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Sample records for horse diseases

  1. Fungal diseases of horses.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-11-29

    Among diseases of horses caused by fungi (=mycoses), dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are of particular concern, due their worldwide diffusion and, for some of them, zoonotic potential. Conversely, other mycoses such as subcutaneous (i.e., pythiosis and mycetoma) or deep mycoses (i.e., blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) are rare, and/or limited to restricted geographical areas. Generally, subcutaneous and deep mycoses are chronic and progressive diseases; clinical signs include extensive, painful lesions (not pathognomonic), which resemble to other microbial infections. In all cases, early diagnosis is crucial in order to achieve a favorable prognosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and diagnosis of fungal diseases is essential for the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of equine fungal infections as a support to early diagnosis and application of targeted therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:23428378

  2. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. PMID:27449391

  3. Exploring the virome of diseased horses.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; Giannitti, Federico; Low, Jason; Keyes, Casey; Ullmann, Leila S; Deng, Xutao; Aleman, Monica; Pesavento, Patricia A; Pusterla, Nicola; Delwart, Eric

    2015-09-01

    Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases. PMID:26044792

  4. Exploring the virome of diseased horses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Giannitti, Federico; Low, Jason; Keyes, Casey; Ullmann, Leila S.; Deng, Xutao; Aleman, Monica; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Pusterla, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases. PMID:26044792

  5. Cardiac and Respiratory Disease in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    Marr, Celia M

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory and cardiac diseases are common in older horses. Advancing age is a specific risk factor for cardiac murmurs and these are more likely in males and small horses. Airway inflammation is the most common respiratory diagnosis. Recurrent airway obstruction can lead to irreversible structural change and bronchiectasis; with chronic hypoxia, right heart dysfunction and failure can develop. Valvular heart disease most often affects the aortic and/or the mitral valve. Management of comorbidity is an essential element of the therapeutic approach to cardiac and respiratory disease in older equids. PMID:27329492

  6. Respiratory Disease: Diagnostic Approaches in the Horse.

    PubMed

    Hewson, Joanne; Arroyo, Luis G

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of the upper and lower respiratory tract of horses requires strategic selection of possible diagnostic tests based on location of suspected pathologic lesions and purpose of testing and must also include consideration of patient status. This article discusses the various diagnostic modalities that may be applied to the respiratory system of horses under field conditions, indications for use, and aspects of sample collection, handling, and laboratory processing that can impact test results and ultimately a successful diagnosis in cases of respiratory disease. PMID:26037608

  7. Renal disease associated with colic in horses.

    PubMed

    Seanor, J W; Byars, T D; Boutcher, J K

    1984-05-01

    Renal dysfunction secondary to GI disorders may be relatively common in horses. Persistent dehydration of 8-10% of body weight can lead to prerenal azotemia, which may result in renal ischemia and renal disease if uncorrected. Dehydrated azotemic horses with a urine specific gravity less than 1.018 may have renal disease. Urine specific gravity readings greater than 1.025 usually indicate normal kidney function. A urine Na level less than 20 mEq/L and a urine/plasma creatinine ratio greater than or equal to 20:1 indicate prerenal problems. Use of nephrotoxic drugs should be avoided in septicemic or dehydrated horses. Salmonellosis and proximal enteritis often lead to renal complications. Renal disease associated with DIC warrants a poor prognosis. Treatment of acute renal failure is aimed at eliminating the underlying cause and correcting metabolic abnormalities. Use of IV fluids, dopamine, prostaglandin inhibitors, fresh and electrolyte-spiked water ad libitum, water-soluble vitamins and high-P diets is beneficial. Success of therapy should be judged by laboratory results rather than clinical impressions. PMID:6738502

  8. Musculoskeletal Disease in Aged Horses and Its Management.

    PubMed

    van Weeren, Paul René; Back, Willem

    2016-08-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent health problem in aging horses. They are not life threatening, but are painful and an important welfare issue. Chronic joint disease (osteoarthritis) and chronic laminitis are the most prevalent. Treating osteoarthritis in the elderly horse is similar to treating performance horses, but aims at providing a stable situation with optimal comfort. Immediate medical treatment of flare-ups, long-term pain management, and adaptation of exercise and living conditions are the mainstays of treatment. Laminitis in the geriatric horse is related often to pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, which may be treated with additional pergolide. PMID:27449390

  9. Equine motor neuron disease in 2 horses from Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Husulak, Michelle L; Lohmann, Katharina L; Gabadage, Kamal; Wojnarowicz, Chris; Marqués, Fernando J

    2016-07-01

    Two horses from Saskatchewan were presented with signs of sweating, muscle fasciculations, weight loss, and generalized weakness. The horses were diagnosed with equine motor neuron disease (EMND), by histological assessment of a spinal accessory nerve or sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis muscle biopsy. This is the first report of EMND in western Canada. PMID:27429468

  10. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period...

  11. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period...

  12. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period...

  13. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period...

  14. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period...

  15. Demographics, Management, Preventive Health Care and Disease in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Joanne L

    2016-08-01

    Gerontology has become increasingly important in equine veterinary medicine, with aged animals representing a significant proportion of the equine population. Horses are defined as geriatric or aged from age 15 years onwards but can have a life span of more than 40 years. Despite a high level of owner concern for the well-being of their geriatric animal, provision of preventive health care may be suboptimal. Owners seem to under-recognize some of the most prevalent diseases identified in geriatric horses. This review focuses on the demographic characteristics of the equine geriatric population and management and preventive care practices of older horses. PMID:27449388

  16. Chagas disease in a Texan horse with neurologic deficits.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Laura K; Hamer, Sarah A; Shaw, Sarah; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Auckland, Lisa D; Hodo, Carolyn L; Chaffin, Keith; Rech, Raquel R

    2016-01-30

    A 10-year-old Quarter Horse gelding presented to the Texas A&M University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a six month-history of ataxia and lameness in the hind limbs. The horse was treated presumptively for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) based on clinical signs but was ultimately euthanized after its condition worsened. Gross lesions were limited to a small area of reddening in the gray matter of the thoracic spinal cord. Histologically, trypanosome amastigotes morphologically similar to Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease in humans and dogs, were sporadically detected within segments of the thoracic spinal cord surrounded by mild lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Ancillary testing for Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. was negative. Conventional and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of affected paraffin embedded spinal cord were positive for T. cruzi, and sequencing of the amplified T. cruzi satellite DNA PCR fragment from the horse was homologous with various clones of T. cruzi in GenBank. While canine Chagas disease cases have been widely reported in southern Texas, this is the first report of clinical T. cruzi infection in an equid with demonstrable amastigotes in the spinal cord. In contrast to previous instances of Chagas disease in the central nervous system (CNS) of dogs and humans, no inflammation or T. cruzi amastigotes were detected in the heart of the horse. Based on clinical signs, there is a potential for misdiagnosis of Chagas disease with other infectious diseases that affect the equine CNS. T. cruzi should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with neurologic clinical signs and histologic evidence of meningomyelitis that originate in areas where Chagas disease is present. The prevalence of T. cruzi in horses and the role of equids in the parasite life cycle require further study. PMID:26801589

  17. Evaluation of assays for troponin I in healthy horses and horses with cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Van Der Vekens, N; Decloedt, A; Sys, S; Ven, S; De Clercq, D; van Loon, G

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a marker for detection of myocardial damage in horses. Many cTnI assays exist and medical studies have shown that the clinical performance of assays differs. The aim of this study was to compare two different cTnI assays in horses. Serum samples were taken from 23 healthy horses (group 1) and 72 horses with cardiac disease (group 2). Cardiac troponin I was determined using assay 1 in laboratory A (limit of detection, LOD, 0.03 ng/mL) and assay 2 in laboratories B and C (LOD 0.01 ng/mL). In group 1, a median cTnI concentration of <0.03 (<0.03-0.04) ng/mL and <0.01 (<0.01-0.15) ng/mL was found with assays 1 and 2, respectively. A higher median value was demonstrated in group 2 for both assays (assay 1: 0.11 ng/mL, range 0.03-58.27 ng/mL, P < 0.001; assay 2: 0.02 ng/mL, range 0.01-22.87 ng/mL, P = 0.044). Although a significant correlation between assays existed, large mean differences that could be important for clinical interpretation of test results were found. A small mean difference was found between laboratories B and C. A significant optimal (P < 0.001) cut-off value for detection of cardiac disease could only be determined for assay 1 (0.035 ng/mL, sensitivity 70%, specificity 91%). Assay 1 performed better for detection of cardiac disease in horses in this study. PMID:25532795

  18. Horses

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of humans and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant some antibiotics. Horses carrying MRSA might not necessarily show clinical ...

  19. Infection of Immunodeficient Horses with Sarcocystis neurona Does Not Result in Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sellon, Debra C.; Knowles, Donald P.; Greiner, Ellis C.; Long, Maureen T.; Hines, Melissa T.; Hochstatter, Tressa; Tibary, Ahmed; Dame, John B.

    2004-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a progressive neurologic disease of horses most commonly caused by infection with the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Factors affecting neuroinvasion and neurovirulence have not been determined. We investigated the pathogenesis of infection with S. neurona in horses with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). Two immunocompetent (IC) Arabian horses and two Arabian horses with SCID were infected orally with 5 × 105 sporocysts of S. neurona. Four IC horses and one SCID horse were infected intravenously (i.v.) with 5 × 108 merozoites of the WSU-1 isolate of S. neurona. Despite prolonged parasitemia and persistent infection of visceral tissues (skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, lung, liver, and spleen) as demonstrated by PCR and culture, SCID horses did not develop neurologic signs after oral or i.v. infection. S. neurona was undetectable in the neuronal tissues of SCID horses by either PCR, immunohistochemistry, or culture. In contrast, although parasitemia was undetectable in orally infected IC horses and of only short duration in i.v. infected IC horses, four of six IC horses developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was detectable by PCR and/or culture of neural tissue but not visceral tissue of IC horses with neurologic disease. Infected SCID horses are unable to clear S. neurona from visceral tissues, but the infection does not result in neurologic signs; in contrast, IC horses rapidly control parasitemia and infection of visceral tissues but frequently experience neuroinvasion and exhibit clinical signs of neurologic disease. PMID:15539518

  20. Efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin on bacterial extraocular disease in the horse

    PubMed Central

    HIDAKA, Shuhei; KOBAYASHI, Mitsutoshi; ANDO, Kunihide; FUJII, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Lomefloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin eye drops for bacterial extraocular disease in horses. Lomefloxacin ophthalmic solution (0.3%) was instilled three times daily for 2–5 days in 65 horses diagnosed with bacterial extraocular disease based on clinical findings. Clinical observations and bacteriological examinations were performed at the start of treatment, 2 and 5 days after the start of treatment, and at the discontinuation or termination of treatment. Of the 65 horses, 64 were positive for bacteria, and 22 bacterial genera and 47 bacterial species were identified. The efficacy of lomefloxacin was evaluated in 63 horses; one horse with a negative culture and another with suspected bacterial contamination were excluded. Lomefloxacin was considered to be clinically effective in 54 horses. The major bacterial species identified were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus vitulinus, Enterobacter agglomerans, Flavimonas oryzihabitans and Staphylococcus sciuri, with a cumulative disappearance rate of 80% or more at the termination of instillation. Excluding one horse that did not undergo a bacteriological examination, the remaining 62 horses were assessed for bacteriological outcome. Full or partial bacterial clearance was detected in 95% or more of the 62 horses. One of the 65 horses reported adverse events that had no causal relation with the eye drops. Our results showed that lomefloxacin is safe and effective for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease in horses. PMID:25787926

  1. Efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin on bacterial extraocular disease in the horse.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi; Ando, Kunihide; Fujii, Yoshikazu

    2015-07-01

    Lomefloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin eye drops for bacterial extraocular disease in horses. Lomefloxacin ophthalmic solution (0.3%) was instilled three times daily for 2-5 days in 65 horses diagnosed with bacterial extraocular disease based on clinical findings. Clinical observations and bacteriological examinations were performed at the start of treatment, 2 and 5 days after the start of treatment, and at the discontinuation or termination of treatment. Of the 65 horses, 64 were positive for bacteria, and 22 bacterial genera and 47 bacterial species were identified. The efficacy of lomefloxacin was evaluated in 63 horses; one horse with a negative culture and another with suspected bacterial contamination were excluded. Lomefloxacin was considered to be clinically effective in 54 horses. The major bacterial species identified were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus vitulinus, Enterobacter agglomerans, Flavimonas oryzihabitans and Staphylococcus sciuri, with a cumulative disappearance rate of 80% or more at the termination of instillation. Excluding one horse that did not undergo a bacteriological examination, the remaining 62 horses were assessed for bacteriological outcome. Full or partial bacterial clearance was detected in 95% or more of the 62 horses. One of the 65 horses reported adverse events that had no causal relation with the eye drops. Our results showed that lomefloxacin is safe and effective for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease in horses. PMID:25787926

  2. Oxidative stress in hoof laminar tissue of horses with lethal gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Laskoski, Luciane Maria; Dittrich, Rosangela Locatelli; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo; Brum, Juliana Sperotto; Brandão, Yara; Brito, Harald Fernando Vicente; de Sousa, Renato Silva

    2016-03-01

    Tissue damage caused by oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases in animals and man, and is believed to play a role in the development of laminitis in horses. The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress associated with laminar lesions in horses with lethal gastrointestinal disorders. Laminar tissue samples of the hoof of 30 horses were used. Tissue samples were divided as follows: six healthy horses (control group-CG), and 24 horses that died after complications of gastrointestinal diseases (group suffering from gastrointestinal disorders-GDG). Superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and nitrotyrosine immunostaining and the severity of laminar lesions were evaluated. Presence of laminar lesions and immunostaining for nitrotyrosine and SOD2 were only evident in horses from the GDG group. Thus, oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of laminar lesions secondary to gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26964719

  3. Interval prevalence of and factors associated with colic in horses hospitalized for ocular or orthopedic disease.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Nicole M; Lassaline, Mary; Richardson, Dean W; Stefanovski, Darko

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine interval (1-year) prevalence of and factors associated with colic in horses hospitalized for ocular or orthopedic disease. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 105 horses with ocular disease and 197 horses with orthopedic disease admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital between July 1, 2011, and June 30, 2012. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to determine whether colic (abnormal behavior prompting abdominal palpation per rectum or nasogastric intubation) was observed during hospitalization. Data were collected on putative risk factors for colic, including reason for admission, signalment, and medical or surgical interventions received. RESULTS No significant difference in interval prevalence of colic was identified between horses with ocular disease (8/105 [8%]) or orthopedic disease (9/197 [5%]). However, horses with ocular disease differed significantly from other horses in median age (10 vs 3 years, respectively); proportions of sexually intact males (3% vs 30%), Thoroughbreds (28% vs 62%), and those receiving general anesthesia (65% vs 80%); and median duration of hospitalization (3 vs 2 days). For every 1 mg/kg increase in daily NSAID dose, the odds of colic increased by 98%. No difference between groups was identified in median duration of colic (1 day), hospitalization (7 vs 3 days), or systemic NSAID administration (7 vs 5 days). Colic in both groups resolved with medical management for all but 1 horse with ocular disease. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Horses hospitalized for ocular disease were at no greater odds for colic than were horses hospitalized for orthopedic disease. Medical management of colic appeared adequate for most horses. PMID:27308887

  4. Leptospira seroprevalence and associations between seropositivity, clinical disease and host factors in horses

    PubMed Central

    Båverud, V; Gunnarsson, A; Engvall, E Olsson; Franzén, P; Egenvall, A

    2009-01-01

    Background A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of different serovars of Leptospira spp. and their association with clinical disease and host factors in Swedish horses. Methods Sera from 2017 horses brought to equine clinics during 1997–98 were investigated. The sera were examined by microscopic agglutination test for the presence of antibodies against the following L. interrogans serovars: Bratislava strain Jez, Icterohaemorrhagiae strain Kantorowicz and Pomona strain Pomona and also L. kirschneri sv Grippotyphosa strain Duyster and L. borgpetersenii sv Sejroe strain M 84. Host factors, disease factors, season, pasture access and outdoor confinement variables were analysed with respect to seropositivity to sv Bratislava and Icterohaemorrhagiae. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model seropositivity to sv Bratislava and Icterohaemorrhagiae (seroprevalence > 8%). Results The seroprevalence, at a cut-off 1:100, were for sv Bratislava (16.6%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (8.3%), Sejroe (1.2%), Pomona (0.5%) and Grippotyphosa (0.4%). In the multivariable analysis, it was demonstrated that seroprevalence increased with age for sv Bratislava and Icterohaemorrhagiae. For sv Bratislava the seasons April – June and October – December and for sv Icterohaemorrhagiae October – December had higher seroprevalences than other seasons. Horses not used for racing had higher levels of seropositivity to sv Bratislava. Furthermore, horses with respiratory problems as well as horses with fatigue had higher levels of seropositivity to sv Bratislava. Ponies and coldbloods, and horses with access to pasture, had lower seroprevalence for sv Icterohaemorrhagiae. Healthy horses had lower seroprevalence for sv Icterohaemorrhagiae, than non-healthy horses. Conclusion There was no significant association between clinical signs and disease and positive titres to sv Bratislava (except for the association between respiratory problems and fatigue and

  5. Pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a horse: zoonotic concerns and limitations of antemortem testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of disease. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid...

  6. Morphometric analysis of the retina from horses infected with the Borna disease virus.

    PubMed

    Dietzel, J; Kuhrt, H; Stahl, T; Kacza, J; Seeger, J; Weber, M; Uhlig, A; Reichenbach, A; Grosche, A; Pannicke, T

    2007-01-01

    Borna disease (BD) is a fatal disorder of horses, often characterized by blindness. Although degeneration of retinal neurons has been demonstrated in a rat model, there are controversial data concerning whether a similar degeneration occurs in the retina of infected horses. To investigate whether BD may cause degeneration of photoreceptors and possibly of other neuronal cells at least at later stages of the disease, we performed a detailed quantitative morphologic study of retinal tissue from Borna-diseased horses. BD was diagnosed by detection of pathognomonic Joest-Degen inclusion bodies in the postmortem brains. Paraffin sections of paraformaldehyde-fixed retinae were used for histologic and immunohistochemical stainings. Numbers of neurons and Müller glial cells were counted, and neuron-to-Müller cell ratios were calculated. Among tissues from 9 horses with BD, we found retinae with strongly altered histologic appearance as well as retinae with only minor changes. The neuron-to-Müller cell ratio for the whole retina was significantly smaller in diseased animals (8.5 +/- 0.4; P < .01) as compared with controls (17.6 +/- 0.8). It can be concluded that BD in horses causes alterations of the retinal histology of a variable degree. The study provides new data about the pathogenesis of BD concerning the retina and demonstrates that a loss of photoreceptors may explain the observed blindness in infected horses. PMID:17197624

  7. 'High-health, high-performance' horses: risk mitigation strategies for OIE-listed diseases.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, M; Münstermann, S; Murray, G; Timoney, P

    2015-12-01

    The 'high-health, high-performance' (HHP) horse concept has been developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) together with the F6ddration Equestre Internationale and the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities. This concept is outlined in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Chapter 4.16). It aims to address impediments to the international movement of competition horses through a harmonised, practically feasible, globally applicable framework based on simplified certification requirements for the temporary importation of HHP horses and for their return to their country of usual residence. Based on the principle of compartmentalisation, the high health status of these horses would be established by the application, at all times, of stringent health management practices and biosecurity measures to create and maintain a functional separation between horses within the defined compartment and all other equids. These provisions are intended to mitigate the risk of disease spread for most OIE-listed diseases. For six OIE-listed diseases (African horse sickness, equine influenza, equine infectious anaemia, equine piroplasmosis, glanders and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis), the OIE recommends disease-specific mitigation measures, which have been included in a model HHP Veterinary Certificate, to provide additional guarantees to mitigate the risk of disease spread. This article presents the HH P disease risk mitigation strategy. It demonstrates how continuous observance of the HHP biosecurity measures and health management practices provides a scientific rationale for limiting the list of diseases for which HHP horses should be screened with respect to their temporary importation for competition purposes. PMID:27044155

  8. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Horse: Zoonotic Concerns and Limitations of Antemortem Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Lecu, Alexis; Waters, W. Ray; Posthaus, Horst; Bodmer, Thomas; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Aloisio, Fabio; Graubner, Claudia; Grosclaude, Eléonore; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Schiller, Irene

    2012-01-01

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of mycobacteriosis. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid granulomas communicating with the bronchiolar lumen, pleural effusion, and a granulomatous lymphadenitis involving mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were found. Serologic response to M. tuberculosis antigens was detected in the infected horse, but not in the group of 42 potentially exposed animals (18 horses, 14 alpacas, 6 donkeys, and 4 dogs) which showed no signs of disease. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in live horses remains extremely difficult. Four of 20 animal handlers at the farm were positive for tuberculous infection upon follow-up testing by interferon-gamma release assay, indicating a possibility of interspecies transmission of M. tuberculosis. PMID:22567544

  9. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Horse: Zoonotic Concerns and Limitations of Antemortem Testing.

    PubMed

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Lecu, Alexis; Waters, W Ray; Posthaus, Horst; Bodmer, Thomas; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Aloisio, Fabio; Graubner, Claudia; Grosclaude, Eléonore; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Schiller, Irene

    2012-01-01

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of mycobacteriosis. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid granulomas communicating with the bronchiolar lumen, pleural effusion, and a granulomatous lymphadenitis involving mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were found. Serologic response to M. tuberculosis antigens was detected in the infected horse, but not in the group of 42 potentially exposed animals (18 horses, 14 alpacas, 6 donkeys, and 4 dogs) which showed no signs of disease. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in live horses remains extremely difficult. Four of 20 animal handlers at the farm were positive for tuberculous infection upon follow-up testing by interferon-gamma release assay, indicating a possibility of interspecies transmission of M. tuberculosis. PMID:22567544

  10. Sindbis and Middelburg Old World Alphaviruses Associated with Neurologic Disease in Horses, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    van Niekerk, Stephanie; Human, Stacey; Williams, June; van Wilpe, Erna; Pretorius, Marthi; Swanepoel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Old World alphaviruses were identified in 52 of 623 horses with febrile or neurologic disease in South Africa. Five of 8 Sindbis virus infections were mild; 2 of 3 fatal cases involved co-infections. Of 44 Middelburg virus infections, 28 caused neurologic disease; 12 were fatal. Middelburg virus likely has zoonotic potential. PMID:26583836

  11. Demographics of health and disease in the geriatric horse.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Mary Rose

    2002-12-01

    Owners of older horses have generally owned them for a long time. They have developed a bond that is similar to that seen with companion animals. Their desire to have their animal(s) age gracefully with comfort and mobility has stirred research in the field of equine geriatric medicine. Equine geriatric medicine is to the first decade of the twenty-first century as neonatal medicine was to the 1980s. Hopefully, the demographics discussed in this article highlight area where research can be most helpful. PMID:12516924

  12. Dental Disease in Aged Horses and Its Management.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Victoria M; Townsend, Neil

    2016-08-01

    Improved recognition of equine geriatric conditions has resulted in a surge in our aged population with a concurrent escalation of many age-related dental pathologies. Prevention of these disorder is the ultimate aim but early identification and appropriate management can increase an animal's oral comfort and maximise its masticatory ability. There is only a finite amount of tooth available for eruption in the horse and therefore as the teeth become worn and less efficient as a grinding unit, dietary modification becomes a paramount consideration to accommodate this. Geriatric animals have differing requirements for restraint and sedation with treatment of coexisting disorders also an important requirement. PMID:27449389

  13. Evidence of lateral gene transfer among strains of Streptococcus zooepidemicus in weanling horses with respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Velineni, Sridhar; Breathnach, Cormac C; Timoney, John F

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus zooepidemicus (Sz) is a tonsillar commensal of healthy horses but with potential to opportunistically invade the lower respiratory tract. Sz is genetically variable and recombinogenic based on analysis of gene sequences including szp, szm and MLST data. Although a variety of serovars of the protective SzP are commonly harbored in the tonsils of the same horse, lower respiratory infections usually involve a single clone. Nevertheless, isolation of specific clones from epizootics of respiratory disease has been recently reported in horses and dogs in N. America, Europe and Asia. In this report, we provide evidence suggestive of lateral gene exchange and recombination between strains of Sz from cases of respiratory disease secondary to experimental equine herpes 1 virus infection in an isolated group of weanling horses and ponies. Nasal swabs of 13 of 18 weanlings with respiratory disease yielded mucoid colonies of Sz following culture. Comparison of arcC, nrdE, proS, spi, tdk, tpi and yqiL of these Sz revealed 3 Clades. Clade-1 (ST-212) and 2 (ST-24) were composed of 7 and 3 isolates, respectively. ST-24 and 212 differed in all 7 housekeeping as well as szp and szm alleles. Two isolates of Clade-1 were assigned to ST-308, a single locus variant of ST-212 that contained the proS-16 allele sequenced in ST-24. One isolate of ST-308 contained szm-2, the same allele sequenced in Clade 2 isolates; the other was positive for the szp-N2HV2 allele of Clade 2. These observations are consistent with gene transfer between Sz in the natural host and may explain formation of novel clones that invade the lower respiratory tract or cause epizootics of respiratory disease in dogs and horses. PMID:24263112

  14. African horse sickness: The potential for an outbreak in disease-free regions and current disease control and elimination techniques.

    PubMed

    Robin, M; Page, P; Archer, D; Baylis, M

    2016-09-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an arboviral disease of equids transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. The virus is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and official AHS disease-free status can be obtained from the World Organization for Animal Health on fulfilment of a number of criteria. AHS is associated with case fatality rates of up to 95%, making an outbreak among naïve horses both a welfare and economic disaster. The worldwide distributions of similar vector-borne diseases (particularly bluetongue disease of ruminants) are changing rapidly, probably due to a combination of globalisation and climate change. There is extensive evidence that the requisite conditions for an AHS epizootic currently exist in disease-free countries. In particular, although the stringent regulations enforced upon competition horses make them extremely unlikely to redistribute the virus, there are great concerns over the effects of illegal equid movement. An outbreak of AHS in a disease free region would have catastrophic effects on equine welfare and industry, particularly for international events such as the Olympic Games. While many regions have contingency plans in place to manage an outbreak of AHS, further research is urgently required if the equine industry is to avoid or effectively contain an AHS epizootic in disease-free regions. This review describes the key aspects of AHS as a global issue and discusses the evidence supporting concerns that an epizootic may occur in AHS free countries, the planned government responses, and the roles and responsibilities of equine veterinarians. PMID:27292229

  15. [Bacteriological findings for endodontical and apical molar dental diseases in the horse].

    PubMed

    Bienert, A; Bartmann, C P; Verspohl, J; Deegen, E

    2003-09-01

    In most cases the diagnosis of any molar dental disease in horses is made at an advanced stage, so that permanent restoration of the diseased teeth is not feasible. Complications such as bacteraemia and septicaemia due to infections as a result of dentogenous sinusitis and following dentosurgical procedures have been described in human medicine and in veterinary medicine. Twenty patients were available for examination from the Clinic for Horses of the School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover with molar dental disease in upper or lower jaw. As a result of this disease the infected tooth had to be removed surgically. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of and to identify microbes in 20 patients. Swab samples were taken from infected pulpa, from dental abscesses and from involved nasal sinuses. The samples were examined microbiologically and tested for aerobes and anaerobes at the same time. Infectious agents were found in 19 of 20 horses. In all, 27 different species of infectious agents were isolated, including both aerobic and anaerobic microbes. Fifteen patients (75%) showed a mixed flora. Further differentiation indicated a preponderance of the group of gram-negative obligatory anaerobic agents isolated from a total of 17 horses. In all these samples there was a high concentration of infectious agents of these genera, the most common of which were Prevotella spp (n = 16) and Fusobacterium spp. (n = 15). Pre-surgical antibacterial therapy is recommended to reduce the risk of intra- and/or post-surgical bacteraemia and its serious consequences. In light of these microbiological results and considering the high degree of resistance among all anaerobic microbes, all patients in this study were treated with Amoxicillin. PMID:14560441

  16. Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses.

    PubMed

    Bolfa, Pompei; Nolf, Marie; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Catoi, Cornel; Archer, Fabienne; Dolmazon, Christine; Mornex, Jean-François; Leroux, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed. PMID:24289102

  17. A High-Performance Multiplex Immunoassay for Serodiagnosis of Flavivirus-Associated Neurological Diseases in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Cécile; Desprès, Philippe; Paulous, Sylvie; Vanhomwegen, Jessica; Lowenski, Steeve; Nowotny, Norbert; Durand, Benoit; Garnier, Annabelle; Blaise-Boisseau, Sandra; Guitton, Edouard; Yamanaka, Takashi; Zientara, Stéphan; Lecollinet, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) are flaviviruses responsible for severe neuroinvasive infections in humans and horses. The confirmation of flavivirus infections is mostly based on rapid serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). These tests suffer from poor specificity, mainly due to antigenic cross-reactivity among flavivirus members. Robust diagnosis therefore needs to be validated through virus neutralisation tests (VNTs) which are time-consuming and require BSL3 facilities. The flavivirus envelope (E) glycoprotein ectodomain is composed of three domains (D) named DI, DII, and DIII, with EDIII containing virus-specific epitopes. In order to improve the serological differentiation of flavivirus infections, the recombinant soluble ectodomain of WNV E (WNV.sE) and EDIIIs (rEDIIIs) of WNV, JEV, and TBEV were synthesised using the Drosophila S2 expression system. Purified antigens were covalently bonded to fluorescent beads. The microspheres coupled to WNV.sE or rEDIIIs were assayed with about 300 equine immune sera from natural and experimental flavivirus infections and 172 nonimmune equine sera as negative controls. rEDIII-coupled microspheres captured specific antibodies against WNV, TBEV, or JEV in positive horse sera. This innovative multiplex immunoassay is a powerful alternative to ELISAs and VNTs for veterinary diagnosis of flavivirus-related diseases. PMID:26457301

  18. The use of magnetic motor evoked potentials in horses with cervical spinal cord disease.

    PubMed

    Nollet, H; Deprez, P; Van Ham, L; Verschooten, F; Vanderstraeten, G

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of magnetic motor evoked potentials as an ancillary diagnostic test in horses with cervical cord lesions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was performed in 12 ataxic horses and the results of the evoked responses were compared to those found in normal horses. The latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of the potentials in the 12 ataxic horses were significantly different from those measured in normal horses. The configuration of the abnormal potentials was also polyphasic. Normalisation of the evoked potentials occurred in none of the horses, presented after a period of clinical improvement. These findings demonstrate that the technique is also able to detect lesions in horses with subtle clinical signs of incoordination. Magnetic transcranial stimulation is a valuable ancillary test to assess the integrity of the motor tracts. The technique is painless and safe and shows good sensitivity to detect lesions along the descending motor pathways. PMID:11902758

  19. Vaccinia viruses isolated from cutaneous disease in horses are highly virulent for rabbits.

    PubMed

    Felipetto Cargnelutti, Juliana; Schmidt, Candice; Masuda, Eduardo Kenji; Braum, Lisiane Danusa; Weiblen, Rudi; Furtado Flores, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    Two genotypically distinct Vaccinia viruses (VACV), named P1V and P2V, were isolated from an outbreak of cutaneous disease in horses in Southern Brazil. We herein investigated the susceptibility of rabbits, a proposed animal model, to P1V and P2V infection. Groups of weanling rabbits were inoculated intranasally (IN) with P1V or P2V at low (10(2.5) TCID50), medium (10(4.5)TCID50), or high titer (10(6.5)TCID50). Rabbits inoculated with medium and high titers shed virus in nasal secretions and developed serous to hemorrhagic nasal discharge and severe respiratory distress, followed by progressive apathy and high lethality. Clinical signs appeared around days 3-6 post-inoculation (pi) and lasted up to the day of death or euthanasia (around days 5-10). Virus shedding and clinical signs were less frequent in rabbits inoculated with low virus titers. Viremia was detected in all groups, with different frequencies. Viral DNA was detected in the feces of a few animals inoculated with P1V and P2V, low titer, and with P2V at high titer. Gross necropsy findings and histological examination showed diffuse interstitial fibrousing pneumonia with necrosuppurative bronchopneumonia and intestinal liquid content. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in all inoculated animals surviving beyond day 9 pi. These results show that rabbits are highly susceptible to VACV isolated from horses, and develop severe respiratory and systemic disease upon IN inoculation. Thus, rabbits may be used to study selected aspects of VACV infection and disease. PMID:22226666

  20. Prevalence, survival analysis and multimorbidity of chronic diseases in the general veterinarian-attended horse population of the UK.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Claire E; Duz, Marco; Parkin, Timothy D H; Marshall, John F

    2016-09-01

    The average age of the global human population is increasing, leading to increased interest in the effects of chronic disease and multimorbidity on health resources and patient welfare. It has been posited that the average age of the general veterinarian-attended horse population of the UK is also increasing, and therefore it could be assumed that chronic diseases and multimorbidity would pose an increasing risk here also. However, evidence for this trend in ageing is very limited, and the current prevalence of many chronic diseases, and of multimorbidity, is unknown. Using text mining of first-opinion electronic medical records from seven veterinary practices around the UK, Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard modelling, we were able to estimate the apparent prevalence among veterinarian-attended horses of nine chronic diseases, and to assess their relative effects on median life expectancy following diagnosis. With these methods we found evidence of increasing population age. Multimorbidity affected 1.2% of the study population, and had a significant effect upon survival times, with co-occurrence of two diseases, and three or more diseases, leading to 6.6 and 21.3 times the hazard ratio compared to no chronic disease, respectively. Laminitis was involved in 74% of cases of multimorbidity. The population of horses attended by UK veterinarians appears to be aging, and chronic diseases and their co-occurrence are common features, and as such warrant further investigation. PMID:27544263

  1. Water hardness in relation to cadium accumulation and microscopic signs of cardiovascular disease in horses.

    PubMed

    Elinder, C G; Jonsson, L; Sternström, T; Piscator, M; Linnman, L

    1980-01-01

    The hardness of drinking water (i.e., the sum of calcium and magnesium concentrations) has been related to cadmium concentration in kidney cortex and to microscopic signs of arteriosclerosis and focal myocardial fibrosis in 50 Swedish horses slaughtered for meat production. A significant negative correlation was found between water hardness and cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex. This indicates that horses living in soft water areas are more inclined to accumulate cadmium from the general environment. Microscopic changes in the aorta and myocardium were approximately 2 times as frequent in horses that drank soft water compared to horses that drank hard water. The differences were, however, not statistically significant. It is concluded that horses are well suited for studies of the "water factor". PMID:7369796

  2. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against horse immunoglobulins useful for the diagnosis of equine diseases.

    PubMed

    Di Febo, Tiziana; Luciani, Mirella; Ciarelli, Antonella; Bortone, Grazia; Di Pancrazio, Chiara; Rodomonti, Diamante; Teodori, Liana; Tittarelli, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against horse IgG were produced by immunizing Balb/c mice with purified horse IgG and were characterized in indirect ELISA versus purified immunoglobulins from donkey, cow, buffalo, sheep, pig, and chicken. Three MAbs (1B10B6C9, 1B10B6C10, 1B10B6E9) reacted only with horse and donkey IgG and IgM and, in western blotting, were specific for the Fc fragment of equine IgG. MAb 1B10B6E9 was used in chemiluminescent immunoblotting assay for the diagnosis of dourine and in indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the diagnosis of African horse sickness and dourine. PMID:24905982

  3. Etiologic and immunologic characteristics of thoroughbred horses with bacterial infectious upper respiratory disease at the Seoul Race Park.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seung-Ho; Koo, Hye Cheong; Park, Young Kyung; Kim, Jun Man; Jung, Woo Kyung; Davis, William C; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2009-09-01

    Equine respiratory disease is a common cause of poor performance and training interruptions. The higher incidence rate of infectious upper respiratory disease (IURD) in thoroughbred racehorses at the Seoul Race Park coincided with the frequent stabling season, shorter stabling periods, and younger ages in this study. Incidence rates were also correlated with significantly lower proportions of cells expressing MHC class II-, CD2 antigen-, CD4+- or CD8+-T lymphocyte-, and B lymphocyte in IURD patients compared with healthy control groups in the summer and fall and in 2-and-3-year-old groups. The data suggested that movement and new environments may have resulted in immunosuppression and inappropriate responses to respiratory pathogens in IURD patients. The IURD incidence decreased with age, perhaps by the acquisition of immunity, and study results suggested that immunologic protection was associated with IURD, particularly in young thoroughbred racehorses. Streptococci isolates were identified in 11 of 72 IURD horses, and 3 of these isolates were identified as Streptococcus. equi subsp. equi. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from 2 of 23 IURD horses in the spring (8.7%), 5 of 23 in the summer (21.7%), and 1 of 6 in winter (16.7%). S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus (5%) was also identified in 3 of 61 isolates from clinically normal horses. Racetracks should implement anti-IURD protective measures by assessing the capacity of equine immunologic protection at the Park and by limiting the introduction of specific respiratory pathogens (such as S. equi subsp. equi) by preventing the access of infected horses with a respiratory pathogen-free certification system prior to Park entry. PMID:19809264

  4. First isolation of Bunyamwera virus (Bunyaviridae family) from horses with neurological disease and an abortion in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Laura B; Rivarola, Maria E; Lucca, Eduardo; Mariño, Betina; Mazzini, Rubén; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Barrandeguy, María Edith; Teixeira Nunes, Marcio Roberto; Contigiani, Marta S

    2015-10-01

    Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is the prototype virus for both the Orthobunyavirus genus and the Bunyaviridae family. Different strains of BUNV have been associated with clinical diseases in domestic animals, mainly ruminants. During 2013, in Argentina's Santa Fe Province, three new isolates of BUNV were recovered from the brain and spleen of two horses with encephalitis, and from the brain of an aborted equine fetus. This isolation of BUNV from domestic animals provided the first association of BUNV infection with disease of the central nervous system and abortion in equines in Argentina. PMID:26183295

  5. Immune Dysfunction in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Dianne

    2016-08-01

    The aging process in people is associated with changes in adaptive and innate immune responses. Similar changes occur in aged horses. Age-related progressive impairment in the ability to respond to pathogen challenge and an increased inflammatory reactivity may predispose geriatric horses to many diseases of old age. Specific recommendations for immune modification of older horses, including an age-appropriate vaccination schedule, are not currently available. In addition, the effect of old age on risk of infectious disease is poorly documented. More work is needed to better understand the interactions of age on immunity, vaccine response, and disease risk in horses. PMID:27329495

  6. Horse Chestnut

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References Horse chestnut. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on September 8, 2009. Horse chestnut. Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on September ...

  7. Antimicrobial Drug Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated from Disease Processes in Cattle, Horses, Dogs and Cats

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, J. F.; Gannon, V. P.; Kittler, G.; Hlywka, G.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented of antimicrobial disc diffusion susceptibility testing on commonly isolated bacterial pathogens made at the Ontario Veterinary College Diagnostic Bacteriology Laboratory in 1981 and 1982. Nearly 2 000 isolates from horses, cattle, dogs and cats were tested. Comparison of resistance in the same bacterial species isolated from different animal species showed significant differences between some of the same antibiotics. PMID:17422428

  8. Vaccinia viruses isolated from skin infection in horses produced cutaneous and systemic disease in experimentally infected rabbits.

    PubMed

    Cargnelutti, Juliana Felipetto; Schmidt, Candice; Masuda, Eduardo Kenji; Nogueira, Paula Rochelle Kurrle; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo Furtado

    2012-10-01

    The susceptibility of rabbits to two isolates of Vaccinia virus (VACV) recovered from cutaneous disease in horses in Southern Brazil was investigated. Rabbits were inoculated in the ear skin with both VACV isolates, either in single or mixed infection. All inoculated animals presented local skin lesions characterized by hyperaemia, papules, vesicles, pustules and ulcers. Infectious virus was detected in the lungs and intestine of rabbits that died during acute disease. Histological examination of the skin revealed changes characteristic of those associated with members of the genus Orthopoxvirus. These results demonstrate that rabbits develop skin disease accompanied by systemic signs upon intradermal inoculation of these two equine VACV isolates, either alone or in combination, opening the way for using rabbits to study selected aspects of the biology and pathogenesis of VACV infection. PMID:22244689

  9. Isolation of Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus from a Horse with Neurological Disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Roberta; Costa, Erica Azevedo; Marques, Rafael Elias; Oliveira, Taismara Simas; Furtini, Ronaldo; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

    2013-01-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a causative agent of encephalitis in humans in the Western hemisphere. SLEV is a positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Flavivirus genus, which includes West Nile encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Dengue virus and other medically important viruses. Recently, we isolated a SLEV strain from the brain of a horse with neurological signs in the countryside of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The SLEV isolation was confirmed by reverse-transcription RT-PCR and sequencing of the E protein gene. Virus identity was also confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using commercial antibodies against SLEV. To characterize this newly isolated strain in vivo, serial passages in newborn mice were performed and led to hemorrhagic manifestations associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system of newborns. In summary this is the first isolation of SLEV from a horse with neurological signs in Brazil. PMID:24278489

  10. Use of antimicrobials in the treatment of reproductive diseases in cattle and horses.

    PubMed

    Pyörälä, S; Taponen, J; Katila, T

    2014-09-01

    Use of antimicrobials for veterinary indications related to reproduction in cattle and horses is reviewed. Antimicrobial compounds are widely used to treat and prevent infections of reproductive organs. Total amounts of antimicrobials for such purposes, estimated by weight, are low compared with major uses in food animals. The most common reproduction-related indication in cattle is mastitis. The number of intramammary products available for treatment of mastitis in the European Union is high. Metritis and endometritis also require antimicrobial treatment of cattle and specific products for intrauterine administration are available. The traditions and practices associated with the use of these products vary considerably among different countries. Parenteral antimicrobial treatment is used to treat acute clinical mastitis and puerperal metritis. Pharmacological characteristics of the antimicrobial administered parenterally are critical to achieve and maintain therapeutic concentrations in the target organs. In mares, the most common indications associated with reproduction are endometritis, retained placenta and placentitis. The number of authorized antimicrobial products for horses is limited. Horses are treated individually and off-label use of antimicrobials is very common. In veterinary indications related to reproduction, treatment practices exist that cannot be considered to be evidence-based or responsible use of antimicrobials. Not all products for local treatment have proven efficacy data. Examples of unnecessary uses are routine treatment of cows with retained placenta and use of post-breeding antibiotic treatments in mares. PMID:25220745

  11. Horse madness (hippomania) and hippophobia.

    PubMed

    Papakostas, Yiannis G; Daras, Michael D; Liappas, Ioannis A; Markianos, Manolis

    2005-12-01

    Anthropophagic horses have been described in classical mythology. From a current perspective, two such instances are worth mentioning and describing: Glaucus of Potniae, King of Efyra, and Diomedes, King of Thrace, who were both devoured by their horses. In both cases, the horses' extreme aggression and their subsequent anthropophagic behaviour were attributed to their madness (hippomania) induced by the custom of feeding them with flesh. The current problem of 'mad cow' disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is apparently related to a similar feed pattern. Aggressive behaviour in horses can be triggered by both biological and psychological factors. In the cases cited here, it is rather unlikely that the former were the cause. On the other hand, the multiple abuses imposed on the horses, coupled with people's fantasies and largely unconscious fears (hippophobia), may possibly explain these mythological descriptions of 'horse-monsters'. PMID:16482685

  12. Reproductive Disorders in Horses.

    PubMed

    Snider, Timothy A

    2015-08-01

    Reproductive disease is relatively common in the horse, resulting in a variable, yet significant, economic impact on individual horsemen as well as the entire industry. Diverse expertise from the veterinary community ensures and improves individual and population health of the horse. From a pathology and diagnostics perspective, this review provides a comprehensive overview of pathology of the male and female equine reproductive tract. Recognition by clinical and gross features is emphasized, although some essential histologic parameters are included, as appropriate. Where relevant, discussion of ancillary diagnostic tests and approaches are included for some diseases and lesions. PMID:26210954

  13. Seasonal Changes in Circadian Peripheral Plasma Concentrations of Melatonin, Serotonin, Dopamine and Cortisol in Aged Horses with Cushing’s Disease under Natural Photoperiod

    PubMed Central

    Haritou, S J A; Zylstra, R; Ralli, C; Turner, S; Tortonese, D J

    2008-01-01

    Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is a common and serious condition that gives rise to Cushing’s disease. In the older horse, it results in hyperadrenocorticism and disrupted energy metabolism, the severity of which varies with the time of year. To gain insight into the mechanism of its pathogenesis, 24-h profiles for peripheral plasma melatonin, serotonin, dopamine and cortisol concentrations were determined at the winter and summer solstices, and the autumn and spring equinoxes in six horses diagnosed with Cushing’s disease and six matched controls. The nocturnal rises in plasma melatonin concentrations, although different across seasons, were broadly of the same duration and similar amplitude in both groups of animals (P > 0.05). The plasma concentrations of cortisol did not show seasonal variation and were different in diseased horses only in the summer when they were higher across the entire 24-h period (P < 0.05). Serotonin concentrations were not significantly affected by time of year but tended to be lower in Cushingoid horses (P = 0.07). By contrast, dopamine output showed seasonal variation and was significantly lower in the Cushing’s group in the summer and autumn (P < 0.05). The finding that the profiles of circulating melatonin are similar in Cushingoid and control horses reveals that the inability to read time of year by animals suffering from Cushing’s syndrome is an unlikely reason for the disease. In addition, the results provide evidence that alterations in the dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems may participate in the pathogenesis of PPID. PMID:18540997

  14. Hyperelastosis in the Horse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine hyperelastosis cutis, also known as dermatosporaxis and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (HERDA), is an autosomal recessive inheritable disease and has been reported in Thoroughbreds, Morgans, Haflingers , Hanoverians, a Swiss Warmblood, a mule and several Arabian cross horses in the United Kingdom, U...

  15. Fossil Horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFadden, Bruce J.

    1994-06-01

    The family Equidae have an extensive fossil record spanning the past 58 million years, and the evolution of the horse has frequently been used as a classic example of long-term evolution. In recent years, however, there have been many important discoveries of fossil horses, and these, in conjunction with such new methods as cladistics, and techniques such as precise geochronology, have allowed us to achieve a much greater understanding of the evolution and biology of this important group. This book synthesizes the large body of data and research relevant to an understanding of fossil horses from several disciplines including biology, geology and paleontology. Using horses as the central theme, the author weaves together in the text such topics as modern geochronology, paleobiogeography, climate change, evolution and extinction, functional morphology, and population biology during the Cenozoic period. This book will be exciting reading for researchers and graduate students in vertebrate paleontology, evolution, and zoology.

  16. Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis in the Franches-Montagnes Horse Is Associated with the Polycystic Kidney and Hepatic Disease 1 (PKHD1) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Drögemüller, Michaela; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Welle, Monika M.; Graubner, Claudia; Straub, Reto; Gerber, Vinzenz; Burger, Dominik; Signer-Hasler, Heidi; Poncet, Pierre-André; Klopfenstein, Stéphane; von Niederhäusern, Ruedi; Tetens, Jens; Thaller, Georg; Rieder, Stefan; Drögemüller, Cord; Leeb, Tosso

    2014-01-01

    Congenital hepatic fibrosis has been described as a lethal disease with monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance in the Swiss Franches-Montagnes horse breed. We performed a genome-wide association study with 5 cases and 12 controls and detected an association on chromosome 20. Subsequent homozygosity mapping defined a critical interval of 952 kb harboring 10 annotated genes and loci including the polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal recessive) gene (PKHD1). PKHD1 represents an excellent functional candidate as variants in this gene were identified in human patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney and hepatic disease (ARPKD) as well as several mouse and rat mutants. Whereas most pathogenic PKHD1 variants lead to polycystic defects in kidney and liver, a small subset of the human ARPKD patients have only liver symptoms, similar to our horses with congenital hepatic fibrosis. The PKHD1 gene is one of the largest genes in the genome with multiple alternative transcripts that have not yet been fully characterized. We sequenced the genomes of an affected foal and 46 control horses to establish a comprehensive list of variants in the critical interval. We identified two missense variants in the PKHD1 gene which were strongly, but not perfectly associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis. We speculate that reduced penetrance and/or potential epistatic interactions with hypothetical modifier genes may explain the imperfect association of the detected PKHD1 variants. Our data thus indicate that horses with congenital hepatic fibrosis represent an interesting large animal model for the liver-restricted subtype of human ARPKD. PMID:25295861

  17. Climate change and mosquito-borne disease: knowing the horse before hitching the cart.

    PubMed

    Reiter, P

    2008-08-01

    Speculations on the potential impacts of climate change on human health often focus on the mosquito-borne diseases but ignore the complex interplay of the multitude of factors that are generally dominant in the dynamics of their transmission. A holistic view of this complexity - particularly the ecology and behaviour of the host and the ecology and behaviour of the vector - is the only valid starting point for assessing the significance of climate in the prevalence and incidence of these diseases. PMID:18819667

  18. Description of the outbreak of equine influenza (H3N8) in the United Kingdom in 2003, during which recently vaccinated horses in Newmarket developed respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Newton, J R; Daly, J M; Spencer, L; Mumford, J A

    2006-02-11

    Between March and May 2003, equine influenza virus infection was confirmed as the cause of clinical respiratory disease among both vaccinated and unvaccinated horses of different breeds and types in at least 12 locations in the UK. In the largest outbreak, 21 thoroughbred training yards in Newmarket, with more than 1300 racehorses, were affected, with the horses showing signs of coughing and nasal discharge during a period of nine weeks. Many of the infected horses had been vaccinated during the previous three months with a vaccine that contained representatives from both the European (A/eq/Newmarket/2/93) and American (A/eq/Newmarket/1/93) H3NN8 influenza virus lineages. Antigenic and genetic characterisation of the viruses from Newmarket and elsewhere indicated that they were all closely related to representatives of a sublineage of American viruses, for example, Kentucky/5/02, the first time that this sublineage had been isolated in the uk. In the recently vaccinated racehorses in Newmarket the single radial haemolysis antibody levels in acute sera appeared to be adequate, and there did not appear to be significant antigenic differences between the infecting virus and A/eq/Newmarket/1/93, the representative of the American lineage virus present in the most widely used vaccine, to explain the vaccine failure. However, there was evidence for significantly fewer infections among two-year-old horses than older animals, despite their having similar high levels of antibody, consistent with a qualitative rather than a quantitative difference in the immunity conveyed by the vaccination. PMID:16474051

  19. Nicoletella semolina gen. nov., sp. nov., a New Member of Pasteurellaceae Isolated from Horses with Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnert, Peter; Korczak, Bożena; Falsen, Enevold; Straub, Reto; Hoops, Anneliese; Boerlin, Patrick; Frey, Joachim; Mutters, Reinier

    2004-01-01

    Gram-negative, nonmotile bacteria that are catalase, oxidase, and urease positive are regularly isolated from the airways of horses with clinical signs of respiratory disease. On the basis of the findings by a polyphasic approach, we propose that these strains be classified as Nicoletella semolina gen. nov, sp. nov., a new member of the family Pasteurellaceae. N. semolina reduces nitrate to nitrite but is otherwise biochemically inert; this includes the lack of an ability to ferment glucose and other sugars. Growth is fastidious, and the isolates have a distinctive colony morphology, with the colonies being dry and waxy and looking like a semolina particle that can be moved around on an agar plate without losing their shape. DNA-DNA hybridization data and multilocus phylogenetic analysis, including 16S rRNA gene (rDNA), rpoB, and infB sequencing, clearly placed N. semolina as a new genus in the family Pasteurellaceae. In all the phylogenetic trees constructed, N. semolina is on a distinct branch displaying ∼5% 16S rDNA, ∼16% rpoB, and ∼20% infB sequence divergence from its nearest relative within the family Pasteurellaceae. High degrees of conservation of the 16S rDNA (99.8%), rpoB (99.6%), and infB (99.7%) sequences exist within the species, indicating that N. semolina isolates not only are phenotypically homogeneous but also are genetically homogeneous. The type strain of N. semolina is CCUG43639T (DSM16380T). PMID:15583279

  20. Comparison between diagnostic ultrasonography and radiography in the evaluation of horses and cattle with thoracic disease: 56 cases (1984-1985).

    PubMed

    Reef, V B; Boy, M G; Reid, C F; Elser, A

    1991-06-15

    The results of radiography and ultrasonography were compared on 56 horses and cows with lower respiratory tract disease. Ultrasonography was more sensitive than radiography for the detection of small pleural effusions and consolidations in large animals. The side of the thorax affected and the character of the pleural fluid and lung in large animals with pleural effusion can be evaluated ultrasonographically. The periphery of the lung must be affected to characterize pulmonary lesions ultrasonographically. Radiography is the best technique to characterize lesions deep within the lung when the periphery of the lung is normal. PMID:1885315

  1. The Hypersensitivity of Horses to Culicoides Bites in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gail S.; Belton, Peter; Kleider, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Culicoides hypersensitivity is a chronic, recurrent, seasonal dermatitis of horses that has a worldwide distribution, but has only recently been reported in Canada. It is characterized by intense pruritus resulting in lesions associated with self-induced trauma. A survey of veterinarians and horse-owners in British Columbia showed no differences in susceptibility due to the sex, color, breed, or height of the horses. The prevalence of the disease in the 209 horses surveyed was 26%. Horses sharing the same pasture could be unaffected. The disease was reported primarily from southwestern British Columbia; it occurred between April and October and usually affected the ventral midline, mane, and tail. Horses were generally less than nine years old when the clinical signs first appeared ([unk]=5.9 yr). Culicoides hypersensitivity was common in the lineage of several affected horses, possibly indicating a genetic susceptibility. Most cases were severe enough to require veterinary attention and some horses were euthanized. PMID:17423117

  2. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  3. Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Torrecuadrada, J L; Langeveld, J P; Venteo, A; Sanz, A; Dalsgaard, K; Hamilton, W D; Meloen, R H; Casal, J I

    1999-05-10

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological function of VP5, the other component of the capsid, is unknown. In this report, AHSV VP5, expressed in insect cells alone or together with VP2, was able to induce AHSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, two VP5-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were able to neutralize the virus in a plaque reduction assay were generated. To dissect the antigenic structure of AHSV VP5, the protein was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system. The immunoreactivity of both MAbs, and horse and rabbit polyclonal antisera, with 17 overlapping fragments from VP5 was analyzed. The most immunodominant region was found in the N-terminal 330 residues of VP5, defining two antigenic regions, I (residues 151-200) and II (residues 83-120). The epitopes were further defined by PEPSCAN analysis with 12mer peptides, which determined eight antigenic sites in the N-terminal half of the molecule. Neutralizing epitopes were defined at positions 85-92 (PDPLSPGE) for MAb 10AE12 and at 179-185 (EEDLRTR) for MAb 10AC6. Epitope 10AE12 is highly conserved between the different orbiviruses. MAb 10AE12 was able to recognize bluetongue virus VP5 and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus VP5 by several techniques. These data will be especially useful for vaccine development and diagnostic purposes. PMID:10329555

  4. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed. PMID:22529137

  5. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  6. Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in Icelandic horses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA) syndrome is a hereditary congenital eye defect that was first described in Silver colored Rocky Mountain horses. The mutation causing this disease is located within a defined chromosomal interval, which also contains the gene and mutation that is associated with the Silver coat color (PMEL17, exon 11). Horses that are homozygous for the disease-causing allele have multiple defects (MCOA-phenotype), whilst the heterozygous horses predominantly have cysts of the iris, ciliary body or retina (Cyst-phenotype). It has been argued that these ocular defects are caused by a recent mutation that is restricted to horses that are related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. For that reason we have examined another horse breed, the Icelandic horse, which is historically quite divergent from Rocky Mountain horses. Results We examined 24 Icelandic horses and established that the MCOA syndrome is present in this breed. Four of these horses were categorised as having the MCOA-phenotype and were genotyped as being homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation. The most common clinical signs included megaloglobus, iris stromal hypoplasia, abnormal pectinate ligaments, iridociliary cysts occasionally extending into the peripheral retina and cataracts. The cysts and pectinate ligament abnormalities were observed in the temporal quadrant of the eyes. Fourteen horses were heterozygous for the PMEL17 mutation and were characterized as having the Cyst-phenotype with cysts and occasionally curvilinear streaks in the peripheral retina. Three additional horses were genotyped as PMEL17 heterozygotes, but in these horses we were unable to detect cysts or other forms of anomalies. One eye of a severely vision-impaired 18 month-old stallion, homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation was examined by light microscopy. Redundant duplication of non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium, sometimes forming cysts bulging into the posterior chamber and localized areas of

  7. Ophthalmologic Disorders in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    Malalana, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Ocular abnormalities are a common finding in aged horses. Although these seldom cause overt visual deficits detected by their owners, they can be a source of chronic or acute discomfort so early detection, and treatment when available, is essential. Some of these abnormalities are specific to old horses, whereas others are a result of ongoing disease or inflammation that started earlier in life but that becomes more evident when the damage sustained to the eye is advanced. If vision is significantly affected, consideration of human safety and animal welfare is paramount. PMID:27329494

  8. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  9. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-03-14

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases. PMID:25619169

  10. Is there an association between clinical features, response to diagnostic analgesia and radiological findings in horses with a magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of navicular disease or other injuries of the podotrochlear apparatus?

    PubMed

    Parkes, Rebecca; Newton, Richard; Dyson, Sue

    2015-04-01

    Previous descriptions of the clinical features of navicular disease occurred before the widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed a more definitive diagnosis of foot pain. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical features of horses with lesions of the podotrochlear apparatus with those with other causes of foot pain. It was hypothesised that primary navicular bone disease would be associated with more advanced radiological findings than other diagnoses. A retrospective study was performed of all horses examined at a referral centre with a definitive diagnosis of foot pain based on MRI ± post-mortem examination. Clinical examination findings, response to diagnostic analgesia and radiological grading of the navicular bone were compared among five diagnosis groups: (1) primary navicular bone pathology (NB); (2) lesions of the collateral sesamoidean ligament and/or distal sesamoidean impar ligament (CSL + DSIL); (3) primary deep digital flexor tendon injury (DDFT); (4) navicular bone pathology and other lesions of the podotrochlear apparatus ± DDFT (PTA) and (5) Other. There were 702 horses (NB, 62; CSL + DSIL, 180; DDFT, 69; PTA, 92; Other, 299). Horses with PTA injuries were more frequently unilaterally lame than other groups (P = 0.04). Horses with DDFT injury were more likely to exhibit pain on turning than other groups (P <0.01). There were no associations between response to diagnostic analgesia and diagnostic group, and no association between radiological grade and diagnostic group. Clinical examination findings generally did not discriminate between diseases of the PTA and other causes of foot pain. Overall radiological scores of the navicular bone did not accurately predict navicular bone pathology. PMID:25724857

  11. Integumentary Disorders Including Cutaneous Neoplasia in Older Horses.

    PubMed

    Knottenbelt, Derek C

    2016-08-01

    Few skin diseases specifically or exclusively affect older horses and donkeys. Hypertrichosis (hirsutism) associated with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction is probably the most recognized and best understood exception and is the most common age-related skin condition in equids. Many other conditions are known to be more serious in older horses. Horses affected with immune-compromising conditions can be more severely affected by infectious diseases of the skin or heavy and pathologically significant parasitism. Neoplasia of the skin is probably more prevalent and worse in older horses, although many of the more serious skin tumors develop initially at a younger age. PMID:27329491

  12. A web-based survey of horse owners' perceptions and network analysis of horse movements relating to African horse sickness distribution in Namibia and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, Danica; Piketh, Stuart; van Hamburg, Huib

    2016-06-01

    Africa horse sickness (AHS) is the most lethal infectious non-contagious horse disease and has accordingly been declared notifiable by the World Organisation for Animal Health. AHS is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and causes considerable losses to the equestrian industry. The effect of diseases in livestock on socio-economic factors is well researched, but the effect of anthropogenic factors on the distribution of a disease is poorly understood. The purpose of the study was to assess Namibian and South African horse owners' perceptions and the effect of horse movement on AHS distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect information from horse owners in Namibia and South Africa. To that end 'Fluid survey' was used for survey development. The survey was launched on Facebook and the link shared to horse related focus groups in Namibia and South Africa. A total of 508 responses were collected during the survey period. Of the 417 completed questionnaires received, 22% were from Namibia and 78% from South Africa. The participants comprised of 71% social and 29% professional riders. The most popular precautionary measures used, in addition to vaccination, were chemical repellents (64%) and stabling of horses during dusk and dawn (59%). A network analysis was performed in Gephi 0.8.2.B to illustrate the movement of horses between countries and districts/provinces. Network analysis results indicate that areas with the highest movement of horses corresponded to the areas with a high occurrence of AHS. Although 93% of the participants were aware that AHS is a notifiable and controlled disease, the process and efficiency of reporting is mostly unknown. With this snapshot of horse owners' perceptions and the effect of horse movement on the distribution of AHS, it is clear that a more holistic approach is needed. To that end, all environmental and social factors must be taken into account in effective management strategies. PMID:26970371

  13. Anaphylaxis as a Manifestation of Horse Allergy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Allergic disease induced by animal exposure is a common phenomenon worldwide. Whereas cat and dog dander exposure are well recognized as causative of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, and contact urticaria, horse allergy can present with anaphylaxis. Horse allergy is induced by exposure to the major horse allergens Equ 1 through 5. The severity of the symptoms may be related to the level of exposure. Greatest risk of anaphylaxis occurs in those sensitized patients who have large amounts of animal allergen exposure, such as when in a barn, or when an animal bite occurs exposing sensitized persons to large quantities of the animal allergen that resides in the saliva. Horse allergy may be successfully treated with allergen specific immunotherapy. PMID:23283110

  14. Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a stable of eight horses in Northern Iceland, six horses presented with clinical signs, such as ataxia and reduced appetite, leading to euthanasia of one severely affected horse. Serological investigations revealed no evidence of active equine herpes virus type 1 infection, a common source of central nervous system disease in horses, nor equine arteritis virus and West Nile virus. Another neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus, was therefore included in the differential diagnosis list. Findings Serological investigations revealed antibodies against Borna disease virus in four of five horses with neurological signs in the affected stable. One horse without clinical signs was seronegative. Four clinically healthy horses in the stable that arrived and were sampled one year after the outbreak were found seronegative, whereas one of four investigated healthy horses in an unaffected stable was seropositive. Conclusions This report contains the first evidence of antibodies to Borna disease virus in Iceland. Whether Borna disease virus was the cause of the neurological signs could however not be confirmed by pathology or molecular detection of the virus. As Iceland has very restricted legislation regarding animal imports, the questions of how this virus has entered the country and to what extent markers of Bornavirus infection can be found in humans and animals in Iceland remain to be answered. PMID:24180621

  15. Welfare, Quality of Life, and Euthanasia of Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Catherine M; Ireland, Joanne L

    2016-08-01

    Duration of ownership strengthens the human-horse bond, affecting decision-making about the horse's welfare, quality of life (QoL), and euthanasia. Most owners consider their geriatric horses to have good or excellent QoL; however, increasing age is negatively associated with QoL. Management factors are important. The most common reasons for euthanasia include musculoskeletal disorders or lameness, colic, and nonspecific chronic diseases. The decision to euthanize is difficult, so the advice of the veterinarian and QoL are important. This article focuses on the human-horse bond, assessment of QoL, reasons for euthanasia, and owner experiences of mortality. PMID:27449393

  16. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  17. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  18. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  19. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  20. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  1. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  2. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  3. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  4. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  5. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  6. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN 13 HORSES WITH LYMPHOMA.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Valentin; Evrard, Laurence; Cerri, Simona; Gougnard, Alexandra; Busoni, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography and radiography are commonly used for staging of lymphoma in horses, however there is little published information on imaging characteristics for horses with confirmed disease. The purpose of this retrospective, case series study was to describe ultrasonographic and radiographic findings for a group of horses with a confirmed diagnosis of lymphoma. A total of 13 horses were sampled. Lymphadenopathy (8/13), peritoneal effusion (6/13), splenic (6/13), and hepatic (5/13) lesions were the most frequently identified. The predominant splenic and hepatic ultrasonographic lesions were hypoechoic nodules, organomegaly, and changes in echogenicity. Digestive tract lesions were detected in three horses and these included focal thickening and decreased echogenicity of the small (2/13) and large intestinal (2/13) wall. Thoracic lesions were predominantly pleural effusion (4/13), lymphadenopathy (4/13), and lung parenchymal changes (3/13). Enlarged lymph nodes were detected radiographically (4/13) and/or ultrasonographically (2/13) in the thorax and ultrasonographically in the abdomen (7/13) and in the caudal cervical region (4/13). Findings supported the use of abdominal and thoracic ultrasonography for lymphoma staging in horses. Ultrasound landmarks for localizing cecal and caudal deep cervical lymph nodes were also provided. PMID:26456541

  7. Causes of disease and death from birth to 12 months of age in the Thoroughbred horse in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the causes of disease and death in a population of foals in Ireland during their first 12 months post partum. Foaling and veterinary records from 343 foals on four farms born between January 1, 2004 and May 30, 2008 were reviewed. Among 343 foals, 22 did not survive to 12 months of age. Over the five-year period, the incidence of stillbirth was 1.5% (5/343), mortality 5% (17/338) and overall morbidity was 88.5% (299/338). Morbidity was calculated to include all new conditions brought to the attention of the attending veterinary surgeon, no matter how minor. Of foals born alive: congenital abnormalities were the most common cause of death (35.3% 6/17 foals) followed by musculoskeletal trauma (5/17, 29.4%). Of 711 separate incidents of disease, 46.5% (331/711) were due to an infectious process, 25% (178/711) due to non-infectious musculoskeletal issues; and 14.9% (106/711) related to non-infectious gastrointestinal problems. Respiratory infection was the single most common disease accounting for 27.8% (178/711) of all disease incidents in this population. Findings from this study provide information regarding the causes and incidence of death and disease in the young Irish Thoroughbred population. PMID:21851741

  8. Horse Nutrition and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...

  9. Detection of antibodies to Mycoplasma felis in horses.

    PubMed

    Rosendal, S; Blackwell, T E; Lumsden, J H; Physick-Sheard, P W; Viel, L; Watson, S; Woods, P

    1986-02-01

    Mycoplasma felis has been isolated from horses with pleuritis, and limited research indicates that mycoplasma pleuritis can be reproduced in horses. The serodiagnostic potential of the indirect hemagglutination and the metabolism-inhibition tests was evaluated by testing 177 horses for antibodies to M felis. Seven horses with M felis pleuritis developed antibodies, and 6 horses with sterile or bacterial pleuritis had high titers suggesting a previous M felis infection. Six horses with pleuritis (one sterile and five bacterial) had low or no titers to M felis. Only one of 30 horses with conditions other than respiratory diseases seroconverted during hospitalization and the remaining horses had low titers. Seventy-eight foals, 4 to 6 months old, from one farm did not have titers, whereas 7 out of 50 yearlings from the same farm had high titers in the indirect hemagglutination test and titers in the metabolism-inhibition test. It appears that both tests are suitable for serodiagnosis of M felis infection in horses. PMID:3949603

  10. Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-11-01

    In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

  11. Histological Examination of Horse Chestnut Infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and Non-Destructive Heat Treatment to Stop Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A. M.; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39°C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens. PMID:22808044

  12. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    PubMed

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A M

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens. PMID:22808044

  13. Nutritional Management of the Older Horse.

    PubMed

    Argo, Caroline McG

    2016-08-01

    Leisure animals now comprise the majority of working horses in industrialized nations; a shift that has decreased workloads yet improved veterinary care and lifetime health. Although many horses now progress well into their 20s without any requirement for dietary modification, age-related changes are insidious, and older animals benefit from regular veterinary monitoring to identify, address, and ameliorate the inevitable onset of age-related "disease." Basal metabolic rate decreases with age; older animals expend less energy on controlled exercise, and there can be an increased propensity toward the development of obesity, which needs to be recognized and managed. PMID:27329493

  14. Research needs on internal parasites of horses.

    PubMed

    1984-08-01

    The importance of the horse industry to the economy of the United States and the impact of parasitic infections on the industry are well documented. However, contemporary research activity on internal parasites of horses has not kept pace with growth of the horse population. Parasitic infections are a major facet of enteritis and colic in horses. Parasites are also associated with poor growth and development, respiratory tract disease, dermatitis, and CNS lesions. Babesia infections remain a threat to horses imported from some regions of the world. Most research activity has dealt with the development of new antiparasitic drugs. Efforts must be made to integrate these studies with observations on the bionomics of parasites in different regions and under different management conditions into more effective and less costly integrated parasite control programs. Increased research activity concerning the pathogenesis and immune response to equine parasitic infections is also necessary. A better understanding of these factors will lead to improved diagnostic, treatment, and preventative measures. Specific research objectives designed to produce short-term and long-term benefits are suggested. PMID:6383147

  15. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  16. Systemic blastomycosis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Julia H; Olson, Erik J; Haugen, Edward W; Hunt, Luanne M; Johnson, Jennifer L; Hayden, David W

    2006-11-01

    Progressive multisystemic disease caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis was diagnosed in a 17-year-old Quarter horse broodmare. The mare had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics for mastitis 3 months postpartum. The disease progressed to exudative cutaneous lesions affecting the ventrum, pectoral region, and limbs accompanied by weight loss across several months. Yeast bodies were observed in swabs of the cutaneous exudate, suggesting a clinical diagnosis of blastomycosis. Following referral, pleural effusion, cavitated lung lesions, and hyperproteinemia were identified, and the mare was euthanized because of poor prognosis. Necropsy revealed extensive pyogranulomas in the mammary gland, skin, subcutaneous tissues, and lungs, accompanied by thrombi in major blood vessels of the lungs and hind limbs. Histologically, pyogranulomatous inflammation was evident in many tissues, and fungal organisms were seen in sections of mammary gland, skin, subcutis, pericardium, and lung. Blastomyces dermatitidis was cultured from mammary tissue, lungs, lymph node, and an inguinal abscess. Although blastomycosis is endemic in the area of origin of the mare in northwestern Wisconsin, the disease is extremely rare in horses and hence easily misdiagnosed. Unique features of this case included the extent of mammary gland involvement and the presence of thrombi in multiple sites. PMID:17121096

  17. Serum immunoglobulin, dermal response, and lymphocyte transformation studies in horses with chronic diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Targowski, S P

    1975-07-01

    Serum specimens from 12 sick and 20 normal horses were examined for levels of different classes of immunoglobulin (Ig) by a single radial immunodiffusion. The level of IgA in the sera of sick horses was about 50% lower than in the sera of normal horses. By contrast, the level of serum IgG was higher in sick than in normal horses. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) responsiveness of blood lymphocytes showed transient suppression during the stage of severe diarrhea. The regaining of PHA responsiveness of lymphocytes was observed simultaneously with the recovery process. However, the responsiveness of lymphocytes in recovered horses was still markedly lower than in normal horses. Allergic reactions in sick and normal horses were studied by observing dermal response to the injections of saline extracts from some of the horse feeds. A delayed hypersensitivity reaction to streptokinase-streptodornase and PHA was also studied. The allergic reactions to these extracts were not induced in either sick or normal horses; however, inflammatory response to the extracts was about 50% greater in normal than sick horses. Response to the intradermal injection, either streptokinase-streptodornase or PHA, was significantly greater in normal horses than sick horses. These findings are discussed with respect to the pathogenesis of chronic diarrhea and the complexity of immunodeficiency demonstrated in this disease. The possibility that transient defects of cell-mediated immunity may predispose to chronic diarrhea is proposed. PMID:806535

  18. Esophageal obstruction in horses: a retrospective study of 34 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Feige, K; Schwarzwald, C; Fürst, A; Kaser-Hotz, B

    2000-01-01

    The major purpose of this investigation was to describe the causes, possible complications, and prognoses of horses with esophageal obstruction. Of 34 cases presenting with esophageal obstruction, 28 cases were due to impaction of ingesta. Obstruction due to pre-existing esophageal disease occurred in 4 horses with megaesophagus, in 1 horse with stricture in the upper third of the esophagus, and in 1 horse with esophageal diverticulum. There was no significant difference in the contamination of the trachea between horses that subsequently developed aspiration pneumonia and those that did not. The duration of esophageal obstruction prior to admission was significantly longer in horses that developed aspiration pneumonia (median 18, range 2-48 h) than in those horses that did not (median 4, range 0.5-48 h). Although the obstruction was relieved in all 34 horses, 4 were euthanized because of recurring obstruction due to megaesophagus (n = 2), esophageal diverticulum (n = 1), and esophageal stricture (n = 1). Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:10738598

  19. Using the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) to Assess Pain Associated with Acute Laminitis in Horses (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Stucke, Diana; Dai, Francesca; Minero, Michela; Leach, Matthew C.; Lebelt, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Acute laminitis is a common equine disease characterized by intense foot pain. This work aimed to investigate whether the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS), a facial-expression-based pain coding system, can be usefully applied to assess pain associated with acute laminitis in horses at rest. Ten horses, referred as acute laminitis cases with no prior treatment, were assessed at the admission and at seven days after the initial evaluation and treatment. The authors found that the Horse Grimace Scale is a potentially effective method to assess pain associated with acute laminitis in horses at rest, as horses showing high HGS scores also exhibited higher Obel scores, and veterinarians classified them in a more severe painful state. Abstract Acute laminitis is a common equine disease characterized by intense foot pain, both acutely and chronically. The Obel grading system is the most widely accepted method for describing the severity of laminitis by equine practitioners, however this method requires movement (walk and trot) of the horse, causing further intense pain. The recently developed Horse Grimace Scale (HGS), a facial-expression-based pain coding system, may offer a more effective means of assessing the pain associated with acute laminitis. The aims of this study were: to investigate whether HGS can be usefully applied to assess pain associated with acute laminitis in horses at rest, and to examine if scoring HGS using videos produced similar results as those obtained from still images. Ten horses, referred as acute laminitis cases with no prior treatment, were included in the study. Each horse was assessed using the Obel and HGS (from images and videos) scales: at the admission (before any treatment) and at seven days after the initial evaluation and treatment. The results of this study suggest that HGS is a potentially effective method to assess pain associated with acute laminitis in horses at rest, as horses showing high HGS scores also exhibited

  20. An online survey of horse-owners in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contingency planning for potential equine infectious disease outbreaks relies on accurate information on horse location and movements to estimate the risk of dissemination of disease(s). An online questionnaire was used to obtain unique information linking owner and horse location to characteristics of horse movements within and outwith Great Britain (GB). Results This online survey yielded a strong response, providing more than four times the target number of respondents (1000 target respondents) living in all parts of GB. Key demographic findings of this study indicated that horses which were kept on livery yards and riding schools were likely to be found in urban environments, some distance away from the owner’s home and vaccinated against influenza and herpes virus. Survey respondents were likely to travel greater than 10 miles to attend activities such as eventing or endurance but were also likely to travel and return home within a single day (58.6%, 2063/3522). This may affect the geographical extent and speed of disease spread, if large numbers of people from disparate parts of the country are attending the same event and the disease agent is highly infectious or virulent. The greatest risk for disease introduction and spread may be represented by a small proportion of people who import or travel internationally with their horses. These respondents were likely to have foreign horse passports, which were not necessarily recorded in the National Equine Database (NED), making the location of these horses untraceable. Conclusions These results illustrate the difficulties which exist with national GB horse traceability despite the existence of the NED and the horse passport system. This study also demonstrates that an online approach could be adopted to obtain important demographic data on GB horse owners on a more routine and frequent basis to inform decisions or policy pertaining to equine disease control. This represents a reasonable alternative

  1. Assessing fitness in endurance horses

    PubMed Central

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels. PMID:22942450

  2. Welfare in horse breeding

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. L. H.; Sandøe, P.

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  3. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: The microbiome of the horse hindgut: History and current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Julliand, V; Grimm, P

    2016-06-01

    In the early 1990s, the equine hindgut microbial ecosystem looked like a "black box." Its vital role in hydrolyzing and fermenting fiber, thus providing energy to the host, was recognized. Although there was a critical lack of information on the hindgut microbes, their role in preventing intestinal diseases was suggested. Traditionally, the microbes of the horse hindgut were studied using culture-dependent techniques. More recently, culture-independent methods have been used and provided further insight. This review presents the history and updated knowledge regarding the microbes that live inside the different intestinal ecosystems and which collective genomes compose the hindgut microbiome. In the first section, the quantification and diversity are described for each microbial community as well as the implication of plant fiber degradation and their crucial role for an herbivore host. The microbial communities are presented in chronological order of discovery: due to their large size, protozoa were brought to light as early as 1843 in the horse cecum; in 1897, bacteria were described in the horse intestine; as early as 1910, monoflagellated eukaryotic organisms resembling protozoa were observed in the horse cecum; since then, they have been identified to be zoospores of anaerobic fungi; in 1970, bacteriophage-like particles were recognized in the cecum and colon of pony and horse; and finally, in 1996, archaea were identified in the horse cecum. The second section discusses the variations that can occur between digestive segments or between individuals. The representativeness of the fecal microbiota to the hindgut one is debated, especially as the majority of recent studies conducted on the horse hindgut are in fact focused on the feces, rather than the cecum or colon. Also, the representation of microbiota between individuals is questioned. It has long been suggested in the literature that some ponies or horses that were more susceptible to intestinal diseases

  4. The use of chosen serological diagnostic methods in Lyme disease in horses. Part I. Indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Dzierzecka, M; Kita, J

    2002-01-01

    The investigations aimed to establish the reliability of the chosen serological tests designed for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in horses. The investigations were carried out in five Horse Breeding Centres (OHK). Statistical analysis methods were used to determine sample size for particular centres: Krasne (Kr)--49, Łack (Ł)--21, Walewice (W)--111, BogusŁawice (B)--17, Kozienice (K)--61. The experimental material comprised the chosen horses from which blood samples were collected in order to obtain sera. The test used for indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA No 75941, Bio-Mérieux) is commercially designed for the investigation of human sera and thus needed a prior species adaptation and standardization; ELISA (MRL DIAGNOSTICS, No EL0400G) which was also species adapted and stardandized and ELISA commercially assigned for the examination of dog or horse sera (Die System Diagnostica GmbH Borrelia burgdorferi Veterinary ELISA No. 122.00 Genzyme Virotech GmbH). In the IFA test the highest share of positive results was obtained in respect of the sera from OHK in (K)--60.7% and then in (B)--52.9%, (Ł)--42.9%, (W)--40.5%, (Kr)--38.7%. In the standardized ELISA the highest percent of positive results, amounting to 33.3%, was obtained in respect of the sera from (Ł), and then from (W)--20.7%, (K)--11.5%, (Kr)--10.2% and (B)--5.9%. The percent of positive results obtained in the commercial ELISA also agreement on a high level: the sera originating from (W) were positive in 18.9%, from (K)--9.8%, (Ł)--9.5%. (B)--5.9% and (Kr)--4.1%. Both ELISAs showed high agreement although the standardized test was characterized by a greater tendency for suggesting the presence of B. burgdorferi infection and the agreement of these two ELISAs with the IFA was not so strong. The IFA showed the highest tendency for suggesting the presence of the B. burgdorferi infection, being characterized by the highest percent of false positive results. PMID:12189952

  5. Neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Reduction of inflammatory cell apoptosis or a dysregulation of this process could lead to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis and necrosis of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from seven horses suffering from RAO (study group) and seven control horses. Results We demonstrated that neutrophil/macrophage apoptosis is altered in RAO-affected horses compared with the control group in the BAL fluid. We found a significant difference between the median percentage of early and late apoptosis of neutrophils between the study and control group of horses. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the rate of apoptosis and the median percentage of macrophages in RAO-affected horses. Conclusion The findings suggest that apoptosis dysregulation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAO. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of altered apoptosis in the course of equine recurrent airway obstruction. PMID:24460911

  6. Health Problems and Risk Factors Associated with Long Haul Transport of Horses in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Padalino, Barbara; Hall, Evelyn; Raidal, Sharanne; Celi, Pietro; Knight, Peter; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Records from road transport of horses from Perth to Sydney over a two year period were analysed to explore the incidence of transport related issues and identify risk factors. Transportation resulted in health problems in 2.8% of the transported horses, and in fatalities in 0.24%. Journey duration and season were risk factors for the development of transport related health problems, while breed, sex and age did not predict disease or injury risk. Overall, this study provides statistics to inform policy development for the equine transport industry and enhance management of the transported horse. Abstract Equine transportation is associated with a variety of serious health disorders causing economic losses. However; statistics on horse transport are limited and epidemiological data on transport related diseases are available only for horses transported to abattoirs for slaughter. This study analysed reports of transport related health problems identified by drivers and horse owners for 180 journeys of an Australian horse transport company transporting horses between Perth and Sydney (~4000 km) in 2013–2015. Records showed that 97.2% (1604/1650) of the horses arrived at their destination with no clinical signs of disease or injury. Based on the veterinary reports of the affected horses; the most common issues were respiratory problems (27%); gastrointestinal problems (27%); pyrexia (19%); traumatic injuries (15%); and death (12%). Journey duration and season had a significant effect on the distribution of transport related issues (p < 0.05); with a marked increase of the proportion of the most severe problems (i.e., gastrointestinal; respiratory problems and death) in spring and after 20 h in transit. Although not statistically significant; elevated disease rate predictions were seen for stallions/colts; horses aged over 10 years; and Thoroughbreds. Overall; the data demonstrate that long haul transportation is a risk for horse health and welfare and

  7. Theme Unit. Horse Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flagg, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This integrated, cross-curricular theme unit has children become immersed in the equine world as they broaden their vocabulary, participate in hands-on science and math, explore art, become aware of the horse's important role in history, and learn about good grooming. A student reproducible, a poetry poster, and a poster on the coloring of horses…

  8. Pathological changes in the navicular bone and associated structures of the horse.

    PubMed Central

    Doige, C E; Hoffer, M A

    1983-01-01

    Navicular bones from 74 horses were examined at necropsy. Animals ranged in age from eight months to 30 years. Eight horses had a clinical history of navicular disease. Degenerative lesions in the fibrocartilaginous surface of the navicular bone and of the surface of the deep flexor tendons were age related changes not necessarily related to lameness. These lesions were more extensive in horses with a history of navicular disease, and were often accompanied by adhesions and subchondral cavitation of the fibrocartilaginous surface of the navicular bone. Osteophytes, present in 12 of the 74 horses, appeared to be age-related and were uncommon in horses with a history of navicular disease. Nutrient foramina on the distal border of the navicular bone were highly variable in size and shape; in horses with a history of navicular disease they often had a small external opening that became larger as it penetrated the bone. Occlusive vascular disease (arteriosclerosis) was found in sound horses and in horses with a history of navicular disease. Thrombosis of arteries or ischemic necrosis of bone was not identified in any case. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 21. PMID:6667428

  9. The use of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to detect proteins in saliva from horses with and without systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Stine; Top Adler, Ditte Marie; Bundgaard, Louise; Sørensen, Mette Aamand; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Bendixen, Emøke

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to assess global expression of proteins in equine saliva using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Saliva was obtained from seven horses with and six horses without evidence of systemic inflammatory disease. Tryptic peptides from saliva were analysed by LC-MS/MS. Of 195 unique proteins identified, 57 were detected only in saliva samples from horses with systemic inflammation (in two to six of the seven horses). Among the differentially expressed proteins were several acute phase proteins (APPs) such as serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein. The study is the first to describe detection of inflammatory proteins in horse saliva. The proteins detected were similar to those described in saliva from cattle, small ruminants and pigs. Detection of APPs in horses with systemic inflammation suggests that saliva may be used for non-invasive disease monitoring in horses as in humans, pigs and dogs. PMID:25296850

  10. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... on top of the kidneys. Dogs, cats, and horses, as well as humans, can get Cushing's disease. ... commonly found in dogs than in cats or horses. "Cortisol is one of the body's natural steroids," ...

  11. Health Problems and Risk Factors Associated with Long Haul Transport of Horses in Australia.

    PubMed

    Padalino, Barbara; Hall, Evelyn; Raidal, Sharanne; Celi, Pietro; Knight, Peter; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Equine transportation is associated with a variety of serious health disorders causing economic losses. However; statistics on horse transport are limited and epidemiological data on transport related diseases are available only for horses transported to abattoirs for slaughter. This study analysed reports of transport related health problems identified by drivers and horse owners for 180 journeys of an Australian horse transport company transporting horses between Perth and Sydney (~4000 km) in 2013-2015. Records showed that 97.2% (1604/1650) of the horses arrived at their destination with no clinical signs of disease or injury. Based on the veterinary reports of the affected horses; the most common issues were respiratory problems (27%); gastrointestinal problems (27%); pyrexia (19%); traumatic injuries (15%); and death (12%). Journey duration and season had a significant effect on the distribution of transport related issues ( p < 0.05); with a marked increase of the proportion of the most severe problems ( i.e. , gastrointestinal; respiratory problems and death) in spring and after 20 h in transit. Although not statistically significant; elevated disease rate predictions were seen for stallions/colts; horses aged over 10 years; and Thoroughbreds. Overall; the data demonstrate that long haul transportation is a risk for horse health and welfare and requires appropriate management to minimize transport stress. PMID:26690482

  12. Influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs.

    PubMed

    Na, Woonsung; Yeom, Minjoo; Yuk, Huijoon; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Kang, Bokyu; Song, Daesub

    2016-07-01

    This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health. PMID:27489801

  13. Influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health. PMID:27489801

  14. Pharmacokinetics of procaterol in thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Kusano, K; Nomura, M; Toju, K; Ishikawa, Y; Minamijima, Y; Yamashita, S; Nagata, S

    2016-06-01

    Procaterol (PCR) is a beta-2-adrenergic bronchodilator widely used in Japanese racehorses for treating lower respiratory disease. The pharmacokinetics of PCR following single intravenous (0.5 μg/kg) and oral (2.0 μg/kg) administrations were investigated in six thoroughbred horses. Plasma and urine concentrations of PCR were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma PCR concentration following intravenous administration showed a biphasic elimination pattern. The systemic clearance was 0.47 ± 0.16 L/h/kg, the steady-state volume of the distribution was 1.21 ± 0.23 L/kg, and the elimination half-life was 2.85 ± 1.35 h. Heart rate rapidly increased after intravenous administration and gradually decreased thereafter. A strong correlation between heart rate and plasma concentration of PCR was observed. Plasma concentrations of PCR after oral administration were not quantifiable in all horses. Urine concentrations of PCR following intravenous and oral administrations were quantified in all horses until 32 h after administration. Urine PCR concentrations were not significantly different on and after 24 h between intravenous and oral administrations. These results suggest that the bioavailability of orally administrated PCR in horses is very poor, and the drug was eliminated from the body slowly based on urinary concentrations. This report is the first study to demonstrate the pharmacokinetic character of PCR in thoroughbred horses. PMID:26538319

  15. Serological and molecular detection of Theileria equi in sport horses of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Edlainne P; Vidotto, Odilon; Almeida, Jonatas C; Ribeiro, Luana P S; Borges, Marcos V; Pequeno, Walter H C; Stipp, Danilo T; de Oliveira, Celso J B; Biondo, Alexander W; Vieira, Thállitha S W J; Vieira, Rafael F C

    2016-08-01

    Theileriosis is a worldwide protozoal tick-borne disease caused by Theileria equi, which may produce a variety of clinical signs and turn infected horses into lifetime carriers. This study has aimed to perform a serological and molecular detection of T. equi and associated factors in sports horses from six areas of northeastern Brazil. In overall, 59.6% horses were positive by indirect immunofluorescence assay and 50.4% by polymerase chain reaction. No significant association was found when presence of ticks, age, gender, anemia or total plasma proteins was analyzed with seropositivity and molecular techniques. Although a significant association of infection was found in two cities. Thus, local risk factors other than presence of ticks, horse age, gender, anemia and total plasmatic proteins may dictate prevalence of T. equi infection in sports horses, even in highly endemic areas with no control of infection prior to horse competitions. PMID:27477509

  16. The origin of ambling horses.

    PubMed

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-08-01

    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date. PMID:27505236

  17. Efficacy of a single-formula acupuncture treatment for horses with palmar heel pain.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katherine A; Manning, Stephen T

    2015-12-01

    Acupuncture is used without strong scientific evidence to treat many diseases of the horse, including palmar heel pain. Research is needed to provide evidence for the application of these treatments. Within the confines of our study, acupuncture did not reliably modulate palmar heel pain in horses. PMID:26663921

  18. Efficacy of a single-formula acupuncture treatment for horses with palmar heel pain

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Katherine A.; Manning, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture is used without strong scientific evidence to treat many diseases of the horse, including palmar heel pain. Research is needed to provide evidence for the application of these treatments. Within the confines of our study, acupuncture did not reliably modulate palmar heel pain in horses. PMID:26663921

  19. Molecular tests for coat colours in horses.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    Colour phenotypes may have played a major role during early domestication events and initial selection among domestic animal species. As coat colours mostly follow a relatively simple mode of Mendelian inheritance, they have been among the first traits to be systematically analysed at the molecular level. As a result of the number of genetic tools developed during the past decade, horse coat colour tests have been designed and are now commercially available for some of the basic phenotypes. These tests enable breeders to verify segregation within particular pedigrees, to select specific colour phenotypes according to market demand or studbook policies and to avoid complex inherited diseases associated with some of the colour patterns. This paper reviews the relevance of the topic, describes all currently available tests for coat colours in horses and addresses also ongoing research in this field. PMID:19912415

  20. The structural stability of wild-type horse prion protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2011-10-01

    Prion diseases (e.g. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), variant CJD (vCJD), Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI) and Kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or 'mad-cow' disease) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cattles) are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals. However, by now there have not been some effective therapeutic approaches or medications to treat all these prion diseases. Rabbits, dogs, and horses are the only mammalian species reported to be resistant to infection from prion diseases isolated from other species. Recently, the β2-α2 loop has been reported to contribute to their protein structural stabilities. The author has found that rabbit prion protein has a strong salt bridge ASP177-ARG163 (like a taut bow string) keeping this loop linked. This paper confirms that this salt bridge also contributes to the structural stability of horse prion protein. Thus, the region of β2-α2 loop might be a potential drug target region. Besides this very important salt bridge, other four important salt bridges GLU196-ARG156-HIS187, ARG156-ASP202 and GLU211-HIS177 are also found to greatly contribute to the structural stability of horse prion protein. Rich databases of salt bridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts for horse prion protein can be found in this paper. PMID:21875155

  1. Serological Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi among Horses in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Yun, Sun-Hee; Choi, Eunsang; Park, Yong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonotic infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. The present study assessed the infection status of B. burgdorferi among horses reared in Korea using ELISA and PCR. Between 2009 and 2013, blood samples were collected from 727 horses throughout Korea. Data for each animal including age, gender, breed, and region of sample collection were used for epidemiological analysis. Overall, 38 (5.2%; true prevalence: 5.5%) of 727 horses were seropositive by ELISA. There were statistically significant differences according to breed and region (P<0.001) whose differences might be attributed to the ecology of vector ticks and climate conditions. Using 2 nested PCR, none of the samples tested positive for B. burgdorferi. Thus, a positive ELISA result can indicate only that the tested horse was previously exposed to B. burgdorferi, with no certainty over the time of exposure. Since global warming is likely to increase the abundance of ticks in Korea, continuous monitoring of tick-borne diseases in Korean horses is needed. PMID:26951987

  2. Serological Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi among Horses in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Yun, Sun-Hee; Choi, Eunsang; Park, Yong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-02-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonotic infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. The present study assessed the infection status of B. burgdorferi among horses reared in Korea using ELISA and PCR. Between 2009 and 2013, blood samples were collected from 727 horses throughout Korea. Data for each animal including age, gender, breed, and region of sample collection were used for epidemiological analysis. Overall, 38 (5.2%; true prevalence: 5.5%) of 727 horses were seropositive by ELISA. There were statistically significant differences according to breed and region (P<0.001) whose differences might be attributed to the ecology of vector ticks and climate conditions. Using 2 nested PCR, none of the samples tested positive for B. burgdorferi. Thus, a positive ELISA result can indicate only that the tested horse was previously exposed to B. burgdorferi, with no certainty over the time of exposure. Since global warming is likely to increase the abundance of ticks in Korea, continuous monitoring of tick-borne diseases in Korean horses is needed. PMID:26951987

  3. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Bochnia, M.; Ziegler, J.; Sander, J.; Uhlig, A.; Schaefer, S.; Vollstedt, S.; Glatter, M.; Abel, S.; Recknagel, S.; Schusser, G. F.; Wensch-Dorendorf, M.; Zeyner, A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates) of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to further confirm the causality between HGA occurrence and disease outbreak by seed sampling during an outbreak and the determination of i) HGA in seeds and of ii) HGA and MCPA-conjugates in urine and serum of diseased horses. Furthermore, cograzing healthy horses, which were present on AM affected pastures, were also investigated. AM-pastures in Germany were visited to identify seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus and serum (n = 8) as well as urine (n = 6) from a total of 16 diseased horses were analyzed for amino acid composition by LC-ESI-MS/MS, with a special focus on the content of HGA. Additionally, the content of its toxic metabolite was measured in its conjugated form in body fluids (UPLC-MS/MS). The seeds contained 1.7–319.8 μg HGA/g seed. The content of HGA in serum of affected horses ranged from 387.8–8493.8 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), and in urine from 143.8–926.4 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), respectively. Healthy cograzing horses on AM-pastures showed higher serum (108.8 ± 83.76 μg/L) and urine concentrations (26.9 ± 7.39 μg/L) compared to control horses, but lower concentrations compared to diseased horses. The range of MCPA-carnitine and creatinine concentrations found in diseased horses in serum and urine were 0.17–0.65 mmol/L (controls < 0.01), and 0.34–2.05 μmol/mmoL (controls < 0.001), respectively. MCPA-glycine levels in urine of cograzing horses were higher compared to controls. Thus, the causal link between HGA intoxication and disease outbreak

  4. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture.

    PubMed

    Bochnia, M; Ziegler, J; Sander, J; Uhlig, A; Schaefer, S; Vollstedt, S; Glatter, M; Abel, S; Recknagel, S; Schusser, G F; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Zeyner, A

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates) of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to further confirm the causality between HGA occurrence and disease outbreak by seed sampling during an outbreak and the determination of i) HGA in seeds and of ii) HGA and MCPA-conjugates in urine and serum of diseased horses. Furthermore, cograzing healthy horses, which were present on AM affected pastures, were also investigated. AM-pastures in Germany were visited to identify seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus and serum (n = 8) as well as urine (n = 6) from a total of 16 diseased horses were analyzed for amino acid composition by LC-ESI-MS/MS, with a special focus on the content of HGA. Additionally, the content of its toxic metabolite was measured in its conjugated form in body fluids (UPLC-MS/MS). The seeds contained 1.7-319.8 μg HGA/g seed. The content of HGA in serum of affected horses ranged from 387.8-8493.8 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), and in urine from 143.8-926.4 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), respectively. Healthy cograzing horses on AM-pastures showed higher serum (108.8 ± 83.76 μg/L) and urine concentrations (26.9 ± 7.39 μg/L) compared to control horses, but lower concentrations compared to diseased horses. The range of MCPA-carnitine and creatinine concentrations found in diseased horses in serum and urine were 0.17-0.65 mmol/L (controls < 0.01), and 0.34-2.05 μmol/mmoL (controls < 0.001), respectively. MCPA-glycine levels in urine of cograzing horses were higher compared to controls. Thus, the causal link between HGA intoxication and disease outbreak could be

  5. [Sonography in pleural effusion of horses].

    PubMed

    Stadtbäumer, G

    1989-01-01

    Pleural effusion in the horse can be caused by diseases such as pneumonia, trauma, pulmonary abscesses and thoracic neoplasms. Besides clinical (auscultation, percussion) and radiographic diagnostic procedures, the ultrasonic examination represents a method that supplies detailed information on quantity and location of fluid in the pleural space. By means of ultrasonic examination the most favourable position for a thoracentesis can be determined. Control of thoracentesis' efficiency as well as exact supervision of the disease's course are made feasible by repeated sonographic examinations. PMID:2694447

  6. Overview of Clinical Pathology and the Horse.

    PubMed

    Lester, Sally J; Mollat, Wendy H; Bryant, James E

    2015-08-01

    This article is intended to serve as a reference for clinical pathology in the equine with algorithms and tables provided for anemia diagnosis and leukogram alterations associated with both acute and chronic inflammation. A table of reference is provided for fluid evaluations including joint fluid and effusions into body cavities. Evaluation of newer serum markers, such as cardiac troponin, and a table highlighting test procedures for the evaluation of endocrine disease in the horse are included. A brief overview of quality assurance in the laboratory is provided to stimulate interest in this important aspect of laboratory diagnosis of disease. PMID:26210952

  7. Using the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) to Assess Pain Associated with Acute Laminitis in Horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Stucke, Diana; Dai, Francesca; Minero, Michela; Leach, Matthew C; Lebelt, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Acute laminitis is a common equine disease characterized by intense foot pain, both acutely and chronically. The Obel grading system is the most widely accepted method for describing the severity of laminitis by equine practitioners, however this method requires movement (walk and trot) of the horse, causing further intense pain. The recently developed Horse Grimace Scale (HGS), a facial-expression-based pain coding system, may offer a more effective means of assessing the pain associated with acute laminitis. The aims of this study were: to investigate whether HGS can be usefully applied to assess pain associated with acute laminitis in horses at rest, and to examine if scoring HGS using videos produced similar results as those obtained from still images. Ten horses, referred as acute laminitis cases with no prior treatment, were included in the study. Each horse was assessed using the Obel and HGS (from images and videos) scales: at the admission (before any treatment) and at seven days after the initial evaluation and treatment. The results of this study suggest that HGS is a potentially effective method to assess pain associated with acute laminitis in horses at rest, as horses showing high HGS scores also exhibited higher Obel scores and veterinarians classified them in a more severe painful state. Furthermore, the inter-observer reliability of the HGS total score was good for both still images and video evaluation. There was no significant difference in HGS total scores between the still images and videos, suggesting that there is a possibility of applying the HGS in clinical practice, by observing the horse for a short time. However, further validation studies are needed prior to applying the HGS in a clinical setting. PMID:27527224

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Horses and Horse Personnel, 2000–2002

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, M.; Dick, H.; Hearn, P.; Kreiswirth, B.N.; Said-Salim, B.; McGeer, A.; Likhoshvay, Y.; Prescott, J.F.; Low, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection was identified in 2 horses treated at a veterinary hospital in 2000, prompting a study of colonization rates of horses and associated persons. Seventy-nine horses and 27 persons colonized or infected with MRSA were identified from October 2000 to November 2002; most isolations occurred in a 3-month period in 2002. Twenty-seven (34%) of the equine isolates were from the veterinary hospital, while 41 (51%) were from 1 thoroughbred farm in Ontario. Seventeen (63%) of 27 human isolates were from the veterinary hospital, and 8 (30%) were from the thoroughbred farm. Thirteen (16%) horses and 1 (4%) person were clinically infected. Ninety-six percent of equine and 93% of human isolates were subtypes of Canadian epidemic MRSA-5, spa type 7 and possessed SCCmecIV. All tested isolates from clinical infections were negative for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. Equine MRSA infection may be an important emerging zoonotic and veterinary disease. PMID:15757559

  9. Metabolism before, during and after anaesthesia in colic and healthy horses

    PubMed Central

    Edner, Anna H; Nyman, Görel C; Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Background Many colic horses are compromised due to the disease state and from hours of starvation and sometimes long trailer rides. This could influence their muscle energy reserves and affect the horses' ability to recover. The principal aim was to follow metabolic parameter before, during, and up to 7 days after anaesthesia in healthy horses and in horses undergoing abdominal surgery due to colic. Methods 20 healthy horses given anaesthesia alone and 20 colic horses subjected to emergency abdominal surgery were anaesthetised for a mean of 228 minutes and 183 minutes respectively. Blood for analysis of haematology, electrolytes, cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol, glucose and lactate was sampled before, during, and up to 7 days after anaesthesia. Arterial and venous blood gases were obtained before, during and up to 8 hours after recovery. Gluteal muscle biopsy specimens for biochemical analysis of muscle metabolites were obtained at start and end of anaesthesia and 1 h and 1 day after recovery. Results Plasma cortisol, FFA, glycerol, glucose, lactate and CK were elevated and serum phosphate and potassium were lower in colic horses before anaesthesia. Muscle adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content was low in several colic horses. Anaesthesia and surgery resulted in a decrease in plasma FFA and glycerol in colic horses whereas levels increased in healthy horses. During anaesthesia muscle and plasma lactate and plasma phosphate increased in both groups. In the colic horses plasma lactate increased further after recovery. Plasma FFA and glycerol increased 8 h after standing in the colic horses. In both groups, plasma concentrations of CK increased and serum phosphate decreased post-anaesthesia. On Day 7 most parameters were not different between groups. Colic horses lost on average 8% of their initial weight. Eleven colic horses completed the study. Conclusion Colic horses entered anaesthesia with altered metabolism and in a negative

  10. Circulating serovars of Leptospira in cart horses of central and southern Ethiopia and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tsegay, K; Potts, A D; Aklilu, N; Lötter, C; Gummow, B

    2016-03-01

    Little work has been done on diseases of horses in Ethiopia or tropical regions of the world. Yet, Ethiopia has the largest horse population in Africa and their horses play a pivotal role in their economy as traction animals. A serological and questionnaire survey was therefore conducted to determine the circulating serovars of Leptospira and their association with potential risk factors in the cart horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia. A total of 184 out of 418 cart horses from 13 districts had antibody titres of 1:100 or greater to at least one of 16 serovars of Leptospira species in Central and Southern Ethiopian horses. A significantly higher seropositivity (62.1%) was noted in horses from the highland agroecology followed by midland (44.4%) and lowland (39.8%). Serovar Bratislava (34.5%) was the predominant serovar followed by serovars Djasiman (9.8%), Topaz (5.98%) and Pomona (5.3%). Age and location proved to be associated with seropositive horses with older horses being more commonly affected and the districts of Ziway (Batu) (Apparent Prevalence (AP)=65.5%), Shashemene (AP=48.3%) and Sebeta (AP=41.4%) having the highest prevalence. Multivariable logistic regression found risk factors significantly associated with Leptospira seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.8) and horses 7-12 years old (OR=5) and risk factors specifically associated with serovar Bratislava seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.5), horses ≥13 years (OR=3.5) and the presence of dogs in adjacent neighbouring properties (OR=0.3). Dogs had a protective effect against seropositivity to serovars Bratislava and Djasiman, which may be due to their ability to control rodents. The high seroprevalence confirm that leptospirosis is endemic among horses of Central and Southern Ethiopia. The predominance of serovar Bratislava supports the idea that serovar Bratislava may be adapted to and maintained by the horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia

  11. Stocking Rates for Horse Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decision on which stocking rate to graze a horse pasture is critical, particularly if the forage is expected to meet the nutrient needs of the horses. Challenges and management for targeting the optimum stocking rate, defined as the stocking rate that allows forage consumption to approximately equ...

  12. Demographics, management, and welfare of nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract There are no detailed, representative, horse-level data about equine management practices in different parts of Canada. To help address this, the demographics, management, and welfare of 312 nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island were examined in a randomized, horse-level survey during summer 2002. Owners completed a pretested questionnaire, and a veterinarian examined each horse. Owners were experienced caregivers and the horses were generally in good condition. Areas for improvement included parasite control, dental and hoof care, and tail docking. The mean fecal egg count was 428 eggs per gram; 76% of owners never removed manure from the pasture. Sixty-two percent of horses had never had a veterinary dental examination. Many horses had hoof defects (excessively long hooves, 26.8%; hoof wall breaks, 32.0%; and white line disease, 8.5%). Many (54.9%) draft horses had docked tails. These results suggest owners might benefit their horses by receiving education in aspects of equine care. PMID:15646847

  13. Pleuritis and pleural effusion in the horse: a study of 37 cases.

    PubMed

    Smith, B P

    1977-01-15

    Pleural effusion in 37 horses, including 15 acutely affected and 22 chronically affected, was found to be due to a variety of causes, including lymphocarcoma, pulmonary granulomas, coccidioidomycosis, equine infectious anemia, pulmonary abscesses, chronic pneumonia, and primary septic pleural effusion. Age, breed, or sex predilection was not found. Horses with chronic disease had weight loss, increased respiratory rate, dull respiratory sounds in the ventral portion of the thorax, and varying degrees of anorexia. Many horses were anemic. Those acutely affected had respiratory distress or signs of colic and many were anorectic. Most horses with acute primary disease had small volumes of pleural fluid. Culture and cytologic examination of pleural fluid and tracheal washings revealed the causative organism in some instances, but in a number of "primary" cases there were negative results on bacterial culture. The latter cases must be differentiated from other causes of chronic weight loss in the horse. PMID:576221

  14. Hendra virus vaccine, a one health approach to protecting horse, human, and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Deborah; Pallister, Jackie; Klein, Reuben; Feng, Yan-Ru; Haining, Jessica; Arkinstall, Rachel; Frazer, Leah; Huang, Jin-An; Edwards, Nigel; Wareing, Mark; Elhay, Martin; Hashmi, Zia; Bingham, John; Yamada, Manabu; Johnson, Dayna; White, John; Foord, Adam; Heine, Hans G; Marsh, Glenn A; Broder, Christopher C; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the emergence of several highly pathogenic zoonotic diseases in humans has led to a renewed emphasis on the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, otherwise known as One Health. For example, Hendra virus (HeV), a zoonotic paramyxovirus, was discovered in 1994, and since then, infections have occurred in 7 humans, each of whom had a strong epidemiologic link to similarly affected horses. As a consequence of these outbreaks, eradication of bat populations was discussed, despite their crucial environmental roles in pollination and reduction of the insect population. We describe the development and evaluation of a vaccine for horses with the potential for breaking the chain of HeV transmission from bats to horses to humans, thereby protecting horse, human, and environmental health. The HeV vaccine for horses is a key example of a One Health approach to the control of human disease. PMID:24572697

  15. Thoracic trauma in horses.

    PubMed

    Sprayberry, Kim A; Barrett, Elizabeth J

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic injuries involving the thorax can be superficial, necessitating only routine wound care, or they may extend to deeper tissue planes and disrupt structures immediately vital to respiratory and cardiac function. Diagnostic imaging, especially ultrasound, should be considered part of a comprehensive examination, both at admission and during follow-up. Horses generally respond well to diligent monitoring, intervention for complications, and appropriate medical or surgical care after sustaining traumatic wounds of the thorax. This article reviews the various types of thoracic injury and their management. PMID:25770070

  16. Horse Hoof Protectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Power Pads, shown here, were designed to support and cushion horses' hooves while walking, rurning, and jumping, thus reducing the risk of injury. The pads utilize magnets implanted in the pads to increase blood circulation, not only reducing the chance of injury, but also speeding up the healing process if an injury does occur. Marshall Space Flight Center materials engineer Deborah Dianne Schmidt and materials technician Anthony Schaffer contributed to the design by providing fatigue stress analysis to the prototypes, thus helping determine the best configuration and maximum durability.

  17. The seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in horses in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kranenburg, L C; van Ree, H E M I; Calis, A N M; de Pater, M; Buter, G J; van Maanen, C; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaarn, M M

    2011-04-01

    Equine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis is an emerging disease of weanling foals and affects their growth and development. The prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in The Netherlands is not known. The aim of the study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in horses in The Netherlands. Blood samples were taken from healthy foals before and after weaning and from healthy yearlings and mature horses on farms throughout The Netherlands. These samples were analysed for the presence of Lawsonia intracellularis-specific antibodies with a blocking ELISA. White blood cell count, packed cell volume, and total protein concentration were also measured in all foals. Information regarding housing, pasture access, and contact with pig manure on the premises was obtained for all animals. The prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis antibodies in foals increased significantly from 15% before weaning to 23% after weaning (p = 0.019); it was 89% in yearlings and 99% in horses older than 2 years. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between the pasture-kept and stable-confined adult horses (97% and 100%, respectively), and there was no significant influence of contact with pig manure. None of the sampled animals showed clinical disease. In conclusion, the results suggest that Lawsonia intracellularis is widespread in The Netherlands and that seropositivity is not necessarily associated with clinical problems. The high seroprevalence in adult horses suggests long-term persistence of antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis or constant exposure to the bacterium. PMID:21528618

  18. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Can the microbiome of the horse be altered to improve digestion?

    PubMed

    Coverdale, J A

    2016-06-01

    Intensive management practices in the horse industry present a unique challenge to the microbiome of the large intestine. Common management practices such as high-concentrate diets, low forage quality, meal feeding, and confinement housing have an impact on intestinal function, specifically large intestinal fermentation. The microbiome of the equine large intestine is a complex and diverse ecosystem, and disruption of microbiota and their environment can lead to increased incidence of gastrointestinal disorder. Digestion in the horse can be improved through a variety of approaches such as feedstuff selection, forage quality, feeding management, and inclusion of digestive aids. These digestive aids, such as prebiotics and probiotics, have been used to improve digestibility of equine diets and stabilize the microbiome of the large intestine. Probiotics, or direct-fed microbials, have been widely used in horses for treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal disease. The introduction of these live, beneficial microorganisms orally into the intestinal tract has yielded variable results. However, it is difficult to compare data due to variations in choice of organism, dosage, and basal diet. Although there are still many unanswered questions about the mode of action of successful probiotics, evidence indicates competitive inhibition and enhanced immunity. Lactic acid bacteria such as , and and yeast have all successfully been used in the horse. Use of these products has resulted in improved fiber digestibility in horses offered both high-starch and high-fiber diets. When high-concentrate diets were fed, probiotic supplementation helped maintain cecal pH, decreased lactic acid concentrations, and enhanced populations of cellulolytic bacteria. Similarly, use of prebiotic preparations containing fructooligosaccharide (FOS) or mannanoligosaccharides have improved DM, CP, and NDF digestibility when added to high-fiber diets. Furthermore, use of FOS in horses reduced

  19. Horses experimentally infected with Sarcocystis neurona develop altered immune responses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Witonsky, Sharon G; Ellison, Siobhan; Yang, Jibing; Gogal, Robert M; Lawler, Heather; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sriranganathan, Namalwar; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Lindsay, David S

    2008-10-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection is 1 of the most common neurologic diseases in horses in the United States. The mechanisms by which most horses resist disease, as well as the possible mechanisms by which the immune system may be suppressed in horses that develop EPM, are not known. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine whether horses experimentally infected with S. neurona developed suppressed immune responses. Thirteen horses that were negative for S. neurona antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were randomly assigned to control (n = 5) or infected (n = 8) treatment groups. Neurologic exams and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were performed prior to, and following, S. neurona infection. Prior to, and at multiple time points following infection, immune parameters were determined. All 8 S. neurona-infected horses developed clinical signs consistent with EPM, and had S. neurona antibodies in the serum and CSF. Both infected and control horses had increased percentages (P < 0.05) of B cells at 28 days postinfection. Infected horses had significantly decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation responses as measured by thymidine incorporation to nonspecific mitogens phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (I) as soon as 2 days postinfection. PMID:18973416

  20. Leptospirosis in horses in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Kitson-Piggot, A W; Prescott, J F

    1987-01-01

    Sera from Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses in southwest Ontario were tested for antibody to seven Leptospira interrogans serovars (autumnalis, bratislava, canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona), using the microscopic agglutination test. There was significantly higher seroprevalence of bratislava than of other serovars, in which prevalence was low. Seroprevalence of bratislava increased significantly with age; only 5% of two to three year old horses had titers greater than or equal to 1:80 compared to 52% of horses older than seven years. Eight of 16 foals from two farms seroconverted at low titers to bratislava between four and eight months of age. Leptospires were not detected by immunofluorescence and isolation techniques in 50 kidneys collected from horses at slaughter. Fetal tissues from 52 aborted horse fetuses were also examined by these methods and serovar kennewicki was identified by immunofluorescence and by isolation in one fetus. Serovar bratislava appears to be widespread in horses in Ontario but unimportant in abortion. The clinical significance of this infection in horses in Ontario is unclear. PMID:3330964

  1. Coprophilous fungi of the horse.

    PubMed

    Pointelli, E; Santa-maria, M A; Caretta, G

    1981-05-01

    A total of 1267 microfungi, including 35 Myxomycetes, were recorded from the fecal samples of the 60 horses; of these 395 were found on 20 saddle-horse feces, 363 on 20 race-horses and 509 on 20 working horses. Eighty two species representing 53 genera were recorded; of these 7 were Zygomycetes, 18 Ascomycetes, 1 Basidiomycetes and 25 Fungi Imperfecti: 2 Myxomycetes. Common coprophilous fungi are in decreasing order Pilobolus kleinii, Saccobolus depauperatus, Mucor hiemalis, Lasiobolus ciliatus, Podospora curvula, Petriella guttulata, M. circinelloides, Coprinus radiatus, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Sordaria fimicola, C. miser, C. stercorariusm, Acremonium sp., Coprotus granuliformis, Graphium putredinis, Iodophanus carneus, Chaetomium murorum, Podospora communis, P. inaequalis, P. setosa, Saccobolus versicolor and Cladosporium cucumerinum. Species of Myrothecium verrucaria, Actinomucor elegans, Kernia nitida, Spiculostilbella dendritica and Mucor parvispora were found exclusively in working-horses feces. Badhamia sp., Anixiopsis stercoraria, Echinobotryum state of D. stemonitis, Geotrichum candidum and Oidiodendron sp. were found only in saddle-horses feces. Chlamidomyces palmarum, Philocopra sp. were found exclusively in race-horses feces. Notes on infrequent or interesting fungi include Thamnostylum piriforme, Phialocephala dimorphospora, Rhopalomyces elegans and Spiculostilbella dendritica. PMID:7242651

  2. Seroprevalence of horse (Equus caballus) brucellosis on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ardo, Mohammed B; Abubakar, Dauda M

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on the seroprevalence of horse brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba state, Nigeria where horses are reared under a free range management system on cattle farms. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of brucella antibodies in horses as well as the distribution of the infection according to sex and age. A total of 100 horses were sampled, 25 each from four locations where horses were concentrated on the plateau: Gembu, Nguroje, Dorofi, and Mayo Ndaga. Sixty-two of the horses were males, and 38 were females. Eighty of the horses were adults, while 20 were young. All horses were reared under a free range management system together with cattle. The overall seroprevalence rate was 16 (16%) according to the RBPT and 6 (6%) according to the SAT. The seroprevalence rates were 19.40% (12/62) according to the RBPT and 6.50% (4/62) according to the SAT in the males and 10.50% (4/38) according to the RBPT and 5.30% (2/38) according to the SAT in the females. The prevalence was highest in Nguroje (8/25, 32%) followed by Gembu (5/25, 20%), Dorofi (3/25, 12%) and Mayo Ndaga (0%). Adult horses showed a seroprevalence of 18.8% (n=15) according to the RBPT and 7.5% (n=1) according to the SAT. Young horses had a seroprevalence rate of only 5% (n=1) according to the RBPT and 0% (n=0) according to the SAT. There was no statistically significance association with location, sex, and age (P>0.05). From this result, it can be concluded that brucellosis in horses on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba state, Nigeria was essentially a disease of adult horses and more prevalent in male horses than female horses. Further studies need to be conducted to determine the disease status in lowland areas of the state where horses are reared on zero grazing or are tethered and also to determine the involvement of other species and humans. PMID:27073329

  3. Seroprevalence of horse (Equus caballus) brucellosis on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    ARDO, Mohammed B.; ABUBAKAR, Dauda M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A cross-sectional study was conducted on the seroprevalence of horse brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba state, Nigeria where horses are reared under a free range management system on cattle farms. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of brucella antibodies in horses as well as the distribution of the infection according to sex and age. A total of 100 horses were sampled, 25 each from four locations where horses were concentrated on the plateau: Gembu, Nguroje, Dorofi, and Mayo Ndaga. Sixty-two of the horses were males, and 38 were females. Eighty of the horses were adults, while 20 were young. All horses were reared under a free range management system together with cattle. The overall seroprevalence rate was 16 (16%) according to the RBPT and 6 (6%) according to the SAT. The seroprevalence rates were 19.40% (12/62) according to the RBPT and 6.50% (4/62) according to the SAT in the males and 10.50% (4/38) according to the RBPT and 5.30% (2/38) according to the SAT in the females. The prevalence was highest in Nguroje (8/25, 32%) followed by Gembu (5/25, 20%), Dorofi (3/25, 12%) and Mayo Ndaga (0%). Adult horses showed a seroprevalence of 18.8% (n=15) according to the RBPT and 7.5% (n=1) according to the SAT. Young horses had a seroprevalence rate of only 5% (n=1) according to the RBPT and 0% (n=0) according to the SAT. There was no statistically significance association with location, sex, and age (P>0.05). From this result, it can be concluded that brucellosis in horses on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba state, Nigeria was essentially a disease of adult horses and more prevalent in male horses than female horses. Further studies need to be conducted to determine the disease status in lowland areas of the state where horses are reared on zero grazing or are tethered and also to determine the involvement of other species and humans. PMID:27073329

  4. Epizootiological aspects of type 1 and type 4 equine herpesvirus infections among horse populations.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, T; Sugiura, T; Imagawa, H; Fukunaga, Y; Kamada, M

    1992-04-01

    The dissemination of equine herpesvirus types 1 (EHV-1) and 4 (EHV-4) among various horse populations in Japan was investigated through the isolation and typing of virus strains from horses with respiratory diseases. Type specific monoclonal antibody pools were used for the typing of isolates. The 42 strains of EHV-1 and 64 strains of EHV-4 were isolated from 4593 nasal swabs and/or blood plasma samples collected from 3326 horses during a period from 1979 to 1990. All the strains of EHV-1 were isolated from racehorses only and during the winter season exclusively, when the epizootic of respiratory diseases occurred among racehorse populations at two Training Centers of the Japan Racing Association. In contrast, the strains of EHV-4 were isolated from horses irrespective of the season, facility, or horse population; foals and yearlings in breeding farms and our institute, rearing horses in rearing farms, and racehorses. Especially, 4 strains of EHV-4 were isolated from plasma samples containing buffy coat cells. We believe this is the first reported case of EHV-4 cell-associated viremia in the world. All 87 strains isolated from aborted fetuses were identified as EHV-1. The results suggest that EHV-1 is responsible for epizootic respiratory diseases in racehorses in the winter and abortion among mares at the late stage of gestation, and that EHV-4 causes respiratory diseases throughout the year among all horse populations. PMID:1318750

  5. Major histocompatibility complex locus DRA polymorphism in the endangered Sorraia horse and related breeds.

    PubMed

    Luís, C; Cothran, E G; Oom, M M; Bailey, E

    2005-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play well-defined roles in eliciting immune responses and combating infectious diseases. This genetic system is among the most polymorphic. The extent of genetic variation within a population has been directly correlated with fitness for many traits. The MHC class II locus DRA polymorphism was analysed in the endangered Sorraia horse, two other Portuguese and four New World horse breeds considered to be historically close to the Sorraia. Comparison of the Sorraia with other breeds demonstrated less MHC variation among Sorraia horses. If DRA polymorphism provides greater disease resistance, selective breeding to increase MHC polymorphism may increase fitness of this population. PMID:16130491

  6. Horse-play: Survey of Accidents with Horses

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Hugh M.

    1973-01-01

    Horse-riding is increasing in popularity. During 1971 and 1972 154 patients had horse-related injuries of sufficient severity to warrant admission to the Radcliffe Infirmary. The injuries sustained are more common and more severe than generally appreciated and are comparable to those sustained by motor-cyclists. Supervision of children is often insufficient and protective leg and head gear is commonly quite inadequate, even when worn. ImagesFIG. 3 PMID:4795373

  7. Horse gram- an underutilized nutraceutical pulse crop: a review.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Saroj Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Horse gram is an underutilized pulse crop grown in wide range of adverse climatic conditions. It occupies an important place in human nutrition and has rich source of protein, minerals, and vitamins. Besides nutritional importance, it has been linked to reduced risk of various diseases due to presence of non-nutritive bioactive substances. These bioactive substances such as phytic acid, phenolic acid, fiber, enzymatic/proteinase inhibitors have significant metabolic and/or physiological effects. The importance of horse gram was well recognized by the folk/alternative/traditional medicine as a potential therapeutic agent to treat kidney stones, urinary diseases, piles, common cold, throat infection, fever etc. The inception of nutraceutical concept and increasing health consciousness the demand of nutraceutical and functional food is increased. In recent years, isolation and utilization of potential antioxidants from legumes including horse gram are increased as it decreases the risk of intestinal diseases, diabetes, coronary heart disease, prevention of dental caries etc. Keeping in view the increasing demand of food having nutraceutical values, the present review ascribed with recent scientific knowledge towards the possibilities of exploring the horse gram, as a source of food and nutraceuticals compounds. PMID:25892749

  8. Chronic eosinophilic pancreatitis and ulcerative colitis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Breider, M A; Kiely, R G; Edwards, J F

    1985-04-15

    A generalized debilitating disease in a horse was believed to be related to hypersensitivity to migrating strongyle larvae. The clinical signs included weight loss, diarrhea, and ulcers on all 4 coronary bands. The mare's condition deteriorated rapidly, so the mare was euthanatized and necropsied. The major histopathologic findings were chronic multifocal eosinophilic pancreatitis, hepatic portal fibrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and chronic ulcerative eosinophilic colitis. This case was similar to previously reported cases of chronic eosinophilic gastroenteritis in horses. Although the etiologic agent was not evident, the distribution and character of the lesions were consistent with a hypersensitivity response to migrating parasitic larvae, most probably Strongylus equinus. PMID:3997643

  9. Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in clinically healthy horses in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Blatti, S; Overesch, G; Gerber, V; Frey, J; Hüssy, D

    2011-10-01

    A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the leptospiral seroprevalence in clinically healthy horses in Switzerland. A representative sample of 615 horse sera was examined by microscopic agglutination test for the presence of antibodies against 15 Leptospira spp. serovars. In total, 58.5 % (n = 360) of the horses were positive for one or more of the antigens analysed, with 20.3 % of them showing titres >= 400. The most prevalent serovar was Pyrogenes (22.6 %), followed by serovars Canicola (22.1 %) and Australis (19.2 %). Older horses, mares, ponies and animals spending increased time on pasture exhibited significantly higher prevalence rates (p < 0.05). Moreover, the prevalence was higher in summer and autumn (p = 0.003). The high seroprevalence in healthy horses indicates that they are often exposed to or infected with Leptospira spp. without developing signs of disease. Therefore, other laboratory and clinical data should always be taken into consideration when interpreting serological test results for Leptospira spp. PMID:21971672

  10. Structural and functional characterization of elastases from horse neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, A; Potempa, J; Travis, J

    1994-01-01

    In order better to understand the pathophysiology of the equine form of emphysema, two elastinolytic enzymes from horse neutrophils, referred to as proteinases 2A and 2B, have been extensively characterized and compared with the human neutrophil proteinases, proteinase-3 and elastase. Specificity studies using both the oxidized insulin B-chain and synthetic peptides revealed that cleavage of peptide bonds with P1 alanine or valine residues was preferred. Further characterization of the two horse elastases by N-terminal sequence and reactive-site analyses indicated that proteinases 2A and 2B have considerable sequence similarity to each other, to proteinase-3 from human neutrophils (proteinase 2A), to human neutrophil elastase (proteinase 2B) and to a lesser extent to pig pancreatic elastase. Horse and human elastases differed somewhat in their interaction with some natural protein proteinase inhibitors. For example, in contrast with its action on human neutrophil elastase, aprotinin did not inhibit either of the horse proteinases. However, the Val15, alpha-aminobutyric acid-15 (Abu15), alpha-aminovaleric acid-15 (Nva15) and Ala15 reactive-site variants of aprotinin were good inhibitors of proteinase 2B (Ki < 10(-9) M) but only weak inhibitors of proteinase 2A (Ki > 10(-7) M). In summary, despite these differences, the horse neutrophil elastases were found to resemble closely their human counterparts, thus implicating them in the pathological degradation of connective tissue in chronic lung diseases in the equine species. PMID:7516152

  11. Serum insulin concentration in horses: Effect of storage and handling.

    PubMed

    Carslake, Harry; Karikoski, Ninja; Pinchbeck, Gina; McGowan, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Serum insulin concentration is commonly measured during investigation of suspected endocrinopathic disease in horses, but immediate analysis is frequently unavailable. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of storing samples at room temperature for 72 h as serum and as whole blood, compared to immediate separation and freezing. Samples from 14 horses were evaluated. Correlation was excellent for all comparisons (≥0.992). Bland-Altman plots revealed a negative bias (mean difference 2.16 µIU/mL) in samples stored as whole blood compared to serum, but this difference was not considered clinically significant. At two commonly used diagnostic cut-offs, there was no effect of storage on result. This study indicates that storage at room temperature for 72 h, either as serum or whole blood, has minimal effect on measured serum insulin concentration in horses. PMID:27033594

  12. Abortion in a horse following Neorickettsia risticii infection.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Elizabeth A; Abd-Eldaim, Mohamed; Craig, Linden E

    2008-11-01

    A pregnant 18-year-old Quarterhorse mare presented with fever, anorexia, tachycardia, tachypnea, and gastrointestinal hypermotility at day 68 of gestation. Potomac horse fever was diagnosed based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of whole blood and a high antibody titer to Neorickettsia risticii. The mare made a rapid clinical recovery following antibiotic therapy, but aborted 98 days later. Necropsy on the aborted fetus revealed lymphohistiocytic colitis, lymphadenitis, myocarditis, and hepatitis. The placenta was grossly and histologically normal. Formalin-fixed lymph node, thymus, liver, and colon taken from the aborted fetus were positive by PCR for N. risticii DNA. Potomac horse fever is a common disease in horses that may result in delayed abortion. The microscopic lesions in the fetus are characteristic, and the diagnosis can be confirmed by PCR on formalin-fixed tissues. PMID:18987240

  13. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.; Rolfs, C.; Typel, S.

    2006-07-12

    The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross sections in nuclear reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed and recent applications are presented.

  14. Comparison of Fecal Microbiota of Mongolian and Thoroughbred Horses by High-throughput Sequencing of the V4 Region of the 16S rRNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yiping; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Huang, Jinlong; Shiraigo, Wunierfu; Yang, Lihua; Zhao, Qinan; Ren, Xiujuan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Dugarjaviin, Manglai

    2016-09-01

    progression of gastrointestinal disease in horses. PMID:26954132

  15. Comparison of Fecal Microbiota of Mongolian and Thoroughbred Horses by High-throughput Sequencing of the V4 Region of the 16S rRNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yiping; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Huang, Jinlong; Shiraigo, Wunierfu; Yang, Lihua; Zhao, Qinan; Ren, Xiujuan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Dugarjaviin, Manglai

    2016-01-01

    progression of gastrointestinal disease in horses. PMID:26954132

  16. "Horses for Courses"

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Joyce E.; Frost, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This commentary considers the vexed question of whether or not we should be spending time and resources on using multifaceted interventions to undertake implementation of evidence in healthcare. A review of systematic reviews has suggested that simple interventions may be just as effective as those taking a multifaceted approach. Taking cognisance of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework this commentary takes account of the evidence, context and facilitation factors in undertaking implementation. It concludes that a ‘horses for courses’ approach is necessary meaning that the specific implementation approach should be selected to fit the implementation task in hand whether it be a single or multifaceted approach and reviewed on an individual basis. PMID:26673180

  17. The exhausted horse syndrome.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H

    1998-04-01

    Exhaustion occurs in most equestrian sports, but it is more frequent in events that require sustained endurance work such as endurance racing, three-day eventing, trial riding, and hunting. Exhaustion is also more likely when an unfit, unacclimatized, or unsound horse is exercised. Mechanisms that contribute to exhaustion include heat retention, fluid and electrolyte loss, acid-base imbalance, and intramuscular glycogen depletion. Clinical signs include elevated temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate; depression; anorexia; unwillingness to continue to exercise; dehydration; weakness; stiffness; hypovolemic shock; exertional myopathy; synchronous diaphragmatic flutter; atrial fibrillation; diarrhea; colic; and laminitis. Treatment includes stopping exercise; rapid cooling; rapid large volume intravenous or oral fluid administration; and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration. PMID:9561696

  18. My Kingdom for a Horse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Judith

    2004-01-01

    The "Heavenly Horse" is a work of art revered for its spirit, strength, and beauty. It is a symbol of military might and political power. The size of the object suggests that it was made for an important person. Impressive as he is, this horse was not created as an art object. He was found in the tomb of an influential person. Scholars do not know…

  19. An unexpected advantage of whiteness in horses: the most horsefly-proof horse has a depolarizing white coat.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Gábor; Blahó, Miklós; Kriska, György; Hegedüs, Ramón; Gerics, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Akesson, Susanne

    2010-06-01

    White horses frequently suffer from malign skin cancer and visual deficiencies owing to their high sensitivity to the ultraviolet solar radiation. Furthermore, in the wild, white horses suffer a larger predation risk than dark individuals because they can more easily be detected. In spite of their greater vulnerability, white horses have been highly appreciated for centuries owing to their natural rarity. Here, we show that blood-sucking tabanid flies, known to transmit disease agents to mammals, are less attracted to white than dark horses. We also demonstrate that tabanids use reflected polarized light from the coat as a signal to find a host. The attraction of tabanids to mainly black and brown fur coats is explained by positive polarotaxis. As the host's colour determines its attractiveness to tabanids, this parameter has a strong influence on the parasite load of the host. Although we have studied only the tabanid-horse interaction, our results can probably be extrapolated to other host animals of polarotactic tabanids, as the reflection-polarization characteristics of the host's body surface are physically the same, and thus not species-dependent. PMID:20129982

  20. An unexpected advantage of whiteness in horses: the most horsefly-proof horse has a depolarizing white coat

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Gábor; Blahó, Miklós; Kriska, György; Hegedüs, Ramón; Gerics, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Åkesson, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    White horses frequently suffer from malign skin cancer and visual deficiencies owing to their high sensitivity to the ultraviolet solar radiation. Furthermore, in the wild, white horses suffer a larger predation risk than dark individuals because they can more easily be detected. In spite of their greater vulnerability, white horses have been highly appreciated for centuries owing to their natural rarity. Here, we show that blood-sucking tabanid flies, known to transmit disease agents to mammals, are less attracted to white than dark horses. We also demonstrate that tabanids use reflected polarized light from the coat as a signal to find a host. The attraction of tabanids to mainly black and brown fur coats is explained by positive polarotaxis. As the host's colour determines its attractiveness to tabanids, this parameter has a strong influence on the parasite load of the host. Although we have studied only the tabanid–horse interaction, our results can probably be extrapolated to other host animals of polarotactic tabanids, as the reflection–polarization characteristics of the host's body surface are physically the same, and thus not species-dependent. PMID:20129982

  1. Systemic leukopenia, evaluation of laminar leukocyte infiltration and laminar lesions in horses with naturally occurring colic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laskoski, Luciane Maria; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo; Deconto, Ivan; Gonçalves, Kamila Alcala; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Brum, Juliana Sperotto; de Brito, Harald Fernando Vicente; de Sousa, Renato Silva

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed at identifying laminar lesions and leukocyte infiltration in hoof laminar tissue of horses with colic syndrome and its correlation with the total leukocyte count before death. Six healthy horses were used as control group (CG), and eighteen horses with lethal gastrointestinal disease were divided into two groups: leukopenic group (LG) with seven leukopenic horses, and non-leukopenic group (NLG) with 11 horses with total leukocyte count within reference range for the species. Leukocyte infiltration was examined by immunohistochemistry. Laminar lesions were observed in both LG and NLG, with no differences in severity between them. LG showed increase of the leukocyte infiltration in the hoof laminar tissue, when compared to CG and NLG. Horses with severe colic syndrome (LG and NLG) developed intense laminar lesions without clinical signs of laminitis, with increased leukocyte infiltration. However, the LG demonstrated an even higher increase of leukocyte infiltration compared to both CG and NLG. PMID:26267083

  2. Comparison of prevalence factors in horses with and without seropositivity to Neospora hughesi and/or Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, Nicola; Tamez-Trevino, Eva; White, Alexandria; Vangeem, Joshua; Packham, Andrea; Conrad, Patricia A; Kass, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a commonly diagnosed neurological disease of horses in North America and is caused by infection with Sarcocystis neurona or Neospora hughesi. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence factors among horses seropositive or seronegative to N. hughesi and/or S. neurona. A total of 3123 submissions were included in the study, with horses originating from 49 States. Thirty-eight animals from 21 States tested seropositive for N. hughesi only, 840 horses from 40 States were seropositive for S. neurona only, 25 horses from 14 States were seropositive for both protozoa, and 2220 horses from 49 States tested seronegative for both parasites. Significant associations were found between geographical location (State), month of submission, breed and serological status. PMID:24703324

  3. Historical aspects of Potomac horse fever in Ontario (1924–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Baird, John D.; Arroyo, Luis G.

    2013-01-01

    In the summer of 1924 Dr. Frank W. Schofield conducted investigations into an endemic disease of horses in the Kent and Essex counties of Ontario. According to farmers in these counties the disease had existed in this region for at least 50 years previously. The clinical, pathological, histopathological, and epidemiological findings outlined in Schofield’s detailed report strongly suggest that this endemic disease was what was designated in 1979 as “Potomac horse fever” (PHF). This assumption is further substantiated by transmission experiments involving horses and laboratory animals that were conducted by Schofield utilizing horse feces, whole blood, and mayflies. The aim of this paper is to present Schofield’s detailed investigations and findings and to compare these with PHF research conducted from 1979 to 2010 that ultimately led to the discovery of Neorickettsia risticii as the etiological agent and to elucidation of the organism’s complex life cycle. PMID:24155447

  4. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT IN 1018 ASYMPTOMATIC HORSES: A MULTI-INSTITUTION STUDY.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, James L; Kneissl, Sibylle; Rawlinson, Jennifer E; Zwick, Timo; Zekas, Lisa; Ohlerth, Stefanie; Bienert-Zeit, Astrid

    2016-05-01

    Published descriptions of nonseptic arthritis of the equine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are rare and large studies investigating variations in the TMJ for asymptomatic horses are lacking. The objectives of this cross-sectional, retrospective, multi-institutional study were to describe anatomical variations in the TMJ detected using computed tomography (CT) in an equid population asymptomatic for TMJ disease and determine whether these variations were associated with patient signalment, reason for CT examination, or CT slice width. Medical records at eight hospitals were searched for horses that had head/neck CT scans and no clinical signs of TMJ disease. Age, breed, sex, clinical presentation, and CT slice width data were recorded. Alterations in CT contour and density of the mandibular condyles, mandibular fossae, and TMJ intra-articular discs were described for each horse. Generalized logistic regression was used to test associations between anatomical variations and horse age. A total of 1018 horses were sampled. Anatomical variations were found in TMJ CT images for 40% of horses and 29% of joints. These were dichotomous with regard to age. Horses <1 year old commonly had alterations in the shape and density of the mandibular condyle. Older horses commonly had spherical hypodensities within the mandibular condyles consistent with bone cysts; and hyperdense regions of the intra-articular disc consistent with dystrophic mineralization. Findings indicated that TMJ anatomic variations were common in CT images of younger and older horses asymptomatic for TMJ disease. Future studies are needed to more definitively characterize these CT variations using gross pathology and histopathology. PMID:26773281

  5. Distortion Effects on Trojan Horse Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Irgaziev, B. F.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.

    2011-05-01

    The widths of the spectator momentum distributions in several nuclei, which have been used as Trojan Horses, have been obtained as a function of the transferred momentum. Applications of Trojan Horse method will also be discussed.

  6. Four Legged Healers: Horse Culture as Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White Plume, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    For tribal communities to overcome the health disparities that plague them, they need to honor Indigenous healthcare paradigms. The Horse Nation Initiative at Nueta Hidatsa Sahnish College embraces the people's historical connection to the horse as an avenue to wellness.

  7. Infection of dogs with equine influenza virus: evidence for transmission from horses during the Australian outbreak.

    PubMed

    Crispe, E; Finlaison, D S; Hurt, A C; Kirkland, P D

    2011-07-01

    During the equine influenza (EI) outbreak, respiratory disease was observed in dogs that were in close proximity to infected horses. Investigations were undertaken to exclude influenza virus infection. Of the 23 dogs that were seropositive in tests using the influenza A/Sydney/2007 virus as the test antigen, 10 showed clinical signs. EI virus appeared to be readily transmitted to dogs that were held in close proximity to infected horses, but there was no evidence of lateral transmission of the virus to other dogs that did not have contact with or were not held in close proximity to horses. PMID:21711279

  8. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  9. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found. PMID:25829553

  10. Urethrolithiasis and nephrolithiasis in a horse.

    PubMed Central

    Saam, D

    2001-01-01

    A 9-year-old, quarter horse gelding with obstructive urethrolithiasis was treated with a perineal urethrostomy. The horse's condition deteriorated and abdominocentesis confirmed septic uroperitonitis. The horse was euthanized and postmortem examination revealed peritonitis, a tear in the lateral wall of the bladder, and a nephrolith within the left renal pelvis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:11708209

  11. Mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of horses.

    PubMed Central

    Allam, N. M.; Lemcke, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Ten mycoplasmas were isolated from 130 nasopharyngeal swabs from thoroughbred horses with acute respiratory disease and three from 198 apparently normal horses. Two mycoplasmas were isolated from 21 tracheal swabs taken at necropsy. These mycoplasmas, together with six isolated from the equine respiratory tract by other workers, were subjected to biochemical and serological tests. Other properties examined in certain representative strains were appearance under the electron microscope, ability to adsorb or agglutinate the erythrocytes of various animal species and the electrophoretic pattern of the cell proteins. On the basis of these test, mycoplasmas from the equine respiratory tract were divided into seven species. Three species belonged to the genus Acholeplasma, members of which do not require sterol for growth, and were identified as A. laidlawii, A. oculi (formerly A. oculusi) originally isolated from the eyes of goats, and a recently named species A. equifoetale, previously isolated from aborted equine fetuses. Of the four sterol-dependent Mycoplasma species, one was indentified as M. pulmonis, a common rodent pathogen. Another cross-reacted serologically with M. felis and should probably be classified as that species. The other two species probably represent new species peculiar to the horse. One of these, represented by the strains N3 and N11, ferments glucose and is serologically distinct from 19 recognized species of glucose-utilizing mycoplasmas and from two species which do not metabolize either glucose or arginine. The other species, represented by four strains, hydrolyses arginine and, because it is serologically distinct from all the named arginine-hydrolysing Mycoplasma species, the name M. equirhinis sp.nov. is proposed for it. Of the seven species, only M. pulmonis and the glucose-utilizing species represented by N3 and N11 were found exclusively in horses with acute respiratory disease. A. oculi was isolated from an apparently normal horse. The

  12. Toxic effects of lasalocid in horses.

    PubMed

    Hanson, L J; Eisenbeis, H G; Givens, S V

    1981-03-01

    Lasalocid was given to horses in a series of sequentially increasing single oral doses ranging between 5 and 30 mg/kg of body weight, with an appropriate washout period between treatments. One of the 5 horses died after a dosage of 15 mg/kg, 1 of 3 horses died after 21 mg/kg, 1 of 3 horses died after 22 mg/kg, and 1 of 2 horses died after 26 mg/kg. The LD50 of lasalocid for horses was estimated to be 21.5 mg/kg. Monensin was given to horses in a similar manner at dosages of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg of body weight. One of the 2 horses died after a dosage of 2 mg/kg and 1 horse died after a dosage of 3 mg/kg. The clinical signs of toxicosis observed in horses given either drug were progressive and included depression, ataxia, paresis, and paralysis with partial anorexia. Intermittent profuse sweating was observed before death in horses given monensin. PMID:7271010

  13. Demonstration of Usutu virus antibodies in horses, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Ljubo; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Listes, Eddy; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Ljubin-Sternak, Suncanica; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Listes, Irena; Mlinaric-Galinovic, Gordana; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Savini, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    We report the first serological evidence of Usutu virus (USUV) infection in horses in Croatia. During 2011, 1380 horse serum samples from healthy animals were collected from six northern Croatian counties. All samples were first screened for West Nile virus (WNV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sixty-nine WNV ELISA-reactive samples were further tested for WNV antibodies by a virus neutralization assay (VN assay) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), and USUV by a VN assay and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies by PRNT. During the same period, 306 human serum samples from patients coming for routine testing with no symptoms of acute febrile disease were tested for USUV IgG using ELISA. Reactive samples were tested for both USUV and WNV using a VN assay. USUV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected in two of 69 WNV ELISA-reactive horse serum samples. Seropositive animals were found in two different regions of Croatia. One additional sample showed specific WNV-neutralizing antibodies that cross-neutralized USUV. Only one human sample (0.3%) was reactive to USUV antibodies in an ELISA test. In a confirmatory test, WNV-neutralizing antibodies were detected, indicating cross-reactive antibodies with USUV in ELISA. The exposure to USUV was documented in two WNV ELISA-reactive horses at distant locations. These results indicate the presence of USUV in northern Croatia. PMID:23808977

  14. Syringohydromyelia in horses: 3 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sponseller, Brett A.; Sponseller, Beatrice T.; Alcott, Cody J.; Kline, Karen; Hostetter, Jesse; Reinertson, Eric L.; Fales-Williams, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Syringomyelia and hydromyelia are cavitary lesions of the spinal cord that may be acquired or congenital. These lesions are not frequently reported in large animal species. The presenting complaints, clinical, gross pathological, and histopathologic findings of 2 cases of syringomyelia and 1 case of hydromyelia in horses are described. PMID:21532819

  15. Skin grafting of the horse.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, J; Hanselka, D V

    1989-12-01

    Free autogenous skin grafting of the horse is indicated for wounds too large to heal by contraction and epithelization. Techniques of pinch, punch, tunnel, and sheet grafting are described. Allografting and storage of skin for delayed grafting are discussed. PMID:2691033

  16. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  17. Visual Disability and Horse Riding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Diana

    2005-01-01

    It is now commonplace for horse riding to be included in the extra-curricular activities of students with physical disabilities. In this article an account is given of how visually impaired people can derive physical, mental, and emotional benefits from this supervised activity. It is argued that the rider, in learning to exercise self-control and…

  18. Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus major capsid protein VP2 provides complete clinical protection against challenge

    PubMed Central

    Alberca, Berta; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Cabana, Marta; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Viaplana, Elisenda; Frost, Lorraine; Gubbins, Simon; Urniza, Alicia; Mertens, Peter; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

    2014-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that infects all species of equidae and causes high mortality in horses. Previously, a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing the protein VP2 of AHSV serotype 4 was shown to induce virus neutralising antibodies in horses and protected interferon alpha receptor gene knock-out mice (IFNAR −/−) against virulent AHSV challenge. This study builds on the previous work, examining the protective efficacy of MVA-VP2 vaccination in the natural host of AHSV infection. A study group of 4 horses was vaccinated twice with a recombinant MVA virus expressing the major capsid protein (VP2) of AHSV serotype 9. Vaccinated animals and a control group of unvaccinated horses were then challenged with a virulent strain of AHSV-9. The vaccinated animals were completely protected against clinical disease and also against viraemia as measured by standard end-point dilution assays. In contrast, all control horses presented viraemia after challenge and succumbed to the infection. These results demonstrate the potential of recombinant MVA viruses expressing the outer capsid VP2 of AHSV as a protective vaccine against AHSV infection in the field. PMID:24837765

  19. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  20. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  1. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  2. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  3. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  4. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  5. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  6. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  7. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  8. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses' results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  9. Radiographic appearance of maxillary sinus feed impaction in a horse.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, James E; Carmalt, James L

    2013-01-01

    A 15-year-old Belgian gelding presented in respiratory distress, with bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, and right-sided epistaxis. The horse had a 5-year history of dental disease and had been recently losing weight. Radiographs indicated tooth root abscessation of the right maxillary third molar tooth and probable maxillary sinus feed impaction. These findings were confirmed at surgery and necropsy. The stippled, granular radiographic appearance described here is highly characteristic of sinus feed impaction. PMID:24371923

  10. Antibodies to Aqx toxin of Actinobacillus equuli in horses and foals.

    PubMed

    Berthoud, H; Frey, J; Sternberg, S; Straub, R; Kuhnert, P

    2004-08-21

    Actinobacillus equuli is found in the normal oral flora of horses, but has been associated with several diseases, and particularly with the usually fatal septicaemia in neonatal foals which is thought to be associated with a failure of the passive transfer of immunoglobulins via the colostrum. The Aqx protein of A equuli, belonging to the RTX family of pore-forming toxins, is also cytotoxic to horse lymphocytes. The presence of antibodies to Aqx was investigated in sera from individual horses from different regions; the sera from adult horses and foals 24 hours after birth reacted with Aqx, and sera from foals sampled shortly after an intake of colostrum also reacted with Aqx, but sera from foals taken before an intake of colostrum did not react with Aqx. PMID:15384504

  11. Is snow a sufficient source of water for horses kept outdoors in winter? A case report.

    PubMed

    Mejdell, C M; Simensen, E; Bøe, K E

    2005-01-01

    Due to extreme weather conditions, a flock of outwintered Icelandic horses had to manage for several days on snow as the source of free water. They were fed grass silage ad lib, and any change in feed consumption was not observed. After nine days, blood samples were taken and analysed for plasma osmolality, they were subjected to a simple clinical examination, and offered drinking water. Osmolality levels were within normal limits and mean value did not differ significantly from samples which previously were taken of the same individuals. The general condition of the horses was normal, with no signs of clinical dehydration or disease. The horses showed very little interest for the offered drinking water. This suggests that in cold winter weather, horses being fed grass silage and adjusted to eat snow, can manage for several days with snow substituting liquid water without their physiology and welfare being challenged. PMID:16108209

  12. Is Snow a sufficient Source of Water for Horses kept Outdoors in Winter? A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mejdell, CM; Simensen, E; Bøe, KE

    2005-01-01

    Due to extreme weather conditions, a flock of outwintered Icelandic horses had to manage for several days on snow as the source of free water. They were fed grass silage ad lib, and any change in feed consumption was not observed. After nine days, blood samples were taken and analysed for plasma osmolality, they were subjected to a simple clinical examination, and offered drinking water. Osmolality levels were within normal limits and mean value did not differ significantly from samples which previously were taken of the same individuals. The general condition of the horses was normal, with no signs of clinical dehydration or disease. The horses showed very little interest for the offered drinking water. This suggests that in cold winter weather, horses being fed grass silage and adjusted to eat snow, can manage for several days with snow substituting liquid water without their physiology and welfare being challenged. PMID:16108209

  13. African horse sickness outbreaks caused by multiple virus types in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aklilu, N; Batten, C; Gelaye, E; Jenberie, S; Ayelet, G; Wilson, A; Belay, A; Asfaw, Y; Oura, C; Maan, S; Bachanek-Bankowska, K; Mertens, P P C

    2014-04-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality in equids, especially horses. A retrospective analysis was carried out concerning 737 AHS outbreaks that occurred during 2007-2010 in Ethiopia. A total of ten outbreaks were investigated in the study period. All four forms of the disease (pulmonary, cardiac, horse sickness fever and the combined form) were observed, with the cardiac form being the most prevalent. Multiple African horse sickness virus serotypes (AHSV-2, AHSV-4, AHSV-6, AHSV-8 and AHSV-9) were detected by molecular methods (type-specific real-time RT-PCR assays), and fourteen isolates were derived from blood and tissue samples collected during 2009-2010. This is the first report of AHSV-4, AHSV-6 or AHSV-8 in Ethiopia. PMID:23083078

  14. Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in horses from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yeargan, Michelle R; Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Dubey, Jitender P; Howe, Daniel K

    2013-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a debilitating disease of horses caused by Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi. Sera from 495 horses in Durango State, Mexico were tested for anti-protozoal antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on major surface antigens of these two parasites. Antibodies to S. neurona were detected in 240 (48.5%) of the 495 horse sera tested with the rSnSAG2/4/3 trivalent ELISA. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure to S. neurona was associated with age, feeding grains and crops, and small herd size. Antibodies to N. hughesi were found in 15 (3.0%) of the 495 horse sera tested with the rNhSAG1 ELISA and confirmed by Western blot of N. hughesi tachyzoite antigen. This is the first report of S. neurona and N. hughesi exposure in horses in Mexico, and it affirms that EPM should be in the differential diagnosis for horses exhibiting signs of neurologic disease in this country. PMID:24016396

  15. Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in horses from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Yeargan, Michelle R.; Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Dubey, Jitender P.; Howe, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a debilitating disease of horses caused by Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi. Sera from 495 horses in Durango State, Mexico were tested for anti-protozoal antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on major surface antigens of these two parasites. Antibodies to S. neurona were detected in 240 (48.5%) of the 495 horse sera tested with the rSnSAG2/4/3 trivalent ELISA. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure to S. neurona was associated with age, feeding grains and crops, and small herd size. Antibodies to N. hughesi were found in 15 (3.0%) of the 495 horse sera tested with the rNhSAG1 ELISA and confirmed by Western blot of N. hughesi tachyzoite antigen. This is the first report of S. neurona and N. hughesi exposure in horses in Mexico, and it affirms that EPM should be in the differential diagnosis for horses exhibiting signs of neurologic disease in this country. PMID:24016396

  16. Summer eczema in exported Icelandic horses: influence of environmental and genetic factors

    PubMed Central

    Björnsdóttir, Sigríður; Sigvaldadóttir, Jakobína; Broström, Hans; Langvad, Birgitte; Sigurðsson, Ágúst

    2006-01-01

    A cross sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence of summer eczema (a chronic, recurrent seasonal dermatitis) in exported Icelandic horses and the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the development of the disease. Among 330 horses, which had been exported to Germany, Denmark and Sweden, 114 (34.5%) were found to have clinical signs of summer eczema. The prevalence was highest 2 years after export and the exposure to the biting midges Culicoides spp., was found to be the main risk factor for developing the disease. Genetic influence on the sensitivity for the disease was not established. It was concluded that exported Icelandic horses are predisposed for summer dermatitis and the fact that they are not introduced to the antigens of the biting midges early in live, due to it's absence in Iceland, is likely to explain the high prevalence of the disease after export. PMID:16987399

  17. Repellent effect of topical deltamethrin on blood feeding by Culicoides on horses.

    PubMed

    Robin, M; Archer, D; McGowan, C; Garros, C; Gardès, L; Baylis, M

    2015-05-30

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a vectorborne disease spread by Culicoides biting midges. The UK's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs currently suggests using topical deltamethrin for AHS control; however, no data are available regarding its efficacy in the horse. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of topical deltamethrin on blood feeding by Culicoides on horses and to investigate which Culicoides species blood fed on horses. Three pairs of horses were placed in partially enclosed cages that allowed samples representing the Culicoides interacting with individual horses to be sampled. Four data collection sessions were completed before one horse from each pair was topically treated with 10 ml of 1 per cent deltamethrin solution and another four sessions were then carried out. Collected Culicoides were identified and each biting midge examined to see if it had blood fed. The most abundant species collected were C. chiopterus, C. dewulfi, C. obsoletus and C. scoticus (44.3 per cent) and either C. pulicaris or C. punctatus (34.7 per cent). These species were also more likely to have blood fed than other species, supporting their potential role as AHS vectors if the virus were to reach the UK. There was no significant effect of treatment on blood feeding by Culicoides. The results do not support the use of topical deltamethrin to prevent blood feeding by Culicoides on individual horses; however, the study does not investigate the effect that the widespread use of topical deltamethrin might have on vector numbers or disease transmission from viraemic individuals during an outbreak of AHS. PMID:25948630

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study of Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in Swedish-Born Icelandic Horses.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Merina; Eriksson, Susanne; Schurink, Anouk; Andersson, Lisa S; Sundquist, Marie; Frey, Rebecka; Broström, Hans; Bergström, Tomas; Ducro, Bart; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common allergic skin disease in horses and is caused by biting midges, mainly of the genus Culicoides. The disease predominantly comprises a type I hypersensitivity reaction, causing severe itching and discomfort that reduce the welfare and commercial value of the horse. It is a multifactorial disorder influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, with heritability ranging from 0.16 to 0.27 in various horse breeds. The worldwide prevalence in different horse breeds ranges from 3% to 60%; it is more than 50% in Icelandic horses exported to the European continent and approximately 8% in Swedish-born Icelandic horses. To minimize the influence of environmental effects, we analyzed Swedish-born Icelandic horses to identify genomic regions that regulate susceptibility to IBH. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study on 104 affected and 105 unaffected Icelandic horses genotyped using Illumina® EquineSNP50 Genotyping BeadChip. Quality control and population stratification analyses were performed with the GenABEL package in R (λ = 0.81). The association analysis was performed using the Bayesian variable selection method, Bayes C, implemented in GenSel software. The highest percentage of genetic variance was explained by the windows on X chromosomes (0.51% and 0.36% by 73 and 74 mb), 17 (0.34% by 77 mb), and 18 (0.34% by 26 mb). Overlapping regions with previous GWA studies were observed on chromosomes 7, 9, and 17. The windows identified in our study on chromosomes 7, 10, and 17 harbored immune system genes and are priorities for further investigation. PMID:26026046

  19. Morphometric magnetic resonance imaging and genetic testing in cerebellar abiotrophy in Arabian horses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cerebellar abiotrophy (CA) is a rare but significant disease in Arabian horses caused by progressive death of the Purkinje cells resulting in cerebellar ataxia characterized by a typical head tremor, jerky head movements and lack of menace response. The specific role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to support clinical diagnosis has been discussed. However, as yet MR imaging has only been described in one equine CA case. The role of MR morphometry in this regard is currently unknown. Due to the hereditary nature of the disease, genetic testing can support the diagnosis of CA. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform MR morphometric analysis and genetic testing in four CA-affected Arabian horses and one German Riding Pony with purebred Arabian bloodlines in the third generation. Results CA was diagnosed pathohistologically in the five affected horses (2 months - 3 years) supported by clinical signs, necropsy, and genetic testing which confirmed the TOE1:g.2171G>A SNP genotype A/A in all CA-affected horses. On MR images morphometric analysis of the relative cerebellar size and relative cerebellar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space were compared to control images of 15 unaffected horses. It was demonstrated that in MR morphometric analyses, CA affected horses displayed a relatively smaller cerebellum compared to the entire brain mass than control animals (P = 0.0088). The relative cerebellar CSF space was larger in affected horses (P = 0.0017). Using a cut off value of 11.0% for relative cerebellar CSF space, the parameter differentiated between CA-affected horses and controls with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 93.3%. Conclusions In conclusion, morphometric MRI and genetic analysis could be helpful to support the diagnosis of CA in vivo. PMID:23702154

  20. 7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  1. Expression of surface platelet receptors (CD62P and CD41/61) in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO).

    PubMed

    Iwaszko-Simonik, Alicja; Niedzwiedz, Artur; Graczyk, Stanislaw; Slowikowska, Malwina; Pliszczak-Krol, Aleksandra

    2015-03-15

    Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is an allergic disease of horses similar to human asthma, which is characterized by airway inflammation and activation of neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets. Platelet activation and an increase in circulating platelet-leukocyte aggregates may lead to airway remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate platelet status in RAO-affected horses based on the platelet morphology and platelet surface expression of CD41/61 and CD62P. Ten RAO-affected horses and ten healthy horses were included in this study. Blood samples were obtained to determine the platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR). Expression of CD62P and CD41/61 was detected by flow cytometry on activated platelets. The median PLT was significantly reduced in horses with RAO compared to the controls. The MPV and the P-LCR values were significantly higher in RAO horses than controls. Expression of CD41/61 on platelets was increased in RAO horses, while CD62P expression was reduced. This study demonstrated the morphological changes in platelets and expression of platelet surface receptors. Despite the decrease of CD62P expression, the observed increased surface expression of CD41/61 on platelets in horses with RAO may contribute to the formation of platelet aggregates in their respiratory system. PMID:25665521

  2. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses’ results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  3. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2012 (77 FR 33607-33619, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0030), and... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations... Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse...

  4. Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

  5. Systematic pain assessment in horses.

    PubMed

    de Grauw, J C; van Loon, J P A M

    2016-03-01

    Accurate recognition and quantification of pain in horses is imperative for adequate pain management. The past decade has seen a much needed surge in formal development of systematic pain assessment tools for the objective monitoring of pain in equine patients. This narrative review describes parameters that can be used to detect pain in horses, provides an overview of the various pain scales developed (visual analogue scales, simple descriptive scales, numerical rating scales, time budget analysis, composite pain scales and grimace scales), and highlights their strengths and weaknesses for potential clinical implementation. The available literature on the use of each pain assessment tool in specific equine pain states (laminitis, lameness, acute synovitis, post-castration, acute colic and post-abdominal surgery) is discussed, including any problems with sensitivity, reliability or scale validation as well as translation of results to other clinical pain states. The review considers future development and further refinement of currently available equine pain scoring systems. PMID:26831169

  6. Some nutritional problems of horses.

    PubMed

    Hintz, H F; Kallfelz, F A

    1981-07-01

    The effects of overfeeding, calcium-phosphorus imbalance, misuse of supplements and false advertising on equine nutrition are discussed. Overfeeding is known to cause disorders in several species but, although a similar relationship has been suggested on clinical evidence, no controlled trials on horses have been reported. It has also been suggested that overfeeding is a problem only for those horses with a genetic predisposition to skeletal problems. The importance of adequate calcium and phosphorus levels has been known for many years but severe cases of calcium deficiency still occur. Client education is important and should not be neglected. Excessive use of supplements containing high levels of trace minerals (eg, iodine and selenium) or fat soluble vitamins (eg, vitamin A and vitamin D) can be harmful. Some manufacturers advertise supplements in terms which may inadvertently or intentionally misrepresent their products. Supplements should, therefore, be selected carefully to ensure that they meet the particular requirements of the individual. PMID:7197619

  7. Treatment of horses with chronic diarrhea: immunologic status.

    PubMed

    Targowski, S P

    1976-01-01

    All chronically diarrheal horses given (orally) 2 series of treatments with normal horse serum recovered in 2 to 4 weeks. However, mild diarrhea sometimes persisted several months in the group of horses with severe diarrhea. Weight gains were approximately 35% in horses with severe diarrhea and approximately 10% in horses with mild diarrhea. Serum specimens from 12 diarrheal and 20 normal horses were examined for immunoglobulins by single radial immunodiffusion technique. Concentration of immunoglobulin A in serum of diarrheal horses was approximately 50% lower than that in serum of normal horses. By contrast, there was more immunoglobulin G in serum of diarrheal horses than in serum of normal horses. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA-M) responsiveness of blood lymphocytes showed transient suppression during the stage of severe diarrhea. The regaining of PHA-M responsiveness of lymphocytes was observed simultaneously with the recovery process. However, the responsiveness of lymphocytes in recovered horses remained markedly lower than that in normal horses. Allergic reactions in diarrheal and normal horses were studied by observing dermal response to injections of saline extracts from some of the horse feeds. A delayed hypersensitivity reaction to streptokinase-streptodornase and PHA-M was also studied. Allergic reactions to these extracts were not induced in either diarrheal or normal horses; however, inflammatory response to the extracts was approximately 50% greater in normal than in diarrheal horses. Response to intradermal injection of either streptokinase-streptodornase or PHA-M was significantly greater in normal horses than in diarrheal horses. PMID:1247193

  8. Candidate gene analysis of osteochondrosis in Spanish Purebred horses.

    PubMed

    Sevane, N; Dunner, S; Boado, A; Cañon, J

    2016-10-01

    Equine osteochondrosis (OC) is a frequent developmental orthopaedic disease with high economic impact on the equine industry and may lead to premature retirement of the animal as a result of chronic pain and lameness. The genetic background of OC includes different genes affecting several locations; however, these genetic associations have been tested in only one or few populations, lacking the validation in others. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic determinants of OC in the Spanish Purebred horse breed. For that purpose, we used a candidate gene approach to study the association between loci previously implicated in the onset and development of OC in other breeds and different OC locations using radiographic data from 144 individuals belonging to the Spanish Purebred horse breed. Of the 48 polymorphisms analysed, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the FAF1, FCN3 and COL1A2 genes were found to be associated with different locations of OC lesions. These data contribute insights into the complex gene networks underlying the multifactorial disease OC, and the associated SNPs could be used in a marker-assisted selection strategy to improve horse health, welfare and competitive lifespan. PMID:27422688

  9. A Survey on Transport Management Practices Associated with Injuries and Health Problems in Horses.

    PubMed

    Padalino, Barbara; Raidal, Sharanne L; Hall, Evelyn; Knight, Peter; Celi, Pietro; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2016-01-01

    An online survey was conducted to determine associations between transport management and transport-related injuries and diseases in horses in Australia. The survey was composed of three sections: respondents' demographic information, transport management strategies or procedures (before, during and after transportation) and transport diseases experienced in the previous two year period. Univariate and multivariate modelling was performed exploring associations between variables (respondents' details and transport management strategies) and the following transport-related diseases as outcomes: traumatic injuries, diarrhoea, heat stroke, muscular problems, laminitis, transport pneumonia and colic. The survey generated 797 responses. Traumatic injuries were the most common transport-related problem, with a reported incidence of 45.0%. Younger respondents (<40 years old) caring for large numbers of horses (>30 in a week) were more likely to report transport-related injuries. Injury risk was also linked to the use of protections and tranquilizers prior to transport, and checking horses after the journey. Diarrhoea (20.0%) and heat stroke (10.5%) were reported more by amateur than professional horse carers. Increased risk of heat stroke was linked to the restriction of hay and water prior to transportation. Muscular problems (13.0%) appeared to be exacerbated when horse health was not assessed before journey; whilst the risk of laminitis (2.9%) was around three fold greater when post transport recovery strategies were not applied. Associations were made between transport pneumonia (9.2%) and duration of journey, and with activity (horses involved in racing at greater risk). No associations were seen between the incidence of colic (10.3%) and the variables examined. Study findings should be interpreted with caution as they represent participant perceptions and recall. Nevertheless, results support many current recommendations for safe transportation of horses. They also

  10. Variation in salivary and pancreatic alpha-amylase genes in Italian horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Coizet, Beatrice; Nicoloso, Letizia; Marletta, Donata; Tamiozzo-Calligarich, Alessandra; Pagnacco, Giulio; Crepaldi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The dietary demand of the modern horse relies on high-cereal feeding and limited forage compared with natural grazing conditions, predisposing the horse to several important diseases. Salivary and pancreatic alpha-amylases (coded by AMY1 and AMY2 genes, respectively) play a crucial role in carbohydrate digestion in nonruminants, but little is known about these 2 genes in the horse. Aim of this work has been to distinguish genomic sequences of horse AMY1 and AMY2 genes and to analyze any polymorphisms in breeds historically characterized by marked differences in nutritional management. A single nucleotide polymorphism detection was performed and 7 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms were found. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms are in exons and were genotyped in 112 horses belonging to 6 breeds. One single nucleotide polymorphism in AMY1 gene distinguished Haflinger and the Italian native Murgese from the other breeds, whereas both the single nucleotide polymorphisms in AMY2 gene showed different allelic frequencies in Friesian compared with the other breeds. These differences are confirmed by quite high fixation index (Fst) values for these 2 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms. These preliminary results highlight marked divergences in allele frequencies of AMY1 and AMY2 genes, involved in starch digestion, between horse breeds characterized by different histories of selection, thus providing first indications of possible relations between genetics and nutritional management. PMID:24558100

  11. Evaluation of the safety of a combination of oral administration of phenylbutazone and firocoxib in horses.

    PubMed

    Kivett, L; Taintor, J; Wright, J

    2014-08-01

    Simultaneous administration of a nonselective COX inhibitor and a COX-2 specific NSAID has not been previously reported in horses. The goal of this study was to determine the safety of a 10-day dosage regimen of phenylbutazone and firocoxib, both at their standard dosages, in horses. Six horses were administered 2.2 mg/kg of phenylbutazone and 0.1 mg/kg of firocoxib by mouth, daily for 10 days. Horses were assessed daily for changes in behavior, appetite, fecal consistency, signs of abdominal pain, and oral mucous membrane ulceration. Horses were assessed prior to and on the last day of treatment for changes in serum creatinine, albumin, total protein, and urine-specific gravity. Horses underwent endoscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and pylorus prior to and 24 hours after the last treatment. A significant change in serum creatinine and total protein was observed on day 10 of treatment. No other significant findings were noted during the experiment. Results indicated that co-administration of phenylbutazone and firocoxib may cause renal disease. PMID:24354928

  12. Decreased oxidative phosphorylation and PGAM deficiency in horses suffering from atypical myopathy associated with acquired MADD.

    PubMed

    Westermann, C M; Dorland, L; van Diggelen, O P; Schoonderwoerd, K; Bierau, J; Waterham, H R; van der Kolk, J H

    2011-11-01

    Earlier research on ten horses suffering from the frequently fatal disorder atypical myopathy showed that MADD (multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency) is the biochemical derangement behind atypical myopathy. From five horses that died as a result of this disease and seven healthy control horses, urine and plasma were collected ante mortem and muscle biopsies were obtained immediately post-mortem (2 patients and 7 control horses), to analyse creatine, purine and carbohydrate metabolism as well as oxidative phosphorylation. In patients, the mean creatine concentration in urine was increased 17-fold and the concentration of uric acid approximately 4-fold, compared to controls. The highest degree of depletion of glycogen was observed in the patient with the most severe myopathy clinically. In this patient, glycolysis was more active than in the other patients and controls, which may explain this depletion. One patient demonstrated very low phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) activity, less than 10% of reference values. Most respiratory chain complex activity in patients was 20-30% lower than in control horses, complex II activity was 42% lower than normal, and one patient had severely decrease ATP-synthase activity, more than 60% lower than in control horses. General markers for myopathic damage are creatine kinase (CK) and lactic acid in plasma, and creatine and uric acid in urine. To obtain more information about the cause of the myopathy analysis of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism as well as oxidative phosphorylation is advised. This study expands the diagnostic possibilities of equine myopathies. PMID:21843962

  13. Experimental Induction of Pulmonary Fibrosis in Horses with the Gammaherpesvirus Equine Herpesvirus 5

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kurt J.; Robinson, N. Edward; Lim, Ailam; Brandenberger, Christina; Maes, Roger; Behan, Ashley; Bolin, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Gammaherpesviruses (γHV) are implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in humans and murine models of lung fibrosis, however there is little direct experimental evidence that such viruses induce lung fibrosis in the natural host. The equine γHV EHV 5 is associated with equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF), a progressive fibrosing lung disease in its natural host, the horse. Experimental reproduction of EMPF has not been attempted to date. We hypothesized that inoculation of EHV 5 isolated from cases of EMPF into the lungs of clinically normal horses would induce lung fibrosis similar to EMPF. Neutralizing antibody titers were measured in the horses before and after inoculation with EHV 5. PCR and virus isolation was used to detect EHV 5 in antemortem blood and BAL samples, and in tissues collected postmortem. Nodular pulmonary fibrosis and induction of myofibroblasts occurred in EHV 5 inoculated horses. Mean lung collagen in EHV 5 inoculated horses (80 µg/mg) was significantly increased compared to control horses (26 µg/mg) (p < 0.5), as was interstitial collagen (32.6% ± 1.2% vs 23% ± 1.4%) (mean ± SEM; p < 0.001). Virus was difficult to detect in infected horses throughout the experiment, although EHV 5 antigen was detected in the lung by immunohistochemistry. We conclude that the γHV EHV 5 can induce lung fibrosis in the horse, and hypothesize that induction of fibrosis occurs while the virus is latent within the lung. This is the first example of a γHV inducing lung fibrosis in the natural host. PMID:24147074

  14. Whole genome sequence and analysis of the Marwari horse breed and its genetic origin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of the earliest domesticated species and has played an important role in the development of human societies over the past 5,000 years. In this study, we characterized the genome of the Marwari horse, a rare breed with unique phenotypic characteristics, including inwardly turned ear tips. It is thought to have originated from the crossbreeding of local Indian ponies with Arabian horses beginning in the 12th century. Results We generated 101 Gb (~30 × coverage) of whole genome sequences from a Marwari horse using the Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencer. The sequences were mapped to the horse reference genome at a mapping rate of ~98% and with ~95% of the genome having at least 10 × coverage. A total of 5.9 million single nucleotide variations, 0.6 million small insertions or deletions, and 2,569 copy number variation blocks were identified. We confirmed a strong Arabian and Mongolian component in the Marwari genome. Novel variants from the Marwari sequences were annotated, and were found to be enriched in olfactory functions. Additionally, we suggest a potential functional genetic variant in the TSHZ1 gene (p.Ala344>Val) associated with the inward-turning ear tip shape of the Marwari horses. Conclusions Here, we present an analysis of the Marwari horse genome. This is the first genomic data for an Asian breed, and is an invaluable resource for future studies of genetic variation associated with phenotypes and diseases in horses. PMID:25521865

  15. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    PubMed

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general. PMID:26569319

  16. Development of a Luminex-Based DIVA Assay for Serological Detection of African Horse Sickness Virus in Horses.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Matamoros, A; Nieto-Pelegrín, E; Beck, C; Rivera-Arroyo, B; Lecollinet, S; Sailleau, C; Zientara, S; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2016-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is considered a fatal re-emergent vector-borne disease of horses. In the absence of any effective treatment for AHS, vaccination remains the most effective form of disease control. The new generation of vaccines, such as one based on purified, inactivated AHS virus (AHSV, serotype 4), which does not induce antibodies against non-structural protein 3 (NS3), enables the development of diagnostic methods that differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA assays). As detecting AHS in AHSV-free countries may lead to restrictions on international animal movements and thereby cause significant economic damage, these DIVA assays are crucial for reducing movement restrictions. In this article, we describe a Luminex-based multiplex assay for DIVA diagnosis of AHS, and we validate it in a duplex format to detect antibodies against structural protein 7 (VP7) and NS3 in serum samples from horses vaccinated with inactivated AHSV4 vaccine or infected with a live virus of the same serotype. Results of the Luminex-based assay for detecting anti-NS3 antibodies showed good positive correlation with results from an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thus, the Luminex-based technique described here may allow multiplex DIVA antibody detection in a single sample in less than 2 h, and it may prove adaptable for the development of robust, multiplex serological assays. PMID:27090377

  17. Pathology and diagnostic criteria of Clostridium difficile enteric infection in horses.

    PubMed

    Diab, S S; Rodriguez-Bertos, A; Uzal, F A

    2013-11-01

    Clostridium difficile is commonly associated with diarrhea and colitis in humans and other mammals, including horses. To this date, the epidemiologic, microbiologic, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in horses have been thoroughly described. However, reports describing the enteric pathology of this disease in horses are limited. This study presents a comprehensive description of the pathologic characteristics of CDAD in 21 horses and discusses the criteria for the diagnosis of the disease. Case selection was based on C. difficile A/B toxins detection (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in intestinal content samples accompanied by compatible gross and microscopic enteric lesions. Grossly, multifocal, segmental, or diffuse hemorrhage; congestion; and/or marked gelatinous edema of the intestinal wall with abundant bloody or green watery contents were observed. Histologically, the most common lesion was severe necrotizing or necrohemorrhagic enteritis, colitis, or typhlocolitis, with mucosal and/or submucosal thrombosis and marked submucosal edema. The pathology of CDAD in horses is similar to that caused by other equine enteric pathogens; therefore, a definitive diagnosis requires detection of C. difficile A/B toxins in the intestinal contents. PMID:23686768

  18. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables

    PubMed Central

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary A new web tool for equine activities, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. The aim of the safety section of the web tool was to raise awareness of safety issues in daily horse stable activities. This section contains a safety checklist, stable safety map and good practices to support human health and horse welfare and to prevent injuries in horse-related activities. Reviews of the literature and statistics, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were utilized in designing the web tool. Abstract Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general. PMID:26569319

  19. Photic headshaking in the horse: 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Madigan, J E; Kortz, G; Murphy, C; Rodger, L

    1995-07-01

    Seven horses with headshaking are described. No physical abnormalities were detected in any of the cases. Six of these horses had onset of clinical signs in the spring. The role of light was assessed by application of a blindfold or dark grey lens to the eyes, covering the eyes with a face mask and observing the horse in total darkness outdoors. Cessation of headshaking was observed with blindfolding (5/5 horses), night darkness outdoors (4/4 horses) and use of grey lenses (2/3 horses). Outdoor behaviour suggested efforts to avoid light in 4/4 cases. The photic sneeze in man is suggested as a putative mechanism for equine headshaking. Five of 7 horses had improvement with cyproheptadine treatment (0.3 mg/kg bwt b.i.d.). Headshaking developed within 2 calendar weeks of the same date for 3 consecutive years in one horse. Neuropharmacological alterations associated with photoperiod mechanisms leading to optic trigeminal summation are suggested as possible reasons for spring onset of headshaking. PMID:8536668

  20. FEASIBILITY AND SAFETY OF CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASOUND IN THE DISTAL LIMB OF SIX HORSES.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Gabriela S; Campbell, Nigel; Nixon, Britton; Tsuruta, James K; Dayton, Paul A; Jennings, Samuel; Redding, W Rich; Lustgarten, Meghann

    2016-05-01

    Vascular alterations play important roles in many orthopedic diseases such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis, and synovitis in both human and equine athletes. Understanding these alterations could enhance diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) could be a valuable method for evaluation of blood flow and perfusion of these processes in the equine distal limb, however no reports were found describing feasibility or safety of the technique. The goal of this prospective, experimental study was to describe the feasibility and safety of distal limb CEUS in a sample of six horses. For each horse, CEUS of the distal limb was performed after intravenous injections of 5 and 10 ml, as well as intra-arterial injections of 0.5 and 1 ml contrast medium. Vital parameters were monitored and CEUS images were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively for degree of contrast enhancement. None of the horses had clinically significant changes in their vital parameters after contrast medium injection. One horse had a transient increase in respiratory rate, and several horses had mild increases of systolic blood pressure of short duration after intravenous, but not after intra-arterial injections. Intra-arterial injection was possible in all horses and resulted in significantly improved contrast enhancement both quantitatively (P = 0.027) and qualitatively (P = 0.019). Findings from this study indicated that CEUS is a feasible and safe diagnostic test for evaluation of the equine distal limb. Future studies are needed to assess the clinical utility of this test for horses with musculoskeletal diseases. PMID:26765518

  1. Knowledge is key to safety; Plants that poison horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally they are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However, there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Other plants may be eaten by some horses even though they are unpalatable...

  2. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  3. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  4. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  5. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  6. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  7. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  8. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  9. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  10. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  11. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  12. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  13. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  14. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  15. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  16. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  17. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  18. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  19. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  20. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  1. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  2. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  3. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  4. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  5. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  6. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  7. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  8. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  9. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  10. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  11. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  12. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  13. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  14. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  15. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  16. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  17. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  18. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  19. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  20. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  1. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  2. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  3. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  4. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  5. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  6. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  7. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  8. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  9. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  10. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  11. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  12. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  13. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  14. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  15. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  16. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  17. Kaulath, a new fungal fermented food from horse gram.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Minakshee; Vasantha, K Y; Sreerama, Y N; Haware, Devendra J; Singh, R P; Sattur, A P

    2015-12-01

    Horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) is used in the traditional method for treatmentof several health complications. It is also known that fermentation of such substrates yields a number of compounds that enhance the overall activities against several disease states. Solid state fermentation of horse gram using Penicillium camemberti showed an inhibition of pancreatic lipase and alpha glucosidase activities. The fermented material, termed Kaulath, showed 60 % increase in fat content. A reduction in sodium and increased levels of potassium and calcium was observed in Kaulath. In addition, a higher free radical scavenging activity was noted in this product compared to unfermented horse gram. Anti-nutritional factors, such as phytic acid and trypsin inhibitors showed a reduction in Kaulath. Furthermore, Kaulath, upto 1 g per kg body weight, did not exhibit any mortality or toxic effects in experimental rats after 14 days of administration. The hematological and clinical parameters were within safe limits between the groups, supported by the histopathology of liver and kidney. These results indicate potential food use of Kaulath in diets and as functional ingredients in formulated foods. PMID:26604417

  18. Epidemiological survey of equine influenza in horses in India.

    PubMed

    Mavadiya, S V; Raval, S K; Mehta, S A; Kanani, A N; Vagh, A A; Tank, P H; Patel, P R

    2012-12-01

    A highly contagious virus infection in horses, influenza is the single most important equine respiratory disease in the world. This paper presents details of a one-year study (1 June 2008 to 31 May 2009) to determine the prevalence of equine influenza in the horses of Gujarat State in India. The prevalence of equine influenza A/equi-2 was 12.02%, but none of the samples were positive for equine influenza A/equi-1. The prevalence of equine influenza (A/equi-2) was 15.38%, 11.94%, 10.18%, and 9.09% in horses of the Kathiyawari breed, a non-descript breed, the Marwari breed and the Indian Thoroughbred breed, respectively. The highest prevalence of influenza was observed in yearlings (17.48%) and prevalence was at its highest in the month of April (28.89%). The prevalence rate in males, females and geldings was 11.95%, 10.38% and 8.47%, respectively. The mortality rate and case fatality rate were 1.28% and 10.64%, respectively. PMID:23520740

  19. Pathology of Clostridium perfringens type C enterotoxemia in horses.

    PubMed

    Diab, S S; Kinde, H; Moore, J; Shahriar, M F; Odani, J; Anthenill, L; Songer, G; Uzal, F A

    2012-03-01

    Clostridium perfringens type C is an important cause of enteritis and enterocolitis in foals and occasionally in adult horses. The disease is a classic enterotoxemia, and the enteric lesions and systemic effects are caused primarily by beta toxin, 1 of 2 major toxins produced by C. perfringens type C. Until now, only sporadic cases of C. perfringens type C equine enterotoxemia have been reported. We present a comprehensive description of the lesions in 8 confirmed cases of type C enterotoxemia in foals and adult horses. Grossly, multifocal to segmental hemorrhage and thickening of the intestinal wall were most common in the small intestine, although the colon and cecum were also frequently affected. All horses had variable amounts of fluid, often hemorrhagic intestinal contents. The most characteristic microscopic lesion was necrotizing or necrohemorrhagic enteritis, with mucosal and/or submucosal thrombosis. Numerous gram-positive rods were occasionally seen in affected mucosa. A definitive diagnosis of C. perfringens type C enterotoxemia in all 8 cases was based on the clinical history, gross and histologic lesions, and detection of the beta toxin in intestinal contents. PMID:21502373

  20. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel.

    PubMed

    Weese, J Scott

    2004-12-01

    Fortunately, MRSA infection and colonization are currently uncommon in veterinary medicine. Nevertheless, the increasing reports of the occurrence of MRSA infection in horses, veterinarians, and equine personnel dictate that serious consideration be given to the control of this pathogen in veterinary hospitals as well as in the equine community. It is unclear whether extrapolation from human hospitals and people in the community is appropriate; however, given the rapid increase in nosocomial MRSA in human hospitals and the recent shift of certain clones of MRSA into the community, it would be unwise to ignore this potential pathogen. If equine MRSA did, indeed, originate in the human population, complete eradication in the equine population is unlikely, regardless of the prevalence of infection in horses and the intensity of infection control measures, without concurrent eradication of MRSA in the human population, which is surely an impossible feat. Early institution of appropriate surveillance and other infection control measures should be used to attempt to limit the impact of MRSA in veterinary medicine, however. It has been stated, "The time to act is now, before the prevalence of MRSA in the community begins to rise and we end up with 50% of the community strains becoming methicillin-resistant". This statement was directed at control of MRSA in people; however, it is equally relevant in the veterinary context and should receive strong consideration. PMID:15519821

  1. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.

    2008-01-24

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S{sub b}(E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U{sub e} for several two body processes are discussed.

  2. Auricular chondrosis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Bowers, J R; Slocombe, R F

    2009-06-01

    A 4-year-old crossbred, Welsh Mountain Pony gelding was presented with multiple, thick, round, raised, 3 to 8 mm diameter nodular lesions on the medial aspects of both ears. The nodules did not involve the epidermis and were observed to develop over several months. Punch biopsies were taken and histopathological examination returned a diagnosis of auricular chondrosis. Neither auricular chondrosis nor auricular chondritis has been reported in horses, although it has been recorded in cats, dogs, laboratory animals and humans. PMID:19489778

  3. Genetic characterisation of the Uruguayan Creole horse and analysis of relationships among horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L; Postiglioni, A; De Andrés, D F; Vega-Plá, J L; Gagliardi, R; Biagetti, R; Franco, J

    2002-02-01

    The genetic variability within the Uruguayan Creole horse and its relationship to a group of geographically or historically related breeds (Spanish Pure-bred, Barb, Quarter horse, Paso Fino, Peruvian Paso, Arabian and Thoroughbred horse), was evaluated using 25 loci (seven of blood groups, nine of protein polymorphisms and nine microsatellites) analyzed on a total of 145 Uruguayan Creole horses. In this study, blood group and protein polymorphism variants that are considered to be breed markers of Spanish Pure-bred and Barb horses were detected in the Creole breed. Conversely, some microsatellites and protein polymorphisms alleles were found uniquely in the Creole horse. American horse breeds together with Barb and Arabian horses clearly formed a separate cluster from the Spanish pure-bred and Thoroughbred breeds, as shown by an UPGMA dendrogram based on Nei's standard genetic distance. Data in this study provided evidence for considerable genetic variation within Uruguayan Creole horses and of a distinctive breed profile. Both traits were most likely inherited from the XVIth century Spanish horses, more closely related to Barb than to Spanish Pure-bred. PMID:12002640

  4. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

    2015-01-24

    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue. PMID:25376504

  5. Serological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Turkoman horses in the North Khorasan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Razmi, G R; Abedi, V; Yaghfoori, S

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. The infection is observed in an unusually wide range of warm-blooded animals, including most of the livestock and humans. Many studies have shown high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in man and animals in Iran. The present study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Turkoman horses in the North Khorasan Province. During 2011-2012, 100 blood samples from horses were collected and tested for antibodies against toxoplasmosis using indirect fluorescent antibody test. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was detected in 14 % (14) horses. The antibodies titres were detected in the range of 1:20-1:160 dilution. The lowest and highest frequencies of toxoplasmosis were observed in the age groups of <1 year and 1-10 years, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between toxoplasmosis frequencies and gender and usage of horses. With regard to the high frequency of toxoplasmosis in the sampled horses, attention must be paid to the animal health for the control and prophylaxis of the disease. PMID:27413330

  6. Animal Diseases Caused by Orbiviruses, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Hafsa; Casal, Jordi; Alba, Anna; Allepuz, Alberto; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Hafsi, Leila; Kount-Chareb, Houria; Bouayed-Chaouach, Nadera; Saadaoui, Hassiba

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies against bluetongue virus were detected in cattle, sheep, goats, and camels in Algeria in 2008. Antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were detected in cattle, but antibodies against African horse sickness virus were not detected in horses and mules. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in northern Africa poses a major risk for the European Union. PMID:22172371

  7. Horse-rider interaction in dressage riding.

    PubMed

    Münz, Andreas; Eckardt, Falko; Witte, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    In dressage riding the pelvis of the rider interacts with the horse physically. However, there is little information about the influence of riding skill on the interaction of the human pelvis with the horse. Therefore this paper aims to study the interaction between horse and rider in professional riders (PRO) and beginners (BEG). Twenty riders rode in walk, trot, and canter in an indoor riding hall with inertial sensors attached to their pelvis and to the horses' trunk. Statistical analysis of waveform parameters, qualitative interpretation of angle-angle plots, and cross-correlation of horse and rider were applied to the data. Significant differences between PRO and BEG could be found for specific waveform parameters. Over all gaits PRO kept their pelvis closer to the mid-position and further forward whereas BEG tilted their pelvis further to the right and more backwards. The coupling intensity of horse and rider revealed differences between the gaits. Furthermore phase shifts were found between PRO and BEG. This paper describes a sensor-based approach for the investigation of interactions of the human pelvis with the trunk of a horse under in-field conditions. First the results show that the riding level influences the posture of a rider and secondly that differences can be detected with contemporary available sensor technology and methods. PMID:24290612

  8. Bayesian Geostatistical Analysis and Ecoclimatic Determinants of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection among Horses.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Courtney; Davis, Elizabeth G; Beard, Laurie A; Lubbers, Brian V; Raghavan, Ram K

    2015-01-01

    Kansas witnessed an unprecedented outbreak in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection among horses, a disease commonly referred to as pigeon fever during fall 2012. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to identify key environmental and climatic risk factors associated with C. pseudotuberculosis infection in horses. Positive infection status among horses (cases) was determined by positive test results for characteristic abscess formation, positive bacterial culture on purulent material obtained from a lanced abscess (n = 82), or positive serologic evidence of exposure to organism (≥ 1:512)(n = 11). Horses negative for these tests (n = 172)(controls) were considered free of infection. Information pertaining to horse demographics and stabled location were obtained through review of medical records and/or contact with horse owners via telephone. Covariate information for environmental and climatic determinants were obtained from USDA (soil attributes), USGS (land use/land cover), and NASA MODIS and NASA Prediction of Worldwide Renewable Resources (climate). Candidate covariates were screened using univariate regression models followed by Bayesian geostatistical models with and without covariates. The best performing model indicated a protective effect for higher soil moisture content (OR = 0.53, 95% CrI = 0.25, 0.71), and detrimental effects for higher land surface temperature (≥ 35°C) (OR = 2.81, 95% CrI = 2.21, 3.85) and habitat fragmentation (OR = 1.31, 95% CrI = 1.27, 2.22) for C. pseudotuberculosis infection status in horses, while age, gender and breed had no effect. Preventative and ecoclimatic significance of these findings are discussed. PMID:26473728

  9. Reaginic antibodies from horses with recurrent airway obstruction produce mast cell stimulation.

    PubMed

    Moran, G; Folch, H; Henriquez, C; Ortloff, A; Barria, M

    2012-12-01

    Reaginic antibodies (IgE and some IgG subclasses) and mast cells play important roles in the induction of type I immediate hypersensitivity reactions. These antibodies bind through their Fc fragment to high affinity receptors (FcεRI) present in the membrane of mast cells and basophils. The cross-linking of the receptor initiates a coordinated sequence of biochemical and morphological events that results in exocytosis of secretory granules containing pre-formed inflammatory mediators, secretion of newly formed lipid mediators, and secretion of cytokines. Previously, several studies have investigated the role of reaginic antibodies in the pathogenesis of Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO). However, whereas the immunological aspects of RAO have been extensively studied, the precise sequence of events involved in the pathogenesis remains not completely understood, and the role of IgE in this disease remains controversial. Therefore, in this study, several bioassays were conducted to determine whether reaginic antibodies from RAO-affected horses have the ability to activate mast cells. These bioassays involved measuring degranulation of rat peritoneal mast cells, activation of NF-κB and morphological changes in basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3) following incubation with horse serum from RAO-affected horses that were sensitive and insensitive to Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) or from unaffected horses. Our results show that reaginic antibodies from horses sensitive to A. fumigatus were able to degranulate rat peritoneal mast cells. In additon, there was an increase in the activity of the transcription factor NF-κB in RBL-2H3 cells, and morphological changes were observed in these cells once cross-linking was produced. These findings were not found in horses not sensitive to A. fumigatus and healthy horses. These bioassays demonstrate the ability of reaginic antibodies to stimulate mast cells and indicate that these antibodies could be involved in the

  10. Morphologic changes associated with functional adaptation of the navicular bone of horses.

    PubMed

    Bentley, V A; Sample, S J; Livesey, M A; Scollay, M C; Radtke, C L; Frank, J D; Kalscheur, V L; Muir, P

    2007-11-01

    Failure of functional adaptation to protect the skeleton from damage is common and is often associated with targeted remodeling of bone microdamage. Horses provide a suitable model for studying loading-related skeletal disease because horses are physically active, their exercise is usually regulated, and adaptive failure of various skeletal sites is common. We performed a histologic study of the navicular bone of three groups of horses: (1) young racing Thoroughbreds (n = 10); (2) young unshod ponies (n = 10); and (3) older horses with navicular syndrome (n = 6). Navicular syndrome is a painful condition that is a common cause of lameness and is associated with extensive remodeling of the navicular bone; a sesamoid bone located within the hoof which articulates with the second and third phalanges dorsally. The following variables were quantified: volumetric bone mineral density; cortical thickness (Ct.Th); bone volume fraction, microcrack surface density; density of osteocytes and empty lacunae; and resorption space density. Birefringence of bone collagen was also determined using circularly polarized light microscopy and disruption of the lacunocanalicular network was examined using confocal microscopy. Remodeling of the navicular bone resulted in formation of transverse secondary osteons orientated in a lateral to medial direction; bone collagen was similarly orientated. In horses with navicular syndrome, remodeling often led to the formation of intracortical cysts and development of multiple tidemarks at the articular surface. These changes were associated with high microcrack surface density, low bone volume fraction, low density of osteocytes, and poor osteocyte connectivity. Empty lacunae were increased in Thoroughbreds. Resorption space density was not increased in horses with navicular syndrome. Taken together, these data suggest that the navicular bone may experience habitual bending across the sagittal plane. Consequences of cumulative cyclic loading in

  11. Bayesian Geostatistical Analysis and Ecoclimatic Determinants of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection among Horses

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Courtney; Davis, Elizabeth G.; Beard, Laurie A.; Lubbers, Brian V.; Raghavan, Ram K.

    2015-01-01

    Kansas witnessed an unprecedented outbreak in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection among horses, a disease commonly referred to as pigeon fever during fall 2012. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to identify key environmental and climatic risk factors associated with C. pseudotuberculosis infection in horses. Positive infection status among horses (cases) was determined by positive test results for characteristic abscess formation, positive bacterial culture on purulent material obtained from a lanced abscess (n = 82), or positive serologic evidence of exposure to organism (≥1:512)(n = 11). Horses negative for these tests (n = 172)(controls) were considered free of infection. Information pertaining to horse demographics and stabled location were obtained through review of medical records and/or contact with horse owners via telephone. Covariate information for environmental and climatic determinants were obtained from USDA (soil attributes), USGS (land use/land cover), and NASA MODIS and NASA Prediction of Worldwide Renewable Resources (climate). Candidate covariates were screened using univariate regression models followed by Bayesian geostatistical models with and without covariates. The best performing model indicated a protective effect for higher soil moisture content (OR = 0.53, 95% CrI = 0.25, 0.71), and detrimental effects for higher land surface temperature (≥35°C) (OR = 2.81, 95% CrI = 2.21, 3.85) and habitat fragmentation (OR = 1.31, 95% CrI = 1.27, 2.22) for C. pseudotuberculosis infection status in horses, while age, gender and breed had no effect. Preventative and ecoclimatic significance of these findings are discussed. PMID:26473728

  12. Acute kidney injury mediated by oxidative stress in Egyptian horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    el-Ashker, Maged R

    2011-06-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiologic process of acute renal failure associated with exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Egyptian horses. ER was tentatively diagnosed in 31 Baladi horses based on case history, physical examination findings and confirmed by elevation of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and urine myoglobin concentrations. According to severity of the condition, the diseased horses were categorized into two main groups; the first group included 18 horses with minimal clinical signs and plasma CK <60 000 IU/L; whereas, the second group included 13 horses with overt clinical signs and plasma CK >100 000 IU/L). It was found that plasma creatol (CTL) was positively correlated (p < 0.01) with plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) (r = 0.775), nitric oxide (NO) (r = 0.768), methyguanididne (MG) (r = 0.995), CK (r = 0.768), urine glucose (r = 0.778), urine protein (r = 0.767), renal failure index (RFI) (r = 0.814) and urine sodium (r = 0.799) and negatively correlated (p < 0.01) with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (r = -0.795), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (r = -0.815), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (r = -0.675), Vitamin C (r = -0.830), urine creatinine (r = -0.800), urine/plasma creatinine ratio (r = -0.827) and urine/plasma urea ratio (r = -0.807). The correlation between these biochemical variables might suggest a possible role of oxidative stress in renal injury associated with severe rhabdomyolysis in horses. It is suggested that exaggeration of oxidative stress associated with increased muscle membrane leakage plays a key role in acute kidney injury in Baladi horses with severe rhabdomyolysis. PMID:21461642

  13. Ivermectin as an antiparasitic agent in horses.

    PubMed

    Schröder, J; Swan, G E

    1982-06-01

    Ivermectin, described as 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1, was the compound chosen from the avermectin group of compounds for development as an antiparasitic agent in horses. A review of the literature indicates that parenteral administration in horses at 200 microgram/kg body mass is highly effective against the strongyles Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus and triodontophorus spp., and adult and immature cyathostomes, including strains resistant to benzimidazole anthelmintics. Other nematodes controlled in horses include Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Trichostrongylus axei, and Habronema spp. Ivermectin is also highly effective against stomach bots (Gastrophilus spp.). PMID:6750120

  14. Serological survey of African horse sickness in selected districts of Jimma zone, Southwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bitew, Molalegne; Andargie, Ashenafi; Bekele, Mihreteab; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Ayelet, Gelagay; Gelaye, Esayas

    2011-12-01

    A cross-sectional serological survey was undertaken in selected districts of different agro-ecology of Jimma zone (Dedo, Yebu, Seka, Serbo, and Jimma town) from November 2009 to February 2010 to determine the seroprevalence of African horse sickness virus and associated risk factors of the disease. Two hundred seventy-four equids (189 horses, 43 mules, and 47 donkeys) with a history of non-vaccination for at least 2 years were selected randomly from the above areas. Sera samples were collected and assayed for the presence of specific antibody against African horse sickness virus using blocking ELISA. An overall seroprevalence of 89 (32.5%) was found and it was 24 (51.1%) for donkeys, 13 (30.2%) for mules, and 52(28.3%) for horses. Seroprevalence was significantly (X(2) = 11.05, P < 0.05) different among the different species of equids. Seroprevalence was also significantly (X(2) = 11.43, P < 0.05) different among the different agro-ecological areas being higher in highlands 47 (40.5%) followed by midland 30 (34.5%) and lowland 12 (16.9%). Age and sex were not significantly (X(2) = 3.15, P > 0.05 and X(2) = 3.38, P > 0.05, respectively) associated with seroprevalence of AHSV. The present study showed that African horse sickness (AHS) is highly prevalent disease for the horses followed by mules and then donkeys in Jimma zone explained by lower seroconversion rate. Therefore, control strategy against AHS should target at high risk species of all age and sex in their locality in the initial stage for better containment of the disease. PMID:21465102

  15. The epitheliogenesis imperfecta locus maps to equine chromosome 8 in American Saddlebred horses.

    PubMed

    Lieto, L D; Cothran, E G

    2003-01-01

    Epitheliogenesis imperfecta (EI) is a hereditary junctional mechanobullous disease that occurs in newborn American Saddlebred foals. The pathological signs of epitheliogenesis imperfecta closely match a similar disease in humans known as Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa, which is caused by a mutation in one of the genes (LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2) coding for the subunits of the laminin 5 protein (laminin alpha3, laminin beta3 and laminin gamma2). The LAMA3 gene has been assigned to equine chromosome 8 and LAMB3 and LAMC2 have been mapped to equine chromosome 5. Linkage disequilibrium between microsatellite markers that mapped to equine chromosome 5 and equine chromosome 8 and the EI disease locus was tested in American Saddlebred horses. The allele frequencies of microsatellite alleles at 11 loci were determined for both epitheliogenesis imperfecta affected and unaffected populations of American Saddlebred horses by genotyping and direct counting of alleles. These were used to determine fit to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for control and EI populations using Chi square analysis. Two microsatellite loci located on equine chromosome 8q, ASB14 and AHT3, were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in affected American Saddlebred horses. In comparison, all of the microsatellite markers located on equine chromosome 5 were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in affected American Saddlebred horses. This suggested that the EI disease locus was located on equine chromosome 8q, where LAMA3 is also located. PMID:14970704

  16. Efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate in the elimination of Theileria equi in experimentally infected horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theileria equi, one of the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis, is endemic in many regions of the world but is considered a foreign animal disease in the United States. In an effort to exclude T. equi, the U.S. practices stringent serological screening of horses prior to entry. Current regulato...

  17. CORRELATES BETWEEN HUMAN LUNG INJURY AFTER PARTICLE EXPOSURE AND RECURRENT AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION IN THE HORSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characteristics of the clinical presentation, physiologic changes, and pathology of the human response to particulate matter (PM) are comparable to inflammatory airway disease (lAD) and recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)lheaves in the horse. Both present with symptoms of cough,...

  18. Investigation of antigen specific lymphocyte responses in healthy horses vaccinated with an inactivated West Nile virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elizabeth G; Zhang, Yuwen; Tuttle, John; Hankins, Kevin; Wilkerson, Melinda

    2008-12-15

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus capable of causing encephalitic disease in horses. Unvaccinated horses are at risk for developing WNV disease in endemic geographic regions. Effective vaccination reduces disease frequency and diminishes disease severity in vaccinated individuals that become infected with WNV. Recent data indicate CD4+ lymphocytes are required for effective protection against disease; in particular, cross talk between CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes must be functional. The objective of this project was to investigate immune responses in horses throughout a series of three vaccinations using a commercial inactivated vaccine under natural conditions. Immune responses to vaccination were determined by neutralizing antibody titers with plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), IgM titer (capture ELISA), WNV specific antibody Ig subclass responses, WNV lymphocyte proliferative responses and intracellular cytokine expression. Horses were vaccinated with a series of three vaccines at 3-week intervals using an inactivated product. An initial measure of immune activation following vaccination was determined by evaluating changes in lymphocyte cytokine expression. Interferon (IFN) gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 expressing CD4+ lymphocytes significantly increased 14 days following initial vaccination compared to unvaccinated horses (P<0.05). IFN-gamma expressing CD8+ lymphocytes also increased and remained elevated for 110 days. Antigen specific lymphocyte proliferative responses were significantly increased up to 90 days following the third vaccination (P<0.05). As expected, vaccinated horses produced increased neutralizing antibody based on PRNT data and WNV antigen-specific Ig subclass responses compared with unvaccinated horses (P<0.05). Our data indicate that WNV vaccination with an inactivated product effectively induced an antigen-specific antibody responses, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte activation. PMID:18838173

  19. [Health aspects and the duty of care in the rearing of young horses].

    PubMed

    Ahlswede, L

    2000-03-01

    Future competition horses may suffer from health impairments due to complex or partial genetic components as well as to management faults in respects to keeping, feeding and health prophylaxis against infectious diseases. This health risks exist during the whole rearing period: from late pregnancy till far beyond weaning. Health impairments reduce trade value and practical use, and interfere with aspects of animal protection. In the field of breeding permission, first in stallions, applied research ist needed. For horse farms a praxis-oriented comprehensive advisory service should be established. PMID:10774068

  20. [The dangers for public health connected to the consumption of horse meat].

    PubMed

    Magras, C; Fédérighi, M; Soulé, C

    1997-08-01

    After an outline of the ways in which horse meat is produced and consumed, the authors review specific and general risks associated with this product, and methods for the control and prevention of these risks are given. With regard to biological hazards transmitted by horse meat, the relevant zoonoses are considered, followed by a discussion of the two principal agents responsible for foodborne disease in human beings: Salmonella and Trichinella. Among chemical hazards, the toxic effects of cadmium are prominent. Although these hazards can be identified, the actual risks to human health are difficult to estimate, because of the paucity of scientific data. PMID:9501368

  1. Strangles: a pathogenic legacy of the war horse.

    PubMed

    Waller, Andrew S

    2016-01-23

    Strangles, characterised by pyrexia followed by abscessation of the lymph nodes of the head and neck, was first described in 1251 (Rufus 1251) and the causative agent, Streptococcus equi, was identified in 1888 (Schutz 1888). However, despite more than a century of research into this disease, strangles remains the most frequently diagnosed infection of horses with over 600 outbreaks being identified in the UK alone each year (Parkinson and others 2011). Here, Andrew Waller reviews some of the recent advances in the understanding of the evolution of S equi and puts this into the context of preventing and resolving outbreaks of infection. PMID:26795860

  2. 78 FR 58513 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Communicable Diseases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Collection; Communicable Diseases in Horses AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... for the interstate movement of horses that have tested positive for equine infectious anemia. ] DATES... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the regulations for the interstate movement of horses that have...

  3. 75 FR 20559 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Communicable Diseases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... Collection; Communicable Diseases in Horses AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... the interstate movement of horses that have tested positive for equine infectious anemia. DATES: We... for the interstate movement of horses that have tested positive for equine infectious anemia,...

  4. Serological reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs and horses from distinct areas in Romania.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Timea; Cadar, Daniel; Krupaci, Alexandra Florina; Bordeanu, Armela; Brudaşcă, Gheorghe Florinel; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Mircean, Viorica; Gliga, Lucia; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Spînu, Marina

    2011-09-01

    Lyme disease is a perfect model of the complex relationship between host, vector, and the vector-borne bacteria. Both dogs and horses in Romania are exposed to infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the seroreactivity against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs and horses from different regions of Romania. 276 samples from dogs and 260 samples from horses located in different regions of Romania were analyzed by ELISA and IFA, respectively. The effect of several factors potentially affecting seroreactivity (location, age, gender, occupation, and vector exposition risk) was evaluated using Fisher's exact test (R 2.12.0). The overall prevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies was 6.52% (18/276) in dogs, with a significantly higher positivity (46.15%, 6/13, p = 0.0005) recorded in a midcountry region. Seroreactivity was correlated with occupation, with working dogs being more exposed. The results may indicate that Lyme borreliosis foci are restricted to small areas, but further studies on Borrelia prevalence in tick populations are needed to confirm this hypothesis. In horses, a global seroprevalence of 11.92% (31/260) was observed. No correlations were found between positive results and age, sex, county, or occupation. This is the first serological survey on antibodies to B. burgdorferi sensu lato in Romanian dogs and horses. PMID:21612524

  5. A 4103 marker integrated physical and comparative map of the horse genome

    PubMed Central

    Raudsepp, Terje; Gustafson-Seabury, Ashley; Durkin, Keith; Wagner, Michelle L.; Goh, Glenda; Seabury, Christopher M.; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice; Lee, Eun-Joon; Agarwala, Richa; Rice, Edward Stallknecht; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Skow, Loren C.; Tozaki, Teruaki; Yasue, Hiroshi; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Khazanehdari, Kamal A.; Binns, Matthew M.; MacLeod, James N.; Distl, Ottmar; Guérin, Gérard; Leeb, Tosso; Mickelson, James R.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive second-generation whole genome radiation hybrid (RH II), cytogenetic and comparative map of the horse genome (2n=64) has been developed using the 5000rad horse × hamster radiation hybrid panel and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The map contains 4,103 markers (3,816 RH, 1,144 FISH) assigned to all 31 pairs of autosomes and the X chromosome. The RH maps of individual chromosomes are anchored and oriented using 857 cytogenetic markers. The overall resolution of the map is one marker per 775 kilobase-pairs (kb), which represents a more than five-fold improvement over the first-generation map. The RH II incorporates 920 markers shared jointly with the two recently reported meiotic maps. Consequently the two maps were aligned with the RH II maps of individual autosomes and the X chromosome. Additionally, a comparative map of the horse genome was generated by connecting 1,904 loci on the horse map with genome sequences available for eight diverse vertebrates to highlight regions of evolutionarily conserved syntenies, linkages and chromosomal breakpoints. The integrated map thus obtained presents the most comprehensive information on the physical and comparative organization of the equine genome and will assist future assemblies of whole genome BAC fingerprint maps and the genome sequence. It will also serve as a tool to identify genes governing health, disease and performance traits in horses and assist us in understanding the evolution of the equine genome in relation to other species. PMID:18931483

  6. Natural Exposure of Horses to Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses in South-East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Prow, Natalie A.; Tan, Cindy S. E.; Wang, Wenqi; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Kidd, Lisa; Barton, Anita; Wright, John; Hall, Roy A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in south-eastern (SE) Australia following heavy rainfall and severe flooding in the preceding 2–4 months. Less than 6% of the documented cases occurred in Queensland, prompting the question of pre-existing immunity in Queensland horses. A small-scale serological survey was conducted on horses residing in one of the severely flood-affected areas of SE-Queensland. Using a flavivirus-specific blocking-ELISA we found that 63% (39/62) of horses older than 3 years were positive for flavivirus antibodies, and of these 18% (7/38) had neutralizing antibodies to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Kunjin virus (WNVKUN) and/or Alfuy virus (ALFV). The remainder had serum-neutralizing antibodies to viruses in the Kokobera virus (KOKV) complex or antibodies to unknown/untested flaviviruses. Amongst eight yearlings one presented with clinical MVEV-encephalomyelitis, while another, clinically normal, had MVEV-neutralizing antibodies. The remaining six yearlings were flavivirus antibody negative. Of 19 foals born between August and November 2011 all were flavivirus antibody negative in January 2012. This suggests that horses in the area acquire over time active immunity to a range of flaviviruses. Nevertheless, the relatively infrequent seropositivity to MVEV, WNVKUN and ALFV (15%) suggests that factors other than pre-existing immunity may have contributed to the low incidence of arboviral disease in SE-Queensland horses during the 2011 epidemic. PMID:24048209

  7. The importance of vertical transmission of Neospora sp. in naturally infected horses.

    PubMed

    Antonello, Ana Maria; Pivoto, Felipe Lamberti; Camillo, Giovana; Braunig, Patricia; Sangioni, Luis Antonio; Pompermayer, Endrigo; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2012-07-01

    Neospora spp. is a intracellular protozoan phylogenetically closely related to Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, and it can infect horses leading to the development of reproductive or neurological diseases. We determined the presence of antibodies to Neospora sp. in mares at their parturition time and determine the frequency of vertical transmission in healthy foals to verify the importance of transplacental transmission. The samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test, showing that seroprevalence in mares is higher than in foals and seropositive mares are likely to transmit the neosporosis to their offspring. This shows that endogenous challenge occurs in horses, and it suggests that this protozoan can be disseminated by means of transplacental transmission in horse species. PMID:22436425

  8. Retrospective study of the risk factors and prevalence of colic in horses after orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Senior, J M; Pinchbeck, G L; Dugdale, A H A; Clegg, P D

    2004-09-11

    The records of 496 orthopaedic operations on 428 horses were reviewed to estimate the prevalence of, and identify the risk factors for, the development of colic in horses after surgery. Colic was defined as any recognised sign of abdominal pain that could not be attributed to a concurrent disease. Fourteen of the horses developed colic; eight of them were undiagnosed, three were classified as impactions, one as tympanic colic of the colon, one as incarceration of the small intestine in the epiploic foramen, and one as left dorsal displacement of the colon in the nephrosplenic space. Morphine was associated with a four-fold increased risk of colic compared with the use of no opioid or butorphanol, and out-of-hours surgery was also associated with an increased risk. PMID:15470967

  9. Distortion effects in Trojan Horse applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Irgaziev, B.; Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C.

    2012-11-20

    Deuteron induced quasi-free scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades. This was done not only for nuclear structure and processes study but also for the important astrophysical implication (Trojan Horse Method, THM). In particular the width of the neutron momentum distribution in deuteron will be studied as a function of the transferred momentum. The same will be done for other nuclides of possible use as Trojan Horse particles. Trojan horse method applications will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the Trojan horse nucleus is a necessary input for this method. The impact of the width (FWHM) variation on the extraction of the astrophysical S(E)-factor is discussed.

  10. Evidence of the Primary Afferent Tracts Undergoing Neurodegeneration in Horses With Equine Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy Based on Calretinin Immunohistochemical Localization.

    PubMed

    Finno, C J; Valberg, S J; Shivers, J; D'Almeida, E; Armién, A G

    2016-01-01

    Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (EDM) is characterized by a symmetric general proprioceptive ataxia in young horses, and is likely underdiagnosed for 2 reasons: first, clinical signs overlap those of cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy; second, histologic lesions--including axonal spheroids in specific tracts of the somatosensory and motor systems--may be subtle. The purpose of this study was (1) to utilize immunohistochemical (IHC) markers to trace axons in the spinocuneocerebellar, dorsal column-medial lemniscal, and dorsospinocerebellar tracts in healthy horses and (2) to determine the IHC staining characteristics of the neurons and degenerated axons along the somatosensory tracts in EDM-affected horses. Examination of brain, spinal cord, and nerves was performed on 2 age-matched control horses, 3 EDM-affected horses, and 2 age-matched disease-control horses via IHC for calbindin, vesicular glutamate transporter 2, parvalbumin, calretinin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Primary afferent axons of the spinocuneocerebellar, dorsal column-medial lemniscal, and dorsospinocerebellar tracts were successfully traced with calretinin. Calretinin-positive cell bodies were identified in a subset of neurons in the dorsal root ganglia, suggesting that calretinin IHC could be used to trace axonal projections from these cell bodies. Calretinin-immunoreactive spheroids were present in EDM-affected horses within the nuclei cuneatus medialis, cuneatus lateralis, and thoracicus. Neurons within those nuclei were calretinin negative. Cell bodies of degenerated axons in EDM-affected horses are likely located in the dorsal root ganglia. These findings support the role of sensory axonal degeneration in the pathogenesis of EDM and provide a method to highlight tracts with axonal spheroids to aid in the diagnosis of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26253880

  11. Evidence of the Primary Afferent Tracts Undergoing Neurodegeneration in Horses With Equine Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy Based on Calretinin Immunohistochemical Localization

    PubMed Central

    Finno, C. J.; Valberg, S. J.; Shivers, J.; D’Almeida, E.; Armién, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (EDM) is characterized by a symmetric general proprioceptive ataxia in young horses, and is likely underdiagnosed for 2 reasons: first, clinical signs overlap those of cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy; second, histologic lesions—including axonal spheroids in specific tracts of the somatosensory and motor systems—may be subtle. The purpose of this study was (1) to utilize immunohistochemical (IHC) markers to trace axons in the spinocuneocerebellar, dorsal column–medial lemniscal, and dorsospinocerebellar tracts in healthy horses and (2) to determine the IHC staining characteristics of the neurons and degenerated axons along the somatosensory tracts in EDM-affected horses. Examination of brain, spinal cord, and nerves was performed on 2 age-matched control horses, 3 EDM-affected horses, and 2 age-matched disease-control horses via IHC for calbindin, vesicular glutamate transporter 2, parvalbumin, calretinin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Primary afferent axons of the spinocuneocerebellar, dorsal column–medial lemniscal, and dorsospinocerebellar tracts were successfully traced with calretinin. Calretinin-positive cell bodies were identified in a subset of neurons in the dorsal root ganglia, suggesting that calretinin IHC could be used to trace axonal projections from these cell bodies. Calretinin-immunoreactive spheroids were present in EDM-affected horses within the nuclei cuneatus medialis, cuneatus lateralis, and thoracicus. Neurons within those nuclei were calretinin negative. Cell bodies of degenerated axons in EDM-affected horses are likely located in the dorsal root ganglia. These findings support the role of sensory axonal degeneration in the pathogenesis of EDM and provide a method to highlight tracts with axonal spheroids to aid in the diagnosis of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26253880

  12. Embryo technologies in the horse.

    PubMed

    Squires, E L; Carnevale, E M; McCue, P M; Bruemmer, J E

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that zwitterionic buffers could be used for satisfactory storage of equine embryos at 5 degrees C. The success of freezing embryos is dependent upon size and stage of development. Morulae and blastocysts <300 microm can be slowly cooled or vitrified with acceptable pregnancy rates after transfer. The majority of equine embryos are collected from single ovulating mares, as there is no commercially available product for superovulation in equine. However, pituitary extract, rich in FSH, can be used to increase embryo recovery three- to four-fold. Similar to human medicine, assisted reproductive techniques have been developed for the older, subfertile mare. Transfer of in vivo-matured oocytes from young, healthy mares into a recipient's oviduct results in a 70-80% pregnancy rate compared with a 30-40% pregnancy rate when the oocytes are from older, subfertile mares. This procedure can also be used to evaluate in vitro maturation systems. In vitro production of embryos is still quite difficult in the horse. However, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been used to produce several foals. Cleavage rates of 60% and blastocyst rates of 30% have been reported after ICSI of in vitro-matured oocytes. Gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT) is a possible treatment for subfertile stallions. Transfer of in vivo-matured oocytes with 200,000 sperm into the oviduct of normal mares resulted in a pregnancy rate of 55-82%. Oocyte freezing is a technique that has proven difficult in most species. However, equine oocytes vitrified in a solution of ethylene glycol, DMSO, and Ficoll and loaded onto a cryoloop resulted in three pregnancies of 26 transfers and two live foals produced. Production of a cloned horse appears to be likely, as several cloned pregnancies have recently been produced. PMID:12499026

  13. Reconciling Horse Welfare, Worker Safety, and Public Expectations: Horse Event Incident Management Systems in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Julie M.; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Although often highly rewarding, human-horse interactions can also be dangerous. Using examples from equine and other contexts, this article acknowledges the growing public awareness of animal welfare, work underway towards safer equestrian workplaces, and the potential for adapting large animal rescue skills for the purposes of horse event incident management. Additionally, we identity the need for further research into communication strategies that address animal welfare and safety issues that arise when humans and horses interact in the workplace. Abstract Human-horse interactions have a rich tradition and can be highly rewarding, particularly within sport and recreation pursuits, but they can also be dangerous or even life-threatening. In parallel, sport and recreation pursuits involving animals, including horses, are facing an increased level of public scrutiny in relation to the use of animals for these purposes. However, the challenge lies with event organisers to reconcile the expectations of the public, the need to meet legal requirements to reduce or eliminate risks to paid and volunteer workers, and address horse welfare. In this article we explore incident management at horse events as an example of a situation where volunteers and horses can be placed at risk during a rescue. We introduce large animal rescue skills as a solution to improving worker safety and improving horse welfare outcomes. Whilst there are government and horse industry initiatives to improve safety and address animal welfare, there remains a pressing need to invest in a strong communication plan which will improve the safety of workplaces in which humans and horses interact. PMID:26927189

  14. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes) from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus) were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region) were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski) using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73%) already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the time depth of the

  15. A retrospective study of nineteen ataxic horses

    PubMed Central

    Nappert, Germain; Vrins, André; Breton, Luc; Beauregard, Michel

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study of 19 ataxic horses admitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Montreal during the period of January 1985 to December 1988 is presented. There were 11 cases of cervical vertebral malformation, four of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy, two of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, one each of vertebral osteomyelitis and intervertebral disc protrusion. The clinical diagnosis of ataxia in horses requires neurological, radiographic, myelographic, and laboratory examinations. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17423438

  16. Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

  17. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in working horses.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, M; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Esmaeili-Sani, S

    2010-01-01

    Fecal samples for detection of gastrointestinal parasites were collected from 221 working horses from September 2002 to May 2003 from 14 villages in Urmia, North West of Iran. Fecal samples of 46 horses (20.8%) were negative for parasite eggs or oocysts. One hundred and seventy five positive horses (48.9%) were infected with a single parasite type and 49 (22.2%) and 18 (8.1%) of horses had multiple infections with two and three parasites, respectively. The highest prevalence and intensity rate belonged to small strongyles. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites eggs and oocyst in the positive horses were: strongyles 72.9%, Oxyuris equi 22.6%, Parascaris equorum 12.2%, Anoplocephalidae 6.3%, Fasciola spp. 3.2% and Eimeria leuckarti 0.5%. Larval identification showed that small strongyle larvae were most frequent (97.6%) followed by Strongylus edentatus (22.6%), S. equinus (18.5%) and S. vulgaris (6.5%). This study suggests that the high rate of infection with gastrointestinal parasites could contribute to low performance and life expectancy of working horses in the region. PMID:20731187

  18. Lateral vision in horses: a behavioral investigation.

    PubMed

    Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated lateral vision in horses (Equus caballus) for the first time from a behavioral point of view. Three horses were tested using a novel experimental design to determine the range of their lateral and caudolateral vision with respect to stimulus detection and discrimination. Real-life stimuli were presented along a curvilinear wall in one of four different positions (A, B, C, D) and one of two height locations (Top, Bottom) on both sides of the horse. To test for stimulus detection, the correct stimulus was paired against a control; for stimulus discrimination, the correct stimulus was paired against another object. To indicate that the correct stimulus was detected or discriminated, the horses pushed one of two paddles. All horses scored significantly above chance on stimulus detection trials regardless of stimulus position or location. They also accurately discriminated between stimuli when objects appeared in positions A, B, and C for the top or bottom locations; however, they failed to discriminate these stimuli at position D. This study supports physiological descriptions of the equine eye and provides new behavioral data showing that horses can detect the appearance of objects within an almost fully encompassing circle and are able to identify objects within most but not all of their panoramic field of view. PMID:22698758

  19. Reconciling Horse Welfare, Worker Safety, and Public Expectations: Horse Event Incident Management Systems in Australia.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Julie M; McGreevy, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Human-horse interactions have a rich tradition and can be highly rewarding, particularly within sport and recreation pursuits, but they can also be dangerous or even life-threatening. In parallel, sport and recreation pursuits involving animals, including horses, are facing an increased level of public scrutiny in relation to the use of animals for these purposes. However, the challenge lies with event organisers to reconcile the expectations of the public, the need to meet legal requirements to reduce or eliminate risks to paid and volunteer workers, and address horse welfare. In this article we explore incident management at horse events as an example of a situation where volunteers and horses can be placed at risk during a rescue. We introduce large animal rescue skills as a solution to improving worker safety and improving horse welfare outcomes. Whilst there are government and horse industry initiatives to improve safety and address animal welfare, there remains a pressing need to invest in a strong communication plan which will improve the safety of workplaces in which humans and horses interact. PMID:26927189

  20. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment. PMID:27029609

  1. Heart rate variability after horse trekking in leading and following horses.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Akihiro; Tanaka, Masaya; Irimajiri, Mami; Yamazaki, Atusi; Nakanowatari, Toshihiko; Hodate, Koichi

    2010-10-01

    Horse trekking (HT) is having a stroll on a horse along a walking trail in a forest, field, and/or sandy beach. Generally in HT, horses exercise in tandem line outside the riding facilities. Because the leading horse will be confronted with stressors in the forefront, we hypothesized that the leading horse shows higher stress responses than the following one. In order to verify the hypothesis, we compared short-term stress responses between each position in six horses. Exercise consisted of 15 min of ground riding and 45 min of HT with walking and trotting. Heart rate variability was analyzed for 5 min at 30, 60, and 90 min after the exercising period. There was no significant difference in heart rate during exercise between leading and following positions. The high frequency / low frequency power band of heart rate variability, an index of sympathetic nervous activity, after exercise, tended to be higher in the leading position than following one (P < 0.1). The result in this study can suggest that the leading horse was in a higher stressed state than the following horse after HT. PMID:20887317

  2. Comparison between the robo-horse and real horse movements for hippotherapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji H; Shurtleff, Timothy; Engsberg, Jack; Rafferty, Sandy; You, Joshua Y; You, Isaac Y; You, Sung H

    2014-01-01

    While the novel robotic hippotherapy system has gradually gained clinical application for therapeutic intervention on postural and locomotor control in individuals with neurological or musculoskeletal impairments, the system's validity and reliability for the robotic hippotherapy system has not been well established. The objective of the current study was to investigate the validity and test-retest reliability of the robotic hippotherapy system by comparing with real horse movements. The 3-axis accelerometer sensors attached on the robotic and real horse saddles were used to collect 3-dimensional acceleration data at a preferred walking velocity. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation in the time-to-peak acceleration (TPA) (R(2)=0.997), but little correlation in X-axis acceleration between the real and robotic horses (R(2)=0.177), thus confirming consistent time control and a certain degree of variability between the robotic and real horse movements. The mean resultant accelerations for a real horse and robotic horse were 3.22 m/s(2) and 0.67 m/s(2), respectively, accounting for almost five times greater acceleration in the real horse than the robotic horse. PMID:25226963

  3. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... management. On May 27, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 30864- 30868, Docket No. APHIS-2011... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum Penalties for Violations AGENCY: Animal...

  4. WAR HORSE and IRON HORSE at Camp Shelby: data collection and associated processing results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellman, Christopher M.; Olchowski, Frederick M.; Hazel, Geoffrey G.; Allman, E. C.; Surratt, M. L.

    2003-09-01

    The following paper describes a recent data collection exercise in which the WAR HORSE visible-near-infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor and IRON HORSE short-wave-infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor were employed in the collection of wide-area hyperspectral data sets. A preliminary analysis of the data has been performed and results are discussed.

  5. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sergeant, Evan S.

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41). This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012) assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country. PMID:26986002

  6. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, Evan S; Grewar, John D; Weyer, Camilla T; Guthrie, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41). This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012) assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country. PMID:26986002

  7. Seroprevalence and factors associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 in Spanish Purebred horses in Spain.

    PubMed

    Cruz, F; Fores, P; Mughini-Gras, L; Ireland, J; Moreno, M A; Newton, J R

    2016-04-16

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and type 4 (EHV-4) have a worldwide distribution and cause respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal death and myeloencephalopathy in susceptible horses. Given the scarcity of serological EHV-1/EHV-4 data in Spain, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the seroprevalence of EHV-1/EHV-4 and to identify potential horse-level and stud farm-level factors associated with EHV-1/EHV-4 in the breeding Spanish Purebred (SP) horse population in central Spain. Serum samples from 334 SP unvaccinated horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 at 30 stud farms, were tested using a commercially available EHV-1/EHV-4 antibody ELISA and seroneutralisation as the World Organisation for Animal Health reference confirmation test. Data on factors putatively associated with seropositivity to EHV-1/EHV-4 were collected via a questionnaire and examined using logistic regression analysis. EHV-1/EHV-4 seroprevalence in the SP breeding population in central Spain, standardised for the sex distribution of the reference horse population, was 53.9 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval 44.0 per cent to 63.8 per cent). Increasing age, southern location of the stud farm, temperate climate during the summer, and a smaller surface area used for breeding activities in the farm were associated with increased odds for EHV-1/EHV-4 seropositivity, whereas EHV-1/EHV-4 vaccination of other resident horses and separation of breeding mares from youngsters were protective factors. PMID:26984900

  8. Hand placement techniques in long horse vaulting.

    PubMed

    Kerwin, D G; Harwood, M J; Yeadon, M R

    1993-08-01

    In this study, the effects of two different hand placement techniques used by gymnasts to perform Tsukahara and Kasamatsu long horse vaults were examined. Selected linear and angular flight descriptors were calculated to determine whether those gymnasts making initial hand contact on the end of the horse gained additional lift, range or rotation when compared to those gymnasts making the more traditional initial hand contact on top of the horse. Three-dimensional cine-film analysis using the Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) was used to obtain data on 17 elite gymnasts competing in the 1991 World Student Games at Sheffield, UK. The gymnasts were divided into two groups according to the techniques used: group E in which the first hand contact was made on the vertical surface of the near end and the second on the top of the horse, and group T in which both hands were placed on top of the horse. The vertical and horizontal motion of each gymnast's mass centre and the somersault rotation during pre-flight (board take-off to horse contact) and post-flight (horse take-off to ground landing) were determined. The projections of linear displacements of each gymnast's mass centre onto a vertical plane were determined from the three-dimensional mass centre co-ordinates, and somersault angles were calculated using the line joining the midpoints of each gymnast's shoulders and knees. Whole body mass centre linear velocity and somersault angular velocity were determined using quintic splines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8230392

  9. 5. Log draft horse barn. Detail of west side showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log draft horse barn. Detail of west side showing Dutch door and square notching at wall corner. View to east. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Draft Horse Barn, 290 feet southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  10. 22. VIEW SHOWING THE COMPLETED HORSE MESA DAM, EXCEPT FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SHOWING THE COMPLETED HORSE MESA DAM, EXCEPT FOR TRANSFORMER EQUIPMENT BEING INSTALLED ABOVE THE POWER PLANT 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. 24. CLOSEUP VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM. HEFU PENSTOCK IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM. HEFU PENSTOCK IS AT CENTER RIGHT, AND LEFT (OR SOUTH) SPILLWAY CHUTE IS AT UPPER RIGHT - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; U.S. Highway 58 (toward Martinsville) is in the foreground - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  13. 6. VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING CONCRETE BEING PLACED. PENSTOCK OPENINGS ARE VISIBLE AT CENTER LEFT. August 24, 1926 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER PLANT, LOOKING NORTH. ONLY TWO OF THE THREE UNITS ARE VISIBLE - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 23. VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM, SHOWING SPILLWAY DISCHARGE TUNNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM, SHOWING SPILLWAY DISCHARGE TUNNEL AT LEFT, RIGHT (OR NORTH) SPILLWAY, HEFU POWER UNIT, AND ORIGINAL POWER PLANT - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Context with Building 18, view to northwest. Hungry Horse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context with Building 18, view to northwest. - Hungry Horse Village, Maintenance Shop, Approximately 1 mile south of Highway 2 East & 1/4 mile east of Colorado Boulevard, Hungry Horse, Flathead County, MT

  17. Detail, drivethrough under hoppers, view to southeast. Hungry Horse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, drive-through under hoppers, view to southeast. - Hungry Horse Village, Timber Sand Bunker, Approximately 1 mile south of Highway 2 East & 1/4 mile east of Colorado Boulevard, Hungry Horse, Flathead County, MT

  18. 20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE AND CONCRETE PLACEMENT LINES August 2, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors Associated with Neospora spp. Infection among Asymptomatic Horses in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q.; Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Rutley, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Neospora spp. infection in horses in Jordan. Management related data were collected from each farm and individual horses. Sera from 227 horses from 5 of 6 climatic regions in Jordan were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to Neospora spp. by ELISA kit. The study was performed during spring of 2010. The association between seropositivity and risk factors was analyzed. A total of 7 (3%) of 227 sera had antibodies for Neospora spp. There was a significant regional difference (P=0.018) between the 5 climatic regions. Positive cases were located in Amman and Irbid, while the other regions (Zarqa, Jordan Valley, and Wadi Mousa) had zero prevalence. The use of anthelmintics at least once a year resulted in a significant reduction of the seroprevalence to Neospora spp. (1.6% vs 9.8%). However, this might be a phenomenon by chance and a better hygiene since owners can invest in anthelmintics. Other risk factors such as age, gender, breed, usage, body condition score, grazing, presence of other animals mixed with the horses in the same property, and a history of previous diseases were not significantly associated with the seroprevalence to Neospora spp. infection. This is the first study to report on the presence of Neospora seropositive horses in Jordan. Further studies are warranted to better understand the role of certain risk factors in the transmission of Neospora spp. among horse population and to determine which Neospora spp. are responsible for the infection. PMID:25925174

  20. Validation of a novel translumbar ultrasound technique for measuring renal dimensions in horses.

    PubMed

    Habershon-Butcher, Jocelyn; Bowen, Mark; Hallowell, Gayle

    2014-01-01

    A reliable method for obtaining renal ultrasonographic measurements in the horse is important for diagnosis and monitoring of clinical renal disease. The aims of this prospective study were to develop and validate a novel translumbar ultrasound technique for measuring renal dimensions in horses. Six Thoroughbred or Thoroughbred part bred horses were recruited. All horses were scheduled for euthanasia due to reasons unrelated to the kidneys. Two observers recorded renal length, width, and depth; and dimensions of the cortex, medulla, pyramids, and pelvis for both kidneys in each horse using novel translumbar and conventional transabdominal ultrasound methods. The same measurements were recorded from post-mortem renal specimens. Both kidneys were consistently identified by both methods in the 15-17th intercostal spaces and paralumbar fossa. Using the translumbar technique, maximal dimensions were obtained for the left kidney in the 16th intercostal space (length 16.2 ± 2.0 cm, width 11.8 ± 0.5 cm, depth 6.4 ± 0.9 cm) and for the right kidney in the 15th intercostal space (length 16.1 ± 1.2 cm, width 13.4 ± 1.2 cm, depth 6.7 ± 0.7 cm). Renal dimensions obtained by transabdominal and translumbar projections did not differ (P > 0.05). Good correlations were found between overall renal dimensions and post-mortem measurements for both ultrasound techniques (r(2) > 0.8), but were better for the translumbar method (mean r(2) = 0.92 cf. 0.88). Good-to-excellent reliability was found for all translumbar ultrasound measurements except for the renal cortex. Reproducibility was better for the larger (overall length, width, and depth) than the smaller (cortex, medulla, and pyramids) structures. Findings indicated that translumbar ultrasonography is a valid method for measuring renal dimensions in horses. PMID:24118511

  1. [Assessment of hereditary defects and dispositions of the horse under animal welfare aspects].

    PubMed

    Mählmann, Ch; Steiger, A

    2009-04-01

    Persons involved in equine breeding, namely veterinarians, horse breeders and breeding association judges, often lack of an apropriate consciousness about the relevance of heritability or supposed heritability of common horses diseases, which might play a distinctive role in the aetiology of numerous of these diseases. Executing animal welfare rights in equine breeding, the major concern should focus on an objective evaluation of pain, suffering and damages caused by different hereditary diseases. The basis of assessment for hygienic breeding has to be defi ned according to the actual animal welfare rights throughout guidelines, established by the state and by breeding associations. Hereditary diseases scientifi cally proven as relevant for animal welfare matters or including a potential risk of pain, suffering or damage, should be regarded as essential criterion in horse breeding. In this context following diseases have to be mentioned in particular: Osteochondritis dissecans, deep fl exor tendon contracture in the foal, navicular disease, tarsal osteoarthritis, hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, Overo-lethal-white- foal-syndrome. PMID:19333900

  2. [Keeping of horses in circus and show businesses].

    PubMed

    Pollmann, U

    2002-03-01

    The conditions under which horses are kept and the performance of acts in the circus ring may give rise to animal protection-relevant aspects for circus and show horses. A number of intolerable conditions under which horses are kept and procedures adopted for the work with circus and show horses are described. In addition, attention is drawn to monitoring methods capable of exposing the deplorable shortcomings of these businesses. PMID:11963363

  3. Genetic diversity and conservation in a small endangered horse population.

    PubMed

    Janova, Eva; Futas, Jan; Klumplerova, Marie; Putnova, Lenka; Vrtkova, Irena; Vyskocil, Mirko; Frolkova, Petra; Horin, Petr

    2013-08-01

    The Old Kladruber horses arose in the 17th century as a breed used for ceremonial purposes. Currently, grey and black coat colour varieties exist as two sub-populations with different recent breeding history. As the population underwent historical bottlenecks and intensive inbreeding, loss of genetic variation is considered as the major threat. Therefore, genetic diversity in neutral and non-neutral molecular markers was examined in the current nucleus population. Fifty microsatellites, 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immunity-related genes, three mutations in coat colour genes and one major histocompatibility (MHC-DRA) gene were studied for assessing genetic diversity after 15 years of conservation. The results were compared to values obtained in a similar study 13 years ago. The extent of genetic diversity of the current population was comparable to other breeds, despite its small size and isolation. The comparison between 1997 and 2010 did not show differences in the extent of genetic diversity and no loss of allele richness and/or heterozygosity was observed. Genetic differences identified between the black and grey sub-populations observed 13 years ago persisted. Deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium found in 19 microsatellite loci and in five SNP loci are probably due to selective breeding. No differences between neutral and immunity-related markers were found. No changes in the frequencies of markers associated with two diseases, melanoma and insect bite hypersensitivity, were observed, due probably to the short interval of time between comparisons. It, thus, seems that, despite its small size, previous bottlenecks and inbreeding, the molecular variation of Old Kladruber horses is comparable to other horse breeds and that the current breeding policy does not compromise genetic variation of this endangered population. PMID:23649723

  4. Highly athletic terrestrial mammals: horses and dogs.

    PubMed

    Poole, David C; Erickson, Howard H

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary forces drive beneficial adaptations in response to a complex array of environmental conditions. In contrast, over several millennia, humans have been so enamored by the running/athletic prowess of horses and dogs that they have sculpted their anatomy and physiology based solely upon running speed. Thus, through hundreds of generations, those structural and functional traits crucial for running fast have been optimized. Central among these traits is the capacity to uptake, transport and utilize oxygen at spectacular rates. Moreover, the coupling of the key systems--pulmonary-cardiovascular-muscular is so exquisitely tuned in horses and dogs that oxygen uptake response kinetics evidence little inertia as the animal transitions from rest to exercise. These fast oxygen uptake kinetics minimize Intramyocyte perturbations that can limit exercise tolerance. For the physiologist, study of horses and dogs allows investigation not only of a broader range of oxidative function than available in humans, but explores the very limits of mammalian biological adaptability. Specifically, the unparalleled equine cardiovascular and muscular systems can transport and utilize more oxygen than the lungs can supply. Two consequences of this situation, particularly in the horse, are profound exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia and hypercapnia as well as structural failure of the delicate blood-gas barrier causing pulmonary hemorrhage and, in the extreme, overt epistaxis. This chapter compares and contrasts horses and dogs with humans with respect to the structural and functional features that enable these extraordinary mammals to support their prodigious oxidative and therefore athletic capabilities. PMID:23737162

  5. Staphylococcus aureus colonization in healthy horses in Atlantic Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Shelly; Reid-Smith, Richard; McClure, J. Trenton; Weese, J. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization was not identified in any of 497 horses from Atlantic Canada. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated from a subsample of 19/242 (7.9%) horses. Colonization with MSSA is relatively common in healthy horses in Atlantic Canada, but MRSA is currently rare or absent. PMID:18978975

  6. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO ENCEPHALITOZOON CUNICULI IN HORSES IN BRAZIL.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi has been associated with natural cases of abortion and still-birth in horses. However, little is known abut the prevalence of this parasite in horses. We examined serva from 559 horses from Brazil for antibodies to E. cuniculi using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody ...

  7. Infection with Possible Novel Parapoxvirus in Horse, Finland, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Hautaniemi, Maria; Syrjä, Pernilla; Knuuttila, Anna; Putkuri, Niina; Coulter, Lesley; McInnes, Colin J.; Vapalahti, Olli; Huovilainen, Anita; Kinnunen, Paula M.

    2016-01-01

    A horse in Finland exhibited generalized granulomatous inflammation and severe proliferative dermatitis. After euthanization, we detected poxvirus DNA from a skin lesion sample. The virus sequence grouped with parapoxviruses, closely resembling a novel poxvirus detected in humans in the United States after horse contact. Our findings indicate horses may be a reservoir for zoonotic parapoxvirus. PMID:27315302

  8. Impacts of feral horse use on rangelands and riparian areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feral (wild) horse impacts on rangelands and riparian areas are largely unknown. The impacts of feral horses are often indistinguishable from domestic livestock impacts because livestock grazing occurs across most horse herd management areas. However, the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge has a lar...

  9. Passive surveillance for ticks on horses in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Schvartz, Gili; Epp, Tasha; Burgess, Hilary J.; Chilton, Neil B.; Armstrong, James S.; Lohmann, Katharina L.

    2015-01-01

    Passive surveillance of ticks on horses in Saskatchewan revealed that the horses were parasitized by 3 species, Dermacentor albipictus, D. andersoni, and D. variabilis. The nymphs and adults of D. albipictus occurred on horses earlier in the year than did adults of the 2 other species. PMID:25969582

  10. Infection with Possible Novel Parapoxvirus in Horse, Finland, 2013.

    PubMed

    Airas, Niina; Hautaniemi, Maria; Syrjä, Pernilla; Knuuttila, Anna; Putkuri, Niina; Coulter, Lesley; McInnes, Colin J; Vapalahti, Olli; Huovilainen, Anita; Kinnunen, Paula M

    2016-07-01

    A horse in Finland exhibited generalized granulomatous inflammation and severe proliferative dermatitis. After euthanization, we detected poxvirus DNA from a skin lesion sample. The virus sequence grouped with parapoxviruses, closely resembling a novel poxvirus detected in humans in the United States after horse contact. Our findings indicate horses may be a reservoir for zoonotic parapoxvirus. PMID:27315302

  11. A zoonotic genotype of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in an equid species. Feces from 195 horses from four locations in Colombia were examined for E. bieneusi by PCR. Of these, 21 horses (10.8 percent) were found positive for E. bieneusi. The prevalence of E. bieneusi in horses <1 yr of age was signif...

  12. Impacts of feral horse use on rangelands and riparian areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feral (wild) horse impacts on rangelands and riparian areas are largely unknown. The impacts of feral horses are often indistinguishable from domestic livestock impacts because livestock grazing occurs across most horse herd management areas. However, the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge has a large...

  13. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals... horses or pack animals outside of trails, routes or areas designated for their use. (c) The use of...

  14. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited... equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails, routes or areas designated for their...

  15. 76 FR 55107 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and..., free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public lands. DATES: The Advisory Board will meet...

  16. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited... equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails, routes or areas designated for their...

  17. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited... equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails, routes or areas designated for their...

  18. 76 FR 7231 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a meeting on matters pertaining to management and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public lands. DATES: The Advisory...

  19. 75 FR 26990 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board (Board) will be conducting a public workshop and meeting on the BLM's management of wild horses and burros. This will be a two day event. Monday, June 14, 2010, will...

  20. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals... horses or pack animals outside of trails, routes or areas designated for their use. (c) The use of...

  1. Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, David

    2014-05-01

    Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

  2. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited... equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails, routes or areas designated for their...

  3. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals... horses or pack animals outside of trails, routes or areas designated for their use. (c) The use of...

  4. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals... horses or pack animals outside of trails, routes or areas designated for their use. (c) The use of...

  5. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals... horses or pack animals outside of trails, routes or areas designated for their use. (c) The use of...

  6. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited... equipment. (b) The use of horses or pack animals outside of trails, routes or areas designated for their...

  7. 78 FR 46599 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and..., 2013, Advisory Board meeting can be mailed to National Wild Horse and Burro Program, WO-260,...

  8. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all. PMID:22767092

  9. Horse species symposium: contagious equine metritis: an insidious threat to the horse breeding industry in the United States.

    PubMed

    Timoney, P J

    2011-05-01

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM) has given rise to international concern since it was first recognized as a novel venereal disease of equids in 1977 and the etiologic agent was identified as a previously undescribed bacterium, Taylorella equigenitalis. Horse industry concerns over CEM centered on the ease with which this bacterium could be disseminated, the significance of T. equigenitalis as a cause of short-term infertility in the mare, and the existence of the carrier state in the stallion and the mare. The first known outbreak of CEM in the United States was in Kentucky in 1978. The economic impact on the Thoroughbred industry in the state was substantial. Before 2008, additional small-scale outbreaks occurred in Missouri in 1979, Kentucky in 1982, and Wisconsin in 2006, nearly all attributed to the importation of carrier animals. On each occasion, appropriate measures were taken to eliminate the infection, resulting in the United States regaining its CEM-free status. With the exception of the 1978 occurrence in Kentucky, none of the subsequent outbreaks significantly affected the horse industry. That changed dramatically in 2008, however, after the discovery of a Quarter horse stallion in Kentucky that cultured positive. Subsequent investigations turned up 23 carrier stallions and 5 carrier mares belonging to 11 breeds and located in 8 states. Shipment of infective semen and indirect venereal contact in stallion collection centers through the use of contaminated fomites were major factors in the spread of T. equigenitalis. Trace-back investigations of some 1,005 exposed and carrier stallions and mares in 48 states have failed to identify the origin of this latest CEM event. Neither clinical evidence of CEM nor decreased pregnancy rates were reportedly a feature in infected or exposed mares. In light of these findings, there was some question of whether or not the considerable expense incurred in investigating the latest CEM occurrence was warranted. Regaining

  10. Skeletal atavism in a miniature horse.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Reid; Graham, John P; Colahan, Patrick T; Berry, Clifford R

    2004-01-01

    An 8-month-old miniature horse filly was presented for evaluation of severe rotational and angular limb deformities of the thoracic and pelvic limbs. On radiographic examination, complete ulnas and fibulas were identified. These findings are consistent with a condition previously described as a form of atavism. The term atavism is used to describe the reappearance of a trait or character that was seen in all earlier evolutionary specimens of a particular species, but has not been seen in recent ancestors. The atavistic traits of complete ulnas and fibulas have previously been described in Welsh and Shetland Ponies, all of which had severe rotational and angular limb deformities. In this horse, bilateral osteochondritis dissecans of the medial trochlear ridge of the talii were also identified. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the atavistic traits of complete ulnas and fibulas seen in the miniature horse. PMID:15373256

  11. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10.66 Section 10.66 Customs... Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for...

  12. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10.66 Section 10.66 Customs... Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for...

  13. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10.66 Section 10.66 Customs... Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for...

  14. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10.66 Section 10.66 Customs... Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for...

  15. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10.66 Section 10.66 Customs... Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for...

  16. RNA sequencing as a powerful tool in searching for genes influencing health and performance traits of horses.

    PubMed

    Stefaniuk, Monika; Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) by next-generation technology is a powerful tool which creates new possibilities in whole-transcriptome analysis. In recent years, with the use of the RNA-seq method, several studies expanded transcriptional gene profiles to understand interactions between genotype and phenotype, supremely contributing to the field of equine biology. To date, in horses, massive parallel sequencing of cDNA has been successfully used to identify and quantify mRNA levels in several normal tissues, as well as to annotate genes. Moreover, the RNA-seq method has been applied to identify the genetic basis of several diseases or to investigate organism adaptation processes to the training conditions. The use of the RNA-seq approach has also confirmed that horses can be useful as a large animal model for human disease, especially in the field of immune response. The presented review summarizes the achievements of profiling gene expression in horses (Equus caballus). PMID:26446669

  17. Inoculation of Goats, Sheep, and Horses with MERS-CoV Does Not Result in Productive Viral Shedding

    PubMed Central

    Adney, Danielle R.; Brown, Vienna R.; Porter, Stephanie M.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E.; Bowen, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first recognized in 2012 and can cause severe disease in infected humans. Dromedary camels are the reservoir for the virus, although, other than nasal discharge, these animals do not display any overt clinical disease. Data from in vitro experiments suggest that other livestock such as sheep, goats, and horses might also contribute to viral transmission, although field data has not identified any seropositive animals. In order to understand if these animals could be infected, we challenged young goats and horses and adult sheep with MERS-CoV by intranasal inoculation. Minimal or no virus shedding was detected in all of the animals. During the four weeks following inoculation, neutralizing antibodies were detected in the young goats, but not in sheep or horses. PMID:27548203

  18. Inoculation of Goats, Sheep, and Horses with MERS-CoV Does Not Result in Productive Viral Shedding.

    PubMed

    Adney, Danielle R; Brown, Vienna R; Porter, Stephanie M; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first recognized in 2012 and can cause severe disease in infected humans. Dromedary camels are the reservoir for the virus, although, other than nasal discharge, these animals do not display any overt clinical disease. Data from in vitro experiments suggest that other livestock such as sheep, goats, and horses might also contribute to viral transmission, although field data has not identified any seropositive animals. In order to understand if these animals could be infected, we challenged young goats and horses and adult sheep with MERS-CoV by intranasal inoculation. Minimal or no virus shedding was detected in all of the animals. During the four weeks following inoculation, neutralizing antibodies were detected in the young goats, but not in sheep or horses. PMID:27548203

  19. Thoracic radiographic features of silicosis in 19 horses.

    PubMed

    Berry, C R; O'Brien, T R; Madigan, J E; Hager, D A

    1991-01-01

    Clinical records and thoracic radiographs of 19 horses with a confirmed pathologic diagnosis of silicosis were reviewed. These horses had histories of varying degrees of chronic weight loss, exercise intolerance, and respiratory distress. At the time of presentation, two horses were asymptomatic. Ten horses were geldings and nine were female. The mean age of the 19 horses was 10.7 +/- 5.5 years. Fourteen horses were identified as being from the Monterey-Carmel Peninsula of midcoastal California. An abnormal, structured interstitial pulmonary pattern was identified on thoracic radiographs in each horse. The interstitial pulmonary changes were classified as miliary (13 horses), reticulonodular (4), or linear interstitial (2), and were best visualized dorsally and caudodorsally. In addition to the abnormal interstitial pulmonary pattern, areas of pulmonary consolidation were evident caudodorsally in seven horses. Other thoracic radiographic features included: hilar lymphadenopathy (4 horses), pleural effusion/thickening (4), cranial mediastinal lymphadenopathy (2), hyperinflation (1), and a discrete pulmonary mass (1). Necropsy findings in eight horses and results of lung biopsies in an additional five horses showed a diffuse, multifocal, granulomatous pneumonia with areas of pulmonary fibrosis. Cellular infiltrates included predominantly macrophages with intracellular and/or extracellular crystalline material, occasional lymphocytes, and giant cells. Similar cellular changes were also identified, during necropsy, in the hilar and tracheobronchial lymph nodes in each of the eight horses, although gross enlargement of the lymph nodes was present in only six horses. The radiographic and pathologic findings of these 19 horses are consistent with chronic or the accelerated forms of silicosis that are recognized in humans. PMID:1941758

  20. Y-Chromosome Analysis in Retuertas Horses

    PubMed Central

    Brandariz-Fontes, Claudia; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vega-Pla, José Luis; Backström, Niclas; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lippold, Sebastian; Rico, Ciro

    2013-01-01

    Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France) or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY) and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects. PMID:23741439

  1. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. PMID:27396682

  2. Exercise and Rehabilitation of Older Horses.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Kenneth Harrington

    2016-08-01

    An increasing percentage of the equine population is more than 15 years old, many performing various athletic activities into their 20s. Studies of aged humans have led to a fine tuning of exercise prescription to promote fitness while preventing adverse and potentially dangerous effects of excessive exercise. However, limited data exist regarding the exercise capacity of aged horses. This article presents an overview of published studies on aging-induced decreases in physiologic function and exercise capacity in the horse. The information presented can be used as a guide for exercise prescription for the growing population of active older equine athletes. PMID:27449392

  3. Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi Isolates of horse breeding farms from an endemic region in South of Brazil by multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    Krewer, Cristina da Costa; Spricigo, Dênis Augusto; de Avila Botton, Sônia; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Schrank, Irene; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2008-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a gram-positive coco-bacillus and an intracellular opportunistic pathogen which causes pneumonia in foals. It is widely detected in environment and has been isolated from several sources, as soil, feces and gut from health and sick foals. The goal of this study was to characterize the epidemiological status (endemic, sporadic or no infection) of horse breeding farms from Bage County in South of Brazil, using a multiplex PCR. One hundred and eighteen R. equi isolates were identified by biochemical tests and submitted to a specie-specific and vapA multiplex PCR. These isolates were obtained from: three farms where the R. equi infection has been noticed, two farms where the disease has been not reported and one farm where the disease is frequent. All clinical isolates from horse breeding farms where the disease is endemic and/or sporadic were vapA-positive. None environmental isolates were vapA-positive. In three horse breeding farms with sporadic R. equi infection, 11.54% of the isolates from adult horse feces were vapA-positive. The multiplex PCR technique has proven to be effective for the molecular and epidemiological characterization of the R. equi isolates in horse breeding farms. An important finding in this study was the isolation of vapApositive R. equi from adult horse feces, which is an evidence for other routes of dissemination of this pathogen in the farms. PMID:24031201

  4. European Domestic Horses Originated in Two Holocene Refugia

    PubMed Central

    Warmuth, Vera; Eriksson, Anders; Bower, Mim A.; Cañon, Javier; Cothran, Gus; Distl, Ottmar; Glowatzki-Mullis, Marie-Louise; Hunt, Harriet; Luís, Cristina; do Mar Oom, Maria; Yupanqui, Isabel Tupac; Ząbek, Tomasz; Manica, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both. PMID:21479181

  5. Examining ecological consequences of feral horse grazing using exclosures.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.; Brussard, P.F.

    2000-01-01

    Although feral horses have inhabited western North America since the end of the 16th century, relatively little synecological research has been conducted to quantitatively characterize how they interact with ecosystem components. Because feral horses exhibit watering behavior markedly different from that of domestic cattle, it is particularly important to evaluate response of ecosystem elements near water sources to horse use. To assess this response, we performed live-trapping of small mammals and 2-tiered vegetative sampling in 2 mountain ranges in central Nevada in the interior Great Basin, USA. At low elevations, plots around horse-excluded springs exhibited notably greater plant species richness, percent cover, and abundance of grasses and shrubs, as well as more small mammal burrow entrances than plots at horse-grazed springs. At high elevations, meadows protected from grazing exhibited maximum vegetation heights 2.8 times greater than vegetation grazed by horses only and 4.5 times greater than vegetation grazed by horses and cattle. Species richness in quadrats was most different between the horse-and-cattle-grazed meadow and its ungrazed counterpart, suggesting the possibility of synergistic effects of horse and cattle grazing in the same location. This study, the first in the Great Basin to investigate quantitatively ecosystem consequences of feral horse use with exclosures, represents a preliminary step in identifying factors that determine the magnitude of horse grazing impacts. 

  6. [Intrathoracic esophageal perforation of unknown cause in four horses].

    PubMed

    Graubner, C; Gerber, V; Imhasly, A; Gorgas, D; Koch, C

    2011-10-01

    Three horses (age 17 - 23 years) were referred to the equine clinic of the University of Berne due to colic, fever, tachycardia and tachypnea. All horses showed pleural effusion. Clinical findings in 2 of the horses were highly suggestive of an intra-thoracic esophageal perforation. Severe septic pleuropneumonia without suspicion of an esophageal lesion was diagnosed in the 3rd horse. In addition, an 11 year old stallion was referred to the equine clinic for treatment of a presumptive large colon impaction. The horse was given laxatives after nasogastric intubation. Subsequent dramatic clinical deterioration and signs consistent with severe pleuropneumonia suggest that esophageal perforation had occurred when passing the nasogastric tube. All 4 horses were euthanized due to a poor prognosis. Esophageal perforation was diagnosed or confirmed post mortem in all cases. A hypertrophy of the tunica muscularis of the intra-thoracic esophagus was found in 3 of 4 horses. PMID:21971675

  7. Seroepidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in horses from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albano, Ana Paula Neuschrank; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Brandolt, Tchana Martinez; Da Hora, Vanusa Pousada; Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Wayne; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of the major systemic mycosis in Brazil, called paracoccidioidomycosis. Although the Rio Grande do Sul is considered an endemic area of the disease, there are few studies on the ecology of P. brasiliensis in the state. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the infection of P. brasiliensis in horses from the mesoregion of Southwest Riograndense, using these animals as sentinels. Serological techniques, such as double immunodiffusion in agar gel (AGID) and indirect ELISA, were performed to detect the anti-gp43 P. brasiliensis antibody in horses from five different farms in the region of Bagé, RS, Brazil. Serology was performed in 200 Pure Blood English horses up to two years of age that were born and raised exclusively at the farms. Of these horses, 12% had anti-gp43 antibodies according to the ELISA results, with rates ranging from 0 to 30% according to the farm of origin (p < 0.001). Based on the immunodiffusion results, all equine serum samples were negative. These results indicate the presence of the fungus P. brasiliensis in the middle region of the southwestern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:26273267

  8. Neoplasia of captive yellow sea horses (Hippocampus kuda) and weedy sea dragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus).

    PubMed

    LePage, Véronique; Dutton, Christopher J; Kummrow, Maya; McLelland, David J; Young, Karrie; Lumsden, John S

    2012-03-01

    Syngnathidae is the family of fish that includes sea horses, pipefish, and sea dragons. To date, only a single publication has described neoplasia in syngnathids, a fibrosarcoma of the brood pouch in an aquarium-reared lined sea horse (Hippocampus erectus). From 1998 until 2010, the Toronto Zoo submitted 172 syngnathids for postmortem; species included the spotted or yellow sea horse (Hippocampus kuda), the pot-bellied sea horse (Hippocampus abdominalis) and the weedy sea dragon (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus). Seven neoplasms and two neoplastic-like lesions were identified from these cases. Under light microscopy, the neoplasms had morphological characteristics of a cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma, renal adenocarcinoma, renal adenoma, renal round cell tumors, which were likely lymphomas, exocrine pancreatic carcinoma, and intestinal carcinoma. Of these neoplasms, four had clear evidence of metastasis: the pancreatic and intestinal carcinomas and both round cell tumors. As syngnathids are highly fastidious animals, they can be difficult to maintain in captivity. In order to improve their husbandry, preventative and palliative care, as well as treatment, it is important to investigate and document the types of diseases affecting syngnathids. PMID:22448509

  9. A survey on the feeding of eventing horses during competition.

    PubMed

    Brunner, J; Wichert, B; Burger, D; von Peinen, K; Liesegang, A

    2012-10-01

    This study aims at the comparison of the actual feeding of horses with the recommendations from the literature, and it studies the effects of feeding and exercise on several blood metabolic parameters before and after exercise. Blood samples were collected from 25 horses during one-star eventing competitions and evaluated for blood glucose, insulin, lactate, free fatty acids and triglyceride levels. Questionnaires on the feeding practices of the horses were evaluated. The questionnaires revealed that during training, and on tournament days, horses received on average 4.3 kg of concentrate per day (min. 1.54 kg, max. 8 kg). The statistical analysis showed no significant effect of the amount of concentrate fed before exercise on the measured blood values. Oil was supplied as a supplementary energy source to 30% of the horses, but most of them only received very small quantities (0.02-0.4 l/day). Five horses (20%) had no access to salt supplements at all, and eleven horses (45%) had no access to salt on tournament days. Fifteen horses (60%) were supplied with mineral feed. Twenty-one horses (84%) had daily access to pasture during the training period. During competition, 55% of the horses received roughage ad libitum, compared with 37% during training. The majority of the horses received less roughage on days before the cross-country competition. It could not be ascertained whether feeding a large amounts of roughage had a beneficial effect on performance, because only a few horses in this study were fed with very restrictive roughage. Feeding of most of the horses was in agreement with the recommendations from the literature, except the need for sodium and chloride. The sodium and chloride need for sport horses may be overestimated in literature and needs to be re-evaluated. PMID:22809115

  10. Isolation, experimental transmission, and characterization of causative agent of Potomac horse fever.

    PubMed

    Holland, C J; Ristic, M; Cole, A I; Johnson, P; Baker, G; Goetz, T

    1985-02-01

    Potomac horse fever, a disease characterized by fever, anorexia, leukopenia, and occasional diarrhea, is fatal in approximately 30 percent of affected animals. The seasonal occurrence of the disease (June to October) and evidence of antibodies to the rickettsia Ehrlichia sennetsu in the serum of convalescing horses suggested that a related rickettsia might be the causative agent. Such an agent was isolated in cultured blood monocytes from an experimentally infected pony. This intracytoplasmic organism was adapted to growth in primary cultures of canine blood monocytes. A healthy pony inoculated with these infected monocytes also developed the disease. The organism was reisolated from this animal which, at autopsy, had pathological manifestations typical of Potomac horse fever. Cross serologic reactions between the newly isolated agent and antisera to 15 rickettsiae revealed that it is related to certain members of the genus Ehrlichia, particularly to Ehrlichia sennetsu. Since the disease occurs in other parts of the United States as well as in the vicinity of the Potomac River, and since it has also been reported in Europe, the name equine monocytic ehrlichiosis is proposed as being more descriptive. PMID:3880925

  11. Use of a 3-D dispersion model for calculation of distribution of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities.

    PubMed

    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

    2014-04-01

    The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m³). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority--80%-90%--detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

  12. Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m3). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority—80%–90%—detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

  13. Update on viral diseases of the equine respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Gilkerson, James R; Bailey, Kirsten E; Diaz-Méndez, Andrés; Hartley, Carol A

    2015-04-01

    Many viral agents have been associated with respiratory disease of the horse. The most important viral causes of respiratory disease in horses are equine influenza and the equine alphaherpesviruses. Agents such as equine viral arteritis virus, African horse sickness virus, and Hendra virus establish systemic infections. Clinical signs of disease resulting from infection with these agents can manifest as respiratory disease, but the respiratory tract is not the major body system affected by these viruses. Treatment of viral respiratory disease is generally limited to supportive therapies, whereas targeted antimicrobial therapy is effective in cases of bacterial infection. PMID:25648568

  14. Polyomavirus-associated nephritis in 2 horses.

    PubMed

    Jennings, S H; Wise, A G; Nickeleit, V; Maes, R K; Cianciolo, R E; Del Piero, F; Law, J M; Kim, Y; McCalla, A C; Breuhaus, B A; Roberts, M C; Linder, K E

    2013-09-01

    Polyomaviruses produce latent and asymptomatic infections in many species, but productive and lytic infections are rare. In immunocompromised humans, polyomaviruses can cause tubulointerstitial nephritis, demyelination, or meningoencephalitis in the central nervous system and interstitial pneumonia. This report describes 2 Standardbred horses with tubular necrosis and tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with productive equine polyomavirus infection that resembles BK polyomavirus nephropathy in immunocompromised humans. PMID:23381926

  15. Anatomy of the dorsoscapular ligament of horses.

    PubMed

    Garrett, P D

    1990-02-01

    Thoracic limbs from 8 horses were dissected. The dorsoscapular ligament was determined to consist of a collagenous part that fused to the surface of the thoracolumbar fascia and of an elastic part that extended laterally from the collagenous part to attach to the medial surface of the scapula and interdigitate with fibers of the serratus ventralis thoracis muscle. PMID:2298675

  16. Investigating the origins of horse domestication.

    PubMed

    Levine, M A

    1999-04-01

    Before the development of firearms, the horse was crucial to warfare and, before the invention of the steam engine, it was the fastest and most reliable form of land transport. It is crucial to the life of nomadic pastoralists on the Eurasian steppe and played a major role in the evolution of human society during the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Understanding the human past requires knowledge of the origins and development of horse husbandry. The problem of being able to identify the early stages of horse domestication is one that many researchers have grappled with for the most part unsuccessfully. Until recently the most important criteria used had been that of increased relative abundance. That is, around 3500 BC, in some parts of Eurasia, there was an apparent increase in the proportions of horse bones and teeth found in archaeological deposits by comparison with preceding periods. However, other evidence suggests that the observed increase during the Copper Age could be explained as well, or even better, by increased hunting rather than by domestication. PMID:11314236

  17. Do Horses Have a Concept of Person?

    PubMed Central

    Sankey, Carol; Henry, Séverine; André, Nicolas; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Hausberger, Martine

    2011-01-01

    Background Animals' ability for cross-modal recognition has recently received much interest. Captive or domestic animals seem able to perceive cues of human attention and appear to have a multisensory perception of humans. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we used a task where horses have to remain immobile under a vocal order to test whether they are sensitive to the attentional state of the experimenter, but also whether they behave and respond differently to the familiar order when tested by a familiar or an unknown person. Horses' response varied according to the person's attentional state when the order was given by an unknown person: obedience levels were higher when the person giving the order was looking at the horse than when he was not attentive. More interesting is the finding that whatever the condition, horses monitored much more and for longer times the unknown person, as if they were surprised to hear the familiar order given by an unknown voice. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that recognition of humans may lie in a global, integrated, multisensory representation of specific individuals, that includes visual and vocal identity, but also expectations on the individual's behaviour in a familiar situation. PMID:21479184

  18. Intrathoracic pulsion diverticulum in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Yamout, Sawsan Z.; Magdesian, K. Gary; Tokarz, Debra A.; le Jeune, Sarah S.

    2012-01-01

    This is a report of a 12-year-old Swedish Warmblood gelding with a ruptured esophageal pulsion diverticulum associated with atypical clinical signs of colic and septic peritonitis on presentation. The location of this diverticulum at the hiatus was unique and was most likely responsible for the unusual presentation of this horse. PMID:23024389

  19. Pythiosis in the Nasal Cavity of Horses.

    PubMed

    Souto, E P F; Maia, L A; Olinda, R G; Galiza, G J N; Kommers, G D; Miranda-Neto, E G; Dantas, A F M; Riet-Correa, F

    2016-01-01

    Two cases of nasal pythiosis are reported in horses from the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. From January 1986 to December 2015, the Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Federal University of Campina Grande received 830 equine samples, 156 (18.79%) of which were diagnosed with pythiosis. Of these, two horses (1.28%), a male and a female adult cross-breed, had lesions in the nasal cavity. Both horses had access to water reservoirs. Clinically, they had swelling in the rhinofacial region and a serosanguineous nasal discharge. Macroscopically, in case 1, the lesion affected the nasal vestibule, extending to the alar cartilage and nasal septum. In case 2, the lesion extended through the turbinates and the meatuses of the nasal cavity, as well as the ethmoid region. In both cases, the lesions were characterized by having a yellow-grey granular surface with cavitations of different sizes containing coral-like masses of necrotic tissue (kunkers). Histologically, multifocal necrotizing eosinophilic rhinitis associated with hyphae (2-8 μm) similar to Pythium insidiosum were observed. In case 2, the lesions extended to the muscle, cartilage and bone adjacent to the nasal cavity and lungs. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. It is concluded that nasal pythiosis occurs sporadically in horses in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil where cutaneous pythiosis is prevalent. PMID:27406311

  20. Horse Training and Management: Program of Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Marvin

    This report on Lamar Community College's Horse Training and Management (HTM) program assesses the quality of the educational experience provided by the program, the quality of the faculty and students, institutional financial commitment to the program, contribution of the HTM program to state and local economic development, and external funding…

  1. Nuclear Astrophysics with the Trojan Horse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Spartá, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) represents the indirect path to determine the bare nucleus astrophysical S(E) factor for reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. This is done by measuring the quasi free cross section of a suitable three body process. The basic features of the THM will be presented together with some applications to demonstrate its practical use.

  2. Nuclear astrophysics and the Trojan Horse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Pizzone, R. G.

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we discuss the new recent results of the Trojan Horse Method that is used to determine reaction rates for nuclear processes in several astrophysical scenarios. The theory behind this technique is shortly presented. This is followed by an overview of some new experiments that have been carried out using this indirect approach.

  3. Science Education as South Africa's Trojan Horse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, John M.; Gray, Brian V.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the story of one nongovernmental organization (NGO) and the role it played in reconceptualizing science education in South Africa. Describes the success of the Science Education Project (SEP) in confronting authoritarian practices of government organizations and those within its own ranks. Science education can become the Trojan horse of…

  4. Hypereosinophilia in a horse with intestinal lymphosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Duckett, W M; Matthews, H K

    1997-11-01

    Paraneoplastic eosinophilia is reported in dogs, cats, and humans. Hypereosinophilia (an eosinophil count greater than 1.5 x 10(9) L) is often associated with metastasis and a poor prognosis. This report describes a case of paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia in a pony. Neoplasia should be included in the differential diagnoses in a horse with eosinophilia. PMID:9360792

  5. A Dark Horse Medium in Basic Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Sidney W.

    1974-01-01

    The Dark Horse (DH) board is described and discussed as one medium which may be utilized in the classroom. The DH Board holds fairly heavy three-dimensional display objects and consists of two components: a special material which serves as the display surface and an adhesive material which is fixed to objects displayed. (SC)

  6. Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symington, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

  7. It's Time to Get Another Horse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Josue

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author comments on Peter Roos's article (this issue). The author sees a strong need to clarify whether the horse that is to be remounted is more and better English-as-a-second-language (ESL) programs or the goal of promoting bilingual education as a positive practice in the nation's schools or something else altogether. If the…

  8. People and Horses: The Risks of Riding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBenedette, Valerie

    1989-01-01

    The article looks at risks and benefits of horseback riding. Several risks can be minimized if riders take lessons, check riding equipment before each ride, wear proper headgear and footgear, and respect the horse's size and will. Medical guidelines for equestrian sports could help reduce injuries. (SM)

  9. Electrically induced blink reflex in horses.

    PubMed

    Añor, S; Espadaler, J M; Monreal, L; Mayhew, I G

    The electrically induced blink reflex was studied electromyographically in 21 healthy adult, detomidine-sedated horses. Using surface electrodes, the supraorbital nerve was electrically stimulated at the supraorbital foramen. The responses were recorded from the ipsilateral and contralateral orbicularis oculi muscles with concentric needle electrodes inserted in the lateral aspect of the ventral eyelids. Ipsilateral and contralateral recordings were made on successive stimulations of the same side of the face, maintaining a constant stimulus intensity. The electromyographically recorded responses consisted of an early R1 response in the orbicularis oculi muscle ipsilateral to the side of stimulation, a bilateral late response (ipsilateral R2 and contralateral Rc) and a third, R3 response, in the ipsilateral orbicularis oculi muscle. All the responses were polyphasic muscle potentials of variable duration and peak to peak amplitudes. The reflex latency of the R1 response was, as in man, fairly stable. The R2 response showed greater variability both within and between individual horses. The Rc response was recorded in only 13 of the 21 horses and showed a slightly longer latency than the corresponding R2. The R3 response, which is significantly related to pain sensation in man, appeared in 19 horses and showed the greatest variability in latency. PMID:9123787

  10. Clonal complex Pseudomonas aeruginosa in horses.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Timothy J; Gibson, Justine S; Moss, Susan; Greer, Ristan M; Cobbold, Rowland N; Wright, John D; Ramsay, Kay A; Grimwood, Keith; Bell, Scott C

    2011-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with infectious endometritis in horses. Although infectious endometritis is often considered a venereal infection, there is relatively limited genotypic-based evidence to support this mode of transmission. The study sought to determine the relatedness between genital P. aeruginosa isolates collected from a limited geographical region using molecular strain typing. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR typing was performed on 93 isolates collected between 2005 and 2009 from 2058 thoroughbred horses (including 18 stallions) at 66 studs. While P. aeruginosa was not detected in the stallions, 53/93 (57%) mares harbouring P. aeruginosa had clonally related strains, which included a single dominant genotype detected in 42 (45%) mares from 13 different studs. These novel findings suggest that most equine genital P. aeruginosa infections in this region may have been acquired from mechanisms other than direct horse to horse transmission. Instead, other potential acquisition pathways, as well as strain specific adaptation to the equine genital tract, should be investigated. PMID:21183294

  11. SELECTING, FEEDING, AND CARING FOR LIGHT HORSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL FOR USE IN HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON LIGHT HORSE BREEDS, SELECTION, NUTRITION, CARE, AND FACILITIES. TEACHERS SHOULD HAVE COMPETENCY IN GENERAL AGRICULTURE, AND STUDENTS SHOULD HAVE…

  12. Gag Protein Epitopes Recognized by CD4+ T-Helper Lymphocytes from Equine Infectious Anemia Virus-Infected Carrier Horses

    PubMed Central

    Lonning, S. M.; Zhang, W.; McGuire, T. C.

    1999-01-01

    Antigen-specific T-helper (Th) lymphocytes are critical for the development of antiviral humoral responses and the expansion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Identification of relevant Th lymphocyte epitopes remains an important step in the development of an efficacious subunit peptide vaccine against equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a naturally occurring lentivirus of horses. This study describes Th lymphocyte reactivity in EIAV carrier horses to two proteins, p26 and p15, encoded by the relatively conserved EIAV gag gene. Using partially overlapping peptides, multideterminant and possibly promiscuous epitopes were identified within p26. One peptide was identified which reacted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from all five EIAV-infected horses, and three other peptides were identified which reacted with PBMC from four of five EIAV-infected horses. Four additional peptides containing both CTL and Th lymphocyte epitopes were also identified. Multiple epitopes were recognized in a region corresponding to the major homology region of the human immunodeficiency virus, a region with significant sequence similarity to other lentiviruses including simian immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Jembrana disease virus, visna virus, and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. PBMC reactivity to p15 peptides from EIAV carrier horses also occurred. Multiple p15 peptides were shown to be reactive, but not all infected horses had Th lymphocytes recognizing p15 epitopes. The identification of peptides reactive with PBMC from outbred horses, some of which encoded both CTL and Th lymphocyte epitopes, should contribute to the design of synthetic peptide or recombinant vector vaccines for EIAV. PMID:10196322

  13. Protection of horses from West Nile virus Lineage 2 challenge following immunization with a whole, inactivated WNV lineage 1 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Richard A; Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Syvrud, Kevin; Thomas, Anne; Meinert, Todd R; Ludlow, Deborah R; Cook, Corey; Salt, Jeremy; Ons, Ellen

    2014-09-22

    Over the last years West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 has spread from the African to the European continent. This study was conducted to demonstrate efficacy of an inactivated, lineage 1-based, WNV vaccine (Equip WNV) against intrathecal challenge of horses with a recent isolate of lineage 2 WNV. Twenty horses, sero-negative for WNV, were enrolled and were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups: an unvaccinated control group (T01, n=10) and a group administered with Equip WNV (T02, n=10). Horses were vaccinated at Day 0 and 21 and were challenged at day 42 with WNV lineage 2, Nea Santa/Greece/2010. Personnel performing clinical observations were blinded to treatment allocation. Sixty percent of the controls had to be euthanized after challenge compared to none of the vaccinates. A significantly lower percentage of the vaccinated animals showed clinical disease (two different clinical observations present on the same day) on six different days of study and the percentage of days with clinical disease was significantly lower in the vaccinated group. A total of 80% of the non-vaccinated horses showed viremia while only one vaccinated animal was positive by virus isolation on a single occasion. Vaccinated animals started to develop antibodies against WNV lineage 2 from day 14 (2 weeks after the first vaccination) and at day 42 (the time of onset of immunity) they had all developed a strong antibody response. Histopathology scores for all unvaccinated animals ranged from mild to very severe in each of the tissues examined (cervical spinal cord, medulla and pons), whereas in vaccinated horses 8 of 10 animals had no lesions and 2 had minimal lesions in one tissue. In conclusion, Equip WNV significantly reduced the number of viremic horses, the duration and severity of clinical signs of disease and mortality following challenge with lineage 2 WNV. PMID:25131745

  14. Diagnosis of theileria equi infections in horses in the Azores using cELISA and nested PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of equids that is often caused by the parasite Theileria equi. We applied competitive ELISA (cELISA) and nested PCR diagnostic methods to detect this parasite in horses by screening 162 samples from mainland Portugal where the parasite is endemic, and 143...

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain E19, Isolated from a Horse in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Q.; Dias, Larissa M.; Alves, Jorianne T. C.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; Guimarães, Luis C.; Rocha, Flávia S.; Gala-García, Alfonso; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is related to several diseases infecting horses and small ruminants, causing economic losses to agribusiness. Here, we present the genome sequence of C. pseudotuberculosis strain E19. The genome includes one circular chromosome 2,367,956 bp (52.1% G+C content), with 2,112 genes predicted, 12 rRNAs, and 48 tRNAs. PMID:26607893

  16. Increased interleukin-1beta mRNA expression in skin biopsies of horses with Culicoides hypersensitivity following challenge with Culicoides nubeculosus extract.

    PubMed

    Kolm, Gabriela; Knapp, Elzbieta; Wagner, Regina; Klein, Dieter

    2006-09-15

    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a primary cytokine of the skin that has a pivotal role in keratinocyte differentiation, epidermal wound healing and host defense. Pathological increase of cutaneous IL-1beta is associated with edema formation, epidermal hyperproliferation and atopic dermatitis in humans. However, in horses the role of cutaneous IL-1beta in edema formation and allergic skin disease has not been characterised so far. Particularly in Culicoides hypersensitivity (CHS), intradermal injection of Culicoides extract may be associated with enhanced transcription of local IL-1beta. To examine the mRNA expression of IL-1beta and its receptor antagonist IL-1RA in the skin of horses, biopsy specimens of horses affected and non-affected by CHS prior and following intradermal challenge with a commercial C. nubeculosus extract were examined. Our hypothesis was that cutaneous IL-1beta mRNA was significantly upregulated in horses with CHS in response to Culicoides allergen. Biopsies were taken from sites prior to and 4 h following intradermal challenge with C. nubeculosus extract. In order to obtain reliable data, real time PCR was performed and genes of interest were normalized using three different housekeeping genes, beta-actin, GAPDH, beta-2-microglobulin. No significant difference was detected in non-challenged cutaneous IL-1beta mRNA and IL-1RA mRNA levels between CHS affected and non-affected horses. Intradermal injection of C. nubeculosus extract resulted in local upregulation of IL-1beta mRNA both in horses with typical history, characteristic clinical signs for CHS and a positive intradermal skin test (IDT), and non-affected horses with a negative IDT. However, the difference in prior and post challenged site IL-1beta mRNA levels only reached statistical significance in the affected horses (p=0.01 versus 0.7). In contrast, IL-1RA mRNA levels did not demonstrate any modification following intradermal injection with C. nubeculosus in either group. In contrast

  17. [Prevalence of behavioral disorders in the Swiss horse population].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, I; Stauffacher, M

    2002-07-01

    In the Swiss horse population, the prevalence of conspicuous behaviours (behavioural disorders and stable vices) was recorded with a written questionnaire in a representative survey among 1861 horse yards, and the occurrence of the stereotypic behavioural disorders crib-biting, weaving and boxwalking was analysed with emphasis on their association with horse specific (breed, age, sex) and environmental factors (e.g. housing system, nutrition, management and utilisation). 622 horse yards with a total number of 2536 horses answered to the questionnaire, and conspicuous behaviours were described for 418 horses (16.5%). Thereof, the most common stereotypic behavioural disorders with a potential negative impact on animal welfare, crib-biting, weaving, and/or boxwalking were named for 89 horses (3.5%). Stable vices (e.g. shying, bucking, aggressivity against humans) were noted for 47 horses (1.9%). For 281 horses (11.1%) conspicuous behaviours such as pawing, lip-liking, head shacking, kicking stall were given; these can be categorised as behavioural disorders or as stable vices depending on their intensity and causation. Data analysis data revealed a number of statistically significant associations between genetic factors (breed), housing, management practices, utilisation and the three stereotypies. The strongest influence on the degree of behavioural disorders had the breed as well as the extent of direct social contact with other horses, free movement on pasture, feeding pattern and regular utilisation. PMID:12174683

  18. Experimental Infection of Horses with West Nile virus

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Richard A.; Cropp, Bruce C.; Sullivan, Kevin G.; Davis, Brent S.; Komar, Nieholas; Godsey, Marvin; Baker, Dale; Hettler, Danielle L.; Holmes, Derek A.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Mitchell, Carl J.

    2002-01-01

    A total of 12 horses of different breeds and ages were infected with West Nile virus (WNV) via the bites of infected Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Half the horses were infected with a viral isolate from the brain of a horse (BC787), and half were infected with an isolate from crow brain (NY99-6625); both were NY99 isolates. Postinfection, uninfected female Ae. albopictus fed on eight of the infected horses. In the first trial, Nt antibody titers reached >1:320, 1:20, 1:160, and 1:80 for horses 1 to 4, respectively. In the second trial, the seven horses with subclinical infections developed Nt antibody titers >1:10 between days 7 and 11 post infection. The highest viremia level in horses fed upon by the recipient mosquitoes was approximately 460 Vero cell PFU/mL. All mosquitoes that fed upon viremic horses were negative for the virus. Horses infected with the NY99 strain of WNV develop low viremia levels of short duration; therefore, infected horses are unlikely to serve as important amplifying hosts for WNV in nature. PMID:11971771

  19. Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus) in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Results Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Conclusion Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that < 30 horses used > 25 km2 of trails in our study area. PMID:19903355

  20. A zoonotic genotype of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in horses.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Vecino, Jesús A Cortés; Fayer, Ronald

    2010-02-01

    This is the first report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in an equid species. Feces from 195 horses from 4 locations in Colombia were examined for E. bieneusi by polymerase chain reaction. Of these, 21 horses (10.8%) were found positive for E. bieneusi . The prevalence of E. bieneusi in horses <1 yr of age was significantly higher (23.7%) than in horses >1 yr of age (2.5%). No significant differences in prevalence were observed between male (13.7%) and female horses (9%). Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the SSUrRNA locus identified 3 genotypes. Two genotypes appear to be unique to horses and were named Horse 1 and Horse 2. A third genotype, identified as genotype D, was detected in 4 horses. This genotype, previously reported to infect humans, beaver, cattle, dogs, falcons, foxes, macaques, muskrats, pigs, and raccoons, is the most ubiquitous of the E. bieneusi zoonotic genotypes. Our findings indicate that E. bieneusi from horses can be a potential source of infection for humans. PMID:19799490

  1. The Management of Horses during Fireworks in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gronqvist, Gabriella; Rogers, Chris; Gee, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The negative effects of fireworks on companion animals have been reported, but little has been documented on the impact on horses. Horse anxiety was commonly associated with fireworks, and 26% of owners reported horse injuries as a result of fireworks. Many management strategies were seen as ineffective. The majority of horse owners were in favour of a ban on the sale of fireworks for private use. Abstract Within popular press there has been much coverage of the negative effects associated with firework and horses. The effect of fireworks has been documented in companion animals, yet no studies have investigated the negative effects, or otherwise, of fireworks on horses. This study aims to document horse responses and current management strategies to fireworks via an online survey. Of the total number of horses, 39% (1987/4765) were rated as “anxious”, 40% (1816/4765) “very anxious” and only 21% (965/4765) rated as “not anxious” around fireworks. Running (82%, 912/1107) was the most common behaviour reported, with no difference between property type (p > 0.05) or location (p > 0.05). Possibly as a consequence of the high frequency of running, 35% (384/1107) of respondents reported having horses break through fences in response to fireworks and a quarter (26%, 289/1099) reported that their horse(s) had received injuries associated with fireworks. The most common management strategy was moving their horse(s) to a paddock away from the fireworks (77%) and to stable/yard them (55%). However, approximately 30% reported these management strategies to be ineffective. Of the survey participants, 90% (996/1104) were against the sale of fireworks for private use. PMID:27005667

  2. Complications associated with cheek tooth extraction in the horse.

    PubMed

    Earley, Edward T; Rawlinson, Jennifer E; Baratt, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Common indications for cheek tooth extraction in the horse include dental fracture, periodontal disease, severe decay/ caries, mandibular fracture with alveolar/tooth involvement, and periapical abscess. Complications secondary to extraction of cheek teeth are prevalent. Typical complications may include retained root tip(s), collateral damage of neighboring teeth and alveolar bone, mandibular fracture non-union or delayed union, cemental ankylosis, dilacerated root(s), oroantral/oronasal fistula, palatal deviation of cheek teeth, bone sequestration, sinus involvement, alveolar plug failure, and palatine artery laceration. This paper presents a series of cases that had complications following cheek tooth extraction. Anticipation of problematic extractions, recognition of complications, and appropriate treatment will aid the clinician in managing the inevitable cheek tooth extraction complication. PMID:24660307

  3. Equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1) and 4 (EHV-4) infections in horses and donkeys in northeastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Y; Yilmaz, V; Kirmizigul, A. H

    2015-01-01

    The herpesviruses infections in equides are caused by five different serotypes of viruses, belonging to family Herpesviridae. The goal of this study was to conduct a seroepidemiological investigation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and type 4 (EHV-4) in horses and donkeys raised in two provinces and their villages in northeastern Turkey. A total of 666 samples from 423 horses and 243 donkeys that were not immunized against these infections were tested with ELISA. While 52.48% of tested horse sera was found to carry specific antibodies to EHV-1, 83.69% of these serums were found to carry specific antibodies to EHV-4. 51. Eighty-five percent of analyzed donkey samples tested positive for EHV-1 and 64.20% of these samples tested positive for EHV-4 antibodies. When the horse and donkey samples were evaluated together, 52.25% were seropositive for EHV-1 and 76.58% were seropositive for EHV-4. This study showed that EHV-1 and EHV-4 infections are quite common in the horses and donkeys being raised in the areas where the study was carried out. In addition, since the area where the study was carried out in the borders of Armenia and Georgia, the high level of seropositive results for these infections leads to the conclusion that we should consider the risk of diseases spreading to neighboring countries. This is the first study to serologically identify EHV-1 and EHV-4 infections in donkeys raised in Turkey. PMID:27175200

  4. Interspecies transmission of equine influenza virus (H3N8) to dogs by close contact with experimentally infected horses.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takashi; Nemoto, Manabu; Tsujimura, Koji; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio

    2009-11-18

    In horse populations, influenza A virus subtype H3N8 (equine influenza virus, EIV) is a very important pathogen that leads to acute respiratory disease. Recently, EIV has emerged in dogs, and has become widespread among the canine population in the United States. The interspecies transmission route had thus far remained unclear. Here, we tested whether the interspecies transmission of EIV to dogs could occur as a result of close contact with experimentally EIV-infected horses. Three pairs consisting of an EIV-infected horse and a healthy dog were kept together in individual stalls for 15 consecutive days. A subsequent hemagglutination inhibition test revealed that all three dogs exhibited seroconversion. Moreover, two of the three dogs exhibited virus shedding. However, the dogs exhibited no clinical signs throughout the course of the study. These data suggest that the interspecies transmission of EIV to dogs could occur as a result of close contact with EIV-infected horses without clinical symptoms. Although the interspecies transmission of EIV is unlikely to become an immediate threat to canine hygiene, close contact between EIV-infected horses and dogs should be avoided during an EI epidemic. PMID:19596528

  5. Development of an equine coronavirus-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine serologic responses in naturally infected horses.

    PubMed

    Kooijman, Lotte J; Mapes, Samantha M; Pusterla, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Equine coronavirus (EqCoV) infection has been documented in most reports through quantitative qPCR analysis of feces and viral genome sequencing. Although qPCR is used to detect antigen during the acute disease phase, there is no equine-specific antibody test available to study EqCoV seroprevalence in various horse populations. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) targeting antibodies to the spike (S) protein of EqCoV and validated its use, using acute and convalescent sera from 83 adult horses involved in 6 outbreaks. The EqCoV S protein-based ELISA was able to reliably detect antibodies to EqCoV in naturally infected horses. The greatest seroconversion rate was observed in horses with clinical signs compatible with EqCoV infection and EqCoV qPCR detection in feces. The EqCoV S protein-based ELISA could be used effectively for seroepidemiologic studies in order to better characterize the overall infection rate of EqCoV in various horse populations. PMID:27216723

  6. Equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1) and 4 (EHV-4) infections in horses and donkeys in northeastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Y; Yilmaz, V; Kirmizigul, A H

    2015-01-01

    The herpesviruses infections in equides are caused by five different serotypes of viruses, belonging to family Herpesviridae. The goal of this study was to conduct a seroepidemiological investigation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and type 4 (EHV-4) in horses and donkeys raised in two provinces and their villages in northeastern Turkey. A total of 666 samples from 423 horses and 243 donkeys that were not immunized against these infections were tested with ELISA. While 52.48% of tested horse sera was found to carry specific antibodies to EHV-1, 83.69% of these serums were found to carry specific antibodies to EHV-4. 51. Eighty-five percent of analyzed donkey samples tested positive for EHV-1 and 64.20% of these samples tested positive for EHV-4 antibodies. When the horse and donkey samples were evaluated together, 52.25% were seropositive for EHV-1 and 76.58% were seropositive for EHV-4. This study showed that EHV-1 and EHV-4 infections are quite common in the horses and donkeys being raised in the areas where the study was carried out. In addition, since the area where the study was carried out in the borders of Armenia and Georgia, the high level of seropositive results for these infections leads to the conclusion that we should consider the risk of diseases spreading to neighboring countries. This is the first study to serologically identify EHV-1 and EHV-4 infections in donkeys raised in Turkey. PMID:27175200

  7. A field investigation into a suspected outbreak of pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis in horses in western Queensland.

    PubMed

    Robinson, B; Gummow, B

    2015-03-01

    A disease outbreak investigation was conducted in western Queensland to investigate a rare suspected outbreak of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) toxicosis in horses. Thirty five of 132 horses depastured on five properties on the Mitchell grass plains of western Queensland died in the first six months of 2010. Clinical-pathological findings were consistent with PA toxicosis. A local variety of Crotalaria medicaginea was the only hepatotoxic plant found growing on affected properties. Pathology reports and departure and arrival dates of two brood mares provided evidence of a pre wet season exposure period. All five affected properties experienced a very dry spring and early summer preceded by a large summer wet season. The outbreak was characterised as a point epidemic with a sudden peak of deaths in March followed by mortalities steadily declining until the end of June. The estimated morbidity (serum IGG>50IU/L) rate was 76%. Average crude mortality was 27% but higher in young horses (67%) and brood mares (44%). Logistic regression analysis showed that young horses and brood mares and those grazing denuded pastures in December were most strongly associated with dying whereas those fed hay and/or grain based supplements were less likely to die. This is the first detailed study of an outbreak of PA toxicosis in central western Queensland and the first to provide evidence that environmental determinants were associated with mortality, that the critical exposure period was towards the end of the dry season, that supplementary feeding is protective and that denuded pastures and the horses physiological protein requirement are risk factors. PMID:25604478

  8. Strongylids in domestic horses: Influence of horse age, breed and deworming programs on the strongyle parasite community.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Dzeverin, Igor; Kharchenko, Vitaliy A

    2016-08-30

    An extensive analysis of the relationships between strongylid egg shedding in domestic horses and the strongylid community structure in regard to the age of the horses, their breeds and different strategies of horse management, particularly with anthelmintic treatment programs was performed. Domestic horses (n=197) of different ages (5 months to 22 years) and of various breeds from 15 farms with different types of deworming programs were included in this study. Strongylids (totally, 82,767 specimens) were collected in vivo after deworming of the horses with the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic ("Univerm", 0.2% aversectin C), and identified to the species level. Models of multiple regressions with dummy variables were used to estimate the effects of age, breed, type of farm and deworming programs on number of eggs shed per gram of feces (EPG value) and the strongylid community. Totally, 33 strongylid species were collected (8 species of Strongylinae and 25 - of Cyathostominae); a significant correlation (r=0.67; p<0.001) between the prevalence and proportion of species in the strongylid community was observed. The highest number of species (32) was found in young horses (1.5-4 years old); the lowest (17) - in old horses (>16years). Foals (<1year old) had significantly higher EPG value than older horses. The linear regression models of the strongyle egg counts (EPG) with three predictors: horse age (AGE), number of strongylids (SN), and type of farm (FARM) revealed significant effects of SN and FARM, but an effect of AGE was near the limit of significance. Horses from farms with rare or no anthelmintic treatments (type A) shed significantly more strongyle eggs than horses from farms with regular treatments; frequency of dewormings - 1-2 (type B) or 3-4 and more times per year (type C) did not have a significant impact on the EPG value. Thoroughbreds, Ukrainian Saddlers and Russian Racers had much higher EPG values comparing to non-breed horses. Analysis of the

  9. [Association of skin problems with coat colour and white markings in three-year-old horses of the Franches-Montagnes breed].

    PubMed

    Federici, M; Gerber, V; Doherr, M G; Klopfenstein, S; Burger, D

    2015-07-01

    In the last 30 years the amount of white markings in the population of Franches-Montagnes horses (FM) has more than doubled which has led to some controversy, particularly in respect to the health of the horses. The objective of this study was to investigate if the coat colour and white markings have an impact on selected skin diseases and hoof horn abnormalities. To this purpose 974 three-year-old FM were subjected to a clinical examination during the field and station tests organized by the FM breeding association. In 16.9% of the horses, one or several equine sarcoids were detected, 15.2% of the horses showed clinical signs of pastern dermatitis, 1.1% of insect bite hypersensitivity and 18.0% of dermatitis of other aetiology. Abnormalities of the hoof horn were found in 20.1% of the horses. The prevalence of pastern dermatitis was 2.6 times higher in legs with white markings than in legs with pigmented skin (p <0.0001). The probability ofsuffering from sunburn and hoof horn of lesser quality was increased in animals with an elevated white marking index (WAI; p = 0.022 and p = 0.038), on the other hand, horses with sarcoids had a significantly lower WAI than sound horses (p = 0.038). Our study shows that FM horses with more pronounced white markings have an increased risk to suffer from pastern dermatitis, sunburns and hoof horn abnormalities. The coat colour was not associated with skin diseases. PMID:26753358

  10. Sensitization of skin mast cells with IgE antibodies to Culicoides allergens occurs frequently in clinically healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bettina; Miller, William H; Erb, Hollis N; Lunn, D Paul; Antczak, Douglas F

    2009-11-15

    IgE antibodies are mediators of mast cell degranulation during allergic diseases. The binding of IgE to its high-affinity IgE receptor on mast cell surfaces is called "sensitization" and precedes the development of clinical allergy. Previously, intradermal injection of anti-IgE or the anti-IgG(T) antibody CVS40 induced immediate skin reactions in horses. This suggested that both IgE and IgG(T) sensitize equine skin mast cells. Here, we investigated sensitization to allergen and with IgE or IgG(T) in clinically healthy horses of different age groups. In addition, immediate skin reactions to Culicoides were determined by intradermal testing in non-allergic horses. A total of 14% of the young horses 1-3 years old and 38% of the adult animals showed skin reaction to Culicoides allergen extract. Sensitization with IgE and IgG(T) was evaluated in skin mast cells and peripheral blood basophils to determine whether sensitization with IgG(T) preceded that with IgE in young horses. Anti-IgE stimulated immediate skin reactions in 18 of 21 young horses, but only 7 of them reacted to the anti-IgG(T) antibody CVS40. The equine IgG(T) fraction is composed of IgG3 and IgG5. We used several newly developed monoclonal antibodies to IgG3 and IgG5 for intradermal testing to improve our understanding about the mast cell reaction induced by the anti-IgG(T) antibody CVS40. None of these antibodies induced a skin reaction in young or adult horses. To determine sensitization with IgE in neonates and foals at 6 and 12 weeks of age an in vitro histamine release assay was performed using peripheral blood cells. The histamine concentration released by anti-IgE stimulation from foal basophils increased between birth and 12 weeks of age, while almost no histamine release was observed after anti-IgG(T) treatment of the cells. In summary, IgE was the major immunoglobulin involved in the sensitization of mast cells and basophils in horses at various ages. IgG(T) antibodies did not play a major role

  11. 77 FR 43046 - Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Forest Service Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS AGENCY: Forest.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to: Center Horse Landscape Restoration Project Leader, USDA Forest Service..., Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose and Need for Action The Center Horse...

  12. Immunodiffusion test for diagnosing and monitoring pythiosis in horses.

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, L; Kaufman, L; Standard, P G

    1986-01-01

    A practical, sensitive, and specific immunodiffusion test was developed for diagnosing and monitoring pythiosis in horses. Culture filtrates, a soluble cell mass, and trypsinized Pythium sp. antigens were evaluated against prepared rabbit anti-Pythium sp. serum and pythiosis horse case sera. The culture filtrate antigens demonstrated the greatest capacity for detecting precipitins and the greatest stability during storage. In contrast, the trypsinized antigens had the weakest capability for detecting multiple precipitins and the poorest stability. The 13 sera from horses with proven active pythiosis were positive in immunodiffusion tests with the culture filtrate antigens. Each serum contained from three to six precipitins. Treated horses lost precipitins, and some became antibody negative. No false-positive reactions were noted in tests with sera from normal horses and humans or with sera from a variety of heterologous horse and human infections. Images PMID:3086368

  13. Low MRSA prevalence in horses at farm level

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Europe, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to the clonal complex (CC) 398 has become an important pathogen in horses, circulating in equine clinics and causing both colonization and infection. Whether equine MRSA is bound to hospitals or can also circulate in the general horse population is currently unknown. This study, therefore, reports the nasal and perianal MRSA screening of 189 horses on 10 farms in a suspected high prevalence region (East- and West-Flanders, Belgium). Results Only one horse (0.53%) from one farm (10%) tested positive in the nose. It carried a spa type t011-SCCmecV isolate, resistant to β-lactams and tetracycline, which is typical for livestock-associated MRSA CC398. Conclusion In the region tested here, horses on horse farms seem unlikely to substantially contribute to the large animal associated ST398 MRSA reservoir present at intensive animal production units. PMID:23134703

  14. From the Horse Worker's Mouth: A Detailed Account of Injuries Experienced by Latino Horse Workers.

    PubMed

    Swanberg, Jennifer E; Clouser, Jessica Miller; Bush, Ashley; Westneat, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Horse breeding farms are hazardous. Yet, little is known about the injuries of Latino horse workers. This study assesses Latino horse workers' injury prevalence, describes their injuries, and analyzes differences between injuries receiving medical versus those receiving first aid care. Data were gathered from 225 Latino thoroughbred workers via a community-based purposive sampling strategy. Questions included injury experiences in the past year and details about each person's two most severe injuries. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted. Nearly half of workers experienced an injury in the past year, often involving a horse. Bruises and sprains/strains were most common, as were injuries to upper/lower appendages. Head/face injuries more often resulted in medical care. The injury burden in this Latino worker population is high. Personal protective equipment (PPE) and training is advised due to the high prevalence of horse-related injuries. Future research should investigate aspects of the work environment that may influence injury risk. PMID:26458955

  15. Equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever): a review.

    PubMed

    Mulville, P

    1991-11-01

    In the late 1970s, a new infectious disease in horses, involving acute enteritis, was recognised in the Potomac River area of Maryland, U.S.A. The causative agent was identified subsequently as a new species of rickettsial organism, later named Ehrlichia risticii. Since then, the disease has been reported in many other states, and in enzootic areas vaccination is common. Signs associated with the clinical disease included depression, fever, anorexia, decreased or absent intestinal sounds, profuse watery diarrhoea and laminitis. However, considerable variation in clinical manifestations has been reported in both the natural and experimental disease. Accurate diagnosis depends on serological testing; currently, the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFA) is used widely, although an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed recently. Mortality in untreated cases is 15 to 35 per cent. Antibiotics of the tetracycline series have shown activity against the organism in vitro, in an in vivo murine model and appear to be useful in clinical cases. PMID:1778155

  16. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to...

  17. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to...

  18. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to...

  19. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to...

  20. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to...

  1. Duration of serum antibody response to rabies vaccination in horses.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alison M; Watson, Johanna L; Brault, Stephanie A; Edman, Judy M; Moore, Susan M; Kass, Philip H; Wilson, W David

    2016-08-15

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the impact of age and inferred prior vaccination history on the persistence of vaccine-induced antibody against rabies in horses. DESIGN Serologic response evaluation. ANIMALS 48 horses with an undocumented vaccination history. PROCEDURES Horses were vaccinated against rabies once. Blood samples were collected prior to vaccination, 3 to 7 weeks after vaccination, and at 6-month intervals for 2 to 3 years. Serum rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (RVNA) values were measured. An RVNA value of ≥ 0.5 U/mL was used to define a predicted protective immune response on the basis of World Health Organization recommendations for humans. Values were compared between horses < 20 and ≥ 20 years of age and between horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated and those inferred to be immunologically naïve. RESULTS A protective RVNA value (≥ 0.5 U/mL) was maintained for 2 to 3 years in horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated on the basis of prevaccination RVNA values. No significant difference was evident in response to rabies vaccination or duration of protective RVNA values between horses < 20 and ≥ 20 years of age. Seven horses were poor responders to vaccination. Significant differences were identified between horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated and horses inferred to be naïve prior to the study. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A rabies vaccination interval > 1 year may be appropriate for previously vaccinated horses but not for horses vaccinated only once. Additional research is required to confirm this finding and characterize the optimal primary dose series for rabies vaccination. PMID:27479286

  2. Inertial properties of Dutch Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Buchner, H H; Savelberg, H H; Schamhardt, H C; Barneveld, A

    1997-06-01

    The complete set of three-dimensional inertial properties (mass, density, centre of mass, inertial tensor) was determined in 26 segments of six Dutch Warmblood horses. The measurements were performed with frozen segments similar to the procedure described by Lephart (1984, J. Biomechanics 17, 537-543). Based on these data linear regression models were developed for the estimation of inertial properties in living horses. The reproducibility of the dissection procedure was found to range between 2 and 9%. Both mean values and regression models are presented for all parameters. The mean standard error of estimation was 8% for the segment mass, 3% of the segment reference length for the position of the centre of mass, and 17% for the moments of inertia. PMID:9165402

  3. [The aberrant parasitism of horse botflies (Diptera: Gasterophilidae)].

    PubMed

    Rastegaev, Iu M

    1990-01-01

    Alongside with a high intensity of infection of horses with botfly larvae there was observed mass aberrant parasitism of horse botflies in farms of Astrakhan, Guryev and Uralsk Provinces, and in the Kalmyk ASSR in 1980-1981 and 1987. As a result of extremely high aggregation of horse botfly larvae in their usual localization places, Gasterophilus pecorum larvae remained, due to interspecific competition, in nonspecific places (oral cavity, pharynx), adapted to new habitats and normally developed. Their number varied from 260 to 750 specimens. Localization of G. pecorum larvae in the mentioned departments of the alimentary canal results in serious morbidity of horses. PMID:2142273

  4. Mycoplasma felis pleuritis in two show-jumper horses.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, A M; Baird, J D; Kloeze, H J; Rosendal, S; Bell, M

    1992-04-01

    Mycoplasma felis was identified as the cause of acute pleuritis in 2 show-jumping horses. The pleural exudate was proteinaceous, contained large numbers of neutrophils, and had a markedly increased lactate concentration. M. felis was isolated in pure culture from pleural fluid. Rising serum antibody titers to M. felis as well as a precipitous decline in titers to equine influenza virus were demonstrated in both horses. Pleural effusion in both horses and a pneumothorax detected in one of the horses resolved following a single drainage of pleural fluid and intravenous fluid, antibiotic, and analgesic therapy. PMID:1623728

  5. Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in horses and Greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    Williams, M M; Davis, E G; KuKanich, B

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine administered orally to horses and Greyhound dogs. A secondary objective was to assess terbinafine metabolites. Six healthy horses and six healthy Greyhound dogs were included in the pharmacokinetic data. The targeted dose of terbinafine was 20 and 30 mg/kg for horses and dogs, respectively. Blood was collected at predetermined intervals for the quantification of terbinafine concentrations with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8.1 and 8.6 h for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration was 0.31 and 4.01 μg/mL for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The area under the curve (to infinity) was 1.793 h·μg/mL for horses and 17.253 h·μg/mL for Greyhounds. Adverse effects observed in one study horse included pawing at the ground, curling lips, head shaking, anxiety and circling, but these resolved spontaneously within 30 min of onset. No adverse effects were noted in the dogs. Ions consistent with carboxyterbinafine, n-desmethylterbinafine, hydroxyterbinafine and desmethylhydroxyterbinafine were identified in horse and Greyhound plasma after terbinafine administration. Further studies are needed assessing the safety and efficacy of terbinafine in horses and dogs. PMID:21492187

  6. The Management of Horses during Fireworks in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gronqvist, Gabriella; Rogers, Chris; Gee, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Within popular press there has been much coverage of the negative effects associated with firework and horses. The effect of fireworks has been documented in companion animals, yet no studies have investigated the negative effects, or otherwise, of fireworks on horses. This study aims to document horse responses and current management strategies to fireworks via an online survey. Of the total number of horses, 39% (1987/4765) were rated as "anxious", 40% (1816/4765) "very anxious" and only 21% (965/4765) rated as "not anxious" around fireworks. Running (82%, 912/1107) was the most common behaviour reported, with no difference between property type (p > 0.05) or location (p > 0.05). Possibly as a consequence of the high frequency of running, 35% (384/1107) of respondents reported having horses break through fences in response to fireworks and a quarter (26%, 289/1099) reported that their horse(s) had received injuries associated with fireworks. The most common management strategy was moving their horse(s) to a paddock away from the fireworks (77%) and to stable/yard them (55%). However, approximately 30% reported these management strategies to be ineffective. Of the survey participants, 90% (996/1104) were against the sale of fireworks for private use. PMID:27005667

  7. Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda; Coates-Markle, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

  8. The Trojan Horse Method in Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Spitaleri, C.

    2010-11-24

    The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross section in nuclear reaction between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed in the non resonant reactions case. A review of applications aimed to extract the bare nucleus astrophysical S{sub b}(E) factor for two body processes are presented. The information on electron screening potential U{sub e} were obtained from comparison with direct experiments of fusion reactions.

  9. Feeding management of elite endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patricia

    2009-04-01

    This article reviews the principles of feeding management for endurance horses. The amount and type of dietary energy (calories) are key considerations in dietary management, because (1) there is evidence that the body condition score, an indicator of overall energy balance, influences endurance exercise performance, and (2) the source of dietary energy (ie, carbohydrate versus fat calories) impacts health, metabolism, and athletic performance. Optimal performance is also dependent on provision of adequate feed, water, and electrolytes on race day. PMID:19303556

  10. Alfalfa hay induced primary photosensitization in horses.

    PubMed

    Puschner, B; Chen, X; Read, D; Affolter, V K

    2016-05-01

    Photosensitization, also known as photodermatitis, occurs when phototoxic or photoactive substances accumulate in the skin and interact with sunlight to result in an often severe, crusting, itching or painful dermatitis in unpigmented and/or lightly haired areas of the skin. Primary photosensitization, caused by direct ingestion of photosensitizing agents, has been reported anecdotally in horses after ingestion of alfalfa hay. Between 2004 and 2014, several large outbreaks of primary photosensitization in horses fed primarily alfalfa hay were investigated in California. Alfalfa hay samples were collected and carefully examined for the presence of known photosensitizing plants and pesticide residues but none were identified. Select hay samples were evaluated for unusual fungal infestation and for phototoxicity assay using a specific Candida albicans assay; results were negative. In the 2004 outbreak, a feeding study was conducted with three horses exclusively fed alfalfa hay that was suspected to have caused the outbreak. Two weeks after ingestion of alfalfa hay, two horses developed several lesions in non-pigmented skin characterized as chronic ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis with superficial vasculitis, which was consistent with photosensitization. In the 2014 outbreak, seven different implicated alfalfa hay samples were analyzed for chlorophyll a and b, and pheophorbide a. These compounds had been suspected to play a role in alfalfa-induced primary photosensitization. The chlorophyll contents ranged from 0.90 to 2.30 mg/g in the alfalfa hay samples, compared to 1.37 and 2.94 mg/g in locally grown alfalfa and orchard grass hay. The pheophorbide a levels ranged from 3.36 to 89.87 µg/g in alfalfa samples compared to 81.39 and 42.33 µg/g in control alfalfa and orchard grass hay samples. These findings eliminate chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and pheophorbide a as possible causes for alfalfa-hay induced primary photosensitization. PMID:27040919

  11. Trojan Horse Particle Invariance: An Extensive Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M. L.; Lamia, L.; Tumino, A.; Bertulani, C. A.; Blokhintsev, L.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; La Cognata, M.; Mrazek, J.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spartá, R.

    2014-08-01

    In the last decades, the Trojan Horse method (THM) has played a crucial role for the measurement of several particle (both neutron and charged one) induced cross sections for reactions of astrophysical interest. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases, many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance proves the relatively simple approach allowed by the pole approximation and sheds light in the involved reaction mechanisms. Here we shortly review the complete work for the binary 2H(d,p)3H, 6Li(d, α)4He, 6Li(p, α)3He, 7Li(p, α)4He reactions, by using the quasi free reactions after break-ups of different nuclides. Results are compared assuming the 6Li and 3He break-up in the case of the d(d,p)t, 6Li(d, α)4He reactions and considering the 2H and 3He break-up for 6Li(p, α)3He, 7Li(p, α)4He reactions. These results, regardless of the Trojan Horse particle or the break-up scheme, confirms the applicability of the standard description of the THM and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nuclei for a whole spectra of different cases. This gives a strong basis for the understanding of the quasi-free mechanism which is the foundation on which the THM lies.

  12. Transport induced inflammatory responses in horses.

    PubMed

    Wessely-Szponder, J; Bełkot, Z; Bobowiec, R; Kosior-Korzecka, U; Wójcik, M

    2015-01-01

    Deleterious response to road transport is an important problem in equine practice. It determines different physiological, immunological and metabolic changes which lead to increased susceptibility to several disorders such as pneumonia, diarrhea, colics, laminitis, injuries and rhabdomyolisis. The aim of our study was to look for possible relationships between transportation of female young and older horses over a long and short distance and an inflammatory state reflected by an increase of acute phase protein concentration, oxidative stress and muscle injury. The study was conducted on 24 cold-blooded female horses divided into four groups. Six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 550 km, six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 50 km. Plasma and serum were obtained from blood samples taken before transportation (T0), immediately after transportation (T1) and at an abattoir during slaughter (T2). In these samples fibrinogen, MDA, AST and CK were assessed. Fibrinogen increased in all studied groups especially in fillies after long distance transportation, where it reached 205±7.07 mg/dl before transportation, 625±35.35 mg/dl after transportation, and 790±14.14 mg/dl during slaughter. MDA concentrations rose after transportation and reached the maximal level during slaughter. CK activity was more elevated after short transportation in younger horses, whereas initial activity of AST was higher in older horses. We estimated that intensified responses from acute phase, oxidative stress and muscle injury parameters indicated an inflammatory state. PMID:26172192

  13. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Horse Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.

  14. A Genome Scan for Positive Selection in Thoroughbred Horses

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jingjing; Orr, Nick; Park, Stephen D.; Katz, Lisa M.; Sulimova, Galina; MacHugh, David E.; Hill, Emmeline W.

    2009-01-01

    Thoroughbred horses have been selected for exceptional racing performance resulting in system-wide structural and functional adaptations contributing to elite athletic phenotypes. Because selection has been recent and intense in a closed population that stems from a small number of founder animals Thoroughbreds represent a unique population within which to identify genomic contributions to exercise-related traits. Employing a population genetics-based hitchhiking mapping approach we performed a genome scan using 394 autosomal and X chromosome microsatellite loci and identified positively selected loci in the extreme tail-ends of the empirical distributions for (1) deviations from expected heterozygosity (Ewens-Watterson test) in Thoroughbred (n = 112) and (2) global differentiation among four geographically diverse horse populations (FST). We found positively selected genomic regions in Thoroughbred enriched for phosphoinositide-mediated signalling (3.2-fold enrichment; P<0.01), insulin receptor signalling (5.0-fold enrichment; P<0.01) and lipid transport (2.2-fold enrichment; P<0.05) genes. We found a significant overrepresentation of sarcoglycan complex (11.1-fold enrichment; P<0.05) and focal adhesion pathway (1.9-fold enrichment; P<0.01) genes highlighting the role for muscle strength and integrity in the Thoroughbred athletic phenotype. We report for the first time candidate athletic-performance genes within regions targeted by selection in Thoroughbred horses that are principally responsible for fatty acid oxidation, increased insulin sensitivity and muscle strength: ACSS1 (acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 1), ACTA1 (actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle), ACTN2 (actinin, alpha 2), ADHFE1 (alcohol dehydrogenase, iron containing, 1), MTFR1 (mitochondrial fission regulator 1), PDK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4) and TNC (tenascin C). Understanding the genetic basis for exercise adaptation will be crucial for the identification of genes

  15. A pharmacological study of chloramphenicol in horses.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, C S; Kramer, L L; Gupta, V S; Lerner, D J; Taksas, L

    1975-04-01

    Pharmacological disposition of chloramphenicol was studied in horses. Minimum levels of the antibiotic (greater than or equal to 5 mu g/ml) in blood or plasma recommended to combat infections could not be achieved by 4.4 and 8.8 mg/kg I.V. or 30 and 50 mg/kg I.M. or 30 mg/kg oral (as palmitate salt) doses of chloramphenicol. Increasing the dose to 19.8 and 26.4 mg/kg I.V. provided such levels for about two and three hours respectively. A combination of 20 mg/kg I.V. and 30 mg/kg I.M. administered simultaneously did not provide more prolonged levels than 26.4 mg/kg I.V. alone. Chloramphenicol succinate produced higher but not more prolonged levels in blood and plasma than those produced by pure chloramphenicol. Succinate salt is very little, if at all, bound to red blood corpuscles. Plasma half life and the apparent volume of distribution of chloramphenicol in horses were determined as 0.98 hours and 0.92 L/kg, respectively. At 5-10 mu g/ml concentrations in equine plasma approximately 30 percent of the chloramphenicol is bound to plasma proteins. From these studies it is concluded that the biological half life of chloramphenicol may be too short for therapeutic application against systemic infections in horses. PMID:1125836

  16. Iberian origins of New World horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Luís, Cristina; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Cothran, E Gus; Oom, Maria do Mar

    2006-01-01

    Fossil records, archaeological proofs, and historical documents report that horses persisted continuously in the Iberian Peninsula since the Pleistocene and were taken to the American continent (New World) in the 15th century. To investigate the variation within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of Iberian and New World horse breeds, to analyze their relationships, and to test the historical origin of New World horses, a total of 153 samples, representing 30 Iberian and New World breeds, were analyzed by sequencing mtDNA control region fragments. Fifty-four haplotypes were found and assigned to seven haplogroups. Reduced levels of variation found for the Menorquina, Sorraia, and Sulphur Mustang breeds are consistent with experienced bottlenecks or limited number of founders. For all diversity indices, Iberian breeds showed higher diversity values than South American and North American breeds. Although, the results show that the Iberian and New World breeds stem from multiple origins, we present a set of genetic data revealing a high frequency of Iberian haplotypes in New World breeds, which is consistent with historical documentation. PMID:16489143

  17. Trojan Horse particle invariance in fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleril, C.; Bertulani, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Blokhintsev, L.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Spartá, R.; Tumino, A.

    2015-01-01

    Trojan Horse method plays an important part for the measurement of several charged particle induced reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest. In order to better understand its cornerstones and the related applications to different astrophysical scenarios several tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance for the binary reactions d(d,p)t, 6,7Li(p,α)3,4He was therefore tested using the appropriate quasi free break- ups, respectively. In the first cases results from 6Li and 3He break up were used, while for the lithium fusion reactions break-ups of 2H and 3He were compared. The astrophysical S(E)-factors for the different processes were then extracted in the framework of the PlaneWave Approximation applied to the different break-up schemes. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement between data coming from different break-up schemes confirms the applicability of the plane wave approximation and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nucleus also for the present cases. Moreover the astrophysical implications of the results will also be discussed in details.

  18. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab)

    PubMed Central

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-01-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output. PMID

  19. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab).

    PubMed

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-07-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output. PMID

  20. Polysynovitis in a horse due to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection--Case study.

    PubMed

    Passamonti, Fabrizio; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Cappelli, Katia; Capomaccio, Stefano; Reginato, Alice; Miglio, Arianna; Vardi, Doron M; Stefanetti, Valentina; Coletti, Mauro; Bazzica, Chiara; Pepe, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for B. burgdorferi s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectious diseases and molecular investigations, a final diagnosis was made of polysynovitis due to B. burgdorferi s.l. infection. An unreported aspect observed in this case was the absence of the pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints. To the authors' knowledge, the case described represents the first documented clinical case of equine LB in Italy. Moreover, the absence of pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints observed in this case revealed a possible similarity with the same condition described in humans, where an immunomediated pathogenesis for arthropathy due to B. burgdorferi s.l. infection is suspected. Since humans and horses share the same habitat, this report supports the role of the horse as potential sentinel for human biological risk. PMID:26094517

  1. Pharmacokinetics of gallium nitrate after oral administration in adult horses--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pollina, G F; Zagotto, G; Maritan, P; Iacopetti, I; Busetto, R

    2012-10-01

    Gallium (Ga), a metal in group IIIA of the periodic table, has shown a remarkable activity against bone resorption and could therefore possibly prove useful in the treatment of certain diseases in sport horses, for example navicular disease. The aim of this study was to gain more information concerning the kinetics of Ga after oral administration of gallium nitrate (GaN) in adult horses. Six horses received a single dose of 10 mg/kg of GaN mixed with the food ration. Absorption was slow (T(max) = 10 ± 3 h, T(½abs) = 2 ± 0.8 h), and a C(max) of 26 ± 11 μg/L was achieved. Excretion followed a one-phase elimination model, with a long half-life (T(½el) = 52 ± 14 h). By means of a mathematical model, we estimated that the plasmatic levels should reach 93 μg/L (1.33 μm) at steady state, following the repeated daily administration of 10 mg/kg of GaN. A three times lower concentration has been demonstrated as effective in inhibiting the osteolytic activity of osteoclasts in vitro. The results of this study suggest that the administration of oral GaN at a rate of 10 mg/kg per day may be considered for future clinical studies. PMID:21913939

  2. Detection of African horse sickness virus in Culicoides imicola pools using RT-qPCR.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Tania; Liebenberg, Danica; Venter, Gert J; Mienie, Charlotte Ms; van Hamburg, Huib

    2016-06-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an infectious, non-contagious arthropod-borne disease of equids, caused by the African horse sickness virus (AHSV), an orbivirus of the Reoviridae family. It is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and thought to be the most lethal viral disease of horses. This study focused on detection of AHSV in Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) pools by the application of a RT-qPCR. Midges were fed on AHSV-infected blood. A single blood-engorged female was allocated to pools of unfed nulliparous female midges. Pool sizes varied from 1 to 200. RNA was extracted and prepared for RT-qPCR. The virus was successfully detected and the optimal pool size for the limit of detection of the virus was determined at a range between 1 to 25. Results from this investigation highlight the need for a standardized protocol for AHSV investigation in Culicoides midges especially for comparison among different studies and for the determination of infection rate. PMID:27232141

  3. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality. PMID:26893165

  4. Use of chemotherapy for treatment of a mixed-cell thoracic lymphoma in a horse.

    PubMed

    Saulez, Montague N; Schlipf, John W; Cebra, Christopher K; McDonough, Sean P; Bird, Karyn E

    2004-03-01

    A 4-year-old Oldenburg mare was evaluated because of signs of lower airway disease and subsequently developed bilateral pleural effusion. Neoplastic cells were not identified in the fluid sample obtained via the initial thoracocentesis. A thoracic mass was detected radiographically, but its location prevented collection of a tissue sample. A diagnosis of lymphoma was made on the basis of results of immunophenotyping of pleural fluid specimens. Treatment of thoracic lymphoma in horses has been attempted, but there are limited data regarding chemotherapeutic-induced remission. In this horse, remission was achieved by use of a chemotherapeutic protocol consisting of administration of cytarabine, cyclophosphamide, and prednisolone. No adverse drug reactions were encountered during treatment. Immunophenotyping of cells in specimens of pleural fluid could be used to determine lymphocyte lineage and may be a useful alternative diagnostic modality when morphologic and cytologic examination of tissue specimens obtained via invasive techniques is not feasible. PMID:15002812

  5. Investigations into the biology of three 'phycomycotic' agents pathogenic for horses in Australia.

    PubMed

    Miller, R I

    1983-01-17

    Although 'phycomycosis' is a common disease of horses in northern Australia little is known about the causative fungi. In this paper the laboratory methods for diagnosis are described. These revealed 38 cases caused by Pythium sp. (Hyphomyces destruens), 6 cases caused by Basidiobolus haptosporus and 2 caused by Conidiobolus coronatus. Laboratory studies on the chemotatic behaviour of zoospores of Pythium sp. showed that they were strongly attracted to both animal hairs and plant tissue. Because of this behaviour a simple baiting method using human hair was used to trap the fungus from water samples taken from different locations near Townsville, Queensland. B. haptosporus was isolated by indirect culture from the faeces of 5 bearded dragon lizards (Amphibolurus barbatus) captured near a small creek near Brisbane. By combining previously published information with data obtained in the present study, ecological life-cycles for Pythium sp., B. haptosporus and C. coronatus are proposed. They include mechanisms whereby horses may become infected. PMID:6682179

  6. Genome-wide SNP association-based localization of a dwarfism gene in Friesian dwarf horses.

    PubMed

    Orr, N; Back, W; Gu, J; Leegwater, P; Govindarajan, P; Conroy, J; Ducro, B; Van Arendonk, J A M; MacHugh, D E; Ennis, S; Hill, E W; Brama, P A J

    2010-12-01

    The recent completion of the horse genome and commercial availability of an equine SNP genotyping array has facilitated the mapping of disease genes. We report putative localization of the gene responsible for dwarfism, a trait in Friesian horses that is thought to have a recessive mode of inheritance, to a 2-MB region of chromosome 14 using just 10 affected animals and 10 controls. We successfully genotyped 34,429 SNPs that were tested for association with dwarfism using chi-square tests. The most significant SNP in our study, BIEC2-239376 (P(2df)=4.54 × 10(-5), P(rec)=7.74 × 10(-6)), is located close to a gene implicated in human dwarfism. Fine-mapping and resequencing analyses did not aid in further localization of the causative variant, and replication of our findings in independent sample sets will be necessary to confirm these results. PMID:21070269

  7. Actinobacillus spp. and related bacteria in infected wounds of humans bitten by horses and sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Peel, M M; Hornidge, K A; Luppino, M; Stacpoole, A M; Weaver, R E

    1991-01-01

    We describe the isolation of Actinobacillus lignieresii and an A. equuli-like bacterium from an infected horse-bite wound in a 22-year-old stable foreman and A. suis from a bite injury in a 35-year-old man who had been attacked by a horse. A. lignieresii was also isolated in pure culture from an infected sheep-bite wound in a rural worker. These species of the genus Actinobacillus are primarily associated with animals and animal diseases and are rarely isolated from humans. The purpose of this report is to raise awareness of the possible occurrence of Actinobacillus spp. in bite wounds inflicted by farm animals and to discuss the difficulties encountered in the identification of species of Actinobacillus and related bacteria. PMID:1774260

  8. Dietary requirements and athletic performance of horses.

    PubMed

    Frape, D L

    1988-05-01

    There is no clear evidence that the chronic requirement for any non-energy yielding nutrient rises in proportion as the energy requirement increases with hard work. The need for protein, and probably that for calcium, remain a function of bodyweight daily. Some proportionality with energy may exist for certain nutrients, although the evidence has not been adduced. For example, because of an increase in both the proportion and amount of propionic acid in the volatile fatty acids of caecal contents, the tissue requirement for vitamin B12 may rise with an increase in the rate of energy metabolism. Exercise influences appetite and therefore voluntary intake, and consequently the daily intake of nutrients. Although that intake is not just a function of dietary bulk and weight, it is necessary to increase energy concentration of diets to achieve an adequate chronic intake of energy where work intensity and energy expenditure are considerable. Acute nutrient requirements paint a different picture from chronic requirements. An increase in total feed intake, or the density of that feed, would neither satisfy these requirements nor be a desirable means of doing so. The acute needs of water, electrolytes and soluble carbohydrates should be met by dosing when the need arises. The timing of the consumption of energy yielding substrates relative to that of exercise may be critical to performance. An inevitable postprandial consequence of a meal of starch or protein by the resting horse, is an increase in the activity of plasma insulin. This increase decreases blood glucose, depriving muscles of a critical substrate, but the assertion has not been resolved by experiment in horses. Experiments are required to ascertain the optimum feeding regime during the 24 h preceding extreme exertion. Whereas exhaustion in sprint work is largely a function of elevated blood lactate concentration, that of extended work is a consequence of a decline in glycogen reserves and losses of body fluid

  9. Corneal cross-linking in 9 horses with ulcerative keratitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Corneal ulcers are one of the most common eye problems in the horse and can cause varying degrees of visual impairment. Secondary infection and protease activity causing melting of the corneal stroma are always concerns in patients with corneal ulcers. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), induced by illumination of the corneal stroma with ultraviolet light (UVA) after instillation of riboflavin (vitamin B2) eye drops, introduces crosslinks which stabilize melting corneas, and has been used to successfully treat infectious ulcerative keratitis in human patients. Therefore we decided to study if CXL can be performed in sedated, standing horses with ulcerative keratitis with or without stromal melting. Results Nine horses, aged 1 month to 16 years (median 5 years) were treated with a combination of CXL and medical therapy. Two horses were diagnosed with mycotic, 5 with bacterial and 2 with aseptic ulcerative keratitis. A modified Dresden-protocol for CXL could readily be performed in all 9 horses after sedation. Stromal melting, diagnosed in 4 horses, stopped within 24 h. Eight of nine eyes became fluorescein negative in 13.5 days (median time; range 4–26 days) days after CXL. One horse developed a bacterial conjunctivitis the day after CXL, which was successfully treated with topical antibiotics. One horse with fungal ulcerative keratitis and severe uveitis was enucleated 4 days after treatment due to panophthalmitis. Conclusions CXL can be performed in standing, sedated horses. We did not observe any deleterious effects attributed to riboflavin or UVA irradiation per se during the follow-up, neither in horses with infectious nor aseptic ulcerative keratitis. These data support that CXL can be performed in the standing horse, but further studies are required to compare CXL to conventional medical treatment in equine keratitis and to optimize the CXL protocol in this species. PMID:23803176

  10. Use of a hand-held, metered-dose aerosol delivery device to administer pirbuterol acetate to horses with 'heaves'.

    PubMed

    Derksen, F J; Olszewski, M; Robinson, N E; Berney, C; Lloyd, J W; Hakala, J; Matson, C; Ruth, D

    1996-07-01

    Aerosol administration of bronchodilators to horses is recommended for treatment of certain airway diseases such as 'heaves'. We have developed a novel, hand-held, metered-dose inhaler and we sought to determine the bronchodilator efficacy of the beta 2 adrenoceptor agonist pirbuterol delivered by this device to horses affected with 'heaves'. To induce airway obstruction, 6 heaves-susceptible horses were stabled, bedded on straw and fed hay. When the maximum change in pleural pressure during tidal breathing (delta Pplmax) was greater than 20 cmH2O on 2 consecutive days, pulmonary function was measured before and 5, 10 and 30 min, as well as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 h after administration of aerosol pirbuterol. Pirbuterol was administered using a metered canister and the hand-held delivery device that was inserted into the left nostril. Either vehicle or pirbuterol acetate (400, 600, 800, 1200 or 1600 micrograms) was administered to each horse. Relief of airway obstruction indicated by changes in pulmonary function was observed within 5 min after administration of both vehicle and pirbuterol. Significant decreases in delta Pplmax and pulmonary resistance (RL) and an increase in dynamic compliance (Cdyn) persisted for the 7 h duration of the experiment. Comparison of the effect of vehicle and pirbuterol at each time period showed that pirbuterol decreased RL and delta Pplmax significantly for up to 1 h. The optimal dose was determined to be 600 micrograms. Immediate response to treatment, magnitude of drug effect and lack of side effects indicated that aerosol pirbuterol is an effective and safe bronchodilator in horses with 'heaves'. The hand-held, metered-dose aerosol delivery device was very convenient and extremely effective and is, therefore, recommended for delivery of therapeutic aerosols to horses. PMID:8818596

  11. IgG antibodies from dourine infected horses identify a distinctive Trypanosoma equiperdum antigenic pattern of low molecular weight molecules.

    PubMed

    Luciani, M; Di Pancrazio, C; Di Febo, T; Tittarelli, M; Podaliri Vulpiani, M; Puglielli, M O; Naessens, J; Sacchini, F

    2013-01-15

    Diagnosis and control of dourine is strongly based on serological evidence, but knowledge of the humoral response of horses during infection is limited. In this study we developed a chemiluminescent immunoblotting (cIB) assay to characterise the Trypanosoma equiperdum antigen pattern recognised by IgGs from naturally or experimentally dourine-infected horses and analyse the kinetics of IgG humoral response following the infection. One compounding factor is that sera from uninfected animals often cross-react with T. equiperdum antigens. Development of the cIB assay was based on the hypothesis that serum IgGs from healthy and infected animals recognise different T. equiperdum antigen patterns. We used sera from 8 naturally infected horses which had recovered from Italian outbreaks and 2 experimentally infected mares. In addition, sera from 10 healthy control animals, eight of which were CFT positive but IFA negative for dourine, were collected from disease free regions. Sera were compared by the complement fixation test (CFT), indirect immune fluorescence (IFA) and the cIB assay. cIB analysis revealed that IgGs from infected horses, in contrast to IgGs from healthy horses, specifically recognise a T. equiperdum antigenic profile with low molecular weight bands ranging between 16 and 35 kDa. A time course experiment indicated that IgGs specific for the 16-35 kDa parasite protein fraction appear 17 days post-infection. The cIB assay confirmed all ten infected animals as positive and all controls as negative. This study demonstrated that analysis of IgGs by cIB can provide clear confirmation of trypanosome infection in horses, suggesting that this technique can be applied as a confirmatory serological test for dourine infection. PMID:23218944

  12. Whole-Genome SNP Association in the Horse: Identification of a Deletion in Myosin Va Responsible for Lavender Foal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Samantha A.; Gabreski, Nicole; Miller, Donald; Brisbin, Abra; Brown, Helen E.; Streeter, Cassandra; Mezey, Jason; Cook, Deborah; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    Lavender Foal Syndrome (LFS) is a lethal inherited disease of horses with a suspected autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. LFS has been primarily diagnosed in a subgroup of the Arabian breed, the Egyptian Arabian horse. The condition is characterized by multiple neurological abnormalities and a dilute coat color. Candidate genes based on comparative phenotypes in mice and humans include the ras-associated protein RAB27a (RAB27A) and myosin Va (MYO5A). Here we report mapping of the locus responsible for LFS using a small set of 36 horses segregating for LFS. These horses were genotyped using a newly available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip containing 56,402 discriminatory elements. The whole genome scan identified an associated region containing these two functional candidate genes. Exon sequencing of the MYO5A gene from an affected foal revealed a single base deletion in exon 30 that changes the reading frame and introduces a premature stop codon. A PCR–based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) assay was designed and used to investigate the frequency of the mutant gene. All affected horses tested were homozygous for this mutation. Heterozygous carriers were detected in high frequency in families segregating for this trait, and the frequency of carriers in unrelated Egyptian Arabians was 10.3%. The mapping and discovery of the LFS mutation represents the first successful use of whole-genome SNP scanning in the horse for any trait. The RFLP assay can be used to assist breeders in avoiding carrier-to-carrier matings and thus in preventing the birth of affected foals. PMID:20419149

  13. Full-Genome Sequence of a Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain from a Fatal Horse Infection in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mentoor, Juliet L. D.; Lubisi, Alison B.; Gerdes, Truuska; Human, Stacey; Williams, June H.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strain that resulted in fatal neurological disease in a horse in South Africa. Several recent reports exist of neurological disease associated with lineage 2 WNV in humans and horses in South Africa and Europe; however, there are a lack of sequencing data from recent fatal cases in Southern Africa, where these strains likely originate. A better understanding of the genetic composition of highly neuroinvasive lineage 2 strains may facilitate the identification of putative genetic factors associated with increased virulence. PMID:27469963

  14. Full-Genome Sequence of a Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain from a Fatal Horse Infection in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mentoor, Juliet L D; Lubisi, Alison B; Gerdes, Truuska; Human, Stacey; Williams, June H; Venter, Marietjie

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strain that resulted in fatal neurological disease in a horse in South Africa. Several recent reports exist of neurological disease associated with lineage 2 WNV in humans and horses in South Africa and Europe; however, there are a lack of sequencing data from recent fatal cases in Southern Africa, where these strains likely originate. A better understanding of the genetic composition of highly neuroinvasive lineage 2 strains may facilitate the identification of putative genetic factors associated with increased virulence. PMID:27469963

  15. Investigation of selected biochemical indicators of Equine Rhabdomyolysis in Arabian horses: pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers.

    PubMed

    El-Deeb, Wael Mohamed; El-Bahr, Sabry M

    2010-12-01

    A total of 30 horses were divided into two groups, one served as a control whereas other was rhabdomyolysis diseased horses. After blood collection, the resulted sera were used for estimation of the activities of creatin kinase (CK), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lactic acid, triacylglycerol (TAG), glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, Triiodothyronine (T(3)), calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, chloride, vitamin E, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis-α (TNF-α). In addition, whole blood was used for determination of selenium, reduced glutathione (G-SH) and prostaglandin F2-α (PGF2α). The erythrocyte hemolysates were used for the determination of the activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The present findings revealed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the values of CK, AST, LDH, glucose, lactate, TAG, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, MDA, TNF- α, IL6 and PGF2- α in diseased horses when compared with the control. Furthermore, the values of calcium, SOD, CAT, TAC, NO and GSH in diseased horses were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower than the control. The other examined parameters were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the examined pro-inflammatory cytokines were useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of Equine rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Arabian horses beside the old examined biomarkers. In the future, efforts should be made to confirm this in other breed. If this could be achieved, it would open up new perspectives in research fields dealing with ER. PMID:20830520

  16. BORNA DISEASE IN EQUINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Borna disease (BD) is a naturally occuring, infectious, usually fatal, progressive meningopolioencephalitis, predominantly affecting horses and sheep, more rarely other Equidae, cattle, goats, rabbits and exceptionally a variety of other animal species and possibly man. Synonyms used in the past suc...

  17. Diseases of the thorax.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, N W

    1986-04-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound is an important adjunct to existing methods in the diagnosis of thoracic disease in the horse. This article discusses scanning techniques, anatomy of the thoracic cavity, and how diagnosis of pleural effusion, pulmonary abscessation, pneumothorax, and vegetative endocarditis may be facilitated by ultrasound. PMID:3516328

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of Kit gene in Chinese indigenous horses.

    PubMed

    Han, Haoyuan; Mao, Chunchun; Chen, Ningbo; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao; Dang, Ruihua

    2016-02-01

    Kit gene is a genetic determinant of horse white coat color which has been a highly valued trait in horses for at least 2,000 years. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Kit are of importance due to their strong associations with melanoblast survival during embryonic development. In this study, a mutation analysis of all 21 Kit exons in 14 Chinese domestic horse breeds revealed six SNPs (g.91214T>G, g.143245T>G, g.164297C>T, g.170189C>T, g.171356C>G, and g.171471G>A), which located in 5'-UTR region, intron 6, exon 15, exon 20, intron 20, and exon 21 of the equine Kit gene, respectively. Subsequently, these six SNPs loci were genotyped in 632 Chinese horses by PCR-RFLP or direct sequencing. The six SNPs together defined 18 haplotypes, demonstrating abundant haplotype diversities in Chinese horses. All the mutant alleles and haplotypes were shared among different breeds. But fewer mutations were detected in horses from China than that from abroad, indicating that Chinese horses belong to a more ancient genetic pool. This study will provide fundamental genetic information for evaluating the genetic diversity of Kit gene in Chinese indigenous horse breeds. PMID:27348891

  19. Eimeria leuckarti infections in sport horses in Northwest Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gülegen, Ender; Girisgin, Oya; Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Cirak, Veli Yilgor

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine sport horses in Northwest Turkey for Eimeria (E.) leuckarti infections. Between 2004 and 2008 fecal samples from 549 horses of different age, breed and sex of 21 farms were examined for E. leuckarti oocysts using a qualitative method which involved centrifugation/flotation and saturated sugar solution as medium. The prevalence of infection was evaluated relative to host age, sex, breed and pasture availability. 16 (2.9%) horses were found to be infected with E. leuckarti, whilst infected horses were located in nine (42.8%) farms. Younger horses (< 1 year old) were more frequently infected than older ones. However, breed, sex and availability of pasture were not identified as factors influencing the prevalence. As a main conclusion, compared with the low infection rate found in individual horses, E. leuckarti was highly prevalent at the farm level which possess a permanent risk of infection of especially younger horses at these premises. This study reports for the first time on the prevalence of E. leuckarti in sport horses from farms in Northwest Turkey. PMID:26904897

  20. Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, John R.

    A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski's…

  1. Mitochondrial DNA and the origins of the domestic horse

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Thomas; Forster, Peter; Levine, Marsha A.; Oelke, Hardy; Hurles, Matthew; Renfrew, Colin; Weber, Jürgen; Olek, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    The place and date of the domestication of the horse has long been a matter for debate among archaeologists. To determine whether horses were domesticated from one or several ancestral horse populations, we sequenced the mitochondrial D-loop for 318 horses from 25 oriental and European breeds, including American mustangs. Adding these sequences to previously published data, the total comes to 652, the largest currently available database. From these sequences, a phylogenetic network was constructed that showed that most of the 93 different mitochondrial (mt)DNA types grouped into 17 distinct phylogenetic clusters. Several of the clusters correspond to breeds and/or geographic areas, notably cluster A2, which is specific to Przewalski's horses, cluster C1, which is distinctive for northern European ponies, and cluster D1, which is well represented in Iberian and northwest African breeds. A consideration of the horse mtDNA mutation rate together with the archaeological timeframe for domestication requires at least 77 successfully breeding mares recruited from the wild. The extensive genetic diversity of these 77 ancestral mares leads us to conclude that several distinct horse populations were involved in the domestication of the horse. PMID:12130666

  2. Pleuritis secondary to pneumonia or lung abscessation in 90 horses.

    PubMed

    Raphel, C F; Beech, J

    1982-10-15

    Of 122 horses with pleural effusion, 90 (73.8%) had pleuritis secondary to pneumonia or lung abscessation. Fifty-one horses died or were euthanatized. The highest prevalence was in Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses. Eleven (12.2%) horses were postsurgical patients and 22 (24.4%) horses had been transported over 500 miles. There was no relationship between final outcome and the age, sex, breed, hematologic values, or laboratory findings pertaining to pleural fluid except for the bacterial isolation of Escherichia coli from the pleural fluid, as this was more frequently associated with death. Follow-up on 38 of the 39 horses that survived showed that 18 (46.2%) recovered and were able to return to performance equal to that prior to their illness. Ten (25.6%) were returned for breeding or pleasure use, with no attempt made to return them to racing. Follow-up was not available for 5 horses, 4 horses had just recently been discharged from the hospital, and 2 horses are racing poorer than prior to their illness. PMID:7141978

  3. Removal of sialoliths using the intraoral approach in 15 horses.

    PubMed

    Oreff, Gil L; Shiraki, Ryoji; Kelmer, Gal

    2016-06-01

    This study describes the use of an intraoral approach for sialolith removal in horses. All horses resumed their previous activity after surgery. Sialoliths were composed mainly of calcium carbonate, containing a nidus of plant material. The removal of sialoliths via an intraoral approach results in a high success rate with minimal complications. PMID:27247466

  4. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  5. Tansy ragwort poisoning in a horse in southern Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    de Lanux-Van Gorder, V

    2000-01-01

    Bizarre behavior, apparent lameness, and colic were noticed in 1 of 3 horses on a pasture overgrown by weeds during a drought. Liver failure and hepatoencephalopathy were diagnosed, caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis associated with consumption of tansy ragwort. The horse made a full recovery when removed from the pasture. PMID:10816838

  6. Pain: Its Diagnosis and Management in the Rehabilitation of Horses.

    PubMed

    Daglish, Jodie; Mama, Khursheed R

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a brief overview of pain physiology and its relevance to equine patients. Objective and subjective techniques for assessing pain in the horse are described in depth. Pharmacologic and interventional pain modulation treatments are discussed with a focus on the rehabilitating horse. PMID:27012506

  7. [Occurrance of antibodies against Leptospira in horses in Middle Germany].

    PubMed

    Pikalo, Jutta; Sattler, Tatjana; Eichinger, Michaela; Loitsch, Angelika; Sun, Hao; Schmoll, Friedrich; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study was to detect antibodies and potential risk factors for an infec- tion with Leptospira in horses in Middle Germany. Serum samples of 314 horses were examined retrospectively by microscopic agglutination test for the presence of antibodies against eight Leptospira serovars. In total, 17.2% (n = 54) of the horses were positive for one or more of the serovars analyzed. The most prevalent serovar was lcterohaemorrhagiae (11.1%), followed by serovar Bratislava (9.6 %) and Grippotyphosa (1.9%). Mares showed a significantly higher occurrence of antibodies (p < 0.05) than geldings or stallions. Horses used for breeding have a significantly lower risk than horses used in sport or horses used for leisure activity. There was also a significantly higher prevalence (p < 0.05) in summer than in the other seasons. No significant influence of breed, husbandry conditions and age on the antibody occurrence was observed (p > 0.05). The clinical chemical parameters did not differ significantly between horses with positive or negative Leptospira antibody result (p > 0.05). It became apparent that horses can be infected with Leptospira without developing of clinical symptoms. PMID:27344912

  8. Suspected systemic calcinosis and calciphylaxis in 5 horses

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jean-Yin; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Sebastian, Manu M.; Davis, Gordon D.; Kelly, Jenny R.; Goehring, Lutz S.; Harland, Malte M.; Kuebelbeck, K. Leann; Waldridge, Bryan M.; Newton, Joseph C.; Reimer, Johanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Five horses were presented with signs of myopathy along with systemic malaise, hyperfibrinogenemia, hyperphosphatemia, and an elevated calcium phosphorus product (Ca*P). Postmortem findings were consistent with systemic calcinosis, a syndrome of calcium deposition in the tissue of organs including lungs, kidneys, muscle, and heart that has not been previously described in horses. PMID:21119866

  9. Adverse effects of zilpaterol administration in horses: three cases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three healthy horses were fed 0.17 mg/kg body weight of the beta-adrenergic agonist zilpaterol to determine zilpaterol elimination kinetics. Shortly after treatment, each horse developed skeletal muscle tremors, tachycardia, and serological abnormalities lasting several days. A 75% to 87.5% reduced ...

  10. 2. Overall view of the horse pasture store from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overall view of the horse pasture store from the east; U.S. Highway 58 runs from left to right across the view, while Route 687 rices into the distance at the left - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  11. 5. East and north (rear) elevations of the horse pasture ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East and north (rear) elevations of the horse pasture store, looking southwest; the store's two outbuildings can ben seen at the right of the view - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  12. 4. West and south elevations of the horse pasture store, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. West and south elevations of the horse pasture store, looking northeast; a "Greenhouse" structure can be seen extending to the west of the store at the left of the view - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  13. 14. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF HORSE MESA. TRACK FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF HORSE MESA. TRACK FROM AGGREGATE BARGES TO MIXING PLANT IS AT LOWER LEFT, RIGHT SPILLWAY CHUTE IS TAKING FORM AT UPPER RIGHT April 29, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 17. VIEW SHOWING CAPTION AT UPPER RIGHT THAT READS, 'HORSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW SHOWING CAPTION AT UPPER RIGHT THAT READS, 'HORSE MESA DAM -5/15/27FLOATING 2-YD. ELECTRICALLY-OPERATED CLAM-SHELL DERRICK UNLOADING GRAVEL SCOWS' May 15, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ARE AT CENTER AND CONCRETE TOWER LINES. AGGREGATE OPERATION IS VISIBLE ABOVE CONSTRUCTION SITE July 22, 1926 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M

    2011-11-01

    We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities. PMID:22547844

  17. Protection of horses against Culicoides biting midges in different housing systems in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, V J; Page, P C; Kopp, C; Mathis, A; von Niederhäusern, R; Burger, D; Herholz, C

    2015-06-15

    Species belonging to the Culicoides complexes (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), obsoletus and pulicaris, in Switzerland, are potential vectors of both bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV). The epidemic of BTV in 2006 and 2007 in Europe has highlighted the risk of introduction and spread of vector-borne diseases in previously non-endemic areas. As a measure of prevention, as part of an integrated control programme in the event of an outbreak of African horse sickness (AHS), it is of utmost importance to prevent, or substantially reduce, contact between horses and Culicoides. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of three protection systems, net, fan, repellent, or combinations thereof, with regard to their potential to reduce contact between horses and Culicoides. Three different equine housing systems, including individual boxes (BX), group housing systems (GR), and individual boxes with permanently accessible paddock (BP) were used. The efficacy of the protection systems were evaluated by comparing the total number counts of collected female Culicoides, of non-blood-fed and blood-fed Culicoides, respectively, with UV black light traps. The study was conducted over 3 summer months during 2012 and 2013 each and focused on the efficacy and practicality of the protection systems. The repellent was tested in 2012 only and not further investigated in 2013, as it showed no significant effect in reducing Culicoides collected in the light traps. Net protection system provided the best overall protection for the total number of female Culicoides, non-blood-fed and blood-fed Culicoides in all tested housing systems. The net, with a pore size of 0.1825 mm(2), reduced the total number of Culicoides collected in the housing systems BP, GR and BX by 98%, 85% and 67%, respectively. However, in the GR housing system, no significant difference between the effectiveness of the fan and the net were determined for any of the three Culicoides

  18. Local and systemic inflammatory and immunologic reactions to cyathostomin larvicidal therapy in horses.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M K; Loynachan, A T; Jacobsen, S; Stewart, J C; Reinemeyer, C R; Horohov, D W

    2015-12-15

    Encysted cyathostomin larvae are ubiquitous in grazing horses. Arrested development occurs in this population and can lead to an accumulation of encysted larvae. Large numbers of tissue larvae place the horse at risk for developing larval cyathostominosis. This disease complex is caused by mass emergence of these larvae and is characterized by a generalized acute typhlocolitis and manifests itself as a profuse protein-losing watery diarrhea with a reported case-fatality rate of about 50%. Two anthelmintic formulations have a label claim for larvicidal therapy of these encysted stages; moxidectin and a five-day regimen of fenbendazole. There is limited knowledge about inflammatory and immunologic reactions to larvicidal therapy. This study was designed to evaluate blood acute phase reactants as well as gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, both locally in the large intestinal walls and systemically. Further, mucosal tissue samples were evaluated histopathologically as well as analyzed for gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, cluster of differentiation (CD) cell surface proteins, and select transcription factors. Eighteen juvenile horses with naturally acquired cyathostomin infections were randomly assigned to three treatment groups; one group served as untreated controls (Group 1), one received a five-day regimen of fenbendazole (10mg/kg) (Group 2), and one group received moxidectin (0.4mg/kg) (Group 3). Horses were treated on day 0 and euthanatized on days 18-20. Serum and whole blood samples were collected on days 0, 5, and 18. All horses underwent necropsy with collection of tissue samples from the ventral colon and cecum. Acute phase reactants measured included serum amyloid A, iron and fibrinogen, and the cytokines evaluated included interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and interleukins 1β, 4, 5, 6, and 10. Transcription factors evaluated were FoxP3, GATA3 and tBet, and CD markers included

  19. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in two horse populations in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Insect bite hypersensitivity is a common allergic disease in horse populations worldwide. Insect bite hypersensitivity is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. However, little is known about genes contributing to the genetic variance associated with insect bite hypersensitivity. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify and quantify genomic associations with insect bite hypersensitivity in Shetland pony mares and Icelandic horses in the Netherlands. Methods Data on 200 Shetland pony mares and 146 Icelandic horses were collected according to a matched case–control design. Cases and controls were matched on various factors (e.g. region, sire) to minimize effects of population stratification. Breed-specific genome-wide association studies were performed using 70 k single nucleotide polymorphisms genotypes. Bayesian variable selection method Bayes-C with a threshold model implemented in GenSel software was applied. A 1 Mb non-overlapping window approach that accumulated contributions of adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms was used to identify associated genomic regions. Results The percentage of variance explained by all single nucleotide polymorphisms was 13% in Shetland pony mares and 28% in Icelandic horses. The 20 non-overlapping windows explaining the largest percentages of genetic variance were found on nine chromosomes in Shetland pony mares and on 14 chromosomes in Icelandic horses. Overlap in identified associated genomic regions between breeds would suggest interesting candidate regions to follow-up on. Such regions common to both breeds (within 15 Mb) were found on chromosomes 3, 7, 11, 20 and 23. Positional candidate genes within 2 Mb from the associated windows were identified on chromosome 20 in both breeds. Candidate genes are within the equine lymphocyte antigen class II region, which evokes an immune response by recognizing many foreign molecules. Conclusions The genome-wide association study identified several

  20. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training.

    PubMed

    Munsters, C C B M; Visser, E K; van den Broek, J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    2013-05-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inexperienced) police horses during police training. Horses were evaluated during four test settings at three time points over a 7-week period: outdoor track test, street track test, indoor arena test and smoke machine test. Heart rate (HR; beats/min), HR variability (HRV; root means square of successive differences; ms), behavior score (BS; scores 0 to 5) and standard police performance score (PPS; scores 1 to 0) were obtained per test. All data were statistically evaluated using a linear mixed model (Akaike's Information criterium; t > 2.00) or logistic regression (P < 0.05). HR of horses was increased at indoor arena test (98 ± 26) and smoke machine test (107 ± 25) compared with outdoor track (80 ± 12, t = 2.83 and t = 3.91, respectively) and street track tests (81 ± 14, t = 2.48 and t = 3.52, respectively). HRV of horses at the indoor arena test (42.4 ± 50.2) was significantly lower compared with street track test (85.7 ± 94.3 and t = 2.78). BS did not show significant differences between tests and HR of horses was not always correlated with the observed moderate behavioral responses. HR, HRV, PPS and BS did not differ between repetition of tests and there were no significant differences in any of the four tests between experienced and inexperienced horses. No habituation occurred during the test weeks, and experience as a police horse does not seem to be a key factor in how these horses handle stress. All horses showed only modest behavioral responses, and HR may provide complimentary information for individual evaluation and welfare assessment of these horses. Overall, little evidence of stress was observed during these police training tests. As three of these