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Sample records for hospedeiro anacardium occidentale

  1. On the antifeedant and anthellmintic potential of anacardium occidentale L.

    PubMed

    Mathew, A S; Chauhan, M G; Shah, B K

    1998-10-01

    The antifeedant and anthelmintic activities of crude extracts of the shells of Anacardium occidentale were studied by comparing it's activity with the activity of Azadirachta indica A Juss (Kernel), a commercial standard. The test extracts of A. occidentale in petroleum ether, dichloromethane: methanol showed better activities compared to A. Indica. To Study the anthelmintic activity, the addition of piperine to the formulation significantly enhances the activity. The phytochemical investigation of test extracts showed the presence of phenols namely cordol, cardanol and anacardic acid by TLC studies. The most potent extracts are non toxic to mice. PMID:22556881

  2. ON THE ANTIFEEDANT AND ANTHELLMINTIC POTENTIAL OF ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L.

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, A.S; Chauhan, M.G.; Shah, B.K.

    1998-01-01

    The antifeedant and anthelmintic activities of crude extracts of the shells of Anacardium occidentale were studied by comparing it's activity with the activity of Azadirachta indica A Juss (Kernel), a commercial standard. The test extracts of A. occidentale in petroleum ether, dichloromethane: methanol showed better activities compared to A. Indica. To Study the anthelmintic activity, the addition of piperine to the formulation significantly enhances the activity. The phytochemical investigation of test extracts showed the presence of phenols namely cordol, cardanol and anacardic acid by TLC studies. The most potent extracts are non toxic to mice. PMID:22556881

  3. Sub-chronic Hepatotoxicity of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) Inner Stem Bark Extract in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Okonkwo, T. J. N.; Okorie, O.; Okonta, J. M.; Okonkwo, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    The extracts of Anacardium occidentale have been used in the management of different cardiovascular disorders in Nigeria. These have necessitated the assessment of the toxicity of this plant extract in sub-chronic administration. The inner stem bark of Anacardium occidentale was extracted with 80 % methanol and quantitatively analysed for antinutrients and some heavy metals. The phytochemical compositions and acute toxicity of the extract were determined also. Toxicity profiles of the extract on some liver function parameters were evaluated following a sub-chronic oral administration at doses of 1.44 and 2.87 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of high amount of tannins, moderate saponins and trace of free reducing sugars. The antinutrient levels were 5.75 % (tannins), 2.50 % (oxalates), 2.00 % (saponins), 0.25 % (phytate) and 0.03 % (cyanide). The quantity of iron detected from dried crude was 8.92 mg/100 g, while lead and cadmium were non-detectable. The extract had LD50of 2.154g/kg p.o. in mice. Sub-chronic administration of the extract significantly increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase, which are indicative of liver damage. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and total protein of the treated animals were not significantly increased. The effects of sub-chronically administered extract on hepatocytes were minimal as the serum alkaline phosphatase; total bilirubin and total protein levels in treated animals were not significant (p< 0.05). Thus, sub-chronic administrations of Anacardium occidentale inner stem bark extract did not significantly (p< 0.05) depress the function of hepatocytes in Wistar rats. PMID:21188045

  4. Novel method for isolation of major phenolic constituents from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid.

    PubMed

    Paramashivappa, R; Kumar, P P; Vithayathil, P J; Rao, A S

    2001-05-01

    Commercially available cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid (CNSL) mainly contains the phenolic constituents anacardic acid, cardol, and cardanol. These phenolic constituents are themselves heterogeneous, and each of them contains saturated, monoene, diene, and trienes in the fifteen-carbon side chain. This communication describes the separation of anacardic acid, cardol, and cardanol for industrial application. Anacardic acid was selectively isolated as calcium anacardate. The acid-free CNSL was treated with liquor ammonia and extracted with hexane/ethyl acetate (98:2) to separate the mono phenolic component, cardanol. Subsequently, ammonia solution was extracted with ethyl acetate/hexane (80:20) to obtain cardol. PMID:11368634

  5. Reductive-degradation of carcinogenic azo dyes using Anacardium occidentale testa derived silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Atchudan, Raji; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, reductive-degradation of azo dyes such as congo red (CR) and methyl orange (MO) was manifested using Anacardium occidentale testa derived silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a catalyst. The formation of highly stable AgNPs were visually confirmed by the appearance of yellow color and further substantiated by the existence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak around 425nm. The effect of A. occidentale concentration, reaction time and pH in the formations of AgNPs was corroborated by UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic results proved that phytoconstituents of A. occidentale testa acts as a capping agent and thereby protects the AgNPs from aggregation. The crystalline nature of the AgNPs was validated from the XRD patterns. The average size of synthesized AgNPs was 25nm, with distorted spherical shape was ascribed from the high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HR-TEM) images. Due to the high stability of the as-synthesized AgNPs, they were utilized for the degradation of carcinogenic azo dyes such as CR and MO using NaBH4 and its catalytic activity was studied via UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results proved that extraordinary catalytic activity of synthesized AgNPs towards the reductive-degradation of both CR and MO. PMID:27479841

  6. Thermal properties of tannin extracted from Anacardium occidentale L. using TGA and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Vinod; Leo, Vincent Vineeth; Prabha, S Sabna; Prabhakumari, C; Potty, V P; Jisha, M S

    2016-01-01

    The chemical nature of the polyphenols of cashew kernel testa has been determined. Testa contains tannins, which present large molecular complexity and has an ancient use as tanning agents. The use of tannins extracted from cashew testa, considered in many places as a waste, grants an extra value to the cashew. In this work we have analysed through high performance liquid chromatography, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermo gravimetric analysis the average molecular weight, main functional groups and thermal properties of tannins extracted from Anacardium occidentale L. The results of these analyses are compared with the commercial grade tannic acid. The FT-IR spectra showed bands characteristic of C = C, C-C and OH bonds. This important bioactive compound present in the cashew nut kernel testa was suggested as an interesting economical source of antioxidants for use in the food and nutraceutical industry. PMID:26119693

  7. Process for isolation of cardanol from technical cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid.

    PubMed

    Phani Kumar, P; Paramashivappa, R; Vithayathil, P J; Subba Rao, P V; Srinivasa Rao, A

    2002-07-31

    Commercially available technical cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid (CNSL) contains mainly cardanol (decarboxylated anacardic acid) and cardol. Cardanol, the monophenolic component of technical CNSL, is widely used as a synthon for the preparation of a number of polymers and agricultural products. This paper describes the separation of cardanol from toxic cardol. Technical CNSL was dissolved in a mixture of methanol and ammonium hydroxide (8:5) and extracted with hexane to obtain cardanol. The resultant methanolic ammonia layer was extracted with a mixture of ethyl acetate and hexane to yield cardol. This is the first industrially feasible process based on solvent extractions for the isolation of cardanol from technical CNSL. PMID:12137500

  8. Synthesis characterization and catalytic action of hexagonal gold nanoparticles using essential oils extracted from Anacardium occidentale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheny, D. S.; Mathew, Joseph; Philip, Daizy

    2012-11-01

    A new phytochemical method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is reported. The essential oils extracted from the fresh leaves of Anacardium occidentale are used for the reduction of auric acid to Au nanoparticles (NPs). The formation and morphology of synthesized NPs are investigated with the help of UV-visible, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The NPs synthesized at room temperature are mono-dispersed and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 36 nm while those prepared at higher temperature are composed of a mixture of anisotropic particles. The UV-visible absorption spectra of these anisotropic NPs show asymmetry in the longer wavelength side. The quantity of oil is an important criterion modulating the shape of NPs. Possible biochemical mechanism leading to the formation of NPs is studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The potential of synthesized Au NPs as catalyst is explored for the hydrogenation of p-nitro phenol to p-amino phenol at room temperature.

  9. Amino acid composition of two masticatory nuts (Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola) and a snack nut (Anacardium occidentale).

    PubMed

    Adeyeye, E I; Asaolu, S S; Aluko, A O

    2007-06-01

    The amino acid compositions of Cola acuminata, Garcinia kola and Anacardium occidentale were evaluated by ion-exchange chromatography. Glutamic acid was the most concentrated acid in the samples. In all the amino acids determined, A. occidentale had the most concentrated acid on a pairwise basis. The total amino acids were 356.24 mg/g protein, 112.90 mg/g protein and 659.17 mg/g protein for C. acuminata, G. kola and A. occidentale, respectively. The percentage total essential amino acids were 38.39% (C. acuminata), 47.05% (G. kola) and 51.04% (A. occidentale). Also the percentage total acidic amino acids were 38.16% (C. acuminata), 30.61% (G. kola) and 30.35% (A. occidentale). The calculated isoelectric points were 2.0 (C. acuminata), 0.7 (G. kola) and 3.9 (A. occidentale), showing they can all be precipitated at acidic pH. While threonine was the limiting amino acid in A. occidentale, it was valine in both C. acuminata and G. kola. The percentage cystine (Cys) levels in the total sulphur amino acid were 44.27% (C. acuminata), 37.75% (G. kola) and 50.51% (A. occidentale). The aim of this work was to compare the amino acid profile of the samples. It is recommended that C. acuminata and G. kola consumption be avoided by ulcer patients because of their high levels of acidic amino acids. A. occidentale amino acid scores ranged from 42% to 127%, suggesting that it could be used to enhance the protein quality of cereals through food complementation. PMID:17566886

  10. [The use of the shell of the cashew nut, Anacardium occidentale, as an alternative molluscacide].

    PubMed

    de Souza, C P; Mendes, N M; Jannotti-Passos, L K; Pereira, J P

    1992-01-01

    Bioassays using hexanolic extracts of cashew nut shells, of Anacardium occidentale, collected in Ceará in 1972 (Sample 1) and 1987 (Sample 2) were undertaken with adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea both in the laboratory and in the field. Non extracted shells, 18.5 g, sample 1, were also tested with adult snails and egg masses of the three species. The toxicity of extract was tested with fish (Poecilia reticulata) and tadpoles. The lethal concentration, CL90, of sample 1 was from 2.0 to 2.2 ppm for adult snails of the three species. With sample 2, the CL90 was 2.0, 0.5 and 30.0 ppm for B. glabrata adults, newly hatched snails and egg mass respectively. Non extracted shells caused 40-80% mortality of adult snails, 22-35% mortality of embryos and 40-55% reduction of egg production. The hexanolic extract, sample 2, were innocuous for tadpole and fish at 2 ppm. In the field, in pools of still water treatment with 20 ppm of extract, sample 1, caused a 97.1% mortality of B. straminea and 100% mortality of B. glabrata and B. tenagophila. Using Niclosamide, at 3 ppm, 100% mortality of the three species occurred. PMID:1342111

  11. Nutritional composition of raw fresh cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) kernels from different origin.

    PubMed

    Rico, Ricard; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-03-01

    The total dietary fiber, sugar, protein, lipid profile, sodium, and energy contents of 11 raw cashew kernel (Anacardium occidentale L.) samples from India, Brazil, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, and Vietnam were determined. Total fat was the major component accounting for 48.3% of the total weight, of which 79.7% were unsaturated FA (fatty acids), 20.1% saturated FA, and 0.2% trans FA. Proteins, with 21.3 g/100 g, were ranked second followed by carbohydrates (20.5 g/100 g). The average sodium content was 144 mg/kg. Fourteen FA were identified among which oleic acid was the most abundant with a contribution of 60.7% to the total fat, followed by linoleic (17.77%), palmitic (10.2%), and stearic (8.93%) acids. The mean energy content was 2525 kJ/100g. Furthermore, the sterol profile and content, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals of four raw cashew kernel samples from Brazil, India, Ivory Coast, and Vietnam were determined. β-Sitosterol with 2380 ± 4 mg/kg fat was the most occurring sterol. Glutamic acid, with 4.60 g/100 g, was the amino acid with highest presence, whereas tryptophan with 0.32 g/100 g was the one with lower presence. Vitamin E with an average contribution of 5.80 mg/100 g was the most abundant vitamin. Potassium with a mean value of 6225 mg/kg was the mineral with highest amount in cashew samples. PMID:27004123

  12. In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica in oral care

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Geethashri; Ravinanthan, Manikandan; Basaviah, Ravishankar; Shetty, A. Veena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral health is an integral and important component of general health. Infectious diseases such as caries, periodontal, and gingivitis indicate the onset of imbalance in homeostasis between oral micro biota and host. The present day medicaments used in oral health care have numerous side effects. The uses of herbal plants as an alternative have gained popularity due to side effects of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Anacardium occidentale (cashew) and Mangifera indica (mango) have been used as traditional oral health care measures in India since time immemorial. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extracts of cashew and mango leaves were obtained by maceration method. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by clear zone produced by these plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans in agar plate method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC), and suppression of biofilm. The cytotoxic effects of plants extract was determined by microculture tetrazolium assay on human gingival fibroblast and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cell lines. Results: Cashew and mango leaf extract significantly (P < 0.05) produced larger zone of inhibition against test pathogens when compared to povidone-iodine-based mouth rinses. Although the MIC and MBC/MFC values of mouth rinses were effective in lower concentrations; plant extracts significantly (P < 0.001) suppressed the biofilms of oral pathogens. The leaf extracts were less cytotoxic (P < 0.001) compared to mouth rinses. Conclusions: Plant extracts are superior to the mouth rinses and have a promising role in future oral health care. PMID:25709341

  13. Characterization and bioassay for larvicidal activity of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) shell waste fractions against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosalinda C; Garbo, Alicia G; Walde, Rikkamae Zinca Marie L

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies regarding the harmful effects of synthetic larvicides initiated the need to investigate for unconventional measures that are environmentally safe and target-specific against Aedes aegypti larvae. Thus, the main objectives of the study are to evaluate the larvicidal toxicity of the solvent fractions of Anacardium occidentale shell wastes against the third and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti and to compare the results with the commercial larvicide product. The shell wastes were extracted with 95% EtOH followed by polarity-based fractionation. The fractions were tested for larvicidal activity according to the World Health Organization bioassay method. These were then characterized by quantitative thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) fingerprinting. The hexane fraction gave the strongest activity among the fractions with an LC50 of 4.01 mg/L and LC90 of 11.29 mg/L highly comparable to the commercial larvicide, which exhibited an LC50 of 1.71 mg/L and LC90 of 8.41 mg/L. The dichloromethane fraction exhibited 9.70 mg/L LC50 and 18.44 mg/L LC90. The remarkable toxicity effects exhibited by these fractions indicate their potential to provide core structures from which sustainable and environmentally safe plant-based larvicidal agents can be synthesized. PMID:26099240

  14. [Development of mixed beverages made of caja (Spondias mombin L.) and cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale) added of fructooligosaccharides and inulin].

    PubMed

    Silva, Larissa Morais Ribeiro da; Lima, Andréa da Silva; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; Rodrigues, Maria do Carmo Passos; Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane de; Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado de

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop three mixed drinks based on caja (Spondias mombin L.) and cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale) pulps, added prebiotic ingredients and to evaluate their chemical, physicochemical and sensory properties. Four formulations with combinations of two pulp fruit, sucrose and prebiotic ingredients (Standard inulin, inulin high performance-HP-and fructooligosaccharides FOS) were developed. The mixed drinks were submitted the following analysis pH, acidity, soluble solids, sugars, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, total polyphenols and acceptance ratings of the sensory attributes such as: consistency, sweetness and overall impression, attitude and consumers purchase preference. The pH, total soluble solids and polyphenol results showed difference (p < or = 0.01) significant, while for the analysis of total acidity, sugars, ascorbic acid and carotenoids, it was not observed significant difference. The sensory attributes evaluates showed results ranging in scale between "I did not like or disliked "and" liked "(average 5.80 to 7.06). The attributes sweetness, consistency and attitude of buying showed no difference (p > 0.05) between drinks, however, differed significantly (p < or = 0.05) for the attribute of overall impression. The drink with FOS showed a similar acceptance when compared to traditional (sucrose) drink, showing an option of meeting the functional food expectations of consumers, who seek healthy, nutritious and tasty foods. PMID:22308948

  15. Carotenoids, carotenoid esters, and anthocyanins of yellow-, orange-, and red-peeled cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L.).

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Vargas, Ester; Conrad, Jürgen; Hempel, Judith; Gras, Claudia C; Ziegler, Jochen U; Mayer, Angelika; Jiménez, Víctor; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2016-06-01

    Pigment profiles of yellow-, orange-, and red-peeled cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apples were investigated. Among 15 identified carotenoids and carotenoid esters, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin palmitate were the most abundant in peels and pulp of all samples. Total carotenoid concentrations in the pulp of yellow- and red-peeled cashew apples were low (0.69-0.73 mg/100g FW) compared to that of orange-peeled samples (2.2mg/100g FW). The color difference between the equally carotenoid-rich yellow and red colored samples indicated the presence of a further non-carotenoid pigment type in red peels. Among four detected anthocyanins, the major anthocyanin was unambiguously identified as 7-O-methylcyanidin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside by NMR spectroscopy. Red and yellow peel color was chiefly determined by the presence and absence of anthocyanins, respectively, while the orange appearance of the peel was mainly caused by increased carotenoid concentrations. Thus, orange-peeled fruits represent a rich source of provitamin A (ca. 124 μg retinol-activity-equivalents/100g pulp, FW). PMID:26830589

  16. Phytosynthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles using aqueous extract and dried leaf of Anacardium occidentale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheny, D. S.; Mathew, Joseph; Philip, Daizy

    2011-06-01

    Present study reports a green chemistry approach for the biosynthesis of Au, Ag, Au-Ag alloy and Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles using the aqueous extract and dried powder of Anacardium occidentale leaf. The effects of quantity of extract/powder, temperature and pH on the formation of nanoparticles are studied. The nanoparticles are characterized using UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopies, XRD, HRTEM and SAED analyses. XRD studies show that the particles are crystalline in the cubic phase. The formation of Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles is evidenced by the dark core and light shell images in TEM and is supported by the appearance of two SPR bands in the UV-vis spectrum. FTIR spectra of the leaf powder before and after the bioreduction of nanoparticles are used to identify possible functional groups responsible for the reduction and capping of nanoparticles. Water soluble biomolecules like polyols and proteins are expected to bring about the bio-reduction.

  17. Thrombolytic potential of Ocimum sanctum L., Curcuma longa L., Azadirachta indica L. and Anacardium occidentale L.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Irfan Newaz; Habib, Md. Razibul; Rahman, Md. Mominur; Mannan, Adnan; Sarker, Md. Mominul Islam; Hawlader, Sourav

    2011-01-01

    Atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction are serious consequences of the thrombus formed xin blood vessels. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs have certain limitations which cause serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether herbal preparations possess thrombolytic activity or not. An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of four aqueous herbal extracts viz., O. sanctum, C. longa, A. indica, A. occidentale along with Streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. The percentage (%) clot lysis was statistically significant (p<0.0001) when compared with vehicle control. Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, O. sanctum, C. longa, A. indica & A. occidentale showed moderate clot lysis activity (30.01 ± 6.168%, 32.94 ± 3.663%, 27.47 ± 6.943%, 33.79 ± 2.926% respectively) whereas standard streptokinase showed 86.2 ± 10.7 % clot lysis effect. From our study we found that all the herbs showed reasonable % of clot lysis. These herbal extracts possess thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active component(s) of these extracts for clot lysis are yet to be discovered PMID:24826011

  18. Application of high-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to the investigation of glycosidically bound components related to cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L. Var. Nanum) volatiles.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, B; Pereira, A S; Aquino Neto, F R; Pinto, A C; Rezende, C M

    2000-04-01

    Free and bound volatile components of a Brazilian cashew apple variety (Anacardium occidentale L. var. nanum) were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and XAD-2 adsorption. According to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and retention indices, 62 free volatile constituents were characterized and quantified. They were esters (40%), terpenes (20%), hydrocarbons (14%), fatty acids (9%), aldehydes (8%), alcohols (3%), lactones (3%), ketones (1%), phenols (1%), and norisoprenoids (1%). The glycosidically bound volatile precursors were analyzed by high-temperature GC-MS, after room temperature silylation. Several conjugated alcohols and cinnamic acids were detected and reported as cashew apple glycosyl constituents for the first time. PMID:10775367

  19. Effects of immature cashew nut-shell liquid (Anacardium occidentale) against oxidative damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    De Lima, S G; Feitosa, C M; Citó, A M G L; Moita Neto, J M; Lopes, J A D; Leite, A S; Brito, M C; Dantas, S M M; Cavalcante, A A C Melo

    2008-01-01

    The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) represents one of the major cheapest sources of non-isoprenoid phenolic lipids, which have a variety of biological properties: they can act as molluscicides, insecticides, fungicides, have anti-termite properties, have medicinal applications, and demonstrate antioxidant activity in vitro. Immature cashew nut-shell liquid (iCNSL) is a unique natural source of unsaturated long-chain phenols. Their use has stimulated much research in order to prepare drug analogues for application in several fields. The objective of the present study was to determine whether iCNSL has antioxidant properties when used in strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to measure the inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase. The constituents were identified using thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance. The iCNSL contains anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and 2-methyl cardol. Immature cashew nut oil contains triacylglycerols, fatty acids, alkyl-substituted phenols, and cholesterol. The main constituents of the free fatty acids are palmitic (C(16:0)) and oleic acid (C(18:1)). iCNSL has excellent protective activities in strains of S. cerevisiae against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide and inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity. iCNSL may have an important role in protecting DNA against damage induced by reactive oxygen species, as well as hydrogen peroxide, generated by intra- and extracellular mechanisms. PMID:18949700

  20. Assessment of Phenolic Compounds and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Phase of Anacardium occidentale L. Bark.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Marina Suênia de Araújo; de Souza, Graziene Lopes; Vilar, Daniela de Araújo; Leite, Jacqueline Alves; Raffin, Fernanda Nervo; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Nogueira, Fernando Henrique Andrade; Rodrigues-Mascarenhas, Sandra; Moura, Túlio Flávio Accioly de Lima

    2016-01-01

    The bark of A. occidentale L. is rich in tannins. Studies have described various biological activities of the plant, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory actions. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of the ethyl acetate phase (EtOAc) of A. occidentale on acute inflammation and to identify and quantify its phenolic compounds by HPLC. The method was validated and shown to be linear, precise and accurate for catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallic acid. Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) were treated with saline, Carrageenan (2.5%), Indomethacin (10 mg/kg), Bradykinin (6 nmol) and Prostaglandine E2 (5 µg) at different concentrations of EtOAc - A. occidentale (12.5; 25; 50; and 100 mg/kg/weight p.o.) for the paw edema test. Challenge was performed with carrageenan (500 µg/mL i.p.) for the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg of EtOAc. Levels of cytokines IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were also measured. All EtOAc - A. occidentale concentrations reduced the edema. At 50 and 100 mg/kg, an anti-inflammatory response of the EtOAc was observed. Carrageenan stimulus produced a neutrophil count of 28.6% while 50 and 100 mg/kg of the phase reduced this to 14.5% and 9.1%, respectively. The EtOAc extract reduced levels of IL-1 and TNF-α. These results suggest that the EtOAc plays a modulatory role in the inflammatory response. The chromatographic method can be used for the analysis of the phenolic compounds of the EtOAc phase. PMID:27548136

  1. Modulation of antioxidant potential in liver of mice by kernel oil of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) and its lack of tumour promoting ability in DMBA induced skin papillomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bimala; Kale, R K; Rao, A R

    2004-04-01

    Cashew nut shell oil has been reported to possess tumour promoting property. Therefore an attempt has been made to study the modulatory effect of cashew nut (Anlacardium occidentale) kernel oil on antioxidant potential in liver of Swiss albino mice and also to see whether it has tumour promoting ability like the shell oil. The animals were treated orally with two doses (50 and 100 microl/animal/day) of kernel oil of cashew nut for 10 days. The kernel oil was found to enhance the specific activities of SOD, catalase, GST, methylglyoxalase I and levels of GSH. These results suggested that cashew nut kernel oil had an ability to increase the antioxidant status of animals. The decreased level of lipid peroxidation supported this possibility. The tumour promoting property of the kernel oil was also examined and found that cashew nut kernel oil did not exhibit any solitary carcinogenic activity. PMID:15088687

  2. Semecarpus anacardium Linn.: A review

    PubMed Central

    Semalty, Mona; Semalty, Ajay; Badola, Ashutosh; Joshi, Geeta Pant; Rawat, M. S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (Family: Anacardiaceae), commonly known ‘Ballataka’ or ‘Bhilwa’, has been used in various traditional system of medicines for various ailments since ancient times. Its nuts contain a variety of biologically active compounds such as biflavonoids, phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, minerals, vitamins and amino acids, which show various medicinal properties. The fruit and nut extract shows various activities like antiatherogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-reproductive, CNS stimulant, hypoglycemic, anticarcinogenic and hair growth promoter. The article reviews the various activities of the plant. PMID:22228947

  3. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing potential of cashew apple juice (Anacardium occidentale L.) in mice.

    PubMed

    da Silveira Vasconcelos, Mirele; Gomes-Rochette, Neuza F; de Oliveira, Maria Liduína M; Nunes-Pinheiro, Diana Célia S; Tomé, Adriana R; Maia de Sousa, Francisco Yuri; Pinheiro, Francisco Geraldo M; Moura, Carlos Farley H; Miranda, Maria Raquel A; Mota, Erika Freitas; de Melo, Dirce Fernandes

    2015-12-01

    Cashew apple is a tropical pseudofruit consumed as juice due to its excellent nutritional and sensory properties. In spite of being well known for its important antioxidant properties, the cashew apple has not been thoroughly investigated for its therapeutic potential. Thereby, this study evaluated the antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing activities of cashew apple juice. Juices from ripe and immature cashew apples were analyzed for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing properties. Those were evaluated in murine models of xylene-induced ear edema and wound excision. Swiss mice were treated with cashew juice by gavage. Edema thickness was measured and skin lesions were analyzed by planimetry and histology. Both antioxidant content and total antioxidant activity were higher in ripe cashew apple juice (RCAJ) than in unripe cashew apple juice (UNCAJ). The UNCAJ presented the main anti-inflammatory activity by a significant inhibition of ear edema (66.5%) when compared to RCAJ (10%). Moreover, UNCAJ also showed the best result for wound contraction (86.31%) compared to RCAJ (67.54%). Despite of higher antioxidant capacity, RCAJ did not promote better anti-inflammatory, and healing responses, which may be explained by the fact that treatment increased antioxidants level leading to a redox "imbalance" turning down the inflammatory response modulation exerted by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results suggest that UNCAJ presents a greater therapeutic activity due to a synergistic effect of its phytochemical components, which improve the immunological mechanisms as well as an optimal balance between ROS and antioxidants leading to a better wound healing process. PMID:25819683

  4. Effect of dynamic high pressure on technological properties of cashew tree gum (Anacardium occidentale L.).

    PubMed

    Porto, Bruna Castro; Augusto, Pedro E D; Terekhov, Anton; Hamaker, Bruce R; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2015-09-20

    Dynamic high pressure (DHP) appears to be an alternative approach to physical modification of polysaccharides aimed improving their technological properties. Therefore, its effect on the functional properties of polysaccharides (i.e., oil absorption capacity, emulsifier, and rheology) needs to be investigated. Cashew tree gum (CG) is a biological macromolecule that has been proposed to be used as an emulsifier in beverage emulsions. To the best of our knowledge, none of the articles in the literature investigates the effect of DHP on the CG properties. This work presents a study on the evaluation of the effects of DHP on functional characteristics of CG, including rheological properties, molecular weight, glycosyl-linkage analysis, solubility, swelling and oil absorption capacity (OAC). The results suggest that DHP is able to modify the technological properties of cashew tree gum (increasing solubility and decreasing apparent viscosity). PMID:26050904

  5. Immunoglobulin E-reactive proteins in cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Robotham, Jason M; Tawde, Pallavi; Kshirsagar, Harshal; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2008-07-23

    Cashew apple juice has the potential to be a natural source of vitamin C and sugar in processed foods. The juice of the cashew apple is obtained by pressing the fleshy peduncle or receptacle, which forms a rounded apple that sits above the true fruit, the cashew nut. Cashew nut allergy is the second most commonly reported tree nut allergy in the United States. To determine if cashew apple juice contains cashew nut allergens, immunoblotting was performed using a cashew apple juice 6X concentrate that was extracted and further concentrated through dialysis, lyophilization, and resuspension. Serum IgE of individuals allergic to cashew nut bound proteins in the cashew apple juice concentrate extract. For some serum samples, IgE reactivity could be inhibited by preincubation of the serum with cashew nut extract, suggesting the presence of cashew nut-related allergens. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for cashew nut allergens, the concentrate was found to contain Ana o 1 (vicilin) and Ana o 2 (legumin). Neither IgE from cashew nut allergic sera nor the monoclonal antibodies bound any peptides in 5 kDa filtered cashew apple juice concentrate. The cashew apple juice concentrate used in these studies contains proteins with IgE-reactive epitopes, including cashew nut legumin and vicilin. No IgE-binding peptides remained after 5 kDa filtration of the concentrate. PMID:18558706

  6. Determination of the flavonoid components of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale) by LC-DAD-ESI/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI/MS) was used to identify and quantify flavonoids in cashew apple. One anthocyanin and thirteen glycosylated flavonols were detected in a methanol-water extract. Among them, the 3-O-galactoside...

  7. Extraction of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) nut shell liquid using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh N; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu; Ganesh, Anuradda

    2006-04-01

    This work investigated the extraction of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). Effects of process parameters such as extraction pressure, temperature and flow rate of SC-CO(2) were investigated. The yield of CNSL increased with increase in pressure, temperature and mass flow rate of SC-CO(2). However, under different operating conditions, the composition of CNSL varied. The study of physical properties and chemical composition of the oil obtained through super critical fluid extraction (SCFE) showed better quality as compared to the CNSL obtained through thermal route. Experimental results were compared with diffusion based mass transfer model. Based on this simple model, extraction time was optimized. PMID:15939589

  8. Characterization of alkyl phenols in cashew (Anacardium occidentale) products and assay of their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, M T S; Pfundstein, B; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2006-02-01

    In this study the content of anacardic acids, cardanols and cardols in cashew apple, nut (raw and roasted) and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) were analysed. The higher amounts (353.6 g/kg) of the major alkyl phenols, anacardic acids were detected in CNSL followed by cashew fibre 6.1 g/kg) while the lowest (0.65 g/kg) amounts were detected in roasted cashew nut. Cashew apple and fibre contained anacardic acids exclusively, whereas CNSL also contained an abundance of cardanols and cardols. Cashew nut (raw and roasted) also contained low amounts of hydroxy alkyl phenols. Cashew nut shell liquid was used for a basic fractionation of the alkyl phenol classes and the individual anacardic acids, major cardanols and cardols were purified to homogeneity from these fractions by semi-preparative HPLC and definitively identified by nano-ESI-MS-MS, GC-MS and NMR analyses. The hexane extracts (10 mg/ml) of all cashew products tested plus CNSL, displayed significant antioxidant capacity. Cashew nut shell liquid was the more efficient (inhibition=100%) followed by the hexane extract of cashew fibre (94%) and apple (53%). The antioxidant capacity correlated significantly (P<0.05) with the concentration of alkyl phenols in the extracts. A mixture of anacardic acids (10.0 mg/ml) showed the higher antioxidant capacity (IC50=0.60 mM) compared to cardols and cardanols (IC50>4.0 mM). The data shows that of these substances, anacardic-1 was by far the more potent antioxidant (IC50=0.27 mM) compared to cardol-1 (IC50=1.71 mM) and cardanol-1 (IC50>4.0 mM). The antioxidant capacity of anacardic acid-1 is more related to inhibition of superoxide generation (IC50=0.04 mM) and xanthine oxidase (IC50=0.30 mM) than to scavenging of hydroxyl radicals. At present a substantial amount of cashew fibre is mostly used in formulations of animal or poultry feeds. The data presented in this study, indicates that this waste product along with CNSL, both of which contain high contents of anacardic acids, could be better utilized in functional food formulations and may represent a cheap source of cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:16095792

  9. Separation of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid with supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Smith, R L; Malaluan, R M; Setianto, W B; Inomata, H; Arai, K

    2003-05-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) represents the largest readily available bioresource of alkenyl phenolic compounds. In this work, separation of CNSL from the pericarp of the cashew nut with supercritical carbon dioxide was studied. In the initial extractions with CO(2) at 40-60 degrees C and at pressures from 14.7 to 29.4 MPa, low yields were obtained. However, when the extractions were performed with one or more intermediate depressurization steps, the yield of CNSL increased to as high as 94%. Most of the oil did not separate from the shell during the depressurization step, but was obtained during the subsequent repressurization. The CNSL extract had a clear light brownish pink color and exhibited no evidence of polymerization or degradation. The pressure profile extraction method proposed in this work increases the possible CNSL extraction yields and greatly reduces the amount of CO(2) required for CNSL separation. PMID:12573557

  10. Clastogenic and toxicological assessment of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) nut bark extracts in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Owumi, Solomon E; Fatoki, John O; Gbadegesin, Michael A; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposures to environmental toxicants have been associated with the onset of skin lesions-including cancers. Identification and reduction of exposure to such compounds is an important public health goal. We examined the effect of cashew shell oil (CSO), used in skin tattooing for its potential to induce skin transformation in rats. Corn oil and CSO (25, 50, and 100%) were topically applied to depilated sections of Wistar' rat skin (groups: I-IV) for six weeks. Effect of treatments on serum transaminases activity, histological changes in hepatocytes and induction of micronuclei in the bone marrow were examined. In addition, CSO-induced hepatocyte proliferation was also quantified. All animals survived the course of the study. Reduced percentage change in body weight and physical trauma were observed in CSO-treated rat. The effects were more prominent in Group IV (100% CSO). Relative liver weights and number of hepatocytes (cells/mm(2)) increased significantly in groups II-IV relative to control (p < 0.05). Serum transaminases activities were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected in treated groups. Hepatic histopathology revealed moderate sinusoidal congestion (group II), in addition to portal congestion in (group III), with mononuclear cellular infiltration (group IV) animals. In addition, CSO induced significant micronuclei formation of polychromatic erythrocyte (mPCEs) in the rat bone marrow (p < 0.05) when compared with control. Topical application of CSO disrupted skin cells integrity resulting in physical trauma. In addition, CSO appears to be clastogenic and induces hepatocyte proliferation. Occupational exposure to CSO especially for engraving tattoos in humans should be discouraged and further studies need to be conducted. PMID:26328276

  11. Purification and Characterization of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) Allergens Ana o 1, Ana o 2, and Ana o 3.

    PubMed

    Reitsma, Marit; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; Sforza, Stefano; van der Valk, Johanna P M; van Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Savelkoul, Huub F J; de Jong, Nicolette W; Wichers, Harry J

    2016-02-10

    In this study a fast and simple purification procedure for the three known allergens from cashew (7S globulin Ana o 1, 11S globulin Ana o 2, and 2S albumin Ana o 3) is described. The purified allergens are characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot, glycoprotein stain, and protein identification. The purified proteins still bind IgE, and this IgE binding varied between different pools of patient serum. Ana o 1 was found to be a glycoprotein. Ana o 3 has been studied more in detail to identify both the small and large subunits, both displaying microheterogeneity, and epitope mapping of Ana o 3 has been performed. PMID:26769082

  12. Protective effect of anacardic acids from cashew (Anacardium occidentale) on ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Morais, Talita C; Pinto, Natália B; Carvalho, Karine Maria M B; Rios, Jeison B; Ricardo, Nagila Maria P S; Trevisan, Maria Teresa S; Rao, Vietla S; Santos, Flávia A

    2010-01-01

    Cashew nut-shell liquid and the contained anacardic acids (AAs) have been shown to possess antioxidant, lipoxygenase inhibitory, anti-Helicobacter pylori and antitumor properties. Despite these known effects, hitherto there were no published reports on their likely gastroprotective effects. The present study was designed to verify whether AAs afford gastroprotection against the ethanol-induced gastric damage and to examine the underlying mechanism(s). Gastric damage was induced by intragastric administration of 0.2mL of ethanol (96%). Mice in groups were pretreated orally with AAs (10, 30 and 100mg/kg), misoprostol (50 microg/kg), or vehicle (2% Tween 80 in saline, 10mL/kg), 45min before ethanol administration. They were sacrificed 30min later, the stomachs excised, and the mucosal lesion area (mm(2)) measured by planimetry. Gastroprotection was assessed in relation to inhibition of gastric lesion area. To study the gastroprotective mechanism(s), its relations to capsaicin-sensitive fibers, endogenous prostaglandins, nitric oxide and ATP-sensitive potassium channels were analysed. Treatments effects on ethanol-associated oxidative stress markers GSH, MDA, catalase, SOD, and total nitrate/nitrite levels as an index of NO were measured in gastric tissue. Besides, the effects of AAs on gastric secretory volume and total acidity were analysed in 4-h pylorus-ligated rat. AAs afforded a dose-related gastroprotection against the ethanol damage and further prevented the ethanol-induced changes in the levels of GSH, MDA, catalase, SOD and nitrate/nitrite. However, they failed to modify the gastric secretion or the total acidity. It was observed that the gastroprotection by AAs was greatly reduced in animals pretreated with capsazepine, indomethacin, l-NAME or glibenclamide. These results suggest that AAs afford gastroprotection principally through an antioxidant mechanism. Other complementary mechanisms include the activation of capsaicin-sensitive gastric afferents, stimulation of endogenous prostaglandins and nitric oxide, and opening of K(+)(ATP) channels. These combined effects are likely to be accompanied by an increase in gastric microcirculation. PMID:19853593

  13. Clinical toxicity study of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. f.

    PubMed

    Murty, G K

    1974-09-01

    Semecarpus anacardium was administered to 266 cases in 3 formulations: Amrit Bhallatak (186 cases), RB 3 (48 cases), and Garsin (32 cases). The Amrit Bhallatak is a compound formulation containing extract of both the cotyledons and the pericarp of the fruit of Semecarpus anacardium. RB3 is composed of the whole cotyledon (300 mg); the daily dose of cotyledons was 3.6 g. Garsin contained 200 g of cotyledons. The extract is derived by separating the oil by a physical process. The daily dosage of Amrit Bhallatak was 10 g/day, that of Garsin, 2.4 g/day. No toxicity or side effects were observed. The therapeutic value of Semecarpus anacardium in arthropathies, atopic dermatitis, leucoderma, leprosy, hypothyroidism, oligospermia, and azoospermia and its value as an oral contraceptive have been studied. The most significant effect was on the ovaries and testes. The drug probably acts via the hypophysics. Out of 266 patients, 189 were men, 77 women between 30-45 years of age. The treatment was restricted to internal medication by mouth. No external contact or application of the drug was applied. Of the 77 women treated with the drug, 41 were followed up after treatment. 12 had become pregnant and none showed any teratogenecity. PMID:4448495

  14. Hypocholesterolemic activity of nut shell extract of Semecarpus anacardium (Bhilawa) in cholesterol fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Mathur, R; Dixit, V P

    1995-06-01

    Administration of S. anacardium nut shell extract to cholesterol fed rabbits resulted in a significant reduction in serum cholesterol (-73.3%) and serum LDL-Chol. (-80%). The extract feeding also prevented the accumulation of cholesterol/triglycerides in liver, heart muscle and aorta and caused a regression of plaques (75.3-83.5%). These results indicate that S. anacardium is hypocholesterolemic in action and prevents cholesterol induced atheroma. Possible mechanism of action is discussed. PMID:7590951

  15. Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Properties of Anacardium humile Aqueous Extract

    PubMed Central

    Urzêda, Márcio A.; Marcussi, Silvana; Silva Pereira, Luciana L.; França, Suzelei C.; Pereira, Ana Maria S.; Pereira, Paulo S.; da Silva, Saulo L.; Guimarães, César L. S.; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Stábeli, Rodrigo G.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Couto, Lucélio B.

    2013-01-01

    The antihyperglycemic effects of several plant extracts and herbal formulations which are used as antidiabetic formulations have been described and confirmed to date. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Anacardium humile. Although the treatment of diabetic animals with A. humile did not alter body weight significantly, a reduction of the other evaluated parameters was observed. Animals treated with A. humile did not show variation of insulin levels, possibly triggered by a mechanism of blood glucose reduction. Levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) decreased in treated animals, suggesting a protective effect on liver. Levels of cholesterol were also reduced, indicating the efficacy of the extract in reestablishing the balance of nutrients. Moreover, a kidney protection may have been achieved due to the partial reestablishment of blood glucose homeostasis, while no nephrotoxicity could be detected for A. humile. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of A. humile extracts in the treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, A. humile aqueous extract, popularly known and used by diabetic patients, induced an improvement in the biochemical parameters evaluated during and following treatment of diabetic rats. Thus, a better characterization of the medicinal potential of this plant will be able to provide a better understanding of its mechanisms of action in these pathological processes. PMID:23737820

  16. Comparison of the toxic effects of two duncecap larkspur (Delphinium occidentale) chemotypes in mice and cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective-This study tested the hypothesis that a Delphinium occidentale chemotype containing the MSAL-type alkaloids is more toxic than a D. occidentale chemotype lacking the MSAL-type alkaloids in mice and cattle. Animals-240 male Swiss Webster mice and 11 black Angus steers Procedures-Total alkal...

  17. Analgesic activity and acute toxicity study of Semecarpus anacardium stem bark extracts using mice

    PubMed Central

    Lingaraju, G. M.; Hoskeri, H. Joy; Krishna, V.; Babu, P. Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Background: The analgesic activity of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Semecarpus anacardium was investigated by tail flicking and writhing method using acetyl salicylic acid as the standard reference. Materials and Methods: The staircase method was adopted for the determination of the acute toxicity. LD50 of the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract was 700 mg/kg; however, the LD50 for the methanol extract was 500 mg/kg. After 1 h of oral administration of the extracts, 0.6% acetic acid was administered intraperitoneally and the analgesic activity was evaluated. Results: The number of writhing observed in the control group was 73.33 writhes. The methanol extract showed a significant analgesic activity, with 28.33 writhes, than the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract. But, all the extracts showed proved to be less potent than the standard drug which showed 2.33 writhes. Animals pretreated with saline did not show a signify cant effect on the latent period of tail-flick response. The analgesic effect of the petroleum ether extract was comparatively less evident. The maximum possible analgesia (MPA) increased up to 9.1% which remained elevated above the basal levels throughout the observation period. The MPA calculated for the chloroform extract increased to 14.03%. However, the analgesic effect of the methanol extract was also observed at 0.5 h following oral administration and the effect remained significant throughout the 3 h observation period, and was increased to 20.43%. Conclusion: Consistent analgesic activity of all the three S. anacardium extracts was observed by both the methods. The methanol extract was more potent than the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts but was less effective than the standard drug. This investigation supported the ethnomedicinal claims of S. anacardium. PMID:21731397

  18. Anti cancerous efficacy of Ayurvedic milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nuts on hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joice P; Raval, Sunant K; Sadariya, Kamlesh A; Jhala, Mayur; Kumar, Pranay

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the anticancerous efficacy of Ayurvedic preparation made of Semecarpus anacardium (SA) nuts. Five groups of rats were used for the study. Group I served as water control. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was induced in groups II, III and IV animals using N-nitrosodiethylamine as inducing agent followed by phenobarbitone as promoter for 13 weeks. Group-II animals were kept untreated as hepatocellular carcinoma control. Group-III animals were treated with Ayurvedic milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nuts at dose mentioned in Ashtangahridaya, an authentic book of Ayurveda for 49 days and group-IV animals were treated with doxorubicin as reference drug at dose of 1mg/kg twice a week for 7 weeks. Group V animals were kept as drug (SA nut milk extract) control for studying the effect of nut milk extract on normal rats. After 154 days of experiment, all animals were subjected to screening for HCC by estimation of liver enzymes, HCC marker (alpha-2 macroglobulin) and histopathology. Both liver enzymes and HCC marker were increased in hepatocellular carcinoma control along with neoplastic changes in liver and were decreased in Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract treated group. The Ayurvedic drug showed positive correlation with the action of doxorubicin. This study demonstrated the efficacy of Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma either alone or along with chemotherapy. PMID:24311839

  19. Cytoprotective effect of Semecarpus anacardium against toxicity induced by Streptozotocin in rats

    PubMed Central

    Aseervatham, Jaya; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Sachdanandam, Panchanadham

    2010-01-01

    Leakage of cellular enzymes into the plasma is a clear indication of cell damage. When liver plasma membrane is damaged, a variety of enzymes normally located in the cytosol are released into the blood stream and their estimation is a quantitative marker for the extent of damage. The cytoprotective effect of Semecarpus anacardium was evaluated in rats that were rendered diabetic by administration of streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. The activities of the marker enzymes were assayed in the serum, liver and kidney. The indicators of renal damage such as urea, uric acid and creatinine were assayed in addition to the blood profile. The results of the present study reveal that Semecarpus anacardium was able to reverse the levels of the marker enzymes, and protect the kidney by reverting back to the normal levels of urea, uric acid, and creatinine. The abnormal blood parameters were also reverted to near normal levels indicating the drug’s cytoprotective effect. PMID:27186099

  20. Potential antidiabetic effect of the Semecarpus anacardium in a type 2 diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Renny, Chris Maria; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2013-02-01

    Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) was evaluated for its antidiabetic role in type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by feeding high-fat diet for 2 weeks followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin 35 mg/kg body weight. Diabetic rats were treated with SA orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days. Metformin (500 mg/kg body weight, orally) was used as a reference drug. SA significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the blood glucose levels and decreased the levels of HbA1c and the glucose intolerance. SA treatment significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the increase in lipid profile. The levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine were restored to near normal levels when compared with control diabetic rats. The histopathological abnormalities were also found to be normalized after treatment with SA nut milk extract. The potential antihyperglycemic action of SA is plausibly due to its underlying antioxidant role. PMID:22556061

  1. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit

    PubMed Central

    llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802

  2. Phytocompounds and modulatory effects of Anacardium microcarpum (cajui) on antibiotic drugs used in clinical infections

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa-Filho, Valter M; Waczuk, Emily P; Leite, Nadghia F; Menezes, Irwin RA; da Costa, José GM; Lacerda, Sírleis R; Adedara, Isaac A; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Posser, Thais; Kamdem, Jean P

    2015-01-01

    Background The challenge of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of new infections have generated considerable interest in the exploration of natural products from plant origins as combination therapy. In this context, crude ethanolic extract (CEE), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), and methanolic fraction (MF) from Anacardium microcarpum were tested alone or in combination with antibiotics (amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods Antibiotic resistance-modifying activity was performed using the microdilution method by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, phytochemical prospecting analyses of tested samples were carried out. Results Our results indicated that all the extracts showed low antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant strains (MIC =512 μg/mL). However, addition of CEE, EAF, and MF to the growth medium at the subinhibitory concentration (MIC/8=64 μg/mL) significantly modulated amikacin- and gentamicin-resistant E. coli 06. CEE and EAF also demonstrated a significant (P<0.001) synergism with imipenem against S. aureus. In contrast, MF antagonized the antibacterial effect of ciprofloxacin and gentamicin against P. aeruginosa 03 and S. aureus 10, respectively. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of secondary metabolites including phenols, flavonoids, xanthones, chalcones, and tannin pyrogallates. Conclusion Taken together, our results suggest that A. microcarpum is a natural resource with resistance-modifying antibacterial activity that needs to be further investigated to overcome the present resistant-infection problem. PMID:26604695

  3. An eco-friendly method for short term preservation of skins/hides using Semecarpus anacardium nut extract.

    PubMed

    Iyappan, Kuttalam; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Sangeethapriya, Vilvanathan; Gayathri, Vinaya Subramani; Suguna, Lonchin

    2013-09-01

    Preservation or curing of hides and skins is performed as the primary step of leather processing. Common salt is employed as the conventional agent for curing purpose. Use of salt enhances the pollution load of tannery effluent which becomes highly contaminated with increased total dissolved solids and chlorides. To overcome this hurdle, researchers are in constant search of alternative preservation techniques which are either totally void of salt or use only a meager amount of salt. In the present study, we had explored the possibility of using Semecarpus anacardium nut extract as an alternative to salt for the curing process by assessing different parameters like hair slip, putrefaction odor, volatile nitrogen content, moisture content, bacterial count, and shrinkage temperature in comparison to the salt curing method. The antibacterial property of the plant extract was also investigated. The results obtained substantiated that the nut extract of S. anacardium effectively could preserve the skins for more than a month, by its antibacterial activity along with the dehydrating property of acetone. PMID:23589261

  4. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentalis in the laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Onasanwo, S A; Fabiyi, T D; Oluwole, F S; Olaleye, S B

    2012-06-01

    Anacardium occidentalis (family: Anacardiaceae) is a plant of the tropical climate widely used by folklore to treat pain and inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the leaf extracts in rat and mice using different models in other to confirm folkloric claims. The aqueous, hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts (AEAO, HEAO, DEAO and MEAO respectively) were investigated for analgesic effects in acetic acid induced pain in mice. They significantly reduced the number of writhing (p<0.001) and the highest analgesic effect was seen in DEAO extract. DEAO was further studied on various analgesic and anti-inflammatory models in graded doses. The extract significantly reduced writhing induced by acetic acid and the number and time of paw licking induced by formalin in a dose related manner. It inhibited the neurogenic and inflammatory phases of formalin. Analgesia was shown in the inhibition of nociception induced by tail immersion in 55oC hot water. The extract prolonged the latencies of tail withdrawal to a similar degree as pentazocine. The extract caused significant inhibition of carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats in a dose dependent manner. These findings suggest that the leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentalis are highly potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents. Phytochemical analysis showed that the leaf extracts contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins and cardenolides. PMID:23235310

  5. In vitro acaricidal properties of Semecarpus anacardium fruit and Datura stramonium leaf extracts against acaricide susceptible (IVRI-I line) and resistant (IVRI-V line) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikant; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Nagar, Gaurav; Kumar, K G Ajith; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S

    2015-08-01

    In an attempt to identify plants having anti-tick properties, the 95% ethanolic and 50% hydro-ethanolic extracts of the fruits of Semecarpus anacardium and leaves of Datura stramonium were evaluated against reference tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The 95% ethanolic extracts of S. anacardium and D. stramonium caused 50% and 20% mortality, respectively, within 72 h of treatment by adult immersion test. The LC90 value of the ethanolic fruit extract of S. anacardium was determined as 13.5% (CI 12.05-15.12). The extract was also found efficacious (73.3%±3.3%) against the multi-acaricide-resistant IVRI-V line of R.(B.) microplus. The S. anacardium extract significantly affected the reproductive physiology of treated ticks by inhibiting the oviposition and was found safe. The HPTLC fingerprinting profile revealed the presence of pyrocatechol as a marker compound. The acaricidal property of S. anacardium against chemical acaricide-resistant R. (B.) microplus was discussed. PMID:26267092

  6. Application of terrestrial photogrammetry for the mass balance calculation on Montasio Occidentale Glacier (Julian Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piermattei, Livia; Carturan, Luca; Calligaro, Simone; Blasone, Giacomo; Guarnieri, Alberto; Tarolli, Paolo; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Vettore, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) of glaciated terrain are commonly used to measure changes in geometry and hence infer the mass balance of glaciers. Different tools and methods exist to obtain information about the 3D geometry of terrain. Recent improvements on the quality and performance of digital cameras for close-range photogrammetry, and the development of automatic digital photogrammetric processing makes the 'structure from motion' photogrammetric technique (SfM) competitive for high quality 3D models production, compared to efficient but also expensive and logistically-demanding survey technologies such as airborn and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The purpose of this work is to test the SfM approach, using a consumer-grade SLR camera and the low-cost computer vision-based software package Agisoft Photoscan (Agisoft LLC), to monitor the mass balance of Montasio Occidentale glacier, a 0.07km2, low-altitude, debris-covered glacier located in the Eastern Italian Alps. The quality of the 3D models produced by the SfM process has been assessed by comparison with digital terrain models obtained through TLS surveys carried out at the same dates. TLS technique has indeed proved to be very effective in determining the volume change of this glacier in the last years. Our results shows that the photogrammetric approach can produce point cloud densities comparable to those derived from TLS measurements. Furthermore, the horizontal and vertical accuracies are also of the same order of magnitude as for TLS (centimetric to decimetric). The effect of different landscape characteristics (e.g. distance from the camera or terrain gradient) and of different substrata (rock, debris, ice, snow and firn) was also evaluated in terms of SfM reconstruction's accuracy vs. TLS. Given the good results obtained on the Montasio Occidentale glacier, it can be concluded that the terrestrial photogrammetry, with the advantageous features of portability, ease of use and above all low costs

  7. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea, Madhuca Longifolia, Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Jyothi, K. S.; Seshagiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases. PMID:23323183

  8. Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Fluorescence as a Biomarker to Monitor the Anticancer Effect of Semecarpus Anacardium in DMBA Induced Mammary Carcinoma Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vani, S; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2015-07-01

    Endogenous fluorescence has been proposed as a means of aiding the diagnosis of various malignancies. It has been suggested that erythrocytes may be the carriers of fluorophors that accumulate in cancer tissue and may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the spectrofluorimetric analysis of blood components as a marker for the analysis of mammary carcinoma treatment and also to bring about the protective effect of the drug Semecarpus anacardium on oxidative stress mediated damage of erythrocytes. Fluorescence spectra of the blood components were studied and also the level of lipid per oxides and antioxidant enzymes status in erythrocytes were determined in DMBA induced mammary carcinoma rats treated with Semecarpus anacardium Linn nut milk extract. Fluorescence emission spectroscopy of blood components are altered under cancer conditions and the drug effectively ameliorated these alterations in mammary carcinoma induced rats. The drug also effectively reduced the oxidative stress induced erythrocyte damage thereby restoring the erythrocytes antioxidant status. These results suggest that erythrocytes may be the carriers of fluorophors that accumulate in cancer tissue and hence acts as new biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25943985

  9. Taiwanascus samuelsii sp. nov., an addition to Niessliaceae from the Western Ghats, Kerala, India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Taiwanascus, T. samuelsii, was collected from southern parts of Western Ghats on dead branches of Anacardium occidentale and is described. The new cleistothecial ascomycete is different from the type and only species in Taiwanascus, T. tetrasporus, in cleistothecial size, setae, and...

  10. Smallholder Information Sources and Communication Pathways for Cashew Production and Marketing in Tanzania: An Ex-Post Study in Tandahimba and Lindi Rural Districts, Southern Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyambo, Brigitte; Ligate, Elly

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and review production and marketing information sources and flows for smallholder cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) growers in Tanzania and recommend systems improvements for better technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: Two-stage purposive samples were drawn. First, two districts in the main cashew producing areas,…

  11. Inhibitory effect of some natural and semisynthetic phenolic lipids upon acetylcholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Stasiuk, Maria; Bartosiewicz, Dominika; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2008-06-01

    The effect of phenolic lipids isolated from rye grains and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale and their semisynthetic derivatives on erythrocyte ghost's acetylcholinesterase activity was studied. It has been shown that all tested compounds decreased the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase. This effect depends on the type of studied compounds. Three of them completely inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity at the micromolar concentration. PMID:26065763

  12. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium nuts on lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Y B; Singh, A V

    2001-08-01

    Alcoholic extract of pericarp showed significant protection against FeSO4 induced lipid peroxidation, as compared with whole native nut and seeds. Mechanism of action may be through metal chelation or activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, because the extract did not show hydroxyl and super oxide anion scavenging property. Further in vitro experiments against FeSO4, it did not maintain the level of reduced glutathione. PMID:12018583

  13. The separation and synthesis of lipidic 1,2- and 1,3-diols from natural phenolic lipids for the complexation and recovery of boron.

    PubMed

    Tyman, John H P; Mehet, Satinderjit K

    2003-12-01

    A study has been made of the semi-synthesis of 1,3-diols (anacardic alcohols) from natural phenolic lipid resources from Anacardium occidentale and Anacardium giganteum which have given C15 and C11 derivatives, respectively. An isomeric 1,3-diol (isoanacardic alcohol) has been obtained from cardanol separated from technical cashew nut-shell liquid. Homologous 1,3-diols have been synthesised from a range of synthetic 2-alkyl-, 3-alkyl- and 4-alkylphenols and from 6-alkylsalicylic acids. The natural 1,2-diol, urushiol, from Rhus vernicifera has been purified. All these lipidic compounds have been studied for their complexation and the potential recovery of boron as boric acid. PMID:14623453

  14. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%. PMID:8701041

  15. Phenolic Lipids Affect the Activity and Conformation of Acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (Electric eel)

    PubMed Central

    Stasiuk, Maria; Janiszewska, Alicja; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of Merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. The observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. All of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition varied, showing a correlation with changes in the conformation of the enzyme tested by the intrinsic fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein. PMID:24787269

  16. Synthesis and characterization of 4-aryl-4H-chromenes from H-cardanol.

    PubMed

    Rao, Hulluru Surya Prakash; Kamalraj, Mani

    2014-09-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a variety of fat-soluble, low-melting and medicinally useful 4-aryl-4H-chromenes from H-cardanol (side-chain perhydrogenated cardanol, 3-pentadecylphenol), a renewable and low-cost product from locally grown cashew nut trees (Anacardium occidentale L.). We incorporated H-cardanol into the aromatic rings of either 4H-chromene or phenol, or both. Substitution of C4SMe in N-methyl-4-(methylthio)-3-nitro-4H-chromene-2-amines with H-cardanol was regio-specific at the C6 position. PMID:25918806

  17. Oviposition activity of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in response to different organic infusions.

    PubMed

    Santos, Eloína; Correia, Juliana; Muniz, Luciana; Meiado, Marcos; Albuquerque, Cleide

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates new sources of infusion as an oviposition attractant for Aedes aegypti L. Infusions with fetid and non-fetid odors were compared as an oviposition stimulant. Traps baited with infusions of dehydrated cashew leaves (Anacardium occidentale), potato peels (Solanum tuberosum) and graminea (Panicum maximum) were compared as attractants, and the effect of odor (fetid and unfetid) on attractiveness was tested. Oviposition activity changed significantly according to the concentration and type of infusion (F = 4.1279; gl = 2; P = 0.0231). A larger number of eggs were observed in cups containing 50% A. occidentale (non-fetid odor) and 30% P. maximum (fetid odor). When compared in the same cage, comparable oviposition was found between A. occidentale and P. maximum. Moreover, approximately 20% more eggs were recorded in the infusion without odor when compared to the grass infusion and water. These findings suggest A. occidentale as a new stimulant for use in ovitraps for Aedes surveillance and control, with the benefit of having an agreeable odor. PMID:20498970

  18. Distribution of Delphinium occidentale chemotypes and their potential toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are poisonous plants found on rangelands in Western North America. Larkspur’s toxicity has been attributed to the norditerpenoid alkaloids which are divided into two main structural groups; the highly toxic (N-methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine type (MSAL-type) and...

  19. Mediation of herbivore attack and induced resistance by plant vigor and ontogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jean Carlos; Fernandes, G. Wilson

    2010-11-01

    A large number of insect galls induced by Contarinia sp. (Cecidomyiidae) on cashew plants, Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), and induced resistance (hypersensitivity) against galling were observed in five restored different-aged stands in the Amazonian tropical rain forest. We tested three hypotheses: (1) the effect of age-dependent changes on the attack by Contarinia sp. and on induced resistance of A. occidentale to herbivory (plant ontogeny - herbivory hypothesis); (2) the effect of leaf size on the oviposition preference by the gall-midge (plant vigor hypothesis), and (3) whether past attack could influence future attack and induced resistance (attack prediction hypothesis). Tree age positively influenced attack levels and gall density. The leaves of older trees experienced four-fold greater attack and supported two-fold more galls. Hypersensitive response was also positively affected by tree age. This induced resistance was six-fold higher on older trees. Therefore, we suggest that induced resistance in A. occidentale was age-dependent, hence supporting the plant ontogeny - herbivory hypothesis. Higher preference of Contarinia sp. on larger sized leaves of A. occidentale was only observed in old stands, hence providing support for the plant vigor hypothesis. The same trend was observed in hypersensitive response. Only two older plots (5-7-year-old) were better predictors of current attack and resistance of A. occidentale, hence supporting the attack prediction hypothesis. Our results suggest that plant development is an important factor that contributes to the structuring of interactions between host plant and insect herbivores. However, more information about ontogenetic changes and regeneration processes is needed to understand plant-herbivore interactions in the Amazonian forest.

  20. Plant food resources exploited by Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus 1758) at an urban area in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, A A; Ragusa-Netto, J

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we described the food plants available to Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna), its feeding habits and the relationship between these parameters with feeding niche breadth. We established four transects, each one 12 km long, to sample fruiting plants and the feeding habits of this macaw (monthly 40 h, of observations), at the urban areas of Três Lagoas (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). During all studied months, macaws foraged for palm fruits, mainly Syagrus oleracea and Acrocomia aculeata fruit pulp, both available all year, as well as Caryocar brasiliense and Anacardium occidentale seeds, in the wet season. The year-round feeding activity of macaws suggests Três Lagoas city as an adequate feeding area. The permanent availability of plant food resources, potentially, resulted from the diverse fruiting patterns of exotic and, mainly, native plant species, which provided a variety of suitable fruit patches. PMID:25166327

  1. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work. PMID:26871743

  2. New potential AChE inhibitor candidates.

    PubMed

    de Paula, A A N; Martins, J B L; dos Santos, M L; Nascente, L de C; Romeiro, L A S; Areas, T F M A; Vieira, K S T; Gambôa, N F; Castro, N G; Gargano, R

    2009-09-01

    We have theoretically studied new potential candidates of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors designed from cardanol, a non-isoprenoid phenolic lipid of cashew Anacardium occidentale nut-shell liquid. The electronic structure calculations of fifteen molecule derivatives from cardanol were performed using B3LYP level with 6-31G, 6-31G(d), and 6-311+G(2d,p) basis functions. For this study we used the following groups: methyl, acetyl, N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N,N-dimethylamine, N,N-diethylamine, piperidine, pyrrolidine, and N,N-methylbenzylamine. Among the proposed compounds we identified that the structures with substitution by N,N-dimethycarbamoyl, N,N-dimethylamine, and pyrrolidine groups were better correlated to rivastigmine, and represent possible AChE inhibitors against Alzheimer disease. PMID:19446931

  3. Anacardic acid: molluscicide in cashew nut shell liquid.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J T; Richards, C S; Lloyd, H A; Krishna, G

    1982-03-01

    The components of anacardic acid, (a mixture of 6-n-C (15) alkylsalicylic acids whose side chains vary in degrees of unsaturation) have been isolated by high pressure liquid chromatography from a crude extract of cashew nut shell, Anacardium occidentale, and tested for toxicity to fresh water snails, Biomphalaria glabrata. The triene component is the most toxic form (LC (50) 0.35 ppm), the diene and monoene components are less toxic (LC (50) 0.9 and 1.4 ppm), and the saturated component is relatively nontoxic (LC (50) > 5 ppm). Since decarboxylated anacardic acid (cardanol) and salicylic acid do not kill snails at concentrations up to 5 ppm, it appears that both, carboxyl group and unsaturated side chain are absolutely required for molluscicidal activity. The mechanism of toxicity of anacardic acid to snails is unknown. PMID:17402106

  4. Electronic structure calculations toward new potentially AChE inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, A. A. N.; Martins, J. B. L.; Gargano, R.; dos Santos, M. L.; Romeiro, L. A. S.

    2007-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was the use of natural non-isoprenoid phenolic lipid of cashew nut shell liquid from Anacardium occidentale as lead material for generating new potentially candidates of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, we studied the electronic structure of 15 molecules derivatives from the cardanol using the following groups: methyl, acetyl, N, N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N, N-dimethylamine, N, N-diethylamine, piperidine, pyrrolidine, and N-benzylamine. The calculations were performed at RHF level using 6-31G, 6-31G(d), 6-31+G(d) and 6-311G(d,p) basis functions. Among the proposed compounds we found that the structures with substitution by acetyl, N, N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N, N-dimethylamine, and pyrrolidine groups were better correlated to rivastigmine indicating possible activity.

  5. Self-assembled cardanol azo derivatives as antifungal agent with chitin-binding ability.

    PubMed

    Mahata, Denial; Mandal, Santi M; Bharti, Rashmi; Gupta, Vinay Krishna; Mandal, Mahitosh; Nag, Ahindra; Nando, Golok B

    2014-08-01

    Cardanol is a non-isoprenoic phenolic lipid-mixture of distilled cashew nut shell liquid obtained from Anacardium occidentale. Herein, cardanol is purified from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) and synthesized to new compounds with different azo amphiphiles. These synthesized compounds are allowed to self-assembled in hydrophobic environment and checked antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Self-assembled structure of CABA showed higher antifungal activity (16μg/mL) and chitin-binding ability in comparison to CAP and CANB. Furthermore, the self-assembled azo amphiphiles are immobilized with silver ions to prepare hydrogel which showed eight folds enhanced antifungal activity. Toxicity is reduced by several folds of self-assembled or hydrogel structure in comparison to pure compounds. Thus, the self-assembled structure of amphiphiles and their hydrogels have been found to be new macromolecules of interest with potential use as antifungal drugs. PMID:24836571

  6. [Molluscacide activity of a mixture of 6-n-alkyl salicylic acids (anacardic acid) and 2 of its complexes with copper (II) and lead (II)].

    PubMed

    Mendes, N M; de Oliveira, A B; Guimarães, J E; Pereira, J P; Katz, N

    1990-01-01

    The molluscicide activity of hexanic extract from Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew) nut shell, of copper (II) complex, of lead (II) complex and anacardic acid has been compared in the laboratory in an attempt to obtain better stability than anacardic acid. This was obtained from the hexanic extract of the cashew nut shell by precipitation with lead (II) hydroxide or cupric sulfate plus sodium hydroxide or (II) cupric hydroxide followed by treatment of lead (II) complex with a diluted solution of sulfuric acid. Ten products of the mixture obtained were tested on adults snails of Biomphalaria glabrata at 1 to 10 ppm. The most active products were copper (II) complex, obtained by cupric sulfate plus sodium hydroxide, and anacardic acid (sodium hydroxide) which presented activity at 4 ppm. The anacardic acid's lead content was above the limits accepted by the United States standards. PMID:2133588

  7. Synthesis and cytotoxicity screening of substituted isobenzofuranones designed from anacardic acids.

    PubMed

    Logrado, Lúcio P L; Santos, Camila O; Romeiro, Luiz A S; Costa, Arinice M; Ferreira, José R O; Cavalcanti, Bruno C; Manoel de Moraes, O; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Pessoa, Cláudia; Dos Santos, Maria L

    2010-08-01

    This work is part of a large program, which seeks to discover new antitumor isobenfuranones designed from anacardic acids. The synthetic strategy for the construction of the title compounds takes into consideration the use of inexpensive anacardic acids (2), the major natural cashew (Anacardium occidentale) nut-shell phenolic lipid, and features one-pot construction of fused-ring aromatic gamma-lactones, phthalides. The cytotoxicity screening in different human cancer cell lines (HL-60 leukemia, SF295 glioblastoma and MDA-MB435 melanoma) by the MTT assay showed that acyclic precursor (6), and isobenfuranones (1a and 1b) are active compounds. Interestingly, 1a exhibits significant antiproliferative effect against HL-60 cells and moderate activity against SF295 and MDA-MB435 cell lines. Analysis of mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic activity showed that active compounds were leading to DNA damage, triggering apoptosis or necrosis induction. PMID:20537433

  8. Irreversible competitive inhibitory kinetics of cardol triene on mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jiang-Xing; Hu, Yong-Hua; Yang, Mei-Hua; Liu, Feng-Jiao; Qiu, Ling; Zhou, Xing-Wang; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2010-12-22

    Cardol triene was first purified from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid and identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. The effects of this compound on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase were studied. The results of the kinetic study showed that cardol triene was a potent irreversible competitive inhibitor and the inactivation was of the complexing type. Two molecules of cardol triene could bind to one molecule of tyrosinase and lead to the complete loss of its catalytic activity. The microscopic rate constants were determined for the reaction of cardol triene with the enzyme. The anti-tyrosinase kinetic research of this study provides a comprehensive understanding of inhibitory mechanisms of resorcinolic lipids and is beneficial for the future design of novel tyrosinase inhibitors. PMID:21121650

  9. Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants.

    PubMed

    Schmourlo, Gracilene; Mendonça-Filho, Ricardo R; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Costa, Sônia S

    2005-01-15

    In the search for bioactive compounds, bioautography and ethanol precipitation of macromolecules (proteins, polysaccharides, etc.) of plant aqueous extracts were associated in an antifungal screening. Thus, the supernatants, precipitates (obtained by ethanol precipitation) and aqueous extracts were investigated of medicinal and fruit bearing plants used against skin diseases by the Brazilian population. The agar diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to assess the activity against three fungi: Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum and Cryptococcus neoformans. The results, evaluated by the diameter of the inhibition zone of fungal growth, indicate that six plant species, among the 16 investigated, showed significant antifungal activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on plant extracts that showed high efficacy against the tested microorganisms. The most susceptible yeast was Trichophyton rubrum and the best antifungal activity was shown by Xanthosoma sagittifolium supernatant. The bioautography was performed only for the aqueous extracts and supernatants of those plants that showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, using n-butanol/acetic acid/water (BAW) 8:1:1 to develop silica gel TLC plates. Clear inhibition zones were observed for aqueous extracts of Schinus molle (R(f) 0.89) and Schinus terebinthifolius (R(f) 0.80) against Candida albicans, as for supernatant of Anacardium occidentale (R(f) 0.31) against Cryptococcus neoformans. The separation of macromolecules from metabolites, as in the case of Anacardium occidentale, Solanum sp. and Xanthosoma sagittifolium, enhances antifungal activity. In other cases, the antifungal activity is destroyed, as observed for Momordica charantia, Schinus molle and Schinus terebinthifolius. PMID:15619579

  10. Structures de l'apprentissage dans les pays de l'Europe Occidentale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengrand, Paul

    1982-06-01

    In West European countries, as in most modern societies, learning can be divided into three sectors. Informal education occupies the greatest space, both because of its duration and because it extends into every part of life. It happens in many and various ways and circumstances — from learning the language and socialisation in the family environment to the experiences of retirement and the third age. A large number of factors are involved, particularly married life, family responsibilities, work, the influence of mass media and participation in political activities. It is also the area of self-education. Formal education, dispensed by schools and universities, corrects and guides what is learned in the informal sector. It provides part of the necessary learning in the fields of the arts and of the sciences. However, it falls short so far as the evolution of ideas, morals and social behaviour are concerned. It also only imperfectly fulfils its function of democratization, and because of its concentration on matters intellectual, it does not promote the development of the diverse capacities of the whole person. Nonformal education resembles informal education in that it relates to life, and formal education in its structured character. It is the domain of educational innovation, especially in the context of social relationships. Through the harmonious combination of these three sectors of learning, the principles of a global and integrated lifelong education can be implemented.

  11. The Biogeographical Distribution of Duncecap Larkspur (Delphinium occidentale) Chemotypes and Their Potential Toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are poisonous plants found on rangelands in Western North America. Larkspur’s toxicity has been attributed to the norditerpenoid alkaloids which are divided into two main structural groups; the highly toxic (N-methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine type (MSAL-type) and...

  12. Impact of temperature on performance in two species of South African dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum and B. occidentale.

    PubMed

    Segall, Marion; Tolley, Krystal A; Vanhooydonck, Bieke; Measey, G John; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-10-15

    Temperature is an extrinsic factor that influences reptile behavior because of its impact on reptile physiology. Understanding the impact of temperature on performance traits is important as it may affect the ecology and fitness of ectothermic animals such as reptiles. Here, we examined the temperature dependence of performance in two species of South African dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion): one adapted to a semi-arid environment and one to a mesic environment. Ecologically relevant performance traits were tested at different temperatures to evaluate their thermal dependence, and temperature-performance breadths for 80% and 90% of each performance trait were calculated. Our results show distinct differences in the thermal dependence of speed- versus force-related performance traits. Moreover, our results show that the semi-arid species is better adapted to higher temperatures and as such has a better chance of coping with the predicted increases in environmental temperature. The mesic area-adapted species seems to be more sensitive to an increase in temperature and could therefore potentially be threatened by the predicted future climate change. However, further studies investigating the potential for acclimation in chameleons are needed to better understand how animals may respond to future climate change. PMID:23868845

  13. Modalités évolutives du genre bullatimorphites (Ammonitina) au Bathonien-Callovien (Jurassique moyen) en Europe occidentale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courville, Philippe; Thierry, Jacques; Carioub, Élie

    1999-01-01

    The genus Bullatimorphites, (macroconchs Bullatimorphites, Kheraiceras; microconchs Bomburites, Schwandorfia, Spbaeroptycbius, Treptoceras), is characterized by an ontogenesis with three morphologic phases: serpenticone, sphaerocone and ellipticone. Within the successive populations, the relative development of these morphologies allows the defined species to be placed in an evolutive and stratigraphic lineage. The history of the genus comprises five steps: 1) emergence (Early Middle Bathonian), 2) first gradual evolution (Middle-Upper Bathonian), 3) first morphological diversification (Uppermost Bathonian), 4) second gradual evolution, 5) second morphological diversification and extinction (Lower Callovian). Such events are biostratigraphic datum lines which coincide with the palaeogeographic evolution of the West Peri-Tethyan platforms during the Middle Jurassic.

  14. Glycaemic effects of traditional European plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Swanston-Flatt, S K; Day, C; Flatt, P R; Gould, B J; Bailey, C J

    1989-02-01

    Twelve plants used for the traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus in northern Europe were studied using normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice to evaluate effects on glucose homeostasis. The plants were administered in the diet (6.25% by weight) and/or as decoctions or infusions in place of drinking water, to coincide with the traditional method of preparation. Treatment for 28 days with preparations of burdock (Arctium lappa), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), elder (Sambucus nigra), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), guayusa (Ilex guayusa), hop (Humulus lupulus), nettle (Urtica dioica), cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), sage (Salvia officinale), and wild carrot (Daucus carrota) did not affect the parameters of glucose homeostasis examined in normal mice (basal plasma glucose and insulin, glucose tolerance, insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and glycated haemoglobin). After administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg) burdock and nettle aggravated the diabetic condition, while cashew, dandelion, elder, fenugreek, hop, periwinkle, sage and wild carrot did not significantly affect the parameters of glucose homeostasis studied (basal glucose and insulin, insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, glycated haemoglobin and pancreatic insulin concentration). Guayusa and mushroom retarded the development of hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin diabetes and reduced the hyperphagia, polydipsia, body weight loss, and glycated haemoglobin. Mushroom also countered the initial reduction in plasma insulin and the reduction in pancreatic insulin concentration, and improved the hypoglycaemic effect of exogenous insulin. These studies suggest the presence of potentially useful antidiabetic agents in guayusa and mushroom. PMID:2743711

  15. Multilayer Films Electrodes Consisted of Cashew Gum and Polyaniline Assembled by the Layer-by-Layer Technique: Electrochemical Characterization and Its Use for Dopamine Determination

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Sergio Bitencourt Araújo; Leite, Cleide Maria da Silva; de Brito, Ana Cristina Facundo; Dos Santos Júnior, José Ribeiro; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Eiras, Carla

    2012-01-01

    We take advantage of polyelectrolyte feature exhibited by natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) (CG), found in northeast Brazil, to employ it in the formation of electroactive nanocomposites prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. We used polyaniline unmodified (PANI) or modified with phosphonic acid (PA), PANI-PA as cationic polyelectrolyte. On the other hand, the CG or polyvinyl sulfonic (PVS) acids were used as anionic polyelectrolytes. The films were prepared with PANI or PANI-PA intercalated with CG or with PVS alternately resulting in four films with different sequences: PANI/CG PANI-PA/CG, PANI/PVS and PANI-PA/PVS, respectively. Analysis by cyclic voltammetry (CV) of the films showed that the presence of gum increases the stability of the films in acidic medium. The performance of the modified electrode of PANI-PA/CG was evaluated in electro analytical determination of dopamine (DA). The tests showed great sensitivity of the film for this analyte that was detected at 10−5 mol L−1. PMID:22505924

  16. Modeling Occupancy of Hosts by Mistletoe Seeds after Accounting for Imperfect Detectability

    PubMed Central

    Fadini, Rodrigo F.; Cintra, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The detection of an organism in a given site is widely used as a state variable in many metapopulation and epidemiological studies. However, failure to detect the species does not necessarily mean that it is absent. Assessing detectability is important for occupancy (presence—absence) surveys; and identifying the factors reducing detectability may help improve survey precision and efficiency. A method was used to estimate the occupancy status of host trees colonized by mistletoe seeds of Psittacanthus plagiophyllus as a function of host covariates: host size and presence of mistletoe infections on the same or on the nearest neighboring host (the cashew tree Anacardium occidentale). The technique also evaluated the effect of taking detectability into account for estimating host occupancy by mistletoe seeds. Individual host trees were surveyed for presence of mistletoe seeds with the aid of two or three observers to estimate detectability and occupancy. Detectability was, on average, 17% higher in focal-host trees with infected neighbors, while decreased about 23 to 50% from smallest to largest hosts. The presence of mistletoe plants in the sample tree had negligible effect on detectability. Failure to detect hosts as occupied decreased occupancy by 2.5% on average, with maximum of 10% for large and isolated hosts. The method presented in this study has potential for use with metapopulation studies of mistletoes, especially those focusing on the seed stage, but also as improvement of accuracy in occupancy models estimates often used for metapopulation dynamics of tree-dwelling plants in general. PMID:25973754

  17. Protective effects of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid against cardol-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species generation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Murata, Wakae; Tanaka, Toshio; Kubo, Isao; Fujita, Ken-ichi

    2013-06-01

    Cardol (C₁₅:₃), isolated from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid, has been shown to exhibit bactericidal activity against various strains of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains. The maximum level of reactive oxygen species generation was detected at around the minimum bactericidal concentration of cardol, while reactive oxygen species production drastically decreased at doses above the minimum bactericidal concentration. The primary response for bactericidal activity around the bactericidal concentration was noted to primarily originate from oxidative stress such as intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. High doses of cardol (C₁₅:₃) were shown to induce leakage of K⁺ from S. aureus cells, which may be related to the decrease in reactive oxygen species. Antioxidants such as α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid restricted reactive oxygen species generation and restored cellular damage induced by the lipid. Cardol (C₁₅:₃) overdose probably disrupts the native membrane-associated function as it acts as a surfactant. The maximum antibacterial activity of cardols against S. aureus depends on their log P values (partition coefficient in octanol/water) and is related to their similarity to those of anacardic acids isolated from the same source. PMID:23670625

  18. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions from secondary forest in northern Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxton, J. E.; Lewis, A. C.; Kettlewell, J. H.; Ozel, M. Z.; Gogus, F.; Boni, Y.; Korogone, S. O. U.; Serça, D.

    2007-04-01

    The biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) composition of ambient air at a rural field site near Djougou, Benin has been studied as part of the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) project. Ambient air was sampled during day and night during the period 2 June 2006 to 13 June 2006. Gas samples from within the forest canopy and from branch and cuvette enclosure systems for four vegetation species were also obtained and emissions flux estimates made. All samples were analysed for the presence of isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes by either gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) or comprehensive gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF/MS). Concentrations of isoprene ranged from a few tens of pptV to in excess of 3000 pptV. Similar concentration ranges for certain monoterpenes were also observed. Limonene was seen at a maximum concentration in ambient air of 5000 pptV. The combination of leaf-level observations and direct analysis of dried vegetation samples suggest that emissions of terpene species from indigenous species are unlikely to account for the unexpectedly high ambient concentrations of monoterpenes. Leaf scale emission measurements and biological sample analysis indicated that Anacardium occidentale, a non-native crop species found throughout the tropics, was the dominant source of monoterpenes at this location. These preliminary findings suggest that activities involving species replacement have potential implications for the chemistry of the African troposphere that have not been widely considered previously.

  19. Isoprene and monoterpene measurements in a secondary forest in northern Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxton, J. E.; Lewis, A. C.; Kettlewell, J. H.; Ozel, M. Z.; Gogus, F.; Boni, Y.; Korogone, S. O. U.; Serça, D.

    2007-08-01

    The biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) composition of ambient air at a rural field site near Djougou, Benin has been studied as part of the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) project. Ambient air was sampled during day and night during the period 2 June 2006 to 13 June 2006. Gas samples from within the forest canopy and from branch and cuvette enclosure systems for four vegetation species were also obtained and emissions flux estimates made. All samples were analysed for the presence of isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes by either gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) or comprehensive gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF/MS). Concentrations of isoprene ranged from a few tens of pptV to in excess of 3000 pptV. Similar concentration ranges for certain monoterpenes were also observed. Limonene was seen at a maximum concentration in ambient air of 5000 pptV. The combination of leaf-level observations and direct analysis of dried vegetation samples suggests that emissions of terpene species from indigenous species are unlikely to account for the unexpectedly high ambient concentrations of monoterpenes. Leaf scale emission measurements and biological sample analysis indicated that textit{Anacardium occidentale}, a non-native crop species found throughout the tropics, was the dominant source of monoterpenes at this location. These preliminary findings suggest that activities involving species replacement have potential implications for the chemistry of the African troposphere that have not been widely considered previously.

  20. Antioxidants from tropical herbs.

    PubMed

    Razab, Rasyidah; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina

    2010-03-01

    Plants that contain high amounts of polyphenolic compounds are potential candidates for natural antioxidant sources. Studies are on going in the search for new sources of antioxidants. Not much data are available on the antioxidant capacity of tropical herbs. With this in mind, 19 commonly consumed Malaysian herbs were analyzed for their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities. A majority of these plants have never been studied before with regards to their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities. The shoots of Anacardium occidentale, the shoots and fruits of Barringtonia racemosa, Pithecellobium jiringa and Parkia speciosa had high polyphenolic contents (> 150 microg gallic acid equivalents/mg dried plant) and antioxidant activities when measured using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (>1.2 mM) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays (>2.4 mM). A strong correlation was observed between the two antioxidant assays (FRAP vs TEAC) implying that the plants could both scavenge free radicals and reduce oxidants. There was also a strong correlation between the antioxidant activities and polyphenolic content suggesting the observed antioxidant activities were contributed mainly by the polyphenolics in the plants. PMID:20420325

  1. alpha-Amylase inhibitory activity of some Malaysian plants used to treat diabetes; with particular reference to Phyllanthus amarus.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hasenah; Houghton, P J; Soumyanath, Amala

    2006-10-11

    Extracts of six selected Malaysian plants with a reputation of usefulness in treating diabetes were examined for alpha-amylase inhibition using an in vitro model. Inhibitory activity studied by two different protocols (with and without pre-incubation) showed that Phyllanthus amarus hexane extract had alpha-amylase inhibitory properties. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Averrhoa bilimbiPithecellobium jiringa and Parkia speciosa were not active when tested without pre-incubation. Extraction and fractionation of Phyllanthus amarus hexane extract led to the isolation of dotriacontanyl docosanoate, triacontanol and a mixture of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. Dotriacontanyl docosanoate and the mixture of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are reported from this plant species for the first time. All compounds were tested in the alpha-amylase inhibition assay and the results revealed that the oleanolic acid and ursolic acid (2:1) mixture was a potent alpha-amylase inhibitor with IC(50)=2.01 microg/ml (4.41 microM) and that it contributes significantly to the alpha-amylase inhibition activity of the extract. Three pure pentacyclic triterpenoids, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and lupeol were shown to inhibit alpha-amylase. PMID:16678367

  2. Tracking cashew economically important diseases in the West African region using metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Filipa; Romeiras, Maria M; Figueiredo, Andreia; Sebastiana, Mónica; Baldé, Aladje; Catarino, Luís; Batista, Dora

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems toward commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale. In this perspective, we address metagenomics as a promising genomic tool to identify cashew fungal associated diseases as well as to discriminate the causal pathogens, aiming at obtaining tools to help design effective strategies for disease control and thus promote the sustainable production of cashew in West African Region. PMID:26175748

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant and mutagenic activities of honey-sweetened cashew apple nectar.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Robson Alves; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Nascimento e Santos, Débora; de Abreu, Bianca Regina Ribas; de Lima, Alessandro; de Andrade, Heloisa Helena Rodrigues; Lehmann, Mauricio

    2013-12-01

    In vitro chemical properties and antioxidant potential and in vivo mutagenic activity of honey-sweetened cashew apple nectar (HSCAN), a beverage produced from the cashew pseudo-fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) and of its constituents were assessed. Analytical procedures were carried out to investigate the honey used in the HSCAN preparation, and the results observed are in accordance with Brazilian legal regulations, except for diastase number. HSCAN and pulp were investigated for ascorbic acid, carotenoid, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and both showed high acid ascorbic concentrations. Antioxidant capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and/or β-carotene/linoleic acid systems were applied and demonstrated a weak antioxidant capacity of honey and HSCAN, but cashew apple pulp demonstrated high antioxidant capacity. A weakly positive mutagenic effect of cashew pulp 20% was observed using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster only in the high-bioactivation (HB) cross. On the contrary, HSCAN was not mutagenic in both standard and high bioactivation crosses. HSCAN exhibited slight antioxidant activity, which could be associated with the high amount of ascorbic acid found in the samples evaluated. The beverage prepared did not induce DNA damage in somatic cells of D. melanogaster, which means that it is neither mutagenic nor recombinagenic in this test system. PMID:23973191

  4. Tracking cashew economically important diseases in the West African region using metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Filipa; Romeiras, Maria M.; Figueiredo, Andreia; Sebastiana, Mónica; Baldé, Aladje; Catarino, Luís; Batista, Dora

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems toward commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale. In this perspective, we address metagenomics as a promising genomic tool to identify cashew fungal associated diseases as well as to discriminate the causal pathogens, aiming at obtaining tools to help design effective strategies for disease control and thus promote the sustainable production of cashew in West African Region. PMID:26175748

  5. Screening of tropical fruit volatile compounds using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and internally cooled SPME fiber.

    PubMed

    Carasek, Eduardo; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2006-11-15

    In this study, the optimization and comparison of an internally cooled fiber [cold fiber with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) loading] and several commercial solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers for the extraction of volatile compounds from tropical fruits were performed. Automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using commercial fibers and an internally cooled SPME fiber device coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compounds of five tropical fruits. Pulps of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.), acerola (Malphigia glabra L.), and guava (Psidium guajava L.) were sampled. The extraction conditions were optimized using two experimental designs (full factorial design and Doehlert matrix) to analyze the main and secondary effects. The volatile compounds tentatively identified included alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds, and terpernes. It was found that the cold fiber was the most appropriate fiber for the purpose of extracting volatile compounds from the five fruit pulps studied. PMID:17090108

  6. Acute Renal Failure Induced by Chinese Herbal Medication in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akpan, Effiong Ekong; Ekrikpo, Udeme E

    2015-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30-35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes "holy water" green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango), shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Carica papaya (paw-paw) leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree), and Azadirachta indica (Neem) trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for "body cleansing" and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission. PMID:26199625

  7. Chromatographic techniques for the determination of alkyl-phenols, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds in raw and roasted cold pressed cashew nut oils.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2010-11-19

    Anacardium occidentale belongs to the family Anacardiaceae and is principally grown in tropical America (Mexico, Peru, Brazil, etc.) and India. Cashew nuts contain low amounts of hydroxy alkyl phenols that come from an oily liquid present in their shell and that is known as cashew-nut shell liquid. This paper reports the alkyl phenols composition of cold pressed raw and roasted cashew nut oil. First of all, cashew nut shell liquid was used for a basic fractionation of the alkyl phenol classes by preparative TLC and definitively identified by GC-MS and GC-FID. Anacardic acids were the major alkylphenols contained in both oils followed by cardol, cardanol and 2-methylcardol compounds, respectively. Raw and roasted oils did not show different compositions except for cardanols. The oil produced from roasted cashew nut reported a higher concentration of cardanols. Furthermore, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds were determined by HPLC-FLD and HPLC-DAD-MS, respectively. Tocopherol content varied in a range of 171.48-29.56mg/100g from raw to roasted cashew nut oil, being β-tocopherol the one which presented a higher decrease (93.68%). Also minor polar compounds in cashew oil decreased after roasting from 346.52 to 262.83mg/kg. PMID:20961547

  8. Recent advances in cardanol chemistry in a nutshell: from a nut to nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, Vijai Shankar; Jadhav, Swapnil Rohidas; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; John, George

    2013-01-21

    This tutorial review could serve as an introduction of cardanol into the world of soft nanomaterials; it is a biobased lipid-mixture obtained from the plant Anacardium occidentale L. Cardanol is a renewable raw material derived from a byproduct of cashew nut processing industry: Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL). Cardanol is a rich mixture of non-isoprenoic phenolic compounds that is a valuable raw material for generating a variety of soft nanomaterials such as nanotubes, nanofibers, gels and surfactants. These nanostructures may then serve as templates for the synthesis of additional nanomaterials. The wealth and diversity of cardanol-derived functional nanomaterials has urged us to present an article that will give readers a taste of a new class of cardanol-derived functional amphiphiles, along with their ability to generate hierarchical functional nanomaterials through non-covalent soft-chemical routes. In this concise review, we discuss selected examples of novel biobased surfactants, glycolipids, and polymers derived from cardanol, and their subsequent self-assembly into functional soft materials. PMID:23114456

  9. Adsorptive separation of fructose and glucose from an agroindustrial waste of cashew industry.

    PubMed

    Luz, D A; Rodrigues, A K O; Silva, F R C; Torres, A E B; Cavalcante, C L; Brito, E S; Azevedo, D C S

    2008-05-01

    Nearly all agroindustrial wastes have appreciable sugar content including cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale, L.), which are an important sub-utilized biomass source in Northeastern Brazil. Adsorption in fixed bed, both in batch and continuous modes, is a low-cost separation technique, which has been widely used in the concentration, separation and purification of bioproducts, such as sugars. The present work is an experimental study aimed at measuring responses in fixed bed, needed for design purposes. Two commercial ion-exchange resins were studied: DOWEX Monosphere 99/Ca and DIAION UBK555. The adsorbents showed linear isotherms for both sugars with marked selectivity for fructose (2.2 for DOWEX and 1.5 for DIAION). A mathematical model was used to estimate kinetic parameters and predict breakthrough behaviour of binary solutions and complex feeds. The kinetics of mass transfer was well described by a linear driving force approximation (LDF) and estimated kinetic constants were around 1 min(-1). The results indicate that the use of independent experiments with synthetic monocomponent solutions leads to reliable parameters, and the model is capable to foresee reasonably well the breakthrough curve of the sugars present in the juice, under different purification conditions. The use of complex feeds led to overshoot behaviour, possibly due to the irreversible adsorption of oligosaccharides. PMID:17600702

  10. The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2014-04-01

    A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P < 0.01) correlation with total phenolic compounds (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively), total flavonoids (r = 0.63 and 0.81, respectively), and total monomeric anthocyanins (r = 0.59 and 0.73, respectively). PCA explained 74.82% of total variance of data, and the separation into 3 groups in a scatter plot was verified. Three clusters also suggested by HCA, corroborated with PCA, in which cluster 3 was formed by strawberry, red fruits, blackberry, açaí, and grape pulps. This cluster showed the highest contents of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. PMID:24547813

  11. Biological screening of selected medicinal Panamanian plants by radioligand-binding techniques.

    PubMed

    Caballero-George, C; Vanderheyden, P M; Solis, P N; Pieters, L; Shahat, A A; Gupta, M P; Vauquelin, G; Vlietinck, A J

    2001-01-01

    Nineteen plants from the Republic of Panama were selected by their traditional uses in the treatment of hypertension, cardiovascular, mental and feeding disorders and 149 extracts were screened using radioligand-receptor-binding assays. The methanol:dicloromethane extracts of the bark and leaves of Anacardium occidentale L., the leaves of Begonia urophylla Hook., the roots of Bocconia frutescens L., the stems and leaves of Cecropia cf.obtusifolia Bertol., the branches of Clusia coclensis Standl., the bark of Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.)Spreng., the roots of Dimerocostus strobilaceus Kuntze, the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., the leaves of Persea americana Mill. and the branches of Witheringia solanaceae L'Her. inhibited the [3H]-AT II binding (angiotensin II AT1 receptor) more than 50%. Only extracts of the roots of Dimerocostus strobilaceus Kuntze and the stems of Psychotria elata (Sw.) Hammel were potent inhibitors of the [3H] NPY binding (neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor) more than 50% and the ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Cecropia cf. obtusifolia Bertol., the leaves of Hedyosmum bonplandianum H.B.K., the roots of Bocconia frutescens L., the stem of Cecropia cf. obtusifolia Bertol. and the branches of Psychotria elata (Sw.) Hammel showed high inhibition of the [3H] BQ-123 binding (endothelin-1 ET(A) receptor) in a preliminary screening. These results promote the further investigation of these plants using the same assays. PMID:11292241

  12. Promoting action of cashew nut shell oil in DMBA-initiated mouse skin tumour model system.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S; Rao, A R

    1992-02-29

    The commercially available oil derived from the shell of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) was tested for its potency in promoting the DMBA-initiated cells into papillomas in a murine two-stage skin tumorigenesis model system. Male Swiss albino mice (9-10-weeks-old) were assorted into different groups and treated topically with single sub-carcinogenic doses of DMBA (50 micrograms in 0.1 ml acetone) followed by application of 1% and 2% shell oil in acetone three times a week. Animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks from the commencement of the experiment. The results imply a weak tumour promoting effect of cashew nut shell oil as the mean tumour incidences were found to be 1.1 and 2.5 in 1% and 2% oil treatment groups, respectively, while the corresponding figure vas 6.6 in the positive control group (DMBA and 1% croton oil in acetone). Few speculative mechanisms for the observed effect of cashew nut shell oil on initiated skin are discussed. PMID:1540942

  13. Inhibition of soybean and potato lipoxygenases by bhilawanols from bhilawan (Semecarpus anacardium) nut shell liquid and some synthetic salicylic acid analogues.

    PubMed

    Nagabhushana, Kyatanahalli S; Umamaheshwari, S; Tocoli, Felismino E; Prabhu, Sandeep K; Green, Ivan R; Ramadoss, Candadai S

    2002-08-01

    Bhilawanol diene (3) isolated from bhilawan nut shell liquid was found to be a potent inhibitor of both soybean and potato lipoxygenases with IC50 values of 0.85 microM and 1.1 microM, respectively. However, the monoene (2) and saturated (1) bhilawanols exhibited relatively lower inhibitory activity. In addition, inhibition studies with synthetic analogues of salicylic acid (4-8) suggested that the unsaturated lipophilic side chain may be an absolute requirement for inhibitory activity. PMID:12530478

  14. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Traditional Plant Used in Mestizo Shamanism from the Peruvian Amazon in Case of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Roumy, Vincent; Gutierrez-Choquevilca, Andréa-Luz; Lopez Mesia, Jean Pierre; Ruiz, Lastenia; Ruiz Macedo, Juan Celidonio; Abedini, Amin; Landoulsi, Ameni; Samaillie, Jennifer; Hennebelle, Thierry; Rivière, Céline; Neut, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Context: Our survey was performed near Iquitos (Peruvian Amazon) and its surroundings and leads us to consider Mestizo ethnomedical practices. The plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. Inhabitants of various ethnic origins were interviewed, and 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36 sensitive and multi-resistant bacteria or yeast. The study aimed at providing information on antimicrobial plant extract activities and the ethnomedical context of Mestizo riverine populations from Loreto (Peru). Material and Method: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plant crude extracts were carried out using the agar dilution method and ranged between 0.075 and 5.0 mg/ml. Results: Of the 40 plants analyzed, 9 species showed MIC ≤0.3 mg/ml (Anacardium occidentale, Couroupita guianensis, Croton lechleri, Davilla rugosa, Erythrina amazonica, Jacaranda copaia subsp. Spectabilis, Oenocarpus bataua, Peperomia macrostachya, and Phyllanthus urinaria) for one or several of the 36 microorganisms and only 6 drug extracts were inactive. Among the 40 plants, 13 were evaluated for the first time for an antibacterial activity. Conclusion: This evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of 40 plants using an approved standard methodology allowed comparing those activities against various microbes to establish antimicrobial spectra of standardized plant extracts, and give support to the traditional use of these plants. It may also help discovering new chemical classes of antimicrobial agents that could serve against multi-resistant bacteria. SUMMARY This study leads us to consider Mestizo ethnomedical practices near Iquitos (Peruvian Amazon) and its surroundings. The plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36

  15. Weaver ant role in cashew orchards in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Peng, Renkang; Lan, La Pham; Christian, Keith

    2014-08-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a very important source of income for more than 200,000 farmer households in Vietnam. The present cashew productivity in Vietnam is low and unstable, and pest damage is partly responsible for this. Cashew farmers rely on pesticides to minimize the damage, resulting in adverse impacts on farm environment and farmers' health. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp) are effective biocontrol agents of a range of cashew insect pests in several cashew-growing countries, and these ants are widely distributed in Vietnam. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of weaver ants in cashew orchards in Vietnam. Field surveys and field experiment were conducted in five cashew orchards from July 2006 to January 2008 in Binh Phuoc, Dong Nai, and Ba Ria Vung Tau provinces, Vietnam. Based on the field surveys, the most important pests that damage flushing foliar and floral shoots and young cashew fruits and nuts were mosquito bugs, brown shoot borers, blue shoot borers, and fruit-nut borers. The damage caused by each of these pests was significantly lower on trees with weaver ants compared with trees without the ants, showing that the ants were able to keep these pest damages under the control threshold. Regular monitoring of the field experiment showed that weaver ants were similar to insecticides for controlling mosquito bugs, blue shoot borers, fruit-nut borers, leaf rollers, and leaf miners. Aphids did not become major pests in plot with weaver ants. To manage insect pest assemblage in cashew orchards, an integrated pest management using weaver ants as a major component is discussed. PMID:25195419

  16. Biotechnological process for obtaining new fermented products from cashew apple fruit by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Suzane Macêdo; Silva, Cristina Ferraz; Moreira, Jane Jesus Silveira; Narain, Narendra; Souza, Roberto Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    In Brazil, the use of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) to obtain new products by biotechnological process represents an important alternative to avoid wastage of a large quantity of this fruit, which reaches about 85% of the annual production of 1 million tons. This work focuses on the development of an alcoholic product obtained by the fermentation of cashew apple juice. The inoculation with two different strains of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae viz. SCP and SCT, were standardized to a concentration of 10(7 )cells ml(-1). Each inoculum was added to 1,500 ml of cashew must. Fermentation was performed at 28 ± 3°C and aliquots were withdrawn every 24 h to monitor soluble sugar concentrations, pH, and dry matter contents. The volatile compounds in fermented products were analyzed using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system. After 6 days, the fermentation process was completed, cells removed by filtration and centrifugation, and the products were stabilized under refrigeration for a period of 20 days. The stabilized products were stored in glass bottles and pasteurized at 60 ± 5°C/30 min. Both fermented products contained ethanol concentration above 6% (v v(-1)) while methanol was not detected and total acidity was below 90 mEq l(-1), representing a pH of 3.8-3.9. The volatile compounds were characterized by the presence of aldehyde (butyl aldehyde diethyl acetal, 2,4-dimethyl-hepta-2,4-dienal, and 2-methyl-2-pentenal) and ester (ethyl α-methylbutyrate) representing fruity aroma. The strain SCT was found to be better and efficient and this produced 10% more alcohol over that of strain SCP. PMID:21069555

  17. Molecular characterization and evaluation of virulence factors of Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus neoformans strains isolated from external hospital areas.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Silva, Leonardo; Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Silva-Vergara, Mario León; Pedrosa, André Luiz

    2010-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a common opportunistic fungal infection that is mainly caused by the species Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, but there have recently been several reports of infection by non-neoformans Cryptococcus species. The aims of this study were to genetically characterize Cryptococcus spp. isolated from external hospital areas in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and to evaluate their pathogenic potential, analyzing their phospholipase and melanin production and the capacity for capsule enlargement. Seventy-three different samples were collected: 62 from bird droppings and 11 from tree detritus. C. neoformans alone was isolated from 43.8% of the samples, Cryptococcus laurentii alone from 23.3% and both fungi were found together in 10.9%. C. laurentii was exclusively isolated from 45% (5/11) of the tree samples (Anacardium occidentale, Guazuma ulmifolia, Mangifera indica and Ficus benjamina). Among the 51 C. neoformans isolates, 47 were classified as type VNI and four as type VNII. All of the C. neoformans isolates were of MATα type. Among the 21 isolates of C. laurentii genotyped using the URA5-RFLP technique, 16 amplified a 1.6kb amplicon which produced a specific restriction profile in 15 isolates. In C. neoformans, 76.4% of the isolates were capable of capsule enlargement in the induction medium and 92.1% were phospholipase producers. In C. laurentii, 7.4% of the isolates were capable of capsule enlargement and 85.1% were phospholipase producers. Characterization of the genotypes and the pathogenic potential of the Cryptococcus spp. isolates studied may contribute towards better understanding of the epidemiology of cryptococcosis and the ecology of agents causing this disease in our region. PMID:20943154

  18. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers using anacardic acid monomers derived from cashew nut shell liquid.

    PubMed

    Philip, Joseph Y N; Buchweishaija, Joseph; Mkayula, Lupituko L; Ye, Lei

    2007-10-31

    The objective of this work was to use monomers from cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shells to develop molecularly imprinted polymers. Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is a cheap and renewable agro byproduct consisting of versatile monomers. Solvent-extracted CNSL contains over 80% anacardic acid (AnAc) with more than 90% degree of unsaturation in its C 15 side chain. From AnAc monomer, anacardanyl acrylate (AnAcr) and anacardanyl methacrylate (AnMcr) monomers were synthesized and their chemical structures were characterized by Fourier transform IR and NMR. Different imprinted bulk polymers based on AnAc, AnAcr, and AnMcr functional monomers have been prepared. In the present study, each functional monomer was separately copolymerized in toluene with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and divinylbenzene as cross-linkers, using racemic propranolol as a model template. While the AnAc based polymer revealed a meager rebinding ability, the imprinted polymers made from AnAcr and AnMcr displayed highly specific propranolol binding. At a polymer concentration of 2 mg/mL, AnAcr and AnMcr based imprinted polymers were able to bind over 50% of trace propranolol (initial concentration 1.2 nM). Under the same condition propranolol uptake by the two nonimprinted control polymers was less than 20%. Chiral recognition properties of these polymers were further confirmed using tritium-labeled (S)-propranolol as a tracer in displacement experiments, suggesting that the apparent affinity of the imprinted chiral sites for the correct enantiomer is at least 10 times that of the mismatched (R)-propranolol. Moreover, cross reactivity studies of these polymers showed that the (S)-imprinted sites have higher cross-reactivity toward (R, S)-metoprolol than (R)-propranolol and (R)-timolol. PMID:17927136

  19. Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2000-06-12

    This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998. Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries. PMID:10821961

  20. Les chaînes de la marge occidentale du Craton Ouest-Africain, modèles géodynamiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Michel; El Archi, Abdelkrim; Nzamba, Juste

    2010-01-01

    Until now, no satisfactory geodynamic model has been delivered concerning the three main West African orogens: Panafrican 1 (Bassaride belt), Panafrican 2 (Rokelide belt) and Hercynian (Mauritanide belt). However, since the last synthetic paper ( Villeneuve, 2008), new geological, geophysical and geochronological data, from the Moroccan Sahara to Sierra Leone, allow us to propose a new geodynamical model. It includes the two Panafrican events in a single model very similar to the present western Pacific margin. An old "West African Neoproterozoic ocean" (WANO) was limited by a set of island arcs separated from the West African craton by a series of "back arc basins". The closure of this first round of back arc basins around 650 Ma led to the Bassaride belt (Panafrican 1). Then the WANO was subducting underneath the island arcs (between 650 and 550 Ma) meanwhile a new generation of "back arc basins" opened to the east between the arcs and the craton margin. The closure of the WANO and associated island arcs and back arc basins (550 to 500 Ma) led to the Rokelide belt (Panafrican 2). The Hercynian structures involving a Palaeozoic cover (made with continental material) associated to a "greeenschist facies" metamorphism is ascribed to an intracontinental belt.

  1. Computational Studies on Sirtuins from Trypanosoma cruzi: Structures, Conformations and Interactions with Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Sacconnay, Lionel; Angleviel, Melissa; Randazzo, Giuseppe Marco; Marçal Ferreira Queiroz, Marcos; Ferreira Queiroz, Emerson; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Nurisso, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Background The silent-information regulator 2 proteins, otherwise called sirtuins, are currently considered as emerging anti-parasitic targets. Nicotinamide, a pan-sirtuin inhibitor, is known to cause kinetoplast alterations and the arrested growth of T. cruzi, the protozoan responsible for Chagas disease. These observations suggested that sirtuins from this parasite (TcSir2rp1 and TcSir2rp3) could play an important role in the regulation of the parasitic cell cycle. Thus, their inhibition could be exploited for the development of novel anti-trypanosomal compounds. Methods Homology modeling was used to determine the three-dimensional features of the sirtuin TcSir2rp1 from T. cruzi. The apo-form of human SIRT2 and the same structure solved in complex with its co-substrate NAD+ allowed the modeling of TcSir2rp1 in the open and closed conformational states. Molecular docking studies were then carried out. A library composed of fifty natural and diverse compounds that are known to be active against this parasite, was established based on the literature and virtually screened against TcSir2rp1 and TcSir2rp3, which was previously modeled by our group. Results In this study, two conformational states of TcSir2rp1 were described for the first time. The molecular docking results of compounds capable of binding sirtuins proved to be meaningful when the closed conformation of the protein was taken into account for calculations. This specific conformation was then used for the virtual screening of antritrypanosomal phytochemicals against TcSir2rp1 and TcSir2rp3. The calculations identified a limited number of scaffolds extracted from Vismia orientalis, Cussonia zimmermannii, Amomum aculeatum and Anacardium occidentale that potentially interact with both proteins. Conclusions The study provided reliable models for future structure-based drug design projects concerning sirtuins from T. cruzi. Molecular docking studies highlighted not only the advantages of performing in silico

  2. Un exemple de volcanisme calco-alcalin de type orogénique mis en place en contexte de rifting (Cambrien de l'oued Rhebar, Meseta occidentale, Maroc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hadi, Hassan; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; Simancas Cabrera, Fernando; González Lodeiro, Francisco; Azor Pérez, Antonio; Jesús Martínez Poyatos, David

    2006-03-01

    The Middle Cambrian calc-alkaline Oued Rhebar volcanic complex (western Meseta, Morocco) compares with rocks originated in orogenic contexts. The La/Nb ratios are relatively high (5.2), suggesting a lithospheric mantle origin. The La/Ta ratios, higher than 26, and the negative Nb anomaly indicate a lithospheric source contaminated by the continental crust. These rocks were generated in the Mesetian Mid-Cambrian rift and would have inherited their orogenic signature from the partial melting of a previously metasomatized mantle. To cite this article: H. El Hadi et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  3. Le Silurien de la région d'Oulad Abbou (Meseta occidentale, Maroc) : une sédimentation péritidale sous contrôle tectonique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attou, Ahmed; Hamoumi, Naima

    2004-07-01

    In the Oulad Abbou syncline, western coastal Meseta, the Silurian deposits exhibit siliciclastic or mixed siliciclastic/carbonate tidal facies that recorded alkaline basalt flows and syn-sedimentary deformations. These facies are staked into peritidal shallowing upward sequences reflecting the evolution from an infratidal to a supratidal environment. These sequences recorded low-amplitude and high-frequency sea-level variations. The built-up of these rhythmic sequences is related to distensive tectonic that allowed the development of isolated platform from extensive siliciclastic influx. This tectonic event is well recorded in the palaeogeographic evolution of the northern Gondwana platform during the Lower Palaeozoic time. To cite this article: A. Attou, N. Hamoumi, C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  4. Granitoïdes mylonitiques d'âge Viséen supérieur dans le massif de l'Argentera (Alpes occidentales, Italie) : indications sur l'âge et la cinématique de la zone de cisaillement Ferrière Mollières

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musumeci, Giovanni; Colombo, Fabrizio

    The Argentera Massif in the western Alps is made of up two medium-high-grade metamorphic complexes of Variscan age. They are separated by a regional-scale northwest-trending shear zone, the Ferrière-Mollières Line, which consists of low-grade mylonitic rocks. Muscovite-bearing mylonitic leucogranites crop out as subvertical northwest-trending intrusions, in the northern portion of the shear zone. A Rb/Sr muscovite-wr age of 327±3 Ma on foliated leucogranite gives a lower limit for the age of mylonitic deformation for which kinematic indicators indicate a dextral sense of shear. This strike-slip tectonics is compatible with the extensional regime that occurred during Carboniferous in the whole western Europe. To cite this article: G. Musumeci, F. Colombo, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 213-220.

  5. Les xénolites ultramafiques du volcanisme alcalin quaternaire d'Oranie (Tell, Algérie occidentale), témoins d'une lithosphère cisaillée et enrichieUltramafic xenoliths from Quaternary alkali volcanism from Oranie (Tell, western Algeria): witnesses of a sheared and enriched lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerka, Mohamed; Cottin, Jean-Yves; Grégoire, Michel; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Megartsi, M'Hamed; Midoun, Mohamed

    Numerous ultramafic xenoliths occur within the Aı̈n-Temouchent volcanic complex (Northwestern Oranie, Algeria). Most of them are type I mantle tectonites (lherzolites and harzburgites) and composite xenoliths (harzburgite/clinopyroxenite) are rare. Only a few samples of spinel lherzolites display relatively fertile compositions when the major part of type I xenoliths have refractory major element compositions but enriched LREE contents showing that they have been affected by mantle metasomatism. The composite xenoliths are witnesses of reactions of alkaline magmas with the upper mantle. An asthenospheric rising, in relation with the large strike slip fault affecting the North African plate margin at Trias time is proposed as a possible geodynamical setting. To cite this article: M. Zerka et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 387-394.

  6. Marking nut anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-01-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  7. Marking nut anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Fok, Jie Shen; Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B

    2016-07-01

    Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793

  8. AVALIAÇÃO DA PRESENÇA DE ENDOSSIMBIONTES Cardinium em DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES DE ARTRÓPODES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A presença de endossimbiontes do gênero Cardinium em alguns grupos de artrópodes foi recentemente relatada e relacionada com diversas alterações reprodutivas em seus hospedeiros, tais como feminilização de ácaros, partenogênese em parasitóides, incompatibilidade citoplasmática e aumento da fecundida...

  9. Evolutionary history of the conifer root rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Dalman, K; Olson, A; Stenlid, J

    2010-11-01

    We investigated two hypotheses for the origin of the root rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum species complex: (i) that geology has been an important factor for the speciation (ii) that co-evolutionary processes with the hosts drove the divergence of the pathogen species. The H. annosum species complex consists of five species: three occur in Europe, H. annosum s.s., Heterobasidion parviporum and Heterobasidion abietinum, and two in North America, Heterobasidion irregulare and Heterobasidion occidentale; all with different but partially overlapping host preferences. The evolution of the H. annosum species complex was studied using six partially sequenced genes, between 10 and 30 individuals of each species were analysed. Neighbour-joining trees were constructed for each gene, and a Bayesian tree was built for the combined data set. In addition, haplotype networks were constructed to illustrate the species relationships. For three of the genes, H. parviporum and H. abietinum share haplotypes supporting recent divergence and/or possible gene flow. We propose that the H. annosum species complex originated in Laurasia and that the H. annosum s.s./H. irregulare and H. parviporum/H. abietinum/H. occidentale ancestral species emerged between 45 and 60 Ma in the Palaearctic, well after the radiation of the host genera. Our data imply that H. irregulare and H. occidentale were colonizing North America via different routes. In conclusion, plate tectonics are likely to have been the main factor influencing Heterobasidion speciation and biogeography. PMID:20964759

  10. Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Biomolecules Loaded Metallic Silver Nanoparticles Against Human Liver (HepG2) and Prostate (PC3) Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Prasannaraj, Govindaraj; Sahi, Shivendra Vikram; Ravikumar, Samandham; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-05-01

    Green nanoparticle synthesis was achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extracts reducing and capping agents. The present study was based on assessments to the anticancer activities to determine the effect of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three medicinal plants on human liver (HepG2) and prostate (PC3) cancer cell lines. The synthesis of AgNPs using Plumbago zeylanica (Pz), Semecarpus anacardium (Sa) and Terminalia arjuna (Ta) plant extracts in the reaction mixture was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy. FTIR results clearly illustrated that the plant extracts containing prominent peaks of functional groups and biomolecules viz., tannins, phenols, flavonoids and triterpenoids those act as capping agents and involved in the stabilization of the synthesised silver nanoparticles. Synthesized AgNPs were spherical and cuboid in shape which is determined by SEM. Average size of the AgNPs were between 80-98, 60-95 and 34-70 nm for PzAgNPs, SaAgNPs and TaAgNPs, respectively. Further, the synthesized AgNPs were characterized by XRD, EDX, DLS and Zeta potential analysis. Moreover, the synthesized AgNPs exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxicity against human liver and prostate cancer cell lines. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of HepG2, PC3 and Vero cells were found to be 70.97, 58.61, 96.41; 10.04, 42.77, 83.86; and 28.42, 41.78, 69.48 μg/ml for PzAgNPs, SaAgNPs and TaAgNPs at 48 h incubation. An induction of apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, Hoechst, Rhodamine and AO/EtBr staining. The present results strongly suggested that the AgNPs synthesized using P. zeylanica, S. anacardium and T. arjuna extracts showed potential anticancer activity of HepG2 and PC3 cell lines. PMID:27483851

  11. Zinc and Liming Effects on the Development of Cerrado Forest Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Soares, M. R.; Moraes, M. I. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is considered priority area for conservation of biodiversity. The biome has covered approximately 33% of the territory of the State of São Paulo, but, currently, there are isolated fragments of Cerrado that correspond to less than 7% of its original area. One of the consequences of the natural vegetation removal and soil degradation is the loss of fertility, reduction the nutrient content. There is limited knowledge of the nutritional requirements of native forest species from Cerrado, especially about micronutrients. The aims of this work are: (i) verify the influence of four levels of Zn in soil and three levels of liming on development of six forest species native to the Cerrado biome; (ii) assess Zn deficiency symptoms in native species of Savannah. The treatments were four levels of Zn (0.0; 2.0; 4.0;-1 6.0 kg ha of Zn) and three levels of base saturation (V% = natural, V% = 50% and V% = 70%), cultivated in green house. The forest species studied have different responses to soil correction and fertilization, and were not observed responses regarding biometric parameters (growth in height and dry matter) with respect to the correction of base saturation and soil fertilization with Zn, for seedlings of Tabebuia aurea, Eugenia dysenterica and Astronium graveolens, showing that these species are highly adapted to the conditions of low fertility and showing efficient physiology for Zn absorption, since there was satisfactory growth in conditions of low base saturation (36%), very low content of Zn in soil (0.3 mg dm-3 ) and ideal supply of other nutrients. The species Andira cuyabensis and Anacardium giganteum responded well to fertilization and soil remediation. The omission of Zn resulted in visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency only for the species Tabebuia aurea, Astronium graveolens and Anacardium giganteum. The content of Zn presented significance interaction between Zn doses and V% for species Hymenaea courbaril, Tabebuia aurea and

  12. Monitoring of a debris-covered and avalanche-fed glacier in the Eastern Italian Alps using ground-based SfM-MVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piermattei, Livia; Carturan, Luca; Cazorzi, Federico; Colucci, Renato R.; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Forte, Emanuele

    2015-04-01

    The Montasio Occidentale glacier is a 0.07 km2 wide, avalanche-fed glacier located at very low-altitude (1860-2050 m a.s.l.) in the Eastern Italian Alps. The glacier is still active and shows a detectable mass transfer from the accumulation area to the lower ablation area, which is covered by a thick debris mantle. Geometric changes and mass balance have been monitored starting in 2010, combining glaciological methods and high-resolution geodetic surveying with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The TLS technique has proved to be very effective in determining the volume change of this glacier, but presents several limitations as high costs, high level of specialized training and low portability. On the other hand, the recent improvements in close-range photogrammetric techniques like the Structure from Motion (SfM), combined with dense image matching algorithms as Multi View Stereo (MVS), make them competitive for high quality 3D models production. The purpose of this work was to apply ground-based photogrammetric surveys for the monitoring of the annual mass balance and surface processes of Montasio Occidentale glacier. A consumer-grade SLR camera and the SfM-MVS software PhotoScan were used to detect the changes in the surface topography of the glacier from 2012 to 2014. Different data acquisition settings were tested, in order to optimize the quality and the spatial coverage of the 3D glacier model. The accuracy of the image-based 3D models was estimated in stable areas outside the glacier, using the TLS 3D model as reference. A ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was carried out in 2014, simultaneously to the photogrammetric survey, that was used to compare the snow height estimations obtained by photogrammetry with those obtained by geophysics. The achieved results indicate that the resolution and accuracy of the 3D models generated by the SfM-MVS technique are comparable with those obtained from TLS surveys. Consequently, almost identical volumetric changes

  13. [Grmek, medical history, and paleopathology].

    PubMed

    Thillaud, P L

    2001-01-01

    Mirko Drazen Grmek died on 6 March 2000, defeated by an implacable enemy (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which had been diagnosed just 18 months earlier). He has now found peace in his final resting place, the Montparnasse cemetery in Paris. His immense body of work reveals an omniscient man of great wisdom, a cosmopolitan polyglot who devoted his life to the history of science, with particular emphasis on medicine and disease. He looked at paleopathology for what that discipline could bring to the study of populations in antiquity, and succeeded in anchoring it in history with his definitive concept of "pathocenose", created in 1969. Several years later, his most important work, "Les Maladies à l'aube de la civilisation occidentale", (1983) set forth with definitive and convincing illustrations the importance of paleopathology, which will therefore be forever associated with one of the most outstanding medical history books of the XXth. century. PMID:11908523

  14. Protoilludane sesquiterpenes from the wood decomposing fungus Granulobasidium vellereum (Ellis & Cragin) Jülich.

    PubMed

    Nord, Christina L; Menkis, Audrius; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Broberg, Anders

    2013-06-01

    The secondary metabolites of the saprotrophic wood-decay basidiomycete fungus Granulobasidium vellereum were studied. Six sesquiterpenes were obtained; 2-hydroxycoprinolone (1), 8-deoxy-4a-hydroxytsugicoline (2), 8-deoxydihydrotsugicoline (3), which were previously not described, radulone A and B, and coprinolone ketodiol. Additionally, base-treatment of 1 yielded the diagnostic degradation products 1a and 1b, whereas radulone A was found to form 4 under mild acidic conditions. The structures were determined by NMR, MS, CD and polarimetry, along with biosynthetic considerations. Radulone A fully inhibited the spore germination of the potentially competing fungi Phlebiopsis gigantea, Coniophora puteana and Heterobasidion occidentale at 10μM, 500μM and 100μM, respectively. None of the other substances tested gave rise to any growth inhibition. PMID:23517685

  15. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Sales-Campos, Ceci; Araujo, Lidia M; Minhoni, Marli T A; Andrade, Meire C N

    2013-01-01

    The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. ("marupá"), Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. ("pau-de-balsa") and Anacardium giganteum ("cajuí") sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth ("pupunheira") stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse). The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18-21.5%) varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content. PMID:24141410

  16. Initial development of the endocarp in Lithraea brasiliensis Marchand (Anacardiaceae): with taxonomic notes.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, João M S; Mariath, Jorge E A

    2015-09-01

    Investigation into the initial developmental stages of a given structure is fundamental for precise characterization as well as for comparative analysis in relation to other taxa when homologies are established. For the Anacardiaceae family, investigations of the initial development of the pericarp or its basic histological sites, the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp, are relevant since these regions are of taxonomic and phylogenetic importance. The initial stages of endocarp development in Lithraea brasiliensis were studied using light microscopy. In L. brasiliensis, the fruits are of the drupe type. The endocarp originates exclusively in the epidermis of the locular cavity and is composed of only three strata. The crystalliferous layer, typical in fruits of the Anacardiaceae family, originates in the carpelar mesophyll and runs adjacent to the outermost layer of the endocarp. The endocarp in Lithraea brasiliensis is of the Anacardium type. The results of the present study are important for the identification of the Lithraea species that occur in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In L. molleoides, the crystalliferous layer was shown to originate from the locular epidermis and this developmental aspect enables it to be differentiated from L. brasiliensis and demonstrates that there is variability of endocarp development in Lithraea. PMID:26221992

  17. Mitigation of DMBA-induced mammary carcinoma in experimental rats by antiangiogenic property of Kalpaamruthaa.

    PubMed

    Sathish, Sivaprakasam; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2011-06-01

    Extra cellular matrix (ECM) and basement membrane (BM) are important layers that regulate cell structure, cell migration, and cellular proliferation. Degradation of both ECM and BM mediated by proteases favors the tumor invasion and promotes angiogenesis. Female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180 ± 10 g were categorized into 6 groups. Group-1 animals served as vehicle control. Group-2 to Group-4 animals were administered with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (25 mg/rat dissolved in olive oil, orally) on day 1 of experimental period to induce mammary carcinoma. (After 90 days, mammary carcinoma was confirmed by histopathological examination). Group-3 and Group-4 rats were subsequently treated with Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract (SA) and Kalpaamruthaa (KA), respectively. Group-5 and Group-6 animals served as drug control for SA and KA, respectively. Pro-angiogenic factors like proteases, cyclooxygenase-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor were elevated in tumor-bearing animals and decreased in SA- and KA-supplemented rats. Increased levels of these angiogenic factors in tumor-bearing rats indicate the progression of mammary tumor. The decreased levels of these angiogenic in SA- and KA-treated rats may be due to the ameliorative effect of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins, and other compounds present in the drug. PMID:22432686

  18. Integration of WorldView-2 and airborne LiDAR data for tree species level carbon stock mapping in Kayar Khola watershed, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, Yogendra K.; Hussin, Yousif Ali; Gilani, Hammad; Bronsveld, M. C.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Qamer, Faisal Mueen; Karky, Bhaskar Singh; Bhattarai, Thakur; Aigong, Xu; Baniya, Chitra Bahadur

    2015-06-01

    Integration of WorldView-2 satellite image with small footprint airborne LiDAR data for estimation of tree carbon at species level has been investigated in tropical forests of Nepal. This research aims to quantify and map carbon stock for dominant tree species in Chitwan district of central Nepal. Object based image analysis and supervised nearest neighbor classification methods were deployed for tree canopy retrieval and species level classification respectively. Initially, six dominant tree species (Shorea robusta, Schima wallichii, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Terminalia tomentosa, Mallotus philippinensis and Semecarpus anacardium) were able to be identified and mapped through image classification. The result showed a 76% accuracy of segmentation and 1970.99 as best average separability. Tree canopy height model (CHM) was extracted based on LiDAR's first and last return from an entire study area. On average, a significant correlation coefficient (r) between canopy projection area (CPA) and carbon; height and carbon; and CPA and height were obtained as 0.73, 0.76 and 0.63, respectively for correctly detected trees. Carbon stock model validation results showed regression models being able to explain up to 94%, 78%, 76%, 84% and 78% of variations in carbon estimation for the following tree species: S. robusta, L. parviflora, T. tomentosa, S. wallichii and others (combination of rest tree species).

  19. Śodhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification and modification of therapeutic activities of poisonous medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Seth, Ankit; Laloo, Damiki; Singh, Narendra Kumar; Gautam, Dev Nath Singh; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda involves the use of drugs obtained from plants, animals, and mineral origin. All the three sources of drugs can be divided under poisonous and nonpoisonous category. There are various crude drugs, which generally possess unwanted impurities and toxic substances, which can lead to harmful health problems. Many authors have reported that not all medicinal plants are safe to use since they can bear many toxic and harmful phytoconstituents in them. Śodhana (detoxification/purification) is the process, which involves the conversion of any poisonous drug into beneficial, nonpoisonous/nontoxic ones. Vatsanābha (Aconitum species), Semecarpus anacardium, Strychnos nux-vomica, Acorus calamus, Abrus precatorius etc., are some of the interesting examples of toxic plants, which are still used in the Indian system of medicine. Aconite, bhilawanols, strychnine, β–asarone, abrin are some of the toxic components present in these plants and are relatively toxic in nature. Śodhana process involves the purification as well as reduction in the levels of toxic principles which sometimes results in an enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The present review is designed to extensively discuss and understand the scientific basis of the alternative use of toxic plants as a medicine after their purification process. PMID:26283803

  20. Wild capuchin monkeys adjust stone tools according to changing nut properties.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly. PMID:27624672

  1. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian medicinal plant extracts against pathogenic microorganisms of interest to dentistry.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elizete Maria; Gomes, Rafael Tomaz; Freire, Natália Ribeiro; Aguiar, Evandro Guimarães; Brandão, Maria das Graças Lins; Santos, Vagner Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated the susceptibility of oral pathogenic microorganisms Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to Brazilian medicinal plant extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (aroeira), Croton campestris (velame), Lafoensia pacari (pacari), Centaurium erythraea (centáurea), Stryphnodendron adstringens (barbatimão), and Anacardium humile (cajuzinho-docerrado), as compared to standardized antimicrobial agents (nystatin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline hydrochloride). Ethanol, hexane and butane fractions from stem barks, rinds, leaves, and/or roots were extracted and tested. Antimicrobial diffusion agar test and MIC were performed according to CLSI. After 24 h of incubation at 37 °C, the diameter of inhibition zones and spectrophotometer readings were measured and compared. The results were reported as means ± standard deviation (M ± SD). With the exception of five extracts that showed no antimicrobial activity, all the extracts tested showed antimicrobial activity, in different levels. This study suggests that extracts from the plants tested could be an alternative therapeutic option for infectious conditions of the oral cavity, such as denture stomatitis, dental caries, and periodontitis. PMID:20862640

  2. Dielectric Dispersion Studies Indicate Change in Structure of Water by Potentised Homeopathic Medicines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahata, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Response of living bodies to different vastly `diluted' homeopathic medicines are different (rejecting the sceptic's view of `placebo' effect), though they are chemically same. Till now there is no satisfactory answer to how one such medicine differs from another in terms of scientifically measurable parameters. This paper tries to address this basic issue by taking two medicines of the same potency and two different potencies of the same medicine, namely, Arnica Mont 30c, 200c and Anacardium Orient 30c, 200c. These potencies are well above the Avogadro limit. The investigation reported here proceeds with the concept of `induced molecular structure' advanced by a number of scientists. Dielectric dispersion is used as the tool for experimental verification. It is based on the fact that when the exciting frequency of applied electric field equals the characteristic frequency, then macromolecules resonate leading to anomalous dielectric dispersion associated with sharp increase in dielectric loss, the resonance frequencies being different for macromolecules of different structures or dimensions. The results suggest that medicine- and potency-specific attributes are acquired by the vehicle (i.e. water) in the form of macromolecules generated by the potentization process of homeopathy making one medicine structurally different from another.

  3. Factors affecting cashew processing by wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus, Kerr 1792).

    PubMed

    Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Albani, Alessandro; Ventricelli, Marialba; Izar, Patricia; Schino, Gabriele; Fragazsy, Dorothy

    2016-08-01

    Cashew nuts are very nutritious but so well defended by caustic chemicals that very few species eat them. We investigated how wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) living at Fazenda Boa Vista (FBV; Piauí, Brazil) process cashew nuts (Anacardium spp.) to avoid the caustic chemicals contained in the seed mesocarp. We recorded the behavior of 23 individuals toward fresh (N = 1282) and dry (N = 477) cashew nuts. Adult capuchins used different sets of behaviors to process nuts: rubbing for fresh nuts and tool use for dry nuts. Moreover, adults succeed to open dry nuts both by using teeth and tools. Age and body mass significantly affected success. Signs of discomfort (e.g., chemical burns, drooling) were rare. Young capuchins do not frequently closely observe adults processing cashew nuts, nor eat bits of nut processed by others. Thus, observing the behavior of skillful group members does not seem important for learning how to process cashew nuts, although being together with group members eating cashews is likely to facilitate interest toward nuts and their inclusion into the diet. These findings differ from those obtained when capuchins crack palm nuts, where observations of others cracking nuts and encounters with the artifacts of cracking produced by others are common and support young individuals' persistent practice at cracking. Cashew nut processing by capuchins in FBV appears to differ from that observed in a conspecific population living 320 km apart, where capuchins use tools to open both fresh and dry nuts. Moreover, in the latter population, chemical burns due to cashew caustic compounds appear to be common. The sources of these differences across populations deserve investigation, especially given that social influences on young monkeys learning to open cashew nuts at FBV seem to be nonspecific. Am. J. Primatol. 78:799-815, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27008439

  4. In vitro Antioxidant and Enzymatic Approaches to Evaluate Neuroprotector Potential of Blechnum Extracts without Cytotoxicity to Human Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Juliana Maria de Mello; Biegelmeyer, Renata; Dresch, Roger Remy; Maurmann, Natasha; Pranke, Patrícia; Henriques, Amélia T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Investigation of selected plant extracts on multi-targets related to neurodegeneration, such as monoamine oxidases (MAO), cholinesterase enzymes, and antioxidant activities (AOA) is a useful tool for identification of new scaffolds. Objective: This work investigated biological effects of three Blechnum methanol extracts from Brazil and chemical profile of the most active sample. Materials and Methods: AOA included scavenging of hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals, also lipid peroxidation inhibition. Enzymatic modulation of Blechnum binervatum, Blechnum brasiliense, and Blechnum occidentale extracts on MAO and cholinesterases was conducted. Moreover, total phenol content was performed with all samples, and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection mass spectrometry HPLC-DAD-MS analysis was carried out with B. brasiliense. Possible toxic effects were evaluated on Wistar rats polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and human stem cells. Results: B. brasiliense extract presented the highest phenolic amount (9.25 g gallic acid equivalent/100 g extract) and lowest IC50 values (112.3 ± 2.61 and 176.1 ± 1.19 μg/mL) against hydroxyl radicals and on lipid peroxidation, respectively, showing strong AO effects. On nitric oxide assay and cholinesterase inhibition, all extracts were considered inactive. MAO-A selective action was evidenced, being B. brasiliense powerful against this enzyme (IC50: 72.7 μg/mL), followed by B. occidentale and B. binervatum (IC50: 130.85 and 165.2 μg/mL). No cytotoxic effects were observed on PMN and human stem cells treated with Blechnum extracts. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of B. brasiliense allowed the identification of chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. Conclusion: Our results especially highlight B. brasiliense, with pronounced phenols content and strong effects on selected targets related to neurodegeneration, being characterized as a natural safe source of bioactive hydroxycinnamic acids. SUMMARY Blechnum crude extracts

  5. A genome-wide association study identifies genomic regions for virulence in the non-model organism Heterobasidion annosum s.s.

    PubMed

    Dalman, Kerstin; Himmelstrand, Kajsa; Olson, Åke; Lind, Mårten; Brandström-Durling, Mikael; Stenlid, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The dense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) panels needed for genome wide association (GWA) studies have hitherto been expensive to establish and use on non-model organisms. To overcome this, we used a next generation sequencing approach to both establish SNPs and to determine genotypes. We conducted a GWA study on a fungal species, analysing the virulence of Heterobasidion annosum s.s., a necrotrophic pathogen, on its hosts Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris. From a set of 33,018 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 23 haploid isolates, twelve SNP markers distributed on seven contigs were associated with virulence (P<0.0001). Four of the contigs harbour known virulence genes from other fungal pathogens and the remaining three harbour novel candidate genes. Two contigs link closely to virulence regions recognized previously by QTL mapping in the congeneric hybrid H. irregulare × H. occidentale. Our study demonstrates the efficiency of GWA studies for dissecting important complex traits of small populations of non-model haploid organisms with small genomes. PMID:23341945

  6. Complementary soil water use is indicated in mixed native tree plantations, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwendenmann, L.; Sánchez Bragado, R.; Kunert, N.; Hölscher, D.

    2010-12-01

    Recent approaches to reforestation in the tropics emphasize the establishment of mixed species plantations to provide production but also ecological benefits. However, little is known about the effects of mixed-species stands on soil water utilization und tree water use rates. The objectives of this study were i) to asses seasonal plant water uptake patterns for different species and ii) to examine the effects of species diversity on water uptake and water use rates. The study was conducted in a 7-yr-old plantation in Panama. Five native tree species were planted in mono-, three- and five-species plots. Natural abundance stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) in xylem and soil water samples were used to determine water uptake patterns. The contribution of water from each soil layer to xylem water was calculated using the isotope mixing model SISUS (Stable Isotope Sourcing Using Sampling). Sap flux was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Isotope ratios in soil and xylem water fell below the local meteoric water line (LMWL) suggesting some evaporation. Soil water isotope ratio increased with depth from an average of -18 ‰ and -1 ‰ in the surface soil layer (0-10 cm) to -40 ‰ and -8 ‰ at 50-70 cm depth for δ2H and δ18O, respectively. During the dry season δ2H and δ18O of xylem water were negatively correlated with tree water use rates suggesting that trees taking up water from deeper soil horizons were able to maintain higher water use rates. Species tended to differ in their water uptake pattern, especially during the dry season. Cedrela odorata and Hura crepitans were primarily obtaining water (60 to 80%) from the upper 30 cm. In contrast, Tabebuia rosea took up most of its water (75-90%) from soil depths > 30 cm. Xylem water δ2H and δ18O in Anacardium excelsum and Luehea seemannii suggest that water was taken up to equal proportions from all soil horizons. In mixed stands, overall transpirational water use was higher than

  7. A Millennial Length High-Resolution Pollen, Charcoal, Diatom and Stable Isotope Record from Laguna San Carlos, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Jacques, J. M.; Escobar, J.; Velez, M.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We report here on preliminary results from Laguna San Carlos, (8o 37' 32.44''N, 80o 03' 04.24'' W) a small, shallow (8.3 m) volcanic lake from west-central Panama, a relatively unstudied Pacific coast region that is an important location for paleo-ENSO studies. The circular lake is a closed basin lake with a gradually sloping shoreline located within a caldera. The 300 cm core was taken in 2 m of water during March 2010. The core bottom was resting upon basement granitic rock with feldspar phenocrystals. The chronology is based upon five radiocarbon dates from terrestrial plant and wood remains. Pollen and charcoal were sampled at 10 cm resolution, diatoms at 5 cm and stable isotopes at 1 cm. The pollen profile shows four distinct terrestrial vegetation units. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), from AD 880-1485, the vegetation was sparse with high amounts of grass, Asteraceae and charcoal suggestive of grasslands with high rates of natural disturbance, including fire. With the onset of the Little Ice Age (LIA), during AD 1485-1570, the vegetation transitioned into an open dry forest characterized by Myrica and Anacardium with high seasonality in precipitation. At AD 1570, the climate became wetter as shown by the pollen typical of a moist tropical forest. This lasted until AD 1720 when a period of greater human disturbance began (as shown by increased sedimentation rates), with primary forest taxa cohabiting with grasses and secondary taxa. The first maize pollen appeared at ~AD 1700. The diatom record is dominated by a single eutrophic species, Fragilaria crotonensis; however from AD 880-1150 minor taxa such as Aulacoseira spp., indicative of increased turbulence appeared, supporting the pollen record of open canopy vegetation at this time. The sedimentary carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) shows that the majority of the organic remains in the lake have always come from the surrounding basin. MTM spectral analysis of percent Fragilaria crotonensis, percent carbon

  8. Evaluating higher doses of Shunthi - Guduchi formulations for safety in treatment of osteoarthritis knees: A Government of India NMITLI arthritis project

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Arvind; Saluja, Manjit; Tillu, Girish; Venugopalan, Anuradha; Narsimulu, Gumdal; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Results of an exploratory trial suggested activity trends of Zingiber officinale-Tinopsora cordifolia (platform combination)-based formulations in the treatment of Osteoarthritis (OA) Knees. These formulations were “platform combination+Withania somnifera+Tribulus terrestris” (formulation B) and “platform combination+Emblica officinale” (formulation C). This paper reports safety of these formulations when used in higher doses (1.5–2 times) along with Sallaki Guggul and Bhallataka Parpati (a Semecarpus anacardium preparation). Materials and Methods: Ninety-two patients with symptomatic OA knees were enrolled in a 6 weeks investigator blind, randomized parallel efficacy 4-arm multicenter drug trial. The 4 arms were (I) formulation B, 2 t.i.d.; (II) formulation B, 2 q.i.d.; (III) platform combination+Sallaki Guggul; (IV) Bhallataka Parpati+formulation C. A detailed enquiry was carried out for adverse events (AE) and drug toxicity as per a priori check list and volunteered information. Laboratory evaluation included detailed hematology and metabolic parameters. Patients were examined at baseline, first and fourth weeks, and on completion. Standard statistical program (SPSS version 12.5) was used for analysis. Results: None of the patients reported serious AE or withdrew due to any drug-related toxicity. Mild gut–related (mostly epigastric burning) AE was reported. A mild increase in liver enzymes [serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)] without any other hepatic abnormality was reported in 2 patients (group IV). Other laboratory parameters remained normal. The mean improvement in active pain visual analog scale (1.4, CI 0.5–2.22), WOMAC (functional activity questionnaire) pain score (1.37, CI 0.22–2.5), and urinary C-TAX (cartilage collagen breakdown product) assay was maximum (NS) in group IV. Lower dose group I showed numerically superior improvement compared with higher dose group II

  9. How valid are the assumptions of popular interception models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Susanne; Hall, Jefferson; Elsenbeer, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    Popular interception models assume 1) that canopy water storage capacity is a static quantity, 2) that the canopy starts to drain only after this storage capacity is filled, and 3) that therefore any rain that passes the canopy before saturation must be 'free throughfall'. There are several reasons to believe that water can drip from the canopy before saturation occurs, such as changing meteorological conditions, like wind or rain intensity, during the wetting-up phase or non-uniform surface characteristics of canopy materials, like hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic leaf surfaces. Many years of field observations led us to believe that canopy drip may start at the same time as gross precipitation. To investigate this hypothesis we collected, for 102 rain events, high-resolution rainfall and throughfall data from two even-aged monoculture stands of Pachira quinata (Malvaceae) and Anacardium excelsum (Anacardiaceae) in central Panama, as well as canopy and leaf traits of these species. Canopy drip from the onset of a rain event began much earlier in P. quinata, which has leaves with a waxy surface and no hairs, than in A. excelsum, with hairs on its leaf surfaces. Simple measurements of hydrophobicity demonstrate that the surfaces of P. quinata leaves are less hydrophilic than the surfaces of A. excelsum leaves. P. quinata leaves also have an oblong drip tip on the tip of their lamina, whereas A. excelsum leaves have a rounded apex. Furthermore, the leaf toughness of mature leaves of P. quinata is lower than the leaf toughness of mature leaves of A. excelsum. Therefore P. quinata leaves are more likely to bend with incoming raindrops, channelling rainwater to the ground. These leaf characteristics are consistent with the results from the high-resolution throughfall data collected from rain events. Thus confirming that canopy traits affect the accumulation of net-precipitation. A preliminary regression analysis of relative throughfall against gross precipitation suggests

  10. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Park, Young-Hwan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts) from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera) were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative) species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial activity. The species

  11. Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pileggi, Leonardo G.; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × Macrobrachium heterochirus, Macrobrachium americanum × Macrobrachium carcinus, Macrobrachium digueti × Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium hancocki × Macrobrachium crenulatum, Macrobrachium tenellum × Macrobrachium acanthurus and Macrobrachium panamense × Macrobrachium amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural

  12. ADIPOQUINAS EN EL NIÑO SANO Y AFECTO DE OBESIDAD

    PubMed Central

    Martos-Moreno, G.A.; Kopchick, J.J.; Argente, y J.

    2015-01-01

    El incremento universal de la prevalencia de obesidad en niños y adolescentes durante las últimas décadas, junto con la evidencia creciente de que el establecimiento de obesidad en etapas precoces de la vida está asociado con un incremento de la prevalencia de comorbilidades y del riesgo de muerte prematura, con gran repercusión económica en los sistemas sanitarios de los países occidentales, ha impulsado la investigación en este área. Estos estudios han remarcado la importante actividad endocrina del tejido adiposo, ejercida por medio de la síntesis y secreción de un gran número de péptidos y citoquinas, denominados adipoquinas. En esta revisión se resume el estado actual de los conocimientos, así como los estudios más relevantes, en relación con la dinámica de secreción de las principales adipoquinas en niños, centrándose en el control de la homeostasis energética, regulación metabólica (fundamentalmente, metabolismo de los hidratos de carbono) e inflamación. Asímismo, se analizan las particularidades de la síntesis, secreción y acciones de las adipoquinas desde el nacimiento hasta la adolescencia, reseñando el efecto que, sobre ellas, ejerce la instauración de la obesidad. PMID:23228441

  13. The Futuna ridge, North Fiji basin: new evidences for small scale heterogeneities within the mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagabrielle, Y.; Benoit, M.; Guivel, C.; Garel, E.; Pelletier, B.

    2003-04-01

    doctorat, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 312p. - Pelletier, B., Lagabrielle, Y., Benoit, M., Cabioch, G., Calmant, S., Garel E., et Guivel, C., 2001. Newly identified segments of the Pacific-Australia plate boundary along the North Fiji transform zone, Earth Planet. Sci. Letters, 193, 347-358. - Turner, S., et Hawkesworth, C., 1998. Using geochemistry to map mantle flow beneath the Lau basin, Geology, 26 (11), 1019-1022. - Volpe A.M., Mac Dougall J.D. et Hawkins J.W., 1988. Lau basin basalts: trace element and isotopic evidence for heterogeneity in back-arc basin mantle. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters, 90, 174-186.

  14. Education relative a l'environnement (ERE): Une etude des representations sociales et des pratiques educatives d'enseignants de science et technologie du secondaire en contexte de formation continue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collard-Fortin, Ugo

    Le developpement des sciences/technologie a tres clairement contribue a ce que ce dernier domaine de savoirs jouisse d'une place de choix au sein de notre societe. Au-dela des progres de notre civilisation inherents a ce dernier developpement, cette croissance amena avec elle un lot d'ineluctables dommages collateraux, contribuant en corollaire a l'emergence de diverses problematiques environnementales inquietantes pour lesquelles les valeurs ainsi que le mode de fonctionnement de la societe occidentale contemporaine sont largement tributaires. C'est entre autres en reponse a cet etat de fait que la recente vague de reforme de l'Education conduisit a l'integration, dans les curricula de sciences/technologie, de contenus relavant d'education relative a l'environnement (ERE). Face au changement, les enseignants de sciences ont du s'approprier ce nouveau programme afm de l'enseigner a leurs eleves. Toutefois, l'analyse de la situation montre que les prescriptions du programme en matiere d'ERE ne se sont pas toujours traduites en de reelles actions dans la pratique. Le contexte de notre etude s'est interesse aux pratiques educatives de l'ERE ainsi qu'a la representation sociale qui en decoule. Notre recherche aborde plus specifiquement la problematique de la modification de ces derniers objets chez les enseignants de sciences et technologie du deuxieme cycle du secondaire. Pour y arriver, nous avons propose a un groupe de trois praticiens de participer a une activite, en communaute de pratique, de formation continue orientee autour de thematiques ERE. Cette recherche developpement, s'inscrivant dans un paradigme qualitatif/interpretatif, s'est appuyee sur une cueillette de donnees effectuee a partir d'entrevues semi-dirigees, d'observations en situation et d'un groupe de discussion, au debut et a la fm de la formation continue. Les donnees brutes ont ete soumises a une demarche d'analyse inductive et ont genere diverses categories etayant nos objets de recherche

  15. Revision of New World Species of the Shore-fly Subgenus Allotrichoma Becker of the Genus Allotrichoma with Description of the Subgenus Neotrichoma (Diptera, Ephydridae, Hecamedini)

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The New World species of the subgenera Allotrichoma Becker and Neotrichoma (new subgenus) are revised, including a phylogenetic analysis of the species groups and subgenera within the genus Allotrichoma. For phylogenetic perspective and to document the monophyly of the genus Allotrichoma and its included subgenera and species groups, we also provide a cladistic analysis of genera within the tribe Hecamedini. The ingroup included seven exemplar congeners from within Allotrichoma. Outgroup sampling included exemplars of other genera within Hecamedini and from the putative sister group, Lipochaetini, and to root the analysis, we used an exemplar of the tribe Discocerinini. Analyses with successive weighting and implied weighting recovered a monophyletic Allotrichoma and indicated clades within the genus. Eight new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Allotrichoma bifurcatum (Utah. Utah: Lake Shore (40°06.9'N, 111°41.8'W; 1370 m)), Allotrichoma dynatum (Oregon. Benton: Finley National Wildlife Refuge (44°24.6'N, 123°19.5'W)), Allotrichoma occidentale (Oregon. Lake: Lakeview (44 km E; Drake Creek; 42°11'N, 119°59.3'W)), Allotrichoma robustum (California. Kern: Kern River (35°16.1'N, 119°18.4'W)), Allotrichoma sabroskyi (New Mexico. Sandoval: La Cueva (Junction of Highways 126 and 4; 35°52'N, 106°38.4'W; 2342 m)), Allotrichoma wallowa (Oregon Baker: Goose Creek (35 km E Baker City; 44°49.2'N, 117°27.79'W; 825 m)), Allotrichoma baliops (Florida. Monroe: Key West (Willie Ward Park; 24°32.9'N, 81°47.9'W)), and Allotrichoma insulare (Dominica. Cabrits Swamp (15°35'N, 61°29'W)). Within Allotrichoma, we recognize three subgenera of which one, Neotrichoma (type species: Allotrichoma atrilabre), is newly described. All known species from the New World are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for the New World species are provided. A

  16. Anti-mosquito plants as an alternative or incremental method for malaria vector control among rural communities of Bagamoyo District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plants represent one of the most accessible resources available for mosquito control by communities in Tanzania. However, no documented statistics exist for their contribution in the management of mosquitoes and other insects except through verbal and some publications. This study aimed at assessing communities’ knowledge, attitudes and practices of using plants as an alternative method for mosquito control among selected communities in a malaria-prone area in Tanzania. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 202 respondents from four villages of Bagamoyo District, Pwani Region, in Tanzania followed by participatory rural appraisal with village health workers. Secondary data collection for plants mentioned by the communities was undertaken using different search engines such as googlescholar, PubMED and NAPRALERT. Results Results showed about 40.3% of respondents used plants to manage insects, including mosquitoes. A broad profile of plants are used, including “mwarobaini” (Azadirachta indica) (22.5%), “mtopetope” (Annona spp) (20.8%), “mchungwa/mlimau” (Citrus spp) (8.3%), “mvumbashi/uvumbati” (Ocimum spp) (7.4%), “mkorosho” (Anacadium occidentale) (7.1%), “mwembe” (5.4%) (Mangifera indica), “mpera” (4.1%) (Psidium spp) and “maganda ya nazi” (4.1%) (Cocos nucifera). Majority of respondents collected these plants from the wild (54.2%), farms (28.9%) and/or home gardens (6%). The roles played by these plants in fighting mosquitoes is reflected by the majority that deploy them with or without bed-nets (p > 0.55) or insecticidal sprays (p >0.22). Most respondents were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria (90.6%) while few respondents associated elephantiasis/hydrocele (46.5%) and yellow fever (24.3%) with mosquitoes. Most of the ethnobotanical uses mentioned by the communities were consistent with scientific information gathered from the literature, except for Psidium guajava, which is reported for the first time in

  17. Deep Structures of The Angola Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulin, M.; Contrucci, I.; Olivet, J.-L.; Aslanian, D.; Géli, L.; Sibuet, J.-C.

    1 Ifremer Centre de Brest, DRO/Géosciences Marines, B.P. 70, 29280 Plouzané cedex (France) mmoulin@ifremer.fr/Fax : 33 2 98 22 45 49 2 Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Institut Universitaire Europeen de la Mer, Place Nicolas Copernic, 29280 Plouzane (France) 3 Total Fina Elf, DGEP/GSR/PN -GEOLOGIE, 2,place de la Coupole-La Defense 6, 92078 Paris la Defense Cedex Deep reflection and refraction seismic data were collected in April 2000 on the West African margin, offshore Angola, within the framework of the Zaiango Joint Project, conducted by Ifremer and Total Fina Elf Production. Vertical multichannel reflection seismic data generated by a « single-bubble » air gun array array (Avedik et al., 1993) were recorded on a 4.5 km long, digital streamer, while refraction and wide angle reflection seismic data were acquired on OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometers). Despite the complexity of the margin (5 s TWT of sediment, salt tectonics), the combination of seismic reflection and refraction methods results in an image and a velocity model of the ground structures below the Aptian salt layer. Three large seismic units appear in the reflection seismic section from the deep part on the margin under the base of salt. The upper seismic unit is layered with reflectors parallel to the base of the salt ; it represents unstructured sediments, filling a basin. The middle unit is seismically transparent. The lower unit is characterized by highly energetic reflectors. According to the OBS refraction data, these two units correspond to the continental crust and the base of the high energetic unit corresponds to the Moho. The margin appears to be divided in 3 domains, from east to west : i) a domain with an unthinned, 30 km thick, continental crust ; ii) a domain located between the hinge line and the foot of the continental slope, where the crust thins sharply, from 30 km to less than 7 km, this domain is underlain by an anormal layer with velocities comprising between 7,2 and 7

  18. Late differentiation of proximal and distal margins in the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bache, F.; Leroy, S.; D'Acremont, E.; Autin, J.; Watremez, L.; Rouzo, S.

    2009-04-01

    , F. Klingelhoefer, C. Labails, L. Matias, H. Nouzé, and M. Rabineau, 2008, Brazilian and African Passive Margins of the Central Segment of the South Atlantic Ocean: Kinematic constraints: Tectonophysics, v. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2008.12.016. Autin, J., 2008, Déchirure continentale et segmentation du Golfe d'Aden oriental en contexte de rifting oblique: Ph. D. thesis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI, 310 p. Bache, F., 2008, Evolution Oligo-Miocène des marges du micro océan Liguro Provençal.: Ph. D. thesis, Université de Bretagne Occidentale/CNRS/IFREMER. http://www.ifremer.fr/docelec/notice/2008/notice4768-EN.htm, Brest, 328 p. Boillot, G., J. Girardeau, and J. Kornprobst, 1988, The rifting of the Galicia margin: crustal thinning and emplacement of mantle rocks on the seafloor (ODP Leg 103). In Boillot, G., Winterer, E.L., et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, v. 103, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), p. 741-756. d'Acremont, E., S. Leroy, M. O. Beslier, N. bellahsen, M. Fournier, C. Robin, M. Maia, and P. Gente, 2005, Structure and evolution of the eastern Gulf of Aden conjugate margins from seismic reflection data: Geophys. J. Int., v. 160, p. 869-890. d'Acremont, E., S. Leroy, M. Maia, P. Patriat, M. O. Beslier, N. Bellahsen, M. Fournier, and P. Gente, 2006, Structure and evolution of the eastern Gulf of Aden: insights from magnetic and gravity data (Encens-Sheba MD117 cruise): Geophys. J. Int., v. 165, p. 786-803. Dupré, S., G. Bertotti, and S. Cloetingh, 2007, Tectonic history along the South Gabon Basin: Anomalous early post-rift subsidence: Mar. Pet. Geol., v. 24, p. 151-172. Labails, C., 2007, La marge sud-marocaine et les premières phases d'ouverture de l'océan Atlantique Central: Ph. D. thesis, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest. Leroy, S., P. Gente, M. Fournier, E. d'Acremont, P. Patriat, M. O. Beslier, N. Bellahsen, M. Maia, A. Blais, J. Perrot, A. Al-Kathiri, S. Merkouriev, J. M. Fleury, P. Y. Ruellan, C. Lepvrier, and P

  19. EDITORIAL: Charge transport in non-metallic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngs, Ian J.; Almond, Darryl P.

    2009-03-01

    Occidentale, France, presented an invited paper discussing electromagneto-mechanical coupling in

  20. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne; André, François

    2015-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  1. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissebrat, Guillaume; Albert-Aguilar, Alexandre; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Cloché, Sophie; Darras, Sabine; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using

  2. The MISTRALS programme data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Labatut, Laurent; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, many disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity, and Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, like Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, qualitative field surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by different data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with varied data sharing cultures, specific expectations, and using

  3. Contemporary attitudes and their ideological representation in Flanders (Belgium), Poland, and the Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Hiel, Alain Van; Kossowska, Malgorzata

    2007-02-01

    'élargissement de l'UE). Dans la discussion, il est aussi argumenté que la correspondance plus étroite entre la représentation idéologique de ces attitudes dans les sociétés polonaise et occidentale peut être due au fait que le communisme a moins réussi à pénétrer la mentalité politique en Pologne qu'en Ukraine. La presente investigación somete a prueba la validez de un modelo de dos dimensiones, cultural y económico de ideología de derecha, así como las relaciones entre estas dimensiones y actitudes hacia temas políticos recientes. Las opiniones sobre el ambiente, la guerra al terror, y la ampliación de la Unión Europea se seleccionaron como actitudes representativas contemporáneas. Se investigaron las preguntas de investigación en muestras flamencas (N = 176), polacas (N = 93) y ucranianas (N = 93). Los resultados revelan que subyacen dos dimensiones al espectro ideológico en todas las muestras, una se refiere al conservadurismo cultural y al autoritarismo de derecha (AD), y otra que se refiere al conservadurismo económico y a la orientación de dominancia social (ODS). A pesar de que los estudios en muestras occidentales han ilustrado ampliamente la validez de las diferencias entre estas dimensiones ideológicas, la réplica de estos estudios en países anteriormente comunistas contribuye a su validez y generalidad, porque estos países poseen una cultura e historia política específica. Sin embargo, también se obtuvieron diferencias interculturales importantes respecto a la representación de las actitudes contemporáneas en este espacio ideológico de dos dimensiones. En tanto que la guerra al terror se relacionó de manera significativa a la dimensión de derecha en todas las muestras, las relaciones para el ambientalismo y la ampliación de la Unión Europea dependieron de la muestra. Las diferencias interculturales se explican en términos de la notoriedad del tema (relaciones no significativas contra significativas en el caso del

  4. 3D modelling of the Austroalpine-Penninic collisional wedge of the NW Alps: dataset management and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monopoli, Bruno; Bistacchi, Andrea; Bertolo, Davide; Dal Piaz, Giovanni; Gouffon, Yves; Massironi, Matteo; Sartori, Mario; Vittorio Dal Piaz, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    considered as a sort of pseudo-stratigraphy, since they are the oldest feature that can be traced continuously at the map scale. For this reason we have developed a set of attributes identifying the tectonic and lithological units (a "legend"), implemented both in the GIS database and in the 3D models, which at the same time is compatible with the data structure of 3D modelling packages like Move and Skua/Gocad, and allows tracing the complex hierarchic classification of the units mapped in the GIS. This allows for the almost automatic and consistent two-way transfer of data between the GIS and geomodelling environments. E.g. results of 3D modelling, which is based on input data originally stored in the GIS, will eventually be transferred back to the GIS. The results of this study, which are preliminarily presented here, will open new opportunities to study the collision- and subduction-related nappe architecture and kinematics with younger deformations removed, and will eventually lead (with additional studies) to a step-by-step retrodeformation supported by modern technologies, following the path traced by Argand at the beginning of the 20th century. Argand E. 1909. L'exploration géologique des Alpes pennines centrales. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat., 45, 217-276. Argand A. 1911. Les nappes de recouvrement des Alpes pennines et leurs prolongements structuraux. Mat. Carte Géol. Suisse, 31, 25. Argand A. 1916. Sur l'arc des Alpes occidentales. Eclogae Geol. Helv., 14, 145-191. Franchi S., Mattirolo E., Novarese V., Stella A. & Zaccagna D. 1908. Carta geologica delle Alpi Occidentali alla scala 1:400.000. Regio Ufficio Geologico, Roma. Gerlach H. 1869. Die Penninischen Alpen. N. Denkschr. Schweiz. Natf. Ges., 23, 132. Gerlach H. 1871. Das Suedwestliche Wallis. Beitraege Geol. Karte Schweiz, 9, 175. Giordano F. 1869. Sulla orografia e sulla geologica costituzione del Gran Cervino. Atti R. Acc. Sci. Torino, 4, 304-321.

  5. Characterisation of the hydrogeology of the Augustus River catchment, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, Shane M.; Clement, T. Prabhakar; Otto, Claus J.

    Understanding the hydrogeology of weathered rock catchments is integral for the management of various problems related to increased salinity within the many towns of Western Australia. This paper presents the results of site characterisation investigations aimed at improving the overall understanding of the hydrogeology of the southern portion of the Augustus River catchment, an example of a weathered rock catchment. Site data have highlighted the presence of both porous media aquifers within the weathered profile and fractured rock aquifers within the basement rocks. Geophysical airborne surveys and other drilling data have identified a large number of dolerite dykes which crosscut the site. Fractured quartz veins have been found along the margins of these dolerite dykes. Detailed groundwater-level measurements and barometric efficiency estimates indicate that these dolerite dykes and fractured quartz veins are affecting groundwater flow directions, promoting a strong hydraulic connection between all aquifers, and also influencing recharge mechanisms. The hydrogeological significance of the dolerite dykes and fractured quartz veins has been assessed using a combination of high-frequency groundwater-level measurements (30-min sampling interval), rainfall measurements (5-min sampling interval) and barometric pressure fluctuations (30-min sampling interval). A conceptual model was developed for describing various hydrogeological features of the study area. The model indicates that fractured quartz veins along the margins of dolerite dykes are an important component of the hydrogeology of the weathered rock catchments. Comprendre l'hydrogéologie des bassins en roches altérées est essentiel pour la gestion de différents problèmes liés à l'augmentation de la salinité dans de nombreuses villes d'Australie occidentale. Cet article présente les résultats d'études de caractérisation de sites conduites pour améliorer la compréhension de l'hydrogéologie de la

  6. Dispositional optimism among American and Jordanian college students: are Westerners really more upbeat than Easterners?

    PubMed

    Khallad, Yacoub

    2010-02-01

    risque et d'auto-protection (e.g., la ceinture de sécurité, la vitesse au volant, l'usage de tabac), sur les facteurs sociaux et démographiques (e.g., le sexe, le statut socio-économique, la religiosité). Les résultats ont indiqué que l'optimisme dispositionnel était plus fort chez les américains en comparaison aux participants jordaniens. Des analyses séparées de l'optimisme versus le pessimisme ont montré que les participants jordaniens n'étaient pas pessimistes mais pas moins optimistes que leurs homologues américains. Il n'y avait pas de corrélations significatives entre l'optimisme dispotionnel et le sexe, le statut socio-économique et la religiosité. Les niveaux d'optimisme dispotionnel affichés par les jordaniens dans cette étude sont inconsistents avec les affirmations passées d'un occident optimiste et d'un orient pessimiste et suggèrent que les processus d'auto-amélioration pourraient ne pas être restreints aux occidentaux ou aux groupes hautement individualistes. Les résultats n'ont pas dévoilé une association entre l'optimise dispotionnel et les comportements de risque ou les comportements d'auto-protection. Des analyses de régression multiples ont indiqué que le contexte culturel et le sexe sont les meilleurs prédicteurs de ces comportements. Les implications de ces résultats sont discutées. El presente estudio se basó en la evaluación de algunas conclusiones de investigaciones anteriores, basadas principalmente en comparaciones de habitantes de norteamericanos con habitantes del Asia del este, en las que se proponía que mientras los occidentales tienden a ser optimistas, los orientales tienden a ser pesimistas. En dos muestras de estudiantes de la escuela superior europeo-americanos y jordanos se administró un cuestionario que consiste en preguntas que miden el optimismo disposicional junto con preguntas que evalúan conductas de riesgo y de autoprotección (p.e., uso de cinturón de seguridad, velocidad de manejo, fumar

  7. The general circulation in the eastern Algerian subbasin inferred from the ELISA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubertin, E.; Millot, C.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Albérola, C.; Robin, S.; Font, J.

    2003-04-01

    relationships with both the bathymetry and the AE's dynamics are under study Albérola C., S. Rousseau, C. Millot, M. Astraldi, J. Font, J. Garcia-Lafuente, G.P. Gasparini, U. Send and A. Vangriesheim, 1995. Tidal currents in the interior of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Oceanol. Acta, 18, 2, 273-284. Bouzinac C., J. Font and C. Millot, 1999. Hydrology and currents observed in the channel of Sardinia during the PRIMO-1 experiment from November 1993 to October 1994. J. Mar. Systems, 20, 1-4, 333-355. Fuda J.-L., C. Millot, I. Taupier-Letage, U. Send and J.M. Bocognano, 2000. XBT monitoring of a meridian section across the Western Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Res., I 47, 2191-2218. Millot C., 1994. Models and data: a synergetic approach in the western Mediterranean Sea. Erice School Proceedings,"Ocean Processes in Climate Dynamics: Global and Mediterranean Examples", P. Malanotte-Rizzoli and A.R. Robinson eds, 407-425. Millot C., I. Taupier-Letage and M. Benzohra, 1997. Circulation off Algeria inferred from the Médiprod-5 current meters. Deep-Sea Res., 44, 9-10, 1467-1495. Obaton D., C. Millot, G. Chabert D'Hières and I. Taupier-Letage, 2000. The Algerian Current: comparisons between in situ and laboratory measurements. Deep-Sea Res., I 47, 2159-2190. Puillat I., I.Taupier-Letage and C. Millot. Algerian eddies lifetimes can near 3 years, 2002. Journal of Marine Syst., 31, 4, 245-259. Ruiz S., J. Font, M.Emelianov, J. Isern-Fontanet, C. Millot and I. Taupier-Letage, 2002. Deep structure of an open sea eddy in the Algerian Basin. J. Mar. Sys., 33-34, 179-195. Testor P., 2002. Etude lagrangienne de circulations tourbillonnaires de subméso et méso échelle en Méditerranée occidentale sur la base d'observations et de simulations numériques : phénoménologie et interaction avec la circulation générale. Thèse de Doctorat d'Université, Paris 6.