa), Betula...

2010-06-17

13

76 FR 52541 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas and Regulated Articles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...hardwood trees, including maple, horse chestnut, birch, poplar, willow, and elm...genera: Acer (maple), Aesculus (horse chestnut), Albizia (mimosa), Betula (birch...genera: Acer (maple), Aesculus (horse chestnut), Albizia (mimosa), Betula...

2011-08-23

14

Discovered for the first time in the UK in July 2002, the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella is now spreading rapidly from its first known location in  

E-print Network

Discovered for the first time in the UK in July 2002, the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria.ohridella mine just under the upper surface of the leaf. When held up to the light the mines appear whitish the underside of the leaf remains green. Fungal lesions in contrast are brown (see below) and affect both

15

Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of meteorological variables and parameters. In particular, more severe conditions during spring and summer are expected, especially in the Mediterranean area, with less precipitation and higher temperatures. All these changes will have impacts on chestnut fruits and wood in Europe. Dinis, L-T. J., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Peixoto, F., Costa, R. e Gomes-Laranjo, J., 2011: Study of morphological and chemical diversity in chestnut trees (var. 'Judia') as a function of temperature sum. Cyta- Journal of food, 9(3): 192-199 Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy, Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland. Proceedings of the International Chestnut Conference, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 10-14 July 1992, 175-178. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. Wilczynski, S. And Podlaski, R, 2007: The effect of climate on radial growth of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland, J.For.Res., 12, 24-23.

Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

2012-04-01

16

Assessing potential changes of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather conditions play an important role during different phases of the vegetative cycle of the chestnut trees and, consequently, several meteorological parameters seem to be associated chestnut productivity (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992, Cesaraccio et al., 2001, Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007, Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008, Dinis et al., 2011, Pereira et al., 2011). Observed data from European Climate Assessment and simulated data by COSMO-CLM model for the actual (C20) and future (A1B and B1) climate scenarios were used in this study to: (i) assess the model ability to reproduce weather parameters distribution; and, (ii) to assess future changes in the distribution of meteorological parameters which play an important role in the productivity of chestnut for different future periods. Results points to statistical significant changes in the mean and in variance in the future, more prominent in temperature than in precipitation based parameters. Changes in precipitation will be more significant in Northwestern Iberian Peninsula and France in the end of the 21st century for A1B scenario conditions. As expected, more significant changes will be expected to occur during spring and summer, in the Mediterranean areas and in the later period. The number of days with Tmax<28°C will generally decrease in both scenarios, while the changes in the number of days with 24°Cchestnut in Europe, in some areas of production. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: "Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland". Proceedings of the International Chestnut Conference, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 10-14 July 1992, 175-178. Wilczynski, S. And Podlaski, R, 2007: "The effect of climate on radial growth of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland", J.For.Res., 12, 24-23. Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: "Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy", Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Dinis, L.T,Peixoto, F., Pinto, T., Costa, R.Bennett, R. N., and Gomes-Laranjo,J., 2011: "Study of morphological and phonological diversity in chestnut trees (Judia variety) as a function of temperature sum". Environ. Exp Bot., 70, 110-120. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: "Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity". Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. This work was supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692.

Pereira, Mário; Calheiros, Tomas; Pinto, Joaquim; Caramelo, Liliana

2013-04-01

17

77 FR 50617 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III; Revisions to General Tolerance Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Chestnut (Castanea crenata Siebold & Zucc...Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) Guiana chestnut (Pachira aquatica Aubl.) Hazelnut...tomentosa (Lam.) Nutt.) Japanese horse-chestnut (Aesculus turbinate Blume)...

2012-08-22

18

76 FR 69693 - Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

... Cashew, Anacardium occidentale; Chestnut, Castanea spp.; Chinquapin, Castanea...Ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba L.; Guiana chestnut, Pachira aquatica Aubl.; Heartnut...Carri[egrave]re; Japanese horse-chestnut, Aesculus turbinata Blume;...

2011-11-09

19

Influence of extrahent on antioxidant capacity of Aesculus hippocastanum seeds.  

PubMed

In this study, the optimisation of horse chestnut seed extraction was performed to determine the best extraction solvent in the recovery of pharmacologically active escin from raw material. All extracts were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction and were analysed for their antioxidant potential (DPPH test), phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay) and escin content (ESI-TOF-MS extracts profiling). Methanol was found to recover the highest amount of escin from the plant matrix as well as to produce the most active antiradical solutions rich in polyphenols. Radical scavenging properties of methanol extracts were calculated as 2 GAE in DPPH test and 23 GAE (mg/g) in FC assay. Quantitative analysis of extracts performed by ESI-TOF-MS measurements in ion-positive mode confirmed the presence of four major escin isomers in the extracts and showed that the high antioxidant potential of methanolic extracts went hand in hand with the highest content of escin (8.92%). PMID:25109836

Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; K?dzierski, Bartosz; G?owniak, Kazimierz

2015-02-01

20

Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).  

PubMed

Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants. PMID:25416257

Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

2015-01-01

21

American Chestnut Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annotated slideshow adapted from KET's Electronic Field Trip to the Forest illustrates how blight decimated the American chestnut tree and the methods scientists use to identify and pollinate the remaining trees to create blight-resistant trees.

Ket

2008-09-02

22

7 CFR 301.51-2 - Regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...roots, branches, and debris of half an inch or more in diameter of the following genera: Acer (maple), Aesculus (horse chestnut), Albizia (mimosa), Betula (birch), Celtis (hackberry), Fraxinus (ash), Platanus (sycamore),...

2010-01-01

23

Comparative Genome Analysis Provides Insights into the Evolution and Adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum  

PubMed Central

A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae), is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae). On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae), isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree. PMID:20419105

Green, Sarah; Studholme, David J.; Laue, Bridget E.; Dorati, Federico; Lovell, Helen; Arnold, Dawn; Cottrell, Joan E.; Bridgett, Stephen; Blaxter, Mark; Huitema, Edgar; Thwaites, Richard; Sharp, Paul M.

2010-01-01

24

XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

25

Information Files for Old Chestnuts and Chestnut Nags  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of an up-to-date information file is discussed, using the quest for the name of Paul Revere's horse as an example. A list of Famous Riders and Their Horses'' is included as an indication of the type material to be included in an information file. (SM)

Fetros, John G.

1973-01-01

26

In vitro cytotoxic activity of Aesculus indica against breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) and phytochemical analysis.  

PubMed

Aesculus indica (Linn.) (Sapindaceae) is an ethanobotanically important plant specie traditionally used against rheumatism, skin and vein complaints. Cytotoxic potential of Aesculus indica crude leaf extract and its fractions was investigated against MCF-7 cell line. Crude extract of Aesculus indica was prepared in methanol by maceration technique. Crude extract was fractionated into four organic and one aqueous fraction on polarity basis. MTT assay was used to evaluate the reduction of viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Cell viability was inhibited by Aesculus indica crude extract in a dose dependent manner ranging from 34.2% at 10 ?g/ml to 94% at 500?g/ml. Activity was found in an ascending order from hexane showing 29.8% inhibition to aqueous fraction indicating maximum inhibition, 60%. Phytochemical analysis of crude and fractionated extracts revealed presence of flavonoids, saponins, coumarins and tannins upto varying degrees. Methanol and aqueous fraction of methanol extract of Aesculus indica can be good source of cytotoxic compounds. PMID:22186328

Bibi, Yamin; Nisa, Sobia; Zia, Muhammad; Waheed, Abdul; Ahmed, Sabbir; Chaudhary, M Fayyaz

2012-01-01

27

Paradata for 'Pets>Horses>The Horse: Featuring many breeds of horses, including working horses, ponies, racing horses, riding horses, care, feeding, books, and other info'  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This record contains paradata for the resource 'Pets>Horses>The Horse: Featuring many breeds of horses, including working horses, ponies, racing horses, riding horses, care, feeding, books, and other info'

28

Chestnut, American (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.).  

PubMed

The key to successful transformation of American chestnut is having the correct combination of explant tissue, selectable markers, a very robust DNA delivery system, and a reliable regeneration system. The most important components of this transformation protocol for American chestnut are the following: starting out with rapidly dividing somatic embryos, treating the embryos gently throughout the Agrobacterium inoculation and cocultivation steps, doing the cocultivation step in desiccation plates, and finally transferring the embryos into temporary-immersion bioreactors for selection. None of these departures from standard Agrobacterium transformation protocols is sufficient by itself to achieve transgenic American chestnut, but each component makes a difference, resulting in a highly robust protocol. The average transformation efficiency that can be expected using the described protocol is approximately 170 stable embryogenic transformation events per gram of somatic embryo tissue, a considerable improvement over the 20 transformation events per gram we reported in 2006 (Maynard et al. American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) Agrobacterium protocols, 2nd ed., 2006). We have regenerated nearly 100 of these events, containing 23 different gene constructs, into whole plants. As of the fall of 2013, we had a total of 1,275 transgenic chestnut trees planted at eight locations in New York State and one in Virginia. Based on a combination of field-trial inoculations, greenhouse small-stem inoculations, and detached-leaf assays, we have identified three transgenes that produce stronger resistance to chestnut blight than non-transgenic American chestnut. Depending on the transgene and the event, this resistance can be either intermediate between American chestnut and Chinese chestnut, approximately equal to or even higher than the resistance naturally found in Chinese chestnut. PMID:25416256

Maynard, Charles A; McGuigan, Linda D; Oakes, Allison D; Zhang, Bo; Newhouse, Andrew E; Northern, Lilibeth C; Chartrand, Allison M; Will, Logan R; Baier, Kathleen M; Powell, William A

2015-01-01

29

Determination of acrylamide in roasted chestnuts and chestnut-based foods by isotope dilution HPLC-MS\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collaboratively trial tested isotope dilution liquid chromatographic method with positive electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of acrylamide in bakery ware and potato products has been extended to the determination of acrylamide in roasted chestnuts and chestnut-based foods. As chestnuts have a similar composition to potatoes, considerable amounts of acrylamide can be expected, especially in roasted chestnut

Lubomir Karasek; Thomas Wenzl; Elke Anklam

2009-01-01

30

Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological conditions play a fundamental role during entire chestnut tree vegetative cycle. Chestnut trees are well adapted to mean year temperatures of 8-15°C, requires monthly mean temperatures greater than 10°C during 6 months (Gomes-Laranjo et al. 2008) and its pollen only germinates at relatively high temperatures of 27-30°C (Bounous, 2002). Photosynthesis of an adult tree is highly dependent of temperature. Photosynthesis is maximal at 24-28°C but it is inhibited for temperatures greater than 32°C (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). Furthermore, there are significant differences between chestnut trees cultivated in northfaced orchads in relation to those cultivated in the southfaced and between leaves from different sides of the chestnut canopy because they receive different amounts of radiant energy and consequently they grow under different mean daily air temperature. The objective of this work was to assess the role of weather on chestnut production variability. This study was performed for the 28 years period defined between 1980 and 2007 and it was based on annual values of chestnut production and total area of production, at national level, provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal. The meteorological data used was provided by Meteored (http://www.meteored.com/) and includes daily values of precipitation, wind speed, and mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. All meteorological variables were tested as potential predictors by means of a simple correlation analysis. Multiple time intervals were considered in this the analysis, which consist in moving intervals of constant length and forward and backward evolutionary intervals. Results show that some meteorological variables present significant correlation with chestnut productivity particularly in the most relevant periods of the chestnut tree cycle, like the previous winter, the flushing phase and the maturation period. A regression model based on the winter (January to March) precipitation, the number of days with maximum temperature between 24°C and 28°C and the number of days of May with minimum temperature below 0°C is able to model the chestnut productivity with r2 equal to 0.79. It should be pointed out that the relation between weather/climate and chestnut productivity may change over time. Finally, it is important to express objectively the effects of temperature and precipitation extremes on the chestnut productivity since temperature is one of the global circulation models predicted variables with less uncertainty. With these tools will be possible to assess the weather related risk on chestnut production as well as infer about evolution of the adequate conditions to the chestnut trees in the actual plantations and about the expansion of this specie. Bounous, G. (2002) "Il castagno" [Chestnut.] - Edagricole, Bologna. [In Ital.] Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955.

Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

2009-04-01

31

1. Deodar Cedar (Cedrus deodara)  

E-print Network

f. purpurea) 26. Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) 27. Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera) 28. Swedish. Weeping European White Birch (Betula pendula 'Tristis') 32. English Maple (Acer campestre) 33. Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) 34. Japanese Maple (Acer palmatum) 35. Yoshino Cherry (Prunus x yedoensis

Borenstein, Elhanan

32

Chestnut bark tannin assays and growth of chestnut blight fungus on extracted tannin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins extracted from the green bark of each of two Chinese, Japanese, and American chestnut trees were assayed in a protein-binding test. Four levels of tannins were added to a buffered, minimal growth medium, and a standard, virulent strain of the chestnut blight fungus was grown. There were only slight differences in protein binding between the extracts from different species.

Sandra L. Anagnostakis

1992-01-01

33

Evaluation of secondary dispersal in a large-seeded tree Aesculus turbinata: a test of directed dispersal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the several hypotheses on selective advantage of seed dispersal, the directed dispersal hypothesis explains the advantage of non-random seed transportation by animals to particular patch type suitable for offspring establishment. We tested this hypothesis in dispersal of a large-seeded, rodent-dispersed tree (Aesculus turbinata) in a temperate forest. We investigated the change in location of seeds through secondary dispersal, and

Kazuhiko Hoshizaki; Wajirou Suzuki; Tohru Nakashizuka

1999-01-01

34

The expression of dehydrin proteins in desiccation-sensitive (recalcitrant) seeds of temperate trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins that have homology with dehydrins have been identified immunologically in the desiccationsensitive (recalcitrant)\\u000a seeds of English oak (Quercus robur L.), European chestnut (Castanea sativa L.), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), sycamore (Acer psuedoplatanus L.) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.), and in the desiccation-tolerant seeds of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.). The mRNA for a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA)

W. E. Finch-Savage; S. K. Pramanik; J. D. Bewley

1994-01-01

35

Assessment of the chestnut production weather dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vegetative cycle of chestnut trees is highly dependent on weather. Photosynthesis and pollen germination are mainly conditioned by the air temperature while heavy precipitation and strong wind have significant impacts during the flushing phase period (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). In Portugal, chestnut tree orchads are located in mountainous areas of the Northeast region of Trás-os-Montes, between 600 and 1000 m of altitude. Topography controls the atmospheric environment and assures adequate conditions for the chestnut production. In the above mentioned context, remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise vegetation dynamics. A number of studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in Europe to analyse the year-to-year variations in European vegetation greenness as a function of precipitation and temperature (Gouveia et al., 2008). A previous study focusing on the relationship between meteorological variables and chestnut productivity provides indication that simulation models may benefit from the incorporation of such kind of relationships. The aim of the present work is to provide a detailed description of recent developments, in particular of the added value that may be brought by using satellite data. We have relied on regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset, at 8-km resolution, provided by the Global Inventory Monitoring and Modelling System (GIMMS) group. The data are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR), and cover the period from 1982 to 2006. Additionally we have used the chestnut productivity dataset, which includes the annual values of chestnut production and area of production provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal and the meteorological dataset which includes values of several variables from different providers (Meteorod, NCEP/NCAR, ECA&D and national Meteorological Institute). Results show that satellite and meteorological data are complementary in what respects to the evaluation of the spatial and temporal evolution of the chestnut production. The satellite data proves to be very useful to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the vegetation state in the locations of the chestnut orchads and when tested as potential predictors by means of correlation and regression analysis. Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955. Gouveia C., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C., Libonati R., Pereira J.M.C., 2008b. The North Atlantic Oscillation and European vegetation dynamics. International Journal of Climatology, vol. 28, issue 14, pp. 1835-1847, DOI: 10.1002/joc.1682.

Pereira, Mário; Caramelo, Liliana; Gouveia, Célia; Gomes-Laranjo, José

2010-05-01

36

Composting Horse Manure  

E-print Network

Uncontrolled stockpiles of horse manure can be an unsightly, smelly and fly-infested mess. However, composting manure can eliminate the messy problems and provide a modest additional income for horse enthusiasts, operators of equine facilities...

Auvermann, Brent W.; McDonald, Lanny; Devin, Robert; Sweeten, John M.

1999-07-02

37

97. Catalog B, Higher Plants, 200 2 American Chestnut Tree, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. Catalog B, Higher Plants, 200 2 American Chestnut Tree, Negative No. 6032 (Photographer and date unknown) THIS GHOST FOREST OF BLIGHTED CHESTNUTS ONCE STOOD APPROXIMATELY AT THE LOCATION OF THE BYRD VISITOR CENTER. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

38

Islands of Chestnut Trees Castanea dentata (Marsh) Borkh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to emphasize the importance of conserving the genetic pool of the American chestnut stock. Readers are encouraged to seek sprouts and plant them in islands so they can grow and survive. The authors describe the diseases that have effected the chestnut tree. (PR)

Surrarrer, T. C.; Laurence, J. C.

1992-01-01

39

Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i) a simulation model (R2-value = 87%) based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii) a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63%) with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gouveia, C.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Magalhães, M.

2011-10-01

40

Effect of chestnut extract and chestnut fiber on viability of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains under gastrointestinal tract conditions.  

PubMed

The main challenge to probiotics, during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract, are the acidic gastric secretions of the stomach, and the bile salts released into the duodenum. The survival of the strains, in this phase, is strongly influenced by the food used for their delivery. This work is part of a project studying the development of novel food processes, based on the use of chestnuts from cultivar "Castagna di Montella". In detail, the effect of indigestible chestnut fiber and of chestnut extract on the viability of selected lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated. Among 28 cultures, twelve strains were selected, on the basis of tolerance to low pH values and bile salts, and submitted to exposition to simulated gastric or bile juice in presence of chestnut extract with or without immobilization in chestnut fiber. The presence of chestnut extract proved to play a significant role on the gastric tolerance improvement of lactobacilli. The recorded protective effect could not be simply related to the starch or reducing sugars content. RP-HPLC demonstrated that in the chestnut flour, there are one or more hydrophobic peptides or oligopeptides, which specifically offer a marked resistance to simulated gastric juice, albeit present at low concentration. These beneficial effects proved to be dependent by the cultivar used to produce the flour. PMID:24010594

Blaiotta, Giuseppe; La Gatta, Barbara; Di Capua, Marika; Di Luccia, Aldo; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

2013-12-01

41

CHESTNUT AVENUE BRIDGE. BOWIE, PRINCE GEORGES CO., MD. Sec. 1201,, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CHESTNUT AVENUE BRIDGE. BOWIE, PRINCE GEORGES CO., MD. Sec. 1201,, MP 120.48. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

42

Feasibility study of effect of ultrasound on water chestnuts.  

PubMed

Water chestnut (Trapa natans L.), an annual aquatic plant with floating leaves was first introduced into North America in 1874. Since then, wild populations have quickly become established in many locations within Northeastern USA. Due to its detrimental effects on the overall health of aquatic ecosystems, millions of dollars have been spent to control the water chestnut infestations in the North America through mechanical harvesting and manual removal, with limited success. The potential for continued expansion of the infestations demonstrates an urgent need for an effective control method. This study examined the potential of ultrasound application as an alternative control strategy for water chestnut management. Various frequencies and amplitudes of ultrasound generated by submerged transducers were applied directly to water chestnuts harvested from Lake Champlain. Substantial damages on water chestnut cells as well as penetrated petitoles were observed at the following tested frequencies of ultrasound, 20 kHz, 187 kHz, 469 kHz, 519 kHz and 2.34 MHz. Among them, 20 kHz ultrasound of 1.9 MPa acoustic pressure amplitude demonstrated the most significant damages within 10 s of ultrasound exposure. The treated plants started to die within 72 h and the mortality rate of water chestnut plants treated with the ultrasound application was 100%. PMID:16616605

Wu, Junru; Wu, Meiyin

2006-04-01

43

Effects of light acclimation on the photosynthesis, growth, and biomass allocation in American chestnut ( Castanea dentata) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is currently regarded as functionally extinct because of chestnut blight. To reintroduce blight-resistant American chestnut back to its historic range, it is imperative to understand the silvics and silviculture of the species. In an outdoor rainout shelter, we grew American chestnut seedlings at four levels of irradiance (4, 12, 32 and 100% of full sunlight) to

G. Geoff Wang; William L. Bauerle; Bryan T. Mudder

2006-01-01

44

Postanesthetic Myonecrosis in Horses  

PubMed Central

Two horses died of massive myonecrosis following surgery. The hematological, biochemical and pathological changes are described and compared with those previously reported in the literature. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:7337914

Friend, S. C. E.

1981-01-01

45

Observational learning in horses  

E-print Network

OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING IN HORSES A Thesis by KATHERINE LOUISE BAER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Animal... Science OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING IN HORSES A Thesis by KATHERINE LOUISE BAER Approved as to style and content by: L7 . 5+~ (Chairma of . C mmittee) ) c r (Mem ) YiNicc CJ ~- (Membeh) (Head of Department May 1979 ABSTRACT Observational...

Baer, Katherine Louise

2012-06-07

46

Social Ecology of Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horses (Equidae ) are believed to clearly demonstrate the links between ecology and social organization. Their social cognitive\\u000a abilities enable them to succeed in many different environments, including those provided for them by humans, or the ones\\u000a domestic horses encounter when escaping from their human care takers. Living in groups takes different shapes in equids. Their\\u000a aggregation and group cohesion

Konstanze Krueger

47

Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [ European Parliament and Council Directive, 1999/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of "Montella" chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana; De Sio, Antonio; Boniglia, Concetta; Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro

2009-07-01

48

Yoghurt with candied chestnut: freeze drying, physical, and rheological behaviour.  

PubMed

As a novel product, yoghurt powder was produced by freeze drying and with added candied chestnut puree at ratios of 5, 10, and 20 % by weight. During the freeze drying process, mass loss, water activity, and the moisture content of the samples were determined and the colour (Hunter L, a, b) of the yoghurt powder products was measured. Results showed that increasing the percentage of candied chestnut puree resulted in an increase in water activity, moisture content, and colour change values of the end product. The drying behaviour, drying rate versus free moisture content, was also investigated. It was observed that yoghurt with or without added candied chestnut puree could be satisfactorily freeze-dried. Moreover, the performance of the dried product was observed in a ready-to-use, reconstituted form. For this purpose, the obtained powders were reconstituted to their original moisture contents. Shear stress and apparent viscosity against shear rate in a range of 1-1,000 (1/sec) was then measured by a Haake-Mars rotary viscometer. According to the results, the apparent viscosities of reconstituted products, as plain yoghurt and the one with an added 5 % chestnut puree were lower than that of fresh yoghurt. However, reconstituted yoghurts containing 10 % and 20 % chestnut puree had apparent viscosities higher than fresh yoghurt. Power Law explained well the rheological behaviour of reconstituted yoghurt samples for the applied shear rate range. Based on rheological data and sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freeze dried yoghurt containing 10 % (w/w) candied chestnut puree was an acceptable novel product. PMID:25477665

Sakin-Yilmazer, Melike; Dirim, S Nur; Di Pinto, Davide; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

2014-12-01

49

Metal toxicosis in horses.  

PubMed

The ubiquity and stability of metals in the environment make them unique as a pollutant or an essential dietary component. Metals are neither created nor destroyed by chemical processes but are redistributed in the environment. In combination with other elements, metal compounds and alloys are essential materials of the contemporary world. Inappropriate use or distribution in the environment leads to adverse health effects on all biologic systems, including horses. Gastrointestinal upset is a common feature of acute toxicosis with metals in general. Among the metals discussed, arsenic and inorganic mercury have a propensity to do severe damage to the gut. Deposition of cadmium on forage is the source most likely to intoxicate horses. This subchronic to chronic problem in horses is manifest as disease of the musculoskeletal system and kidneys. Iron-containing hematinics are widely used in racetrack horses and occasionally result in hepatopathy when excessive doses are administered. Lead continues to be recognized as the most significant environmental metal pollutant. Poisoning is encountered routinely in humans and animals. Of the animal species of veterinary concern, lead-poisoned horses are not a frequent encounter. Lead-intoxicated horses show signs of peripheral neuropathy (laryngeal hemiplegia), intermittent colic, and mild anemia. Acute mercury poisoning sometimes occurs from the common use of mercury-containing blistering agents, with most clinical findings related to acute renal failure. Chronic excessive intake of zinc by horses is uncommon but devastating in rapidly growing foals. The mechanism of chronic zinc toxicosis is coupled to the induced copper deficiency. The condition is a disease of cartilage in the articular and growth physes. PMID:11780284

Casteel, S W

2001-12-01

50

A mutation in the MATP gene causes the cream coat colour in the horse  

PubMed Central

In horses, basic colours such as bay or chestnut may be partially diluted to buckskin and palomino, or extremely diluted to cream, a nearly white colour with pink skin and blue eyes. This dilution is expected to be controlled by one gene and we used both candidate gene and positional cloning strategies to identify the "cream mutation". A horse panel including reference colours was established and typed for different markers within or in the neighbourhood of two candidate genes. Our data suggest that the causal mutation, a G to A transition, is localised in exon 2 of the MATP gene leading to an aspartic acid to asparagine substitution in the encoded protein. This conserved mutation was also described in mice and humans, but not in medaka. PMID:12605854

Mariat, Denis; Taourit, Sead; Guérin, Gérard

2003-01-01

51

Dynamics of Cryphonectria hypovirus infection in chestnut blight cankers.  

PubMed

Virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica cause lethal bark cankers on chestnut trees. Infection of C. parasitica with Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Europe biologically controls this disease, leading to nonlethal and inactive cankers. Unexpectedly, virus-free C. parasitica strains have been isolated from inactive cankers. In this study, we compared the virulence of virus-infected and virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from either inactive or active cankers on chestnut seedlings and sprouts. In the seedling experiment, we assessed canker growth and seedling mortality. In the sprout experiment, we also assessed canker growth and made fungal reisolations to determine virus infection and immigration of foreign vegetative compatibility (vc) types over a period of 13 years in a coppice forest. Overall, the virulence of virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from inactive versus active cankers did not differ. Significant differences were only attributed to virus infection. Virus infection and fungal strain composition in cankers changed over time. Foreign vc types immigrated into cankers and virus-free cankers became virus-infected within a few years. Most of the cankers were callused over time and became inactive. However, we observed that the virus did not always persist in these cankers. This study demonstrates that virus spread occurs effectively in European chestnut forests and that this biocontrol system is highly dynamic. PMID:24601984

Bryner, Sarah Franziska; Prospero, Simone; Rigling, Daniel

2014-09-01

52

1254 Chestnut Street Newton, MA 02464-1418  

E-print Network

;MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET PAGE 2 25 July 2001 CHEMICAL NAME: Organic Solvent Mixture TRADE NAME: NANO SAFETY DATA SHEET PAGE 3 25 July 2001 CHEMICAL NAME: Organic Solvent Mixture TRADE NAME: NANO? Remover PG1254 Chestnut Street Newton, MA 02464-1418 Tel: (617) 965-5511 Fax: (617) 965-5818 MATERIAL SAFETY

53

Nondestructive detection of infested chestnuts based on NIR spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect feeding is a significant postharvest problem for processors of Chestnuts (Castanea sativa, Miller). In most cases, damage from insects is 'hidden', i.e. not visually detectable on the fruit surface. Consequently, traditional sorting techniques, including manual sorting, are generally inadequa...

54

[From wild horse to riding horse].  

PubMed

Over 45 million years of evolution the horse developed to a highly specialized animal in anatomy, physiology and behavior. No other animal had influenced the economic and cultural history of men to such extent. Hunting prey since the ice age, domesticated 4000 B.C. and used for thousands of years as unique animal all over the world has attained a new role today as partner in sport, as companion animal and even as cotherapeutic. The well known behavioral demands in use and keeping are still often not fulfilled. PMID:12174680

Isenbügel, E

2002-07-01

55

Electroantennographic responses of the lesser chestnut weevil curculio sayi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to volatile organic compounds identified from chestnut reproductive plant tissue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The primary insect pest of the developing chestnut industry in the central United States is the lesser chestnut weevil, Curculio sayi (Gyllenhal), which is a specialist on only Castanea trees. Recent research has shown this insect is attracted to and feeds upon the reproductive tissues of the chestn...

56

Hyperelastosis in the Horse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Equine hyperelastosis cutis, also known as dermatosporaxis and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (HERDA), is an autosomal recessive inheritable disease and has been reported in Thoroughbreds, Morgans, Haflingers , Hanoverians, a Swiss Warmblood, a mule and several Arabian cross horses in the United Kingdom, U...

57

Paraguayan Horse Tack  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Paraguayan cowboys use a version of the typical saddle from southern South America. The core of the saddle consists of two leather rolls that are filled with a sedge (Piri, Cyperus giganteus) for cushioning, these are laid along the horse's spine and sandwiched between several layers of wool and cot...

58

Biochemical analysis of two varieties of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.).  

PubMed

In this study, two varieties (Green and red) of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.) have been selected for their biochemical analysis as well as nutrient composition using standard methods. The proximate composition of green water chestnuts revealed moisture 62.5, ash 1.04, crude fiber 2.13%, total soluble sugar 0.92%, reducing sugar 0.33%, non-reducing sugar 0.59%, starch 8.7%, lipid 0.84%. One hundred gram of green variety contained water soluble protein 0.275 mg, beta-Carotene 60 microg, vitamin-C 1.1 mg and total phenol 0.5 mg. The minerals contents of green variety were potassium 5.22%, sodium 0.64%, calcium 0.25%, phosphorus 6.77%, sulpher 0.38%, and iron, copper, manganese and zinc 200, 430, 90 and 600 ppm, respectively. The red variety contained moisture 62.7%, ash 1.30%, crude fiber 2.27%, total soluble sugar 0.90%, reducing sugar 0.30%, non-reducing sugar 0.60%, starch 8.2%, lipid 0.83%. The red variety contained water soluble protein 0.251 mg, beta-Carotene 92 microg, vitamin-C 0.9 mg and total phenol 0.60 mg per 100 g. The red variety contained potassium 5.32%, sodium 0.59%, calcium 0.26% phosphorus 6.77%, sulpher 0.32%, Iron 200 ppm, copper 450 ppm, manganese 110 ppm and zinc 650 ppm. The free amino acids, glutamic acid, tryptophan, tyrosine, alanine, lysine and leucine were commonly found in both varieties. In addition, green and red variety contained cysteine, arginine and proline and glutamine and asparagines, respectively. Thus, the present study sheds light on the nutrient contents of the two varieties of water chestnuts and suggests that water chestnuts may play a crucial role in human nutrition. PMID:24163944

Faruk, M Omar; Amin, M Ziaul; Sana, Niranjan Kumar; Shaha, Ranajit Kumar; Biswas, Kamal Krishna

2012-11-01

59

Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999\\/2\\/EC [European Parliament and Council

Michele Mangiacotti; Antonio Eugenio Chiaravalle; Giuliana Marchesani; Antonio De Sio; Concetta Boniglia; Emanuela Bortolin; Sandro Onori

2009-01-01

60

Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. ?-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

2012-09-01

61

78 FR 36769 - Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1641-000] Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC's application for market-based...

2013-06-19

62

75 FR 59258 - Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2568-000] Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate...

2010-09-27

63

Chestnut Species and Jasmonic Acid Treatment Influence Development and Community Interactions of Galls Produced by the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus  

PubMed Central

Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant—signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA– inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses. PMID:22233098

Cooper, William R.; Rieske, Lynne K.

2011-01-01

64

Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.  

PubMed

Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses. PMID:22233098

Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

2011-01-01

65

Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

Pridnya, M.V.; Cherpakov, V.V.; Paillet, F.L.

1996-01-01

66

Melanomas in Horses'  

E-print Network

In human beings a striking loss of pigment may occur in the skin and hair surrounding normal nevi, the primary sites of melanomas, cutaneous nodules of metastatic melanoma, and over the surface in the form of vitiligo in those with melanomas. It is generally assumed that vitiliginous changes are associated with.he local destruction of normal melanocytes on either an autoimmune or cytotoxic basis because of the presence of a benign nevus or a melanoma. In a report by Millikan et al. (1) on pigs with melanocytic nevi that might be melanomas, changes of pigment loss identical to that observed in some human subjects was described. Gray horses ordinarily have a high incidence of melanomas. Dark brown at birth, they probably developed melanomas after turning white and not before. There may be a human counterpart to this phenomenon. Because knowledge of the relationship of changes in hair and skin color during the course of a melanoma is likely to be important in developing a method to control the growth of a melanoma, the animal models should be investigated in detail. The Arabian horse described in this report is one animal with a high predisposition to develop a melanoma. We examined horses at the 2800-acre Al-Marah Farm in Maryland, the world's

Aaron B; Lerner; Gary W. Cage

67

Ectomycorrhizal inoculum potential of northeastern U.S. forest soils for American chestnut: results from field and laboratory bioassays  

EPA Science Inventory

American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once a dominant overstory tree in the eastern United States but was decimated by chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica). Blight resistant chestnut is being developed as part of a concerted restoration effort to bring this heritage tree...

68

Detection of mold-damaged chestnuts by near-infrared spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mold infection is a significant postharvest problem for processors of chestnuts (Castanea sativa, Miller).Fungal disease causes direct loss of product or reduced value due to the lower-quality grade of the chest-nut lot. In most cases, fungal infection is not detectable using traditional sorting tec...

69

Effect of chestnut tannin on the fermentability of soyabean meal nitrogen in the rumen  

E-print Network

Effect of chestnut tannin on the fermentability of soyabean meal nitrogen in the rumen F Mathieu microbienne, centre de Clermont-Theix, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France Natural tannins combine et al, 1970). In the present study, we used tannins extracted from chestnut wood shavings which were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

Cold storage of in vitro cultures of wild cherry, chestnut and oak  

E-print Network

Note Cold storage of in vitro cultures of wild cherry, chestnut and oak LV Janeiro, AM Vieitez of chestnut, oak and wild cherry have been stored at low temperature (2°C) for 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Cultures / oak / wild cherry Résumé — Conservation au froid de pousses in vitro de merisier, châtaignier et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

71

Stocking Rates for Horse Pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Decision on which stocking rate to graze a horse pasture is critical, particularly if the forage is expected to meet the nutrient needs of the horses. Challenges and management for targeting the optimum stocking rate, defined as the stocking rate that allows forage consumption to approximately equ...

72

Discrimination learning in horses  

E-print Network

day. Forty massed trials in one day yielded only 17% correct on the last 10 trials. Wieckert and Barr (1966) reported 55. 17% correct responses in pigs learning a maze. Stimu'ius, Reinforcement and Prior Experiences Effects on Discrimination Lear.... Kratzer et al. (1976) reported a final performance of 73/ correct for yearling horses in maze running. Wieckert and Barr (1966) reported 55 . 2X correct for pigs ', n maze running and W ieckert et al, (1966) reported 80", . in dairy heifers learning a...

Yeates, B. F

1976-01-01

73

Replacement of native oak and hickory tree species by the introduced American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in southwestern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

American chestnut was introduced at West Salem, Wisconsin, about 1880 and had begun to replace native tree species in adjacent oak-hickory woodland before 1930. Chestnut is now an important canopy species over c20 ha of forested ridge extending N and S of the original plantation. A smaller area of <5 ha is dominated by chestnut in both canopy and understory. Chestnut seedlings and small saplings are more numerous along woodland edges and in recently disturbed soil, they are rare in the interior of ungrazed pasture and entirely absent from intensively grazed areas adjacent to chestnut-dominated woodland. Random sampling of recently established seedlings indicates that 1-5 seedlings/(yr.ha) became established in undisturbed woodland between 1986-1988. The general pattern of chestnut distribution indicates the importance of woodland edges in chestnut propagation and the effects of livestock grazing in excluding chestnut. Replacement of native species by chestnut appears to have occurred in 2 steps: isolated groups of trees become established at favorable locations, after which many additional chestnut stems became established in the understory. The West Salem site may not be available for study of blight-free chestnut in the future. -from Authors

Paillet, F.L.; Rutter, P.A.

1989-01-01

74

Annual Report, September 2013 27 How a Flower Becomes a Chestnut  

E-print Network

ecologi- cal, economic, and cultural importance in southern Europe, Anatolia, the Caucasus Mountains and Korea, European or Sweet chestnut (C. sativa Mill.) is found in Europe, Anatolia, and the Caucasus

75

Non-target effects of transgenic blight-resistant American chestnut (Fagales: Fagaceae) on insect herbivores.  

PubMed

American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen], a canopy dominant species across wide swaths of eastern North America, was reduced to an understory shrub after introduction of the blight fungus [Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr] in the early 1900s. Restoration of American chestnut by using biotechnology is promising, but the imprecise nature of transgenesis may inadvertently alter tree phenotype, thus potentially impacting ecologically dependent organisms. We quantified effects of genetic engineering and fungal inoculation of trees on insect herbivores by using transgenic American chestnuts expressing an oxalate oxidase gene and wild-type American and Chinese (C. mollissima Blume) chestnuts. Of three generalist folivores bioassayed, only gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] was affected by genetic modification, exhibiting faster growth on transgenic than on wild-type chestnuts, whereas growth of polyphemus moth [Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer)] differed between wild-type species, and fall webworm [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)] performed equally on all trees. Inoculation of chestnuts with blight fungus had no effect on the growth of two herbivores assayed (polyphemus moth and fall webworm). Enhanced fitness of gypsy moth on genetically modified trees may hinder restoration efforts if this invasive herbivore's growth is improved because of transgene expression. PMID:22251697

Post, K H; Parry, D

2011-08-01

76

77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...be shown or exhibited); (2) show or exhibit a horse at a horse show, public auction, or exhibition such as a college football game or parade; (3) judge a horse show; (4) enter the show ring during the course of a horse show; (5) enter...

2012-06-07

77

The influence of silvicultural treatments and site conditions on American chestnut ( Castanea dentata) seedling establishment in eastern Kentucky, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

After more than 50 years of research and selective breeding, blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata) trees will soon be available for planting into the species’ pre-blight range. Increased understanding of the regeneration requirements of pure American chestnut (C. dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) will increase the success of future efforts to establish blight-resistant chestnut. We quantified survival and initial growth of bare-root

Chuck Rhoades; David Loftis; Jeffrey Lewis; Stacy Clark

2009-01-01

78

4-H Horse Project Senior Record Book  

E-print Network

Virginia 4-H Horse Project Senior Record Book (ages 14-19) Publication 406-123 Revised 2007 #12;Virginia 4-H Horse Project Senior Record Book Name ________________________________ Date of Birth you are enrolled for this project _________________________________________ 4-H Club

Liskiewicz, Maciej

79

Texas 4-H Horse Quiz Bowl Supplement  

E-print Network

: Ovum Source: ?Horse Science? Page number: 16 Division: Senior C. Reproduction Question: Much of the reproductive process is regulated by which gland? Answer: Pituitary Source: ?Horse Science? Page number: 16 Division: Senior C. Reproduction Question...

Howard, Jeff W.

1999-09-28

80

A High Density SNP Array for the Domestic Horse and Extant Perissodactyla: Utility for Association Mapping, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeny Studies  

PubMed Central

An equine SNP genotyping array was developed and evaluated on a panel of samples representing 14 domestic horse breeds and 18 evolutionarily related species. More than 54,000 polymorphic SNPs provided an average inter-SNP spacing of ?43 kb. The mean minor allele frequency across domestic horse breeds was 0.23, and the number of polymorphic SNPs within breeds ranged from 43,287 to 52,085. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) in most breeds declined rapidly over the first 50–100 kb and reached background levels within 1–2 Mb. The extent of LD and the level of inbreeding were highest in the Thoroughbred and lowest in the Mongolian and Quarter Horse. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses demonstrated the tight grouping of individuals within most breeds, close proximity of related breeds, and less tight grouping in admixed breeds. The close relationship between the Przewalski's Horse and the domestic horse was demonstrated by pair-wise genetic distance and MDS. Genotyping of other Perissodactyla (zebras, asses, tapirs, and rhinoceros) was variably successful, with call rates and the number of polymorphic loci varying across taxa. Parsimony analysis placed the modern horse as sister taxa to Equus przewalski. The utility of the SNP array in genome-wide association was confirmed by mapping the known recessive chestnut coat color locus (MC1R) and defining a conserved haplotype of ?750 kb across all breeds. These results demonstrate the high quality of this SNP genotyping resource, its usefulness in diverse genome analyses of the horse, and potential use in related species. PMID:22253606

McCue, Molly E.; Bannasch, Danika L.; Petersen, Jessica L.; Gurr, Jessica; Bailey, Ernie; Binns, Matthew M.; Distl, Ottmar; Guérin, Gérard; Hasegawa, Telhisa; Hill, Emmeline W.; Leeb, Tosso; Lindgren, Gabriella; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Røed, Knut H.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Swinburne, June E.; Tozaki, Teruaki; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Vaudin, Mark; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

2012-01-01

81

Eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis in seven horses.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis was diagnosed in 7 horses at The Ohio State University between 1976 and 1994. All horses had moderate-to-severe blepharospasm, chemosis, and conjunctival hyperemia; epiphora; and extensive yellow-to-white caseous mucoid discharge. Corneal ulcers associated with this disease were perilimbal and extended centrally. All ulcers were covered with a white necrotic plaque firmly attached to the underlying cornea. Other ophthalmic abnormalities were not detected. Corneal scrapings examined cytologically contained numerous eosinophils interspersed between epithelial cells, few mast cells, and neutrophils. Microbial organism were not seen. Bacterial and fungal cultures were negative for ocular pathogens. The initial diagnosis of eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis was made on the basis of clinical and cytologic findings. In 5 horses, the condition completely resolved after topical treatment with corticosteroid (0.05% dexamethasone) and triple antibiotic ointments. However, the duration of treatment was prolonged, with a mean treatment time of 64 days (range, 45 to 106 days). All corneal ulcers remained superficial, and despite the prolonged duration of treatment, none of the horses developed secondary bacterial or fungal keratitis. One horse underwent superficial keratectomy and had the shortest resolution time (14 days). PMID:8837652

Yamagata, M; Wilkie, D A; Gilger, B C

1996-10-01

82

Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses  

PubMed Central

Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses. PMID:24489393

Ohmes, Cameon M.; Davis, Elizabeth G.; Beard, Laurie A.; Vander Werf, Karie A.; Bianco, Alex W.; Giger, Urs

2014-01-01

83

Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

84

Brodifacoum toxicosis in two horses.  

PubMed

Increased popularity during the past decade of brodifacoum, an anticoagulant rodenticide, has led to an increase in cases of accidental poisoning in nontarget species, including pets and farm animals. Pharmacokinetics of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides such as brodifacoum are substantially different from those of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides such as warfarin. This difference dramatically influences management of exposure in terms of duration and cost of treatment and may affect outcome. The National Poison Control Center reports that approximately 50 cases of brodifacoum exposure have occurred in horses between 1993 and 1997. To our knowledge, this report is the first complete clinical description of accidental ingestion of a potentially lethal dose of brodifacoum in horses. Early recognition of exposure to brodifacoum, subsequent treatment with adequate doses of vitamin K1, and sequential monitoring of clotting times and serum brodifacoum concentration permitted poisoning in these horses to be managed successfully. PMID:9333092

McConnico, R S; Copedge, K; Bischoff, K L

1997-10-01

85

Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

Not Available

1993-09-01

86

A Trojan Horse in Birmingham  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

Yarker, Patrick

2014-01-01

87

Purification and characterization of polyphenols from chestnut astringent skin.  

PubMed

Polyphenolic compounds from chestnut astringent skin (CAS) were purified by dialysis, using Diaion HP-20 and Sephadex LH-20 columns. During purification, specific ?-amylase inhibitory activities were increased about 3.4-fold, and the 50% inhibition value was 5.71 ?g/mL in the Sephadex LH-20 fraction (SE-fraction). The SE-fraction contained about 67% of the total polyphenols, 57.3% of the flavanol-type tannins, and 51.3% of the procyanidins. Strong antioxidant activity was observed in the SE-fraction. Oral administration of the SE-fraction in rats fed corn starch significantly suppressed an increase in blood glucose levels. The SE-fraction contained gallic acid and ellagic acid. The MALDI-TOF spectrum showed a peak series exhibiting a mass increment of 288 Da, reflecting the variation in the number of catechin/epicatechin units. Our results suggest CAS contains polyphenols with strong ?-amylase inhibitory activity. The data also suggest CAS polyphenols might be oligomeric proanthocyanidins with gallic acid and ellagic acid. PMID:21777007

Tsujita, Takahiro; Yamada, Misato; Takaku, Takeshi; Shintani, Tomoyoshi; Teramoto, Kanae; Sato, Takafumi

2011-08-24

88

Biochemical responses of chestnut oak to a galling cynipid.  

PubMed

We characterized the distribution of nutritional and defensive biochemical traits in galls elicited on chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) by the gall wasp Andricus petiolicolus Basse (Cynipidae) in comparison with gypsy moth-wounded and unwounded leaves. Gall cortex and epidermis exhibited elevated soluble peroxidase (POX) and soluble invertase activities, and greater condensed tannin concentrations than did nutritive tissues or leaves. Nutritive tissue, on which the insect feeds, contained few polyphenols, and lower POX and invertase activities compared with other gall tissues and leaves. Elevated total POX activity arose from a complex pattern of enhanced and suppressed isoform activities in galls. Invertase enzyme activity decreased in all tissues over the course of the 7-d study, although gypsy moth wounding suppressed this decline slightly in ungalled leaves. Our results indicate that the distribution of biochemical defenses in this typical cynipid gall differs significantly from the leaf tissue from which it is formed and support a role for invertases in establishing the gall as a sink. A. petiolicolus larvae do not induce, and may suppress, plant defense responses in nutritive tissue, while enzymatic activity and phenolic accumulation are enhanced in gall tissues surrounding feeding sites. These patterns suggest that the gall is manipulated by the insect to enhance its food and protective value. PMID:15839487

Allison, Steven D; Schultz, Jack C

2005-01-01

89

Salicylic acid inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) by competitively inhibiting polyphenol oxidase.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of salicylic acid (SA) on the browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut were investigated. Shelled and sliced chestnuts were immersed in different concentrations of an SA solution, and the browning of the chestnut surface and interior were inhibited. The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) extracted from chestnuts were measured in the presence and absence of SA. SA at concentrations higher than 0.3g/L delayed chestnut browning by significantly inhibiting the PPO activity (P<0.01), and the POD activity was not significantly affected (P>0.05). The binding and inhibition modes of SA with PPO and POD, determined by AUTODOCK 4.2 and Lineweaver-Burk plots, respectively, established SA as a competitive inhibitor of PPO. PMID:25308637

Zhou, Dan; Li, Lin; Wu, Yanwen; Fan, Junfeng; Ouyang, Jie

2015-03-15

90

Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use  

PubMed Central

In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption. Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample’s protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal. PMID:18763299

Gounga, Mahamadou E.; Xu, Shi-ying; Wang, Zhang

2008-01-01

91

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

2013-07-01

92

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

2010-07-01

93

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

2014-07-01

94

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

2011-07-01

95

29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... § 780.122 Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged...both the raising and commercial racing of race horses, the activities performed...

2012-07-01

96

Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile work plan  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., has constructed a storage facility, the Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile (CRBAWP), for mercury-contaminated soil excavated from the Oak Ridge Civic Center properties and the Oak Ridge Sewer Line Beltway. Excavation of the soil from the Civic Center began in September 1984 and was completed in early 1985. Similar soils from other areas of the city were added to the pile until 1987. Approximately 3000 yd{sup 3} are stored at the present time. An Interim Status RCRA permit was initially sought for this facility. Samples from the waste pile passed the Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test (EP Tox). The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (now the Tennessee Department of Conservation-TDC) denied the permit based on their conclusion that the waste was not a RCRA-regulated waste. On September 25, 1990 the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) superseded the EP Tox test. TCLP tests are not proposed to satisfy a request by TDC and to make a final determination of the nature of the soils in order to close the CRBAWP as a solid waste disposal facility under Tennessee State rule 1200-1-7-.04. The objectives of this work are to summarize existing site information and detail actions necessary to sample and characterize soils from the waste pile as hazardous or nonhazardous per the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Within the scope of this plan, a site investigation will be discussed; a field sampling plan will be described in terms of sampling locations, procedures, and quality assurance; and ancillary activities such as waste management, data management, and health and safety will be outlines. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Johnson, R. (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States))

1991-08-01

97

Effect of body weight on the pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in miniature horses and quarter horses.  

PubMed

In most species, large variations in body size necessitate dose adjustments based on an allometric function of body weight. Despite the substantial disparity in body size between miniature horses and light-breed horses, there are no studies investigating appropriate dosing of any veterinary drug in miniature horses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether miniature horses should receive a different dosage of flunixin meglumine than that used typically in light-breed horses. A standard dose of flunixin meglumine was administered intravenously to eight horses of each breed, and three-compartmental analysis was used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters between breed groups. The total body clearance of flunixin was 0.97 ± 0.30 mL/min/kg in miniature horses and 1.04 ± 0.27 mL/min/kg in quarter horses. There were no significant differences between miniature horses and quarter horses in total body clearance, the terminal elimination rate, area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, apparent volume of distribution at steady-state or the volume of the central compartment for flunixin (P > 0.05). Therefore, flunixin meglumine may be administered to miniature horses at the same dosage as is used in light-breed horses. PMID:23659780

Lee, C D; Maxwell, L K

2014-02-01

98

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

2013-01-01

99

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

2011-01-01

100

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

2014-01-01

101

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

2010-01-01

102

9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...may be required in the form of certificates concerning specific diseases to which the horses are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or other precautionary treatments to which the horses or horse test specimens have been subjected. Notice of any such...

2012-01-01

103

Managing Small-acreage Horse Farms  

E-print Network

Managing Small-acreage Horse Farms EC 1610 · November 2007 $4.50 IN CENtral aNd EastErN OrEgON #12;2 · MaNagINg sMall-aCrEagE HOrsE FarMs IN CENtral aNd EastErN OrEgON IN CENtral aNd EastErN OrEgON Managing Small-acreage Horse Farms Seven steps to a safe, efficient, environmentally friendly horse farm

Tullos, Desiree

104

Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.  

PubMed

In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

2013-11-01

105

Aboveground carbon biomass of plantation-grown American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in absence of blight  

E-print Network

with exploitation of fossil fuels have disrupted the planet's fragile carbon balance (Wigley and Schimel, 2000/or age (8, 8, 12, and 19 years) isolated from the native American chestnut range in the Coulee Region.7, 55.0, and 179.9 Mg haÃ?1 for the 8-, 8-, 12-, and 19-year-old sites, respectively, while bole carbon

106

Novel insights into the emergence of pathogens: the case of chestnut blight.  

PubMed

Exotic, invasive pathogens have emerged repeatedly and continue to emerge to threaten the world's forests. Ecosystem structure and function can be permanently changed when keystone tree species such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) are eliminated from a whole range by disease. The fungal ascomycete pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica is responsible for causing chestnut blight. Once the pathogen was introduced into the Eastern US, where chestnuts were predominant, chestnuts were all but eliminated. This pathogen is currently causing extensive damage in Europe. A study in this issue of Molecular Ecology sheds new light on the pattern and process of emergence of this devastating plant pathogen (Dutech et al. 2012). The authors used microsatellite markers to investigate the evolutionary history of C. parasitica populations introduced into North America and Europe. To infer sources of migrants and the migration events, the authors included putative source populations endemic to China and Japan, inferred potentially unsampled populations and conducted a multivariate population genetic and complex ABC analysis. Cryphonectria parasitica emerges as an example of an introduced pathogen with limited genotypic diversity and some admixture in the invaded ranges, yet repeated invasions into different areas of Europe and the United States. This work sheds new light on the emergence of C. parasitica providing compelling evidence that this pathogen emerged by repeated migration and occasional admixture. PMID:22835047

Grünwald, Niklaus J

2012-08-01

107

Morphological and physiological adaptations to shade affect drought susceptibility in American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh] Borhk)  

E-print Network

will be divided into roots, stems, and leaves and weighted. Leaf area along with leaf water potential and relative forests (Burnham, 1988). Chestnut's light weight rot-resistant wood made it a desired timber species treatment light response curves, specific leaf area, number of fully expanded leaves, and leaf chlorophyll

108

Infectivity and sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Branches from northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia production, while the other three plants w...

109

Sporulation capacity of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Branches from six 2 to 3-year old northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with ca. 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum isolate Pr-6 and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia produ...

110

The American Chestnut Blight: An Agent of Biological and Cultural Catastrophe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history and habits of the fungus commonly referred to as the "chestnut blight." Considers the impact of the blight and efforts to control it, offers personal and cultural reflections on the blight, and gives tips for incorporating the information into cross-disciplinary lessons. Contains 17 references. (WRM)

Lunsford, Eddie

1999-01-01

111

Fine root growth in a sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) coppice  

E-print Network

Fine root growth in a sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) coppice P. Montpied Laboratoire d'Ecotogie V6g6tale, CNRS URAt2t,Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay, France Introduction The root growth and turnover of fine roots are known to be a major carbon pathway in forest ecosystems (Fogel, 1985). Dubroca (1983

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

112

Dominance of interplanted American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in southwestern Wisconsin, USA  

E-print Network

) and diameter at breast height (DBH) (50 and 140% more) growth than black walnut and northern red oak Improvement and Regeneration Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2033, USA b Walnut Council development (seven or eight growing seasons following direct seeding) of American chestnut relative to black

113

Equine monocytic Ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever) in horses in Uruguay and southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A disease named locally as churrío or churrido equino (i.e., equine scours) has occurred for at least 100 years in Uruguay and southern Brazil in farms along both shores of the Merín lake. This report describes cases of churrido equino and provides serologic, pathologic, and DNA-based evidence indicating that the disease is in fact equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever). Results of an epidemiological investigation conducted on an endemic farm are also presented. Clinical signs in 12 horses were fever, depression, diarrhea, dehydration, and sometimes colic and distal hind limb edema. Postmortem findings of 3 horses were of acute enterocolitis. Inclusion bodies containing ehrlichial organisms were found in the cytoplasm of macrophages of the large colon of 1 horse. Eleven of the 12 horses were serologically positive to Ehrlichia risticii (indirect fluorescent antibody assay) and, of 3 paired samples, 2 showed seroconversion. Ehrlichia risticii DNA was identified by a nested polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood of an affected horse. A healthy horse inoculated with peripheral blood from an affected horse developed the disease and antibodies to E. risticii. The disease had a peak incidence in March (summer) and was statistically associated with a marshy ecosystem near the Merín lake, where large numbers of Pomacea spp. (Ampullariidae) snails were found. Incidence density was almost 8 times higher in nonnative horses than in native horses. It was concluded that the previous diarrheic disease of horses known in Uruguay and southern Brazil as churrido equino is equine monocytic ehrlichiosis. PMID:11580069

Dutra, F; Schuch, L F; Delucchi, E; Curcio, B R; Coimbra, H; Raffi, M B; Dellagostin, O; Riet-Correa, F

2001-09-01

114

Hepatoprotective Potential of Chestnut Bee Pollen on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Damages in Rats  

PubMed Central

Bee pollen has been used as an apitherapy agent for several centuries to treat burns, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, and various other diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of chestnut bee pollen against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4)-induced liver damage. Total phenolic content, flavonoid, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and DPPH radical activity measurements were used as antioxidant capacity determinants of the pollen. The study was conducted in rats as seven groups. Two different concentrations of chestnut bee pollens (200 and 400?mg/kg/day) were given orally and one group was administered with silibinin (50?mg/kg/day, i.p.) for seven days to the rats following the CCI4 treatment. The protective effect of the bee pollen was monitored by aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (AST) activities, histopathological imaging, and antioxidant parameters from the blood and liver samples of the rats. The results were compared with the silibinin-treated and untreated groups. We detected that CCI4 treatment induced liver damage and both the bee pollen and silibinin-treated groups reversed the damage; however, silibinin caused significant weight loss and mortality due, severe diarrhea in the rats. The chestnut pollen had showed 28.87?mg GAE/g DW of total phenolic substance, 8.07?mg QUE/g DW of total flavonoid, 92.71?mg Cyn-3-glu/kg DW of total anthocyanins, and 9?mg ?-carotene/100?g DW of total carotenoid and substantial amount of antioxidant power according to FRAP and DPPH activity. The results demonstrated that the chestnut bee pollen protects the hepatocytes from the oxidative stress and promotes the healing of the liver damage induced by CCI4 toxicity. Our findings suggest that chestnut bee pollen can be used as a safe alternative to the silibinin in the treatment of liver injuries. PMID:24250716

Y?ld?z, Oktay; Can, Zehra; Saral, Özlem; Yulu?, Esin; Öztürk, Ferhat; Aliyaz?c?o?lu, Rezzan; Canpolat, Sinan; Kolayl?, Sevgi

2013-01-01

115

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

116

Liver fluke infection in horses and ponies.  

PubMed

Thirty eight cases of Fasciola hepatica infection in horses with associated clinical signs are reported. A method of examining large amounts of faeces for fluke is described. A safe method of treatment for infected horses is given which involves oral medication with oxyclozanide at a dose rate of 15 ml/50 kg body weight. PMID:837900

Owen, J M

1977-01-01

117

Periocular neurofibrosarcoma in a horse.  

PubMed

A periocular neurofibrosarcoma was debulked and treated with intralesional cisplatin in a 5-year-old Thoroughbred mare. The horse presented with a 1-year history of a large slowly progressing subcutaneous mass over the right supraorbital process. The mass was surgically debulked, and intralesional cisplatin (1.0 mg/cm3) was injected in 3 doses at 2 weeks, 5 weeks, and 8 weeks postoperatively. No recurrence was noted over a 15-month follow-up period. Histopathology of the mass indicated neurofibrosarcoma. PMID:11906658

Strubbe, D T

2001-12-01

118

9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93.325 Animals and...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico...

2011-01-01

119

9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93.325 Animals and...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico...

2010-01-01

120

Knowledge is key to safety; Plants that poison horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally they are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However, there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Other plants may be eaten by some horses even though they are unpalatable...

121

Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.  

PubMed

Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue. PMID:25376504

Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

2015-01-24

122

Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.  

PubMed Central

Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed each to provide the delivery of a tactile stimulus, a repetitive light tapping, at different locations (spaced 10.0 cm apart) along the horse's back. Two preliminary steps were necessary before generalization testing: training a measurable response (lip pressing) and training on several reinforcement schedules in the presence of a training stimulus (tapping by one of the solenoids). We then gave each horse two generalization test sessions. Results indicated that the horses' behavior was effectively controlled by the training stimulus. Horses made the greatest number of responses to the training stimulus, and the tendency to respond to the other test stimuli diminished as the stimuli became farther away from the training stimulus. These findings are discussed in the context of behavioral principles and their relevance to the training of horses. PMID:8315368

Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

1993-01-01

123

Clostridium difficile infection in horses: a review.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile is considered one of the most important causes of diarrhea and enterocolitis in horses. Foals and adult horses are equally susceptible to the infection. The highly resistant spore of C. difficile is the infectious unit of transmission, which occurs primarily via the fecal-oral route, with sources of infection including equine feces, contaminated soil, animal hospitals, and feces of other animals. Two major risk factors for the development of C. difficile associated disease (CDAD) in adult horses are hospitalization and antimicrobial treatment, although sporadically, cases of CDAD can occur in horses that have not received antimicrobials or been hospitalized. The most common antibiotics associated with CDAD in horses are erythromycin, trimethoprim/sulfonamides, ?-lactam antimicrobials, clindamycin, rifampicin, and gentamicin. Clinical signs and intestinal lesions of CDAD infection are not specific and they cannot be used to distinguish infections by C. difficile from infections by other agents, such as Clostridium perfringens or Salmonella sp. The distribution of lesions throughout the intestinal tract seems to be age-dependent. Small intestine is invariably affected, and colon and cecum may or may not have lesions in foals<1-month old. Naturally acquired disease in older foals and adult horses has a more aboral distribution, affecting colon and sometimes cecum, but rarely the small intestine. Detection of toxin A, toxin B or both in intestinal contents or feces is considered the most reliable diagnostic criterion for CDAD in horses. Isolation of toxigenic strains of C. difficile from horses with intestinal disease is highly suggestive of CDAD. A better understanding of pathogenesis, reservoirs of infection, and vaccines and other methods of control is needed. Also further studies are recommended to investigate other possible predisposing factors and/or etiological agents of enteric diseases of horses. PMID:23642413

Diab, S S; Songer, G; Uzal, F A

2013-11-29

124

Melanocortin receptor variants with phenotypic effects in horse, pig, and chicken.  

PubMed

The melanocortin system is of considerable interest in domestic animals because their energy metabolism and pigmentation have been under strong selection. This article reviews our work on MC1R variants in horse, pig, and chicken, as well as a study on MC4R polymorphism in the pig. The chestnut coat color in horses is caused by an MC1R missense mutation (S83F). In the pig, we have described seven MC1R alleles controlling four different coat color phenotypes (wild type, dominant black, black spotting, and recessive red). The most interesting allele is the one causing black spotting because it carries two causative mutations, a frameshift and a missense mutation. The frameshift mutation is somatically unstable, and the black spots reflect somatic reversion events restoring the reading frame. Classic genetics have established eight alleles at the Extended black locus in chicken, which is assumed to correspond to the Extension locus in mammals. We have analyzed the co-segregation of alleles at MC1R and Extended black using a red jungle fowl x White Leghorn intercross and provide compelling evidence that these loci are identical. A previous study indicated that a missense mutation (D298N) in pig MC4R has an effect on fatness, growth, and feed intake. We could not confirm this association using an intercross between the wild boar and Large White domestic pigs, but it is possible that our F(2) generation was too small to detect the rather modest effect reported for this polymorphism. PMID:12851331

Andersson, Leif

2003-06-01

125

Overall Alteration of Circadian Clock Gene Expression in the Chestnut Cold Response  

PubMed Central

Cold acclimation in woody plants may have special features compared to similar processes in herbaceous plants. Recent studies have shown that circadian clock behavior in the chestnut tree (Castanea sativa) is disrupted by cold temperatures and that the primary oscillator feedback loop is not functional at 4°C or in winter. In these conditions, CsTOC1 and CsLHY genes are constantly expressed. Here, we show that this alteration also affects CsPRR5, CsPRR7 and CsPRR9. These genes are homologous to the corresponding Arabidopsis PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR genes, which are also components of the circadian oscillator feedback network. The practically constant presence of mRNAs of the 5 chestnut genes at low temperature reveals an unknown aspect of clock regulation and suggests a mechanism regulating the transcription of oscillator genes as a whole. PMID:18958171

Ibañez, Cristian; Ramos, Alberto; Acebo, Paloma; Contreras, Angela; Casado, Rosa; Allona, Isabel; Aragoncillo, Cipriano

2008-01-01

126

Utilization of water chestnut for reclamation of water environment and control of cyanobacterial blooms.  

PubMed

Overgrowth of water chestnut (Trapa spp.) is a regional problem throughout Asia and North America because of waterway blockage and water fouling upon decomposition. In the present study, we investigated the potential of water chestnut to control cyanobacterial blooms, via a high content of phenolic compounds. In addition, we assessed the impact of biomass harvesting and crude extract application on nutrient balance. We showed that the floating parts of water chestnut contained high concentrations of total phenolics (89.2 mg g(-1) dry weight) and exhibited strong antioxidant activity (1.31 mmol g(-1) dry weight). Methanol-extracted phenolics inhibited growth of Microcystis aeruginosa; the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of the extracted phenolics was 5.8 mg L(-1), which was obtained from only 103 mg L(-1) of dry biomass (the floating and submerged parts). However, the crude extracts also added important quantities of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (1.49, 1.05, and 16.3 mg g(-1), respectively; extracted dry biomass weight basis); therefore, in practice, nutrient removal before and/or after the extraction is essential. On the other hand, biomass harvesting enables recovery of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from the water environment (23.1, 2.9, and 18.7 mg g(-1), respectively; dry biomass weight basis). Our findings indicate that water chestnut contains high concentrations of phenolics and exhibits strong antioxidant activity. Utilization of these resources, including nutrients, will contribute to reclamation of the water environment, and also to disposal of wet biomass. PMID:24046225

Akao, Satoshi; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Fujiwara, Taku

2014-02-01

127

Effect of chestnut tannins on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Among the natural products extracted from plants, tannins have been reported to possess antihelmintic properties especially\\u000a for gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Also, they are toxic to a wide range of fungi, bacteria and yeasts. Therefore,\\u000a an in vitro and a glasshouse pot experiments were undertaken to evaluate the effect of chestnut tannins on the control of the root-knot\\u000a nematode Meloidogyne

L. Maistrello; G. Vaccari; N. Sasanelli

2010-01-01

128

Horses  

MedlinePLUS

... disease can be fatal. More MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) Staphylococcus aureus is a common bacterium normally found on the skin of humans and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become ...

129

4-H Horse Project Junior Record Book  

E-print Network

Virginia 4-H Horse Project Junior Record Book (ages 9-13) Publication 406-122 Revised 2007 #12;www for this project _________________________________________ 4-H Club __________________________________ Years in 4-H personally completed this record book. 4-H Member's Signature

Liskiewicz, Maciej

130

Paraguayan Horse Tack and Ranch Hand  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Paraguayan cowboys often make their own rawhide tack. The cowboy in this picture is braiding rawhide tied to a tree. The cowboys' quarters can be seen in the background. The typical ranch horse in Paraguay is the

131

West Nile Encephalitis in Humans and Horses  

E-print Network

West Nile Encephalitis in Humans and Horses by Bruce Lawhorn* T he first outbreak in the United States of West Nile Encephalitis (WNE) occurred in August 1999 in the northeastern part of the country. The disease, characteristized...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2000-08-25

132

A Song for the Horse Nation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website accompanies an exhibition at the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) George Gustav Heye Center in New York City, and presents "the epic story of the horse's influence on American Indian tribes from the 1600s to the present." Divided into five thematic sections, the exhibition draws on the riches of NMAI, using both historical objects, such as drawings, hoof ornaments, beaded bags, hide robes, and paintings, as well as new pieces by contemporary Native artists. For example, in the "Native Arts & the Horse", 1840-1900 section, visitors can see images of bridles, saddles and saddle blankets, and other clothing, along with photos of these being used and worn. The section "The Horse Nation Lives On" includes works by contemporary Native American artists, such as a painting by Jim Yellowhawk (Cheyenne River Lakota, b. 1958), Lakota Horse Mask, 2008, and beaded rawhide bags made by Jackie Bread (Piikuni, b. 1960) in 2009.

133

Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication  

PubMed Central

Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes) from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus) were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region) were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski) using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73%) already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the time depth of the domestic horse mtDNA gene pool. PMID:22082251

2011-01-01

134

Lateral vision in horses: a behavioral investigation.  

PubMed

This study investigated lateral vision in horses (Equus caballus) for the first time from a behavioral point of view. Three horses were tested using a novel experimental design to determine the range of their lateral and caudolateral vision with respect to stimulus detection and discrimination. Real-life stimuli were presented along a curvilinear wall in one of four different positions (A, B, C, D) and one of two height locations (Top, Bottom) on both sides of the horse. To test for stimulus detection, the correct stimulus was paired against a control; for stimulus discrimination, the correct stimulus was paired against another object. To indicate that the correct stimulus was detected or discriminated, the horses pushed one of two paddles. All horses scored significantly above chance on stimulus detection trials regardless of stimulus position or location. They also accurately discriminated between stimuli when objects appeared in positions A, B, and C for the top or bottom locations; however, they failed to discriminate these stimuli at position D. This study supports physiological descriptions of the equine eye and provides new behavioral data showing that horses can detect the appearance of objects within an almost fully encompassing circle and are able to identify objects within most but not all of their panoramic field of view. PMID:22698758

Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

2012-09-01

135

Identification of copy number variants in horses.  

PubMed

Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds. PMID:22383489

Doan, Ryan; Cohen, Noah; Harrington, Jessica; Veazey, Kylee; Veazy, Kylee; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Gus; McCue, Molly E; Skow, Loren; Dindot, Scott V

2012-05-01

136

Renal papillary necrosis in horses after phenylbutazone and water deprivation.  

PubMed

Acute renal papillary necrosis occurred in five horses given normal therapeutic doses of phenylbutazone and deprived of water for 36 to 48 hours prior to euthanasia. Five horses given phenylbutazone alone and four horses subjected to water deprivation alone did not develop papillary necrosis. Urinalyses were normal prior to water deprivation, and also after water deprivation in the horses that did not receive phenylbutazone, but the water-deprived, phenylbutazone-treated horses had many red blood cells, transitional epithelial cells, and large numbers of oxalate crystals in their urine. Ulceration of the alimentary tract was seen in more than 50% of these horses. Tongue ulceration was present in one of five horses given phenylbutazone and one of five horses which had phenylbutazone and water deprivation. Ulceration of the gastric mucosa was seen in two of the five phenylbutazone-treated horses, four of five horses with phenylbutazone treatment and water deprivation, and one of four horses with water deprivation alone. Severe colonic ulceration with perforation and peritonitis was present in one horse given phenylbutazone for three months. No other significant changes in the small or large intestine were seen in the other 13 horses. PMID:6636467

Gunson, D E; Soma, L R

1983-09-01

137

Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry.

NONE

1997-02-01

138

Caecal intussusceptions in horses and the significance of Anoplocephala perfoliata.  

PubMed

A caecocaecal intussusception in a pony and a caecocolic intussusception in a horse, both infected with Anoplocephala perfoliata, are described and the relevance of tapeworms in such intestinal disease of horses is reviewed. PMID:2644733

Owen, R A; Jagger, D W; Quan-Taylor, R

1989-01-14

139

Effect of Concentrate Form on Gastric Ulcer Syndrome in Horses  

E-print Network

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is common amongst equine athletes of various disciplines and linked to decreased performance. Prevalence among racehorses has been reported to be over 90%, performance horses at 60%, and endurances horses...

Huth, Lindsey

2012-02-14

140

Serum hepatitis associated with commercial plasma transfusion in horses.  

PubMed

This report describes 4 fatal cases of serum hepatitis associated with the administration of commercial plasma in the horse. Serum hepatitis in the horse is characterized by acute hepatic central lobular necrosis, and it has been associated with the administration of biological products of equine origin. None of these horses had a recent history of equine biologic-origin vaccination; however, they had received 1.5-5 L of commercial plasma, and in I horse, an additional 8 L of fresh blood. Acute, severe colic unresponsive to medical therapy, lethargy, or sudden death developed in these 4 horses 41 to 60 days later. Two of the horses developed encephalopathy, confirmed in 1 horse by the presence of severe diffuse Alzheimer type II astrocytes in the brain. Although the prevalence of serum hepatitis associated with the administration of commercial plasma appears to be low in the horse, it should be considered an uncommon but potentially fatal risk factor. PMID:15715060

Aleman, Monica; Nieto, Jorge E; Carr, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Gary P

2005-01-01

141

Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms  

PubMed Central

Background Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. Methods A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. Results The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66–78%). A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1–8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec) to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. Conclusion The results show that routines for endoparasite control can be improved in many horse establishments. To increase the knowledge of equine endoparasite control and follow the recommendations for how to reduce the spread of anthelmintic resistance, a closer collaboration between parasitologists and veterinary practitioners is desirable. PMID:17897438

Lind, Eva Osterman; Rautalinko, Erik; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J; Morrison, David A; Höglund, Johan

2007-01-01

142

The effect of feed moisture and temperature on tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extruded chestnuts.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the effect of extrusion processing on tannin reduction, phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant and anitimicrobial activity. Extrusion temperature (120 and 140 °C) and feed moisture (25% and 28%) were used on the tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Extrusion cooking reduced tannin content up to 78%, and improved antioxidant activity from 12.89% to 21.17% in a concentration dependant manner without affecting its antimicrobial activity that varied from 250 to 500 mg. The time-kill assay confirmed the ability of extruded chestnut to reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa count below detectable limit that reduced the original inoculum by 3log10 CFU/mL. Overall, the results showed that extrusion cooking might serve as a tool for tannin reduction and could improve the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of chestnut, which might be helpful for chestnut related products in the food industry. PMID:23993601

Obiang-Obounou, Brice Wilfried; Ryu, Gi Hyung

2013-12-15

143

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Water Chestnut Extract on Cytokine Responses via Nuclear Factor-?B-signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Water chestnut (Trapa japonica Flerov.) is an annual aquatic plant. In the present study, we showed that the treatment of water chestnut extracted with boiling water resulted in a significant increase 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and decrease the intracellular H2O2-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, water chestnut extract (WCE) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production and suppressed mRNA and protein expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. The cytokine array results showed that WCE inhibited inflammatory cytokine secretion. Also, WCE reduced tumor necrosis factor-?-and interleukin-6-induced nuclear factor-?B activity. Furthermore, during sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritation of human skin, WCE reduced SLS-induced skin erythema and improved barrier regeneration. These results indicate that WCE may be a promising topical anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25593649

Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Choi, Byung-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Soo

2015-01-01

144

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Water Chestnut Extract on Cytokine Responses via Nuclear Factor-?B-signaling Pathway.  

PubMed

Water chestnut (Trapa japonica Flerov.) is an annual aquatic plant. In the present study, we showed that the treatment of water chestnut extracted with boiling water resulted in a significant increase 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and decrease the intracellular H2O2-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, water chestnut extract (WCE) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production and suppressed mRNA and protein expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. The cytokine array results showed that WCE inhibited inflammatory cytokine secretion. Also, WCE reduced tumor necrosis factor-?-and interleukin-6-induced nuclear factor-?B activity. Furthermore, during sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritation of human skin, WCE reduced SLS-induced skin erythema and improved barrier regeneration. These results indicate that WCE may be a promising topical anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25593649

Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Choi, Byung-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Soo

2015-01-01

145

Inhibitory effects of polyphenols from water chestnut (Trapa japonica) husk on glycolytic enzymes and postprandial blood glucose elevation in mice.  

PubMed

Water chestnut is an annual aquatic plant that grows in Asia and Europe. Although water chestnut has been used as food and herbal medicine, its physiological functions and active ingredients are unknown. Here, we extracted polyphenols from the husk of the Japanese water chestnut (Trapa japonica) and assessed their effects on blood glucose levels. Three hydrolysable polyphenolics (WCPs), eugeniin, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-?-d-glucopyranose, and trapain, were predominant with dry-weight contents of 2.3 ± 0.0, 2.7 ± 0.1, and 1.2 ± 0.1g/100g, respectively. These WCPs exhibited inhibitory activity against ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. Whereas (-)-epigallocatechin gallate does not inhibit ?-amylase, WCPs exhibited high inhibitory activity (>80% at 0.15 mg/mL). In mice, administration of WCPs (40 mg/kg) significantly reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels as assessed by the carbohydrate tolerance test. PMID:25038647

Yasuda, Midori; Yasutake, Kenichiro; Hino, Madoka; Ohwatari, Hitomi; Ohmagari, Nozomi; Takedomi, Kazumi; Tanaka, Takashi; Nonaka, Gen-Ichiro

2014-12-15

146

Causative ehrlichial organisms in Potomac horse fever.  

PubMed

An ehrlichia was consistently isolated from the peripheral blood leukocyte fraction of ponies that had been experimentally infected with Potomac horse fever by whole blood transfusion from naturally infected horses. The organism was propagated in a human histiocyte cell line for 3 to 5 weeks and then inoculated intravenously or intradermally into healthy adult ponies. Clinical signs of Potomac horse fever, which varied in the degree of severity, occurred 9 to 14 days post-inoculation in all of the ponies. One pony died 20 days post-inoculation. The ehrlichial organism was reisolated in the human histiocyte cell line from the blood leukocyte fraction of all of the experimental ponies on each day that samples were examined (days 9, 10, 11, 19, and 39). These organisms were identical to those originally detected in the wall of the intestine of ponies with clinically diagnosed Potomac horse fever when compared by light and electron microscopy and an immunofluorescence labeling technique. The immunofluorescent antibody titer became positive in a pony at 20 days postinjection. These results indicate that the ehrlichial organisms is the causative agent of Potomac horse fever. PMID:4030092

Rikihisa, Y; Perry, B D

1985-09-01

147

Original article Chiral inversion of fenoprofen in horses and dogs  

E-print Network

Original article Chiral inversion of fenoprofen in horses and dogs: an in vivo-in vitro study geldings and three male beagle dogs, following intravenous doses of racemic FPF (1 mg/kg in horses), R(-)FPF (0.5 mg/kg in horses, 1 mg/kg in dogs), and S(+)FPF (0.5 mg/kg in horses, 1 mg/kg in dogs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

148

African Horse-Sickness Killed-Virus Tissue Culture Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Formalized African horse-sickness (AHS) type 9 virus cultivated in monkey kidney stable (MS) cell cultures was experimentally used for immunizing horses. Inactivated vaccines prepared either from viscerotropic or neurotropic type 9 AHS virus produced antibodies in vaccinated horses. Immunity developed in all horses vaccinated with various amounts of the vaccine, and protected them from infection, when challenged 5 weeks after vaccination. PMID:4226381

Ozawa, Y.; Bahrami, S.

1966-01-01

149

Hardware Trojan Horse Detection Using Gate-Level Characterization  

E-print Network

Hardware Trojan Horse Detection Using Gate-Level Characterization Miodrag Potkonjak Ani Nahapetian Angeles, CA 90095 {miodrag, ani, tmassey}@cs.ucla.edu ABSTRACT Hardware Trojan horses (HTHs been a huge research and development effort for detecting software Trojan horses, surprisingly, HTHs

Potkonjak, Miodrag

150

Techniques and Technology Immunocontraception in Wild Horses: One Inoculation  

E-print Network

-injection, 2-year-duration PZP vaccine in free-roaming wild horses (Equus caballus) in Nevada, USA adjuvant, controlled-release vaccine contraception, Equus caballus, field study, free-roaming wild horse Protection Act in 1971, management of wild horses (Equus caballus) on public lands has proven biologically

Abraham, Nader G.

151

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Horses  

E-print Network

Animal Health Diagnostic Center Lyme Disease Multiplex Testing for Horses Background on Lyme disease and Lyme diagnostics in horses Lyme disease is induced by the spirochete B. burgdorferi-end hosts for B. burgdorferi 1 . Not all infected horses develop clinical signs of Lyme disease. If clinical

Keinan, Alon

152

Disease features in horses with induced equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever).  

PubMed

Fifty-five horses were inoculated IV and/or SC with materials containing Ehrlichia risticii, ie, infected whole blood, buffy coat cells, or cell culture, to study clinical and hematologic features of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever). Major clinical and hematologic features of induced E risticii infection were biphasic increase in rectal temperature with peak increases of 38.9 C and 39.3 C on postinoculation days (PID) 5 and 12, respectively; depression; anorexia; decreased WBC count (maximal decrease of 47% on PID 12); and diarrhea from PID 14 to PID 18. Increased WBC count was an inconsistent feature, with a maximal increase of 51.5% on PID 20. During times of decreased and increased WBC counts, lymphocyte/neutrophil ratios remained fairly constant. However, not all horses had all clinical and hematologic features, and these features were present in different degrees among horses. Increased rectal temperature, depression, anorexia, and decreased WBC count were more consistent features, whereas diarrhea developed in 73% of the horses. Of 55 horses, 39 (71%) had all clinical and hematologic features of the disease (classic disease), whereas 16 (29%) horses did not have greater than or equal to 1 of these features (nonclassic disease). The E risticii titer in the blood (ehrlichemia) was maximum during the peak increase in rectal temperature. In 55 horses, mortality was 9%. Significant differences (P greater than 0.5) in clinical and hematologic features were not detected between horses that survived and those that died of E risticii infection. PMID:3189992

Dutta, S K; Penney, B E; Myrup, A C; Robl, M G; Rice, R M

1988-10-01

153

Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents. The role of the cotyledonary petiole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak ( Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ?6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to produce seedlings suggests a far greater resilience of white oaks to seed predation than previously anticipated.

Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Steele, Michael A.

2013-01-01

154

Fatty acid composition and cyclopropene fatty acid content of China-chestnuts ( Sterculia monosperma , ventenat)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The China-chestnuts (Sterculia monosperma, Ventenat) were examined for their fatty acid composition by gas liquid chromatography, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance\\u000a spectroscopy. The oil in nuts contained cyclopropene fatty acids (CPFA) determined as silver nitrate derivatives of their\\u000a esters. The values (area %) for the major fatty acids as methyl esters were 23.47% C16:0, 1.25% C16:1, 2.56% C18:0, 24.89%\\u000a C18:1,

S. K. Berry

1982-01-01

155

Synthesis of chestnut-bur-like palladium nanostructures and their enhanced electrocatalytic activities for ethanol oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pd nanostructures with highly open structure and huge surface area by reducing Na2PdCl4 with ascorbic acid and using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a surfactant in an aqueous solution. The prepared Pd nanostructures had an average overall size of 70 nm and were composed of dozens of needle-like thin arms, originating from the same core, with an average thickness of 2.3 nm; the arms looked like chestnut-burs. Time evolution of Pd nanostructures implied that small Pd particles generated at the early stage of the reaction by fast reduction grew via the particle attachment growth mechanism. The morphology and size of the Pd nanostructures could be readily controlled by varying the concentration of CPC; depending on the amount of CPC, the reduction rates varied the morphology of the Pd nanostructures. Because of the huge surface area and possible catalytically active sites, the prepared chestnut-bur-like Pd nanostructures exhibited greater electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation compared to other Pd nanocatalysts, including cubic and octahedral Pd nanocrystals, and even commercial Pd/C.We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pd nanostructures with highly open structure and huge surface area by reducing Na2PdCl4 with ascorbic acid and using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a surfactant in an aqueous solution. The prepared Pd nanostructures had an average overall size of 70 nm and were composed of dozens of needle-like thin arms, originating from the same core, with an average thickness of 2.3 nm; the arms looked like chestnut-burs. Time evolution of Pd nanostructures implied that small Pd particles generated at the early stage of the reaction by fast reduction grew via the particle attachment growth mechanism. The morphology and size of the Pd nanostructures could be readily controlled by varying the concentration of CPC; depending on the amount of CPC, the reduction rates varied the morphology of the Pd nanostructures. Because of the huge surface area and possible catalytically active sites, the prepared chestnut-bur-like Pd nanostructures exhibited greater electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation compared to other Pd nanocatalysts, including cubic and octahedral Pd nanocrystals, and even commercial Pd/C. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional TEM images of Pd nanostructures (Fig. S1-S4). See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06410g

Ye, Seong Ji; Kim, Do Youb; Kang, Shin Wook; Choi, Kyeong Woo; Han, Sang Woo; Park, O. Ok

2014-03-01

156

Stereotypic Behaviour in the Stabled Horse: Causes, Effects and Prevention without Compromising Horse Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparently functionless, repetitive behaviour in horses, such as weaving or crib-biting has been difficult to explain for\\u000a behavioural scientists, horse owners and veterinarians alike. Traditionally activities such as these have been classed amongst\\u000a the broad descriptor of undesirable stable vices and treatment has centred on prevention of the behaviours per se rather than\\u000a addressing their underlying causes. In contrast, welfare

J. Cooper; P. McGreevy

157

Stereotypic Behaviour in the Stabled Horse: Causes, Effects and Prevention Without Compromising Horse Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparently functionless, repetitive behaviour in horses, such as weaving or crib-biting has been difficult to explain for\\u000a behavioural scientists, horse owners and veterinarians alike. Traditionally activities such as these have been classed amongst\\u000a the broad descriptor of undesirable stable vices and treatment has centred on prevention of the behaviours per se rather than\\u000a addressing their underlying causes. In contrast, welfare

J. Cooper; P. McGreevy

158

[Effects of volatiles from chestnut on host preference of adult Conogethes punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)].  

PubMed

Through field survey and the tests of behavioral response, EAG response, and multiple-choice oviposition, this paper studied the effects of volatiles from Nongda No. 1 chestnut (NC) and Heyuan oil chestnut (HC) on the host-selection behavior of adult Conogethes punctiferalis. The field survey in 2004-2008 showed that the moth-eaten rate of NC fruits by adult C. punctiferalis was 16.1%-25.3%, while that of HC fruits was less than 5%. The volatiles from NC fruits and leaves were more attractive to female than to male moths, and the fruit volatiles were more attractive than leaf volatiles. However, the volatiles from HC fruits and leaves were not attractive to both female and male moths. The EAG response showed that female moths had significantly higher response to NC fruit volatiles than to HC's, but male moths had no significant difference in this response. For both NC and HC, the EAG responses of female and male moths to fruit volatiles were higher than those to leaf volatiles. The number of eggs laid by female moths was much greater on NC fruits than on NC leaves and on HC fruits and leaves, but had no significant differences on the latter three. PMID:20462021

Chen, Bing-Xu; Dong, Yi-Zhi; Liang, Guang-Wen; Lu, Heng

2010-02-01

159

Quality of fresh and seasoned fat of Cinta Senese pigs as affected by fattening with chestnut.  

PubMed

This trial was aimed to verify the effect of fattening with chestnut on carcass characteristics and on quality traits of products of Cinta Senese breed. Thirty-three Cinta Senese pigs were allotted into three groups. One group was fed a commercial feedstuff (0-CH), the other two groups were fed chestnut for one (1-CH) or three (3-CH) months. Pigs were slaughtered at 130 kg of live weight. The 1-CH group showed significantly lower pH value at 24h (P<0.05). For sample joint dissection a significant effect (P<0.05) of feeding system was found only on intermuscular fat, highest in 1-CH. A significant effect of feeding system (P<0.05) was found on physical and chemical parameters of Longissimus lumborum: the 3-CH group showed the highest values (P<0.05) of L, a, b, drip loss, cooking loss, shear force and intramuscular fat on raw meat. The 3-CH showed significantly higher level (P<0.05) of unsaturation for the highest percentage of MUFA and PUFA. PMID:22950977

Pugliese, C; Sirtori, F; Acciaioli, A; Bozzi, R; Campodoni, G; Franci, O

2013-01-01

160

Complex of solonetzes and vertic chestnut soils in the manych-gudilo depression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphological, physicochemical, and isotopic properties of a two-member soil complex developed under dry steppe have been studied in the central part of the Manych Depression. The soils are formed on chocolate-colored clayey sediments, and have pronounced microrelief and the complex vegetation pattern. A specific feature of the studied soil complex is the inverse position of its components: vertic chestnut soil occupies the microhigh, while solonetz is in the microlow. The formation of such complexes is explained by the biological factor, i.e., by the destruction of the solonetzic horizon under the impact of vegetation and earth-burrowing animals with further transformation under steppe plants and dealkalinization of the soil in the microhighs. The manifestation of vertic features and shrink-swell process in soils of the complex developing in dry steppe are compared with those in the vertic soils of the Central Pre-Caucasus formed under more humid environment. It is supposed that slickensides in the investigated vertic chestnut soil are relict feature inherited from the former wetter stage of the soil development and are subjected to a gradual degradation at present. In the modern period, vertic processes are weak and cannot be distinctly diagnosed. However, their activation may take place upon an increase of precipitation or the rise in the groundwater level.

Kovda, I. V.; Morgun, E. P.; Il'ina, L. P.

2013-01-01

161

Quick detection of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in chestnut dormant buds by nested PCR.  

PubMed

Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) develops in chestnut buds that remain asymptomatic from oviposition (June-July) until budburst; it is, thus, easily spread by plant material used in propagation. Therefore, it is particularly interesting to identify infested plant batches before their movement. Unfortunately, a non-destructive method for checking buds has not yet been developed, and the only technique available is the screening of a bud sample. The visual investigation is long and requires highly skilled and trained staff. The purpose of this work was to set up an effective and fast method able to identify the presence of first instar larvae of D. kuriphilus in a large number of chestnut buds by PCR. Four primer pairs were designed on nuclear and mitochondrial sequences of a set of seven gall wasp taxa and tested on five different cynipid's DNA. Nested diagnostic PCR was carried out on DNA extracted from samples of 2 g buds simulating four levels of infestation (larvae were added to uninfested buds); 320 bp amplicon of 28S sequence was chosen as a marker to detect one larva out of 2 g buds. The method showed a potential efficiency of 5000 to 15,000 buds per week, depending on bud size. PMID:22280881

Sartor, C; Marinoni, D Torello; Quacchia, A; Botta, R

2012-06-01

162

Investigating the origins of horse domestication.  

PubMed

Before the development of firearms, the horse was crucial to warfare and, before the invention of the steam engine, it was the fastest and most reliable form of land transport. It is crucial to the life of nomadic pastoralists on the Eurasian steppe and played a major role in the evolution of human society during the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Understanding the human past requires knowledge of the origins and development of horse husbandry. The problem of being able to identify the early stages of horse domestication is one that many researchers have grappled with for the most part unsuccessfully. Until recently the most important criteria used had been that of increased relative abundance. That is, around 3500 BC, in some parts of Eurasia, there was an apparent increase in the proportions of horse bones and teeth found in archaeological deposits by comparison with preceding periods. However, other evidence suggests that the observed increase during the Copper Age could be explained as well, or even better, by increased hunting rather than by domestication. PMID:11314236

Levine, M A

1999-04-01

163

HORSE: a simulation of the horizon supercomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

HORSE is a program that combines the simulation of the HORIZON multiprocessor architecture with an interactive debugging environment. The models for processing elements, interconnection network, and memory modules include enough detail to allow execution time to be estimated. Debugging commands, invoked by either the user or the program, can inspect the state of computation without perturbing the sequence of future

Daniel J. Kopetzky

1988-01-01

164

Stretching Exercises for Horses: Are They Effective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to present research in both animals and humans that support the use of stretching exercises in horses as a means of increasing range of motion, improving body flexibility and posture, and preventing injury by strengthening the supportive tissues. Too often veterinarians may overlook the importance of stretch exercises. This could partially be due to a lack of

Ava Frick

2010-01-01

165

Potentially Novel Ehrlichia Species in Horses, Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichia sp. DNA was amplified from 4 Ehrlichia-seroreactive horses from Mérida, Nicaragua. Sequencing of 16S rDNA, sodB, and groEL genes indicated that the bacterium is most likely a novel Ehrlichia species. The tick vector and the potential for canine and human infection remain unknown. PMID:25625228

O’Nion, Victoria L.; Montilla, Hernan J.; Qurollo, Barbara A.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Tornquist, Susan J.

2015-01-01

166

A Dark Horse Medium in Basic Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Dark Horse (DH) board is described and discussed as one medium which may be utilized in the classroom. The DH Board holds fairly heavy three-dimensional display objects and consists of two components: a special material which serves as the display surface and an adhesive material which is fixed to objects displayed. (SC)

Eckert, Sidney W.

1974-01-01

167

Horsing Around on Saturn Robert J. Vanderbei  

E-print Network

Horsing Around on Saturn Robert J. Vanderbei Operations Research and Financial Engineering recently. In this paper, we argue that Saturn's rings and inner moons are in much more stable orbits than and show that this horseshoeing phenomenon greatly stabilizes the rings of Saturn. This paper is part

Vanderbei, Robert J.

168

SELECTING, FEEDING, AND CARING FOR LIGHT HORSES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

RESOURCE MATERIAL FOR USE IN HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON LIGHT HORSE BREEDS, SELECTION, NUTRITION, CARE, AND FACILITIES. TEACHERS SHOULD HAVE COMPETENCY IN GENERAL AGRICULTURE, AND STUDENTS SHOULD HAVE…

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

169

Euthanasia of horses - alternatives to the bullet  

Microsoft Academic Search

EUTHANASIA of horses is probably one of the most demanding procedures a veterinary surgeon is likely to face. There are emotive issues involved which make it akin to the euthanasia of small animals and logistics which make it akin to the euthanasia of farm animals. The safety of personnel in the vicinity is paramount and adequate restraint and facilities are

Derek Knottenbelt

1995-01-01

170

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents The cloning of equids was achieved in 2003, several years after the birth of Dolly the sheep and also after the cloning of numerous other laboratory and farm animal species. The delay was because of the limited development in the horse of more classical-assisted reproductive techniques required for success- ful cloning, such as oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo

Cesare Galli; Irina Lagutina; Roberto Duchi; Silvia Colleoni; Giovanna Lazzari

2008-01-01

171

Potentially novel ehrlichia species in horses, nicaragua.  

PubMed

Ehrlichia sp. DNA was amplified from 4 Ehrlichia-seroreactive horses from Mérida, Nicaragua. Sequencing of 16S rDNA, sodB, and groEL genes indicated that the bacterium is most likely a novel Ehrlichia species. The tick vector and the potential for canine and human infection remain unknown. PMID:25625228

O'Nion, Victoria L; Montilla, Hernan J; Qurollo, Barbara A; Maggi, Ricardo G; Hegarty, Barbara C; Tornquist, Susan J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2015-02-01

172

Hypereosinophilia in a horse with intestinal lymphosarcoma.  

PubMed Central

Paraneoplastic eosinophilia is reported in dogs, cats, and humans. Hypereosinophilia (an eosinophil count greater than 1.5 x 10(9) L) is often associated with metastasis and a poor prognosis. This report describes a case of paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia in a pony. Neoplasia should be included in the differential diagnoses in a horse with eosinophilia. PMID:9360792

Duckett, W M; Matthews, H K

1997-01-01

173

75 FR 76453 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EG10-68-000; EG10- 69-000; EG10-70-000; EG10-71-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco Wind, LLC; Arizona Solar One LLC; Criterion Power Partners, LLC; Sundevil Power Holdings,...

2010-12-08

174

ABUNDANCE OF NON-BREEDING HORNED LARKS AND CHESTNUT-COLLARED LONGSPURS ON GRAZED AND RESTED SEMIARID GRASSLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

We counted birds monthly from October through April of 1999-2000 and 2000- 2001 on regularly grazed and rested (since 1973) semiarid grassland of central New Mexico. Horned larks (Eremophila alpestris) and chestnut-collared longspurs (Calcarius ornatus) accounted for 66% and 10% of all birds detected, respectively. We examined variation in counts of these species relative to grazing history, site, and vegetation

Jeffrey F. Kelly; David L. Hawksworth; Raymond A. Meyer; Timothy Brush

2006-01-01

175

Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities  

PubMed Central

The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m3). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority—80%–90%—detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

2014-01-01

176

Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment  

PubMed Central

Background Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus) in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Results Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Conclusion Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that < 30 horses used > 25 km2 of trails in our study area. PMID:19903355

2009-01-01

177

A zoonotic genotype of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in horses.  

PubMed

This is the first report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in an equid species. Feces from 195 horses from 4 locations in Colombia were examined for E. bieneusi by polymerase chain reaction. Of these, 21 horses (10.8%) were found positive for E. bieneusi . The prevalence of E. bieneusi in horses <1 yr of age was significantly higher (23.7%) than in horses >1 yr of age (2.5%). No significant differences in prevalence were observed between male (13.7%) and female horses (9%). Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the SSUrRNA locus identified 3 genotypes. Two genotypes appear to be unique to horses and were named Horse 1 and Horse 2. A third genotype, identified as genotype D, was detected in 4 horses. This genotype, previously reported to infect humans, beaver, cattle, dogs, falcons, foxes, macaques, muskrats, pigs, and raccoons, is the most ubiquitous of the E. bieneusi zoonotic genotypes. Our findings indicate that E. bieneusi from horses can be a potential source of infection for humans. PMID:19799490

Santín, Mónica; Vecino, Jesús A Cortés; Fayer, Ronald

2010-02-01

178

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2011-01-01

179

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2011-01-01

180

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2014-01-01

181

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2014-01-01

182

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2010-01-01

183

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2010-01-01

184

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2014-01-01

185

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2013-01-01

186

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2013-01-01

187

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2010-01-01

188

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2013-01-01

189

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2011-01-01

190

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2012-01-01

191

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2012-01-01

192

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2012-01-01

193

Antimicrobial resistance in commensal faecal Escherichia coli of hospitalised horses  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the impact of hospitalisation and antimicrobial drug administration on the prevalence of resistance in commensal faecal E. coli of horses. Faecal samples were collected from ten hospitalised horses treated with antimicrobials, ten hospitalised horses not treated with antimicrobials and nine non-hospitalised horses over a consecutive five day period and susceptibility testing was performed on isolated E. coli. Results revealed that hospitalisation alone was associated with increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance in commensal E. coli of horses. Due to the risk of transfer of resistance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, veterinarians need to be aware of possible resistance in commensal bacteria when treating hospitalised horses. PMID:21851747

2010-01-01

194

Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues.  

PubMed

The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference "Twilight". In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms. PMID:24860704

Moreton, Joanna; Malla, Sunir; Aboobaker, A Aziz; Tarlinton, Rachael E; Emes, Richard D

2014-01-01

195

Comparisons of ectomycorrhizal colonization of transgenic american chestnut with those of the wild type, a conventionally bred hybrid, and related fagaceae species.  

PubMed

American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) dominated the eastern forests of North America, serving as a keystone species both ecologically and economically until the introduction of the chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica, functionally eradicated the species. Restoration efforts include genetic transformation utilizing genes such as oxalate oxidase to produce potentially blight-resistant chestnut trees that could be released back into the native range. However, before such a release can be undertaken, it is necessary to assess nontarget impacts. Since oxalate oxidase is meant to combat a fungal pathogen, we are particularly interested in potential impacts of this transgene on beneficial fungi. This study compares ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization on a transgenic American chestnut clone expressing enhanced blight resistance to a wild-type American chestnut, a conventionally bred American-Chinese hybrid chestnut, and other Fagaceae species. A greenhouse bioassay used soil from two field sites with different soil types and land use histories. The number of colonized root tips was counted, and fungal species were identified using morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and DNA sequencing. Results showed that total ectomycorrhizal colonization varied more by soil type than by tree species. Individual fungal species varied in their colonization rates, but there were no significant differences between colonization on transgenic and wild-type chestnuts. This study shows that the oxalate oxidase gene can increase resistance against Cryphonectria parasitica without changing the colonization rate for ectomycorrhizal species. These findings will be crucial for a potential deregulation of blight-resistant American chestnuts containing the oxalate oxidase gene. PMID:25326296

D'Amico, Katherine M; Horton, Thomas R; Maynard, Charles A; Stehman, Stephen V; Oakes, Allison D; Powell, William A

2015-01-01

196

Primary and secondary metabolite composition of kernels from three cultivars of Portuguese chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) at different stages of industrial transformation.  

PubMed

Chestnut (Castanea sativa) is an important basic food in rural diets and a major starch crop used in a similar way to potatoes. Chestnuts are a fundamental economic resource in the "chestnut regions" not only for the fruit but also for the chestnut wood. Chestnuts have become increasingly important with respect to human health, for example, as an alternative gluten-free flour source. Chestnuts are also a rich source of other beneficial compounds, but there have been few studies on the composition during processing. In this study, we analyzed the chemical composition of three Portuguese cultivars at different stages of industrial processing. The chestnut cultivars were Longal, Judia, and Martaínha. All three cultivars had high moisture contents but were low in ash, crude fat, and crude protein contents, with high starch and low fiber contents. The free amino acid contents, including various essential amino acids, varied depending on the cultivar. All three cultivars also had a significant content of polyphenolics with gallic acid; ellagic acid was predominant among hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Many of these compounds are known to exert significant positive effects on human health. The one-way analysis of variance for fresh chestnut shows significant differences among the three cultivars for most of the studied parameters. The same statistical analysis applied to each one of the two cultivars (Judia and Longal) sampled for the four processing steps analyzed indicates a significant effect of this factor in practically all of the constituents. On the other hand, the two-way analysis of variance shows that, besides the residual, the processing step and the interaction cultivar x processing step were the factors that more contributed for the total variation observed in the constituents analyzed, while the contribution of cultivar was much less significant. PMID:17407304

Do Carmo Barbosa Mendes De Vasconcelos, Maria; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira Cardoso, Jorge Ventura

2007-05-01

197

The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results, as expected, show that management didn't affect root mechanical properties, whereas root distribution within the soil profile did. In terms of additional root cohesion, values are higher in the managed stand, and lower in the abandoned one, at least in the first 50 cm of soil. In the abandoned stand, in fact, roots reach deeper layers of soil (100 cm) than the managed one (50 cm), mainly because of an unexpected greater soil depth. To assess the implication of such results in terms of slope stability, a simple infinite slope model was applied to the two conditions. The results showed that the abandoned stand is prone to instability also with a low level of saturation. On the contrary, by applying the additional root cohesion profile obtained in the managed stand to the steeper slopes, stability should be guaranteed, except in the case of total saturation. In conclusion, although more investigations are required especially to extend the number of stands, coppicing practice seem to be fundamental to prevent shallow landsliding in sweet chestnut forests over cohesionless slopes.

Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

2013-04-01

198

Identification of major phenolic compounds of Chinese water chestnut and their antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Chinese water chestnut (CWC) is one of the most popular foods among Asian people due to its special taste and medical function. Experiments were conducted to test the antioxidant activity and then determine the major phenolic compound components present in CWC. CWC phenolic extract strongly inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and exhibited a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which was superior to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), two commercial used antioxidants. Furthermore, the CWC extract was found to have a relatively higher reducing power, compared with BHT. The major phenolic compounds present in CWC tissues were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) as (-)-gallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate and (+)-catechin gallate. This study suggests that CWC tissues exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions. PMID:17851436

You, Yanli; Duan, Xuewu; Wei, Xiaoyi; Su, Xinguo; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Jian; Ruenroengklin, Neungnapa; Jiang, Yueming

2007-01-01

199

Volatile compounds and bacterial community dynamics of chestnut-flour-based sourdoughs.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were the monitoring of the microbial dynamics by means of a polyphasic approach based on conventional isolation techniques and PCR-DGGE-based methods in different chestnut-based sourdoughs and the evaluation of the impact of fermentation on volatile organic compounds formation during sourdoughs ripening. Members of the Lactobacillus plantarum group and Pediococcus pentosaceous dominated the sourdough ecosystems. Nevertheless, RAPD-PCR allowed recording a relevant genotypic biodiversity among strains coming from gluten-free flour combinations. Volatile compounds were characterised by GC/MS. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified, mainly alcohols, esters, acids, aldehydes and ketones. Principal component analysis of samples at the beginning and at the end of ripening offered a good separation of the samples and highlighted the effect of fermentation on the sensorial profile. PMID:23870973

Aponte, M; Boscaino, F; Sorrentino, A; Coppola, R; Masi, P; Romano, A

2013-12-01

200

Intravascular neutrophilic granulocyte kinetics in horses.  

PubMed

Intravascular granulocyte kinetics in 4 healthy horses were determined with chromium-51 as the cell label. The disappearance rate of labeled granulocytes was an exponential function. Mean total blood granulocyte pool (+/- 1 SD) was 5.65 +/- 1.514 X 10(8) granulocytes/kg of body weight, of which 2.71 +/- 0.715 X 10(8) granulocytes/kg were circulating and 2.94 +/- 0.876 X 10(8) granulocytes/kg were marginated along blood vessel walls. The mean disappearance half-life (T1/2) was 10.5 +/- 1.33 hours and the mean granulocyte turnover rate was 8.84 +/- 1.495 X 10(8) granulocytes/kg/day. A granulokinetic trial performed on a horse recovering from a recent infection revealed increases in all granulokinetic measurements. PMID:7332122

Carakostas, M C; Moore, W E; Smith, J E

1981-04-01

201

Adverse Effects of Zilpaterol Administration in Horses: Three Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three healthy horses were fed the beta-adrenergic agonist feed additive zilpaterol at a dosage of 0.17 mg\\/kg body weight to study zilpaterol elimination kinetics. Soon after ingestion of zilpaterol, the horses developed skeletal muscle tremors and tachycardia. A 75 to 87.5% reduced dose of zilpaterol was fed to the horses 24 hours after the initial dose; administration was discontinued thereafter.

Sarah A. Wagner; Michelle S. Mostrom; Carolyn J. Hammer; Jennifer F. Thorson; David J. Smith

2008-01-01

202

Experimental inoculation of equine coronavirus into Japanese draft horses.  

PubMed

Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrheic fecal sample to confirm infection after inoculation and to investigate the clinical course and virus shedding patterns of ECoV. Virus neutralization tests showed that all three horses became infected with ECoV. Two of the three horses developed clinical signs similar to those observed during ECoV outbreaks, including fever, anorexia, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. All horses excreted a large amount of virus into their feces for more than 9 days after inoculation regardless of the presence or absence of clinical signs, which suggests that feces are an important source of ECoV infection. ECoV was also detected in nasal swabs from all horses, suggesting that respiratory transmission of ECoV may occur. Both symptomatic horses developed viremia, while the asymptomatic horse did not. White blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentrations changed relative to the clinical condition of the inoculated horses; these may be useful markers for monitoring the clinical status of horses infected with ECoV. This is the first report of induction of clinical signs of ECoV infection in horses by experimental inoculation. These clinical and virological findings should aid further investigation of the pathogenesis of ECoV. PMID:25139547

Nemoto, Manabu; Oue, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yoshinori; Kanno, Toru; Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Ueno, Takanori; Katayama, Yoshinari; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

2014-12-01

203

Conditioning taste aversions to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) in horses.  

PubMed

Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) is a serious poisoning problem for horses grazing on infested rangelands in the western United States. Our objectives were to determine 1) whether lithium chloride or apomorphine would condition aversions to palatable foods, and at what doses, and 2) whether horses could be averted to fresh locoweed in a pen and grazing situation. Apomorphine was not an acceptable aversive agent because at the dose required to condition an aversion (> or = 0.17 mg/kg BW), apomorphine induced unacceptable behavioral effects. Lithium chloride given via stomach tube at 190 mg/kg BW conditioned strong and persistent aversions to palatable feeds with minor signs of distress. Pen and grazing tests were conducted in Colorado to determine if horses could be averted to fresh locoweed. Pen tests indicated that most horses (5/6) were completely averted from locoweed. Treated horses ate 34 g of fresh locoweed compared to 135 g for controls (P < 0.01) during three pen tests when offered 150 g per test. One horse (T) in the treatment group ate locoweed each time it was offered in the pen, but ate no locoweed while grazing. In the grazing trial, control horses averaged 8.6% of bites of locoweed (P < 0.01) during the grazing portion of the study, whereas treated horses averaged <0.5%. One treated horse (S) accounted for all consumption; he consumed 15% of his bites as locoweed in a grazing bout on d 2 of the field study. Thereafter, he was dosed a second time with lithium chloride and ate no locoweed in the subsequent 5 d. Three of six horses required two pairings of lithium chloride with fresh locoweed to condition a complete aversion. The results of this study indicate that horses can be averted from locoweed using lithium chloride as an aversive agent, and this may provide a management tool to reduce the risk of intoxication for horses grazing locoweed-infested rangeland. PMID:11831531

Pfister, J A; Stegelmeier, B L; Cheney, C D; Ralphs, M H; Gardner, D R

2002-01-01

204

Horses naturally infected by Trypanosoma vivax in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we reported the first outbreak of the infection by Trypanosoma vivax in horses in southern Brazil, a non-endemic region where bovines have only recently been found infected by this trypanosome\\u000a species. We evaluated 12 horses from a farm in southern Brazil, where four horses displayed pale mucous membranes, fever,\\u000a weight loss, and swelling of abdomen, prepuce, or

Aleksandro S. Da Silva; Herakles A. Garcia Perez; Márcio M. Costa; Raqueli T. França; Diego De Gasperi; Régis A. Zanette; João A. Amado; Sonia T. A. Lopes; Marta M. G. Teixeira; Silvia G. Monteiro

2011-01-01

205

Structure of Oxalacetate Acetylhydrolase, a Virulence Factor of the Chestnut Blight Fungus*  

PubMed Central

Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxalacetate is the main OAH substrate, but the enzyme also acts as a lyase of (2R,3S)-dimethyl malate with ?1000-fold lower efficacy. The crystal structure of OAH was determined alone, in complex with a mechanism-based inhibitor, 3,3-difluorooxalacetate (DFOA), and in complex with the reaction product, oxalate, to a resolution limit of 1.30, 1.55, and 1.65 ?, respectively. OAH assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit exhibiting an (?/?)8 barrel fold and each pair swapping the 8th ?-helix. An active site “gating loop” exhibits conformational disorder in the ligand-free structure. To obtain the structures of the OAH·ligand complexes, the ligand-free OAH crystals were soaked briefly with DFOA or oxalacetate. DFOA binding leads to ordering of the gating loop in a conformation that sequesters the ligand from the solvent. DFOA binds in a gem-diol form analogous to the oxalacetate intermediate/transition state. Oxalate binds in a planar conformation, but the gating loop is largely disordered. Comparison between the OAH structure and that of the closely related enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, suggests potential determinants of substrate preference. PMID:20558740

Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nuss, Donald L.; Herzberg, Osnat

2010-01-01

206

Aortic-Iliac Thrombosis in a Horse  

PubMed Central

A horse with a history of chronic lameness was presented with signs of abdominal pain. A diagnosis of intestinal obstruction was initially made and treatment was ineffective. Further examination revealed an aortic obstruction in the area of the bifurcation of the iliac vessels. Postmortem results supported the clinical findings. The clinical signs of aortic-iliac thrombosis are consistent with the lameness pattern and abdominal distress. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422112

Crawford, W. H.

1982-01-01

207

Prevalence and Treatment of Tapeworms in Horses  

PubMed Central

A study was initiated to determine the prevalence of tapeworms in horses in Southern Ontario and to investigate the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate, niclosamide and mebendazole. Fecal samples were taken from 580 horses of various breeds, ages and sexes in 24 locations and Anoplocephala perfoliata was found in 13.6%. This was regarded as a minimum, the true rate being probably significantly higher and the reasons for this are discussed. A brief review of the life cycle and effects of tapeworms in horses and a comparison of two flotation techniques for the diagnosis of A. perfoliata eggs in feces is given. Pyrantel pamoate, niclosamide and mebendazole were compared for efficacy in field and critical trials. In field trials, pyrantel base and niclosamide at 6.6 and 50 mg/kg respectively were found to be effective, but in critical trials their efficacy was poor, 15 and 5.6% respectively. These anthelmintics at these dose rates caused only an elimination of the terminal egg bearing segments and were without significant effect on the entire tapeworm. When pyrantel base was administered at 13.2 and 19.8 mg/kg (twice and three times the therapeutic dose rate for nematodes respectively) the efficacy was 97.8 and 100%. It would appear that pyrantel pamoate administered at 13.2 mg pyrantel base/kg is an effective therapeutic dose for tapeworms in horses. Further dose titration studies are needed for niclosamide. Mebendazole was without effect at up to four (35.2 mg/kg) times the therapeutic dose for nematodes. PMID:487360

Slocombe, J. O. D.

1979-01-01

208

Surgical management of intussusception in the horse.  

PubMed

During a 14 year period, 27 of 310 horses undergoing laparotomy because of abdominal pain were found to have an intussusception involving the small intestine (16 cases) or caecum (11 cases). The clinical signs, operative findings and techniques adopted to overcome the obstruction are described. An evaluation of possible predisposing factors provided further evidence of the important role of the tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata in initiating intussusception involving the ileum and caecum. PMID:3758012

Edwards, G B

1986-07-01

209

Local Anesthetics as Pain Therapy in Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local Anesthetics as Pain Therapy in Horses Thomas J. Doherty MVB, MSc, and M. Reza Seddighi DVM, PhD\\u000aDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA\\u000aThis article describes the rationale behind the use of systemically administered lidocaine as an analgesic. The analgesic efficacy of intravenously administered

Seddighi Reza DVM

2010-01-01

210

Acute hemorrhage and blood transfusions in horses.  

PubMed

Treatment of acute hemorrhage in the horse involves targeted medical management and also may involve surgical stabilization. This article provides an approach to the initial stabilization and information on available topical hemostats. The practice of blood collection and transfusion is also described, with attention to new information on viability of transfused equine blood, potential negative effects of blood transfusion, and methods of cell salvage. PMID:25016500

Mudge, Margaret C

2014-08-01

211

Influence of inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on fatty acid profile of dry-cured ham from Celta pig breed.  

PubMed

The effect of the inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on fatty acid profile of dry-cured Celta ham was studied. Twelve hams of each type (from three different diets: concentrate, mixed and chestnut) were used. Significant differences between treatments (P<0.001) were found regarding total saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Ham samples from the mixed and chestnut groups had less SFA (35.57% and 35.63%, respectively) with respect to ham samples from the concentrate group (40.33%), while hams from the mixed and chestnut batches showed higher values of MUFA than hams from the concentrate group (50.70 vs. 49.79 vs. 43.85, P<0.001, respectively). From a nutritional point of view, Celta hams from chestnut diets could be considered as healthier regarding their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/Hypercholesterolemic ratio). Discriminant analysis selected five variables (C(16:0), C(16:1cis-9), C(20:2), C(20:3n-6) and C(20:4n-6)) and calculated two discriminating functions which verifies the presence of chestnut in the finishing diet. PMID:22682688

Bermúdez, Roberto; Franco, Inmaculada; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier; Lorenzo, José M

2012-12-01

212

Perspectives for the biological control of Cameraria ohridella.  

PubMed

The horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) is a serious invasive pest of Aesculus hippocastanum in Europe. The larvae of this species feed on leaf parenchyma and can reduce the tree growth. We studied the impact of parasitoids on C. ohridella in the Czech Republic and also searched for entomopathogenic fungi associated with this pest. The results showed that the rate of parasitism varied between 5% and 15% in most cases. The most parasitized stages of C. ohridella were spinning stages and especially pupae. The most abundant parasitoid species were Minotetrastichus frontalis, Pnigalio sp. and Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae). All species are polyphagous. Using the Galleria-bait method we isolated many strains of entomopathogenic fungi. Dominant species were Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Paecilomyces farinosus and Beauveria bassiana. The perspectives of fungal bioagents in control of C. ohridella is discussed. PMID:18399483

Zemek, Rostislav; Prenerová, Eva; Volter, Lubomír; Weyda, Frantisek; Skuhravý, Václav

2007-01-01

213

Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in horses and Greyhound dogs  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine administered orally to horses and Greyhound dogs. A secondary objective was to assess terbinafine metabolites. Six healthy horses and six healthy Greyhound dogs were included in the pharmacokinetic data. The targeted dose of terbinafine was 20 and 30 mg/kg for horses and dogs, respectively. Blood was obtained at predetermined intervals for the determination of terbinafine concentrations with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8.1 and 8.6 hours for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration was 0.31 and 4.01 ?g/mL for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The area under the curve (to infinity) was 1.793 hr*?g/mL for horses and 17.253 hr*?g/mL for Greyhounds. Adverse effects observed in one study horse included pawing at the ground, curling lips, head shaking, anxiety and circling, but these resolved spontaneously within 30 minutes of onset. No adverse effects were noted in the dogs. Ions consistent with carboxyterbinafine, n-desmethylterbinafine, hydroxyterbinafine and desmethylhydroxyterbinafine were identified in horse and Greyhound plasma after terbinafine administration. Further studies are needed assessing the safety and efficacy of terbinafine in horses and dogs. PMID:21492187

Williams, Megan M.; Davis, Elizabeth G.; KuKanich, Butch

2010-01-01

214

Ileal impaction in 245 horses: 1995–2007  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify parameters that would assist in determining the probability of a successful outcome with medical management versus surgical intervention in horses with ileal impaction. Medical records of 245 horses admitted for ileal impaction were reviewed and placed into 2 groups: medical (med) and surgical (sx) treatment. Persistence of abdominal pain, gastric reflux, frequency of analgesic administration, and 1-year survival were evaluated. There were no differences in signalment, abdominal pain, or heart rate among groups; however, significantly more sx horses had peritoneal fluid abnormalities (51%) and produced gastric reflux (62%) than did med horses (38% and 15%, respectively). Eighty-nine percent of med horses required repeated analgesic administration for successful resolution. One-year survival was 91% for sx horses and 92% for med horses. Horses with ileal impaction responsive to analgesic therapy with minimal gastric reflux are likely to be managed successfully with medical treatment. Horses with persistent abdominal pain and gastric reflux are candidates for surgery. PMID:22210940

Fleming, Kelly; Mueller, P.O. Eric

2011-01-01

215

The horse as a potential reservoir of salmonella  

E-print Network

of this reservoir have not been fully appreciated. Forty (52K) of 75 horses, from which 7 different intestinal sites were sampled following euthanasia, were found to harbor salmonellae. Seventeen (42. 5yb) of the 40 horses arried more than one serotype. Four... salmonella serotypes were isolated from each of 2 horse, . Salmonella was isolated most frequently from he contents of. tne small intestine and from the cecal wall. Zn another approach to the salmonella problemy 10 horses on a broodma e farm found...

Silverthorne, Carol Ann

1978-01-01

216

Feeding and Caring for a Yearling 4-H Futurity Horse  

E-print Network

a horse that can be enjoyed for years to come. A horse is considered a yearling on January 1 of the first calendar year after its foaling date. However, in many yearling futurity projects, the horse begins training immediately after it has been... weaned. Special care must be taken with these young horses because many of them are kept in stalls and given hay and concentrate rations instead of being al- lowed to graze on grass throughout the day. They also are often subjected to forced exercise...

Antilley, Teri J.; Sigler, Dennis

2009-04-23

217

A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab).  

PubMed

Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output. PMID:20492428

Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

2010-07-01

218

Clinical trials of efficacy of praziquantel horse paste 9% against tapeworms and its safety in horses.  

PubMed

The aim of this study with horses and a few ponies naturally infected with tapeworms was to confirm in clinical trials the efficacy and safety of a praziquantel horse paste 9%. The field trials were conducted in 1997 and 1998 in Canada, France, Germany and New Zealand. A secondary aim of the study in Canada was to determine if a 24h post-treatment fecal sample provides the best estimate of the prevalence of tapeworms in horses when using a fecal examination technique. Fecal samples were taken from each of 1062 animals at least three times pre-treatment (PRT). In Canada, fecal samples were examined using the Cornell-Wisconsin centrifugal flotation technique, and in France, Germany and New Zealand using a centrifugation/flotation technique. In each trial, the animals were randomized into two treatment groups: praziquantel horse paste 9% at 1mg/kg body weight (BW) and untreated. Fecal samples were taken from each animal nine times post-treatment and over a period of 5 weeks. In Canada, a fecal sample was taken also at 24h after treatment. Personnel examining the samples were "blinded" to treatment groups. On the day of treatment, each treated animal was examined for adverse reactions to the paste 10min after treatment and then hourly for 4h. Thereafter, each animal was examined once daily for 5 weeks. In Canada, Germany and New Zealand, the only tapeworm egg found was Anoplocephala perfoliata. In France, A. perfoliata was the most common species and a few animals had A. magna and Paranoplocephala mamillana. The prevalence of A. perfoliata among animals sampled in Canada, France, Germany and New Zealand was 51.8, 34.4, 13.1 and 26.2%, respectively. A total of 248 animals were treated with the praziquantel paste and all except one accepted it readily. There were 292 animals completing the study, 219 treated and 73 untreated. In Canada, Germany and New Zealand, the efficacy of the praziquantel horse paste 9% against A. perfoliata was 100%. In France, the efficacy against A. perfoliata, A. magna and P. mamillana was 90.9, 100 and 100%, respectively. The best estimate of prevalence for A. perfoliata in a herd was derived from fecal samples taken 24h after treatment. At 24h, 22 of 23 treated horses were positive, whereas on any day pre-treatment fewer horses were positive. Adverse reactions observed were mild to moderate colic and in only two treated horses. PMID:17101225

Slocombe, J Owen D; Heine, Josef; Barutzki, Dieter; Slacek, Brigitte

2007-03-31

219

Polyphenolic compounds as chemical markers of wine ageing in contact with cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood.  

PubMed

The nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of four red wines, one white, and one rosé aged using barrels and chips of cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS, to identify the phenolic compounds that woods other than oak contribute to wines, and if some of them can be used as chemical markers of ageing with them. A total of 68 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were identified, 15 found only in wines aged with acacia wood, 6 with cherry wood, and 1 with chestnut wood. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify wines aged in contact with these woods. In addition, some differences in the nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of wines were detected related to both the levels of compounds provided by each wood species and the different evolution of flavonols and flavanols in wines during ageing in barrels or in contact with chips. PMID:24054214

Fernández de Simón, B; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Martínez, J; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

2014-01-15

220

Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). These sites lie within the boundaries of the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant (Figure 2). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to protect local groundwater resources in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with reporting requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY); Energy Systems submitted the 1994 Part 1 GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime to the TDEC in February 1995 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1995a).

NONE

1995-09-01

221

Dissociation of testosterone and aggressive behavior during the breeding season in male chestnut-collared longspurs, Calcarius ornatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many species of birds, expression of male–male aggression during breeding elicits increased secretion of testosterone. Elevations in testosterone in turn enhance expression of aggressive behavior in appropriate contexts. However, in other species, the relationship between elevated plasma testosterone and aggressive behavior is subtle or nonexistent. We examined the relationship between high testosterone and male–male aggression in the chestnut-collared longspur,

Sharon E. Lynn; John C. Wingfield

2008-01-01

222

Exploration of a rare population of Chinese chestnut in North America: stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships.  

PubMed

With the transport of plants around the globe, exotic species can readily spread disease to their native relatives; however, they can also provide genetic resistance to those relatives through hybrid breeding programmes. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was an abundant tree species in North America until its decimation by introduced chestnut blight. To restore chestnut in North America, efforts are ongoing to test putative blight-resistant hybrids of Castanea dentata and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima), but little is known about the ecology of C. mollissima. In a forest in northeastern USA in which C. mollissima has become established, we explored questions of stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships of C. mollissima offspring to an adjacent parent orchard. We found that C. mollissima was adapted and randomly distributed among native species in this relatively young forest. The genetics of the C. mollissima population compared with its parents indicated little effect of selection pressure as each of the parent trees contributed at least one offspring. The ease with which this exotic species proliferated calls to question why C. mollissima is rare elsewhere in forests of North America. It is likely that a time window of low animal predation allowed seedlings to establish, and the shallow soil at this site limited the maximum forest canopy height, permitting the characteristically short-statured C. mollissima to avoid suppression. Our results indicate that because C. mollissima exhibited pioneer species characteristics, hybrids between C. mollissima and C. dentata have the potential to be successful pioneer species of future forests in North America, and we challenge the paradigm that exotic tree species are wholly detrimental to native biodiversity. We contend that exotic tree species should be assessed not only by their level of threat to native species, but also by their potential positive impacts on ecosystems via hybrid breeding programmes. PMID:25336337

Miller, Amy C; Woeste, Keith E; Anagnostakis, Sandra L; Jacobs, Douglass F

2014-01-01

223

Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (?s1-, ?-, ?-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt. PMID:25200788

Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

2014-11-01

224

Multiple introductions and recombination in Cryphonectria hypovirus 1: perspective for a sustainable biological control of chestnut blight  

PubMed Central

Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) is a mycovirus which decreases the virulence of its fungal host Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight recently introduced in Europe. The understanding of the evolutionary processes which have shaped CHV1 populations in Europe is required to develop a sustainable biocontrol strategy targeting chestnut blight and effective in European chestnut forests. To retrace the evolutionary history of CHV1, we analyzed sequences from two genomic regions on a collection of 55 CHV1 strains from France and northern Spain, two countries where multiple introductions of C. parasitica occurred. Several recombination events and variable selection pressures contributed to CHV1 evolution, agreeing with a non-clock-like diversification rate. These two mechanisms may be at the origin of CHV1 population diversity observed in western Europe. Considering the actual prevalence of CHV1 and its association with host genotypes, multiple introductions of CHV1 may have occurred in Europe, some of them directly from Asia and some of them through North America. Although some viral strains remained with low frequency in their introduction area, multiple infections might have allowed homologous recombination within parental sequences. Some of these recombinant lineages are associated with the spread of CHV1 in European regions. PMID:24944571

Feau, Nicolas; Dutech, Cyril; Brusini, Jérémie; Rigling, Daniel; Robin, Cécile

2014-01-01

225

Invasion history and demographic pattern of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 across European populations of the chestnut blight fungus  

PubMed Central

We reconstructed the invasion history of the fungal virus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1) in Europe, which infects the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. The pattern of virus evolution was inferred based on nucleotide sequence variation from isolates sampled across a wide area in Europe at different points in time. Phylogeny and time estimates suggested that CHV-1 was introduced together with its fungal host to Europe and that it rapidly colonized the central range along the south facing slopes of the Alps and the north-east facing slopes of the Dinaric Alps. These central populations were the source for two waves of simultaneous invasions toward the southern Balkans and Turkey, as indicated by migration rates. Our results showed that the evolutionary scenarios for CHV-1 and C. parasitica were spatially congruent. As infection with CHV-1 reduces the pathogenicity of C. parasitica toward the chestnut tree, CHV-1 invasions of the newly established C. parasitica populations probably prevented the development of devastating chestnut blight epidemics in Europe. We propose that in this, and supposedly in other pathosystems, geographic, vegetation-related, demographic, economic, and political factors may help explain the correlated invasion pattern of a parasite and its host. PMID:23301186

Bryner, Sarah F; Rigling, Daniel; Brunner, Patrick C

2012-01-01

226

Effects of gamma radiation on the biological, physico-chemical, nutritional and antioxidant parameters of chestnuts - a review.  

PubMed

Gamma radiation has been used as a post-harvest food preservation process for many years. Chestnuts are a seasonal product consumed fresh or processed, and gamma irradiation emerged recently as a possible alternative technology for their post-harvest processing, to fulfil the requirements of international phytosanitary trade laws. After harvest and storage, several problems may occur, such as the presence of infestations and development of microorganisms, namely rotting and fungi. These diminish the quality and safety of the product, decreasing the yield along the production chain. In fruits, gamma irradiation treatment is for two main purposes: conservation (ripening delay) and insect disinfestation (phytosanitary treatment). In this review, the application of gamma irradiation to chestnuts is discussed, including production data, the irradiated species and the effects on biological (sprouting, rotting, respiration rate, insects, worms and fungi), physico-chemical (color, texture, and drying rate), nutritional (energetic value, proteins, sugars and fatty acids) and antioxidant (tocopherols, ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) parameters. These changes are the basis for detecting if the food product has been irradiated or not. The validation of standards used for detection of food irradiation, as applied to chestnuts, is also discussed. PMID:22735498

Antonio, Amilcar L; Carocho, Márcio; Bento, Albino; Quintana, Begoña; Luisa Botelho, M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2012-09-01

227

Multiple introductions and recombination in Cryphonectria hypovirus 1: perspective for a sustainable biological control of chestnut blight.  

PubMed

Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) is a mycovirus which decreases the virulence of its fungal host Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight recently introduced in Europe. The understanding of the evolutionary processes which have shaped CHV1 populations in Europe is required to develop a sustainable biocontrol strategy targeting chestnut blight and effective in European chestnut forests. To retrace the evolutionary history of CHV1, we analyzed sequences from two genomic regions on a collection of 55 CHV1 strains from France and northern Spain, two countries where multiple introductions of C. parasitica occurred. Several recombination events and variable selection pressures contributed to CHV1 evolution, agreeing with a non-clock-like diversification rate. These two mechanisms may be at the origin of CHV1 population diversity observed in western Europe. Considering the actual prevalence of CHV1 and its association with host genotypes, multiple introductions of CHV1 may have occurred in Europe, some of them directly from Asia and some of them through North America. Although some viral strains remained with low frequency in their introduction area, multiple infections might have allowed homologous recombination within parental sequences. Some of these recombinant lineages are associated with the spread of CHV1 in European regions. PMID:24944571

Feau, Nicolas; Dutech, Cyril; Brusini, Jérémie; Rigling, Daniel; Robin, Cécile

2014-05-01

228

76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Department reserves the right to inform the Attorney...to ensure that these animals are not being abused...Subjects in 9 CFR Part 11 Animal welfare, Horses...Department reserves the right to inform the Attorney...Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health...

2011-05-27

229

Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski's…

Milton, John R.

230

Adverse effects of zilpaterol administration in horses: three cases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three healthy horses were fed 0.17 mg/kg body weight of the beta-adrenergic agonist zilpaterol to determine zilpaterol elimination kinetics. Shortly after treatment, each horse developed skeletal muscle tremors, tachycardia, and serological abnormalities lasting several days. A 75% to 87.5% reduced ...

231

Conditioning taste aversions to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) in horses1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) is a seri- ous poisoning problem for horses grazing on infested rangelands in the western United States. Our objec- tives were to determine 1) whether lithium chloride or apomorphine would condition aversions to palatable foods, and at what doses, and 2) whether horses could be averted to fresh locoweed in a pen and grazing situa- tion. Apomorphine

J. A. Pfister; B. L. Stegelmeier; C. D. Cheney; M. H. Ralphs; D. R. Gardner

232

Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses  

E-print Network

Animal Health Advisory Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella in Horses The NYS Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory has isolated Salmonella Group C2 from cultures submitted from 4 different horse farms in either to most antibiotics. A Salmonella newport strain (Group C2) was recently associated with the closing

Keinan, Alon

233

Sinusitis associated with nasogastric intubation in 3 horses  

PubMed Central

Sinusitis has not been reported as a complication of long-term nasogastric intubation in horses. We describe 3 horses that developed nosocomial sinusitis following abdominal surgery with associated perioperative nasogastric intubation. Sinusitis was suspected by the presence of malodorous discharge and confirmed by percussion, upper airway endoscopy, radiographs (n = 3), and bacterial culture (n = 1). PMID:24891638

Nieto, Jorge E.; Yamout, Sawsan; Dechant, Julie E.

2014-01-01

234

Equine Rabies: What Every Horse Owner Should Know  

E-print Network

1 Equine Rabies: What Every Horse Owner Should Know Amanda M. House, DVM Diplomate ACVIM (Large Animal) Assistant Professor, UF CVM Overview · What causes Rabies · Statistics and Epidemiology · How does my horse get Rabies? · Clinical Signs ofClinical Signs of Rabies · Diagnosis · Treatment

Watson, Craig A.

235

Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race  

PubMed Central

We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities. PMID:22547844

Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M.

2011-01-01

236

Dominant black in horses DP Sponenberg MC Weise  

E-print Network

Note Dominant black in horses DP Sponenberg MC Weise Department of Biosciences and Pathobiology - The existence of dominant black in horses is supported by a black stallion producing 12 black or near black and no other color of foals from bay mares, and 16 black or nearly black and no other color of foals from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

237

Degradation of azo dye with horse radish peroxidase (HRP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes are recalcitrant carcinogenic compounds and have dermal and immunological effect on human beings. Conventional methods are not effective in the treatment of azo dyes. The oxidation capability of horse radish per- oxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on direct yellow 12 dye was investigated and was found to be very effective treatment methodology. HRP was extracted from horse

VASANTHA LAXMI MADDHINNI; HIMA BINDU VURIMINDI; ANJANEYULU YERRAMILLI; Trent Lott

2006-01-01

238

Preference and demand for exercise in stabled horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operant conditioning and two choice preference tests were used to assess the motivation of horses to be released from straight and from box stalls. The motivations for food, a companion, and release into a paddock were compared when the horses had to work for each commodity at increasing fixed ratios of responses (panel presses) to reward in an equine operant

Joyce Lee; Toby Floyd; Hollis Erb; Katherine Houpt

2011-01-01

239

2004 EASTERN NATIONAL 4-H HORSE BOWL ONE ON ONE  

E-print Network

including the coronary band S. AYHCLM B101 ­ 2L 18. Q. The domestic horse belongs to which species? A. Equus Caballus S. Evans, p. 13 19. Q Which region of the horse's vertebral column is the most flexible? A

New Hampshire, University of

240

A Comparative Gene Map of the Horse (Equus caballus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative gene map of the horse genome composed of 127 loci was assembled based on the new assignment of 68 equine type I loci and on data published previously. PCR primers based on consensus gene sequences conserved across mammalian species were used to amplify markers for assigning 68 equine type I loci to 27 horse synteny groups established previously

Alexandre R. Caetano; Yow-Ling Shiue; Leslie A. Lyons; Steven J. O'Brien; Thomas F. Laughlin; Ann T. Bowling; James D. Murray

1999-01-01

241

Characterization of the horse ( Equus caballus ) IGHA gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide sequences of the immunoglobulin constant heavy chain genes of the horse have been described for IGHM, IGHG and IGHE genes, but not for IGHA. Here, we provide the nucleotide sequence of the genomic IGHA gene of the horse ( Equus caballus), including its secretion region and the transmembrane exon. The equine IGHA gene shows the typical structure of a

Bettina Wagner; Irene Greiser-Wilke; Douglas F. Antczak

2003-01-01

242

Cloning and phylogenetic analyses of serine/threonine kinase class defense-related genes in a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose'  

PubMed Central

Background Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a promising wild fruit crop in Southwest China. However, chestnut rose suffers from several important diseases such as powdery mildew and black spot. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of plant immunity related genes will strengthen the evolutionary knowledge of plant immune system and will facilitate the utilization of candidate genes in disease resistance breeding programs. Findings Serine/threonine kinase (STK) genes, encoding one of the important proteins for defense signal transduction, were cloned from 'chestnut rose'. Fifteen STK sequences were obtained by degenerate PCR. Sequence analysis showed that nine of them have continued open reading frames, and they are separated into five classes based on sequence analysis. Interestingly, one of the classes (STK V) showed less than 40% similarity to any other class, possibly representing new type genes from chestnut rose. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the new type STK V genes are single copy, while all the other genes have several copies in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of STK genes from chestnut rose and 21 plant species revealed that most chestnut rose genes show close relationship with Rosaceae homologs, while the STK V genes are rather ancient and form a unique clade distantly from plant homologs. Conclusions We cloned nine STK genes from a wild fruit crop 'chestnut rose', of which a new type of STK genes was identified. The new type STK genes exist as single copies in the genome, and they are phylogenetically distant to plant homologs. The polymorphic STK genes, combined with other plant immunity genes, provide plenty of resources to be utilized to defend against pathogens attack. PMID:20637125

2010-01-01

243

Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii Exposure among Horses in Korea.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibodies by ELISA in horses reared in Korea. Serum samples were collected from 2009 through 2013 from 816 horses reared in Korea. Analysis was performed using a commercial toxoplasmosis ELISA kit to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies. Overall, 24 out of 816 horses (2.9%) were seropositive for T. gondii. The result was analyzed by age, gender, breed and region. Significant differences were observed according to breed and region (P<0.05). This is the first nationwide serological investigation of T. gondii in horses reared in Korea. The study results reveal that T. gondii occurs nationwide in Korean horses. PMID:25231435

Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Seo, Min-Goo; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi; Lee, Won-Ja

2014-09-18

244

In vitro metabolic studies using homogenized horse liver in place of horse liver microsomes.  

PubMed

The study of the metabolism of drugs, in particular steroids, by both in vitro and in vivo methods has been carried out in the authors' laboratory for many years. For in vitro metabolic studies, the microsomal fraction isolated from horse liver is often used. However, the process of isolating liver microsomes is cumbersome and tedious. In addition, centrifugation at high speeds (over 100 000 g) may lead to loss of enzymes involved in phase I metabolism, which may account for the difference often observed between in vivo and in vitro results. We have therefore investigated the feasibility of using homogenized horse liver instead of liver microsomes with the aim of saving preparation time and improving the correlation between in vitro and in vivo results. Indeed, the preparation of the homogenized horse liver was very simple, needing only to homogenize the required amount of liver. Even though no further purification steps were performed before the homogenized liver was used, the cleanliness of the extracts obtained, based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, was similar to that for liver microsomes. Herein, the results of the in vitro experiments carried out using homogenized horse liver for five anabolic steroids-turinabol, methenolone acetate, androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione, testosterone, and epitestosterone-are discussed. In addition to the previously reported in vitro metabolites, some additional known in vivo metabolites in the equine could also be detected. As far as we know, this is the first report of the successful use of homogenized liver in the horse for carrying out in vitro metabolism experiments. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21381223

Wong, Jenny K Y; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M

2011-06-01

245

Aphelenchoides hylurgi as a Carrier of White, Hypovirulent Cryphonectria parasitica and its Possible Role in Hypovirulence Spread on Blight-Controlled American Chestnut Trees  

PubMed Central

Individual nematodes were isolated from American chestnut blight-controlled cankers to determine if they were carriers of biocontrol (hypovirulent) isolates of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. These hypovirulent isolates have a white fungal colony phenotype due to infection by the virus CHV1. Of 1,620 individual Aphelenchoides hylurgi isolated, 29.4% carried propagules of the blight fungus and 8.2% of these yielded white hypovirulent isolates. In attraction and movement tests in Petri plates, A. hylurgi moved 2 cm over 24 hr to mycelial discs of white hypovirulent C. parasitica and pigmented C. parasitica strains in nearly equal numbers. After 2 days of nematode movement to fungal colonies on agar in Petri plates and 21 days of nematode growth, large numbers of A. hylurgi were extracted from both white hypovirulent and pigmented C. parasitica strain colonies. Lower numbers of A. hylurgi were extracted from excised young American chestnut blight cankers that were inoculated with A. hylurgi and incubated for 22 days. A. hylurgi inoculated on the surface of an excised American chestnut canker moved within 24 hr to the small, spore-bearing C. parasitica reproductive structures (stromata) on the canker surface. The results indicate that A. hylurgi may play a role in the spread of hypovirulence on American chestnut trees. PMID:22736825

Eisenback, J. D.; Yancey, M. M.; Templeton, J.

2009-01-01

246

Potential of enterococci isolated from horses.  

PubMed

Faecal samples of 122 horses (from farms in Slovakia) were examined to select enterococci to study their probiotic potential for their further use as additives. Each gram of faeces contained 1.0-5.0 cfu (log 10) of enterococci. Of the 43 isolates, 25 (58.1%) were identified as Enterococcus faecium, 3 strains were (6.9%) Enterococcus mundtii and one strain was identified as E. faecalis. Fourteen isolates were not characterized further. A significant proportion of the isolates were resistant to kanamycin, vancomycin and gentamicin. Low urease activity of enterococci dominated. The values of lactic acid ranged from 0.98 to 1.91 mmol/L. Porcine fibronectectin and bovine lactoferrin were bound weakly by tested enterococci, while bovine fibrinogen was bound more strongly. Enterococci from horses did not bind bovine apotransferrin. The isolates adhered with the same ability to human as well as to canine mucus. At least one enterocin gene was detected among 16 analyzed isolates. Ent B gene was detected in all strains tested (16, 100%), followed by the genes ent A, ent P and ent L50B. Three suitable candidates-the strains of E. faecium EF 412, EF 462 and EF 491 were selected for further detail studies and possibilities to be used as additives. PMID:18508395

Lauková, Andrea; Simonová, Monika; Strompfová, Viola; Styriak, Igor; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Várady, Marián

2008-10-01

247

Movement initiation in groups of feral horses.  

PubMed

Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often. PMID:24220794

Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit; Farmer, Kate; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

2014-03-01

248

In vitro antiviral activity of chestnut and quebracho woods extracts against avian reovirus and metapneumovirus.  

PubMed

Field evidences have suggested that a natural extract, containing tannins, could be effective against poultry enteric viral infections. Moreover previous studies have shown that vegetable tannins can have antiviral activity against human viruses. Based on this knowledge three different Chestnut (Castanea spp.) wood extracts and one Quebracho (Schinopsis spp.) wood extract, all containing tannins and currently used in the animal feed industry, were tested for in vitro antiviral activity against avian reovirus (ARV) and avian metapneumovirus (AMPV). The MTT assay was used to evaluate the 50% cytotoxic compounds concentration (CC(50)) on Vero cells. The antiviral properties were tested before and after the adsorption of the viruses to Vero cells. Antiviral activities were expressed as IC(50) (concentration required to inhibit 50% of viral cytopathic effect). CC(50)s of tested compounds were > 200 microg/ml. All compounds had an extracellular antiviral effect against both ARV and AMPV with IC(50) values ranging from 25 to 66 microg/ml. Quebracho extract had also evident intracellular anti-ARV activity (IC(50) 24 microg/ml). These preliminary results suggest that the examined vegetable extracts might be good candidates in the control of some avian virus infections. Nevertheless further in vivo experiments are required to confirm these findings. PMID:19435637

Lupini, C; Cecchinato, M; Scagliarini, A; Graziani, R; Catelli, E

2009-12-01

249

CYP1, a hypovirus-regulated cyclophilin, is required for virulence in the chestnut blight fungus  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl cis–trans isomerases that are highly conserved throughout eukaryotes and are the cellular target of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A (CsA). We cloned cyp1, a cyclophilin A-encoding gene in the phytopathogenic fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, and showed that this gene was downregulated following infection by a virulence-attenuating hypovirus. The function of cyp1 was further investigated by construction of a cyp1 deletion mutant. Although the wild-type C. parasitica strain EP155 was sensitive to CsA, the ?cyp1 strain was highly tolerant to CsA, indicating that CYP1 was the target of CsA. Deletion of cyp1 resulted in reduced virulence when inoculated to chestnut stems. Transcriptional analysis revealed that deletion of cyp1 also reduced transcript levels for genes encoding key components of the heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate-binding protein signalling pathway that are essential for sensing environmental cues and are involved in C. parasitica development and virulence. PMID:21355996

CHEN, MIN-MEI; JIANG, MINGGUO; SHANG, JINJIE; LAN, XIUWAN; YANG, FENG; HUANG, JINGKUAN; NUSS, DONALD L.; CHEN, BAOSHAN

2012-01-01

250

Chestnut shell as unexploited source of fermentable sugars: effect of different pretreatment methods on enzymatic saccharification.  

PubMed

Chestnut shell (CS) is an agronomic residue mainly used for extraction of antioxidants or as adsorbent of metal ions. It also contains some polysaccharide that has not been considered as potential source of fermentable sugars for biofuel production until now. In this study, the effect of different pretreatment methods on CS was evaluated in order to obtain the greatest conversion of cellulose and xylan into fermentable sugars. Hot acid impregnation, steam explosion (acid-catalysed or not), and aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) were selected as pretreatments. The pretreated biomass was subjected to saccharification with two enzyme cocktails prepared from commercial preparations, and evaluation of the best pretreatment and enzyme cocktail was based on the yield of fermentable sugars produced. As AAS provided the best result after preliminary experiments, enhancement of sugar production was attempted by changing the concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, enzymes, and CS. The optimal pretreatment condition was 10 % ammonium hydroxide, 70 °C, 22 h with CS at 5 % solid loading. After saccharification of the pretreated CS for 72 h at 50 °C and pH 5.0 with a cocktail containing cellulase (Accellerase 1500), beta-glucosidase (Accellerase BG), and xylanase (Accellerase XY), glucose and xylose yields were 67.8 and 92.7 %, respectively. PMID:23640265

Maurelli, Luisa; Ionata, Elena; La Cara, Francesco; Morana, Alessandra

2013-07-01

251

Specific features of oil biodegradation in meadow-chestnut soils of the Stavropol region (model experiment)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil biodegradation in oil-contaminated meadow-chestnut soils under the impact of different biological preparations was studied in a model experiment. The soils differed from one another in the age of contamination and in the presence/absence of the stage of preliminary biological remediation. Background uncontaminated soils served as the control. To characterize oil degradation, the indices of basal respiration (BR) and dehydrogenase activity (DA) and data on oil concentrations in the soil were applied. It was shown that the most complete biodegradation of oil takes place in the soils with recent oil contamination in comparison with the soils contaminated with oil for 6.5 and 19.5 months. Maximum BR values were observed in the soils contaminated with oil for 19.5 months, whereas maximum DA values were observed in the soils contaminated with oil for 6.5 months. According to the multivariate analysis of variance, the major factors affecting the rate of oil biodegradation were the age of oil contamination, the biological preparation applied, and the presence (or absence) of the stage of preliminary biological remediation. These factors specified 18, 72, and 3% of the total variance of the residual oil content in the samples, respectively. The type of the applied biological preparations had the major effect on the BR and DA indices specifying 63 and 53% of their total variances, respectively. The results obtained in this study can be used as recommendations for remediation of oil-contaminated soils in the Stavropol region.

Ibatullina, I. Z.; Semenova, T. A.; Yakovlev, A. S.

2012-03-01

252

Phosphatase activity in the surface and buried chestnut soils of the Volga-Don interfluve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phosphatase activity (PA) was studied in the chestnut paleosols buried in 1718-1720 under the Anna Ivanovna rampart in the southern part of the Privolzhskaya Upland and in the middle of the third millennium BC under the burial mound of the Bronze Age on the Northern Yergeni Upland; the background analogues of these soils were also examined. The PA values in the fresh soil samples varied from 2.5 to 37 mg of P2O5/10 g of soil per h with maximums in the A1 horizon of the surface soils and in the B1 horizon of the paleosols. The PA values depended on the time of storage of the samples: with time, they increased by 2.6-2.9 times in the A1 horizon of the background surface soil and decreased by 20-60% in the other soil samples. The specific distribution patterns of the PA values in the soil profiles remained the same independently of the time of storage of the samples. Relatively small amounts of the soil samples were sufficient for the reliable determination of the PA: 1-2 g for the A1 horizon and 3-5 g for the B1 and B2 horizons. The time of incubation with the substrate had to be increased up to 4 h for the long-stored samples.

Khomutova, T. E.; Demkina, T. S.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkin, V. A.

2012-04-01

253

Cryopreservation of zygotic embryo axes and somatic embryos of European chestnut.  

PubMed

This work describes experiments demonstrating the feasibility of long-term conservation of Castanea sativa germplasm through cryopreservation of embryonic axes or somatic embryo clumps. Between 93 % and 100 % of excised embryonic axes of recalcitrant chestnut seeds survived storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) following desiccation in a laminar flow cabinet to moisture contents of 20-24 % (on a fresh weight basis), and some 63 % subsequently developed as whole plants. Desiccation to moisture contents less than 19 % produced damage resulting in loss of organized plant development after cryostorage, allowing only root growth. When 6-8 mg clumps of globular or heart-shaped somatic embryos were precultured for 7 days on high-sucrose medium and then desiccated to a moisture content of 25 % before storage in LN, the embryogenesis resumption level after thawing was 33 %. When the embryo clumps were precultured for 3 days on high-sucrose medium followed by 60 min application of PVS2 vitrification solution before cryostorage, the post-storage embryogenesis resumption level was 68 %. PMID:15031743

Corredoira, Elena; San-José, M Carmen; Ballester, Antonio; Vieitez, Ana M

2004-01-01

254

Social and spatial structure and range use by Kaimanawa wild horses (Equus caballus: Equidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured horse density, social structure, habitat use, home ranges and altitudinal micro-climates in the south-western Kaimanawa ranges east of Waiouru, New Zealand. Horse density in the Auahitotara ecological sector averaged 3.6 horses.km-2 and ranged from 0.9 to 5.2 horses.km-2 within different zones. The population's social structure was like that of other feral horse populations with an even adult sex

Wayne L. Linklater; Elissa Z. Cameron; Kevin J. Stafford; Clare J. Veltman

2000-01-01

255

Population pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in horses: preliminary analysis.  

PubMed

Population pharmacokinetic of marbofloxacin was investigated on 21 healthy and 16 diseased horses to assess interindividual variability of drug exposure. Demographic, physiologic and disease covariables were tested using mixed effects models. As a preliminary analysis, this study has demonstrated that none of the tested covariables were significant in regression models for compartmental volumes or clearance of distribution, but the clinical status of the horse (healthy/diseased) was a significant covariable (P < 0.01) for systemic clearance. Clearance had a lower mean and a higher variance for diseased horses than healthy horses, with respectively a mean of 0.209 and 0.284 L/h/kg and a coefficient of variation of 52 and 15%. Consequently, variability of AUC was greater in diseased horses. Considering an AUC/MIC ratio below 60 h as a prediction of poor efficacy, a dosage regimen of 2 mg/kg intravenous was deemed to be inadequate for 19% of diseased horses if the MIC of the bacteria was 0.1 microg/mL. However 93% of diseased horses could achieve a ratio above 125 h, predicting a very good efficacy, for the MIC(90) of Enterobacteriacae (0.027 microg/mL). PMID:15500564

Peyrou, M; Doucet, M Y; Vrins, A; Concordet, D; Schneider, M; Bousquet-Mélou, A

2004-10-01

256

Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.  

PubMed

A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Ko?ár, Petr; Ko?árová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybní?ek, Michal; S?vová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavr?ík, Hanuš

2014-01-01

257

Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research  

PubMed Central

A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Ko?ár, Petr; Ko?árová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybní?ek, Michal; S?vová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavr?ík, Hanuš

2014-01-01

258

Chronic Venous Disease (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... only recommended when there is an infection. Horse chestnut seed extract reduces swelling and leg size in ... a dose of 300 mg twice daily. Horse chestnut seed extract is available as a dietary supplement ...

259

Exercise studies in horses: 1. A simple telemetry system for recording excercise ECGs in horses.  

PubMed

A robust low cost portable radiotelemetry system is described for the horse and its method of operation and advantages briefly discussed. The equipment consisted of 2 electrodes forming a bipolar lead, a transmitter, a receiver and a writing device. The sitting, application and immobilising of the electrodes was a most important factor in obtaining good quality recordings. ECGs were recorded at all paces and also while jumping and the results proved satisfactory. PMID:862606

Hill, G; Atkins, R; Littlejohn, A; Kruger, J M; Bowles, F

1977-04-01

260

Metabolic studies of turinabol in horses.  

PubMed

Turinabol (4-chloro-17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-1,4-androstadien-3-one) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid. As in the case of other anabolic steroids, it is a prohibited substance in equine sports. The metabolism of turinabol in human has been reported previously; however, little is known about its metabolic fate in horses. This paper describes the studies of both the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of turinabol in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting turinabol administration. For the in vitro studies, turinabol was incubated with fresh horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixture were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after trimethylsilylation. The results showed that the major biotransformation of turinabol was hydroxylation at the C6, C16 and C20 sites to give metabolites 6beta-hydroxyturinabol (M1), 20-hydroxyturinabol (M2), two stereoisomers of 6beta,16-dihydroxyturinabol (M3a, M3b) and 6beta,20-dihydroxyturinabol (M4). The metabolite 6beta-hydroxyturinabol was confirmed using an authentic reference standard. The structures of all other turinabol metabolites were tentatively identified by mass spectral interpretation. For the in vivo studies, two horses were administered orally with turinabol. Pre- and post-administration urine samples were collected for analysis. Free and conjugated metabolites were isolated using solid-phase extraction and analysed by GC-MS as described for the in vitro studies. The results revealed that turinabol was extensively metabolised and the parent drug was not detected in urine. Two metabolites detected in the in vitro studies, namely 20-hydroxyturinabol and 6beta,20-dihydroxyturinabol, these were also detected in post-administration urine samples. In addition, 17-epi-turinabol (M5) and six other metabolites (M6a-M6c and M7a-M7c), derived from D-ring hydroxylation and A-ring reduction, were also detected. Except for 17-epi-turinabol, none of these metabolites has ever been reported in any species. All in vivo metabolites were detected within 48 h after administration. PMID:17386713

Ho, E N M; Kwok, W H; Leung, D K K; Wan, T S M; Wong, A S Y

2007-03-14

261

Serum IgM concentrations in normal, fit horses and horses with lymphoma or other medical conditions.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to (1) prospectively establish serum IgM and IgG concentrations in normal, fit, adult horses over time and (2) determine the accuracy of serum IgM concentrations for diagnosing lymphoma. Serial IgM and IgG concentrations were measured with a radial immunodiffusion assay in 25 regularly exercised horses at 6-week intervals. Horses had serum IgM concentrations ranging from 50 to 242 mg/dL over 5 months, with 20% of horses having IgM < or = 60 mg/dL. The normal range for IgM in fit horses should be considered 103 +/- 40 mg/dL and a cut-point for an IgM deficiency, < or = 23 mg/dL. IgG concentrations ranged from 1,372 to 3,032 mg/dL. Retrospectively, medical records of adult horses (n = 103) admitted to the Cornell University Hospital for Animals for which serum IgM was measured were examined. Horses were categorized as "lymphoma negative" (n = 34) or "lymphoma positive" (n = 18). The sensitivity and specificity of a serum IgM concentration (< or = 60 mg/dL) for detecting equine lymphoma was 50 and 35%, respectively. At the new cut-point (< or = 23 mg/dL), the sensitivity was low at 28% and the specificity improved to 88%. The negative predictive values at various population prevalences indicate that a horse with a high serum IgM (> 23 mg/dL) is unlikely to have lymphoma, whereas the positive predictive value (70%) does not allow for reliable determination of lymphoma in a horse with serum IgM < or = 23 mg/dL. Therefore, serum IgM concentrations should not be used as a screening test for equine lymphoma. PMID:12774976

Perkins, G A; Nydam, D V; Flaminio, M J B F; Ainsworth, D M

2003-01-01

262

Adrenocortical Insufficiency in Horses and Foals  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS The adrenal cortices produce a variety of steroid hormones (corticosteroids) that play vital roles in a number of physiologic processes, including: electrolyte and fluid balance; cardiovascular homeostasis; carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism; immune and inflammatory responses; and sexual development and reproductive function. While permanent adrenocortical insufficiency is rare in all species, emerging evidence in both human and equine medicine suggests that transient, reversible adrenocortical dysfunction resulting in cortisol insufficiency frequently develops during critical illness. This syndrome is termed relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) or critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI), and can contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality associated with the primary disease. Thus, this review will primarily cover the mechanisms, diagnosis and clinical consequences of adrenocortical insufficiency, with particular focus on our current understanding of RAI/CIRCI in horses and foals. PMID:21392651

Hart, Kelsey A.; Barton, Michelle H.

2010-01-01

263

Diversity and infection prevalence of endosymbionts in natural populations of the chestnut weevil: relevance of local climate and host plants.  

PubMed

Many insects are ubiquitously associated with multiple endosymbionts, whose infection patterns often exhibit spatial and temporal variations. How such endosymbiont variations are relevant to local adaptation of the host organisms is of ecological interest. Here, we report a comprehensive survey of endosymbionts in natural populations of the chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis, whose larvae are notorious pests of cultivated chestnuts and also infest acorns of various wild oaks. From 968 insects representing 55 localities across the Japanese Archipelago and originating from 10 host plant species, we identified six distinct endosymbiont lineages, namely Curculioniphilus, Sodalis, Serratia, Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Spiroplasma, at different infection frequencies (96.7%, 12.8%, 82.3%, 82.5%, 28.2% and 6.8%, respectively) and with different geographical distribution patterns. Multiple endosymbiont infections were very common; 3.18±0.61 (ranging from 1.74 to 5.50) endosymbionts per insect on average in each of the local populations. Five pairs of endosymbionts (Curculioniphilus-Serratia, Curculioniphilus-Wolbachia, Sodalis-Rickettsia, Wolbachia-Rickettsia and Rickettsia-Spiroplasma) co-infected the same host individuals more frequently than expected, while infections with Serratia and Wolbachia were negatively correlated to each other. Infection frequencies of the endosymbionts were significantly correlated with climatic and ecological factors: for example, higher Sodalis, Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections at localities of higher temperature; lower Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections at localities of greater snowfall; and higher Curculioniphilus, Sodalis, Serratia, Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections on acorns than on chestnuts. These patterns are discussed in relation to potential host-endosymbiont co-evolution via local adaptation across geographical populations. PMID:21199036

Toju, Hirokazu; Fukatsu, Takema

2011-02-01

264

Impact of fertilization on chestnut growth, N and P concentrations in runoff water on degraded slope land in South China.  

PubMed

Growing fruit trees on the slopes of rolling hills in South China was causing serious environmental problems because of heavy application of chemical fertilizers and soil erosion. Suitable sources of fertilizers and proper rates of applications were of key importance to both crop yields and environmental protection. In this article, the impact of four fertilizers, i.e., inorganic compound fertilizer, organic compound fertilizer, pig manure compost, and peanut cake (peanut oil pressing residue), on chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) growth on a slope in South China, and on the total N and total P concentrations in runoff waters have been investigated during two years of study, with an orthogonal experimental design. Results show that the organic compound fertilizer and peanut cake promote the heights of young chestnut trees compared to the control. In addition, peanut cake increases single-fruit weights and organic compound fertilizer raises single-seed weights. All the fertilizers increased the concentrations of total N and total P in runoff waters, except for organic compound fertilizer, in the first year experiment. The observed mean concentrations of total N varied from 1.6 mg/L to 3.2 mg/L and P from 0.12 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L, which were increased with the amount of fertilizer applications, with no pattern of direct proportion. On the basis of these experiment results, organic compound fertilizer at 2 kg/tree and peanut cake at 1 kg/tree are recommended to maximize chestnut growth and minimize water pollution. PMID:17966870

Zeng, Shu-Cai; Chen, Bei-Guang; Jiang, Cheng-Ai; Wu, Qi-Tang

2007-01-01

265

Nontargeted GC-MS approach for volatile profile of toasting in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, and ash wood.  

PubMed

By using a nontargeted GC-MS approach, 153 individual volatile compounds were found in extracts from untoasted, light toasted and medium-toasted cherry, chestnut, false acacia, as well as European and American ash wood, used in cooperage for aging wines, spirits and other beverages. In all wood types, the toasting provoked a progressive increase in carbohydrate derivatives, lactones and lignin constituents, along with a variety of other components, thus increasing the quantitative differences among species with the toasting intensity. The qualitative differences in the volatile profiles allow for identifying woods from cherry (being p-anisylalcohol, p-anisylaldehyde, p-anisylacetone, methyl benzoate and benzyl salicylate detected only in this wood), chestnut (cis and trans whisky lactone) and false acacia (resorcinol, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol, 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde, 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone, 2,4-dihydroxypropiophenone and 2,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone), but not those from ash, because of the fact that all compounds present in this wood are detected in at least one other. However, the quantitative differences can be clearly used to identify toasted ash wood, with tyrosol being most prominent, but 2-furanmethanol, 3- and 4-ethylcyclotene, ?-methylcrotonolactone, solerone, catechol, 3-methylcatechol and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde as well. Regarding oak wood, its qualitative volatile profile could be enough to distinguish it from cherry and acacia woods, and the quantitative differences from chestnut (vanillyl ethyl ether, isoacetovanillone, butirovanillone, 1-(5-methyl-2-furyl)-2-propanone and 4-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-(2H)-pyran-2-one) and ash toasted woods. PMID:24809897

Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel María

2014-05-01

266

A controlled trial on the effect of feeding dietary chestnut extract and glycerol monolaurate on liver function in newborn calves.  

PubMed

Beginning in the fall of 2010, an increasing and alarming number of cases of calves suffering from liver dystrophy were reported in the south of Germany. An epidemiological investigation was carried out by the authors between November 2010 and July 2011, leading to the implication of a commercial dietary supplement as the potential cause for this outbreak. The components of this product were first tested in a cell culture model and two of them (dietary chestnut extract and glycerol monolaurate) showed a cytotoxic effect. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding of both components alone or in combination on liver function in newborn calves on a commercial dairy farm. Ten calves were enrolled in each of the three treatment groups and the control group (group O) following a blocked design. Treatment consisted of supplementation with chestnut extract at 0.02% of birth body mass (BM) (group C), supplementation with glycerol monolaurate at 0.006% of BM (group G) or a combined treatment (group CG) for five consecutive days. The effect of treatments on liver function was evaluated clinically and by measurement of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities as well as the determination of the concentrations of glucose, L-lactate and total bilirubin in serum. There was a significant increase in GLDH and AST activities and a significant decrease in glucose concentration in treatment groups C and CG compared with the control group (p ? 0.035), whereas no difference was shown for group G. Survival was significantly decreased in groups C (p = 0.029) and CG (p = 0.001) compared with both group G and the control group. These results suggest that dietary chestnut extract in an amount of 0.02% of BM alone or in combination has a toxic effect on liver function in newborn calves. PMID:24605953

Wieland, M; Weber, B K; Hafner-Marx, A; Sauter-Louis, C; Bauer, J; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Metzner, M

2015-02-01

267

West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in horses in Ontario: 28 cases  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus encephalomyelitis was diagnosed in 28 horses presented to the Ontario Veterinary College Veterinary Teaching Hospital between August 20 and October 15, 2002. The age range of affected horses was 5 months to 20 years (mean 6.9 years, median 6 years). Clinical signs were highly variable. Duration of hospitalization ranged from < 1 to 12 days (mean 5 days, median 5.4 days). Overall, 16 of the 28 (57%) horses were discharged and, of the 14 from which follow-up information was available, 13 (93%) were reported to be clinically normal 4 to 6 weeks following discharge, while the other horse had markedly improved. This pathogen is emerging as an important cause of neurological disease in Canada. PMID:12839240

Weese, J. Scott; Baird, John D.; DeLay, Josepha; Kenney, Daniel G.; Staempfli, Henry R.; Viel, Laurent; Parent, Joane; Smith-Maxie, Laura; Poma, Roberto

2003-01-01

268

4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE AT THE FAR RIGHT, AND THE STORE ROOM DOOR IS AT THE NEAR RIGHT. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

269

Horse, A Probabilistic Look at a Game of Chance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a five-dice game, horse. Discusses the offensive player's strategy using the ideas of probability, such as counting outcomes, mutually exclusive events, conditional probabilities, zero sum games, and the use of computer. (YP)

Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.

1990-01-01

270

Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehy...

271

Tooth enamel biomineralization in extant horses: implications for isotopic microsampling  

E-print Network

domestic horses (Equus caballus) to document the timing of enamel mineralization in equid cheek teeth to months. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Biomineralization; Equus; Enamel; Radiography

Amundson, Ronald

272

Do Horse And Human Personalities Affect The Game Of Polo?   

E-print Network

Explorations into horse personality have only recently occurred with questionnaire inventories demonstrating to be the most effective way of rating personality in animals. Recent equine studies are based on the findings ...

Johnson, Tessa C

2009-07-03

273

The horse as a model of naturally occurring osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is an important cause of pain, disability and economic loss in humans, and is similarly important in the horse. Recent knowledge on post-traumatic OA has suggested opportunities for early intervention, but it is difficult to identify the appropriate time of these interventions. The horse provides two useful mechanisms to answer these questions: 1) extensive experience with clinical OA in horses; and 2) use of a consistently predictable model of OA that can help study early pathobiological events, define targets for therapeutic intervention and then test these putative therapies. This paper summarises the syndromes of clinical OA in horses including pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, and details controlled studies of various treatment options using an equine model of clinical OA. PMID:23610661

McIlwraith, C. W.; Frisbie, D. D.; Kawcak, C. E.

2012-01-01

274

Removal of a nasal polyp in a standing horse.  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis and removal of a nasal polyp in a horse using standing chemical restraint and readily available equipment are described. Histopathology of the polyp and differential diagnoses are discussed. Images Figure 1. PMID:9028595

Watt, B C; Beck, B E

1997-01-01

275

Transcriptomic Identification and Expression of Starch and Sucrose Metabolism Genes in the Seeds of Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima).  

PubMed

The Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) seed provides a rich source of carbohydrates as food and feed. However, little is known about starch biosynthesis in the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine seed composition profiles and identify genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism. Metabolite analysis showed that starch was the major component and rapidly accumulated during seed endosperm development. Amylopectin was approximately 3-fold of amylose content in chestnut starch. Illumina platform-based transcriptome sequencing generated 56671 unigenes in two cDNA libraries from seed endosperms collected at 45 and 75 days after flowering (DAF). A total of 1537 unigenes showed expression differences ?2-fold in the two stages of seeds including 570 up-regulated and 967 down-regulated unigenes. One hundred and fifty-two unigenes were identified as involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, including 1 for glycogenin glucosyltransferase, 4 for adenylate transporter (brittle1-type), 3 for ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP, not brittle2- or shrunken2-type), 3 for starch synthase (SS), 2 for starch branching enzyme, 5 for starch debranching enzyme, 11 for sucrose synthase, and 3 for sucrose-phosphate synthase. Among them, 58 unigenes showed a ?2-fold expression difference between the 45 and 75 DAF seeds including 11 up- and 47 down-regulated unigenes. The expression of 21 unigenes putatively coding for major enzymes in starch and sucrose metabolism was validated by qPCR using RNA from five seed stages. Expression profiles and correlation analysis indicated that the mRNA levels of AGP (large and small subunits), granule-bound SS2, and soluble SS1 and SS4 were well-correlated with starch accumulation in the seeds. This study suggests that the starch biosynthesis pathway in Chinese chestnut is similar to that of potato tuber/Arabidopsis leaf and differs from that of maize endosperm. The information provides valuable metabolite and genetic resources for future research in starch and sucrose metabolism in Chinese chestnut tree. PMID:25537355

Zhang, Lin; Lin, Qing; Feng, Yanzhi; Fan, Xiaoming; Zou, Feng; Yuan, De-Yi; Zeng, Xiaochun; Cao, Heping

2015-01-28

276

An online survey of horse-owners in Great Britain  

PubMed Central

Background Contingency planning for potential equine infectious disease outbreaks relies on accurate information on horse location and movements to estimate the risk of dissemination of disease(s). An online questionnaire was used to obtain unique information linking owner and horse location to characteristics of horse movements within and outwith Great Britain (GB). Results This online survey yielded a strong response, providing more than four times the target number of respondents (1000 target respondents) living in all parts of GB. Key demographic findings of this study indicated that horses which were kept on livery yards and riding schools were likely to be found in urban environments, some distance away from the owner’s home and vaccinated against influenza and herpes virus. Survey respondents were likely to travel greater than 10 miles to attend activities such as eventing or endurance but were also likely to travel and return home within a single day (58.6%, 2063/3522). This may affect the geographical extent and speed of disease spread, if large numbers of people from disparate parts of the country are attending the same event and the disease agent is highly infectious or virulent. The greatest risk for disease introduction and spread may be represented by a small proportion of people who import or travel internationally with their horses. These respondents were likely to have foreign horse passports, which were not necessarily recorded in the National Equine Database (NED), making the location of these horses untraceable. Conclusions These results illustrate the difficulties which exist with national GB horse traceability despite the existence of the NED and the horse passport system. This study also demonstrates that an online approach could be adopted to obtain important demographic data on GB horse owners on a more routine and frequent basis to inform decisions or policy pertaining to equine disease control. This represents a reasonable alternative to collection of GB horse location and movement data given that the NED no longer exists and there is no immediate plan to replace it. PMID:24074003

2013-01-01

277

Surgical treatment of distal tarsal joint luxations in three horses.  

PubMed

The clinical signs, radiographic findings, surgical treatment, and outcome of three horses with luxation of the distal tarsal joints are reported. Two patients showed luxations of the tarsometatarsal joint whereas luxation of the proximal intertarsal joint was found in one case. Open reduction, followed by internal fixation was performed in two horses and closed reduction with a transfixation pin cast was performed in the third. The treatment in all three cases resulted in a satisfactory clinical outcome. PMID:23857573

Abuja, G A; Bubeck, K A; Quinteros, D D; García-López, J M

2013-01-01

278

Evaluation of tear film proteinases in horses with ulcerative keratitis.  

PubMed

Ulcerative keratitis is a common and potentially blinding ocular disease of horses, capable of progressing to corneal perforation in as little as 24 h. This rapid stromal degeneration is mediated in part by exogenous and endogenous proteinases. We measured and compared the concentrations of two matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and a serine proteinase (neutrophil elastase) present in the precorneal tear film of normal horses and horses with rapidly progressing ulcerative keratitis. Precorneal tear film samples were collected from 23 ulcerated and 21 unaffected eyes of 23 horses with unilateral ulcerative keratitis, and from 33 normal eyes of 17 control horses. MMP-2, MMP-9, and neutrophil elastase were identified by casein and gelatin zymography and quantified by computerized image analysis. Median MMP-9 levels were significantly higher in the precorneal tear film of young control horses vs. older control horses (P = 0.005). Median MMP-2, MMP-9, and neutrophil elastase levels were significantly higher in the precorneal tear film of ulcerated eyes when compared to age-matched normal controls (P = 0.004, P = 0.001, and P = 0.012, respectively). Median MMP-2 levels were also significantly higher in the precorneal tear film of contralateral eyes of affected horses when compared to age-matched normal controls (P = 0.004). No significant differences in median proteinase levels were detected between 'sterile' ulcers and those from which bacteria or mixed infections (bacteria and fungi) were isolated. However, median MMP-2 and neutrophil elastase levels were significantly higher in the precorneal tear film of eyes with 'sterile' ulcers when compared with ulcerated eyes from which fungi were isolated (P < 0.05). The results of this study support the use of topical antiproteinase therapy which targets both MMPs and serine proteinases in progressive equine ulcerative keratitis. PMID:11397292

Strubbe, D.T.; Brooks, D.E.; Schultz, G.S.; Willis-Goulet, H.; Gelatt, K.N.; Andrew, S.E.; Kallberg, M.E.; MacKay, E.O.; Collante, W.R.

2000-01-01

279

Comprehension of human pointing gestures in horses ( Equus caballus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty domestic horses (Equus caballus) were tested for their ability to rely on different human gesticular cues in a two-way object choice task. An experimenter\\u000a hid food under one of two bowls and after baiting, indicated the location of the food to the subjects by using one of four\\u000a different cues. Horses could locate the hidden reward on the basis

Katalin Maros; Márta Gácsi; Ádám Miklósi

2008-01-01

280

Apparent rates of increase for two feral horse herds  

SciTech Connect

Rates of increase for 2 Oregon feral horse (Equus caballus) herds were estimated from direct aerial counts to be about 20% per year. These rates can be achieved only if survival rates are high, and reproduction exceeds that normally expected from horses. A population dynamics model suggests adult survival to be the key parameter in determining rates of increase, and there is some direct evidence of high adult survival rates. Management implications are discussed.

Eberhardt, L.L. (Battelle Memorial Inst., Richland, WA); Majorowicz, A.K.; Wilcox, J.A.

1982-01-01

281

Nitrogen balance in mature horses at varying levels of work  

E-print Network

NITROGEN BALANCE IN MATURE HORSES AT VARYING LEVELS OF WORK A Thesis by David Wayne Freeman Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1981 Major Subject: Animal Science NITROGEN BALANCE IN NATURE HORSES AT VARYING LEVELS OF WORK A Thesis by David Wayne Freeman Approved as to style and content by: (Chai an o Committee) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Head of Departmen ) December...

Freeman, David Wayne

2012-06-07

282

Development of SCAR Markers for the Identification of Phytophthora katsurae Causing Chestnut Ink Disease in Korea  

PubMed Central

Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers are one of the most effective and accurate tools for microbial identification. In this study, we applied SCAR markers for the rapid and accurate detection of Phytophthora katsurae, the casual agent of chestnut ink disease in Korea. In this study, we developed seven SCAR markers specific to P. katsurae using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and assessed the potential of the SCAR markers to serve as tools for identifying P. katsurae. Seven primer pairs (SOPC 1F/SOPC 1R, SOPC 1-1F/SOPC 1-1R, SOPC 3F/SOPC 3R, SOPC 4F/SOPC 4R, SOPC 4F/SOPC 4-1R, SOPD 9F/SOPD 9R, and SOPD 10F/SOPD 10R) from a sequence derived from RAPD fragments were designed for the analysis of the SCAR markers. To evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the SCAR markers, the genomic DNA of P. katsurae was serially diluted 10-fold to final concentrations from 1 mg/mL to 1 pg/mL. The limit of detection using the SCAR markers ranged from 100 µg/mL to 100 ng/mL. To identify the limit for detecting P. katsurae zoospores, each suspension of zoospores was serially diluted 10-fold to final concentrations from 10 × 105 to 10 × 101 zoospores/mL, and then extracted. The limit of detection by SCAR markers was approximately 10 × 101 zoospores/mL. PCR detection with SCAR markers was specific for P. katsurae, and did not produce any P. katsurae-specific PCR amplicons from 16 other Phytophthora species used as controls. This study shows that SCAR markers are a useful tool for the rapid and effective detection of P. katsurae. PMID:23874131

Lee, Dong Hyeon; Lee, Sun Keun; Lee, Sang Yong

2013-01-01

283

Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area  

SciTech Connect

This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

1980-01-01

284

Origin and History of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in Domestic Horses  

PubMed Central

Domestic horses represent a genetic paradox: although they have the greatest number of maternal lineages (mtDNA) of all domestic species, their paternal lineages are extremely homogeneous on the Y-chromosome. In order to address their huge mtDNA variation and the origin and history of maternal lineages in domestic horses, we analyzed 1961 partial d-loop sequences from 207 ancient remains and 1754 modern horses. The sample set ranged from Alaska and North East Siberia to the Iberian Peninsula and from the Late Pleistocene to modern times. We found a panmictic Late Pleistocene horse population ranging from Alaska to the Pyrenees. Later, during the Early Holocene and the Copper Age, more or less separated sub-populations are indicated for the Eurasian steppe region and Iberia. Our data suggest multiple domestications and introgressions of females especially during the Iron Age. Although all Eurasian regions contributed to the genetic pedigree of modern breeds, most haplotypes had their roots in Eastern Europe and Siberia. We found 87 ancient haplotypes (Pleistocene to Mediaeval Times); 56 of these haplotypes were also observed in domestic horses, although thus far only 39 haplotypes have been confirmed to survive in modern breeds. Thus, at least seventeen haplotypes of early domestic horses have become extinct during the last 5,500 years. It is concluded that the large diversity of mtDNA lineages is not a product of animal breeding but, in fact, represents ancestral variability. PMID:21187961

Cieslak, Michael; Pruvost, Melanie; Benecke, Norbert; Hofreiter, Michael; Morales, Arturo; Reissmann, Monika; Ludwig, Arne

2010-01-01

285

Seasonal variations in daily rhythms of activity in athletic horses.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms reflect extensive programming of biological activity that meets and exploits the challenges and opportunities offered by the periodic nature of the environment. In the present investigation, we recorded the total activity of athletic horses kept at four different times of the year (vernal equinox, summer solstice, autumn equinox and winter solstice), to evaluate the presence of seasonal variations of daily activity rhythms. Athletic Thoroughbred horses were kept in individual boxes with paddock. Digitally integrated measure of total activity of each mare was continuously recorded by actigraphy-based data loggers. Horse total activities were not evenly distributed over the day, but they were mainly diurnal during the year. Daily activity rhythms showed clear seasonal variations, with the highest daily amount of activity during the vernal equinox and the lowest during the winter solstice. Interestingly, the amount of activity during either photophase or scotophase changed significantly throughout the year. Circadian analysis of horse activities showed that the acrophase, the estimated time at which the peak of the rhythm occurs, did not change during the year, it always occurred in the middle of the photoperiod. Analysing the time structure of long-term and continuously measured activity and feeding could be a useful method to critically evaluate athletic horse management systems in which spontaneous locomotor activity and feeding are severely limited. Circadian rhythms are present in several elements of sensory motor and psychomotor functions and these would be taken into consideration to plan the training schedules and competitions in athletic horses. PMID:22443706

Bertolucci, C; Giannetto, C; Fazio, F; Piccione, G

2008-07-01

286

Mitochondrial DNA lineages of Italian Giara and Sarcidano horses.  

PubMed

Giara and Sarcidano are 2 of the 15 extant native Italian horse breeds with limited dispersal capability that originated from a larger number of individuals. The 2 breeds live in two distinct isolated locations on the island of Sardinia. To determine the genetic structure and evolutionary history of these 2 Sardinian breeds, the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced and analyzed in 40 Giara and Sarcidano horses and compared with publicly available mtDNA data from 43 Old World breeds. Four different analyses, including genetic distance, analysis of molecular variance, haplotype sharing, and clustering methods, were used to study the genetic relationships between the Sardinian and other horse breeds. The analyses yielded similar results, and the FST values indicated that a high percentage of the total genetic variation was explained by between-breed differences. Consistent with their distinct phenotypes and geographic isolation, the two Sardinian breeds were shown to consist of 2 distinct gene pools that had no gene flow between them. Giara horses were clearly separated from the other breeds examined and showed traces of ancient separation from horses of other breeds that share the same mitochondrial lineage. On the other hand, the data from the Sarcidano horses fit well with variation among breeds from the Iberian Peninsula and North-West Europe: genetic relationships among Sarcidano and the other breeds are consistent with the documented history of this breed. PMID:25366719

Morelli, L; Useli, A; Sanna, D; Barbato, M; Contu, D; Pala, M; Cancedda, M; Francalacci, P

2014-01-01

287

Gasterophilus spp. infections in horses from northern and central Kazakhstan.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey was performed to obtain current data on the gastrointestinal myiasis of horses in the provinces of Kostanay, Akmola and Karagandy, northern and central Kazakhstan. The stomach, small intestine and rectum of 148 slaughter horses were examined for Gasterophilus spp. larvae during a 26-month study period. All horses were infected with 2nd and 3rd stage larvae (mean intensity: 803±350), and 22% of them harboured >1000 Gasterophilus spp. larvae each. Four species were identified: G. intestinalis (prevalence: 100%; mean intensity: 361±240 larvae), G. haemorrhoidalis (100%; 353±191), G. nasalis (100%; 73±36) and G. pecorum (91.2%; 18±10). Horses aged<2 years were higher infected with Gasterophilus larvae than 2-4 years old animals. Both the prevalence and extremely high intensity of Gasterophilus infections of horses in these Kazakh regions suggest respective control measurements to improve the health and performance of the animals and to increase the economic income of horse owners. PMID:25522954

Ibrayev, Baltabek; Lider, Lyudmila; Bauer, Christian

2015-01-15

288

Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a Pain Assessment Tool in Horses Undergoing Routine Castration  

PubMed Central

Background The assessment of pain is critical for the welfare of horses, in particular when pain is induced by common management procedures such as castration. Existing pain assessment methods have several limitations, which reduce the applicability in everyday life. Assessment of facial expression changes, as a novel means of pain scoring, may offer numerous advantages and overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a standardised pain scale based on facial expressions in horses (Horse Grimace Scale [HGS]). Methodology/Principal Findings Forty stallions were assigned to one of two treatments and all animals underwent routine surgical castration under general anaesthesia. Group A (n?=?19) received a single injection of Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia. Group B (n?=?21) received Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia and then again, as an oral administration, six hours after the surgery. In addition, six horses were used as anaesthesia controls (C). These animals underwent non-invasive, indolent procedures, received the same treatment as group A, but did not undergo surgical procedures that could be accompanied with surgical pain. Changes in behaviour, composite pain scale (CPS) scores and horse grimace scale (HGS) scores were assessed before and 8-hours post-procedure. Only horses undergoing castration (Groups A and B) showed significantly greater HGS and CPS scores at 8-hours post compared to pre operatively. Further, maintenance behaviours such as explorative behaviour and alertness were also reduced. No difference was observed between the two analgesic treatment groups. Conclusions The Horse Grimace Scale potentially offers an effective and reliable method of assessing pain following routine castration in horses. However, auxiliary studies are required to evaluate different painful conditions and analgesic schedules. PMID:24647606

Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Minero, Michela; Lebelt, Dirk; Stucke, Diana; Canali, Elisabetta; Leach, Matthew C.

2014-01-01

289

A comparative evaluation of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses in Italy  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) which is a potencial risk factor of transmission between animals and humans in different types of horses (harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses) and to compare the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. Methods A total of 191 healthy horses, housed at different locations of the Campania Region (Italy), were included in the study. Nasal swab samples were collected from each nostril of the horses. The mecA gene was detected by a nested PCR technique. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for each isolate. Results MRS was isolated from nasal samples of 68/191 (35.6%; 95% CI: 28.9%-42.9%) healthy horses. All isolates were coagulase-negative with the exception of two coagulase-positive MRS strains, identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, 2/83 (2.4%; 95% CI: 0.4%-9.2%). Interestingly, both coagulase-positive MRS isolates were from harness racing-horses. These horses also presented a significantly higher positivity for MRS (53.3%; 95% CI: 40.1%-66.1%) than the breeding mares and riding-horses groups. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed difference between isolates due to different origins except for an almost common high resistance to aminopenicillins, such as ampicillin and amoxicillin. Conclusions It can be concluded that harness racing-horses may act as a significant reservoir of MRS as compared to breeding mares and riding-horses. PMID:23620832

Mallardo, Karina; Nizza, Sandra; Fiorito, Filomena; Pagnini, Ugo; De Martino, Luisa

2013-01-01

290

Compositional analysis of Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) cell-wall material from parenchyma, epidermis, and subepidermal tissues.  

PubMed

Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis (Burman f.) Trin ex Henschel) is a corm consumed globally in Oriental-style cuisine. The corm consists of three main tissues, the epidermis, subepidermis, and parenchyma; the cell walls of which were analyzed for sugar, phenolic, and lignin content. Sugar content, measured by gas chromatography, was higher in the parenchyma cell walls (931 ?g/mg) than in the subepidermis (775 ?g/mg) or epidermis (685 ?g/mg). The alkali-extractable phenolic content, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, was greater in the epidermal (32.4 ?g/mg) and subepidermal cell walls (21.7 ?g/mg) than in the cell walls of the parenchyma (12.3 ?g/mg). The proportion of diferulic acids was higher in the parenchyma. The Klason lignin content of epidermal and subepidermal cell walls was ~15%. Methylation analysis of Chinese water chestnut cell-wall polysaccharides identified xyloglucan as the predominant hemicellulose in the parenchyma for the first time, and also a significant pectin component, similar to other nongraminaceous monocots. PMID:24066627

Grassby, Terri; Jay, Andrew J; Merali, Zara; Parker, Mary L; Parr, Adrian J; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

2013-10-01

291

Sporadic wind wave horse-shoe patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work considers three-dimensional crescent-shaped patterns often seen on water surface in natural basins and observed in wave tank experiments. The most common of these 'horse-shoe-like' patterns appear to be sporadic, i.e., emerging and disappearing spontaneously even under steady wind conditions. The paper suggests a qualitative model of these structures aimed at explaining their sporadic nature, physical mechanisms of their selection and their specific asymmetric form. First, the phenomenon of sporadic horse-shoe patterns is studied numerically using the novel algorithm of water waves simulation recently developed by the authors (Annenkov and Shrira, 1999). The simulations show that a steep gravity wave embedded into widespectrum primordial noise and subjected to small nonconservative effects typically follows the simple evolution scenario: most of the time the system can be considered as consisting of a basic wave and a single pair of oblique satellites, although the choice of this pair tends to be different at different instants. Despite the effective low-dimensionality of the multimodal system dynamics at relatively sho ' rt time spans, the role of small satellites is important: in particular, they enlarge the maxima of the developed satellites. The presence of Benjamin-Feir satellites appears to be of no qualitative importance at the timescales under consideration. The selection mechanism has been linked to the quartic resonant interactions among the oblique satellites lying in the domain of five-wave (McLean's class II) instability of the basic wave: the satellites tend to push each other out of the resonance zone due to the frequency shifts caused by the quartic interactions. Since the instability domain is narrow (of order of cube of the basic wave steepness), eventually in a generic situation only a single pair survives and attains considerable amplitude. The specific front asymmetry is found to result from the interplay of quartic and quintet interactions and non-conservative effects: the growing and grown satellites have a specific value of phase with respect to the basic wave that corresponds to downwind orientation of the convex sides of wave fronts. As soon as the phase relation is violated, the satellite's amplitude quickly decreases down to the noise level.

Annenkov, S. Yu.; Shrira, V. I.

292

Best management practices plan for the Chestnut Ridge-Filled Coal Ash Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Chestnut Ridge Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP) Project has been established to satisfy Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2. FCAP is on Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant. A 62-foot high earthen dam across Upper McCoy Branch was constructed in 1955 to create a pond to serve as a settling basin for fly and bottom ashes generated by burning coal at the Y-12 Steam Plant. Ash from the steam was mixed with water to form a slurry and then pumped to the crest of Chestnut Ridge and released through a large pipe to flow across the Sluice Channel area and into the pond. The ash slurry eventually overtopped the dam and flowed along Upper McCoy Branch to Rogers Quarry. The purpose of this document is to provide a site-specific Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan for construction associated with environmental restoration activities at the FCAP Site.

NONE

1996-05-01

293

In vitro propagation of chestnut ( Castanea sativa× C. crenata): Effects of rooting treatments on plant survival, peroxidase activity and anatomical changes during adventitious root formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve plant survival and to achieve a better understanding of the rooting process of chestnut (Castanea sativa×C. crenata) shoot cultures of mature origin, different rooting treatments were compared. For root induction, the basal ends of the shoots were dipped into 1 g l?1 IBA solution for 1 min or planted for 5 days in 3 mg l?1

José Carlos Gonçalves; Graça Diogo; Sara Amâncio

1998-01-01

294

Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1997 in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). In July 1997, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved modifications to several of the permit conditions that address RCRA pow-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and RCIU4 post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin) and Kerr Hollow Quarry. This report has been prepared in accordance with these modified permit requirements. Also included in this report are the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 1997 for the purposes ofi (1) detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste disposal facilities (SWDFS) in accordance with operating permits and applicable regulations, (2) monitoring in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Recove~ Act Records of Decision (now pefiormed under the Integrated Water Quality Program for the Oak Ridge Reservation), and (3) monitoring needed to comply with U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1.

Jones, S.B.

1998-02-01

295

Body composition and nutrient metabolism in juvenile athletic horses treated with exogenous equine somatotropin  

E-print Network

that of the control horses with a significant difference at d128 (pby d 14 in the eST treated horses, but seemed to be affected by confinement during total collections of feces and urine. Urinary nitrogen...

Sutfin, Jonathan Arthur

2000-01-01

296

Evolution, Systematics, and Phylogeography of Pleistocene Horses in the New World  

E-print Network

regarded as closely related to the Eurasian caballines, a group that includes the domestic horse (Equus caballus) and the extant wild Przewalskii horse. The stilt-legged forms have been taxonomically assigned

Rubenstein, Daniel I.

297

Lateralized suckling in domestic horses (Equus caballus).  

PubMed

Brain lateralization enables preferential processing of certain stimuli and more effective utilization of these stimuli in either the left or the right cerebral hemisphere. Horses show both motor and sensory lateralization patterns. Our aim was to determine whether a lateralized response could be detected in foals during the naturally side-biased behaviour, suckling. The foals' preferred suckling side could be the effect of either visual or motor lateralization. In the case of a visual lateralized response, foals are expected to suck more often from the mother's right side, so potential danger can be detected by the better adapted right hemisphere (i.e. left eye). Motor lateralization can be identified when a foal will suck predominantly from one side, either left or right. We found no population trend in the preferred suckling side, but we detected significant differences amongst individual foals. One-third (35.4 %) of 79 foals showed a strong, either right or left side preference which increased with age. The mothers did not influence the foals' suckling side preferences either by side-biased rejection or termination of suckling. According to our findings, a general pattern of sucking with the left eye open for better danger detection and recognition is unlikely in foals up to 7 months old. Foals of this age are probably young or fully focused on suckling and rely on their mothers' vigilance. Individual side preferences amongst foals are suggested to be based on motor lateralization. PMID:23117229

Komárková, Martina; Bartošová, Jitka

2013-05-01

298

Cardiac arrhythmias and electrolyte disturbances in colic horses.  

PubMed

BackgroundDespite increased focus on cardiac arrhythmias in horses, the nature and prevalence is still poorly described. Case reports suggest that arrhythmias occurring secondary to systemic disease are seen more commonly in the clinic than arrhythmias caused by cardiac disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of arrhythmias in colic horses referred for hospital treatment. Associations between electrolyte disturbances and arrhythmias were also investigated.The study population consisted of eight control horses and 22 referred colic horses. A Holter electrocardiography (ECG) was recorded during the first 24 hours of admission. The ECG¿s were analysed by a software program followed by manual visual inspection. Arrhythmias registered included second degree atrioventricular (AV) blocks, supraventricular premature complexes (SVPCs), and ventricular premature complexes (VPCs). Blood was collected at admission and again between 12 and 24 hours after ECG was applied, and analysed for concentrations of potassium, sodium, ionised calcium, chloride, glucose, and L-lactate.ResultsHeart rate was 37.4¿±¿3.7 bpm in the control group, and 51.6¿±¿11.8 bpm, in the colic group, which was significantly different (P¿<¿0.0001). AV blocks and SVPCs were found in both groups, however only colic horses showed VPCs. No significant difference between the two groups was found for AV blocks, SVPCs, and VPCs (P¿=¿0.08 - 0.76). The mean levels of potassium, sodium, ionized calcium, and chloride were significantly lower in the colic group compared to the control group at admission. Mean levels of glucose and L-lactate were significantly elevated in the colic group (P¿<¿0.05).ConclusionsThis study describes prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and electrolytes concentrations in colic horses compared to healthy controls. Although we only observed VPCs in the colic horses, no significant differences between colic horses and controls were found. Despite the colic horses having electrolyte changes at admission no correlation was found between the electrolyte disturbances and cardiac arrhythmias. Although no clear conclusions can be drawn from the present study, the results indicate that relatively mild colic per se is not pro-arrhythmogenic, whereas severe colic probably are more likely to result in ventricular arrhythmia. PMID:25274423

Hesselkilde, Eva Z; Almind, Mette E; Petersen, Jesper; Flethøj, Mette; Præstegaard, Kirstine F; Buhl, Rikke

2014-10-01

299

Acute phase proteins in Andalusian horses infected with Theileria equi.  

PubMed

Clinical and laboratory findings were determined in 23 Andalusian horses in southern Spain that were positive for Theileria equi by PCR, including 16 mares at pasture (group A1) and seven stabled stallions (group B1). Five healthy mares at pasture (group A2) and five stabled stallions (group B2), all of which were negative for T.?equi in Giemsa stained blood smears and by PCR, were used as controls. The most frequent clinical signs were anorexia, anaemia, depression and icterus (group A1), along with loss of performance or failure to train and depression (group B1). Thrombocytopoenia was evident in 5/7 horses in group B1. Lower serum iron concentrations were observed in both diseased groups compared with their respective control groups. There were no significant differences in APP concentrations between diseased and control groups; all affected horses had APP concentrations within reference limits. Serum haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were higher than the reference limits in 5/23, 3/23 and 1/23 diseased horses, respectively. It was concluded that horses with theileriosis exhibited only a mild systemic inflammatory response. PMID:25086769

Rodríguez, Rocío; Cerón, José J; Riber, Cristina; Castejón, Francisco; Gómez-Díez, Manuel; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan M; Muñoz, Ana

2014-10-01

300

Horses (Equus caballus) discriminate body odour cues from conspecifics.  

PubMed

Knowledge about social recognition and memory in animals can help us to determine appropriate management and husbandry techniques. In this study, we used a habituation-discrimination procedure to investigate the ability of horses (Equus caballus) to distinguish between the body odour samples of unfamiliar conspecifics. To pick up body odour, we rubbed material on the coat of horses and presented these unknown body odours to 16 different conspecifics of the same sex and similar age. The test consisted of two successive two-min presentations of a sample from one individual (e.g. individual 'A') and a simultaneous presentation of samples from individual 'A' and a novel individual (e.g. individual 'B') during a final third presentation. The results showed that horses, regardless of sex, decreased the time they spent investigating conspecific body odour across the initial two presentations-demonstrating habituation. In the final presentation, the results demonstrated successful discrimination of the previously experienced odour because horses investigated the novel olfactory sample ('B') significantly more than the pre-exposed sample ('A'). Taken together, these findings suggest, for the first time, that horses are able to discriminate two stimuli derived from body odours of unfamiliar conspecifics over short period of time. PMID:24305997

Péron, F; Ward, R; Burman, O

2014-07-01

301

Clostridium difficile in horses in Australia--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

During a 24 month period from 2007 to 2009, 174 faecal specimens from horses in Australia (predominantly from Western Australia) were tested for Clostridium difficile. C. difficile was isolated from 14 (23?%) of 62 diarrhoeal animals (including 10 foals) and from none of 112 healthy adult horses. These isolates were toxin profiled by PCR for toxin A, toxin B and binary toxin, and ribotyped. Ten of the equine isolates were A(+)B(+)CDT(-). Other toxin profiles detected were A(-)B(-)CDT(+) (one isolate), A(+)B(+)CDT(+) (two isolates) and A(-)B(-)CDT(-) (three isolates). There were six different ribotypes detected in the horses, ribotype 012 being the most common with six isolates. Two horses (one adult and one foal) had two strains of C. difficile isolated on different days. These strains had the same toxin profile but different ribotypes. None of the equine isolates was ribotype 078, which is A(+)B(+)CDT(+) and a significant cause of animal disease overseas. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. These results suggest that the epidemiology of C. difficile in horses in Australia is currently similar to that in other parts of the world, but requires further surveillance to monitor changes. PMID:21436371

Thean, Sara; Elliott, Briony; Riley, Thomas V

2011-08-01

302

The effect of human alpha interferon on experimentally induced equine herpesvirus-1 infection in horses  

E-print Network

horses before and after inoculation with EHV-1 48 Serum neutralizing antibody titers to EHV-1 in weanling horses before and after intranasal inoculation with EHV-1 on day 0. Antibody titers are expressed as reciprocal of endpoint dilutions 49 LIST... OF FIGURES FIGURE Temporal tracing of mean morning rectal temperatures of weanling horses before and after intranasal inoculation with EHV-1 on day 0 Page 16 Temporal tracing of mean afternoon rectal temperatures of weanling horses after intranasal...

Seahorn, Thomas Leon

1989-01-01

303

EFFECTS OF RACTOPAMINE HCL ON PHYSICAL AND REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS IN THE HORSE  

E-print Network

on how dietary supplementation of horses with Paylean? affects physical and reproductive parameters in the horse. Members of the horse industry may find this information applicable to the current off-label administration of Paylean? in horses... appearances. Toxicological Effects As new products are introduced to alter an animal?s physiologic state, creating toxicity within that individual should be of concern. This is especially true when products are fed off-label, such as in a non...

Kriewald, Russell D.

2010-01-14

304

Epidemiology of Trichinella infection in the horse: the risk from animal product feeding practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discovery in 2002 of a Trichinella spiralis-infected horse in Serbia offered an opportunity to conduct needed epidemiological studies on how horses, considered herbivores, acquire a meat-borne parasite. This enigma has persisted since the first human outbreaks from infected horse meat occurred in then 1970s. The trace back of the infected horse to a farm owner was carried out. Interviews

K. D. Murrell; M. Djordjevic; K. Cuperlovic; Lj. Sofronic; M. Savic; S. Damjanovic

2004-01-01

305

Energetic cost of breathing, body composition, and pulmonary function in horses with recurrent airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine whether horses with naturally occurring, severe chronic recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) 1) have a greater resting energy expenditure (REE) than control horses, 2) suffer body mass depletion, and 3) have significantly decreased REE after bronchodilation and, therefore, also 4) whether increased work of breathing contributes to the cachexia seen in some horses with RAO.

Melissa R. Mazan; Edward F. Deveney; Shane DeWitt; Daniela Bedenice; Andrew Hoffman

2004-01-01

306

Haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against African horse sickness virus in domestic  

E-print Network

96 camels, 81 horses, 80 dogs and 4 donkeys was carried out in Nigeria. The ani- mals had no history of antibody against AHS virus. Of these, 77 (95.1%) horse, 4 (100%) donkey, 10 (10.4%) camel and 28 (35%) dog horses in different regions was similar. The prevalence of antibody to AHS virus detected in camels

Boyer, Edmond

307

Game-theoretic analysis of an ancient Chinese horse race problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes a legendary Chinese horse race problem involving the King of Qi and General Tianji which took place more than 2000 years ago. In this problem each player owns three horses of different speed classes and must choose the sequence of horses to compete against each other. Depending on the payoffs received by the players as a result

Mingming Leng; Mahmut Parlar

2006-01-01

308

VARIATION OF SOME BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN CATTLE, HORSES AND DOGS,  

E-print Network

VARIATION OF SOME BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN CATTLE, HORSES AND DOGS, AND CAUSES cattle. A few examples will also be given concerning horses and dogs. NORMAL RANGE In biology the concept the normal ranges for dairy cattle (Swedish Red and White Breed), horses (standardbred trotters) and dogs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

309

Management and long-term outcome of partial glossectomy in 2 horses  

PubMed Central

Records were reviewed for 2 horses with partial glossectomy, 1 traumatic and 1 elective. According to long-term follow-up by telephone, both horses had recovered well, experiencing only temporary difficulty while eating, and went on to be ridden successfully using mouth bits. Partial glossectomy, therefore, had a favorable prognosis in 2 performance horses. PMID:24587510

Lang, Hayley M.; Panizzi, Luca; Smyth, Travis T.; Plaxton, Andrea E.; Lohmann, Katharina L.; Barber, Spencer M.

2014-01-01

310

Immunocontraception in Wild Horses (Equus caballus) Extends Reproductive Cycling Beyond the Normal  

E-print Network

Immunocontraception in Wild Horses (Equus caballus) Extends Reproductive Cycling Beyond the Normal if this is the case, we compiled foaling data from wild horses (Equus caballus) living on Shackleford Banks, North Horses (Equus caballus) Extends Reproductive Cycling Beyond the Normal Breeding Season. PLoS ONE 5(10): e

Rubenstein, Daniel I.

311

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii infection in domestic horses in Durango State, Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in horses in Mexico is unknown. Therefore, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 495 horses in Durango State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Horses were from 18 farms in 3 municipalities in the valley region of Durango State...

312

Fibroblastic tumor of the premaxilla in two horses.  

PubMed

In 2 horses with rapidly growing, locally destructive tumors of the premaxilla, there was major disruption and displacement of some incisor teeth, with radiographic evidence of disruption of the premaxilla at the base of the tumors. In horse 1, most of the tumor was removed by incising it at its base, and the tumor bed was treated cryosurgically with 3 freeze-thaw cycles, using liquid nitrogen. The area healed by 2nd intention. The tumor was found to be a benign fibroblastic tumor, possibly a fibroma. After 4 years, there has been no recurrence. Horse 2 was euthanatized on the basis of a tentative biopsy diagnosis of osteogenic sarcoma. Postmortem studies supported a diagnosis of fibrosarcoma without metastasis. PMID:6573308

Barber, S M; Clark, E G; Fretz, P B

1983-04-01

313

Proton resonance assignments of horse ferrocytochrome c  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to assign the proton resonances of horse ferrocytochrome c. Assignments were based on the main chain directed (MCD) and sequential assignment procedures. The fundamental units of the MCD approach, the main-chain NH-C{sub {alpha}}H-C{sub {beta}}H J-coupled subspin systems of each amino acid residue (NAB sets), were defined by analysis of direct and relayed coherence transfer spectra. Recognition of main-chain NOE connectivity patterns specified in the MCD algorithm them allowed NAB sets to be aligned in their proper juxtaposition within secondary structural units. The units of secondary structure were placed within the polypeptide sequence of identification of a small number of side-chain J-coupled spin systems, found by direct recognition in 2D spectra of some J-coupled spin systems and by pairwise comparisons of the J-correlated spectra of six homologous cytochromes c having a small number of known amino acid differences. The placement of a given segment in this way defines the amino acid identity of all its NAB sets. This foreknowledge allowed the vast majority of the side-chain resonances to be discerned in J-correlated spectra. Extensive confirmation of the assignments derives internally from multiple main-chain NOE connectivities and their consistency following temperature-induced changes of the chemical shifts of NOE-correlated protons. The observed patterns of main-chain NOEs provide some structural information and suggest small but potentially significant differences between the solution structure observed by NMR and that defined earlier in crystallographic studies at 2.8-{angstrom} resolution.

Wand, A.J.; Di Stefano, D.L.; Feng, Y.; Roder, H.; Englander, S.W. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-01-10

314

Proton resonance assignments of horse ferricytochrome c  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D NMR) was used to obtain extensive resonance assignments in the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of horse ferricytochrome c. Assignments were made for the main-chain and C{sub {beta}} protons of 102 residues (all except Pro-44 and Gly-84) and the majority of side-chain protons. As starting points for the assignment of the oxidized protein, a limited set of protons was initially assigned by use of 2D NMR magnetization transfer methods to correlate resonances in the oxidized form with assigned resonances in the reduced form. Given the complexity of the spectrum due to the size of this protein (104 residues) and its paramagnetic center, the initial search for side-chain spin systems in J-correlated spectra was successful only for the simplest side chains, but the majority of NH-C{sub {alpha}}H-C{sub {beta}}H subspin systems (NAB sets) could be identified at this stage. The subsequent search for sequential NOE connectivities focused on NAB sets, with use of previously assigned residues to place NOE-connected segments within the amino acid sequence. Selective proton labeling of either the slowly or the rapidly exchanging amide sites was used to simplify the spectra, and systematic work at two temperatures was used to resolve ambiguities in the 2D NMR spectra. These approaches, together with the use of magnetization transfer methods to correlate reduced and oxidized cytochrome c spectra, provide multiple cross-checks to verify assignments.

Feng, Y.; Roder, H.; Englander, S.W.; Wand, A.J.; Di Stefano, D.L. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

1989-01-10

315

A Massively Parallel Sequencing Approach Uncovers Ancient Origins and High Genetic Variability of Endangered Przewalski's Horses  

PubMed Central

The endangered Przewalski's horse is the closest relative of the domestic horse and is the only true wild horse species surviving today. The question of whether Przewalski's horse is the direct progenitor of domestic horse has been hotly debated. Studies of DNA diversity within Przewalski's horses have been sparse but are urgently needed to ensure their successful reintroduction to the wild. In an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the phylogenetic position and genetic diversity of Przewalski's horses, we used massively parallel sequencing technology to decipher the complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes for all four surviving maternal lineages of Przewalski's horses. Unlike single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing usually affected by ascertainment bias, the present method is expected to be largely unbiased. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were discovered—two similar ones, haplotypes I/II, and one substantially divergent from the other two, haplotype III. Haplotypes I/II versus III did not cluster together on a phylogenetic tree, rejecting the monophyly of Przewalski's horse maternal lineages, and were estimated to split 0.117–0.186 Ma, significantly preceding horse domestication. In the phylogeny based on autosomal sequences, Przewalski's horses formed a monophyletic clade, separate from the Thoroughbred domestic horse lineage. Our results suggest that Przewalski's horses have ancient origins and are not the direct progenitors of domestic horses. The analysis of the vast amount of sequence data presented here suggests that Przewalski's and domestic horse lineages diverged at least 0.117 Ma but since then have retained ancestral genetic polymorphism and/or experienced gene flow. PMID:21803766

Goto, Hiroki; Ryder, Oliver A.; Fisher, Allison R.; Schultz, Bryant; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

2011-01-01

316

A study of Streptococcus equi in the horse  

E-print Network

of weeks or did not show complete remission of symp- toms. The seven cases plus three new horses were treated with chlortetracycline (Aureomycin) 1 gm. per os daily for five days. Complete clinical recovery was seen in six cases, but the other four... horses relapsed or did not show complete recovery. These last four cases plus ten new cases were then treated with 1 gm. chlorampheni- col succinate (Chloromycetin) I. M. followed by doses of 1-1 I/2 gm. per os daily in capsules for five days. Complete...

Evers, Warren Dean

1966-01-01

317

Effect of addition of green tea, chestnut and grape extract on the shelf-life of pig liver pâté.  

PubMed

The effect of the addition of natural antioxidants (tea, chestnut and grape seed extracts) on physico-chemical and oxidative stability of refrigerated stored pig pâtés was studied. This effect was compared with that showed by the synthetic antioxidant BHT. Pâté samples were analysed at 0, 4, 8 and 24 weeks of refrigerated storage (4°C). Colour parameters were affected by storage period and antioxidant extract. Samples with CHE and GRA extracts showed lower total colour difference between 0 and 24 weeks. The amount of TBARS gradually increased during refrigerated storage with the exception of pâtés that have CHE extract in composition. At the sampling end point, the lower TBARS values were obtained in samples with TEA and GRA extracts. Finally, the evolution of volatile compounds during storage showed an increase in the lipid-derived volatile values after refrigerated storage, since samples with TEA and GRA extract showed the lowest values. PMID:24206734

Pateiro, M; Lorenzo, J M; Amado, I R; Franco, D

2014-03-15

318

Volatile compounds and sensorial characterisation of red wine aged in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood barrels.  

PubMed

The wood-related volatile profile of wines aged in cherry, acacia, ash, chestnut and oak wood barrels was studied by GC-MS, and could be a useful tool to identify the wood specie used. Thus, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in wines aged in acacia barrels, and ethyl-2-benzoate in cherry barrels could be used as chemical markers of these wood species, for authenticity purposes. Also, the quantitative differences obtained in the volatile profiles allow a good classification of all wines regarding wood species of barrels, during all aging time, and they contributed with different intensities to aromatic and gustative characteristics of aged wines. Wines aged in oak were the best valuated during all aging time, but the differences were not always significant. The lowest scores were assigned to wines aged in cherry barrels from 6 months of aging, so this wood could be more suitable in short aging times. PMID:24206729

Fernández de Simón, B; Martínez, J; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

2014-03-15

319

Effect of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on rheological properties of gels from blends of chestnut and rice flours.  

PubMed

The development of high quality gluten-free products requires the understanding of the phenomena that dictate the ingredient interactions commonly used in foodstuff. In this work, the main objective was to develop alternative gluten-free gelled desserts from blends of chestnut flour (Cf) and whole (Rw), Agulha (Ra) or Carolino (Rc) rice flours. The impact of sucrose, stevia and xylitol on textural, rheological and structural properties of selected gels was investigated. Texture results indicated that studied gels in the presence of sucrose and xylitol decreased significantly the firmness. Rheological outcomes showed that the temperature ramps on heating of Cf/Rw gels were similar to those obtained for Cf/Ra, whereas Cf/Rc gels presented a particular pattern. The presence of sucrose resulted in a significant decrease in the values of storage and loss moduli. Confocal microscopic images showed that the sugar addition leads to a less aggregated structure with fracture lines well marked. PMID:23987342

Torres, M D; Raymundo, A; Sousa, I

2013-10-15

320

Introduction This project is designed for senior 4-H horse project members who have the experience, resources, and ability  

E-print Network

Introduction · This project is designed for senior 4-H horse project members who have follow-up to the Horses are Fun project. Project Requirements · Participate in a 4-H Community Club-107REVISED 2003 Virginia 4-H Horse Project Self-Determined Horse Project Prepared by Dr. Arden N. Huff

Liskiewicz, Maciej

321

Enterocolitis caused by Ehrlichia sp. in the horse (Potomac horse fever).  

PubMed

Potomac horse fever was reproduced in 15 ponies by transfusion of whole blood originally from two natural cases and subsequently from ponies infected by the transfusions. Incubation periods varied from 9 to 15 days. Affected ponies developed varying degrees of fever, diarrhea, anorexia, depression, and leukopenia. Eleven affected ponies were killed, three died in the acute phase of the disease, and one did not show clinical signs. The most consistent post-mortem findings were fluid contents in the cecum and large colon, and areas of hyperemia (of inconstant degree and distribution) in mucosae of both small and large intestines. Multifocal areas of necrosis occurred in mucous membranes. Ehrlichial organisms were most common in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells, macrophages, and mast cells of the large colon. PMID:3750739

Cordes, D O; Perry, B D; Rikihisa, Y; Chickering, W R

1986-07-01

322

Salmonella Oranienburg isolated from horses, wild turkeys and an edible home garden fertilized with raw horse manure.  

PubMed

In July 2010, a horse from a rural farm (Farm A) in coastal Northern California was diagnosed with Salmonella Oranienburg infection following referral to a veterinary hospital for colic surgery. Environmental sampling to identify potential sources and persistence of Salmonella on the farm was conducted from August 2010 to March 2011. Salmonella was cultured using standard enrichment and selective plating. Pure colonies were confirmed by biochemical analysis, serotyped and compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. A total of 204 clinical and environmental samples at Farm A were analysed, and Salmonella spp. was isolated from six of eight (75%) horses, an asymptomatic pet dog, two of seven (28.6%) water samples from horse troughs, nine of 20 (45%) manure storage pile composites, 16 of 71 (22.5%) wild turkey faeces and four of 39 (10.3%) soil samples from the family's edible home garden. Well water and garden vegetable samples and horse faecal samples from a neighbouring ranch were negative. S. Oranienburg with a PFGE pattern indistinguishable from the horse clinical strain was found in all positive sample types on Farm A. The investigation illustrates the potential for widespread dissemination of Salmonella in a farm environment following equine infections. We speculate that a recent surge in the wild turkey population on the property could have introduced S. Oranienburg into the herd, although we cannot rule out the possibility wild turkeys were exposed on the farm or to other potential sources of Salmonella. Findings from the investigation indicated that raw horse manure applied as fertilizer was the most likely source of garden soil contamination. Viable S. Oranienburg persisted in garden soil for an estimated 210 days, which exceeds the 120-day standard between application and harvest currently required by the National Organic Program. The study underscores the need to educate the public about potential food safety hazards associated with using raw animal manure to fertilize edible home gardens. PMID:23425126

Jay-Russell, M T; Madigan, J E; Bengson, Y; Madigan, S; Hake, A F; Foley, J E; Byrne, B A

2014-02-01

323

Correlation between colic and antibody levels against Anoplocephala perfoliata in horses in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

The importance of Anoplocephala perfoliata in horses with colic was studied in 139 horses referred for colic and 139 control horses with no signs of colic for at least three years. The serodiagnostic method of Proudman and Trees, which measures the level of A. perfoliata antibody, was used to detect A. perfoliata infection. Thirty-two horses were examined at necropsy, to determine whether the presence of A. perfoliata in the ileocaecal region was associated with the A. perfoliata antibody level. The mean A. perfoliata antibody level was significantly higher in horses with colic than in horses without colic (P < 0.001), indicating a relationship between A. perfoliata infection and colic in general. There was no relation between age and A. perfoliata antibody level. The mean A. perfoliata antibody level in 12 horses with ileocaecal disorders was significantly higher than that in control horses (P < 0.001). Of the 32 horses examined at necropsy, 7 horses with tapeworms in the ileocaecal region had a significantly higher mean A. perfoliata antibody level than the 25 horses without the parasite (P = 0.030). Lastly, examination of faeces to detect the presence of A. perfoliata infection was not useful in the present study. PMID:17649747

Boswinkel, M; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

2007-07-01

324

Breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal asynchrony in horses with chronic obstructive and inflammatory lung disease.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to show that changes in thoracoabdominal asynchrony (TAA) between quiet breathing and CO2-induced hyperpnoea can be used to differentiate between horses with healthy airways and those suffering from inflammatory airway disease (IAD) or recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). The level of TAA was displayed by the Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) of thoracic and abdominal signals, generated by respiratory ultrasonic plethysmography (RUP) during quiet breathing and hyperpnoea. Changes in TAA were expressed as the quotient of the PCCs (PCCQ) during normal breathing and hyperpnoea. Horses with RAO and IAD showed significant higher median PCCQ than healthy horses. Median PCCQ of horses with RAO and IAD was not significantly different. Horses affected by a pulmonary disorder showed lower TAA compared to the control group. This study suggests that TAA provides a useful parameter to differentiate horses with RAO and IAD from healthy horses. PMID:23837917

Haltmayer, E; Reiser, S; Schramel, J P; van den Hoven, R

2013-10-01

325

Anoplocephala perfoliata in horses in Sweden: prevalence, infection levels and intestinal lesions.  

PubMed

Distal ileum, caecum and proximal colon of 470 horses were examined for helminths during 1 year at an abattoir in central Sweden. The infection levels of the horse tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata, their stage of development, site of attachment and gross pathological lesions caused by the worm were recorded. Faecal samples from 395 of the horses were examined specifically for tapeworm segments and eggs in order to correlate these findings with the numbers in the alimentary canal. In total 65% of the horses were infected with A. perfoliata and the mean intensity of infection was 79 worms per infected horse with a maximum of 912. The level of infection was significantly higher in (1) 3rd and 4th than in 1st and 2nd quarter of the year; (2) older horses than in yearlings; (3) females than in males and geldings; (4) thoroughbred and cold-blooded horses than in Swedish standard breeds and ponies. The level of infection was unaffected by the usage of anthelminthics against nematodes. Of the horses examined 51% had 1-100 worms whereas 14% were infected with more than 100 worms. Of the tapeworm positive horses 72% had mixed infections with both adult and juvenile worms, 20% solely juveniles, and 8% solely adults. The severity of intestinal lesions exacerbated by increasing numbers of A. perfoliata. About 11% of the intestines examined had severe lesions, but there was no history of acute abdominal distress in any of the horses included in this study. Although the number of detectable eggs was significantly higher for horses heavily infected with A. perfoliata, the egg recovery among infected horses was only 35%. An additional field survey comprising 218 horses on 88 premises in central and southern parts of Sweden showed that the prevalence of A. perfoliata egg positive horses was the same as found on faecal examination during the abattoir survey. PMID:7502948

Nilsson, O; Ljungström, B L; Höglund, J; Lundquist, H; Uggla, A

1995-01-01

326

Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse.  

PubMed

The rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes. Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr BP). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43?kyr BP), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalski's horse (E. f. przewalskii) and a donkey (E. asinus). Our analyses suggest that the Equus lineage giving rise to all contemporary horses, zebras and donkeys originated 4.0-4.5?million years before present (Myr BP), twice the conventionally accepted time to the most recent common ancestor of the genus Equus. We also find that horse population size fluctuated multiple times over the past 2?Myr, particularly during periods of severe climatic changes. We estimate that the Przewalski's and domestic horse populations diverged 38-72?kyr BP, and find no evidence of recent admixture between the domestic horse breeds and the Przewalski's horse investigated. This supports the contention that Przewalski's horses represent the last surviving wild horse population. We find similar levels of genetic variation among Przewalski's and domestic populations, indicating that the former are genetically viable and worthy of conservation efforts. We also find evidence for continuous selection on the immune system and olfaction throughout horse evolution. Finally, we identify 29 genomic regions among horse breeds that deviate from neutrality and show low levels of genetic variation compared to the Przewalski's horse. Such regions could correspond to loci selected early during domestication. PMID:23803765

Orlando, Ludovic; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Zhang, Guojie; Froese, Duane; Albrechtsen, Anders; Stiller, Mathias; Schubert, Mikkel; Cappellini, Enrico; Petersen, Bent; Moltke, Ida; Johnson, Philip L F; Fumagalli, Matteo; Vilstrup, Julia T; Raghavan, Maanasa; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Vogt, Josef; Szklarczyk, Damian; Kelstrup, Christian D; Vinther, Jakob; Dolocan, Andrei; Stenderup, Jesper; Velazquez, Amhed M V; Cahill, James; Rasmussen, Morten; Wang, Xiaoli; Min, Jiumeng; Zazula, Grant D; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Mortensen, Cecilie; Magnussen, Kim; Thompson, John F; Weinstock, Jacobo; Gregersen, Kristian; Røed, Knut H; Eisenmann, Véra; Rubin, Carl J; Miller, Donald C; Antczak, Douglas F; Bertelsen, Mads F; Brunak, Søren; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Ryder, Oliver; Andersson, Leif; Mundy, John; Krogh, Anders; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Kjær, Kurt; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Olsen, Jesper V; Hofreiter, Michael; Nielsen, Rasmus; Shapiro, Beth; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

2013-07-01

327

TRYPANOSOMES FROM ELK AND HORSE FLIES IN NEW MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Trypanosoma sp. was isolated from five of seven yearling elk (Cervus canadensis) at Red Rock Wildlife Area and 29 of 31 horse flies (Hybomitra laticor- nis) collected in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico. To our knowledge, this represents the first isolation of trypanosomes from elk.

ERT B. DAVIEStand; GARY G. CLARKD

328

CUTLEAF NIGHTSHADE (SOLANUM TRIFLORUMM NUTT.) TOXICITY IN HORSES AND HAMSTERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Solanum triflorum Nutt. (cutleaf nightshade) poisoning has been associated with gastroenteritis, but poisoned horses have severe salivation, frequent urination, diarrhea and colic. The purpose of this study was to develop a small animal model of poisoning and if possible, identify the neurotoxin. ...

329

"A shape bend in the road, showing how the horses ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

"A shape bend in the road, showing how the horses are hitched in 'blocking.' The remainder of the team has been hitched to the block and tackle." San Joaquin Light and Power Magazine, Vol. I, No. 12, December 1913, p. 553 - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

330

LYMPHOCYTE RESPONSES AND IMMUNOPHENOTYPES IN HORSES WITH SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA INFECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infection of horses with Sarcocystis neurona (S. neurona) is relatively widespread based on the prevalence of serum antibodies, but development of associated clinical disease is much less common. The host immune response is likely to be an important factor in determining outcome of infection with t...

331

Horse species symposium pathogenic and reproductive dysfunction in hourses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the major factors contributing to production losses in the equine industry is pathogen-associated reproductive dysfunction. Although it is difficult to place a true value on the economic losses associated with pathogen-induced reproductive dysfunction in the horse due to the varying value of ...

332

Blastomycotic osteomyelitis associated with severe lameness in a horse  

PubMed Central

A 12-year-old Quarter horse gelding was presented for evaluation of severe right forelimb lameness, 2 draining tracts over the lateral aspect of the right proximal antebrachium, and weight loss. A presumptive diagnosis of blastomycotic osteomyelitis was established based on radiographs and cytology of the exudate. This diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy. PMID:22654133

Méndez-Angulo, José L.; Swaab, Megan E.; Malone, Erin; Olson, Erik J.; Chalkley, Mark D.; Aird, Betsy; Ward, Christie

2011-01-01

333

Renal medullary rim sign in 2 adult quarter horses.  

PubMed Central

This report describes a renal ultrasonographic abnormality (medullary rim sign), which was identified in 2 separate cases of spontaneously occurring disease associated with chronic and acute overdosage of phenylbutazone therapy. In horses, medullary rim sign has only been documented in neonatal foals experimentally administered large doses of phenylbutazone. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9789678

Ramirez, S; Seahorn, T L; Williams, J

1998-01-01

334

Radiographic study of distal radial physeal closure in thoroughbred horses.  

PubMed

Monthly radiography was performed to study distal radial physeal closure in ten male and ten female Thoroughbred horses. The height, thoracic circumference and metacarpus circumference were also measured. Distal radial physeal closure time was sooner in females than males, and took 701 +/- 37 and 748 +/- 55 days respectively. PMID:9335091

Vulcano, L C; Mamprim, M J; Muniz, L M; Moreira, A F; Luna, S P

1997-01-01

335

Introduction Horse flies (Diptera:Tabanidae) are an economically, medically,  

E-print Network

. In blood-feeding females, uptake occurs through a pierc- ing feeding tube formed by the labrum tabanid lineages were nectar specialising Pangoniinae (long- tongued flies), with blood-feeding evolving, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 South Africa. Email: simorita@ncsu.edu Abstract. Long-tongued horse flies

Hammerton, James

336

Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in Horses, Austria, 2011  

PubMed Central

An unexpectedly high infection rate (26.1%) of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was identified in a herd of 257 horses of the same breed distributed among 3 federal states in Austria. Young age (p<0.001) and male sex (p = 0.001) were positively associated with infection. PMID:23631894

Rushton, James O.; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Hubálek, Zdenek; Svobodová, Petra; Lussy, Helga

2013-01-01

337

Transportation costs and product demand: wagering on parimutuel horse racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parimutuel horse-race wagering is in many respects like any other economic good but it differs in one important way from a vast majority of them. Given the present market arrangement, this good cannot be transported to the consumer; instead the consumer must travel to the production site where the good is consumed as it is produced. Thus, transportation costs must

Mukhtar Ali; Richard Thalheimer

1997-01-01

338

Radiography of the horse : 2. Foot and pastern  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE foot and pastern of the horse must be the most frequently implicated region in terms of lameness. Recent years have seen an increase in the use of, and some confusion in the interpretation of, diagnostic (intra-articular and perineural) analgesia in this region. With this in mind, and the fact that improved ultrasonographic facilities and sporadic availability of magnetic resonance

Svend Kold; Jan Butler

2003-01-01

339

Injuries in the event horse: Training versus competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two related studies on injuries sustained by event horses during competition and during training are reported. During the cross-country phase of competition, the most common injuries were lacerations and abrasions to the carpus and stifle. Superficial digital flexor tendonitis and exertional rhabdomyolysis were significantly more common during Cours Complete Internationale (CCI) competitions compared to one-day event (ODE) competitions. The difference

Ellen R. Singer; Jane Barnes; Fiona Saxby; Jane K. Murray

2008-01-01

340

Architectural Properties of Distal Forelimb Muscles in Horses, Equus caballus  

E-print Network

were measured for nine distal forelimb muscles. Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSAArchitectural Properties of Distal Forelimb Muscles in Horses, Equus caballus Nicholas A.T. Brown,1. To accurately and noninvasively predict muscle and joint contact forces, a detailed model of musculoskeletal

Meyers, Ron

341

THE SYNCHRONIZATION OF VENTILATION AND LOCOMOTION IN HORSES (EQUUS CABALLUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 . Horses and some other galloping and hopping mammals link their breathing and locomotion, taking exactly one breath per stride. Three theoretical mechanisms by which the movements of locomotion might drive ventilation are considered, (i) Flexion of the lumbosacral joint and the resulting forward sweep of the pelvis pushes the viscera against the diaphragm. However, back flexion lags behind

IAIN S. YOUNG; A. J. WOAKES; P. J. BUTLER; LLOYD ANDERSON

1992-01-01

342

TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICANAMERICAN SOLDIERS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICAN-AMERICAN SOLDIERS, POST IN 1939 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1939.00.00.06, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

343

Pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir and valganciclovir in the adult horse.  

PubMed

Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy, resulting from equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1) infection, is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in the horse. As compared to other antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir, ganciclovir has enhanced potency against EHV-1. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir and its oral prodrug, valganciclovir, in six adult horses in a randomized cross-over design. Ganciclovir sodium was administered intravenously as a slow bolus at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg, and valganciclovir was administered orally at a dose of 1800 mg per horse. Intravenously administered ganciclovir disposition was best described by a three-compartment model with a prolonged terminal half-life of 72 ± 9 h. Following the oral administration of valganciclovir, the mean observed maximum serum ganciclovir concentration was 0.58 ± 0.37 ?g/mL, and bioavailability of ganciclovir from oral valganciclovir was 41 ± 20%. Superposition predicted that oral dosing of 1800-mg valganciclovir two times daily would fail to produce and maintain effective plasma concentrations of ganciclovir. However, superposition suggested that i.v. administration of ganciclovir at 2.5 mg/kg every 8 h for 24 h followed by maintenance dosing of 2.5 mg/kg every 12 h would maintain effective ganciclovir serum concentrations in most horses throughout the dosing interval. PMID:23301502

Carmichael, R J; Whitfield, C; Maxwell, L K

2013-10-01

344

Pricing Decisions and Insider Trading in Horse Betting Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on a theoretical model by Schnytzer, Lamers, and Makropoulou (2010) that conceptualizes fixed odds horse betting markets as implicit call option markets. We model the decision making process of a bookmaker that sets his prices under uncertainty. We extend the paper of Schnytzer et al. (2010) by relaxing some assumptions and allowing for betting at multiple time

A. SCHNYTZER; V. MAKROPOULOU; M. LAMERS

2012-01-01

345

Physical Fitness and Mitochondrial Respiratory Capacity in Horse Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Background Within the animal kingdom, horses are among the most powerful aerobic athletic mammals. Determination of muscle respiratory capacity and control improves our knowledge of mitochondrial physiology in horses and high aerobic performance in general. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied high-resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration protocols to study mitochondrial physiology in small (1.0–2.5 mg) permeabilized muscle fibres sampled from triceps brachii of healthy horses. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity (pmol O2•s?1•mg?1 wet weight) with combined Complex I and II (CI+II) substrate supply (malate+glutamate+succinate) increased from 77±18 in overweight horses to 103±18, 122±15, and 129±12 in untrained, trained and competitive horses (N?=?3, 8, 16, and 5, respectively). Similar to human muscle mitochondria, equine OXPHOS capacity was limited by the phosphorylation system to 0.85±0.10 (N?=?32) of electron transfer capacity, independent of fitness level. In 15 trained horses, OXPHOS capacity increased from 119±12 to 134±37 when pyruvate was included in the CI+II substrate cocktail. Relative to this maximum OXPHOS capacity, Complex I (CI)-linked OXPHOS capacities were only 50% with glutamate+malate, 64% with pyruvate+malate, and 68% with pyruvate+malate+glutamate, and ?78% with CII-linked succinate+rotenone. OXPHOS capacity with glutamate+malate increased with fitness relative to CI+II-supported ETS capacity from a flux control ratio of 0.38 to 0.40, 0.41 and 0.46 in overweight to competitive horses, whereas the CII/CI+II substrate control ratio remained constant at 0.70. Therefore, the apparent deficit of the CI- over CII-linked pathway capacity was reduced with physical fitness. Conclusions/Significance The scope of mitochondrial density-dependent OXPHOS capacity and the density-independent (qualitative) increase of CI-linked respiratory capacity with increased fitness open up new perspectives of integrative and comparative mitochondrial respiratory physiology. PMID:22529950

Lemieux, Hélène; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier

2012-01-01

346

Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. Are common in Oklahoma horses.  

PubMed

Abstract Tick infestations and infection with tick-borne agents are commonly recognized in horses in North America, but equine infection with true Ehrlichia spp. has not been described. To determine the degree to which horses in the south-central United States are naturally exposed to and infected with tick-borne disease agents, serum samples were collected at random (n=240) or from horses with active tick infestations (n=73) and tested by immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for evidence of antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi. Positive samples were further evaluated by species-specific serology for antibodies reactive to E. canis and E. chaffeensis, and whole blood samples were tested by PCR for evidence of infection with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and an E. ruminantium-like organism referred to as the Panola Mountain Ehrlichia. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were identified in 8.75% (21/240) of the randomly acquired samples and 24.7% (18/73) of the serum samples from tick-infested horses, but species-specific ELISA and PCR failed to confirm exposure to or infection with any known Ehrlichia spp. Antibodies to Anaplasma spp. (5/313; 1.6%) and B. burgdorferi (3/313; 1.0%) were uncommon. These data suggest that horses in the south-central United States are likely exposed to a novel Ehrlichia sp. Further research is needed to identify the etiologic agent responsible for the serologic activity seen and to determine the clinical significance, if any, of this finding. PMID:25072984

Carmichael, Robert C; Duell, Jason R; Holbrook, Todd C; Herrin, Brian H; Leutenegger, Christian M; O'Connor, Thomas P; Little, Susan E

2014-08-01

347

Exercise training-induced hypervolemia in the horse.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if a chronic hypervolemia would accompany endurance exercise training in the horse. Six mature previously inactive horses were utilized for this study. During the 5-wk experiment, five of the horses were trained for 14 d on a treadmill ergometer at a constant treadmill speed of 5.6 km X hr-1 and a constant grade of 12.5% for graduated lengths of time. One horse was trained by lunging at a trotting pace in a round pen. Following training, plasma volume increased by 4.7 1 (29.1%, P less than 0.05). Although the rate of daily water intake did not change during the training period, 24-h urine output decreased by an average of 3.5 1 X d-1 (-24.5%, P less than 0.05). Resting glomerular filtration rate and the rate of sodium clearance were not altered by training. However, urea, potassium, and osmotic clearance were decreased by training (P less than 0.05) while free water clearance was increased (P less than 0.05). Resting plasma aldosterone and arginine vasopressin concentrations were not altered by training. Plasma potassium concentration was significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) following the 2 wk of training. These data would appear to suggest that renal control mechanisms affecting water reabsorption via the re-absorption of urea and osmotically active substances other than sodium provide the primary route for the training-induced hypervolemia seen in horses. PMID:3547008

McKeever, K H; Schurg, W A; Jarrett, S H; Convertino, V A

1987-02-01

348

Assessment of the living and total biomass of microbial communities in the background chestnut soil and in the paleosols under burial mounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contents of phospholipids and carbon of the total microbial biomass were determined in the modern chestnut soil and in the paleosols buried under mounds of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages (5000-1800 years ago) in the dry steppe of the Lower Volga River basin. Judging from data on the ratio between the contents of phospholipids and organic carbon in the microbial cells, the carbon content of the living microbial biomass was calculated and compared with the total microbial biomass and total organic carbon in the studied soils. In the background chestnut soil, the content of phospholipids in the A1, B1, and B2 horizons amounted to 452, 205, and 189 nmol/g, respectively; in the paleosols, it was 28-130% of the present-day level. The maximum content was measured in the paleosols buried 5000 and 2000 years ago, in the periods with an increased humidity of the climate. In the background chestnut soil, the total microbial biomass was estimated at 5680 (the A1 horizon), 3380 (B1), and 4250 (B2) ?g C/g; in the paleosols, it was by 2.5-7.0 times lower. In the upper horizons of the background soil, the portion of the living microbial biomass in the total biomass was much less than that in the paleosols under the burial mounds; it varied within 8.5-15.3% and 15-81%, respectively. The portion of living microbial biomass in the total organic carbon content of the background chestnut soil was about 4-8%. In the paleosols buried in the Early Iron Age (2000 and 1800 years ago), this value did not exceed 3-8%; in the paleosols of the Bronze Age (5000-4000 years ago), it reached 40% of the total organic carbon.

Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkin, V. A.

2011-12-01

349

Invasive Plants, Species and Conditions Fact Sheets: Cheatgrass Brome, Bamboo Reed, Butternut Canker, Dutch Elm, Chestnut Blight, Asian Cycad Scale, Crazy Ant, Red Fox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from ATEEC provides a number of fact sheets on invasive plants, species and conditions which may be printed out or used as presentation material. The plants, species and conditions described here are cheatgrass brome, bamboo reed, butternut canker, dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, Asian cycad scale, crazy ant and red fox. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

2013-06-12

350

Ultrasonographic evaluation of the supraspinous ligament in a series of ridden and unridden horses and horses with unrelated back pathology  

E-print Network

of the supraspinous ligament has been well described, but there are few studies that correlate ultrasonographic findings with clinical pain and/or pathology. This preliminary study aims to test the hypothesis that unridden horses (n = 13) have a significantly reduced...

Henson, Frances M D; Lamas, Luis; Knezevic, Sabina; Jeffcott, Leo B

2007-03-01

351

Protein expression profile of Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae causing horse gastric myiasis and characterization of horse immune reaction  

PubMed Central

Background Little information is available on the immunological aspect of parasitic Gasterophilus intestinalis (Diptera, Oestridae) larvae causing horse gastric myiasis. The objectives of this research were to analyze the protein content of larval crude extracts of the migrating second and third larvae (L2 and L3) of G. intestinalis in order to characterize the immune response of horses. Results The proteomic profile of L2 and L3, investigated by using one and two dimensional approaches, revealed a migration pattern specific to each larval stage. Furthermore, Western blots were performed with horse sera and with sera of Balb/c mice immunised with the larval crude extracts of L2 or L3, revealing a different immune reaction in naturally infected horses vs. artificially induced immune reaction in mice. The comparisons of the immunoblot profiles demonstrate that the stage L2 is more immunogenic than the stage L3 most likely as an effect of the highest enzymatic production of L2 while migrating through the host tissues. Fifteen proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Conclusion This work provides further information into the understanding of the interaction between G. intestinalis and their host and by contributing a novel scheme of the proteomic profile of the main larval stages. PMID:19133133

Roelfstra, Liselore; Deeg, Cornelia A; Hauck, Stefanie M; Buse, Christina; Membrez, Mathieu; Betschart, Bruno; Pfister, Kurt

2009-01-01

352

Note types and coding in Parid vocalizations: the chick-a-dee call of the chestnut-backed chickadee (Poecile rufuscens).  

PubMed

A first step to understanding how a species communicates acoustically is to identify, categorize, and quantify the acoustic parameters of the elements that make up their vocalizations. The "chick-a-dee" call notes of the chestnut-backed chickadee (Poecile rufescens) were sorted into four call note categories, A, C, D, and Dh notes, based on their acoustic structure as observed in sound spectrograms, and evaluated based on the syntactical ordering of the note types within calls. The notes were then analyzed using quantitative measures and it was determined which features have the potential to convey information to discriminate note type, individual, and the geographic origin of the producer. The findings were comparable to previous research of congeners in that chestnut-backed chickadee calls were produced with a relatively fixed syntax and contained similarly structured note types across all geographic regions. Overall this information will form a base for future research on chestnut-backed chickadee vocalizations and will strengthen the foundation for future comparative evolutionary studies. PMID:19813818

Hoeschele, Marisa; Gammon, David E; Moscicki, Michele K; Sturdy, Christopher B

2009-10-01

353

Alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity in horses: clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings.  

PubMed

The objective of this observational study is to describe clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings of horses affected with alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity. Twenty horses naturally exposed to alfalfa dodder toxicity were examined and information was collected on history and clinical signs. Physical examination was done on horses in the premises (n=20), and venous blood samples of 12 horses were submitted for haematology and serum biochemical examination for each horse. Abnormal clinical signs started around 36 hours after horses were fed the contaminated alfalfa. Abnormal signs were seen in 11 horses and those included diarrhoea (n=8), decreased appetite (n=7), neurological signs (n=4) and abdominal pain (n=1). Some horses had multiple clinical signs of the above. The results of complete blood cell count revealed leukocytopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Serum biochemical analysis revealed decreased ALP, AST and CPK levels and increased direct bilirubin level. The used alfalfa was stopped immediately and a different alfalfa from a new container that did not contain any weeds was fed. Horses on the premises were observed closely, and the abnormal clinical signs resolved within three days. No treatment was implemented. Knowledge about toxicity of horses by Cuscuta species is scarce in the English veterinary literature and very limited. PMID:23800626

Abutarbush, S M

2013-07-27

354

Towards a Postural Indicator of Back Pain in Horses (Equus caballus)  

PubMed Central

Postures have long been used and proved useful to describe animals’ behaviours and emotional states, but remains difficult to assess objectively in field conditions. A recent study performed on horses using geometric morphometrics revealed important postural differences between 2 horse populations differing in management conditions (leisure horses living in social groups used for occasional “relaxed” riding/riding school horses living in individual boxes used in daily riding lessons with more constraining techniques). It was suggested that these postural differences may reflect chronic effects of riding techniques on the horses’ kinematics and muscular development. In the present study, we tried to evaluate the interest of postural measures to assess welfare in horses. This study was separated into 2 parts. First, 18 horses coming from these 2 types of populations (leisure/riding school horses) were submitted to 2 back evaluations by 1) manual examination (experienced practitioner) and 2) sEMG measures along the spine. We then measured neck roundness on 16 of these 18 horses. The results highlighted high correlations between manual and sEMG examinations over the spine. sEMG measures at the different locations were strongly correlated all over the spine. Moreover, neck postures and muscular activities were strongly correlated, horses with concave necks having higher sEMG measures both at precise locations (i.e. cervical sites) but also when comparing neck postures to the whole spine muscular activity highlighting the functioning of horses’ back as a whole. Lastly, strong differences appeared between the populations, leisure horses being evaluated as having sounder spines, exhibiting lower sEMG measures and rounder neck than the riding school horses. sEMG measures and neck “roundness” seemed therefore to be reliable indicators of back disorders, easy to evaluate in field conditions. This highlights the accuracy of using postural elements to evaluate the animals’ general state and has important implications for animals’ welfare evaluations. PMID:22970261

Lesimple, Clémence; Fureix, Carole; De Margerie, Emmanuel; Sénèque, Emilie; Menguy, Hervé; Hausberger, Martine

2012-01-01

355

Comparison of the fecal microbiota of healthy horses and horses with colitis by high throughput sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene.  

PubMed

The intestinal tract houses one of the richest and most complex microbial populations on the planet, and plays a critical role in health and a wide range of diseases. Limited studies using new sequencing technologies in horses are available. The objective of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiome of healthy horses and to compare the fecal microbiome of healthy horses to that of horses with undifferentiated colitis. A total of 195,748 sequences obtained from 6 healthy horses and 10 horses affected by undifferentiated colitis were analyzed. Firmicutes predominated (68%) among healthy horses followed by Bacteroidetes (14%) and Proteobacteria (10%). In contrast, Bacteroidetes (40%) was the most abundant phylum among horses with colitis, followed by Firmicutes (30%) and Proteobacteria (18%). Healthy horses had a significantly higher relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Spirochaetes while horses with colitis had significantly more Fusobacteria. Members of the Clostridia class were more abundant in healthy horses. Members of the Lachnospiraceae family were the most frequently shared among healthy individuals. The species richness reported here indicates the complexity of the equine intestinal microbiome. The predominance of Clostridia demonstrates the importance of this group of bacteria in healthy horses. The marked differences in the microbiome between healthy horses and horses with colitis indicate that colitis may be a disease of gut dysbiosis, rather than one that occurs simply through overgrowth of an individual pathogen. PMID:22859989

Costa, Marcio C; Arroyo, Luis G; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Stämpfli, Henry R; Kim, Peter T; Sturgeon, Amy; Weese, J Scott

2012-01-01

356

Comparison of the Fecal Microbiota of Healthy Horses and Horses with Colitis by High Throughput Sequencing of the V3-V5 Region of the 16S rRNA Gene  

PubMed Central

The intestinal tract houses one of the richest and most complex microbial populations on the planet, and plays a critical role in health and a wide range of diseases. Limited studies using new sequencing technologies in horses are available. The objective of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiome of healthy horses and to compare the fecal microbiome of healthy horses to that of horses with undifferentiated colitis. A total of 195,748 sequences obtained from 6 healthy horses and 10 horses affected by undifferentiated colitis were analyzed. Firmicutes predominated (68%) among healthy horses followed by Bacteroidetes (14%) and Proteobacteria (10%). In contrast, Bacteroidetes (40%) was the most abundant phylum among horses with colitis, followed by Firmicutes (30%) and Proteobacteria (18%). Healthy horses had a significantly higher relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Spirochaetes while horses with colitis had significantly more Fusobacteria. Members of the Clostridia class were more abundant in healthy horses. Members of the Lachnospiraceae family were the most frequently shared among healthy individuals. The species richness reported here indicates the complexity of the equine intestinal microbiome. The predominance of Clostridia demonstrates the importance of this group of bacteria in healthy horses. The marked differences in the microbiome between healthy horses and horses with colitis indicate that colitis may be a disease of gut dysbiosis, rather than one that occurs simply through overgrowth of an individual pathogen. PMID:22859989

Costa, Marcio C.; Arroyo, Luis G.; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Stämpfli, Henry R.; Kim, Peter T.; Sturgeon, Amy; Weese, J. Scott

2012-01-01

357

Incidence of Anoplocephala perfoliata in horses examined at an Irish abattoir.  

PubMed

The intestinal tracts of 363 horses were examined after slaughter at a horse abattoir. The presence or absence of Anoplocephala perfoliata and the sites of attachment were recorded. A total of 51 per cent of the horses had A perfoliata attached to the mucosa of the ileocaecal junction and/or to the caecal mucosa; 5 per cent of the horses had A perfoliata attached only to the mucosa of the ileocaecal junction, 24 per cent had A perfoliata attached only to the caecal mucosa and 22 per cent of the horses had A perfoliata attached at both sites. The degree of infestation did not appear to be influenced by the season or by the age, breed or source of origin of the horses. The lesions at the sites of attachment included congestion, oedema, ulceration, diphtheresis, mucosal thickening, eosinophil infiltration and fibroplasia. The severity of the lesions was exacerbated by increasing numbers of worms. PMID:8085308

Fogarty, U; del Piero, F; Purnell, R E; Mosurski, K R

1994-05-14

358

[New drugs for horses and production animals in 2011].  

PubMed

In 2011, three newly developed active pharmaceutical ingredients for horses and food producing animals were released on the German market for veterinary drug products. Two of these new products represent different drug classes of antibiotics, the polypeptide antibiotic Bacitracin (Bacivet™) and the macrolide antibiotic Clorsulon (Levatum®). The third product represents an anticestodal antiparasitic (Tildipirosin, Zuprevo®). Furthermore, three established veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredients were modified to allow their application for additional species. Thus the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate is now additionally authorised for turkeys and both the macrolide antibiotic Tilmicosin and the anticoccidial drug Toltrazuril are currently available for sheep. Additionally, two veterinary drugs with a new formulation as well as a veterinary drug for horses and food producing animals with a resourceful new combination of active pharmaceutical ingredients have recently been released. PMID:23076759

Emmerich, I U

2012-10-17

359

Do Horses Expect Humans to Solve Their Problems?  

PubMed Central

Domestic animals are highly capable of detecting human cues, while wild relatives tend to perform less well (e.g., responding to pointing gestures). It is suggested that domestication may have led to the development of such cognitive skills. Here, we hypothesized that because domestic animals are so attentive and dependant to humans’ actions for resources, the counter effect may be a decline of self sufficiency, such as individual task solving. Here we show a negative correlation between the performance in a learning task (opening a chest) and the interest shown by horses toward humans, despite high motivation expressed by investigative behaviors directed at the chest. If human-directed attention reflects the development of particular skills in domestic animals, this is to our knowledge the first study highlighting a link between human-directed behaviors and impaired individual solving task skills (ability to solve a task by themselves) in horses. PMID:22936923

Lesimple, C.; Sankey, C.; Richard, M. A.; Hausberger, M.

2012-01-01

360

Changes in Serum Mineral Concentrations, Biochemical and Hematological Parameters in Horses with Pica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare hematological, some biochemical parameters, and serum trace element concentrations in\\u000a horses with or without pica. Fifteen horses with pica (group I) and another 15 healthy horses without pica (group II) were\\u000a used. The hematological parameters were not changed between the two groups. In group I, hemoglobin values were lower than\\u000a those of

Ismail Aytekin; Ali Cesur Onmaz; Serap Unubol Aypak; Vehbi Gunes; Osman Kucuk

2011-01-01

361

Effect of Trace Mineral Supplementation on Gastric Ulcers in Exercising Yearling Horses  

E-print Network

Table 2 Modified EGUC scoring system used to evaluate gastric ulcers in yearling horses ................................................................................... 34 Table 3 Number of horses assigned to each score in modified EGUC.... At the end of each period, horses were transported for 6 h, 5 d before being endoscopically examined to assign ulcer scores. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using the mixed procedure of iv SAS, with the model including fixed effects...

Hayes, Alexa Dawn

2010-10-12

362

Physiological Response of Normal Adult Horses to a Low-Residue Liquid Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThe anorexic or dysphagic adult horse often requires nutritional support. Providing nutrients by the enteral route is the safest and most economic choice, but the dietary options available for use in horses are somewhat limited. The objective of this study was to compare the physiologic response of normal horses with a low-residue liquid or normal diet over a 10-day feeding

Virginia A Buechner-Maxwell; Francois Elvinger; Craig D Thatcher; Micheal J Murray; Nathanial A White; Debbie K Rooney

2003-01-01

363

Use of human-given cues by domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ) and horses ( Equus caballus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and four horses (Equus caballus) were tested for their ability to use human-given manual and facial cues in an object-choice task. Two of the four horses\\u000a used touch as a cue and one horse successfully used pointing. The performance of the dogs was considerably better, with 12\\u000a subjects able to use pointing as a cue,

Jean McKinley; Thomas D. Sambrook

2000-01-01

364

33. 20HORSE POWER VERTICAL BOILER WAS MANUFACTURED BY ORR & ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. 20-HORSE POWER VERTICAL BOILER WAS MANUFACTURED BY ORR & SEMBOWER, FROM READING, PA. IT WAS INSTALLED IN 1929 TO REPLACE THE ORIGINAL BOILER. THE BOILER PROVIDED STEAM TO THE STEAM ENGINE. TO LUBRICATING THE DIE OF THE BRICK AUGER, AND TO THE STEAM PIPES OF THE DRYING ROOM ON THE FLOOR ABOVE. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

365

1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A SMALL WINDOW. THE 4/4 DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW IS IN THE STORE ROOM. THE ROLLING DOOR WAS WIDENED, PROBABLY IN 1926, ELIMINATING THE ORIGINAL LOFT LADDER AT THE CORNER OF THE BUILDING. THE PUBLIC RESTROOM NEAR THE LEFT EDGE OF THE VIEW DOES NOT RELATE TO THE RANGER STATION. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

366

Preliminary Pharmacokinetics of Diclazuril and Toltrazuril in the Horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study suggests that diclazuril and toltrazuril are absorbed after oral administration and have longer (40-55 h) plasma half-lives. These kinetic characteristics suggest readily maintained steady-state plasma concentrations. These are useful characteristics for therapeutic agents; how- ever, therapeutic specifics for these agests in the horse remain to be determined. Authors' address: Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center and Dept.

T. Tobin; L. Dirikolu; J. D. Harkins; D. E. Granstrom; W. Carter; F. Lehner; W. A. Rees

367

A Genome Scan for Positive Selection in Thoroughbred Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thoroughbred horses have been selected for exceptional racing performance resulting in system-wide structural and functional adaptations contributing to elite athletic phenotypes. Because selection has been recent and intense in a closed population that stems from a small number of founder animals Thoroughbreds represent a unique population within which to identify genomic contributions to exercise-related traits. Employing a population genetics-based hitchhiking

Jingjing Gu; Nick Orr; Stephen D. Park; Lisa M. Katz; Galina Sulimova; David E. MacHugh; Emmeline W. Hill; Cecile Fairhead

2009-01-01

368

Luminance and chromatic discrimination in the horse ( Equus caballus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equine colour vision was measured under conditions that minimised the possibility of animals using brightness cues to make chromatic discriminations. In a two-stage study, we first obtained luminance discrimination functions for achromatic targets then tested for chromatic discrimination over a range of target luminances. Horses were trained on a two-choice discrimination task. The positive stimulus was varied in luminance and\\/or

Todd Macuda; Brian Timney

1999-01-01

369

Town Club or Program Goat Horse Poultry Rabbit  

E-print Network

Dog Exploring Nature Garden- ing Goat Horse Poultry Rabbit Science & Tech Sheep Shooting Sports x x x x Canaan Cardigan Mountain Bobcats x x x x x x x x Campton North Country 4-H River Riders x x Riders x x x x Monroe Hunt Mountain x x x N. Haverhill Bob-O-Link x x x N. Haverhill Little OxBow x x N

New Hampshire, University of

370

Epidemiology of Airborne Virulent Rhodococcus equi at Horse Breeding Farms  

E-print Network

OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Noah Cohen Committee Members, Morgan Keith Chaffin Sara Lawhon Head of Department, Allen Roussel December 2011 Major Subject: Biomedical Sciences iii ABSTRACT Epidemiology of Airborne... Virulent Rhodococcus equi at Horse Breeding Farms. (December 2011) Kyle Ryan Kuskie, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Noah Cohen Rhodococcus equi causes severe pneumonia, resulting in disease and sometimes death of foals...

Kuskie, Kyle Ryan

2012-02-14

371

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tramadol in horses following oral administration.  

PubMed

Tramadol is a synthetic opioid used in human medicine, and to a lesser extent in veterinary medicine, for the treatment of both acute and chronic pain. In humans, the analgesic effects are owing to the actions of both the parent compound and an active metabolite (M1). The goal of the current study was to extend current knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 following oral administration of three doses of tramadol to horses. A total of nine healthy adult horses received a single oral administration of 3, 6, and 9 mg/kg of tramadol via nasogastric tube. Blood samples were collected at time 0 and at various times up to 96 h after drug administration. Urine samples were collected until 120 h after administration. Plasma and urine samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting data analyzed using noncompartmental analysis. For the 3, 6, and 9 mg/kg dose groups, Cmax , Tmax, and the t1/2? were 43.1, 90.7, and 218 ng/mL, 0.750, 2.0, and 1.5 h and 2.14, 2.25, and 2.39 h, respectively. While tramadol and M1 plasma concentrations within the analgesic range for humans were attained in the 3 and 6 mg/kg dose group, these concentrations were at the lower end of the analgesic range and were only transiently maintained. Furthermore, until effective analgesic plasma concentrations have been established in horses, tramadol should be cautiously recommended for control of pain in horses. No significant undesirable behavioral or physiologic effects were noted at any of the doses administered. PMID:23061925

Knych, H K; Corado, C R; McKemie, D S; Scholtz, E; Sams, R

2013-08-01

372

Genotypes of predomestic horses match phenotypes painted in Paleolithic works of cave art  

PubMed Central

Archaeologists often argue whether Paleolithic works of art, cave paintings in particular, constitute reflections of the natural environment of humans at the time. They also debate the extent to which these paintings actually contain creative artistic expression, reflect the phenotypic variation of the surrounding environment, or focus on rare phenotypes. The famous paintings “The Dappled Horses of Pech-Merle,” depicting spotted horses on the walls of a cave in Pech-Merle, France, date back ?25,000 y, but the coat pattern portrayed in these paintings is remarkably similar to a pattern known as “leopard” in modern horses. We have genotyped nine coat-color loci in 31 predomestic horses from Siberia, Eastern and Western Europe, and the Iberian Peninsula. Eighteen horses had bay coat color, seven were black, and six shared an allele associated with the leopard complex spotting (LP), representing the only spotted phenotype that has been discovered in wild, predomestic horses thus far. LP was detected in four Pleistocene and two Copper Age samples from Western and Eastern Europe, respectively. In contrast, this phenotype was absent from predomestic Siberian horses. Thus, all horse color phenotypes that seem to be distinguishable in cave paintings have now been found to exist in prehistoric horse populations, suggesting that cave paintings of this species represent remarkably realistic depictions of the animals shown. This finding lends support to hypotheses arguing that cave paintings might have contained less of a symbolic or transcendental connotation than often assumed. PMID:22065780

Pruvost, Melanie; Bellone, Rebecca; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Cieslak, Michael; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; O'Connor, Terry; Reissmann, Monika; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

2011-01-01

373

Physiological responses of mature Quarter Horses to reining training when fed conventional and fat supplemented diets.  

E-print Network

??An initial experiment was conducted utilizing five mature Quarter Horses to establish baseline physiological responses to typical reining training. Heart rate and plasma lactate concentration… (more)

Rammerstorfer, Christian

2012-01-01

374

Improving Environmental Management on Small-scale Farms: Perspectives of Extension Educators and Horse Farm Operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms.

Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

2015-01-01

375

Data on the prevalence of tapeworm infestations in horses in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

The prevalence of tapeworm infestations was investigated in 70 horses slaughtered in the period February 1994-July 1994. Most horses were half-breed, young (1.5-3 years), and in good condition. They were bought for slaughter by dealers on local markets, and their treatment history was therefore unknown. Tapeworm infestations were seen in 16 horses (23%). Fifteen (21%) had an infection with Anoplocephala perfoliata. One horse had a single specimen of Paranoplocephala mamillana. The average number of A. perfoliata was 45 and the highest number was 508. PMID:8903145

Borgsteede, F H; van Beek, G

1996-09-01

376

Demographics, management, and welfare of nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island  

PubMed Central

Abstract There are no detailed, representative, horse-level data about equine management practices in different parts of Canada. To help address this, the demographics, management, and welfare of 312 nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island were examined in a randomized, horse-level survey during summer 2002. Owners completed a pretested questionnaire, and a veterinarian examined each horse. Owners were experienced caregivers and the horses were generally in good condition. Areas for improvement included parasite control, dental and hoof care, and tail docking. The mean fecal egg count was 428 eggs per gram; 76% of owners never removed manure from the pasture. Sixty-two percent of horses had never had a veterinary dental examination. Many horses had hoof defects (excessively long hooves, 26.8%; hoof wall breaks, 32.0%; and white line disease, 8.5%). Many (54.9%) draft horses had docked tails. These results suggest owners might benefit their horses by receiving education in aspects of equine care. PMID:15646847

2004-01-01

377

Patterns of Horse-Rider Coordination during Endurance Race: A Dynamical System Approach  

PubMed Central

In riding, most biomechanical studies have focused on the description of the horse locomotion in unridden condition. In this study, we draw the prospect of how the basic principles established in inter-personal coordination by the theory of Coordination Dynamics may provide a conceptual and methodological framework for understanding the horse-rider coupling. The recent development of mobile technologies allows combined horse and rider recordings during long lasting natural events such as endurance races. Six international horse-rider dyads were thus recorded during a 120 km race by using two tri-axial accelerometers placed on the horses and riders, respectively. The analysis concentrated on their combined vertical displacements. The obtained shapes and angles of Lissajous plots together with values of relative phase between horse and rider displacements at lower reversal point allowed us to characterize four coordination patterns, reflecting the use of two riding techniques per horse's gait (trot and canter). The present study shows that the concepts, methods and tools of self-organizing dynamic system approach offer new directions for understanding horse-rider coordination. The identification of the horse-rider coupling patterns constitutes a firm basis to further study the coalition of multiple constraints that determine their emergence and their dynamics in endurance race. PMID:23940788

Viry, Sylvain; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Frances, Jean-Philippe; Berton, Eric; Laurent, Michel; Nicol, Caroline

2013-01-01

378

Improving Environmental Management on Small-scale Farms: Perspectives of Extension Educators and Horse Farm Operators.  

PubMed

Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms. PMID:25267522

Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

2015-01-01

379

Detection of Theileria equi in spleen and blood of asymptomatic piroplasm carrier horses.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine whether asymptomatic horses naturally infected with Theileria equi retain infected erythrocytes in the spleen and whether the presence of the hemoparasite in this organ is associated with parasitemia. We collected samples from 25 adult horses without clinical signs of any disease. From each animal, we collected whole blood samples from the jugular vein and a splenic puncture blood sample. All samples were submited to blood cell counts and detection of Theileria or Babesia. DNA extraction and PCR were performed in all samples for identification of piroplasm infection (T. equi and B. caballi). From the 25 horses evaluated for piroplasm detection by PCR, seven horses (28%) were positive in jugular vein blood but negative in splenic blood samples, five horses (20%) were positive in splenic blood samples but negative in jugular vein blood samples, and 13 horses (52%) were positive in both jugular vein and splenic blood samples. The hematological evaluation revealed anemia in 13 of 25 (52%) infected horses, lymphopenia in five (20%), neutrophilia in two (8%), neutropenia in one (4%), and thrombocytopenia in one (4%) infected horse. The present study demonstrated that several (20%) of the asymptomatic piroplasm carrier horses did not show parasitemia, but show infected erythrocytes in the spleen. PMID:23666659

Ribeiro, Isabel B; Câmara, Antônio Carlos L; Bittencourt, Marta V; Marçola, Tatiana G; Paludo, Giane R; Soto-Blanco, Benito

2013-06-01

380

The effects of age, rank and neophobia on social learning in horses.  

PubMed

Social learning is said to meet the demands of complex environments in which individuals compete over resources and cooperate to share resources. Horses (Equus caballus) were thought to lack social learning skills because they feed on homogenously distributed resources with few reasons for conflict. However, the horse's social environment is complex, which raises the possibility that its capacity for social transfer of feeding behaviour has been underestimated. We conducted a social learning experiment using 30 socially kept horses of different ages. Five horses, one from each group, were chosen as demonstrators, and the remaining 25 horses were designated observers. Observers from each group were allowed to watch their group demonstrator opening a feeding apparatus. We found that young, low-ranking and more exploratory horses learned by observing older members of their own group, and the older the horse, the more slowly it appeared to learn. Social learning may be an adaptive specialisation to the social environment. Older animals may avoid the potential costs of acquiring complex and potentially disadvantageous feeding behaviours from younger group members. We argue that horses show social learning in the context of their social ecology and that research procedures must take such contexts into account. Misconceptions about the horse's sociality may have hampered earlier studies. PMID:24170136

Krueger, Konstanze; Farmer, Kate; Heinze, Jürgen

2014-05-01

381

Acute hemoperitoneum in horses: a review of 19 cases (1992-2003).  

PubMed

The medical records of 19 horses with acute hemoperitoneum were reviewed. The causes for the hemoperitoneum were idiopathic (8 horses), splenic hematoma with capsular tear (7), bleeding from the reproductive tract (3), multicentric hemangiosarcoma (1), and systemic amyloidosis (1). The affected horses were between 4 and 32 years of age (median 11.5 years). The most consistent findings on initial examination were depression, tachycardia, tachypnea, pale mucous membranes, prolonged capillary refill time, colic, and abdominal discomfort. Less common clinical signs included abdominal distention, profuse sweating, ataxia, and broad ligament mass palpated on rectal examination. Clinicopathologic abnormalities commonly detected were anemia, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypoproteinemia, hypocalcemia, azotemia, increased creatinine kinase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase activity. Hemoperitoneum was diagnosed on the basis of abdominocentesis, transabdominal ultrasonography, and postmortem examination. Sixteen horses were treated, and 3 horses were euthanized at owners' request because of severe clinical signs. The treatment consisted of the administration of intravenous fluids, plasma or blood transfusion, nonsteroidal drugs, antimicrobial drugs, and antifibrinolytic and procoagulant agents. Rapid clinical deterioration was observed in 2 horses, necessitating euthanasia. The remaining 14 horses survived the abdominal bleeding (survival rate 74%) and were discharged 3-15 days (median 7.0 days) after presentation. Postmortem examination of the 6 nonsurvivors showed massive abdominal hemorrhage from splenic hematoma with capsular tear (2 horses), multicentric hemangiosarcoma with liver rupture (1), systemic amyloidosis with splenic hematoma and capsular tear (1), and bilateral ruptured ovarian hematomas (1). In one horse, no origin of the bleeding could be determined during postmortem examination. PMID:15954549

Pusterla, N; Fecteau, M E; Madigan, J E; Wilson, W D; Magdesian, K G

2005-01-01

382

Evaluation of working conditions of workers engaged in tending horses.  

PubMed

introduction. A growing interest in the horse business has resulted in the increased engagement of many people in this area, and the health problems occurring among workers create the need to search for prophylactic measures. objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the level of exposure to air pollution in a stable, and estimation of the degree of work load among workers engaged in tending horses. material and methods. The study was conducted twice, during the winter season, in a stable maintaining race horses, and in a social room. In order to evaluate workers' exposure, air samples were collected by the aspiration method. After the incubation of material, the total number of bacteria and fungi in the air was determined, as well as the number of aerobic mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, expressed as the number of colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m(3)). The measurement of total dust concentration in the air was also performed, simultaneously with the measurement of microclimatic parameters. The study of work load also covered the measurement of energy expenditure, evaluation of static physical load, and monotony of movements performed. conclusions. The stable may be considered as a workplace with considerable risk of the occurrence of unfavourable health effects. PMID:25528908

Nowakowicz-D?bek, Bo?ena; Pawlak, Halina; Wlaz?o, ?ukasz; Kuna-Broniowska, Izabela; Bis-Wencel, Hanna; Buczaj, Agnieszka; Maksym, Piotr

2014-11-26

383

Speed, pacing strategy and aerodynamic drafting in Thoroughbred horse racing  

PubMed Central

Choice of pacing strategy and the benefit of aerodynamic drafting are thought to be key determinants of racing performance. These effects have largely been analysed without reference to final outcome, in small datasets with low temporal resolution, and a focus on human swimming, cycling and running. Here, we determined the position and speed of 44 803 racehorses, once per second, in 3 357 races ranging in length from 1006 to 4225 m (50.9–292.9 seconds duration) using a validated radio tracking system. We find that aerodynamic drafting has a marked effect on horse performance, and hence racing outcome. Furthermore, we demonstrate that race length-dependent pacing strategies are correlated with the fastest racing times, with some horses reaching a maximum speed in excess of 19 m s?1. The higher speeds seen with certain pacing strategies may arise due to the nature of pack racing itself, or may be a reflection of individual capabilities, that is, corresponding to horses that perform well in roles suited to their ‘front-running’ or ‘chaser’ personality traits. PMID:22399784

Spence, Andrew J.; Thurman, Andrew S.; Maher, Michael J.; Wilson, Alan M.

2012-01-01

384

Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation  

PubMed Central

Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

2014-01-01

385

Original article Genetic parameters of eventing horse competition in France  

E-print Network

Abstract – Genetic parameters of eventing horse competitions were estimated. About 13 000 horses, 30 000 annual results during 17 years and 110 000 starts in eventing competitions during 8 years were recorded. The measures of performance were logarithmic transformations of annual earnings, annual earnings per start, and annual earnings per place, and underlying variables responsible for ranks in each competition. Heritabilities were low (0.11 / 0.17 for annual results, 0.07 for ranks). Genetic correlations between criteria were high (greater than 0.90) except between ranks and earnings per place (0.58) or per start (0.67). Genetic correlations between ages (from 5 to 10 years old) were also high (more than 0.85) and allow selection on early performances. The genetic correlation between the results in different levels of competition (high/international and low/amateur) was near 1. Genetic correlations of eventing with other disciplines, which included partial aptitude needed for eventing, were very low for steeplechase races (0.18) and moderate with sport: jumping (0.45), dressage (0.58). The results suggest that selection on jumping performance will lead to some positive correlated response for eventing performance, but much more response could be obtained if a specific breeding objective and selection criteria were developed for eventing. horse / eventing / heritability / rank 1.

Anne Ricard; Isabelle Chanu

2000-01-01

386

Unilateral choristoma of the nictitating membrane in a horse.  

PubMed

Case Description-A 2-year-old Morgan mare was evaluated because of a corneal ulceration. Clinical Findings-An irregular, deep stromal corneal ulcer in an area of malacia was noted in the left eye. Hypopyon was present in the ventral portion of the anterior chamber with moderate aqueous flare. The nictitating membrane of the left eye had hairs originating from its leading edge that contacted the corneal surface. Treatment and Outcome-General anesthesia was induced, and a bulbar pedicle conjunctival graft was performed. The conjunctiva at the leading edge of the nictitating membrane, including the aberrant hair follicles, was excised. Microscopically, a nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium, sebaceous glands, and hair shafts were present, confirming a choristoma of pilosebaceous origin at the leading edge of the nictitating membrane. Six weeks after surgery, the horse had no signs of discomfort, with no regrowth of the hairs; no loss of vision was evident. Clinical Relevance-Ocular choristomas develop secondary to defective fetal cellular differentiation and are rarely reported in the equine literature. The choristoma in this horse contained ectopic hair follicles with hair growth as well as sebaceous glands. This finding emphasizes the importance of a thorough adnexal examination in horses with corneal disease. PMID:25554940

Gornik, Kara R; Pirie, Christopher G; Beamer, Gillian L

2015-01-15

387

Beyond injection: Trojan horse underdense photocathode plasma wakefield acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview on the underlying principles of the hybrid plasma wakefield acceleration scheme dubbed "Trojan Horse" acceleration is given. The concept is based on laser-controlled release of electrons directly into a particle-beam-driven plasma blowout, paving the way for controlled, shapeable electron bunches with ultralow emittance and ultrahigh brightness. Combining the virtues of a low-ionization-threshold underdense photocathode with the GV/m-scale electric fields of a practically dephasing-free beam-driven plasma blowout, this constitutes a 4th generation electron acceleration scheme. It is applicable as a beam brightness transformer for electron bunches from LWFA and PWFA systems alike. At FACET, the proof-of-concept experiment "E-210: Trojan Horse Plasma Wakefield Acceleration" has recently been approved and is in preparation. At the same time, various LWFA facilities are currently considered to host experiments aiming at stabilizing and boosting the electron bunch output quality via a trojan horse afterburner stage. Since normalized emittance and brightness can be improved by many orders of magnitude, the scheme is an ideal candidate for light sources such as free-electron-lasers and those based on Thomson scattering and betatron radiation alike.

Hidding, B.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Xi, Y.; O'Shea, B.; Andonian, G.; Schiller, D.; Barber, S.; Williams, O.; Pretzler, G.; Königstein, T.; Kleeschulte, F.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M.; Corde, S.; White, W. W.; Muggli, P.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Lotov, K.

2012-12-01

388

West Nile Virus Antibody Prevalence in Horses in Ukraine  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus of global importance. Over the last two decades, it has been responsible for significant numbers of cases of illness in humans and animals in many parts of the world. In Ukraine, WNV infections in humans and birds were first reported more than 25 years ago, yet the current epidemiological status is quite unclear. In this study, serum samples from over 300 equines were collected and screened in order to detect current WNV activity in Ukraine with the goal to estimate the risk of infection for humans and horses. Sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization assay (NT) to detect WNV-specific antibodies. The results clearly revealed that WNV circulates in most of the regions from which samples were obtained, shown by a WNV seroprevalence rate of 13.5% of examined horses. This is the first topical report indicating the presence of WNV infections in horses in Ukraine, and the results of this study provide evidence of a widespread WNV circulation in this country. PMID:24100889

Ziegler, Ute; Skrypnyk, Artem; Keller, Markus; Staubach, Christoph; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Damiani, Armando M.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Groschup, Martin H.

2013-01-01

389

Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation.  

PubMed

Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

2014-09-01

390

The brain of the horse: weight and cephalization quotients.  

PubMed

The horse is a common domestic animal whose anatomy has been studied since the XVI century. However, a modern neuroanatomy of this species does not exist and most of the data utilized in textbooks and reviews derive from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here, we report information on the brain of Equus caballus obtained by sampling 131 horses, including brain weight (as a whole and subdivided into its constituents), encephalization quotient (EQ), and cerebellar quotient (CQ), and comparisons with what is known about other relevant species. The mean weight of the fresh brains in our experimental series was 598.63 g (SEM ± 7.65), with a mean body weight of 514.12 kg (SEM ± 15.42). The EQ was 0.78 and the CQ was 0.841. The data we obtained indicate that the horse possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a weight similar to that of other hoofed species of like mass. However, the shape of the brain, the noteworthy folding of the neocortex, and the peculiar longitudinal distribution of the gyri suggest an evolutionary specificity at least partially separate from that of the Cetartiodactyla (even-toed mammals and cetaceans) with whom Perissodactyla (odd-toed mammals) are often grouped. PMID:24335261

Cozzi, Bruno; Povinelli, Michele; Ballarin, Cristina; Granato, Alberto

2014-01-01

391

Pharmacokinetics of pergolide after intravenous administration to horses.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of pergolide after IV administration to horses. ANIMALS 8 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES Pergolide mesylate was administered IV at a dose of 20 ?g/kg (equivalent to 15.2 ?g of pergolide/kg) to each horse, and blood samples were collected over 48 hours. Pergolide concentrations in plasma were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined on the basis of noncompartmental methods. RESULTS After IV administration of pergolide, mean ± SD clearance, elimination half-life, and initial volume of distribution were 959 ± 492 mL/h/kg, 5.64 ± 2.36 hours, and 0.79 ± 0.32 L/kg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE With an elimination half-life of approximately 6 hours, twice-daily dosing may be more appropriate than once-daily dosing to reduce peak-trough fluctuation in pergolide concentrations. Further pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies of pergolide and its metabolites will be necessary to determine plasma concentrations that correlate with clinical effectiveness to determine the therapeutic range for the treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. PMID:25629913

Rendle, David I; Hughes, Kris J; Doran, Gregory S; Edwards, Scott H

2015-02-01

392

Molecular Characterization of Vegetative Incompatibility Genes That Restrict Hypovirus Transmission in the Chestnut Blight Fungus Cryphonectria parasitica  

PubMed Central

Genetic nonself recognition systems such as vegetative incompatibility operate in many filamentous fungi to regulate hyphal fusion between genetically dissimilar individuals and to restrict the spread of virulence-attenuating mycoviruses that have potential for biological control of pathogenic fungi. We report here the use of a comparative genomics approach to identify seven candidate polymorphic genes associated with four vegetative incompatibility (vic) loci of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. Disruption of candidate alleles in one of two strains that were heteroallelic at vic2, vic6, or vic7 resulted in enhanced virus transmission, but did not prevent barrage formation associated with mycelial incompatibility. Detailed characterization of the vic6 locus revealed the involvement of nonallelic interactions between two tightly linked genes in barrage formation, heterokaryon formation, and asymmetric, gene-specific influences on virus transmission. The combined results establish molecular identities of genes associated with four C. parasitica vic loci and provide insights into how these recognition factors interact to trigger incompatibility and restrict virus transmission. PMID:22021387

Choi, Gil H.; Dawe, Angus L.; Churbanov, Alexander; Smith, Myron L.; Milgroom, Michael G.; Nuss, Donald L.

2012-01-01

393

Effects of a natural extract of chestnut wood on digestibility, performance traits, and nitrogen balance of broiler chicks.  

PubMed

Currently, feed ingredients containing tannin are attracting more interest as substitutes for antibiotic growth promoters in animal and poultry feeding. This study investigated the influence of a natural extract of chestnut wood (Silvafeed ENC) on broiler digestibility (experiment 1) and on the growth performance, carcass quality, and nitrogen balance of broilers (experiment 2). Results showed that the inclusion of ENC did not influence the apparent digestibility of organic matter, CP, and ether extract. Chick growth performance showed a quadratic or cubic response with increasing levels of ENC. When chicks were fed ENC from 14 to 56 d of age, the ENC had a positive effect on average daily gain in the first 2 wk of addition, whereas this effect was not evident in the last 2 wk compared with the control group. Similar trends were also shown for daily feed intake. Overall, the chicks fed 0.20% ENC had significantly better growth performance than the control group. Carcass analysis showed no gross lesions in organs and no significant differences in thigh and breast composition among groups. Noteworthy is the fact that the ENC-treated groups had less total litter nitrogen; in particular, chicks fed 0.15 and 0.20% ENC showed a significant difference in total litter nitrogen compared with the control group. No significant difference in nitrogen balance was observed. Addition of 0.20% ENC seemed to have a positive influence on chick feeding. PMID:18281579

Schiavone, A; Guo, K; Tassone, S; Gasco, L; Hernandez, E; Denti, R; Zoccarato, I

2008-03-01

394

Optimization of water curing for the preservation of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) and evaluation of microbial dynamics during process.  

PubMed

Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lactobacillus pentosus strain was selected for its ability to inhibit fungi, and used as a starter culture during water curing. As second goal, a reduction of the environmental impact of the process was evaluated by using water that had been re-cycled from a previous curing treatment. Experiments were performed on pilot as well as on farm scale. In all trials, microbial dynamics were evaluated by means of a polyphasic approach including conventional and molecular-based analyses. According to results, the employment of an adjunct culture appears as a very promising opportunity. Even if no reduction in the duration of the process was achieved, waters exhibited a minor microbial complexity and fruits did not lose the natural lustre after the process. PMID:24929716

Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Capua, Marika; Romano, Annalisa; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

2014-09-01

395

A tangled tale of two teal: Population history of the grey Anas gracilis and chestnut teal a. castanea of Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two Australian species of teal (Anseriformes: Anatidae: Anas), the grey teal Anas gracilis and the chestnut teal A. castanea, are remarkable for the zero or near-zero divergence recorded between them in earlier surveys of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. We confirmed this result through wider geographical and population sampling as well as nucleotide sampling in the more rapidly evolving mtDNA control region. Any data set where two species share polymorphism as is the case here can be explained by a model of gene flow through hybridization on one hand or by incomplete lineage sorting on the other hand. Ideally, analysis of such shared polymorphism would simultaneously estimate the likelihood of both phenomena. To do this, we used the underlying principle of the IMa package to explore ramifications to understanding population histories of A. gracilis and A. castanea. We cannot reject that hybridization occurs between the two species but an equally or more plausible finding for their nearly zero divergence is incomplete sorting following very recent divergence between the two, probably in the mid-late Pleistocene. Our data add to studies that explore intermediate stages in the evolution of reciprocal monophyly and paraphyletic or polyphyletic relationships in mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian birds. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

Joseph, L.; Adcock, G.J.; Linde, C.; Omland, K.E.; Heinsohn, R.; Terry, Chesser R.; Roshier, D.

2009-01-01

396

Influence of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ on mechanical and structural properties of gels from chestnut and rice flours.  

PubMed

The addition of salts to foodstuffs to improve the mechanical characteristics and thereby increasing sample strength has been widely studied in gels of model systems, however has been investigated to a lesser extent in complex systems, such as gluten-free flour gels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of cation concentration and ion valence of chloride salts (NaCl, KCl or CaCl2, 0-2%, w/w) on textural, rheological and microstructural properties of selected gluten-free flour gels from blends of chestnut flour and whole, Agulha or Carolino rice flours. Firmness increased in the presence of CaCl2. Storage and loss moduli increased slightly with the monovalent salts concentration, whereas a more pronounced rise was observed with the divalent salt addition. It was found that K(+) was more effective in modifying the rheology of studied gels than Na(+). Confocal microscopic images of gels revealed a microstructure consistent with the observed mechanical properties. PMID:24507252

Torres, M D; Raymundo, A; Sousa, I

2014-02-15

397

Anthelmintic efficacy against cyathostomins in horses in Southern England.  

PubMed

Cyathostomins are considered to be the most important group of helminths to affect equids due to their high prevalence, potential pathogenicity and ability to develop anthelmintic resistance. Their control relies almost exclusively on frequent anthelmintic use. Currently, fenbendazole (FBZ), pyrantel embonate (PYR), ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) are licensed for use in horses in the UK. With no new anthelmintics likely to be licensed in the near future, it is essential that investigations into the efficacy of current anthelmintics in different locations are performed to help inform control programmes. Here, efficacy of FBZ, PYR, IVM and MOX in horse populations in the South of England was investigated. Horses with a strongyle faecal egg count (FEC) of ?50 eggs per gram (EPG) were enrolled onto a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) study. Efficacy was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in FEC between the group mean at Day 0 and 14 days post-treatment. Efficacy was indicated when a group arithmetic faecal egg count reduction (FECR) of ?90% was recorded for FBZ and PYR, and ?95% for IVM and MOX. Between March and December 2012, 404 FECRT were performed on 12 yards examining 101, 110, 93 and 100 equids for FBZ, PYR, IVM, and MOX, respectively. FBZ resistance was identified on all yards (mean FECR range 0-65.8%). On 10 of 12 yards, PYR efficacy was >90% (91.0-99.4%) and on two yards, PYR resistance was suspected (86.8-87.2%). IVM (96.4-100%) and MOX (99.9-100%) were >95% efficacious on all yards. As the prevalence of FBZ resistance was 100%, the future use of this anthelmintic for the control of strongyles should be questioned. PYR should be used strategically to reduce reliance on the macrocyclic lactone class products. Over-dispersion of FEC between horses was observed (average k=0.21) with 80% of the strongyle eggs counted measured in 15% of horses tested, strongly supporting the application of targeted helminth control programmes in this host species. PMID:23830687

Lester, H E; Spanton, J; Stratford, C H; Bartley, D J; Morgan, E R; Hodgkinson, J E; Coumbe, K; Mair, T; Swan, B; Lemon, G; Cookson, R; Matthews, J B

2013-10-18

398

Association of Deficiency in Antibody Response to Vaccine and Heterogeneity of Ehrlichia risticii Strains with Potomac Horse Fever Vaccine Failure in Horses  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichia risticii is the causative agent of Potomac horse fever (PHF), which continues to be an important disease of horses. Commercial inactivated whole-cell vaccines are regularly used for immunization of horses against the disease. However, PHF is occurring in large numbers of horses in spite of vaccination. In a limited study, 43 confirmed cases of PHF occurred between the 1994 and 1996 seasons; of these, 38 (89%) were in horses that had been vaccinated for the respective season, thereby clearly indicating vaccine failure. A field study of horses vaccinated with two PHF vaccines indicated a poor antibody response, as determined by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) titers. In a majority of horses, the final antibody titer ranged between 40 and 1,280, in spite of repeated vaccinations. None of the vaccinated horses developed in vitro neutralizing antibody in their sera. Similarly, one horse experimentally vaccinated three times with one of the vaccines showed a poor antibody response, with final IFA titers between 80 and 160. The horse did not develop in vitro neutralizing antibody or antibody against the 50/85-kDa strain-specific antigen (SSA), which is the protective antigen of the original strain, 25-D, and the variant strain of our laboratory, strain 90-12. Upon challenge infection with the 90-12 strain, the horse showed clinical signs of the disease. The horse developed neutralizing antibody and antibody to the 50/85-kDa SSA following the infection. Studies of the new E. risticii isolates from the field cases indicated that they were heterogeneous among themselves and showed differences from the 25-D and 90-12 strains as determined by IFA reactivity pattern, DNA amplification finger printing profile, and in vitro neutralization activity. Most importantly, the molecular sizes of the SSA of these isolates varied, ranging from 48 to 85 kDa. These studies suggest that the deficiency in the antibody response to the PHF vaccines and the heterogeneity of E. risticii isolates may be associated with the vaccine failure. PMID:9466767

Dutta, Sukanta K.; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Biswas, Biswajit

1998-01-01

399

Specialized horse killers in Europe: Foetal horse remains in the Late Pleistocene Srbsko Chlum-Komín Cave hyena den in the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic) and actualistic comparisons to modern African spotted hyenas as zebra hunters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Pleistocene spotted hyenas hunted Przewalski horses in spring to early summer, as documented by foetal horse skeleton remains of Equus ferus cf. przewalskii Poljakoff 1881, found between 3569 megamammal bones in the hyena den site Srbsko Chlum-Komín of the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic). The main prey of hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) was this small horse, well distributed

Cajus G. Diedrich

2010-01-01

400

Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

Not Available

1993-09-01

401

An attempt to control Cameraria ohridella using an attract-and-kill technique.  

PubMed

This study estimates the efficacy of an attract-and-kill (A&K) technique to control the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), an invasive insect pest of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae). The A&K formulation was dispensed as 50 ?l droplets of paste-like matrix, containing C. ohridella sex pheromone, (8E,10Z)-tetradeca-8,10-dienal (85% + pure; 0.16% w/w) and a fast acting contact toxicant, pyrocides (94% pure; 6% w/w), applied directly to the bark of the trees. It was tested in 2003 at rates of 30 and 45 droplets/tree at the Ostrobramska site and at rates of 30, 60 and 90 droplets/tree at the Woloska site in Warsaw, Poland, for the first insect generation. A set of untreated plots (0 droplets/tree) was established at each site as well. The treatment efficacy was estimated using two indices: (1) moth catches in pheromone traps and (2) the number of mines per leaf. Trap catches were significantly higher in the untreated plots than in the treated plots regardless of the application rate in all sites. However, there were no significant differences in leaf damage amongst all plots on each site. At the "Lazienki Krolewskie" park the attractiveness of two types of pheromone sources were compared: traps were baited with rubber septum lures or with A&K droplets. The catches of C. ohridella in traps baited with lures were lower than captures in A&K droplet-baited traps, but the difference was not significant. Possible reasons for the low efficacy of the A&K method in management of C. ohridella and reducing leaf damage are discussed. PMID:21654920

Sukovata, Lidia; Czokajlo, Darek; Kolk, Andrzej; Slusarski, S?awomir; Jab?o?ski, Tomasz

2011-06-01

402

A technique for the collection and the study of biochemical and microbial characteristics of postprandial gastric contents from conscious horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to collect gastric contents from conscious horses via naso-gastric (NG) intubation to facilitate the study of the microbial ecosystem of the equine stomach. Six healthy Arabian horses (from 3 to 5 years old) were used according the following procedure. Two hours after the morning feeding, horses were sedated and restrained for NG intubation. A

M. Varloud; A. Roussel; P. Boisot; V. Julliand

2007-01-01

403

75 FR 31745 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Horses...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Importation of Horses, Ruminants, Swine, and Dogs; Inspection and Treatment for Screwworm...importation of horses, ruminants, swine, and dogs from regions of the world where screwworm...importation of horses, ruminants, swine, and dogs from regions of the world where...

2010-06-04

404

Dermatological and parasitological evaluation of infestations with chewing lice ( Werneckiella equi ) on horses and treatment using imidacloprid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lice infestations in horses caused by the chewing louse Werneckiella (Damalinia) equi are observed worldwide. In the present study, the efficacy of 10% imidacloprid was tested on horses naturally infested with lice. Two groups of animals received a double application of 4 ml and 8 ml Advantage 10% spot-on on day 0 and 28 either. Horses, presenting dermatological signs with negative lice

N. Mencke; K. S. Larsen; M. Eydal; H. Sigurðsson

2005-01-01

405

Use of bethanechol and metoclopramide in horses with duodenitis\\/proximal jejunitis: 13 cases (1987–1993)  

Microsoft Academic Search

All horses diagnosed with duodenitis\\/proximal jejunitis (DPJ) at the Texas Veterinary Medican Center between January 1, 1987 and July 1, 1993 were included in a retrospective study to evaluate the therapeutic and prognostic value of bethanechol and metoclopramide as gastrointestinal prokinetic drugs in horses with DPJ treated at our clinic, and to compare the clinical outcome of horses with DPJ

N. D. Cohen; N. A. Faber; G. W. Brumbaugh

1995-01-01

406

The utility of instructor evaluations, reactivity tests and plasma neuroendocrine measures in selecting horses for use in therapeutic riding  

E-print Network

A total of 103 horses (76 from therapeutic riding programs and 27 non-therapeutic riding horses from four sites) were used in this experiment. After a pretest of the methodology, surveys that determined the temperament of each horse were filled out...

Bjorge, Marsha Kay

2012-06-07

407

The demand for slot machine and pari-mutuel horse race wagering at a racetrack-casino  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article expands the limited literature on the demand for casino (racino) wagering. The focus of this article is on the interrelationship of the demands for slot machine and horse race wagering at a racino. Wagering demand models were estimated for the two racino products; slot machine gaming and pari-mutuel horse racing. Horse race and slot machine wagering both decreased

Richard Thalheimer

2011-01-01

408

The demand for slot machine and pari-mutuel horse race wagering at a racetrack-casino  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article expands the limited literature on the demand for casino (racino) wagering. The focus of this article is on the interrelationship of the demands for slot machine and horse race wagering at a racino. Wagering demand models were estimated for the two racino products; slot machine gaming and pari-mutuel horse racing. Horse race and slot machine wagering both decreased

Richard Thalheimer

2012-01-01

409

The dynamics of hoof growth of the primitive Konik horses (Equus caballus gmelini Ant.) in an annual cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual growth rate of the horny wall of the hoof was investigated in 38 horses—31 mares and seven stallions. Experimental subjects were Konik horses kept in a conservative breeding herd. The horses hooves of both limbs: the right fore limb and the right hind limb were measured and next growth rate of the horny wall was analysed at five

Hieronim Frackowiak; Marcin Komosa

2006-01-01

410

Poisonous plants affecting the central nervous system of horses in Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisoning by Indigofera pascuori was recently reported in horses in the state of Roraima. It causes chronic signs of sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, and progressive weight loss. Some animals are blind. Young horses are more affected than adults. After the end of plant consumption the anima...

411

Readability of branding symbols in horses and histomorphological alterations at the branding site.  

PubMed

Identification of horses has traditionally been facilitated by hot iron branding, but the extent by which branding symbols and numbers can be identified has not been investigated. The local pathological changes induced by branding are also unknown. This study analysed the readability of branding symbols and histomorphological alterations at the branding sites. A total of 248 horses in an equestrian championship were available for identification of symbols and numbers. A further 28 horses, euthanased for other reasons, provided histological examination of the branding site. All except one horse had evidence of histological changes at the brand site, including epidermal hyperplasia, increase of dermal collagenous fibrous tissue and loss of adnexal structures. In two foals, an ulcerative to necrotizing dermatitis was observed and interpreted as a complication of recent branding lesions. Despite the fact that hot iron branding caused lesions compatible with third degree thermal injury, it did not allow unambiguous identification of a large proportion of older horses. While the breed-specific symbol was consistently identified by three independent investigators in 84% of the horses, the double-digit branding number was read correctly by all three investigators in less than 40%. In conclusion, hot iron branding in horses causes lesions compatible with third degree thermal injury but does not always allow identification of horses. PMID:22883927

Aurich, J E; Wohlsein, P; Wulf, M; Nees, M; Baumgärtner, W; Becker-Birck, M; Aurich, C

2013-03-01

412

Effects of feral horses in Great Basin landscapes on soils and ants: Direct and indirect mechanisms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared soil-surface penetration resistance and abundance of ant mounds at 12 western Great Basin sites (composed of 19 plots) either grazed by feral horses (Equus caballus) or having had horses removed for the last 10-14 years. Across this broad spatial domain (3.03 million ha), we minimized confounding due to abiotic factors by selecting horse-occupied and horse-removed sites with similar aspect, slope, fire history, grazing pressure by cattle (minimal to none), and dominant vegetation (Artemisia tridentata). During both 1997 and 1998, we found 2.2-8.4 times greater abundance of ant mounds and 3.0-15.4 times lower penetration resistance in soil surfaces at horse-removed sites. In 1998, thatched Formica ant mounds, which existed predominately at high elevations, were 3.3 times more abundant at horse-removed sites, although abundance varied widely among sites within treatments. Several types of analyses suggested that horses rather than environmental variability were the primary source of treatment differences we observed in ecosystem components. Tests of several predictions suggest that alterations occurred through not only direct effects, but also indirect effects and potentially feedback loops. Free-roaming horses as well as domestic grazers should be considered in conservation planning and land management in the Great Basin, an ecoregion that represents both an outstanding conservation opportunity and challenge.

Beever, E.A.; Herrick, J.E.

2006-01-01

413

Thermal environment in a four-horse slant-load trailer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little information has been published describing thermal conditions in horse trailers while in transit. Dry bulb temperature (Tdb), globe temperature (Tg), and relative humidity (RH) were measured in ten locations within a fully enclosed four-horse slant-load trailer with and without animals to asse...

414

PROPHYLACTIC ADMINISTRATION OF PONAZURIL REDUCES CLINICAL SIGNS AND DELAYS SEROCONVERSION IN HORSES CHALLENGED WITH SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability of ponazuril to prevent or limit clinical signs of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) following infection with Sarcocystis neurona was evaluated. Eighteen horses were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: no treatment, 2.5 mg/kg ponazuril, or 5.0 mg/kg ponazuril. Horses were administered pona...

415

Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in horses from Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The risk of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) to horses in Mexico has not been established. Serum samples from 495 horses in Durango State, Mexico were examined for the presence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based o...

416

Difficulty of cross-country obstacles for horses competing in Three Day Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine which cross-country obstacles are more difficult for eventing horses. Jumping scores were considered in terms of the horse's reaction to novelty and to the fearfulness of novel objects which are the fences situated in novel terrain. The data concerned 11 classes of One to Four Star level (stars showing the difficulty of

Anna Stachurska; Miros?aw Pi?ta; Anne Phaff Ussing; Agnieszka Kapro?; Nina Kwieci?ska

2010-01-01

417

Prevalence and epidemiology of the major gastrointestinal parasites of horses in Perth, Western Australia.  

PubMed

A survey was conducted on the prevalence of the major gastrointestinal parasites in 140 horses necropsied in Perth, Western Australia, during 1979 to 1982. Adult Strongylus vulgaris were found in 22.5 per cent of horses and verminous arteritis in 62.9 per cent. The peak worm prevalence was in November to January (summer). S edentatus had a similar prevalence and seasonality but S equinus was not found in this survey. Draschia megastoma and Habronema muscae were found in 66.2 per cent and 35.3 per cent of horses respectively. Infection is probably acquired in summer when 8 per cent of the Musca domestica in the vicinity of the stables carried third stage spiruroid larvae. Gasterophilus intestinalis and G nasalis occurred in 36.4 per cent and 22.1 per cent of the horses respectively and 52.1 per cent of horses were infected with one or both species. The peak prevalence of G intestinalis larvae occurred in December with a trough in February-April; the peak prevalence of G nasalis was in May with a trough in November-December. Parascaris equorum was found in 9.9 per cent of the horses and in 21.3 per cent of those less than three years old. Anoplocephala perfoliata was found in 4.9 per cent of the horses and most of these were in older horses. PMID:2934246

Dunsmore, J D; Jue Sue, L P

1985-05-01

418

The use of oral endoscopy for detection of cheek teeth abnormalities in 300 horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to evaluate an endoscopic examination protocol for routine dental examination in horses. The oral cavities of 300 standing, sedated horses were examined under field and hospital conditions with a rigid endoscope using a standardised technique that included examination of the occlusal, lingual (palatal) and buccal surfaces of all cheek teeth rows. The most

Hubert Simhofer; Robert Griss; Karl Zetner

2008-01-01

419

Fungal flora of normal eyes of healthy horses from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conjunctival fungal flora of 32 adult horses with normal eyes ( n = 64) from the State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil was identified in the fall of 2000 using horses of different breeds, both genders and aged 5-19 years old. The culture samples were taken from the conjunctival sac of both eyes with a sterile cotton swab

Maurílio Rosa; Liane Maria Cardozo; Jorge da Silva Pereira; Dennis E. Brooks; Ana Lucia B. Martins; Penha Sueli Silva Florido; Jussara Schwind Pedroso Stussi

2003-01-01

420

A field study to estimate the prevalence of Trypanosoma equiperdum in Mongolian horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

From May to July 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Trypanosoma equiperdum in the horse population of the central province (Tuv aimag) of Mongolia. On average, four herds were selected from each of the 29 aimag subdivisions (119 herds). From each herd, 10 horses were sampled in proportion to sex and age categories in the

Peter-Henning Clausen; Saruultuya Chuluun; Ruuragchaa Sodnomdarjaa; Matthias Greiner; Karsten Noeckler; Christian Staak; Karl-Hans Zessin; Eberhard Schein

2003-01-01

421

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a horse: A case of myenteric ganglionitis  

PubMed Central

An 11-year-old Quarter horse mare was presented for recurrent episodes of colic. A chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction was diagnosed. Medical treatment and surgical resection of the colon were performed but the condition did not improve and the horse was euthanized. Histopathological examination revealed a myenteric ganglionitis of the small intestine and ascending colon. PMID:21731098

Chénier, Sonia; Macieira, Susana M.; Sylvestre, Doris; Jean, Daniel

2011-01-01

422

Outbreak of acute colitis on a horse farm associated with tetracycline-contaminated sweet feed.  

PubMed Central

Exposure of a group of horses to tetracycline-contaminated feed resulted in acute colitis and subsequent death in one horse and milder diarrhea in 3 others. The most severely affected animal demonstrated clinical and pathological findings typical of colitis X. The other herdmates responded well to administration of zinc bacitracin. PMID:10572668

Keir, A A; Stämpfli, H R; Crawford, J

1999-01-01

423

Effect of protective padding on forelimb intracompartmental muscle pressures in anesthetized horses.  

PubMed

Wick catheters were used to measure intracompartmental muscle pressures (ICMP) within the long heads of the triceps brachii and extensor carpi radialis muscles of 8 horses maintained under halothane anesthesia while their breathing was controlled by intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. Blood gas, cardiac output, and blood pressure determinations were monitored to maintain a stable plane of anesthesia. The horses were positioned in left lateral recumbency and were placed sequentially on each of 4 contact surfaces for 1 hour. The 4 surfaces used for each horse were concrete, foam rubber, air dunnage bag, and a water mattress. Hematologic and biochemical determinations were made before and 24 hours after anesthesia. All horses recovered from the anesthesia. One horse had forelimb lameness for 36 hours after anesthesia, which was clinically diagnosed as a myoneuropathy. The ICMP values were markedly elevated in the muscle bellies of the lower limb of all horses. Supporting the horse on a water mattress caused the least dramatic pressure elevation and foam caused the most. The triceps muscle and, to a lesser extent, the extensor carpi radialis muscle of the lower limb are at risk of ischemia in anesthetized horses because the ICMP may exceed the critical closing pressure of 30 mm of Hg required for capillary blood flow. PMID:3994136

Lindsay, W A; Pascoe, P J; McDonell, W N; Burgess, M L

1985-03-01

424

Effects of bites by the European adder (Vipera berus) in seven Swedish horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on seven horses of bites by the European adder (Vipera berus) are described and compared with previously available information. The clinical signs varied from local swelling and mild systemic signs to severe systemic signs, including systemic inflammatory response, severe tissue necrosis, ventricular tachycardia and dysphagia. Two of the horses were treated with ‘Zagreb’ antiserum, and three that were

K. G. Anlén

2008-01-01

425

Purification of horse radish peroxidase by metal affinity chromatography in an expanded bed system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immobilised metal chelate affinity chromatography (IMAC) in an expanded bed mode was used for the purification of horse radish peroxidase. Recovery of horse radish peroxidase varied between 85 and 72% starting from the crude homogenate. When a pure peroxidase was passed through the purification protocol a recovery of about 95% was achieved.

M. P. Nandakumar; B. Mattiasson

1999-01-01

426

COMPARISON OF THE DIGESTIBLE ENERGY (DE) AND NET ENERGY (NE) SYSTEMS FOR THE HORSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The horse can be described as a monogastric herbivore or a non-rumi nant herbivore which is suited to the digestion and utilization of high fiber diets due to continual microbial fermentation primarily within the hindgut (cecum and colon). Domestication, and an increasing demand for horses to perform under circumstances that require energy intakes above those able to be provided by

P. A. Harris

427

Appendix 68 Bull Trout Data for Hungry Horse and South Fork of the Flathead  

E-print Network

Appendix 68 Bull Trout Data for Hungry Horse and South Fork of the Flathead Excerpt from: Environmental Assessment and Decision Notice For Bull Trout Sport Fishery Reestablishment In Hungry Horse Reservoir and South Fork Flathead River Drainage. 2003. Bull Trout Monitoring In the draft EA we provided

428

A Comparison of Daily Rhythm of Creatinine and Creatine Kinase in the Sedentary and Athlete Horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to investigate the existence of a daily rhythm of creatinine or creatine kinase (CK) and the influence of physical exercise on these rhythms. Blood samples from 20 Sella Italiana horses were collected every 4 hours for 48 consecutive hours via an intravenous cannula inserted into the jugular vein. The horses were divided into two

Giuseppe Piccione; Claudia Giannetto; Francesco Fazio; Stefania Casella; Giovanni Caola

2009-01-01

429

Inbreeding and Genetic Structure in the Endangered Sorraia Horse Breed: Implications for its Conservation and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sorraia horse is a closed breed with reduced effective population size and considered in critical maintained risk status. The breed exists in 2 main breeding populations, one in Portugal and one in Germany, with a smaller population size. A set of 22 microsatellite loci was used to examine genetic diversity and structure of the Sorraia horse breed and to

CRISTINA LUIS; E. GUS COTHRAN; MARIA DO MAR OOM

2007-01-01

430

Interplay Between Environmental and Genetic Factors in Temperament\\/Personality Traits in Horses (Equus caballus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to broach the question of the relative influence of different genetic and environmental factors on different temperament\\/personality traits of horses (Equus caballus). The researchers submitted 702 horses to standardized experimental tests and investigated 9 factors, either genetic or environmental. Genetic factors, such as sire or breed, seemed to influence more neophobic reactions, whereas

Martine Hausberger; Cécile Bruderer; Nathalie Le Scolan; Jean-Sébastien Pierre

2004-01-01

431

Characterization of horse ( Equus caballus ) T-cell receptor beta chain genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes encoding the horse (Equus caballus) T-cell receptor beta chain (TCRB) were cloned and characterized. Of 33 cDNA clones isolated from the mesenteric lymph node, 30 had functionally rearranged gene segments, and three contained germline sequences. Sixteen unique variable segments (TCRBV), 14 joining genes (TCRBJ), and two constant region genes (TCRBC) were identified. Horse TCRBV were grouped into nine families

Mark D. Schrenzel; Johanna L. Watson; David A. Ferrick

1994-01-01

432

Immunocontraception decreases group fidelity in a feral horse population during the non-breeding season  

E-print Network

. Several studies have examined the effects of PZP application to wild horses (Equus caballus (2009) 74­83 A R T I C L E I N F O Article history: Accepted 9 December 2008 Keywords: Equus caballus studied. Important managerial decisions for several species, including the wild horse (Equus caballus

Rubenstein, Daniel I.

433

Whole genome sequence and analysis of the Marwari horse breed and its genetic origin  

PubMed Central

Background The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of the earliest domesticated species and has played an important role in the development of human societies over the past 5,000 years. In this study, we characterized the genome of the Marwari horse, a rare breed with unique phenotypic characteristics, including inwardly turned ear tips. It is thought to have originated from the crossbreeding of local Indian ponies with Arabian horses beginning in the 12th century. Results We generated 101 Gb (~30 × coverage) of whole genome sequences from a Marwari horse using the Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencer. The sequences were mapped to the horse reference genome at a mapping rate of ~98% and with ~95% of the genome having at least 10 × coverage. A total of 5.9 million single nucleotide variations, 0.6 million small insertions or deletions, and 2,569 copy number variation blocks were identified. We confirmed a strong Arabian and Mongolian component in the Marwari genome. Novel variants from the Marwari sequences were annotated, and were found to be enriched in olfactory functions. Additionally, we suggest a potential functional genetic variant in the TSHZ1 gene (p.Ala344>Val) associated with the inward-turning ear tip shape of the Marwari horses. Conclusions Here, we present an analysis of the Marwari horse genome. This is the first genomic data for an Asian breed, and is an invaluable resource for future studies of genetic variation associated with phenotypes and diseases in horses. PMID:25521865

2014-01-01

434

The first large scale molecular study of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in horses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of species and genotypes of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in horses is poorly known. The present study examined feces from 195 horses, 1 month to 17 years of age, in 4 locations in Colombia. Prevalence and age distribution of Giardia and Cryptosporidium were determined by PCR. All PCR p...

435

Correlations between the behavior of recreational horses, the physiological parameters and summer atmospheric conditions.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to select atmospheric factors and their values, which may disrupt the correct behavior and physiological condition of recreational horses. The studies were carried out from 1 July until 1 September on 16 Anglo-Arabian geldings. Each day, from 09.00 to 10.00 hours, the horses worked under saddle. The riders and the authors gave a qualitative behavioral assessment for each horse. Mood and willingness to work were evaluated. The quantitative assessment was called 'incorrect behavior of the horse while riding' (IBHR). The percentage time of duration and the number of occurrences of the features while riding were calculated. Heart rate, body temperature and respiratory rate were taken at 08.00 hours (resting measurement) and at 10.05 hours (post-exercise measurement). Air temperature, relative air humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure were measured at 08.00 and 10.00 hours. The results showed that adverse changes in the behavior of recreational horses can occur if the horse is ridden when the air temperature is above 26°C and when wind speeds exceed 5.5?m/s. Such conditions may cause a reduction in the mood and willingness to work in horses. Physiological parameters like heart rate and body temperature seem to be more sensitive indicators of the horse body reaction to the weather than behavioral reactions. PMID:25488802

Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela; Zalewska, Edyta; Bocian, Krzysztof

2014-12-01

436

Horse-collar aurora: A frequent pattern of the aurora in quiet times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reported here are DE 1 auroral imager observations of an auroral configuration which is given the name ''horse-collar aurora.'' The horse-collar pattern comprises the total area of auroral emissions from a single hemisphere and derives its name from the shape of the emitting area. The pattern is found in images recorded during quiet geomagnetic conditions and is possibly related to

Hones E. W. Jr; J. D. Craven; L. A. Frank; D. S. Evans; P. T. Newell

1989-01-01

437

Cluster of cases of massive hemorrhage associated with anticoagulant detection in race horses.  

PubMed

Five horses originating from 4 different California race tracks were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for necropsy and diagnostic workup. The 5 horses had a history of sudden collapse and death during exercise. In all of them, massive hemoperitoneum and hemorrhages in other cavities or organs were observed. The liver from these 5 animals and from 27 horses that had been euthanized due to catastrophic leg injuries (controls) were subjected to a rodenticide anticoagulant screen. Traces of brodifacoum, diphacinone, or bromadiolone were detected in the 5 horses with massive bleeding (5/5), and no traces of rodenticides were detected in control horses (0/27). Other frequent causes of massive hemorrhages in horses were ruled out in 4 of the cases; one of the horses had a pelvic fracture. Although only traces of anticoagulants were found in the livers of these horses and the role of these substances in the massive bleeding remains uncertain, it is speculated that exercise-related increases in blood pressure may have reduced the threshold for toxicity of these anticoagulants. PMID:25525145

Carvallo, Francisco R; Poppenga, Robert; Kinde, Hailu; Diab, Santiago S; Nyaoke, Akinyi C; Hill, Ashley E; Arthur, Rick M; Uzal, Francisco A

2015-01-01

438

Simulation and management implications of feral horse grazing on Cumberland Island, Georgia  

E-print Network

Simulation and management implications of feral horse grazing on Cumberland Island, Georgia MONICA GOIGEL TURNER Cumberiand Island National !&shore, Georgia,is inhabited by a population of feral horsea an acceptable population size of feral horses. Five-year shnulations indicated a threshold of 2,700 kg

Turner, Monica G.

439

Assessment of the mobility and time of renewal of the densimetric fractions of organic matter in chestnut soils from the ratio of stable carbon isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of experimental studying of the organic matter status in soils using methods of granulodensimetric fractionation and the geochemistry of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes are presented. The organic and organomineral matter in chestnut soils representing a chronoseries—stages of natural changes in the vegetation with different carbon isotope compositions—were investigated. The organomineral fractions and fractions of free organic matter were distinguished, the changes in their proportion due to the changes in the vegetation were analyzed, and the residence time of the carbon in the organic matter of the fractions was assessed.

Morgun, E. G.; Boutton, T. V.; Jessip, K. D.

2010-05-01

440

Groundwater quality assessment for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration  

SciTech Connect

This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste- management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR), which is one of the three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division of the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

Not Available

1992-02-01

441

Sensory and chemical modifications of wine-brandy aged with chestnut and oak wood fragments in comparison to wooden barrels.  

PubMed

Wooden barrels are used in the ageing or maturation of many alcoholic beverages, namely brandies and wines. However, the high costs related to ageing in wooden barrels have led to a search for alternative technologies. In this study we examined the application of wood fragments to the beverage in order to promote an accelerated ageing. We evaluated the sensory and chemical modifications in brandy aged in presence of two types of wood fragments, from two different woods (Limousin oak wood and Portuguese chestnut wood), and compared those with a brandy aged in wooden barrels. The results of the analysis of variance revealed more significant effects of wood botanical species than the ageing system on the sensory attributes. Concerning the ageing system, significant differences in brandy colour attributes were found, namely golden, topaz and greenish; olfactory attributes such as alcoholic, toasted and coffee; and the gustatory attribute, bitter. The brandies aged in the presence of wood tablets presented the highest intensities of topaz and greenish colour, toasted and coffee odours, while the brandies aged in wooden barrels presented the highest intensities of golden colour, alcohol odour and bitter taste. However, the overall quality of the brandies was similar. The analysis of odourant compounds showed a great discrimination of the brandies based on the ageing system. The brandies aged in wooden barrels presented the highest levels of several ethyl esters, acids, furanic aldehydes and the lowest levels of volatile phenols. Thus, considering the overall quality of the brandies, these results suggest the use of wood fragments to be an interesting alternative technology. On the other hand, the chemical analysis of the brandies showed the possibility of discriminating the ageing technologies based on odourant compound levels. PMID:20103142

Caldeira, Ilda; Anjos, Ofélia; Portal, Vera; Belchior, A P; Canas, Sara

2010-02-15

442

Effects of chestnut tannins and coconut oil on growth performance, methane emission, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations in sheep.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) and coconut oil (CO) on growth performance, methane (CH?) emission, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations in sheep. A total of 48 Rideau Arcott sheep (average body weight 31.5±1.97 kg, 16 wk old) were randomly assigned into 6 treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial design, with CT and CO as the main effects (8 sheep per group). The treatments were control diet (CTR), 10 or 30 g of CT/kg of diet (CT10 and CT30), 25 g of CO/kg of concentrate (CO25), and 10 or 30 g of CT/kg of diet+25 g of CO/kg of concentrate (CT10CO25 and CT30CO25). After the feeding trial (60 d), all sheep were moved to respiratory chambers to measure CH? emission. After CH? emission measurements, all sheep were slaughtered to obtain rumen fluid samples. Results showed that the addition of CT, CO, and CT+CO had no significant effects on growth performance of sheep but reduced CH? emission. Addition of CT reduced the NH?-N concentration in rumen fluid in CT30. Addition of CO decreased the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid. No significant differences were observed in pH and molar proportion of volatile fatty acids among treatments. Addition of CT, CO, and CT+CO significantly decreased methanogen and protozoa populations. Moreover, CO decreased counts of Fibrobacter succinogenes. No significant differences were observed in populations of fungi, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, or Ruminococcus albus among treatments. In conclusion, supplementation of CT and CO seemed to be a feasible means of decreasing emissions of CH? from sheep by reduction of methanogen and protozoa populations with no negative effect on growth performance. PMID:22118094

Liu, H; Vaddella, V; Zhou, D

2011-12-01

443

Dissociation of testosterone and aggressive behavior during the breeding season in male chestnut-collared longspurs, Calcarius ornatus.  

PubMed

In many species of birds, expression of male-male aggression during breeding elicits increased secretion of testosterone. Elevations in testosterone in turn enhance expression of aggressive behavior in appropriate contexts. However, in other species, the relationship between elevated plasma testosterone and aggressive behavior is subtle or nonexistent. We examined the relationship between high testosterone and male-male aggression in the chestnut-collared longspur, a species in which males exhibit a peak in testosterone early in the breeding season that declines to a breeding baseline after nests are initiated. Elevated testosterone enhances sexual behavior after nests are initiated, but does not affect care of nestlings. We used simulated territorial intrusions (STIs) to test (1) if males increased testosterone secretion after an aggressive interaction early in the breeding season (2) if expression of aggressive behavior declined as testosterone levels declined to the breeding baseline, and (3) if experimentally elevated testosterone enhanced aggression when testosterone levels were at the breeding baseline. Plasma testosterone was unrelated to duration of STI before nests were initiated. In addition, although males were significantly more aggression prior to nest initiation than during incubation, elevation of plasma testosterone to pre-nesting levels did not enhance aggression during incubation. Thus, although elevated plasma testosterone and expression of aggressive behavior appear to overlap temporally, high plasma testosterone and male-male aggression may not be fully coupled in this species. We suggest that high plasma testosterone may be more important in eliciting and maintaining sexual behavior than aggressive behavior in this species. PMID:18275961

Lynn, Sharon E; Wingfield, John C

2008-03-01

444

Noninvasive photoelastic method to show distribution of strain in the hoof wall of a living horse.  

PubMed

A photoelastic method used for materials testing in industry was adapted to show the distribution of strain through the hoof wall in the living horse. Strain was a change in length per unit length in the material of the loaded hoof wall compared with the unloaded condition. Coloured fringes appeared in the photoelastic plastic where there were differences in strain between adjacent sites (strain gradients) in the hoof. Strain distribution was observed in the shod and unshod hoof wall of the front hooves of 6 sound horses with hooves that appeared 'good' to visual inspection, and one unsound horse with hoof cracks. No significant differences in strains were apparent across the hoof walls of the sound horses when the horses were standing normally. Steep strain gradients were apparent in hooves, associated with defects such as cracks, unstable nail holes, and long toes. PMID:9354279

Davies, H M

1997-05-01

445

Hendra Virus Vaccine, a One Health Approach to Protecting Horse, Human, and Environmental Health  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the emergence of several highly pathogenic zoonotic diseases in humans has led to a renewed emphasis on the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, otherwise known as One Health. For example, Hendra virus (HeV), a zoonotic paramyxovirus, was discovered in 1994, and since then, infections have occurred in 7 humans, each of whom had a strong epidemiologic link to similarly affected horses. As a consequence of these outbreaks, eradication of bat populations was discussed, despite their crucial environmental roles in pollination and reduction of the insect population. We describe the development and evaluation of a vaccine for horses with the potential for breaking the chain of HeV transmission from bats to horses to humans, thereby protecting horse, human, and environmental health. The HeV vaccine for horses is a key example of a One Health approach to the control of human disease. PMID:24572697

Pallister, Jackie; Klein, Reuben; Feng, Yan-Ru; Haining, Jessica; Arkinstall, Rachel; Frazer, Leah; Huang, Jin-An; Edwards, Nigel; Wareing, Mark; Elhay, Martin; Hashmi, Zia; Bingham, John; Yamada, Manabu; Johnson, Dayna; White, John; Foord, Adam; Heine, Hans G.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Broder, Christopher C.; Wang, Lin-Fa

2014-01-01

446

Prevalence of antibodies against Saint Louis encephalitis and Jamestown Canyon viruses in California horses.  

PubMed

Jamestown Canyon (JC) and Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses are mosquito-transmitted viruses that have long been present in California. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of these two viruses in horses prior to the introduction of West Nile (WN) virus. Approximately 15% of serum samples collected in 1998 from 425 horses on 44 equine operations horses throughout California had serum antibodies to JC virus, whereas antibodies were not detected to SLE virus. The results indicate that horses in California were commonly infected prior to 1998 with mosquito-transmitted Bunyaviruses that are identical or closely related to JC virus, but not with SLE virus. The different seroprevalence of SLE and JC viruses in horses likely reflects the unique ecology of each virus, and it is predicted that WN virus will have a wider distribution in California than closely related SLE virus. PMID:15001316

Nelson, Dana M; Gardner, Ian A; Chiles, Robert F; Balasuriya, Udeni B; Eldridge, Bruce F; Scott, Thomas W; Reisen, William K; Maclachlan, N James

2004-05-01

447

Efficacy of major anthelmintics against horse cyathostomins in France.  

PubMed

This paper reports a survey conducted in France during 2011 to evaluate the efficacy of commonly used anthelmintics against horse cyathostomins. A total of 40 farms and 1089 horses were screened for the presence of cyathostomins. All farms but one were positive, with an overall animal infection rate of 53.7%, ranging from 9% to 83% on individual farms. On 445 horses from 30 of these farms, a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was performed to evaluate the efficacy of oral formulations of fenbendazole (FBZ), pyrantel embonate (PYR), ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX). Calculation of the mean FECR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) around the mean was performed using bootstrap analysis. Resistance to FBZ was found on 17 of 18 farms investigated, with a mean reduction of 57% (95% CI: 38.5-71.2%). Suspected resistance for PYR was found on 6 of 30 farms, and confirmed on another 3 of 30 farms, with a mean reduction for PYR of 94.7% (95% CI: 88.9-98.5%). Reduced efficacy simultaneously of FBZ and PYR was found in 7 farms. Reduced efficacy of IVM was found in one animal on one farm and of MOX in one animal on another farm, and was combined with resistance against FBZ and/or PYR. These results indicate that single and multiple drug resistance and reduced efficacy in equine cyathostomins is present in France. Macrocylic lactones proved to be highly effective compounds against cyathostomins, with reduced efficacy for IVM and MOX in two farms only. These results extend present knowledge on the occurrence of drug resistant cyathostomins in Europe, and illustrate the necessity to use anthelmintics in appropriate worm control programmes. PMID:22538094

Traversa, Donato; Castagna, Giuseppe; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Meloni, Silvana; Bartolini, Roberto; Geurden, Thomas; Pearce, Michael C; Woringer, Emmanuel; Besognet, Bruno; Milillo, Piermarino; D'Espois, Melanie

2012-09-10

448

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clemastine in healthy horses.  

PubMed

Clemastine is an H1 antagonist used in certain allergic disorders in humans and tentatively also in horses, although the pharmacology of the drug in this species has not yet been investigated. In the present study we determined basic pharmacokinetic parameters and compared the effect of the drug measured as inhibition of histamine-induced cutaneous wheal formation in six horses. The most prominent feature of drug disposition after intravenous dose of 50 microg/kg bw was a very rapid initial decline in plasma concentration, followed by a terminal phase with a half-life of 5.4 h. The volume of distribution was large, Vss = 3.8 L/kg, and the total body clearance 0.79 L/h kg. Notably, oral bioavailability was only 3.4%. There was a strong relationship between plasma concentrations and effect. The effect maximum (measured as reduction in histamine-induced cutaneous wheal formation) was 65% (compared with controls where saline was injected) and the effect duration after i.v. dose was approximately 5 h. The effect after oral dose of 200 microg/kg was minor. The results indicate that clemastine is not appropriate for oral administration to horses because of low bioavailability. When using repeated i.v. administration, the drug has to be administered at least three to four times daily to maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations because of the short half-life. However, if sufficient plasma concentrations are maintained the drug is efficacious in reducing histamine-induced wheal formations. PMID:12667185

Törneke, K; Ingvast-Larsson, C; Pettersson, K; Bergvall, K; Hedeland, M; Bondesson, U; Broström, H

2003-04-01

449

Antibody Responses to Natural Rattlesnake Envenomation and a Rattlesnake Toxoid Vaccine in Horses  

PubMed Central

Antivenom antibody titers following administration of rattlesnake venom for antivenom production in horses are well documented; however, antivenom antibody titers following natural rattlesnake envenomation in horses are not. Antibody titers produced in response to the commercially available rattlesnake venom vaccine are also not published. Our study objectives were to measure antivenom antibody titers in rattlesnake-bitten horses and compare them to titers in horses vaccinated with the rattlesnake venom vaccine. Additionally, titers were compared in pregnant versus nonpregnant horses to assess the affect of pregnancy on vaccine response and were measured pre- and postsuckle in foals of vaccinated mares to detect passive transfer of vaccine immunoglobulins. Blood samples were collected from16 rattlesnake-bitten horses. Thirty-six horses (11 pregnant mares, 12 nonpregnant mares, 13 geldings) were vaccinated using a Crotalus atrox venom toxoid vaccine. Blood was collected before administering each vaccination and 30 days following the third vaccination. Blood was collected from foals of vaccinated mares pre- and postsuckle. All serum was assayed for anti-Crotalus atrox venom antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Rattlesnake-bitten horses had higher (P = 0.001) titers than vaccinated horses. There was no significant difference between titers in vaccinated pregnant versus nonpregnant horses. One mare had a positive titer at foaling, and the foals had positive postsuckle titers. Antivenom antibody titer development was variable following natural envenomation and vaccination, and vaccine-induced titers were lower than natural envenomation titers. Further studies are required to determine if natural or vaccine antivenom antibody titers reduce the effects of envenomation. PMID:23515015

Carmichael, Robert C.; Holbrook, Todd C.; Taylor, Jennifer M.; Ownby, Charlotte L.; McFarlane, Dianne; Payton, Mark E.

2013-01-01

450

Could it be colic? Horse-owner decision making and practices in response to equine colic  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about lay understanding and decision making in response to colic. Horse-owners/carers are key to identifying colic and initiating veterinary intervention. Understanding how owners think and act in relation to colic could assist veterinary surgeons in tailoring information about colic with the aim of improving colic outcomes. Methods A mixed methods approach was employed including qualitative in-depth interviews and a cross-sectional questionnaire. Qualitative data were analysed using Grounded theory to conceptualise processes involved in horse-owner management of colic. Following this, a cross-sectional survey was designed to test these concepts. Cluster analysis explored the role of the human-horse relationship upon colic management strategies. Results Fifteen horse-owners with a range of colic experience participated in the interviews. A theoretical conceptual model was developed and described how horse-owners’ recognised, assessed and responded to colic. Three main management strategies were used including ‘wait and see’, ‘lay treatments’ and ‘seek veterinary assistance’. Actions in response to colic were moderated by owners’ experience of colic and interpretation of the severity of colic signs. A postal questionnaire gathered data from 673 horse-owners from the North-West of the UK. The majority (605, 89.9%) of respondents were female. Cluster analysis revealed 5 meaningful groups of horse-owners based upon assessment of questionnaire items on the human-horse relationship. These groups included 2 professional and 3 amateur owner typologies. There were differences in the responses to some questionnaire items among the identified groups. Conclusions This study describes lay understanding and management of colic among a population of horse-owners from the North-West of the UK. The information may serve as a basis upon which to tailor existing programmes designed to educate owners about colic management strategies, and may inform veterinarians’ interactions with horse-owners. PMID:25238026

2014-01-01

451

Visual attention, an indicator of human-animal relationships? A study of domestic horses (Equus caballus).  

PubMed

As visual attention is an intrinsic part of social relationships, and because relationships are built on a succession of interactions, their establishment involves learning and attention. The emotional, rewarding or punishing, content can modulate selective attention. In horses, the use of positive/negative reinforcement during training determines short and long-term human-horse relationships. In a recent study in horses, where either food or withers' grooming were used as a reward, it appeared that only the food-rewarded horses learned the task and show better relationship with humans. In the present study, we hypothesized that this differential effect of grooming/food rewards on learning performances could be due to attentional processes. Monitoring, gazes and behaviors directed towards the trainer revealed that the use of a food reward (FR) as positive reinforcement increased horses' selective attention towards their trainer. Conversely, horses trained with grooming reward (GR) expressed more inattentive responses and did not show a decrease of "agitated" behavior. However, individual plotting of attention vs. rate of learning performances revealed a complex pattern. Thus, while all FR horses showed a "window" of attention related to faster learning performances, GR horses' pattern followed an almost normal curve where the extreme animals (i.e., highest and lowest attention) had the slowest learning performances. On the other hand, learning was influenced by attention: at the end of training, the more attentive horses had also better learning performances. This study, based on horses, contributes to the general debate on the place of attentional processes at the interface of emotion and cognition and opens new lines of thought about individual sensitivities (only individuals can tell what an appropriate reward is), attentional processes and learning. PMID:24592244

Rochais, C; Henry, S; Sankey, C; Nassur, F; Góracka-Bruzda, A; Hausberger, M

2014-01-01

452

Landscape-Scale Factors Affecting Feral Horse Habitat Use During Summer Within The Rocky Mountain Foothills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public lands occupied by feral horses in North America are frequently managed for multiple uses with land use conflict occurring among feral horses, livestock, wildlife, and native grassland conservation. The factors affecting habitat use by horses is critical to understand where conflict may be greatest. We related horse presence and abundance to landscape attributes in a GIS to examine habitat preferences using 98 field plots sampled within a portion of the Rocky Mountain Forest Reserve of SW Alberta, Canada. Horse abundance was greatest in grassland and cut block habitats, and lowest in conifer and mixedwood forest. Resource selection probability functions and count models of faecal abundance indicated that horses preferred areas closer to water, with reduced topographic ruggedness, situated farther from forests, and located farther away from primary roads and trails frequented by recreationalists, but closer to small linear features (i.e. cut lines) that may be used as beneficial travel corridors. Horse presence and abundance were closely related to cattle presence during summer, suggesting that both herbivores utilise the same habitats. Estimates of forage biomass removal (44 %) by mid-July were near maximum acceptable levels. In contrast to horse-cattle associations, horses were negatively associated with wild ungulate abundance, although the mechanism behind this remains unclear and warrants further investigation. Our results indicate that feral horses in SW Alberta exhibit complex habitat selection patterns during spring and summer, including overlap in use with livestock. This finding highlights the need to assess and manage herbivore populations consistent with rangeland carrying capacity and the maintenance of range health.

Girard, Tisa L.; Bork, Edward W.; Neilsen, Scott E.; Alexander, Mike J.

2013-02-01

453

Tapeworms as a cause of intestinal disease in horses.  

PubMed

Until recently, the equine tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata was difficult to diagnose and considered to be of questionable pathogenicity. Here, Chris Proudman and Sandy Trees describe recent advances in the immunodiagnosis of this parasite that have facilitated epidemiological studies. These studies suggest that A. perfoliata may be an important cause of intestinal disease in the horse and demonstrate a dose-response relationship between infection intensity and risk of disease. If tapeworm infection is a risk factor for ileocaecal colic, the identification and treatment of infected individuals would be a rational approach to disease prevention. PMID:10322338

Proudman, C J; Trees, A J

1999-04-01

454

Ventricular Defibrillation of a 341 kg Horse Using Precordial Electrodes  

PubMed Central

Using a specially constructed 5000 watt-second defibrillator, trans-chest ventricular defibrillation was achieved in a 341 kg horse. Minimum peak electrical current flow used to defibrillate was 280 amperes; maximum peak current was 300 amperes. Circulatory support by external cardiac compression was necessary for a 25 minute period after defibrillation. Resumption of cardiac function was achieved only after intravenous administration of epinephine, calcium chloride and dexamethazone. To the authors' knowledge, this is the largest animal in which electrical ventricular defibrillation has been reported. PMID:17647603

Tacker, W. A.; Geddes, L. A.; Rosborough, J. P.; Moore, A. G.

1973-01-01

455

Lactose as a “Trojan Horse” for Quantum Dot Cell Transport**  

PubMed Central

A series of glycan-coated quantum dots were prepared to probe the effect of glycan presentation in intracellular localization in HeLa and SV40 epithelial cells. We show that glycan density mostly impacts on cell toxicity, whereas glycan type affects the cell uptake and intracellular localization. Moreover, we show that lactose can act as a “Trojan horse” on bi-functionalized QDs to help intracellular delivery of other non-internalizable glycan moieties and largely avoid the endosomal/lysosomal degradative pathway. PMID:24311369

Benito-Alifonso, David; Tremel, Shirley; Hou, Bo; Lockyear, Harriet; Mantell, Judith; Fermin, David J; Verkade, Paul; Berry, Monica; Galan, M Carmen

2014-01-01

456

Cottonseed Meal in Rations of Horses and Mules.  

E-print Network

LIBRAR A&M EGE. CAMPUS. E98-6000-L180 AS A6RICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. R. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS - - BULLETIN NO. 492 AUGUST, 1934 DIVISION OF RANGE ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Cottonseed Meal in Rations of Horses.... W. Huckabee, B. S., Soil Surveyor Range Animal Husbandry: Botany: J. M. Jones. A. M. Chief V. L. Cory, M. S., Acting Chief B. L. Wxrmick, Ph. D., Breeding Investiga. Swine Husbandry: S. P. Davis. Wool Grader Fred Hale, M. S., Chief J. H. Jones...

Williams, R. H.; Jones, J. M. (John McKinley); Jones, John H.

1934-01-01

457

Infectious Anaemia of the Horse: A Preliminary Report.  

E-print Network

reaction occurred in March, lasting three days; and anothel in July, lasting forty days. We must regard these as relapses, as therc was no other source of infection known to us. On November 4th, 1908, which was about twelve and one-half months after... the slow chronic type of thc disease. Relapses of mild fever occurred in June and July and a severe one in August, which reduced the animal's vitality so much that it declined rapidly and died October l2th, 153 days after infection. Horse Notic No. 6...

Francis, M. (Mark); Marsteller, R. P. (Ross Perry)

1908-01-01

458

Where are the horses? With the sheep or cows? Uncertain host location, vector-feeding preferences and the risk of African horse sickness transmission in Great Britain  

PubMed Central

Understanding the influence of non-susceptible hosts on vector-borne disease transmission is an important epidemiological problem. However, investigation of its impact can be complicated by uncertainty in the location of the hosts. Estimating the risk of transmission of African horse sickness (AHS) in Great Britain (GB), a virus transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, provides an insightful example because: (i) the patterns of risk are expected to be influenced by the presence of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts (cattle and sheep) and (ii) incomplete information on the spatial distribution of horses is available because the GB National Equine Database records owner, rather than horse, locations. Here, we combine land-use data with available horse owner distributions and, using a Bayesian approach, infer a realistic distribution for the location of horses. We estimate the risk of an outbreak of AHS in GB, using the basic reproduction number (R0), and demonstrate that mapping owner addresses as a proxy for horse location significantly underestimates the risk. We clarify the role of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts by showing that the risk of disease in the presence of many hosts (susceptible and non-susceptible) can be ultimately reduced to two fundamental factors: first, the abundance of vectors and how this depends on host density, and, second, the differential feeding preference of vectors among animal species. PMID:23594817

Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Robin, Charlotte A.; Newton, J. Richard; Gubbins, Simon; Wood, James L. N.

2013-01-01

459

Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus major capsid protein VP2 provides complete clinical protection against challenge  

PubMed Central

African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that infects all species of equidae and causes high mortality in horses. Previously, a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing the protein VP2 of AHSV serotype 4 was shown to induce virus neutralising antibodies in horses and protected interferon alpha receptor gene knock-out mice (IFNAR ?/?) against virulent AHSV challenge. This study builds on the previous work, examining the protective efficacy of MVA-VP2 vaccination in the natural host of AHSV infection. A study group of 4 horses was vaccinated twice with a recombinant MVA virus expressing the major capsid protein (VP2) of AHSV serotype 9. Vaccinated animals and a control group of unvaccinated horses were then challenged with a virulent strain of AHSV-9. The vaccinated animals were completely protected against clinical disease and also against viraemia as measured by standard end-point dilution assays. In contrast, all control horses presented viraemia after challenge and succumbed to the infection. These results demonstrate the potential of recombinant MVA viruses expressing the outer capsid VP2 of AHSV as a protective vaccine against AHSV infection in the field. PMID:24837765

Alberca, Berta; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Cabana, Marta; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Viaplana, Elisenda; Frost, Lorraine; Gubbins, Simon; Urniza, Alicia; Mertens, Peter; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

2014-01-01

460

Speciation in chestnut-shouldered fairy-wrens (Malurus spp.) and rapid phenotypic divergence in variegated fairy-wrens (Malurus lamberti): a multilocus approach.  

PubMed

The chestnut-shouldered fairy-wrens comprise a subgroup of four species in the genus Malurus (Passeriformes: Maluridae). Collectively, they are widespread across the Australian continent but phenotypic variation is strongly structured geographically in just one species, M. lamberti. Earlier phylogenetic analyses of this group have been limited to one or two individuals for each species and have not represented all currently recognised subspecies of M. lamberti. Historically, the taxonomy and nomenclature of the M. lamberti complex has been debated, in part because of morphological similarities among its subspecies and another member of the group, M. amabilis. We reconstructed the phylogeny of all four species of chestnut-shouldered fairy-wrens including all four subspecies of M. lamberti using a mitochondrial gene (ND2), five anonymous nuclear loci and three nuclear introns. Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial ND2 gene nests M. amabilis within M. lamberti rendering the latter paraphyletic. Individual nuclear gene trees failed to reliably resolve each of the species boundaries or the phylogenetic relationships found in the mtDNA tree. When combined, however, a strongly supported overall topology was resolved supporting the monophyly of M. lamberti and its sister species relationship to M. amabilis. Current subspecific taxonomy of M. lamberti was not concordant with all evolutionary lineages of M. lamberti, nominotypical M. l. lamberti being the only subspecies recovered as a monophyletic group from mtDNA. Some genetic structuring is evident and potential barriers to gene flow are discussed. PMID:22426434

McLean, A J; Toon, A; Schmidt, D J; Joseph, L; Hughes, J M

2012-06-01