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Sample records for hospital parirenyatwa zimbabwe

  1. Hypoalbuminaemia in haemodialysis patients at Parirenyatwa group of hospitals and Chitungwiza central hospital

    PubMed Central

    Machingura, Pasipanodya Ian; Mahiya, Needmore Muchadura; Chikwasha, Vasco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Haemodialysis is one of the widely used methods in end stage renal disease. However it has a negative impact on the quality of life of the renal patients. Hypoalbuminaemia occur in haemodialysis patients and it correlates strongly with mortality and morbidity. We sought out to determine the prevalence of hypoalbuminaemia among haemodialysis patients at Parirenyatwa group of hospitals and Chitungwiza central hospital. Methods A questionnaire was administered on haemodialysis patients at Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals and Chitungwiza Central Hospital who consented to participate in the study. Pre dialysis serum samples collected from the patients were used for albumin analysis. The serum from the patients was analysed for serum albumin levels using the Mindray BS120 chemistry analyser using the bromocresol green method. Results A total of 60 patients were recruited from the two hospitals. The Mean albumin concentration for the entire group was 33.6g/L SD (6.1 g/L). The mean albumin in males was 33.6 g/L, SD (5.9) and in female 33.6, SD (6.6 g/L) and this was not statistically significantly different (p = 0.988). The prevalence of hypoalbuminaemia was 76.7%. Conclusion Hypoalbuminaemia in 76.7% of haemodialysis patients studied is a cause of concern thus monitoring of haemodialysis patients albumin is necessary since its decreased levels has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:26491522

  2. Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    Zimbabwe is a land-locked plateau country of 151,000 square miles, divided into 8 provinces, in Southeastern Africa, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. Its population consists of 8.8 million blacks, divided between the Shona-speaking Mashona (80%) and the Sindebele-speaking Matabele (19%), 100,000 whites, 20,000 coloreds, and 10,000 Asians. Many of the blacks are Christians. More than 1/2 the whites migrated to Zimbabwe after the Second World War at a rate of about 1000 a year until the mid-1970s; since then 12,000 whites have left the country. The official language is English, and education is free. Most African children 5-19 years old attend school, and literacy is between 40% and 50%. The University of Zimbabwe is located in Harare, the capital, and there are several technical institutes and teacher-training colleges. Zimbabwe has been inhabited since the stone age, and evidence of a high indigenous civilization remains in the "Great Zimbabwe Ruins" near Masvingo. The present black population is descended from later migrations of Bantu people from central Africa. Cecil Rhodes was granted concessions for mineral rights in the area in 1888, and the territory, which administered by the British South Africa Company, was called Rhodesia. Southern Rhodesia became a self-governing entity within the British Empire in 1913. In 1953 Southern Rhodesia was joined with the British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland in the Central African Federation, but this dissolved in 1963, and Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland became independent as Zambia and Malawi in 1964. Independence was withheld from Rhodesia because Prime Minister Ian Smith refused to give Britain assurances that the country would move toward majority rule. In 1965 Smith issued a Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) from the UK. In 1966 the UN Security Council imposed mandatory economic sanctions on Rhodesia. Within Rhodesia the major African nationalist groups -- the

  3. The Hospitalization Costs of Diabetes and Hypertension Complications in Zimbabwe: Estimations and Correlations.

    PubMed

    Mutowo, Mutsa P; Lorgelly, Paula K; Laxy, Michael; Renzaho, Andre M N; Mangwiro, John C; Owen, Alice J

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Treating complications associated with diabetes and hypertension imposes significant costs on health care systems. This study estimated the hospitalization costs for inpatients in a public hospital in Zimbabwe. Methods. The study was retrospective and utilized secondary data from medical records. Total hospitalization costs were estimated using generalized linear models. Results. The median cost and interquartile range (IQR) for patients with diabetes, $994 (385-1553) mean $1319 (95% CI: 981-1657), was higher than patients with hypertension, $759 (494-1147) mean $914 (95% CI: 825-1003). Female patients aged below 65 years with diabetes had the highest estimated mean costs ($1467 (95% CI: 1177-1828)). Wound care had the highest estimated mean cost of all procedures, $2884 (95% CI: 2004-4149) for patients with diabetes and $2239 (95% CI: 1589-3156) for patients with hypertension. Age below 65 years, medical procedures (amputation, wound care, dialysis, and physiotherapy), the presence of two or more comorbidities, and being prescribed two or more drugs were associated with significantly higher hospitalization costs. Conclusion. Our estimated costs could be used to evaluate and improve current inpatient treatment and management of patients with diabetes and hypertension and determine the most cost-effective interventions to prevent complications and comorbidities. PMID:27403444

  4. The Hospitalization Costs of Diabetes and Hypertension Complications in Zimbabwe: Estimations and Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Mutowo, Mutsa P.; Lorgelly, Paula K.; Laxy, Michael; Mangwiro, John C.; Owen, Alice J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Treating complications associated with diabetes and hypertension imposes significant costs on health care systems. This study estimated the hospitalization costs for inpatients in a public hospital in Zimbabwe. Methods. The study was retrospective and utilized secondary data from medical records. Total hospitalization costs were estimated using generalized linear models. Results. The median cost and interquartile range (IQR) for patients with diabetes, $994 (385–1553) mean $1319 (95% CI: 981–1657), was higher than patients with hypertension, $759 (494–1147) mean $914 (95% CI: 825–1003). Female patients aged below 65 years with diabetes had the highest estimated mean costs ($1467 (95% CI: 1177–1828)). Wound care had the highest estimated mean cost of all procedures, $2884 (95% CI: 2004–4149) for patients with diabetes and $2239 (95% CI: 1589–3156) for patients with hypertension. Age below 65 years, medical procedures (amputation, wound care, dialysis, and physiotherapy), the presence of two or more comorbidities, and being prescribed two or more drugs were associated with significantly higher hospitalization costs. Conclusion. Our estimated costs could be used to evaluate and improve current inpatient treatment and management of patients with diabetes and hypertension and determine the most cost-effective interventions to prevent complications and comorbidities. PMID:27403444

  5. Spotlight: Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, W

    1988-04-01

    In Zimbabwe, a reproductive health survey conducted in 1984 revealed the highest rate of contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa -- 38% of currently married women were using some form of family planning and 27% a modern contraceptive method. The majority of Zimbabwe's population, a country formerly known a Rhodesia, is African, but there also are about 100,000 whites, 20,000 persons of mixed race, and 10,000 Asians. Robert Mugabe formed the 1st government of Zimbabwe as a result of elections held in February 1980. Since independence, rifts have developed between the black nationalist leaders -- Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo -- and continues. Some guerrilla activity has occurred in rural areas and antigovernment dissidence creating security and economic problems. Zimbabwe has a broad range of natural resources -- large mineral deposits including coal, asbestos, copper, nickel, gold, and iron ore. In addition to a well-developed electrical power network, there is a good infrastructure of paved roads and a vital railroad link with neighboring South Africa. Due to the trade sanctions imposed between 1965 and independence, the country has had to look inward for production. The manufacturing sector is well developed as is agriculture. The government identifies the country's most urgent problems as the resettlement of displaced persons and reconstruction of roads, health establishments, and schools destroyed during guerrilla activity. PMID:12315399

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Hospitalization and Home-Based Care Strategies for People Living with HIV/AIDS: The Case of Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Hove-Musekwa, Senelani D.; Mambili-Mamboundou, Hermane

    2014-01-01

    The model of care of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has shifted from hospital care to community home-based care (CHBC) because of shortage of space in hospitals and lack of resources. We evaluate the costs and benefits of home-based care and other HIV/AIDS intervention strategies in Zimbabwe, using an interdisciplinary approach which weaves together the techniques of an epidemic transmission model and economic evaluation concepts. The intervention strategies considered are voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), VCT combined with hospitalization (H), VCT combined with CHBC, and all the interventions implemented concurrently. The results of the study indicate that implementing all the strategies concurrently is the most cost-effective, a result which also agrees with the epidemiological model. Our results also show that the effectiveness of a strategy in the epidemiological model does not necessarily imply cost-effectiveness of the strategy and behaviour change, modelled by the parameters p and m, that accompanied the strategies, influencing both the cost-effectiveness of an intervention strategy and dynamics of the epidemic. This study shows that interdisciplinary collaborations can help in improving the accuracy of predictions of the course and cost of the epidemic and help policy makers in implementing the correct strategies.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Hospitalization and Home-Based Care Strategies for People Living with HIV/AIDS: The Case of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Hove-Musekwa, Senelani D; Nyabadza, Farai; Mambili-Mamboundou, Hermane; Chiyaka, Christinah; Mukandavire, Zindoga

    2014-01-01

    The model of care of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has shifted from hospital care to community home-based care (CHBC) because of shortage of space in hospitals and lack of resources. We evaluate the costs and benefits of home-based care and other HIV/AIDS intervention strategies in Zimbabwe, using an interdisciplinary approach which weaves together the techniques of an epidemic transmission model and economic evaluation concepts. The intervention strategies considered are voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), VCT combined with hospitalization (H), VCT combined with CHBC, and all the interventions implemented concurrently. The results of the study indicate that implementing all the strategies concurrently is the most cost-effective, a result which also agrees with the epidemiological model. Our results also show that the effectiveness of a strategy in the epidemiological model does not necessarily imply cost-effectiveness of the strategy and behaviour change, modelled by the parameters p and m, that accompanied the strategies, influencing both the cost-effectiveness of an intervention strategy and dynamics of the epidemic. This study shows that interdisciplinary collaborations can help in improving the accuracy of predictions of the course and cost of the epidemic and help policy makers in implementing the correct strategies. PMID:27437475

  8. Herbal toxicity in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyazema, N Z

    1986-01-01

    Indigenous natural drugs are in common use in Zimbabwe because modern life-saving drugs are beyond the reach of nearly 85% of the population. These natural drugs have caused a number of poisoning cases. In a study of the records of four hospitals from 1971 to 1982, carried out to see how many people had been poisoned with herbal remedies, it was found that the number had increased since 1971. 50 traditional healers were questioned about record-keeping and knowledge of toxicity and Health Assistants were also interviewed. PMID:3798540

  9. Teenage Suicide in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Wilson, C.

    1990-01-01

    The teenage suicide rate in Zimbabwe did not change much during the 1970s, though the rate rose for female teenagers. Female teenagers used poison as a method of suicide more often than did adults, and self-immolation had increased in frequency among young women by the mid-1980s. (Author)

  10. Zimbabwe's coal reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    The coal potential of Zimbabwe is not widely known, but the country has proved and inferred reserves of around 30,000,000,000 metric tons and intends to become an exporter by 1985. At present there is only one operating coal company in Zimbabwe, the Wankie Colliery Company Limited, but the interest in other coalfields is intensifying. Coal is seen as one of the country's resources with the greatest potential for production increases. The plan is to export 5,000,000 tons per year by 1985, increasing to 10,000,000 tons by 1990. Current exports are insignificant. Current production, from Wankie, is around 3,000,000 tons per year but, with the construction of a new power station, this is to be increased to 7,000,000 tons. Wankie currently operates two underground and three open pit mines.

  11. Special Education in Zimbabwe: Issues and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiyo, Morgan

    2006-01-01

    Following a massive educational expansion initiative by the government of Zimbabwe since 1980, the country has achieved one of the highest literacy rates in Africa. There is legislation in Zimbabwe which makes education a right for every child. In spite of this legislation, special education in Zimbabwe still lags behind the entire educational…

  12. Country watch: Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D

    1993-01-01

    The Bulawayo City Council Health Services Department launched a peer education program for sex workers in 1990. It consisted of formal meetings, informal outreach, condom distribution, and strengthening of sexually transmitted diseases services. Assessment was built in from the start in the form of monitoring, process ethnography, and outcome evaluation. 153 female prostitutes and 74 male sex clients were interviewed at baseline; follow-up interviews were held 1 year later with 48 prostitutes and 58 clients. These interviews revealed that 90% of women and 50% of men had attended program health education meetings; 96% of women and 69% of men had received condoms from the program; and condom use increased significantly among both men and women, although potential errors in the outcome data and their interpretation are acknowledged. The younger, better-educated women fluent in English initially recruited as peer educators were resented by older, less-educated women from rural areas. Attrition was also problematic among younger women as they left the business to enter other forms of employment and marriage. The most effective training proved to be practical, field-oriented, job-related, and frequently repeated and reinforced; regular field supervision was important. Further, the program found that interventions must discourage dependency among participants and instead promote cohesive, self-reliant groups. All people who are even remotely involved in such programs must be sensitized. This program is being replicated in other areas of Zimbabwe as well as in Siavonga, Zambia. PMID:12287482

  13. Praying until Death: Apostolicism, Delays and Maternal Mortality in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Munyaradzi Kenneth, Dodzo; Marvellous, Mhloyi; Stanzia, Moyo; Memory, Dodzo-Masawi

    2016-01-01

    Religion affects people's daily lives by solving social problems, although it creates others. Female sexual and reproductive health are among the issues most affected by religion. Apostolic sect members in Zimbabwe have been associated with higher maternal mortality. We explored apostolic beliefs and practices on maternal health using 15 key informant interviews in 5 purposively selected districts of Zimbabwe. Results show that apostolicism promotes high fertility, early marriage, non-use of contraceptives and low or non-use of hospital care. It causes delays in recognizing danger signs, deciding to seek care, reaching and receiving appropriate health care. The existence of a customized spiritual maternal health system demonstrates a huge desire for positive maternal health outcomes among apostolics. We conclude that apostolic beliefs and practices exacerbate delays between onset of maternal complications and receiving help, thus increasing maternal risk. We recommend complementary and adaptive approaches that address the maternal health needs of apostolics in a religiously sensitive manner. PMID:27509018

  14. Praying until Death: Apostolicism, Delays and Maternal Mortality in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Religion affects people’s daily lives by solving social problems, although it creates others. Female sexual and reproductive health are among the issues most affected by religion. Apostolic sect members in Zimbabwe have been associated with higher maternal mortality. We explored apostolic beliefs and practices on maternal health using 15 key informant interviews in 5 purposively selected districts of Zimbabwe. Results show that apostolicism promotes high fertility, early marriage, non-use of contraceptives and low or non-use of hospital care. It causes delays in recognizing danger signs, deciding to seek care, reaching and receiving appropriate health care. The existence of a customized spiritual maternal health system demonstrates a huge desire for positive maternal health outcomes among apostolics. We conclude that apostolic beliefs and practices exacerbate delays between onset of maternal complications and receiving help, thus increasing maternal risk. We recommend complementary and adaptive approaches that address the maternal health needs of apostolics in a religiously sensitive manner. PMID:27509018

  15. Contracting out of clinical services in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McPake, B; Hongoro, C

    1995-07-01

    Contracting is increasingly recommended to developing countries as a way of improving the efficiency of the health sector. However, empirical evidence regarding its effectiveness in this respect is almost completely absent. In Zimbabwe, a long standing contract exists between the Ministry of Health and Wankie Colliery to provide clinical services in the Colliery's 400 bed hospital. This paper details a study of the Zimbabweans' experience with the contract. Its success is assessed using comparisons with a neighbouring government hospital of the price of services (vs the cost in the government hospital); the situation of hospital workers; and the quality of services delivered. The Colliery has established a monopoly position for hospital services in the district. However, it appears to offer services of at least as good quality at prices which are lower than the unit costs of the government hospital when capital costs are included. Nevertheless, the contract cannot be considered a success due to the failure to contain its total cost. Approximately 70% of provincial non-salary recurrent expenditure is consumed by the contract while only a minority of the province's population have access to the Colliery hospital. Screening patients, both with respect to their ability to pay and to their need for secondary level services does not take place with the result that utilization levels are not controlled. The study highlights a number of important issues affecting contracting in developing country setting: First, contracted institutions attain powerful bargaining positions if there are no viable competitors and the government does not itself retain capacity to offer an alternative service. Second, specific skills are needed for the management of contracts at all levels. If the process of contract development responds to a crisis driven agenda resulting from civil service retrenchment and public expenditure cuts, it is unlikely that adequate consideration will be given to

  16. Teacher Efficacy in Rural Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Judy K.; Song'ony, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The need to address contextual variables, such as cultural bias and cultural norms, is a common challenge for researchers in international education. This article highlights societal conditions and cultural issues that could have impacted teacher efficacy data in Zimbabwe, a country known for its ongoing economic crisis, political repression, and…

  17. Zimbabwe's Public Education System Reforms: Successes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss Zimbabwe's public education system. First, the article provides a brief look at pre-independence education in Zimbabwe. Second, it discusses some of the reforms that took place in the Zimbabwe education system following independence. Third, it looks at the current structure of Zimbabwe's education system…

  18. Zimbabwe: land of hope and ...

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, J S

    1981-01-01

    Control of the sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is one of the immense medical problems facing Zimbabwe. The recent war has seriously disrupted the medical services, which used to be one of the best in Africa. Health care facilities for the STDs are limited, but the enthusiasm and determination of the medical and allied professions--together with the potential wealth of the country--should lead to a steady improvement. PMID:6894562

  19. Predictability of Zimbabwe summer rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarau, Amos; Jury, Mark R.

    1997-11-01

    Predictors of Zimbabwe summer rainfall are investigated with a view to improved long-range forecasts. Teleconnectivity is assessed in respect of sea-surface temperatures, the Southern Oscillation index, the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO), outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and wind. Spectral analyses of historical rainfall gives an indication of cycles in the range 2.3, 18 and 3.8 years, possibly associated with the QBO, the luni-solar tide and the El No-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), respectively. Pair-wise correlations are found between Zimbabwe summer rainfall and SST in the central Indian Ocean (r<-0.5) in austral spring. Below normal OLR values in September over southern Africa corresponds with good rains in the following summer. Rainfall-upper-wind correlations are optimum (r<-0.7) over the equatorial Atlantic in spring. Comparatively weak correlation with the QBO may also reflect biennial adjustment of monsoon and global ENSO teleconnections. Additional predictor variables are utilized and multivariate models are formulated for early and late summer rainfall and maize yield in Zimbabwe. The models use three to five predictors, are trained over a 22-year period and perform well in jack-knife skill tests. Summer rainfall forecasts with one season lead times are viable and could ameliorate hardship caused by drought.

  20. Future of plant science in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sithole-Niang, I

    2001-10-01

    Zimbabwe's agricultural biotechnology research capacity is located at universities, government research institutions and parastatal (state funded) organizations. Projects range from those using traditional biotechnology to a few that are experimenting with genetically modified organisms (GMOs). PMID:11590069

  1. The social impact of cost recovery measures in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyambuya, M N

    1994-03-01

    Since the International Monetary Fund/World Bank Economic Structural Adjustment Program (ESAP) in Zimbabwe was adopted in 1990, health care and education costs have escalated, and many people fail to get these services owing to poverty. The post-independence era in Zimbabwe witnessed a tremendous growth in education and health with many schools, colleges, hospitals and clinics built, professional staff employed, and a general expansion in demand. Nevertheless, the question of drug shortages and ever-increasing health care costs were not addressed. A deficient transport network, the increases in drug prices, the exodus of professional staff, the devaluation of the Zimbabwe dollar, and the cost recovery measures endangered the right to acceptable health care. The social service cutbacks adopted by the government in education will deepen poverty. After independence, the Zimbabwean education system had a free tuition policy at primary school levels. Now that the government reintroduced school fees, a generation of illiterate and semi-illiterate school dropouts will grow up. The social implications of this include increases in crime, prostitution, the number of street kids, the spread of diseases, and social discontent, which are the symptoms of a shrinking economy. As a result of the cost recovery measures, school enrollment in rural areas has gone up. Some urban parents have been forced to transfer their children to rural schools. Higher education also suffers, as government subsidies to colleges and universities have been drastically curtailed. The budgetary cuts have grave repercussions for teaching and research, as poor working conditions and low morals of lecturers and students become prevalent. Most wage-earning Zimbabweans' living standards have deteriorated as the cost of living continues to escalate, coupled with the cost recovery measures in the name of ESAP. PMID:12287629

  2. Temperament Styles of Zimbabwe and U.S. Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Mpofu, Elias; Sulkowski, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Temperament styles of 600 Zimbabwe children are described and compared to those of 3,200 U.S. children. Gender and age differences are described for children in Zimbabwe and compared to U.S. children. Results indicate that Zimbabwe children generally prefer extroverted to introverted styles, practical to imaginative styles, feeling to thinking…

  3. Surveillance for equity in maternal care in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C; Sanders, D; Bassett, M; Goings, S

    1993-01-01

    The great hope and promise of post-independence efforts to promote equitable health care in Zimbabwe started with three years of dramatic improvement. Commitment to correcting inequities which were as discriminatory as any country in the world produced rapid extension of health centre infrastructure and the improvement of district hospitals. The major constraint was the entrenched pattern of sophisticated, high-technology health care left by colonial administrators which continued to monopolize resources. In spite of the excellent beginning, development of services for the poor was thwarted by recession, prolonged drought and external military destabilization. The cutbacks in funding for health care have been particularly severe as a result of economic adjustment policies imposed by IMF. Political pressure moved the health system toward private entrepreneurship returning to earlier patterns of discrimination in favour of whites and urban residents. Efforts to promote high-risk monitoring have had little impact among the poor and those living in remote areas. Equity has become symbolic rather than real. The government of Zimbabwe maintains a continuing commitment to the original goals of equity through primary health care. International agencies also would like to find a way to help reallocate services. There seems to be recognition that little will be accomplished in improving health conditions unless services are provided to those in greatest need. Disparities in maternal care are especially severe and can be improved only by building infrastructure to provide antenatal and perinatal services.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8017085

  4. Increased Incidence of Tuberculosis in Zimbabwe, in Association with Food Insecurity, and Economic Collapse: An Ecological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thistle, Paul; Katumbe, Lovemore; Jetha, Arif; Schwarz, Dan; Bolotin, Shelly; Barker, R. D.; Simor, Andrew; Silverman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Zimbabwe underwent a socioeconomic crisis and resultant increase in food insecurity in 2008–9. The impact of the crisis on Tuberculosis (TB) incidence is unknown. Methods Prospective databases from two mission hospitals, which were geographically widely separated, and remained open during the crisis, were reviewed. Results At the Howard Hospital (HH) in northern Zimbabwe, TB incidence increased 35% in 2008 from baseline rates in 2003–2007 (p<0.01) and remained at that level in 2009. Murambinda Hospital (MH) in Eastern Zimbabwe also demonstrated a 29% rise in TB incidence from 2007 to 2008 (p<0.01) and remained at that level in 2009. Data collected post-crisis at HH showed a decrease of 33% in TB incidence between 2009 to 2010 (p<0.001) and 2010/2011 TB incidence remained below that of the crisis years of 2008/2009 (p<0.01). Antenatal clinic HIV seroprevalence at HH decreased between 2001(23%) to 2011(11%) (p<0.001). Seasonality of TB incidence was analyzed at both MH and HH. There was a higher TB incidence in the dry season when food is least available (September-November) compared to post harvest (April-June) (p<0.001). Conclusion This study suggests that an epidemic of TB mirrored socioeconomic collapse and recovery in Zimbabwe. The seasonal data suggests that food security may have been associated with TB incidence both annually and during the crisis in this high HIV prevalence country. PMID:24505245

  5. Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Fidan, Ahmet; Bui, Hoan N

    2016-08-01

    The present study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) reported by a sample of women in Zimbabwe to explore factors associated with the problem. Findings from the study indicate an important role of gender relationships in violence against women. The effects of gender inequalities on the likelihood of IPV vary with types of violence, but husband's patriarchal behaviors increase the likelihood of all forms of violence. The study suggests the importance of improving gender equality through public education on gender relationships, increasing women's education and economic opportunities, and eliminating customary laws that sustain gender inequality as necessary steps to combat IPV against women in Zimbabwe. PMID:26644331

  6. Earth Science Education in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Kevin L.

    1999-05-01

    Zimbabwe is a mineral-rich country with a long history of Earth Science Education. The establishment of a University Geology Department in 1960 allowed the country to produce its own earth science graduates. These graduates are readily absorbed by the mining industry and few are without work. Demand for places at the University is high and entry standards reflect this. Students enter the University after GCE A levels in three science subjects and most go on to graduate. Degree programmes include B.Sc. General in Geology (plus another science), B.Sc. Honours in Geology and M.Sc. in Exploration Geology and in Geophysics. The undergraduate curriculum is broad-based and increasingly vocationally orientated. A well-equipped building caters for relatively large student numbers and also houses analytical facilities used for research and teaching. Computers are used in teaching from the first year onwards. Staff are on average poorly qualified compared to other universities, but there is an impressive research element. The Department has good links with many overseas universities and external funding agencies play a strong supporting role. That said, financial constraints remain the greatest barrier to future development, although increasing links with the mining industry may cushion this.

  7. Learning To Cope with Drought in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Kotze, Astrid

    2002-01-01

    A program started during a drought in Zimbabwe involved the cultivation of drought-resistant crops. The program made the women less dependent on their often-absent husbands and changed the relationship between men and women in the village. (JOW)

  8. Ndebele Culture of Zimbabwe's Views of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngara, Constantine; Porath, Marion

    2007-01-01

    This study explored Ndebele culture of Zimbabwe's views of giftedness. Using questionnaire narratives, data were collected from thirty Zimbabwean teachers and lecturers of Ndebele cultural background. The study established that Ndebele culture views giftedness as an unusually outstanding ability blessed in an individual from birth, which manifests…

  9. Entrepreneurial Careers of Women in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ncube, Lisa B.; Greenan, James P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathways of entrepreneurial career development and the processes involved for women to become entrepreneurs in Zimbabwe. Women entrepreneurs were studied to gain an understanding of why women chose self-employment and how local enterprise programs should be designed to benefit them. The study…

  10. 78 FR 41192 - Publication of General License Related to the Zimbabwe Sanctions Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General License Related to the Zimbabwe Sanctions Program... General License No. 1 issued under the Zimbabwe sanctions program on April 24, 2013. Zimbabwe General License No. 1 authorizes all transactions involving Agricultural Development Bank of Zimbabwe...

  11. Zimbabwe Culture before Mapungubwe: New Evidence from Mapela Hill, South-Western Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Chirikure, Shadreck; Manyanga, Munyaradzi; Pollard, A. Mark; Bandama, Foreman; Mahachi, Godfrey; Pikirayi, Innocent

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, the emergence of complex societies excites intense academic debate in archaeology and allied disciplines. Not surprisingly, in southern Africa the traditional assumption that the evolution of socio-political complexity began with ideological transformations from K2 to Mapungubwe between CE1200 and 1220 is clouded in controversy. It is believed that the K2−Mapungubwe transitions crystallised class distinction and sacred leadership, thought to be the key elements of the Zimbabwe culture on Mapungubwe Hill long before they emerged anywhere else. From Mapungubwe (CE1220–1290), the Zimbabwe culture was expressed at Great Zimbabwe (CE1300–1450) and eventually Khami (CE1450–1820). However, new fieldwork at Mapela Hill, when coupled with a Bayesian chronology, offers tremendous fresh insights which refute this orthodoxy. Firstly, Mapela possesses enormous prestige stone-walled terraces whose initial construction date from the 11th century CE, almost two hundred years earlier than Mapungubwe. Secondly, the basal levels of the Mapela terraces and hilltop contain élite solid dhaka (adobe) floors associated with K2 pottery and glass beads. Thirdly, with a hilltop and flat area occupation since the 11th century CE, Mapela exhibits evidence of class distinction and sacred leadership earlier than K2 and Mapungubwe, the supposed propagators of the Zimbabwe culture. Fourthly, Mapungubwe material culture only appeared later in the Mapela sequence and therefore post-dates the earliest appearance of stone walling and dhaka floors at the site. Since stone walls, dhaka floors and class distinction are the essence of the Zimbabwe culture, their earlier appearance at Mapela suggests that Mapungubwe can no longer be regarded as the sole cradle of the Zimbabwe culture. This demands not just fresh ways of accounting for the rise of socio-political complexity in southern Africa, but also significant adjustments to existing models. PMID:25360782

  12. Zimbabwe culture before Mapungubwe: new evidence from Mapela Hill, South-Western Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Chirikure, Shadreck; Manyanga, Munyaradzi; Pollard, A Mark; Bandama, Foreman; Mahachi, Godfrey; Pikirayi, Innocent

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, the emergence of complex societies excites intense academic debate in archaeology and allied disciplines. Not surprisingly, in southern Africa the traditional assumption that the evolution of socio-political complexity began with ideological transformations from K2 to Mapungubwe between CE1200 and 1220 is clouded in controversy. It is believed that the K2-Mapungubwe transitions crystallised class distinction and sacred leadership, thought to be the key elements of the Zimbabwe culture on Mapungubwe Hill long before they emerged anywhere else. From Mapungubwe (CE1220-1290), the Zimbabwe culture was expressed at Great Zimbabwe (CE1300-1450) and eventually Khami (CE1450-1820). However, new fieldwork at Mapela Hill, when coupled with a Bayesian chronology, offers tremendous fresh insights which refute this orthodoxy. Firstly, Mapela possesses enormous prestige stone-walled terraces whose initial construction date from the 11th century CE, almost two hundred years earlier than Mapungubwe. Secondly, the basal levels of the Mapela terraces and hilltop contain élite solid dhaka (adobe) floors associated with K2 pottery and glass beads. Thirdly, with a hilltop and flat area occupation since the 11th century CE, Mapela exhibits evidence of class distinction and sacred leadership earlier than K2 and Mapungubwe, the supposed propagators of the Zimbabwe culture. Fourthly, Mapungubwe material culture only appeared later in the Mapela sequence and therefore post-dates the earliest appearance of stone walling and dhaka floors at the site. Since stone walls, dhaka floors and class distinction are the essence of the Zimbabwe culture, their earlier appearance at Mapela suggests that Mapungubwe can no longer be regarded as the sole cradle of the Zimbabwe culture. This demands not just fresh ways of accounting for the rise of socio-political complexity in southern Africa, but also significant adjustments to existing models. PMID:25360782

  13. The Future of Technical Subjects in Zimbabwe's Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mupinga, Davison M.

    A study was conducted to investigate the future of woodworking in primary schools in Zimbabwe. Although such subjects have generally been organized along the same lines as traditional academic subjects, strategies vary from one country to another and so do the problems. The investigation covered all the primary schools in Zimbabwe teaching…

  14. The Development of Special Education Services in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiyo, Morgan; Wheeler, John

    2004-01-01

    When Zimbabwe gained independence in 1980, the government started a massive expansion of the education system. Two decades later, the country's literacy rate had risen to one of the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the same cannot be said for special education. This paper examines the development of the education system in Zimbabwe with…

  15. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods Data on the characteristics of the blood transfusion recipients (age, sex, blood group), blood components received (type, quantity), discharge diagnoses and outcomes following transfusion (discharge status, duration of stay in hospital), were retrospectively collected from four major hospitals for the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Diagnoses were grouped into broad categories according to the disease headings of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Surgical procedures were grouped into broad categories according to organ system using ICD-9. Results Most of the 1,793 transfusion recipients studied were female (63.2%) and in the reproductive age group, i.e. 15–49 years (65.3%). The median age of the recipients was 33 years (range, 0–93). The majority of these recipients (n=1,642; 91.6%) received a red blood cell transfusion. The majority of the patients were diagnosed with conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth (22.3%), and diseases of blood and blood-forming organs (17.7%). The median time spent in hospital was 8 days (range, 0–214) and in-hospital mortality was 15.4%. Discussion Our sample of blood transfusion recipients were fairly young and most of them received red blood cell transfusions. The majority of patients in the reproductive age group received blood transfusions for pregnancy and childbirth-related diagnoses. PMID:26192782

  16. Ethanol as a fuel additive in Zimbabwe

    SciTech Connect

    Wenman, C.M.; Tannock, J.

    1984-11-01

    To obtain maximum yield of ethanol from sugar and to dispose of the stillage in the most effective economic way possible are the main problems facing Zimbabwe's fuel ethanol industry. In order to monitor the production of ethanol from sugar cane, High Pressure Liquid Chromatography is used as it is a simple method and the results are reproducible, accurate and produced with little delay. In order to dispose of the stillage, it has been used as a fertilizer and as animal feed but incineration and microbiological digestion of the stillage may provide better long-term solutions.

  17. Youth reproductive health services in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mashamba, Alethea; Robson, Elsbeth

    2002-12-01

    This study examines young people's access to reproductive healthcare services via an urban youth advisory centre in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. The aim is to explain why teenagers do not always use existing health services. Data from exit questionnaires with users and focus groups with non-users are analysed to evaluate service accessibility. Analysis suggests that even where clinics are spatially accessible, barriers to access include temporal factors, lack of factual knowledge and stigmatisation. The paper concludes that spatial accessibility is not the only factor necessary to ensure equal access to health services. Recommendations are made towards tackling young people's unmet needs for reproductive healthcare services. PMID:12399216

  18. Great Dike of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwae, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Great Dike of Zimbabwe (17.5S, 31.5E) bisects the entire length of Zimbabwae in southern Africa and is one of the prominent visual features easily recognized from low orbit. The volcanic rocks which make up the dike are about 1.2 billion years old and are rich in chromite and platinum which are mined from it. The straight line of the dike is offset in places by faults which are often occupied by streams flowing through the fractures.

  19. Living with trees. Policies for forestry management in Zimbabwe

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.P.; McNamara, K.

    1993-09-01

    This technical paper provides a broad analysis of forestry policy in Zimbabwe. Some two dozen contributors look at forestry as a provider of livelihood, homes and workplaces, and industrial commodities. The first section of the paper concentrates on the social and macroeconomic goals of forestry in Zimbabwe and on its place in rural agriculture. Contributors examine the issues of land tenure and the culture of common property, the practice of woodland management, and control of and participation in management and policy development. The second section focuses on the status of the forest industry in Zimbabwe and on its capacity to manage and expand existing commercial plantations. The paper explores the main issues the sector faces, including growing concentration of ownership versus the government`s objective of wider participation in the industry. They discuss the effects of trade liberalization on its competitive position, both among other agricultural sectors within Zimbabwe and with competitors outside the country. Included is a color map of Zimbabwe`s woodlands. Many forestry programs worldwide face the issues discussed in this work. It will be of interest to planners, policymakers, teachers, and students of rural development and forestry.

  20. Changing patterns of population distribution in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Zinyama, L; Whitlow, R

    1986-12-01

    "This paper critically evaluates the causes and consequences of changes in population distribution in Zimbabwe during the colonial period and since independence in 1980. Five main aspects of population geography are examined. Firstly...the history of tenure policies is outlined. Secondly, the distribution of the African population as revealed in the 1982 census is described and major changes between the census years of 1962, 1969, and 1982 are discussed. Thirdly, changing patterns of settlement and land use within the peasant farming areas (Communal Lands) are examined in the context of increasing population pressures. Fourthly, trends in the...urbanisation of the African population are described. Fifthly, post-independence development policies directed at effecting changes in the distribution of population are discussed with particular reference to the land resettlement programme." PMID:12268679

  1. Maternal education and child mortality in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Grépin, Karen A; Bharadwaj, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    In 1980, Zimbabwe rapidly expanded access to secondary schools, providing a natural experiment to estimate the impact of increased maternal secondary education on child mortality. Exploiting age specific exposure to these reforms, we find that children born to mothers most likely to have benefited from the policies were about 21% less likely to die than children born to slightly older mothers. We also find that increased education leads to delayed age at marriage, sexual debut, and first birth and that increased education leads to better economic opportunities for women. We find little evidence supporting other channels through which increased education might affect child mortality. Expanding access to secondary schools may greatly accelerate declines in child mortality in the developing world today. PMID:26569469

  2. Female condom uptake and acceptability in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Napierala, Sue; Kang, Mi-Suk; Chipato, Tsungai; Padian, Nancy; van der Straten, Ariane

    2008-04-01

    As the first phase of a two-phase prospective cohort study to assess the acceptability of the diaphragm as a potential HIV/STI prevention method, we conducted a 2-month prospective study and examined the effect of a male and female condom intervention on female condom (FC) use among 379 sexually active women in Harare, Zimbabwe. Reported use of FC increased from 1.1% at baseline to 70.6% at 2-month follow-up. Predictors of FC uptake immediately following the intervention included interest in using FC, liking FC better than male condoms, and believing one could use them more consistently than male condoms. Women reported 28.8% of sex acts protected by FC in the 2 weeks prior to last study visit. Though FC may not be the preferred method for the majority of women, with access, proper education, and promotion they may be a valuable option for some Zimbabwean women. PMID:18433318

  3. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in Zimbabwe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to the Situation in Zimbabwe Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 1, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003... persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the...

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in Zimbabwe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to the Situation in Zimbabwe Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 2, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003... persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the...

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Zimbabwe Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 3, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the... or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50...

  6. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Zimbabwe Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 2, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the... or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50...

  7. Zimbabwe Colonial and Post-Colonial Language Policy and Planning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree B.; Dube, Busi; Mashiri, Pedzisai

    2006-01-01

    This monograph focuses on the development of colonial and post-colonial language policies and practices in Zimbabwe, attributing changes to evolving philosophies and politics in colonial and post-colonial Zimbabwe. In colonial Zimbabwe, we argue that the language policies had as one of their key objectives the development of a bilingual white…

  8. In what ways do communities support optimal antiretroviral treatment in Zimbabwe?

    PubMed Central

    Scott, K.; Campbell, C.; Madanhire, C.; Skovdal, M.; Nyamukapa, C.; Gregson, S.

    2014-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on how pre-existing indigenous community resources, especially social networks, affect the success of externally imposed HIV interventions. Antiretroviral treatment (ART), an externally initiated biomedical intervention, is being rolled out across sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the ways in which community networks are working to facilitate optimal ART access and adherence will enable policymakers to better engage with and bolster these pre-existing resources. We conducted 67 interviews and eight focus group discussions with 127 people from three key population groups in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe: healthcare workers, adults on ART and carers of children on ART. We also observed over 100 h of HIV treatment sites at local clinics and hospitals. Our research sought to determine how indigenous resources were enabling people to achieve optimal ART access and adherence. We analysed data transcripts using thematic network technique, coding references to supportive community networks that enable local people to achieve ART access and adherence. People on ART or carers of children on ART in Zimbabwe report drawing support from a variety of social networks that enable them to overcome many obstacles to adherence. Key support networks include: HIV groups; food and income support networks; home-based care, church and women's groups; family networks; and relationships with healthcare providers. More attention to the community context in which HIV initiatives occur will help ensure that interventions work with and benefit from pre-existing social capital. PMID:23503291

  9. In what ways do communities support optimal antiretroviral treatment in Zimbabwe?

    PubMed

    Scott, K; Campbell, C; Madanhire, C; Skovdal, M; Nyamukapa, C; Gregson, S

    2014-12-01

    Little research has been conducted on how pre-existing indigenous community resources, especially social networks, affect the success of externally imposed HIV interventions. Antiretroviral treatment (ART), an externally initiated biomedical intervention, is being rolled out across sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the ways in which community networks are working to facilitate optimal ART access and adherence will enable policymakers to better engage with and bolster these pre-existing resources. We conducted 67 interviews and eight focus group discussions with 127 people from three key population groups in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe: healthcare workers, adults on ART and carers of children on ART. We also observed over 100 h of HIV treatment sites at local clinics and hospitals. Our research sought to determine how indigenous resources were enabling people to achieve optimal ART access and adherence. We analysed data transcripts using thematic network technique, coding references to supportive community networks that enable local people to achieve ART access and adherence. People on ART or carers of children on ART in Zimbabwe report drawing support from a variety of social networks that enable them to overcome many obstacles to adherence. Key support networks include: HIV groups; food and income support networks; home-based care, church and women's groups; family networks; and relationships with healthcare providers. More attention to the community context in which HIV initiatives occur will help ensure that interventions work with and benefit from pre-existing social capital. PMID:23503291

  10. Specialization and referral among the n'anga (traditional healers) of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Arkovitz, M S; Manley, M

    1990-07-01

    Traditional medicine is the source of primary care for most Zimbabweans. N'angas (traditional healers) are consulted for their political and religious powers along with their healing powers. The Zimbabwe National Traditional Healers Association was formed and is officially recognized by the government and has a constitution along with departments of education and research. Each member pays annual dues. Herbal remedies are used. Most n'angas say they are possessed by a healing spirit which they invoke while treating the patient. These n'angas practice specialization--the extent to which the n'angas claim expertise, outside of which they will refer a patient to others. The referral and specialization practices of a select group of n'angas in and around the capital, Harare are studied. 30 n'angas from 7 suburbs of harare were interviewed personally at their place of practice in 1987. All 30 claimed to specialize in the treatment of certain illnesses. They specialized in spiritual, not just medical, problems. The n'angus referred to other n'angas for either or both of 2 reasons: 1) most referred patients for whom their treatment had failed; and 2) patients were referred for suffering an illness which that certain n'anga could not cure, usually because their healing spirit did not give them the cure. There were some things that the n'angas would only send to western medical practitioners and hospitals. These were mostly accidents or emergencies. "Abnormal illnesses" were never referred to Western practitioners and hospitals. "Abnormal illnesses" were caused by evil spirits such as "ngozi." The n'angas were divided over what to do about the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). 1 n'anga sand that he was so good at curing AIDS that he was flown to America to treat a patient. Others would send AIDS patients to hospitals. Most all Zimbabwe natives are descended from Shona and Ndebele cultures. PMID:2219419

  11. Understanding women's attitudes towards wife beating in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed Central

    Hindin, Michelle J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with attitudes towards wife beating among women in partnerships in Zimbabwe in order to assist public health practitioners in preventing intimate partner violence (IPV). METHODS: A nationally representative survey of 5907 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) was conducted in Zimbabwe. Women were asked about their attitudes towards wife beating in five situations. The survey included sociodemographic characteristics, partnership characteristics, and household decision-making. FINDINGS: Over half of all women in Zimbabwe (53%) believed that wife beating was justified in at least one of the five situations. Respondents were most likely to find wife beating justified if a wife argued with her spouse (36%), neglected her children (33%), or went out without telling her spouse (30%). Among women in partnerships (n=3077), younger age, living in rural areas, lower household wealth, schooling at a lower level than secondary, and lower occupational status were associated with women reporting that wife beating is justified. Women who reported that they make household decisions jointly with their partners were less likely to say that wife beating is justified. CONCLUSIONS: Zimbabwe has a long way to go in preventing IPV, particularly because the younger generation of women is significantly more likely to believe that wife beating is justified compared with older women. Given the current social and political climate in Zimbabwe, finding means to negotiate rather than settle conflict through violence is essential from the household level to the national level. PMID:12973642

  12. Maternal mortality and morbidity. Zimbabwe's birth force.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1991-01-01

    The training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) as a national public health strategy was implemented in the late 1970's in Zimbabwe. Since 1982, the Manicaland rural health programs have trained 6000 women in 12-week courses to change their practices of using unsterilized razor blades, shards of glass, or knives to sever the umbilical cord. These practices and others had led to high rates of neonatal tetanus mortality and maternal mortality. TBAs learned from state certified nurses the basics of personal and domestic hygiene, identification of pregnancy and associated risk factors, the importance of good nutrition, rest, and immunization for pregnant women, and safe practices in labor and delivery. Refresher courses and additional training in prenatal care and family planning have been added recently to the program. Completion of the program leads to a public recognition of their graduation in the base village. Maternity care services are provided as back up. This includes village based maternity waiting homes for women in labor, community health workers, and auxiliary midwives with higher level training. A district health center has been set up for more complicated cases. This access to better health care has led to a 50 and 66% reduction in maternal and infant mortality rates, respectively. A 1988 government survey shows increases in the use of contraceptives and the number of women receiving prenatal care. The components of the program which have contributed to program success and provided similarities to other country's TBA programs are as follows: developing a sense of self esteem and pride among TBAs for their work, utilizing creative ways to teach the largely illiterate TBA population through role plays and songs, and providing involvement in the health care system which reaffirms the TBA's importance. In spite of the advancements made however, there are still problems to solve. Unsafe practices are resorted to when TBAs forget their training

  13. Factors determining the attractiveness of the teaching profession in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivore, B. R. S.

    1988-03-01

    This article analyses the factors influencing the attractiveness of the secondary teaching profession in Zimbabwe. The findings are based on data collected from more than 200 non-graduate student teachers by means of a questionnaire, supplemented by documents and interviews. Among the 21 relevant factors listed in the questionnaire, those relating to salary, fringe benefits and working conditions were considered to have the greatest influence. In particular, benefits similar to those of comparable professions in the public and private sectors were identified as crucial. The author broadens the context of his conclusions by comparing the situation in Zimbabwe to that in other developing countries.

  14. Agroforestry Systems in Zimbabwe: Promoting Trees in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukasin, Helen L., Ed.

    Agroforestry has been defined as a sustainable crop management system which combines the production of forest crops with field crops. In June, 1987, an agroforestry workshop took place in Nyanga, Manicaland, Zimbabwe. This document was prepared to share the information presented at this workshop with other non-government organizations around the…

  15. Young People, Citizenship and Citizenship Education in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigauke, Aaron T.

    2012-01-01

    Citizenship education in Zimbabwe is based on the claim that young people lack citizenship virtues. This study set out to investigate these assumptions by assessing high school students' knowledge of, attitudes towards and participation levels in citizenship issues. Findings show that while students are knowledgeable about citizenship issues they…

  16. Counseling in Zimbabwe: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Kimberly A. M.; Zivave, Athanas T.; Govere, Saunsuray M.; Mphande, Joyce; Dupwa, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    Counseling in Zimbabwe has a long tradition, dating back to pre-Colonial times. In the modern context, counseling has evolved through the educational and health care sectors. Since the 1990s, Zimbabwean counselors have advocated for professional recognition, a struggle similar to that of counselors in the United States. In this article, the…

  17. Integration of Information Services in the Parliament of Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiwandamira, Lyn

    This paper discusses the integration of information services in the Parliament of Zimbabwe (PoZ). An organizational chart of the information systems at PoZ in 1999 is provided, and each of the four departments managing information services are described, i.e., the library, the research department, public relations, and information technology. An…

  18. Holistic Initiatives for Enhancing Graduate Employability in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garwe, Evelyn Chiyevo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to document initiatives for enhancing graduate employability and building successful future careers for students. The author used the case of Zimbabwe to explore interventions by higher education institutions, government, industry and commerce as well as professional bodies. The methodology involved a mix of…

  19. AIDS and the workplace: signs of hope from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Williams, G; Ray, S

    1994-01-01

    Strategies for Hope is a series of booklets and videos about innovative and practical approaches to AIDS management and prevention in developing countries. It is published by the UK development agency ACTIONAID and the African Medical and Research Foundation with technical and financial support from the World Health Organization Global Program on AIDS. More than 500,000 booklets and 5000 videos have been distributed worldwide. The authors describe what they learned while researching the eighth booklet in the series, Work Against AIDS, analyzing seven workplace-based AIDS programs in Zimbabwe. They argue that the workplace can play a far greater role in AIDS awareness and prevention than is generally realized. AIDS is already affecting the health and productivity of the workforce in Zimbabwe, where in some areas more than 15% of adults are estimated to be HIV-positive. Morbidity and mortality are rising with concomitant worker absenteeism, yet most workplaces in Zimbabwe do not have even a poster about AIDS on display. There are, however, some impressive education programs under way. These programs, run by a significant number of volunteer peer educators, are working to reduce the stigma attached with sexually transmitted diseases and promote low-cost or free treatment. The authors also note as most promising the program of the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions training 700 Health and Safety representatives at shop-floor and branch levels in AIDS-related human rights issues at the workplace as well as AIDS awareness and prevention. PMID:12318814

  20. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline. PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. Methods We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. Results We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Conclusions Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors. PMID:22029874

  1. Design and production of an atlas for diplomacy in Zimbabwe and the Southern African Development Community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, T.W., Jr.; Larson, C.R.; Granneman, B.J.; Evans, G.A.; Gacke, C.K.; Pearson, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    An atlas of Zimbabwe and the Southern African Development Community was designed and produced for use by American diplomats in Zimbabwe. Two copies of the bound atlas are used by the Embassy of the United States of America (U.S. Embassy) and the Mission of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in Harare, Zimbabwe, to orient visitors and discuss matters of diplomacy and development in Zimbabwe and the Southern African Development Community. The atlas contains maps derived from satellite images showing features of the physical geography of Southern Africa and Zimbabwe and plastic overlays showing rivers and lakes and manmade features, such as major roads, railroads, and cities. The atlas is an important tool that American diplomats can use to orient participants in discussions of the environment and to develop agreements for management of the environment in Zimbabwe and Southern Africa.

  2. Disease pattern and prescribing at the University of Zimbabwe students health service, 1987-1991.

    PubMed

    Bvochora, J F; Kasilo, O M; Nhachi, C F

    1993-05-01

    The trends in drug use, expenditure and disease pattern at the University of Zimbabwe students' health facility over a period of five years (1987-1991), were analysed retrospectively. The study also analysed the use of the essential drugs concept and the drug situation in Zimbabwe. A total of 1,500 cases which were randomly selected were studied. The total student population over this period was 44,030. Data collection sheets where utilised to extract information from patients' cards. Requisition order books and budgets for drugs and medical appliances and student population statistical data were analysed. Males accounted for 75.7 pc of the cases and the average age at the time of the visit was 22.04 years. The percentage of cases involving married students was 2.53 pc of which 94.74 pc were males. The total expenditure of drugs and medical appliances for the study period was $412,413.55 and most of the items were supplied by the Government Medical Stores. The most prevalent disease conditions were respiratory tract infections (35 pc) and urinary tract infections (16.3 pc). The disease pattern differed from that at district, general and provincial hospitals. The total number of drugs dispensed for the 1,500 students was 2,600, giving an average of 1.7 drugs per case. Analgesics were the most widely used drugs (28.5 pc), followed by anti-infectives (28.2 pc). The most popular analgesic used was paracetamol which accounted for 66.6 pc of the analgesics. Antibiotics accounted for 88.1 pc of the anti-infectives and 24.9 pc of the total number of drugs dispensed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8131195

  3. Masculinity as a barrier to men's use of HIV services in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing number of studies highlight men's disinclination to make use of HIV services. This suggests there are factors that prevent men from engaging with health services and an urgent need to unpack the forms of sociality that determine men's acceptance or rejection of HIV services. Methods Drawing on the perspectives of 53 antiretroviral drug users and 25 healthcare providers, we examine qualitatively how local constructions of masculinity in rural Zimbabwe impact on men's use of HIV services. Results Informants reported a clear and hegemonic notion of masculinity that required men to be and act in control, to have know-how, be strong, resilient, disease free, highly sexual and economically productive. However, such traits were in direct conflict with the 'good patient' persona who is expected to accept being HIV positive, take instructions from nurses and engage in health-enabling behaviours such as attending regular hospital visits and refraining from alcohol and unprotected extra-marital sex. This conflict between local understandings of manhood and biopolitical representations of 'a good patient' can provide a possible explanation to why so many men do not make use of HIV services in Zimbabwe. However, once men had been counselled and had the opportunity to reflect upon the impact of ART on their productivity and social value, it was possible for some to construct new and more ART-friendly versions of masculinity. Conclusion We urge HIV service providers to consider the obstacles that prevent many men from accessing their services and argue for community-based and driven initiatives that facilitate safe and supportive social spaces for men to openly discuss social constructions of masculinity as well as renegotiate more health-enabling masculinities. PMID:21575149

  4. Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Macherera, Margaret; Moyo, Lindani; Ncube, Mkhanyiseli; Gumbi, Angella

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe. Methods A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest. Results A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI) clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs. Conclusions and Public Health Implications Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for universal

  5. Education policy and gender in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gordon, R

    1994-01-01

    It is concluded that equality for women in education, which was a state aim in 1980, is no longer a state concern in Zimbabwe. It is argued that protection of the patriarchal order has been the operating principle of both colonial and post-colonial periods, and education is used to maintain the gender imbalance. Black women under colonialism were subjected to both sexism and racism. The socioeconomic order was maintained by ensuring that Blacks remained uneducated and unskilled. Colonial policy was race specific. Education was free and compulsory for Whites only. Black parents paid fees for a son's education. Post colonialism and in 1971, only 43.5% of Black children were enrolled in school, of which 3.9% were in secondary school. Only 19 girls with at the highest level in school. School curriculum was gender based, which meant girls were taught cooking and typing. During independence, education policy was instituted, and education was considered as a human right and gender neutral. Tuition fees in primary grades were eliminated, and education was expanded. However, changes after independence did not result in equal advantage for girls. By 1985-91, girls had lower enrollments at all grade levels. The widest gaps in enrollment were at the highest levels. School curriculum changed very little, and girls were directed to the "feminine" courses of study. Girls performed poorly in math and sciences. Girls were underenrolled in technical and vocational institutions. After 1989, structural adjustment programs negatively impacted on women. There was reduced access to employment, limited access to services, and increased demands on women's time in order to compensate for gaps created by cuts in services. New changes in education policy are expected to negatively impact on girl's education. Fees for primary school were reintroduced in urban areas, and secondary school fees were increased. The government dropped the requirement of certification for technical and commercial

  6. Critical pollution levels in Umguza River, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyama, A.; Ncube, R.; Ela, W.

    2016-06-01

    In most countries worldwide regulatory bodies set effluent discharge limits into rivers and other natural water bodies. These limits specify the maximum permissible concentration of defined pollutants that may be discharged into the water body. This limit is conceptually based on the self-purification (assimilative) capacity of the receiving water. However, this self-purification constant is itself a function of the water's pollutant loading. Umguza River situated south west of Zimbabwe, is fed by tributaries that drain an urban catchment and as such is prone to pollution due to human activities in the catchment. This study investigated the levels of pollution in Umguza River that would affect its self-purification capacity. This was achieved by characterising the spatial distribution of a selected range of water quality parameters as well as determining the self-purification capacity of a stretch of the river. Critical pollutant concentrations were determined for some of the parameters that showed high values along the stretch. The selected parameters of interest were dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, phosphates, nitrates, COD, turbidity, ammonia, pH, alkalinity and temperature. The study was carried out from January 2014 to April 2014. The self-purification capacity was determined using a formula that compares the mass flux of a pollutant upstream and downstream of the selected stretch of the river. Statistical analysis was used to establish relationships between the pollutants and the self-purification capacity of the river. The study found that the levels of ammonia and phosphates were very high compared to the regulated limits (2 mg/l vs 0.5 mg/l; and 8 mg/l vs 0.5 mg/l respectively). It was also found that the self-purification capacity varied significantly across pollutants. It was therefore concluded that a critical pollutant concentration exists above which the river completely loses its natural ability to assimilate and decrease its pollutant load over

  7. A framework for the decentralised management of wastewater in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhapi, Innocent

    The traditional wastewater management style is now presenting some problems, having evolved from a situation of small communities, little industrial activities, and abundance of freshwater. The style is characterized by high water consumption and large treatment plants that employ sophisticated treatment systems with final effluent discharged to rivers. This paper focuses on analysis and development of an alternative strategy of decentralised wastewater management in Zimbabwe. Serious pollution problems related to inappropriate effluent discharges are prevalent necessitating an efficient and reliable strategy of controlling environmental pollution whilst obtaining optimal benefits from wastewater reuse. A conceptual plan for the decentralised strategy was developed taking into account capital and operational costs, wastewater generation patterns and quality, and urban agriculture. Maize cultivation was used to illustrate the implications of water and nutrient utilisation potential of the strategy. It was concluded that the strategy would suit high and medium density dwellings in Zimbabwe and that greywater separation can be used as part of the strategy.

  8. Child feeding practices in a rural area of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Cosminsky, S; Mhloyi, M; Ewbank, D

    1993-04-01

    This paper reports preliminary results from a study of child feeding practices in a rural area of Zimbabwe. Although Zimbabwe has relatively low infant mortality rates, it still has high child malnutrition rates. Several factors, including sex roles and relations between the sexes, access to resources, food costs and availability, time and energy costs of food production and preparation, and illness beliefs and practices, especially those concerning diarrhea and malnutrition, are examined as possible determinants of feeding practices and nutritional and health status. Results are compared to reports made by the World Bank and the Zimbabwe national nutrition survey. Whereas the World Bank report suggests a problem of late introduction of breastmilk supplements or solids, we found the opposite tendency of early introduction (by 3 months) of supplements. We suggest that mothers' pragmatic attitudes, interacting with certain social, cultural, and economic variables, are important factors influencing their child feeding decisions, especially resisting the use of commercial infant formula, at least in this rural area, and promoting prolonged breastfeeding. PMID:8480239

  9. Gramsci, Doke and the Marginalisation of the Ndebele Language in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndhlovu, Finex

    2006-01-01

    Clement M. Doke's 1929-1930 research on Zimbabwean languages has played a key role in shaping the tribalised and politicised linguistic terrain that characterises modern Zimbabwe. Doke, professor of linguistics at the University of Witwaters-rand, was commissioned in 1929 by the government of Southern Rhodesia (present-day Zimbabwe) to research…

  10. 76 FR 12267 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ..., March 2, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-5152 Filed 3-3-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ...#0;#0; ] Notice of March 2, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe On... property of persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to...

  11. 77 FR 13177 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in Zimbabwe

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ..., March 2, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-5509 Filed 3-2-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Respect to the Situation in Zimbabwe #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the President declared a national emergency...

  12. 75 FR 10155 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, February 26, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-4805 Filed 3-3-10; 11:15 am... Notice of February 26, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe #0; #0; #0... the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288,...

  13. Gender Discrimination in Educational Personnel: A Case Study of Gweru Urban District Secondary Schools, Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matope, Nogget

    2012-01-01

    Gender discrimination in educational institutions persists, despite the vigorous pursuit of policies and programmes to reduce the varying degrees of gender inequity in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is a signatory to international agreements and conventions which promote gender equity with a thrust towards increased access to education for girls and females.…

  14. 78 FR 14425 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in Zimbabwe

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ..., 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-05272 Filed 3-4-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Respect to the Situation in Zimbabwe #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the President declared a national emergency...

  15. Quality of Teaching and Learning in Resource Quandary: The Case of a University in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidindi, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Zimbabwe faced severe economic challenges that impacted on resource accumulation leading to a decline of quality of teaching and learning in a selected university in Zimbabwe yet the Resource Dependence Theory advocates that organizations are dependent on the environment for resources for survival and achievement of their set objectives. The study…

  16. 78 FR 16028 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Zimbabwe

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Zimbabwe Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Zimbabwe and I hereby report the waiver of this...

  17. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 26, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the President declared a national emergency...

  18. Evaluation of the notifiable diseases surveillance system in sanyati district, Zimbabwe, 2010-2011

    PubMed Central

    Maponga, Brian Abel; Chirundu, Daniel; Shambira, Gerald; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Bangure, Donewell

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Notifiable disease surveillance system (NDSS) was established in Zimbabwe through the Public Health Act. Between January and August 2011, 14 dog bites were treated at Kadoma Hospital. Eighty-six doses of anti-rabies vaccine were dispensed. One suspected rabies case was reported, without epidemiological investigations. The discrepancy may imply under reporting of Notifiable Diseases. The study was conducted to evaluate the NDSS in Sanyati district. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted. Healthcare workers in selected health facilities in urban, rural, and private and public sector were interviewed using questionnaires. Checklists were used to assess resource availability and guide records review of notification forms. Epi InfoTM was used to generate frequencies, proportions and Chi Square tests at 5% level. Results We recruited 69 participants, from 16 facilities. Twenty six percent recalled at least 9 Notifiable diseases, 72% correctly mentioned the T1 form for notification, 39% correctly mentioned the forms completed in triplicate and 20% knew it was a legal requirement to notify. Ninety six percent of respondents indicated willingness to participate, whilst 41% had ever received feedback. Three out of 16 health facilities had T1 forms. Conclusion NDSS is useful, acceptable, simple, and sensitive. NDSS is threatened by lack of T1 forms, poor feedback and knowledge of health workers on NDSS. T1 forms and guidelines for completing the forms were distributed to all health facilities, public and private sector. On the job training of health workers through tutorials, supervision and feedback was conducted. PMID:25870733

  19. Labour insecurity and health: an epidemiological study in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Loewenson, R

    1988-01-01

    Existing data on health status and health care provision in agricultural labour communities in Zimbabwe indicate that both are poor. In addition, there is evidence that the concentration of capital through increased areas of landholdings, through mechanisation and use of agrochemicals produces a rise in under- and unemployment within the agricultural sector, which increases the risk of ill health. This paper addresses this question in Zimbabwe by examining the nature of developments within the large scale agricultural sector in the last decade, and the consequent effects on employment and income. Rising capital intensity in the private large scale sector is found to be associated with increases in unemployment and underemployment. The impact of this socioeconomic pattern on health is assessed in a longitudinal assessment of 78 permanent labour families and 76 non-permanent (underemployed) labour families in the large scale farming sector. The study shows that while poor social, economic and health conditions exist in all groups, non-permanent labour households suffer greater insecurity of employment and income, poorer health status and lesser participation in sociopolitical structures important for negotiating primary health care gains. PMID:3227374

  20. Enhancing schistosomiasis control strategy for zimbabwe: building on past experiences.

    PubMed

    Chimbari, Moses J

    2012-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are prevalent in Zimbabwe to levels that make schistosomiasis a public health problem. Following three national surveys to map the disease prevalence, a national policy on control of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths is being developed. This paper reviews the experiences that Zimbabwe has in the area of schistosomiasis control with a view to influence policy. A case study approach to highlight key experiences and outcomes was adopted. The benefits derived from intersectoral collaboration that led to the development of a model irrigation scheme that incorporates schistosomiasis control measures are highlighted. Similarly, the benefits of using plant molluscicides and fish and duck biological agents (Sargochromis codringtonii and Cairina moschata) are highlighted. Emphasis was also placed on the importance of utilizing locally developed water and sanitation technologies and the critical human resource base in the area of schistosomiasis developed over years. After synthesis of the case studies presented, it was concluded that while there is a need to follow the WHO recommended guidelines for schistosomiasis control it is important to develop a control strategy that is informed by work already done in the country. The importance of having a policy and local guidelines for schistosomiasis control is emphasized. PMID:22655171

  1. Effects of veterinary fences on Wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Russell D.; Martin, Rowan B.

    1987-07-01

    In Zimbabwe, veterinary fences are used to control trypanosomiasis and foot- and-mouth disease, two important diseases that threaten cattle production and beef exports. Wildlife is implicated in both instances and the effects of fences on wildlife conservation and land use are discussed in relation to these two diseases. Advantages and disadvantages related to direct and indirect fence effects are outlined. Although the maintenance of fences for trypanosomiasis control is likely to become obsolete, control of foot- and-mouth disease will rely on fences for the foreseeable future. Most of Zimbabwe's protected wildlife areas are located in marginal agricultural land around the periphery of the country where cattle productivity is low. This land should be excluded from any involvement in the beef export industry rather than attempting its inclusion through cordoning and isolating individual protected areas. Within such land, the need for rigid veterinary restrictions should then disappear and allow more flexible strategies for disease control, including adaptive and imaginative approaches to land-use planning.

  2. The Training of Industrial Physicists in Zimbabwe: a Success Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carelse, Xavier F.

    In 1992-93 the Department of Physics decided that there was a need for physicists to participate in the industrial development in Zimbabwe. The idea of a Master of Science in Applied Physics programme was conceived. Before designing the programme, a postal survey was conducted to discover the needs of industry particularly in relation to industrial processes. There was a 20% response to our survey with many indicating the area of specialisation required in Zimbabwe. Based on their response, the programme was drawn up and was launched in 1994. The programme has optional specialisations in Industrial Physics, Medical Physics, Laser and Plasma Physics and Environmental Physics. Most of the candidates choose the Industrial Physics option. The programme includes courses in Workshop Practice, Computer Applications Software, Theory of Devices, Computer Interfacing, Instrumentation Physics, Metrology (which includes Quality Control), Digital Signal Processing and Data Communications and Networks, Industrial Applications of Laser and Plasma Physics, Biomedical Instrumentation, and many others. Nearly 30 Zimbabweans and some foreign students have thus far graduated with this degree. On graduation, they have, with relative ease, found employment in indeustry. In two cases, graduates were appointed as Research Officers with firms who set up research divisions specially for them. Many are now teaching at universities and technical colleges throughout the country where they continue to promote an industrial approach to the teaching of physics.

  3. [Improved health in Zimbabwe's rural areas as a result of the rural development project].

    PubMed

    Dahlin, K; Dahlin, L

    1984-09-01

    A rural development project carried out in Southern Zimbabwe for 5 years was aimed at improving nutrition, combatting diseases, educating villagers about proper hygiene, improving water quality, and assessing the development and nutritional status of children under 5. The community investigated consisted of 10,000 people or 1,439 families with an average of 7 persons per family. The main staple of their diet was maize, and malnutrition was prevalent. Water holes infested with bilharzia were the source of drinking water for both man and animal. The project succeeded in vaccinating 90% of preschool children against whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, polio, measles, and tuberculosis. A control district was chosen to compare the developmental data obtained by the Cole Slide Rule Calculator of 229 children under 5 with those of 242 children in the project. Malnutrition was studied in 200 children hospitalized in the children's ward of a district hospital, 1/3 of whom were less than 1 year old. Gastroenteritis, giardiasis and amebiasis were prevalent among them (37%), as were upper respiratory infections (27%), pneumonia (12%), and skin infections (7%). Nonspecific gastroenteritis was found in 86% of children under 2. Most over 2 were severely undernourished. A nutritional rehabilitation village called Hutano Village was established in 1982 to function as a nutritional center, staffed by a full-time health worker and an assistant. In the 1st 9 months of its existence, 114 children were taken in, and the mothers received instruction in vegetable gardening, raising chickens and rabbits, hygiene, and family planning. The average attendance runs to 25 children and 15 to 17 mothers. In spite of successful medical intervention in malnutrition cases, the relapse of children into an undernourished state remains a difficult issue, whose cause lies in inadequate water supply, poor soil, lack of resources, and low family socio-economic status. PMID:6482596

  4. Living with trees: Policies for forestry management in Zimbabwe. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, P.N.; McNamara, K.

    1993-01-01

    Living with Trees, is an account of the results of a joint World Bank and Zimbabwe Forestry Commission study, in which the status, use and future of Zimbabwes forest, woodland and tree resources are reviewed. The first chapter is, in effect, an executive summary, capturing the major themes of the review and presenting them within a framework which targets the key policy issues affecting forestry in Zimbabwe. The second chapter is a national overview and deals with land, agriculture and economic structural adjustments, which are key policy concerns in Zimbabwe. Within the national context, chapter 2 also reflects on the form and role of the Forestry Commission. This provides a macroeconomic setting for the subsequent chapters which detail social and industrial forestry issues.

  5. Zimbabwe: collapse of the public health system has devastating consequences for HIV care.

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    There is a health and health care crisis in Zimbabwe which is affecting HIV/AIDS patients, and which is a "direct outcome of the malfeasance of the Mugabe regime and the systematic violation of a wide range of human rights, including...an egregious failure to respect, protect and fulfill the right to health." This is one of the conclusions of a report prepared by Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) following an investigation conducted in Zimbabwe in December 2008. PMID:19610206

  6. Traditional use of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe: review and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine has remained as the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the primary healthcare system of resource poor communities in Zimbabwe. The local people have a long history of traditional plant usage for medicinal purposes. Despite the increasing acceptance of traditional medicine in Zimbabwe, this rich indigenous knowledge is not adequately documented. Documentation of plants used as traditional medicines is needed so that the knowledge can be preserved and the utilized plants conserved and used sustainably. The primary objective of this paper is to summarize information on traditional uses of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe, identifying research gaps and suggesting perspectives for future research. Methods This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, reports from national, regional and international organizations, theses, conference papers and other grey materials. Results A total of 93 medicinal plant species representing 41 families and 77 genera are used in south-central Zimbabwe. These plant species are used to treat 18 diseases and disorder categories, with the highest number of species used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by sexually transmitted infections, cold, cough and sore throat and gynaecological problems. Shrubs and trees (38% each) were the primary sources of medicinal plants, followed by herbs (21%) and climbers (3%). The therapeutic claims made on medicinal plants documented in south-central Zimbabwe are well supported by literature, with 82.8% of the plant species having similar applications in other regions of Zimbabwe as well as other parts of the world and 89.2% having documented biological and pharmacological properties. Conclusion This study illustrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment and management of human diseases and ailments in south-central Zimbabwe. Traditional medicines still play an important

  7. Coping with epilepsy in Zimbabwe and the Midwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Devlieger, P; Piachaud, J; Leung, P; George, N

    1994-09-01

    In this article, the experiences of persons with epilepsy were explored in terms of coping with providing a basis of discussion and training to support groups, particularly in Zimbabwe. Coping mechanisms lay stress upon the individual's control in mastering the disease. It was assumed that a systematic research effort of intra-cultural and cross-cultural sharing of experiences could enhance discussion and training in the support groups. Coping with epilepsy was explored with 37 adults (27 from Zimbabwe and 10 from the Midwest, USA) using open-ended questions in a written questionnaire. Questions aimed to elicit general feelings, experiences and strategies and skills in coping with epilepsy. The questionnaire covered such semantic domains as childhood, education, employment, friendships, relations within the family, and handling of seizures in public places. Coping mechanisms were categorized into two modes, one, adjustment to the disability (palliative), the other adjustment to the environment (problem-solving). In comparing the information between the two groups, some trends can be distinguished which need a larger scale validation. First, palliative skills during childhood in the Zimbabwean group is indicative for early development of personality characteristics and socialization as a result of the illness experiences. A great variety in palliative mechanisms in handling seizures indicates better familiarity with seizures in the Midwestern group. Similarities between the two groups are found in the friendship domain, where palliative coping skills seem to be of no importance, as well as in the domain of intimate relations, where a trend in adherence to medication is observed in both groups. Second, many problem-solving skills are developed in both groups but vary in context. In view of public education and training activities and the enhancement of problem-solving skills, the domain of education for the Zimbabwean group and the domains of friendship with the

  8. Kimberlite metasomatism at Murowa and Sese pipes, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. B.; Sims, K.; Chimuka, L.; Duffin, A.; Beard, A. D.; Townend, R.

    2004-09-01

    Metasomatism accompanying kimberlite emplacement is a worldwide phenomenon, although infrequently described or recognised. At the Cambrian-aged Murowa and Sese kimberlite clusters located within the Archean Zimbabwe Craton just north of the boundary with the Limpopo Mobile Zone in southern central Zimbabwe, the metasomatism is intense and well exposed and the processes can be readily studied. Dykes, sills and the root zones of pipes are exposed at the current erosion level. Kimberlite lithologies present are hypabyssal macrocrystic kimberlite ("HMK"), HMK breccia, and tuffisitic kimberlite breccia ("TKB") including minor lithic tuffisitic kimberlite breccia ("LTKB"). Country rocks are 2.6 Ga Chibi and Zimbabwe granite batholiths emplaced into 2.6-2.9 Ga or earlier Archean tonalitic gneiss and greenstones. During initial metasomatism, the granites become spotted with green chlorite, needles of alkaline amphiboles (winchite, riebeckite, arfvedsonite) and pyroxenes (aegirine-augite) with minor carbonate and felts of talc. Oligoclase feldspar becomes converted to albite, extensively altered, dusted and reddened with hematite, whereas K-feldspar remains unaffected. The granites become converted to syenite through removal of quartz. More intense metasomatism at Murowa and Sese results in veins of green metasomatite which cut and disrupt the granite. Progressive disruption entrains granite blocks, breaking down the granite still further, spalling off needle-like granite slivers, and so giving rise to LTKB. This process of disruption and entrainment appears to be the manner of initial development of the pipe structure. The chemistry of the metasomatite is intermediate between granite and kimberlite. Compared to granite country rock it has markedly higher Mg, Cr, Ni, CO 2 and H 2O+, higher Ca, Mn, Nb, Sr, P, Fe 3+/Fe 2+ ratio, U, Co, and Cu, approximately equal TiO 2, K 2O, Na 2O, La, Ta, Rb, Zr, Zn and resultant lower SiO 2, Al 2O 3, Ga and Y. The metasomatite Na 2O/K 2O

  9. The state of health economic and pharmacoeconomic evaluation research in Zimbabwe: A review

    PubMed Central

    Gavaza, Paul; Rascati, Karen; Brown, Carolyn; Lawson, Kenneth; Mann, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Economic evaluation of health care has developed into a substantial body of work, and its contribution to medical decision making is increasingly being recognized. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics and quality of health economic (including pharmacoeconomic) evaluation research studies related to Zimbabwe. METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted to identify published health economic evaluation studies related to Zimbabwe. HEED, PubMed, MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, EconLit, and PsycINFO databases and sociological and dissertation abstracts were used to search for economic analyses. The searches used the following terms alone and in combination: costs, budgets, fee, economics, health, pharmacy, pharmacy services, medicines, drugs, health economics, cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, cost-minimization, cost utility analysis, and Zimbabwe. Only original applied economic evaluations addressing a health-related topic pertaining to Zimbabwe and published in full were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated and scored each study in the final sample using the data collection form designed for the study. RESULTS: Fifty-nine studies were identified in the database searches, 18 of which were excluded because they were not about Zimbabwe (3 studies) or were not health related (15). Of the 41 remaining studies, 8 were excluded after further review because they were not original research, 6 because they were not economic analyses, and 1 because it was not about Zimbabwe. The final 26 studies appeared in 13 different journals (based mostly [17 (65%)] outside of Zimbabwe). The mean (SD) number of authors of each study was 3.36 (2.13); most of the authors had medical/clinical training. The number of studies peaked between 1994 and 1997. Based on a 10-point scale, with 10 indicating the highest quality, the mean (SD) quality score for all studies was 5.40 (1.56); 8 of the studies (31%) were considered to be of poor quality (score

  10. Zimbabwe's educational miracle and the problems it has created

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Clayton G.

    1988-09-01

    When ZANU (PF) came to power in 1980, it had promised to establish free and compulsory primary and secondary education for all children in Zimbabwe. The Ministry of Education has achieved remarkable increases in school enrolments, particularly at secondary level. It has also undertaken to allow all pupils to sit the `O' Level examinations after four years of secondary schooling. But by so doing it has encouraged a belief in the importance of academic qualifications and a crisis of expectation among pupils. There are insufficient places for those who wish to continue to Sixth Form (higher secondary) studies, a lack of alternative vocational training, and an inadequate rate of creation of new jobs for school leavers. There seem but three ways out: to cut defence spending in favour of education, to send students abroad for higher training, or to develop new employment and training schemes, perhaps after an imported model.

  11. The 1993 Zimbabwe impact crater and meteorite expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimold, W. U.; Master, S.; Koeberl, C.; Robertson, D.

    1994-07-01

    In September 1993 our expedition visited four strucutres in Zimbabwe that had been selected because of circular outlines or because of unusual aeromagnetic anomalies. The first one, the 1.1-km-diameter Thuli structure was identified as a well-preserved volcanic caldera formed by a series of basaltic, gabbroic, and dioritic instrusions. Preliminary results of magnetic traverses are consistent with the model of a volcanic pipe. The 600- and 800-m-wide Save craters near the Mozambican border closely resemble young, well-preserved impact craters such as the Pretoria Saltpan crater in South Africa. However, detailed geological traverses revealed only volcanic rocks intruded into sandstone forming the sharp rim crests. The Mucheka region is the site of the most prominent aeromagnetic anomaly in Zimbabwe. In the absence of any exposures other than Archean basement, the cause of this anomaly is still unknown. None of the basement rock specimens obtained yielded any evidence for shock metamorphism. In 1985 German geologists reportedly noted a circular structure in the Highbury area on Landsat images. An approximately 25-km-wide circular structure is visible on a SPOT satellite image as well. The regional geological map revealed the presence of a slight elevation near the center of this otherwise flat area. The flat floor of this structure is formed by fertile soils overlying locally exposed Deweras arkose and metadolomites, in turn surrounded by hills of Lomagundi sandstones and slates. Near the geographical center a small hill of sandstone and quartzite was indeed detected. Reconnaissance sampling in 'rim' and 'central uplift' provided several specimens with significant numbers of quartz grains with single or multiple sets of planar deformation features (PDFs). A strongly hematized sample from the 'central uplift' contains shocked quartz and relics of glass.

  12. An optimal cost effectiveness study on Zimbabwe cholera seasonal data from 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Tridip; Mukhopadhyay, Soumalya; Bhowmick, Amiya Ranjan; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of cholera outbreak is a serious issue in underdeveloped and developing countries. In Zimbabwe, after the massive outbreak in 2008-09, cholera cases and deaths are reported every year from some provinces. Substantial number of reported cholera cases in some provinces during and after the epidemic in 2008-09 indicates a plausible presence of seasonality in cholera incidence in those regions. We formulate a compartmental mathematical model with periodic slow-fast transmission rate to study such recurrent occurrences and fitted the model to cumulative cholera cases and deaths for different provinces of Zimbabwe from the beginning of cholera outbreak in 2008-09 to June 2011. Daily and weekly reported cholera incidence data were collected from Zimbabwe epidemiological bulletin, Zimbabwe Daily cholera updates and Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Zimbabwe (OCHA, Zimbabwe). For each province, the basic reproduction number ([Formula: see text]) in periodic environment is estimated. To the best of our knowledge, this is probably a pioneering attempt to estimate [Formula: see text] in periodic environment using real-life data set of cholera epidemic for Zimbabwe. Our estimates of [Formula: see text] agree with the previous estimate for some provinces but differ significantly for Bulawayo, Mashonaland West, Manicaland, Matabeleland South and Matabeleland North. Seasonal trend in cholera incidence is observed in Harare, Mashonaland West, Mashonaland East, Manicaland and Matabeleland South. Our result suggests that, slow transmission is a dominating factor for cholera transmission in most of these provinces. Our model projects [Formula: see text] cholera cases and [Formula: see text] cholera deaths during the end of the epidemic in 2008-09 to January 1, 2012. We also determine an optimal cost-effective control strategy among the four government undertaken interventions namely promoting hand-hygiene & clean water distribution, vaccination, treatment

  13. Student Participation and Responsible Citizenship in a Non-Polyarchy: An Evaluation of Challenges Facing Zimbabwe's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tshabangu, Icarbord P.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses perceptions on child participation and responsible citizenship in Zimbabwe's secondary schools. A brief outlook on Zimbabwe's values education is provided followed by a discussion of theoretical frameworks on citizenship and polyarchy and what these mean to the school. The article analyses teacher and student perceptions on…

  14. Use of weeds as traditional vegetables in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most agricultural weeds are usually regarded as undesirable and targeted for eradication. However, weeds are useful to human beings as food and traditional medicines. Few studies have been done to document the uses of weeds as traditional vegetables. This study was therefore, done to document indigenous knowledge related to the diversity and use of agricultural weeds as traditional vegetables in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe, emphasizing their role in food security and livelihoods of the local people. Materials and methods Semi-structured interviews, observation and guided field walks with 147 participants were employed between December 2011 and January 2012 to obtain ethnobotanical data on the use of edible weeds as traditional vegetables. Based on ethnobotanical information provided by the participants, botanical specimens were collected, numbered, pressed and dried for identification. Results A total of 21 edible weeds belonging to 11 families and 15 genera, mostly from Amaranthaceae (19%), Asteraceae and Tiliaceae (14.3%), Capparaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae (9.5% each) were identified. Of the documented edible weeds, 52.4% are indigenous while 47.6% are exotic to Zimbabwe; either semi-cultivated or growing naturally as agricultural weeds in farmlands, fallow land and home gardens. Among the main uses of edible weeds were leafy vegetables (81%), followed by edible fruits (19%), edible corms (9.5%), edible flowers and seeds (4.8% each). The most important edible weeds were Cleome gynandra, cited by 93.9% of the participants, Cucumis metuliferus (90.5%), Cucumis anguria (87.8%), Corchorus tridens (50.3%) and Amaranthus hybridus (39.5%). All edible weeds were available during rainy and harvest period with Cleome gynandra, Corchorus tridens, Cucumis anguria, Cucumis metuliferus and Moringa oleifera also available during the dry season, enabling households to obtain food outputs in different times of the year. The importance of edible weeds for local

  15. Reservoir operation under variable climate: Case of Rozva Dam, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ncube, S. P.; Makurira, H.; Kaseke, E.; Mhizha, A.

    The challenge of maintaining or improving the quality of rural livelihoods against the increasing threat of climate change (CC) and climate variability (CV) calls for the development of robust and tested systems, tools and procedures for the management of water resources. The research aimed at assessing reservoir operation under variable climate for Rozva Dam, a medium-sized reservoir in Zimbabwe. Rozva Dam is located in the Bikita District of Zimbabwe and has a full supply capacity of 2.8 Mm 3 at a maximum water level of 17.3 m. The research analysed 46 years of rainfall and temperature data to assess climate variability and or change. The CROPWAT model was used to estimate crop water requirements for the adjacent 80 hectare irrigation scheme. The WAFLEX model was applied to simulate the performance of the system under three scenarios: (1) existing demands and operational rules, (2) reduced water availability due to climate change, as predicted by the Ministry of Mines, but with increasing annual demands and (3) climate change situation coupled with change in irrigation technology. The results show a general decreasing linear trend for rainfall although the variance was not statistically significant at p = 0.05. A clearer cyclic pattern was observed for the decadal analysis. An increasing trend in both maximum and minimum temperature was observed although, again, these were not statistically significant with a Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient ( R sp) of below 0.5. The research used rainfall and temperature data as the basis for confirmation climate change and variability in the study area. Analyses show that the area is experiencing more of CV than CC. Modelling results show that the reservoir can satisfy current demands but will fail to cope under the forecasted increase in demand. The conclusions from the research are that the available water resources in the studied system are sufficient to satisfy the current demands. The predicted level of climate

  16. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married Women in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-03-01

    Short birth spacing continues to be a problem in Uganda and Zimbabwe, resulting in negative infant, child, and maternal health outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda and Zimbabwe, using Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011 (Uganda) and 2010-2011 (Zimbabwe). Women living in communities with higher mean maternal age, mean age at marriage, and mean parity were significantly more likely to have longer birth spacing. Women living in communities with higher levels of contraceptive use and low levels of unmet contraceptive need were more likely to have short birth spacing. The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level interventions in order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing. PMID:26103691

  17. Norovirus - hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Gastroenteritis - norovirus; Colitis - norovirus; Hospital acquired infection - norovirus ... fluids ( dehydration ). Anyone can become infected with norovirus. Hospital patients who are very old, very young, or ...

  18. Closely associated theropod trackways from the Jurassic of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Lingham-Soliar, Theagarten; Broderick, Tim; Ait Kaci Ahmed, Ali

    2003-12-01

    Eighty-eight tracks of large theropod dinosaurs were found in the mid-Jurassic of Zimbabwe. Among the tracks, at least five adjacent trackways are recorded. The adjacent tracks were probably made by animals traveling as a group, given that they are in relatively close succession; that there are three overlapping tracks (among just 23) suggesting reasonably close associations of the animals; that all the tracks are apparently of the same ichnotaxon; that the preservational types of the tracks are similar; and that the tracks are all of animals traveling in one general direction closely associated in time (there are no returning tracks of the same animals or of those of other species; presence of such tracks would be highly probable if the tracks were made over a period of time of even several hours). Nearby, recently discovered giant sauropod tracks, the first in sub-Saharan Africa, indicate a realistic potential of predator/prey interactions between the two groups of dinosaurs. PMID:14676955

  19. Beyond sugar daddies: intergenerational sex and AIDS in urban Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Wyrod, Robert; Fritz, Katherine; Woelk, Godfrey; Jain, Sheila; Kellogg, Timothy; Chirowodza, Admire; Makumbe, Knox; McFarland, Willi

    2011-08-01

    In a survey of 1,313 men reporting on 2,465 partnerships recruited at beer halls in Harare, Zimbabwe, 2.5% met a definition of "sugar daddy": men with a non-marital partner at least 10 years younger and under 20 years old, and exchanged cash or goods for sex. Men engaging in intergenerational sex with a teenage woman had similar HIV prevalence, incomes, and condom use as men in other partnerships. Most men (62.3%) had partners 5 or more years younger, with wider age gaps in longer-term relationships. Condom use was less common within married and steady partnerships compared to casual and more common with younger women. The most common form of intergenerational sex, with the widest age gap and lowest condom use, occurs within marriages and steady partnerships. Such "conventional" intergenerational sex may play the pivotal role in sustaining a generalized epidemic across generations and present the most difficult challenge to prevention. PMID:20811939

  20. Perceptions of childhood diarrhoea and its treatment in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    de Zoysa, I; Carson, D; Feachem, R; Kirkwood, B; Lindsay-Smith, E; Loewenson, R

    1984-01-01

    In the course of a study on the acceptability and feasibility of home-based oral rehydration therapy in rural Zimbabwe, information was collected on attitudes and beliefs about diarrhoea and on action taken in response to an episode of diarrhoea in a child. Diarrhoea was found to be a perceived threat at community and family level and numerous possible causes of diarrhoea were described which were assigned to two broad classes: (1) 'physical' causes, such as a polluted environment, diet and teething and (2) 'social and spiritual' causes such as those associated with a depressed fontanelle. These domains were not, however, mutually exclusive; 76% of the described episodes of diarrhoea were attributed to 'physical' causes, 15% to 'social and spiritual' causes and 8% to a combination of both. Reported utilization rates of the formal health services were unexpectedly high. In contrast, we recorded a low demand for indigenous herbalists (n'angas). Home management was common and comprised the administration of indigenous herbal remedies, of sugar and salt solutions, of over-the-counter drugs or of enemas. These remedies were given on their own or alongside the treatment prescribed by a health worker. A number of variables were examined to assess their influence on health-seeking behaviour: perceived cause and severity of the illness, socio-demographic characteristics of the respondent or child and accessibility of the health services.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6505741

  1. Women and AIDS in Zimbabwe: the making of an epidemic.

    PubMed

    Bassett, M T; Mhloyi, M

    1991-01-01

    As the AIDS epidemic in Africa assumes major proportions, the need to understand the social context in which heterosexual transmission occurs takes on urgent importance. In this article we explore how the intersection of traditional culture with the colonial legacy and present-day political economy has influenced family structure and sexual relations, and particularly the social position of women. Drawing on Zimbabwe's historical experience, we show how land expropriation, rural impoverishment, and the forcible introduction of male migrant labor fostered new patterns of sexual relations, characterized by multiple partners. Traditional patriarchal values reinterpreted in European law resulted in further subjugation of women as even limited rights to ownership were withdrawn. For many women, sexual relations with men, either within marriage (for the majority) or outside, become inextricably linked to economic and social survival. In this setting, all sexually transmitted diseases became rampant, including genital ulcer, which facilitates transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Intervention programs to halt the spread of AIDS need to take into the account the epidemic's historical roots and social nature. For example, efforts to reduce risk of HIV transmission should seek to expand women's limited options, both technically (e.g., by providing alternatives to condoms) and socially (e.g., by promoting employment). PMID:2004868

  2. Children's role in the community response to HIV in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, Morten; Magutshwa-Zitha, Sitholubuhle; Campbell, Catherine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recent debates on how to achieve an optimal HIV response are dominated by intervention strategies that fail to recognize children's role in the community response to HIV. Whilst formal responses are key to the HIV response, they must recognize and build on indigenous community resources. This study examines adult's perspectives on the role of children in the HIV response in the Matobo District of southern Zimbabwe. Methods Through a mix of individual interviews (n=19) and focus group discussions (n=9), 90 community members who were active in social groups spoke about their community response to HIV. Transcripts were subjected to a thematic analysis and coding to generate key concepts and representations. Findings In the wake of the HIV epidemic, traditional views of children's social value as domestic “helpers” have evolved into them being regarded as capable and competent actors in the care and support of people living with HIV or AIDS, and as integral to household survival. Yet concurrent representations of children with excessive caregiving responsibilities as potentially vulnerable and at risk suggest that there is a limit to the role of children in the HIV response. Conclusion Community volunteers and health staff delivering HIV services need to recognize the “behind the scene” role of children in the HIV response and ensure that children are incorporated into their modus operandi – both as social actors and as individuals in need of support. PMID:23394900

  3. A Critical Analysis of the Historical and Contemporary Status of Minority Languages in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree

    2011-01-01

    Although a voluminous amount of literature addresses language-in-education policy in Africa, one area in which the literature remains sparse is the role of minority languages in education. This article presents an overview of complex issues regarding the hegemony claims of different minority language groups in Zimbabwe. Given the relatively small…

  4. Science Teacher Training Programme in Rural Schools: An ODL Lesson from Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mhishi, Misheck; Bhukuvhani, Crispen Erinos; Sana, Abel Farikai

    2012-01-01

    This case study looked at 76 randomly selected preservice science teachers from Mbire and Guruve districts who were learning at the Mushumbi Centre in Zimbabwe and assessed their motivations for enrolling under the Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE)'s Virtual and Open Distance Learning (VODL) programme. It also looked at the challenges…

  5. Particles in Action. Study Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  6. The Role of UK Qualification Suppliers in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe: A Comparative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, J.; Little, A. W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on research on the role of UK qualifications suppliers in providing qualifications and accreditation in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe in the context of rather different engagements with liberalisation, structural adjustment and globalisation. Sri Lanka's economic liberalisation and growth since the late 1970s has had a "de facto"…

  7. Curriculum Issues: Teaching and Learning for Sustainable Development in Developing Countries--Zimbabwe Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dambudzo, Ignatius Isaac

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to investigate curriculum issues, teaching and learning for sustainable development in secondary schools in Zimbabwe. Education for sustainable development (ESD) aims at changing the approach to education by integrating principles, values, practices and needs in all forms of learning. Literature has documented the importance of…

  8. Seed Aid for Food Security? Some Lessons from Zimbabwe's Agricultural Recovery Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Richard; Muringai, Violet; Mavunganidze, Zira

    2007-01-01

    Does agricultural input aid always lead to favourable food security outcomes? This paper describes Zimbabwe's agricultural recovery program for the 2003/2004 farming season and draws some lessons that can be used in the designing and implementation of future programs. Input aid was found to be most beneficial if it is packaged together with other…

  9. Citizenship and Citizenship Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Zimbabwe Presidential Commission Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigauke, Aaron T.

    2011-01-01

    Educational discourse, like other fields, is not neutral. Through policy documents it has ideological functions of transmitting dominant cultures and serving certain sectional interest groups. In Zimbabwe 1998 was characterized by radical political discontent as witnessed by a rise in student activism and the formation of the main political…

  10. The Challenges of Revitalizing an Indigenous and Afrocentric Moral Theory in Postcolonial Education in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungwini, Pascah

    2011-01-01

    This work contributes to the philosophical debate on the normative dimension of postcolonial education in Zimbabwe. The work is a reaction to revelations made by the Commission of Inquiry into Education and Training of 1999 and its concomitant recommendations. Among its many observations, the Commission noted that there was a worrisome development…

  11. Challenges for Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Students: Experiences from Students of the Zimbabwe Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musingafi, Maxwell C. C.; Mapuranga, Barbra; Chiwanza, Kudzai; Zebron, Shupikai

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the challenges facing Open and Distance Learning students at the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU). The study was conducted at ZOU Masvingo Regional Campus. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The main data collection techniques were questionnaires and structured interviews,…

  12. Determinants of Students' Academic Performance in Four Selected Accounting Courses at University of Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Taderera, Ever; Mandimika, Elinah

    2013-01-01

    The study seeks to establish scientific evidence of the factors affecting academic performance for first year accounting students using four selected courses at the University of Zimbabwe. It uses Ordinary Least Squares method to analyse the influence of personal and family background on performance. The findings show that variables age gender,…

  13. Challenges of Virtual and Open Distance Science Teacher Education in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpofu, Vongai; Samukange, Tendai; Kusure, Lovemore M.; Zinyandu, Tinoidzwa M.; Denhere, Clever; Huggins, Nyakotyo; Wiseman, Chingombe; Ndlovu, Shakespear; Chiveya, Renias; Matavire, Monica; Mukavhi, Leckson; Gwizangwe, Isaac; Magombe, Elliot; Magomelo, Munyaradzi; Sithole, Fungai; Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE),

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the implementation of science teacher education through virtual and open distance learning in the Mashonaland Central Province, Zimbabwe. The study provides insight into challenges faced by students and lecturers on inception of the program at four centres. Data was collected from completed evaluation survey forms…

  14. The Teaching of African Traditional Religion in Primary Schools in Zimbabwe: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marashe, Joel; Ndamba, Gamuchirai Tsitsiozashe; Chireshe, Excellent

    2009-01-01

    Zimbabwe's Education Ministry recommended the teaching of African Traditional Religion in recognition of its multi-religious society. This study sought to establish the extent to which African Traditional Religion is taught in primary schools, the challenges faced by teachers, and opportunities for promoting its teaching. A descriptive survey…

  15. An Analysis of the Integration of Instructional Technology in Pre-Service Teacher Education in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiyo, Rodwell; Harmon, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    In the context of continuous innovations in information and communication technology (ICT) and its impact on higher education, this study explored the integration of instructional technology (IT) by university lecturers in pre-service secondary school teacher education programs in Zimbabwe. Specifically, the study examined how lecturers integrate…

  16. College-School Dialogue and Mentoring in Teacher Training Programmes in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunganidze, Omega

    2015-01-01

    Globally, mentoring has been recognized as one of the effective approaches in professional training and development of teachers. Most importantly, in Zimbabwe, mentoring has been largely adopted as one of the Teaching Practice strategies by teacher training colleges and schools. Good quality mentoring in schools makes an important contribution to…

  17. Developing Effective Learning Material to Students with Hearing Impairment (HI) through ODL in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpofu, John; Chimhenga, Sylod; Mafa, Onias

    2013-01-01

    Students with Hearing Impairment (HI) are experiencing learning problems in most institutions of Higher Learning in Zimbabwe. Access to colleges and universities is limited and where they are accepted, there are no facilities to cater for their needs, hence there is need to develop learning materials that enable these students to learn effectively…

  18. Reaction to rust by a subset of sorghum accessions from Zimbabwe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum rust (Puccinia purpurea) is a foliar disease that affects sorghum productivity worldwide. The use of resistant sources is the most effective and stable way to control the disease. In this study, 68 sorghum accessions from the Zimbabwe collection maintained by the USDA-ARS, Plant Genetic Re...

  19. Assessment of genetic diversity and anthracnose disease response among Zimbabwe sorghum germplasm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a Zimbabwe sorghum collection of 1,235 accessions from different provinces. This germplasm has not been extensively employed in U.S. breeding programs due to the lack of phenotypic and genetic characterization. Therefore, 68 accessions from th...

  20. Inconsistencies within Attachment Teaching Practice in Zimbabwe: Call for a Participatory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikunda, Charles

    2008-01-01

    This article raises some inconsistencies observed in attachment teaching practice in Zimbabwe. The argument made is that these inconsistencies are caused by the different philosophical approaches informing attachment teaching practice and its delivery, which is largely visible in teaching practice supervision. The discussion shows that while…

  1. Why Do They Stay: Factors Influencing Teacher Retention in Rural Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomba, Clifford

    2015-01-01

    The attraction and retention of teachers in Zimbabwe is a problem not only unique to Zimbabwean schools, but all over the world. The problem is more pronounced in rural areas where resources are scarce, hence the tendency to repel teachers. Although the problem of teacher turnover is real, there are teachers who have remained in the profession for…

  2. Government and Educational Reform: Policy Networks in Policy-Making in Zimbabwe, 1980-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyo, Nathan; Modiba, Maropeng M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on the key actors in education policy making in Zimbabwe. It looks at the contextual complexities that characterized policy-making in this country to make sense of the contestations that the state had to confront and accommodate. The policy network approach is employed as an analytical framework to clarify how, in particular…

  3. Beyond a Learning Society? It Is All to Be Done Again: Zambia and Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, David

    2006-01-01

    This article considers the ways in which educators and learning societies in Zambia and Zimbabwe have had to struggle to create independent, democratic and critical curricula in difficult circumstances over the last 50 years in the context of historical shifts in power, a declining British Empire and the re-emergence of reactionary forces at a…

  4. Zimbabwe's success story in education and health: will it weather economic structural adjustment?

    PubMed

    Tumwine, J K

    1992-12-01

    The beginning of the 1980s saw the birth of Zimbabwe as a result of a protracted liberation war. It coincided with global interest in primary health care, the concept of universal primary school education and, unfortunately, moves towards economic stabilization and structural adjustment programmes. Economic structural adjustment was adopted by several sub Saharan African countries with dire consequences for the poor and vulnerable. Zimbabwe's commitment to social justice and to equitable distribution of resources demonstrated a practical move away from the culture of rhetoric so characteristic of many governments and non-governmental organisations and agencies. This commitment has been translated into impressive improvements in health and education. Current evidence shows that education has had a positive impact on health and related areas like contraceptive use, child mortality and the nutrition status of children. Conversely nutrition and health conditions among school children are important determinants of educational outcomes. Hitherto Zimbabwe's economy has been sufficiently strong to avoid excessive dependence on the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and other foreign financial institutions. Unfortunately, however, the current economic recession together with economic structural adjustment programmes are beginning to have a negative impact on health and education. Will true synergism between health and education weather these structural problems? It seems that the people and government of Zimbabwe have the capacity and resolve to weather such a storm. PMID:1469676

  5. From Bus Stop to Farm Village: The Farm Worker Programme in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auret, Diana

    This book documents the history, successes, and failures of Save the Children's farmworker program in Zimbabwe, 1981-98. The report explores workers' past and present living and working conditions on commercial farms and describes how the program promoted a progression from workers with a migrant mentality to the building of functional…

  6. Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitakira, Munyaradzi; Torquebiau, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe. Design/Methodology/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations. Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional…

  7. "We Learn with Hope": Issues in Education on Commercial Farms in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auret, Di; McIvor, Chris; Chifunyise, Tisa; McCartney, Irene

    Although Zimbabwe has shown a strong commitment to improving educational access and quality, overall enrollment figures conceal major regional disparities and the lack of education and services in marginalized communities. One neglected sector of the population is the commercial farmworker community, currently comprising about two million hired…

  8. Teaching with and Learning through ICTs in Zimbabwe's Teacher Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musarurwa, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The use of ICTs (information and communication technologies) in Zimbabwe's teacher education colleges is of paramount importance. The teacher trainees have a dual role to play: learning through ICTs and also learning how to teach through them. Interestingly, the rate at which schools have embraced the use of ICTs is unprecedented, but this has not…

  9. Department Involvement in Instructional Materials Development for ODL Study at the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanyanyiwa, Vincent Itai; Mutambanengwe, Betty

    2015-01-01

    The teaching and designing of modules at Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) is the principal responsibility of a single body of teaching staff, although some authors and content reviewers could be sourced from elsewhere if they are not available in ZOU. This survey, through a case study, examines the involvement of lecturers and staff in the…

  10. The Nature, Extent and Effects of Emotional Abuse on Primary School Pupils by Teachers in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumba, Almon

    2002-01-01

    Data of reported cases of emotional abuse were collected from six Zimbabwe education offices and a questionnaire was administered to 150 primary school teacher trainees and 300 teachers. The majority of participants believe that shouting, scolding, use of vulgarities, humiliation, and negative labeling of pupils is done by female teachers.…

  11. A Decade of Educational Expansion in Zimbabwe: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Contradictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nhundu, Tichatonga J.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews experiences of Zimbabwe in implementing education in its first decade of independence, examining cases and effects of educational expansion, and policy dilemmas. New initiatives and a recommitment to current policies are recommended to equalize educational opportunities and provide universal elementary and secondary education. (SLD)

  12. An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Students' Adjustment at a University in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutambara, Julia; Bhebe, Veni

    2012-01-01

    This study provides insight into transition experiences and adjustment of students at a university in Zimbabwe. Research was based on students in the first three semesters of college. Based on prior research college adjustment was conceptualised in this study as involving personal, emotional, social and academic issues. The study was qualitative…

  13. Participatory Curriculum Development: Lessons Drawn from Teaching Environmental Education to Industry in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Leigh

    2004-01-01

    My experience of teaching the Rhodes University/Speciss College Environmental Education Course in Zimbabwe alerted me to a tension between the industry course participants who largely (although not entirely) wanted a skills/vocational training orientation and the course curriculum developers, who wanted a critical/theoretical/praxis-based…

  14. What is Matter? Teacher's Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  15. What is Matter? Study Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a two-part unit…

  16. Managing the Quality of Cross-Border Higher Education in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garwe, Evelyn Chiyevo

    2015-01-01

    A study on investigating the issues of quality associated with cross-border higher education was carried out using the case study approach focusing on Zimbabwe. The methodology involved document analysis of the cases of regulation and accreditation of cross-border higher education providers and assessment of qualifications acquired from foreign…

  17. The Extent of Teacher Participation in Decision-Making in Secondary Schools in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadesango, Newman

    2010-01-01

    In Zimbabwe, there have been some debates on democratisation and decentralisation, which led to the development of policies meant to increase teacher participation in decision-making in schools. However, despite these developments, teacher participation in decision-making in Zimbabwean schools is regarded as insignificant. Teachers work closely…

  18. Colonial Hangovers: Social Studies Curriculum Dilemmas for Zimbabwe--Implications for Indiana Social Studies Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nziramasanga, Caiphas T.

    This paper briefly examines the historical background to political independence in African nations, highlighting the control of the colonial masters on those nations. The "hangovers" describes how early colonial control has had serious influence on the development of social studies curriculum in Zimbabwe. The paper concludes by narrating the…

  19. Bandwidth Management in Universities in Zimbabwe: Towards a Responsible User Base through Effective Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitanana, Lockias

    2012-01-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the issue of how to maximise or make efficient use of bandwidth. In particular, the research sought to find out about what universities in Zimbabwe are doing to manage their bandwidth. It was, therefore, appropriate to survey a sample of five universities and to catalogue their experiences. Results show…

  20. Teaching Fractions at Ordinary Level: A Case Study of Mathematics Secondary School Teachers in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinyoka, Mirirai; Mutambara, Lillias H. N.; Chagwiza, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the teaching of fractions by Ordinary level mathematics teachers at Radcliff high school in Zimbabwe. The main objective of the study was to establish how teachers teach the concept of fraction and to find out why they teach in the manner they do. A case study research design was used and purposive sampling…

  1. Looking at Life. Teacher's Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  2. Looking at Life. Study Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  3. "Whipping into Line": The Dual Crisis of Education and Citizenship in Postcolonial Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matereke, Kudzai Pfuwai

    2012-01-01

    This article draws from my current research on the challenges that the concept "citizenship" brings to postcolonial Africa. The article takes Zimbabwe as a case study with the view to interrogate how the decade-long crisis has been obfuscated by the elites' manipulation of the education system which has left it redundant for envisioning both…

  4. Genome Sequences of Brucella abortus and Brucella suis Strains Isolated from Bovine in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Ledwaba, Betty; Mafofo, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This is a report of whole-genome sequences of a Brucella abortus strain and two Brucella suis strains isolated from bovine in Zimbabwe. These strains were selected based on their origin and data obtained when using multiplex PCR assays, then sequenced using next-generation sequencing technologies. PMID:25342680

  5. Legislation and Educational Policy in Zimbabwe: The State and the Reproduction of Patriarchy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rosemary

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the inadequacies of modernization theory of development and of research informed by modernization theory, in explaining the continuing exploitation and discrimination experienced by women in Zimbabwe. A historical overview of the state's perpetuating and reproducing patriarchy is presented that reveals the use of legislation and…

  6. Quality Assurance Challenges and Opportunities Faced by Private Universities in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garwe, Evelyn Chiyevo

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to provide an understanding of the quality assurance challenges and opportunities faced by private universities in Zimbabwe. The study analyzed the factors determining provision of quality higher education in private universities and the resultant effects of failing to achieve the minimum acceptable standards. The author employed…

  7. A magnetotelluric model of the Mana Pools basin, northern Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, D.; Whaler, K. A.; Zengeni, T.; Jones, P. C.; Gwavava, O.

    2000-05-01

    The Mana Pools sedimentary basin lies within the Zambezi mobile belt in northern Zimbabwe. New and preexisting magnetotelluric data and the available seismic reflection data are used to constrain the basin structure and the depth to the electrical basement. Long-period magnetotelluric (LMT) data were collected at five stations along a 60 km north-south profile across the Mana Pools basin and onto the southern escarpment. These data augment an existing audiofrequency (AMT) data set from 11 sites in the same area. The subsurface apparent resistivities measured at periods sampling the basin are very low (a few Ωm). After processing both data sets, the estimated impedance tensor is decomposed, showing that the resistivity structure of the Mana Pools basin can be modeled two dimensionally. The ρ+ algorithm is used to show that there is no systematic offset in magnitude between the AMT and LMT data sets before they are combined. Minimum structure resistivity models of the Mana Pools basin compare well with the information from reflection seismic data and support its previous description as a half graben basin of ˜7 km depth. The excellent conductor in the Mana Pools basin is quite different to those seen elsewhere in the orogenic belt in that it is a feature of the sedimentary fill rather than the basement. The resistivity of the basement is low but no localized good conductor is observed; these low resistivities may result from a high degree of either chemical or tectonic alteration to the underlying rocks due to metamorphic processes and tectonic disruption during rift formation.

  8. Assessing adult mortality in HIV-1-afflicted Zimbabwe (1998 -2003).

    PubMed Central

    Lopman, Ben A.; Barnabas, Ruanne; Hallett, Timothy B.; Nyamukapa, Constance; Mundandi, Costa; Mushati, Phyllis; Garnett, Geoff P.; Gregson, Simon

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare alternative methods to vital registration systems for estimating adult mortality, and describe patterns of mortality in Manicaland, Zimbabwe, which has been severely affected by HIV. METHODS: We compared estimates of adult mortality from (1) a single question on household mortality, (2) repeated household censuses, and (3) an adult cohort study with linked HIV testing from Manicaland, with a mathematical model fitted to local age-specific HIV prevalence (1998 -2000). FINDINGS: The crude death rate from the single question (29 per 1000 person-years) was roughly consistent with that from the mathematical model (22 -25 per 1000 person-years), but much higher than that from the household censuses (12 per 1000 person-years). Adult mortality in the household censuses (males 0.65; females 0.51) was lower than in the cohort study (males 0.77; females 0.57), while mathematical models gave a much higher estimate, especially for females (males 0.80 -0.83; females 0.75 -0.80). The population attributable fraction of adult deaths due to HIV was 0.61 for men and 0.70 for women, with life expectancy estimated to be 34.3 years for males and 38.2 years for females. CONCLUSION: Each method for estimating adult mortality had limitations in terms of loss to follow-up (cohort study), under-ascertainment (household censuses), transparency of underlying processes (single question), and sensitivity to parameterization (mathematical model). However, these analyses make clear the advantages of longitudinal cohort data, which provide more complete ascertainment than household censuses, highlight possible inaccuracies in model assumptions, and allow direct quantification of the impact of HIV. PMID:16583077

  9. Changes in the burden of malaria following scale up of malaria control interventions in Mutasa District, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To better understand trends in the burden of malaria and their temporal relationship to control activities, a survey was conducted to assess reported cases of malaria and malaria control activities in Mutasa District, Zimbabwe. Methods Data on reported malaria cases were abstracted from available records at all three district hospitals, three rural hospitals and 25 rural health clinics in Mutasa District from 2003 to 2011. Results Malaria control interventions were scaled up through the support of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and The President’s Malaria Initiative. The recommended first-line treatment regimen changed from chloroquine or a combination of chloroquine plus sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine to artemisinin-based combination therapy, the latter adopted by 70%, 95% and 100% of health clinics by 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Diagnostic capacity improved, with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) available in all health clinics by 2008. Vector control consisted of indoor residual spraying and distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets. The number of reported malaria cases initially increased from levels in 2003 to a peak in 2008 but then declined 39% from 2008 to 2010. The proportion of suspected cases of malaria in older children and adults remained high, ranging from 75% to 80%. From 2008 to 2010, the number of RDT positive cases of malaria decreased 35% but the decrease was greater for children younger than five years of age (60%) compared to older children and adults (26%). Conclusions The burden of malaria in Mutasa District decreased following the scale up of malaria control interventions. However, the persistent high number of cases in older children and adults highlights the need for strategies to identify locally effective control measures that target all age groups. PMID:23815862

  10. A qualitative assessment of the referral system at district level in Zimbabwe: implications on efficiency and effective delivery of health services.

    PubMed

    Hongoro, C; Musonza, T G; Macq, J; Anozie, A

    1998-04-01

    This exploratory study describes the nature and magnitude of the problem of health referrals, health-seeking behavior, perceptions, and knowledge at the district level in Zimbabwe. Data were obtained from focus groups with 159 persons in Tsholotsho and 132 persons in Murewa; from discussions with health personnel from the 6 health centers in Murewa and the 2 rural hospitals in Tsholotsho; and from records among a systematic sample of 400 new outpatients during October 1993 and March 1994 in Murewa district. Findings indicate that 71.8% in outpatient departments at Murewa Hospital had no access to a health center. 24.3% by-passed the health center for treatment at the hospital. 3.8% were referred by health centers. The absolute number of referrals did not change during 1991-93. However, the number directly accessing services from outside the district rose. Focus group participants reported their intention to use the nearest clinic for an illness. In Tsholotsho, people initially used the village community worker/headman. If illness was perceived as serious, patients would go to a hospital. For minor illness, people used traditional herbal remedies. If illness did not change after remedies, the clinic was consulted. Some illnesses were perceived as outside the realm of medicine. Most distinguished between a health center and a hospital, but were unaware of the important, superior functions of the health center. Most did not understand the logic behind the referral system, but appreciated referrals and not the cost of hospital treatment or transportation. The community was unaware of Ward Health Teams. Many did not understand the new fee policy introduced in 1994. PMID:9810401

  11. Insecticide resistance in malaria-transmitting mosquitoes in Zimbabwe: a review.

    PubMed

    Soko, White; Chimbari, Moses J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a global public health problem, with about 3.2 billion people at risk of infection. The populations at risk mainly reside in Africa, Asia and America, with African populations accounting for the largest burden of the disease. In 2013, close to 198 million malaria cases were reported, leading to 584,000 deaths. Much (90 %) of the mortality rates were recorded from the World Health Organization (WHO) database in the African region and 78 % of these occurred in children under the age of five. In Zimbabwe, approximately half of the population is at risk of infection with malaria.Insecticide residual spraying (IRS) has been documented as an effective way to control malaria and has been adopted globally by the WHO and national governments. However, both insecticide resistance and climate change threaten to reverse the progress made by IRS in malaria control. Resistance has been reported in all four classes of insecticides approved by the WHO for vector control intervention. Variability of environmental temperature is suspected to complicate the situation through alteration in the genetic structure, and enzyme and protein profiles of mosquitoes. In Zimbabwe, little research has been done on the interaction between climate change, temperature variability and insecticide resistance in malarial mosquitoes over time. Such information is important for informing policies on insecticide selection for IRS.We reviewed literature on insecticide sensitivity among malarial mosquitoes in Zimbabwe from 1972 to 2014. International peer-reviewed articles on insecticide sensitivity in Zimbabwe, published in English in this time period, were searched using MEDLINE® (PubMed), Google Scholar, Google and grey literature. Eight publications were eligible for the present study, with one of the articles being a review paper. Six articles covered insecticide resistance, while the other two articles, published in 2000, were about the absence of resistance. Contradicting resistance

  12. Lone motherhood in Zimbabwe: the socioeconomic conditions of lone parents and their children.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Otrude N; Kawewe, Saliwe M

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and characteristics of lone motherhood in Zimbabwe. We argue that endogenous and exogenous forces associated with failing economies and gendered public policy structures, practices, and initiatives exacerbated by HIV/AIDS and intermittent droughts have worsened national poverty with much more devastation experienced by lone mothers and their children. Using vignettes of lone parents drawn from Zimbabwe, this paper extends the perspectives on lone motherhood to show the extent of poverty experienced by lone mothers as well as the varied formations and structures of lone parenthood. The vignettes highlight the socioeconomic concerns for these families regarding inadequate income, lack of access to employment, lack of housing, and problematic governmental policies that affect the well-being of lone mothers and their families. We conclude with a discussion of the role of social policy in managing the context in which lone mothers and their families must live and function. PMID:19229781

  13. "Living from day to day": food insecurity, complexity, and coping in muTare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gwatirisa, Pauline; Manderson, Lenore

    2012-01-01

    In Zimbabwe, unpredictable conditions associated with structural and institutional factors exacerbated the combined effects of structural violence, economic and political instability, and climate change in the mid 2000s, contributing to widespread food insecurity. Drought, food shortages, and government settlement policy affecting both rural and urban populations has yielded a national human rights crisis. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Mutare, southeast Zimbabwe, in 2005-2006, the authors illustrate the flow-on effects of drought and government policy on the livelihoods of households already suffering as a result of the social impacts of AIDS, and how people in a regional city responded to these factors, defining and meeting their basic food needs in diverse ways. PMID:22455860

  14. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation of Zimbabwean women in Zimbabwe and Britain.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Mada, Rujeko; Tovée, Martin J

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have investigated a cultural group's corporeal experiences in both its country of origin and a host, Western country using the same methodology. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study examined body image among 140 women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and an age-matched sample of 138 Zimbabwean migrants in Britain. Participants completed measures of actual-ideal weight discrepancy, body appreciation, and lifetime exposure to Western and Zimbabwean media. Preliminary analyses showed that there were no significant differences in body mass index between the two groups. Further analyses showed that Zimbabwean women in Britain had significantly greater weight discrepancy and lower body appreciation than their counterparts in Zimbabwe. In addition, weight discrepancy and body appreciation among both samples were significantly associated with exposure to Western media, but not Zimbabwean media. These findings support the contention that transcultural migration may place individuals at risk for symptoms of negative body image. PMID:22717762

  15. Development of a rainfall sensitive tree-ring chronology in Zimbabwe

    SciTech Connect

    Stahle, D.W.; Cleaveland, M.K.; Nicholson, S.E.

    1997-11-01

    This paper reports the discovery of annual tree ring formation in two species of trees in Zimbabwe and describes their paleoclimatic reconstruction potential. Due to the strong influence of El Nino-Southern Oscillation on the climate and crop yields of Zimbabwe and surrenting areas, and the rarity of annual tree ring chronologies in the tropics, the discovery of climatically sensitive growth rings is extremely significant. In particular, the Pterocarpus angolensis shows a strong correlation between the derived tree ring chronology and regional rainfall amounts. Based on sampling at the Sikumi Forest, it is speculated that P. angolensis may routinely achieve over 200 years in age. Four lines of evidence are identified which indicate that the semi-ring porous growth bands in P. angolensis are exactly annual growth rings. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Cholera in Zimbabwe: Developing an Educational Response to a Health Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandikonza, Caleb; Musindo, Beatrice; Taylor, Jim

    2011-01-01

    In February 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that the cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe had claimed 3,300 lives and infected 66,000 people--greater than the toll of that disease in the whole of Africa in most years. How is it possible that a disease such as cholera can have such a devastating effect in modern times? How should one…

  17. Population and development problems: a critical assessment of conventional wisdom. The case of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sibanda, A E

    1988-01-01

    Conventional wisdom, as reflected in reports by the World Bank and the Whitsun Foundation, maintains that control of population growth is the key strategy for stimulating socioeconomic development and ending widespread poverty. The Witsun Foundation has criticized the Government of Zimbabwe for failing to include specific policies for population control in its National Transitional Development Plan. the report further expressed alarm about future availability of land to contain Zimbabwe's growing population. Communal areas are designed for a maximum of 325,000 families yet presently contain 700-800,000 families. This Malthusian, deterministic emphasis on population growth as the source of social ills ignores the broader, complex set of socioeconomic, historical, and political factors that determine material life. Any analysis of population that fails to consider the class structure of society, the type of division of labor, and forms of property and production can produce only meaningless abstractions. For example, consideration of crowding in communal areas must include consideration of inequitable patterns of land ownership in sub-Saharan Africa. Unemployment must be viewed within the context of a capitalist economic structure that relies on an industrial reserve army of labor to ensure acceptance of low wages and labor-intensive conditions. While it is accepted that population growth is creating specific and real problems in Zimbabwe and other African countries, these problems could be ameliorated by land reform and restructuring of the export-oriented colonial economies. Similarly, birth control should not be promoted as the solution to social problems, yet family planning services should be available to raise the status of women. Literacy, agrarian reform, agricultural modernization, and industrialization campaigns free from the dominance of Western capitalism represent the true solutions to Zimbabwe's problems. PMID:12342943

  18. Trichinella zimbabwensis in wild reptiles of Zimbabwe and Mozambique and farmed reptiles of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Pozio, Edoardo; Foggin, Chris M; Gelanew, Tesfaye; Marucci, Gianluca; Hailu, Asrat; Rossi, Patrizia; Morales, Maria Angeles Gomez

    2007-02-28

    In 1995, a new species of Trichinella (Trichinella zimbabwensis) was discovered in farmed Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe, where the mode of transmission was the consumption of the meat of slaughtered crocodiles, used as feed. To determine whether T. zimbabwensis affects poikilotherm vertebrates in the wild, monitor lizards (Varanus niloticus) and Nile crocodiles were collected in Zimbabwe and Mozambique. In 5 (17.6%) of the 28 monitor lizards from Zimbabwe, T. zimbabwensis larvae were identified. For the wild Nile crocodiles from Mozambique, species-level identification was not possible, yet immunohistochemical analysis revealed that 8 (20%) of the 40 animals harboured non-encapsulated Trichinella sp. larvae, which probably belonged to T. zimbabwensis. This is the first report of T. zimbabwensis in wild reptiles, and the findings are consistent with reports that vertebrates with scavenger and cannibalistic behaviour are the most important hosts of Trichinella spp. The wide distribution of monitor lizards and crocodiles in Africa and the development of national crocodile breeding programs in many African countries should be taken into consideration when evaluating the risk of transmission of this parasite to mammals, including humans. PMID:16982152

  19. Mainstreaming gender in integrated water resources management: the case of Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manase, G.; Ndamba, J.; Makoni, F.

    Zimbabwe embarked on a water sector reform programme in 1995. Two goals of the water reform were to broaden women’s access to water and to enhance their participation in water management. This paper analyses how gender was addressed at the national and institutional levels and in the water reform process, paying particular attention on how strategic gender needs were addressed in the process and the resultant policies and Acts. The results show that although the government of Zimbabwe has made considerable progress in mainstreaming gender at the ministerial level, departments which are involved in the actual implementation of water programmes do not have clear gender policies. Therefore although gender equity was one of the main goals of the water reform, most poor women and men were not involved in the consultations. Consequently neither the new Water Act nor the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA) Act addresses gender in explicit terms. Strategic gender needs are not addressed at all. It is recommended that all institutions in the water sector, including NGOs, should have clear gender policies, include a gender perspective in their organisation culture and practices and address strategic gender needs through training, education and supporting productive use of water.

  20. A review of new challenges and prospects for malaria elimination in Mutare and Mutasa Districts, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sande, Shadreck; Zimba, Moses; Chinwada, Peter; Masendu, Hieronymo Takundwa; Mberikunshe, Joseph; Makuwaza, Aramu

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines and discusses the new challenges in malaria control and prospects for its elimination in Mutare and Mutasa Districts, Zimbabwe. The burden of malaria has declined significantly over the past 5 years in most regions in Zimbabwe, including Mutare and Mutasa Districts. The nationwide malaria reduction has been primarily linked to scaled-up vector control interventions and early diagnosis and treatment with effective anti-malarial medicines. The successes recorded have prompted Zimbabwe's National Malaria Control Programme to commit to a global health agenda of eliminating malaria in all districts in the country. However, despite the decline in malaria burden in Mutare and Mutasa Districts, there is clear evidence of new challenges, including changes in vector behaviour, resistance to insecticides and anti-malarial medicines, invasion of new areas by vectors, vectors in various combination of sympatry, changes in vector proportions, outdoor malaria transmission, climate change and lack of meticulousness of spray operators. These new challenges are likely to retard the shift from malaria control to elimination in Mutare and Mutasa Districts. PMID:27411705

  1. Rabies in Zimbabwe: reservoir dogs and the implications for disease control.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, C J; Atkinson, R P; Anderson, R M; Macdonald, D W

    1998-06-29

    Using detailed field study observations of the side-striped jackal (Canis adustus) and a simple stochastic model of the transmission dynamics of the virus and host demography, we discuss the epidemiology of rabies virus infection in the jackal population of Zimbabwe. Of the two jackal species in Zimbabwe, the other being the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas), the bulk of notified rabies cases are in side-striped jackals. Specifically, we show that the side-striped jackal population itself does not seem able to support rabies infection endemically, i.e. without frequent reintroduction from outside sources of infection. We argue that this is probably because the overall average jackal population density is too low to maintain the chain of infection. This study suggests that the disease is regularly introduced to jackals by rabid dogs from populations associated with human settlements. Given the rapidly rising dog population in Zimbabwe, estimates are derived of the future incidence of jackal rabies based on different dog-vaccination scenarios. PMID:9684293

  2. Maternal versus paternal orphans and HIV/STI risk among adolescent girls in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Kang, M; Dunbar, M; Laver, S; Padian, N

    2008-02-01

    The AIDS epidemic has contributed to a drastic increase in the number of orphans in Zimbabwe. Orphans (whether orphaned by AIDS or other causes) have been shown to have economic and educational disadvantages as well as poor reproductive health outcomes. We recruited a convenience sample of 200 girls in a peri-urban area of Zimbabwe to examine the impact of orphan status (compared to non-orphans) on household composition, education, risk behaviour, pregnancy and prevalent HIV and HSV-2 infection. In our population, maternal orphans were more likely to be in households headed by themselves or a sibling, to be sexually active, to have had an STI, to have been pregnant and to be infected with HIV. Paternal orphans were more likely to have ever been homeless and to be out of school. Our findings suggest that maternal care and support is important for HIV prevention. This finding corroborates previous research in Zimbabwe and has implications for intervention strategies among orphan girls. PMID:18293132

  3. HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants in Zimbabwe: Insights into Health Outcomes in the Pre-Antiretroviral Therapy Era.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ceri; Humphrey, Jean H; Ntozini, Robert; Prendergast, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The ZVITAMBO trial recruited 14,110 mother-infant pairs to a randomized controlled trial of vitamin A between 1997 and 2000, before the availability of antiretroviral therapy for HIV prophylaxis or treatment in Zimbabwe. The HIV status of mothers and infants was well characterized through 1-2 years of follow-up, leading to the largest cohort to date of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants (n = 3135), with a suitable comparison group of HIV-unexposed infants (n = 9510). Here, we draw on 10 years of published findings from the ZVITAMBO trial. HEU infants had increased morbidity compared to HIV-unexposed infants, with 50% more hospitalizations in the neonatal period and 30% more sick clinic visits during infancy, particularly for skin infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and oral thrush. HEU children had 3.9-fold and 2.0-fold higher mortality than HIV-unexposed children during the first and second years of life, respectively, most commonly due to acute respiratory infections, diarrhea/dysentery, malnutrition, sepsis, and meningitis. Infant morbidity and mortality were strongly related to maternal HIV disease severity, and increased morbidity remained until maternal CD4 counts were >800 cells/μL. HEU infants were more likely to be premature and small-for-gestational age than HIV-unexposed infants, and had more postnatal growth failure. Here, we propose a conceptual framework to explain the increased risk of infectious morbidity, mortality, and growth failure among HEU infants, hypothesizing that immune activation and inflammation are key drivers of both infection susceptibility and growth failure. Future studies should further dissect the causes of infection susceptibility and growth failure and determine the impact of ART and cotrimoxazole on outcomes of this vulnerable group of infants in the current era. PMID:27375613

  4. HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants in Zimbabwe: Insights into Health Outcomes in the Pre-Antiretroviral Therapy Era

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Ceri; Humphrey, Jean H.; Ntozini, Robert; Prendergast, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The ZVITAMBO trial recruited 14,110 mother–infant pairs to a randomized controlled trial of vitamin A between 1997 and 2000, before the availability of antiretroviral therapy for HIV prophylaxis or treatment in Zimbabwe. The HIV status of mothers and infants was well characterized through 1–2 years of follow-up, leading to the largest cohort to date of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants (n = 3135), with a suitable comparison group of HIV-unexposed infants (n = 9510). Here, we draw on 10 years of published findings from the ZVITAMBO trial. HEU infants had increased morbidity compared to HIV-unexposed infants, with 50% more hospitalizations in the neonatal period and 30% more sick clinic visits during infancy, particularly for skin infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and oral thrush. HEU children had 3.9-fold and 2.0-fold higher mortality than HIV-unexposed children during the first and second years of life, respectively, most commonly due to acute respiratory infections, diarrhea/dysentery, malnutrition, sepsis, and meningitis. Infant morbidity and mortality were strongly related to maternal HIV disease severity, and increased morbidity remained until maternal CD4 counts were >800 cells/μL. HEU infants were more likely to be premature and small-for-gestational age than HIV-unexposed infants, and had more postnatal growth failure. Here, we propose a conceptual framework to explain the increased risk of infectious morbidity, mortality, and growth failure among HEU infants, hypothesizing that immune activation and inflammation are key drivers of both infection susceptibility and growth failure. Future studies should further dissect the causes of infection susceptibility and growth failure and determine the impact of ART and cotrimoxazole on outcomes of this vulnerable group of infants in the current era. PMID:27375613

  5. Access and Quality in Education in Resettlement Schools: The Case Study of Zvivingwi Secondary School in Gutu District, Masvingo Province in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenjekwa, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    In Zimbabwe, the discourse on access and quality in education has been a raging one since the colonial days of bottlenecks and outright discrimination against black Zimbabweans in education. The doors to education were declared open to all at independence in 1980 with the new Zimbabwe government's enunciated policy of education for all. It is an…

  6. The Challenges of Using the Communicative Approach (CA) in the Teaching of English as a Second Language (ESL) in Zimbabwe: Implications for ESL Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutekwa, Anias

    2013-01-01

    This article examines studies done on the use of the CA locally, in addition to insights from studies done abroad, as well as critically examining the nature of the CA and the language situation in Zimbabwe, to identify and discuss the main challenges associated with the use of this approach to the teaching of ESL in Zimbabwe and its implications…

  7. The Uses and Consequences of Literacy in the Daily Lives of Ordinary People: From an Evaluation of Adult Literacy Organization of Zimbabwe (ALOZ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    To evaluate the Adult Literacy Organization of Zimbabwe (ALOZ), an organization whose aim is to achieve universal literacy in Zimbabwe, a study interviewed officials at ALOZ, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and other institutions involved in literacy development; reviewed relevant literature and documents;…

  8. We Are Your Children: The Kushanda Early Childhood Education and Care Dissemination Programme, Zimbabwe 1985-1993. Early Childhood Development: Practice and Reflections, Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Salih

    Part of the series "Early Childhood Development: Practice and Reflections," this report details the Kushanda Project, an early childhood education program in Zimbabwe. The Kushanda Project is a 16-person organization that has helped parents in rural Zimbabwe communities to understand the value of early childhood education and development. Since…

  9. Hospital fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L; Hill, Austin D; Mead, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    Under the current system, orthopaedic trauma surgeons must work in some form of hospital setting as our primary service involves treatment of the trauma patient. We must not forget that just as a trauma center cannot exist without our services, we cannot function without their support. As a result, a clear understanding of the balance between physicians and hospitals is paramount. Historical perspective enables physicians and hospital personnel alike to understand the evolution of hospital-physician relationship. This process should be understood upon completion of this chapter. The relationship between physicians and hospitals is becoming increasingly complex and multiple forms of integration exist such as joint ventures, gain sharing, and co-management agreements. For the surgeon to negotiate well, an understanding of hospital governance and the role of the orthopaedic traumatologist is vital to success. An understanding of the value provided by the traumatologist includes all aspects of care including efficiency, availability, cost effectiveness, and research activities. To create effective and sustainable healthcare institutions, physicians and hospitals must be aligned over a sustained period of time. Unfortunately, external forces have eroded the historical basis for the working relationship between physicians and hospitals. Increased competition and reimbursement cuts, coupled with the increasing demands for quality, efficiency, and coordination and the payment changes outlined in healthcare reform, have left many organizations wondering how to best rebuild the relationship. The principal goal for the physician when partnering with a hospital or healthcare entity is to establish a sustainable model of service line management that protects or advances the physician's ability to make impactful improvements in quality of patient care, decreases in healthcare costs, and improvements in process efficiency through evidence-based practices and protocols. PMID

  10. The impact of herbal remedies on adverse effects and quality of life in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bepe, Nyasha; Madanhi, Nathan; Mudzviti, Tinashe; Gavi, Samuel; Maponga, Charles Chiedza; Morse, Gene D

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Use of herbal remedies among HIV-infected individuals in Africa increased in the past decade, mainly due to traditional beliefs and at times inconsistent access to antiretroviral drugs. In Zimbabwe, accessibility and availability of antiretroviral drugs has increased in recent years; however, the use of herbal remedies remains high. This study was conducted to determine the impact of concomitant use of herbal remedies with antiretroviral drugs on adverse events and on quality of life. Methodology A convenient sample of HIV positive patients at Parirenyatwa group of hospitals' Family Care Clinic (Harare, Zimbabwe) was enrolled. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the adverse event experiences of the patients using herbal remedies for their HIV, as well as the types of herbal remedy used. Quality of life index was measured using an HIV/AIDS targeted quality of life (HAT-QOL) tool developed by the World Health Organization. Results Abdominal pain (odds ratio = 2.7, p-value = 0.01) and rash (odds ratio = 2.5, p-value = 0.02) had significant associations with using herbal remedies during antiretroviral therapy. Improved quality of life index was not significantly associated with herbal remedy use during antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions There is evidence to suggest that some traditional herbal remedies used in Zimbabwe may increase incidence of certain types of adverse events when used in combination with antiretroviral drugs. Use of herbal drugs in combination with antiretroviral therapy does not significantly improve quality of life index in comparison to antiretroviral drug use only. PMID:21330740

  11. Hospital Hints

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Division of Neuroscience FAQs Funding Opportunities Intramural Research Program Office of ... have to spend the night in the hospital. Learning more about what to expect and about people ...

  12. Hospital philanthropy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dean G; Clement, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    It remains an open question whether hospital spending on fundraising efforts to garner philanthropy is a good use of funds. Research and industry reports provide conflicting results. We describe the accounting and data challenges in analysis of hospital philanthropy, which include measurement of donations, measurement of fundraising expenses, and finding the relationships among organizations where these cash flows occur. With these challenges, finding conflicting results is not a surprise. PMID:23614267

  13. Factors Associated with Ever Being HIV-Tested in Zimbabwe: An Extended Analysis of the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (2010–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Takarinda, Kudakwashe Collin; Madyira, Lydia Kudakwashe; Mhangara, Mutsa; Makaza, Victor; Maphosa-Mutsaka, Memory; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Kilmarx, Peter H.; Mutasa-Apollo, Tsitsi; Ncube, Getrude; Harries, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Zimbabwe has a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden. It is therefore important to scale up HIV-testing and counseling (HTC) as a gateway to HIV prevention, treatment and care. Objective To determine factors associated with being HIV-tested among adult men and women in Zimbabwe. Methods Secondary analysis was done using data from 7,313 women and 6,584 men who completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and provided blood specimens for HIV testing during the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) 2010–11. Factors associated with ever being HIV-tested were determined using multivariate logistic regression. Results HIV-testing was higher among women compared to men (61% versus 39%). HIV-infected respondents were more likely to be tested compared to those who were HIV-negative for both men [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.27–1.84)] and women [AOR = 1.42; 95% CI (1.20–1.69)]. However, only 55% and 74% of these HIV-infected men and women respectively had ever been tested. Among women, visiting antenatal care (ANC) [AOR = 5.48, 95% CI (4.08–7.36)] was the most significant predictor of being tested whilst a novel finding for men was higher odds of testing among those reporting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past 12 months [AOR = 1.86, 95%CI (1.26–2.74)]. Among men, the odds of ever being tested increased with age ≥20 years, particularly those 45–49 years [AOR = 4.21; 95% CI (2.74–6.48)] whilst for women testing was highest among those aged 25–29 years [AOR = 2.01; 95% CI (1.63–2.48)]. Other significant factors for both sexes were increasing education level, higher wealth status and currently/formerly being in union. Conclusions There remains a high proportion of undiagnosed HIV-infected persons and hence there is a need for innovative strategies aimed at increasing HIV-testing, particularly for men and in lower-income and lower-educated populations. Promotion of STI

  14. DNA sequence analyses reveal co-occurrence of novel haplotypes of Fasciola gigantica with F. hepatica in South Africa and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mucheka, Vimbai T; Lamb, Jennifer M; Pfukenyi, Davies M; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-11-30

    The aim of this study was to identify and determine the genetic diversity of Fasciola species in cattle from Zimbabwe, the KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa and selected wildlife hosts from Zimbabwe. This was based on analysis of DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and 2) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) regions. The sample of 120 flukes was collected from livers of 57 cattle at 4 abattoirs in Zimbabwe and 47 cattle at 6 abattoirs in South Africa; it also included three alcohol-preserved duiker, antelope and eland samples from Zimbabwe. Aligned sequences (ITS 506 base pairs and CO1 381 base pairs) were analyzed by neighbour-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. Phylogenetic trees revealed the presence of Fasciola gigantica in cattle from Zimbabwe and F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica in the samples from South Africa. F. hepatica was more prevalent (64%) in South Africa than F. gigantica. In Zimbabwe, F. gigantica was present in 99% of the samples; F. hepatica was found in only one cattle sample, an antelope (Hippotragus niger) and a duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia). This is the first molecular confirmation of the identity Fasciola species in Zimbabwe and South Africa. Knowledge on the identity and distribution of these liver flukes at molecular level will allow disease surveillance and control in the studied areas. PMID:26476916

  15. [Laennec Hospital].

    PubMed

    Dauphin, A; Mazin-Deslandes, C

    2000-01-01

    When the Laennec Hospital of Paris closed, after 366 years of activities for the patients, the articles about the circumstances of the foundation and the main stapes of the institution which became an very famous university hospital it present the available information of the history of the apothecaries, of the "gagnants-maitrise", pharmacists and the pharmacy's interns who succeeded themselves to create and dispense the medicaments necessary to the patients hospitalized or welcomed in ambulatory. It describes the evolution of the places, of the material, of forms, of the organization, of the medicaments and of the missions of what became the Pharmacy department after the recent individualization of the biological analysis in the biochemistry. PMID:11625687

  16. Comparative Cost Analysis of Surgical and PrePex Device Male Circumcision in Zimbabwe and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Schutte, Carl; Tshimanga, M; Mugurungi, Owen; Come, Iotamo; Necochea, Edgar; Mahomed, Mehebub; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Bossemeyer, Debora; Ferreira, Thais; Macaringue, Lucinda; Chatikobo, Pessanai; Gundididza, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The PrePex device has proven to be safe for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in adults in several African countries. Costing studies were conducted as part of a PrePex/Surgery comparison study in Zimbabwe and a pilot implementation study in Mozambique. Methods: The studies calculated per male circumcision unit costs using a cost–analysis approach. Both direct costs (consumable and nonconsumable supplies, device, personnel, associated staff training) and selected indirect costs (capital and support personnel costs) were calculated. Results: The cost comparison in Zimbabwe showed a unit cost per VMMC of $45.50 for PrePex and $53.08 for surgery. The unit cost difference was based on higher personnel and consumable supplies costs for the surgical procedure, which used disposable instrument kits. In Mozambique, the costing analysis estimated a higher unit cost for PrePex circumcision ($40.66) than for surgery ($20.85) because of higher consumable costs, particularly the PrePex device and lower consumable supplies costs for the surgical procedure using reusable instruments. Supplies and direct staff costs contributed 87.2% for PrePex and 65.8% for surgical unit costs in Mozambique. Discussion: PrePex device male circumcision could potentially be cheaper than surgery in Zimbabwe, especially in settings that lack the infrastructure and personnel required for surgical VMMC, and this might result in programmatic cost savings. In Mozambique, the surgical procedure seems to be less costly compared with PrePex mainly because of higher consumable supplies costs. With reduced device unit costs, PrePex VMMC could become more cost-efficient and considered as complementary for Mozambique's VMMC scale-up program. PMID:27331599

  17. Retrospective study of colorectal cancer in Zimbabwe: Colonoscopic and clinical correlates

    PubMed Central

    Katsidzira, Leolin; Gangaidzo, Innocent Tichaona; Mapingure, Munyaradzi Paul; Matenga, Jonathan Arthur

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare differences in the frequency of colorectal cancer at colonoscopy in Zimbabwe according to ethnicity. METHODS: All lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures performed between January 2006 and December 2011 at a gastroenterology clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe were reviewed. The demographic characteristics, clinical indications, differences in bowel preparation and the endoscopic and histological diagnoses were compared between different ethnic groups with emphasis on colorectal cancer. The clinical and demographic characteristics and the endoscopic findings were compared using the student t-test and the χ2 test, while the clinical indications associated with a diagnosis of colorectal cancer were determined by logistic regression. RESULTS: All colonoscopies and sigmoidoscopies performed in 1236 Caucasians, 460 black Africans and 109 Asians were analysed. Colorectal cancer was diagnosed more frequently in the black African patients compared to Caucasians or Asians (10% vs 3%, 10% vs 2%, P < 0.001). However, polyps were less common among black Africans (5%) compared to both Caucasians (8%) and Asians (9%) (P = 0.03). Among patients with colorectal cancer, black Africans tended to be younger than Caucasians, who were over-represented in the oldest age category; 32 % vs 2% were less than 50 years and 41% vs 78% were older than 60 years (P < 0.001). Anaemia and weight loss were associated with colorectal cancer in both black African [odds ratio (OR): 2.73 (95%CI: 1.33-5.61) and 3.09 (1.35-7.07)] and Caucasian patients [OR: 6.65 (95%CI: 2.93-15.09) and 3.47 (1.52-7.94)]. CONCLUSION: The likelihood of diagnosing colorectal cancer in patients referred for colonoscopy in Zimbabwe is at least as likely among black Africans as it is among Caucasians. PMID:25741144

  18. Policy development in malaria vector management in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Cliff, Julie; Lewin, Simon; Woelk, Godfrey; Fernandes, Benedita; Mariano, Alda; Sevene, Esperança; Daniels, Karen; Matinhure, Sheillah; Oxman, Andrew; Lavis, John

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), two principal malaria control strategies, are similar in cost and efficacy. We aimed to describe recent policy development regarding their use in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Methods Using a qualitative case study methodology, we undertook semi-structured interviews of key informants from May 2004 to March 2005, carried out document reviews and developed timelines of key events. We used an analytical framework that distinguished three broad categories: interests, ideas and events. Results A disparate mix of interests and ideas slowed the uptake of ITNs in Mozambique and Zimbabwe and prevented uptake in South Africa. Most respondents strongly favoured one strategy over the other. In all three countries, national policy makers favoured IRS, and only in Mozambique did national researchers support ITNs. Outside interests in favour of IRS included manufacturers who supplied the insecticides and groups opposing environmental regulation. International research networks, multilateral organizations, bilateral donors and international NGOs supported ITNs. Research evidence, local conditions, logistic feasibility, past experience, reaction to outside ideas, community acceptability, the role of government and NGOs, and harm from insecticides used in spraying influenced the choice of strategy. The end of apartheid permitted a strongly pro-IRS South Africa to influence the region, and in Mozambique and Zimbabwe, floods provided conditions conducive to ITN distribution. Conclusions Both IRS and ITNs have a place in integrated malaria vector management, but pro-IRS interests and ideas slowed or prevented the uptake of ITNs. Policy makers needed more than evidence from trials to change from the time-honoured IRS strategy that they perceived was working. Those intending to promote new policies such as ITNs should examine the interests and ideas motivating key stakeholders and their own

  19. Participatory diagnosis and prioritization of constraints to cattle production in some smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Chatikobo, P; Choga, T; Ncube, C; Mutambara, J

    2013-05-01

    A participatory epidemiological study was conducted to identify and prioritize constraints to livestock health and production on smallholder farms in Sanyati and Gokwe districts of Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to 294 randomly selected livestock owners across the two districts. Livestock diseases (29% of the respondents), high cost of drugs (18.21%), weak veterinary extension (15.18%), inadequate grazing (13.60%), inadequate water (13.54%), and livestock thefts (10.44%) were the major livestock health and production constraints identified. The number of diseases reported varied (P<0.05) with livestock species and nature of causative agent. Out of the 36 diseases mentioned by farmers, 50%, 22.2%, 19.4%, 5.5% and 2.8% were diseases of cattle, sheep and goats, domestic chicken, donkeys, and guinea fowls, respectively. Seven (19.4%) of the 36 diseases including rabies and foot and mouth disease were those listed by the OIE. Thirty-four percent of the respondents rated bovine dermatophilosis as the most important livestock disease. Respondents rated, in descending order, other diseases including tick borne diseases (21%); a previously unreported disease, "Magwiriri" or "Ganda renzou" in vernacular (14%); mastitis (11%); parafilariosis (11%); and blackleg (9%). Cattle skin samples from "Magwiriri" cases had Besnoitia besnoiti parasites. Overall, this study revealed factors and diseases that limit livestock production in Zimbabwe and are of global concern; in addition, the study showed that the skin diseases, bovine dermatophilosis and besnoitiosis, have recently emerged and appear to be spreading, likely a consequence of ectoparasite control demise in smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe over the last 15 years. PMID:23149306

  20. No joking matter: formal and informal sources of information about AIDS in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Pitts, M; Jackson, H

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and forty-two social work students in Harare, Zimbabwe, were questioned concerning their sources and memory of information concerning the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS. Newspapers were cited most frequently as the major source of information. Family and friends were not reported to be major sources of information. An analysis of the kinds of items most frequently recalled showed that articles concerning personal portrayals were the most powerful vehicles for AIDS information. Metaphors and similes for AIDS produced by the students mirrored those commonly reported elsewhere. Jokes were studied as indicators of informal opinions, and these showed negative views of American involvement in AIDS issues. PMID:8217473

  1. Effectiveness of conservation agriculture practices on soil erosion processes in semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikwari, Emmanuel; Mhaka, Luke; Gwandu, Tariro; Chipangura, Tafadzwa; Misi Manyanga, Amos; Sabastian Matsenyengwa, Nyasha; Rabesiranana, Naivo; Mabit, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    - The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) in soil erosion and redistribution studies has gained popularity since the late 1980s. In Zimbabwe, soil erosion research was mostly based on conventional methods which included the use of erosion plots for quantitative measurements and erosion models for predicting soil losses. Only limited investigation to explore the possibility of using Caesium-137 (Cs-137) has been reported in the early 1990s for undisturbed and cultivated lands in Zimbabwe. In this study, the Cs-137 technique was applied to assess the impact of soil conservation practices on soil losses and to develop strategies and support effective policies that help farmers in Zimbabwe for sustainable land management. The study was carried out at the Makoholi research station 30 km north of the Masvingo region which is located 260 km south of Harare. The area is semi-arid and the study site comprises coarse loamy sands, gleyic lixisols. The conservation agriculture (CA) practices used within the area since 1988 include (i) direct seeding (DS) with mulch, (ii) CA basins with mulch, and (iii) 18 years direct seeding, left fallow for seven years and turned into conventional tillage since 2012 (DS/F/C). The Cs-137 reference inventory was established at 214 ± 16 Bq/m2. The mean inventories for DS, CA basins and DS/F/C were 195, 190 and 214 Bq/m2 respectively. Using the conversion Mass Balance Model 2 on the Cs-137 data obtained along transects for each of the practices, gross erosion rates were found to be 7.5, 7.3 and 2.6 t/ha/yr for direct seeding, CA basins and the DS/F/C while the net erosion rates were found to be 3.8, 4.6 and 0 t/ha/yr respectively. Sediment delivery ratios were 50%, 63% and 2% in the respective order. These preliminary results showed the effectiveness of DS over CA basins in erosion control. The efficiency of fallowing in controlling excessive soil loss was significant in the plot that started as DS for 18 years but left fallow for 7

  2. Diamond genesis, seismic structure, and evolution of the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Steven B; Harris, Jeffrey W; Richardson, Stephen H; Fouch, Matthew J; James, David E; Cartigny, Pierre; Deines, Peter; Viljoen, Fanus

    2002-09-01

    The lithospheric mantle beneath the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton of southern Africa shows variations in seismic P-wave velocity at depths within the diamond stability field that correlate with differences in the composition of diamonds and their syngenetic inclusions. Middle Archean mantle depletion events initiated craton keel formation and early harzburgitic diamond formation. Late Archean accretionary events involving an oceanic lithosphere component stabilized the craton and contributed a younger Archean generation of eclogitic diamonds. Subsequent Proterozoic tectonic and magmatic events altered the composition of the continental lithosphere and added new lherzolitic and eclogitic diamonds to the Archean diamond suite. PMID:12215642

  3. Failure of a mine waste dump in Zimbabwe: Causes and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakesby, Richard A.; Whitlow, J. Richard

    1991-09-01

    A combination of factors are considered important in causing the failure and subsequent development of a flowslide of a gold mine waste dump (or tailings dam) at Arcturus, near Harare, Zimbabwe. These factors comprise poor basal drainage, steep perimeter walls, saturation of the walls and basal sediments through continued spigoting of slurry during a period of heavy rainfall, and the effect of this saturation on the tailings. Properties of the tailings, eyewitness accounts, documentary evidence, and site characteristics are discussed. The failure and subsequent development of a fatal 300-m flowslide are reconstructed in a five-phase developmental model. The general applicability of the results is discussed.

  4. An appraisal of policies and institutional frameworks impacting on smallholder agricultural water management in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyagumbo, I.; Rurinda, J.

    Policies and institutional frameworks associated with and / or impacting on agricultural water management (AWM) in smallholder farming systems in Zimbabwe were analyzed through literature reviews, feedback from stakeholder workshops, key informant interviews and evaluation of policy impacts on implemented case study projects/programmes. The study showed that Zimbabwe has gone a long way towards developing a water management policy addressing both equity and access, through the Water and ZINWA of 1998. However, lack of incentives for improving efficient management and utilization of water resources once water has reached the farm gate was apparent, apart from punitive economic instruments levied on usage of increased volumes of water. For example, the new water reforms of 1998 penalized water savers through loss of any unused water in their permits to other users. In addition, the ability of smallholder farmers to access water for irrigation or other purposes was influenced by macro and micro-economic policies such as Economic Structural and Adjustment Programme (ESAP), Zimbabwe Programme for Economic and Social Transformation (ZIMPREST), prevailing monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the Land and Agrarian Reform policies. For instance, the implementation of ESAP from 1991 to 95 resulted in a decline in government support to management of communal irrigation schemes, and as a result only gravity-fed schemes survived. Also AWM projects/programmes that were in progress were prematurely terminated. While considerable emphasis was placed on rehabilitation of irrigation infrastructure since the fast track land reform in 1998, the policies remained rather silent on strategies for water management in rainfed systems. The piecemeal nature and fragmentation of policies and institutional frameworks scattered across government ministries and sectors were complex and created difficulties for smallholder farmers to access water resources. Poor policy implementation

  5. Educational Outcomes for Orphan Girls in Rural Zimbabwe: Effects of a School Support Intervention.

    PubMed

    Iritani, Bonita J; Cho, Hyunsan; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Mapfumo, John; Hartman, Shane; Hallfors, Denise Dion

    2016-03-01

    Educational achievement has important implications for the health and well-being of young women in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors assessed the effects of providing school support on educational outcomes of orphan girls in rural Zimbabwe. Data were from a randomized controlled trial offering the intervention group comprehensive schooling support and controls no treatment initially and then fees only. Results indicated comprehensive support reduced school dropout and absence but did not improve test scores. Providing support to orphan girls is promising for addressing World Health Organization Millennium Development Goals, but further research is needed about contextual factors affecting girls' school participation and learning. PMID:25692731

  6. Technical proposal: Groundwater development feasibility study of the Chisumbanje area, Zimbabwe. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The document is the second volume of a final report for Phase II of a feasibility study conducted for the Regional Water Authority (RWA) of Zimbabwe. The report documents the second phase of a study to assess the feasibility of developing groundwater for irrigation of the Chisumbanje area. This phase of the study included installation of test boreholes in several locations. The volume encompasses the technical scope of work and addendum. The following subjects are discussed in the volume: geographic setting; concepts for successful location of groundwater; and technical approach to the project. A proposed scope of work, schedule and project liaison are presented.

  7. The profile and context of the epidemics of sexually transmitted infections including HIV in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Decosas, J; Padian, N

    2002-01-01

    Zimbabwe has widespread and widely disseminated epidemics of most major sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. This epidemiological situation is examined from a broad historical perspective, exploring the interactions between the population incidence of STI and the social profile of the country. The results suggest opportunities for upstream prevention efforts. Examples of these include: integration of prevention with care and social support; increasing general communication and openness about sexuality; economic support initiatives including income generating and micro-credit programmes, offering living accommodations for families in cities, mines, and military camps; and programmes focusing on adolescents before they become sexually active. PMID:12083446

  8. The profile and context of the epidemics of sexually transmitted infections including HIV in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Decosas, J; Padian, N

    2002-04-01

    Zimbabwe has widespread and widely disseminated epidemics of most major sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. This epidemiological situation is examined from a broad historical perspective, exploring the interactions between the population incidence of STI and the social profile of the country. The results suggest opportunities for upstream prevention efforts. Examples of these include: integration of prevention with care and social support; increasing general communication and openness about sexuality; economic support initiatives including income generating and micro-credit programmes, offering living accommodations for families in cities, mines, and military camps; and programmes focusing on adolescents before they become sexually active. PMID:12083446

  9. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  10. Hospitality Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA.

    A project was conducted at College of the Canyons (Valencia, California) to initiate a new 2-year hospitality program with career options in hotel or restaurant management. A mail and telephone survey of area employers in the restaurant and hotel field demonstrated a need for, interest in, and willingness to provide internships for such a program.…

  11. Forces in Action. Study Guide. Unit H1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  12. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Teacher's Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  13. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Study Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and environmental laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide consists of…

  14. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  15. Life, Beginning and Growing. Study Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  16. Forces. Teacher's Guide. Units H1 and H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dock, Alan; Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  17. The Chemicals of the Earth. Study Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  18. Forces. 'O' Level Study Guide. Unit 1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udwin, Martin

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a five-part unit…

  19. What Do You Know about Water? Study Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  20. Atoms and Molecules. 'O' Level. Teacher's Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  1. Atoms and Molecules. Study Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  2. Using Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  3. Using Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  4. Vocational Education and Training in Tanzania and Zimbabwe in the Context of Economic Reform. Education Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennell, Paul; Bendera, Shane; Kanyenze, Godfrey; Kimambo, Emrode; Kiwia, Sixtus; Mbiriyakura, Tichafa; Mukyanuzi, Faustin; Munetsi, N.; Muzulu, Jo; Parsalaw, Willy; Temu, John

    Developments in vocational education and training (VET) in Tanzania and Zimbabwe since the 1980s were examined in the context of economic reform. Formal VET provision in each country's public and private sectors was reviewed, and case studies of one firm in each country's manufacturing and tourism industries were conducted. The research identified…

  5. Sense from Senses. Study Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  6. Sense from Senses. Teacher's Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  7. School Supervision in Four African Countries. Volume II: National Diagnoses--Botswana, Namibia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe. Trends in School Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grauwe, A., Ed.

    This publication forms the second volume of a report on a study of the school supervision system in four African countries. (The research is part of a larger series of studies sponsored by UNESCO and the International Institute for Educational Planning.) The countries studied were Botswana, Namibia, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. The study examined the…

  8. Observing Some Life Cycles. Teacher's Guide. Unit E3. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitepo, Thoko; And Others

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide contains instructional…

  9. Energy for Living. Teacher's Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  10. Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  11. The Chemicals of the Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  12. Teachers' Perceptions and Students' Lived Experiences in Vocational-Technical Subjects in a Rural High School in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masinire, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the construction of dominant models of gender among students in the Vocational-Technical. In the backdrop of dominant narratives that structure gender policies and practices in schooling in Zimbabwe, the paper elaborates upon how students' daily experiences in workrooms perpetuate the feminisation and masculinisation of fields…

  13. Field evaluation of foliar anthracnose disease response for sorghum germplasm from the Matabeleland North Province of Zimbabwe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose occurs in most sorghum producing regions worldwide and the pathogen is highly variable; thus, additional sources of resistance are needed for sorghum improvement. To identify resistant sources, 41 sorghum accessions from the Matabeleland North Province of Zimbabwe were evaluated for fol...

  14. Evaluations of fungicides and fungicide timing for the control of soybean rust at Zimbabwe, 2005-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SC Siesta soybean seeds were planted at Rattray Arnold Research Station in Enterprise Land near Harare, Zimbabwe on 10 Dec 2005 in four row plots, 20 ft. long, with 30 in row spacing and two rows of border. the experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treat...

  15. The Presidential Scholarship Programme in Zimbabwe: A Living Case of the Political Will in Promoting Regionalisation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvavahera, Promise

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to explore the impact of the commitment and political will exhibited by the Government of Zimbabwe through the Presidential Scholarship Scheme in promoting regionalisation of higher education. The methodology employed document analysis, interviews and questionnaires to gather data from the stakeholders. The officials responsible…

  16. Job Stress and Locus of Control in Teachers: Comparisons between Samples from the United States and Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crothers, Laura M.; Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Kolbert, Jered B.; Lipinski, John; Kachmar, Steven P.; Koch, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between educators' locus of control and job stress using samples from the US and Zimbabwe. Multiple regression analyses are used to identify significant relationships in the US sample between teachers' external locus of control and the severity of the job stress that they experience, coupled with the perceived…

  17. An Assessment of the Policies and Programmes of Zimbabwe in Addressing the HIV/Aids Epidemic in the Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rembe, Symphorosa

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the policies, strategic plans and structures that have been put in place in Zimbabwe to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the education sector. It also examined the comprehensiveness of projects and programmes currently being implemented by the government in collaboration with partner organisations and NGOs. The findings show…

  18. Critical Analysis of Problems Encountered in Incorporating Indigenous Knowledge in Science Teaching by Primary School Teachers in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shizha, Edward

    2007-01-01

    In Zimbabwe the need to incorporate indigenous knowledge in science education to reflect local cultural settings cannot be overemphasized. Current policies on science are situated in Western cultural definitions, thus marginalizing indigenous knowledge, which is misconceived as irrational and illogical. This study used qualitative research…

  19. A Comparison of Zimbabwe's Rural and Urban Primary School Pupils' Views about Homework: A Case of Masvingo District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapako, Felix Petros; Mareva, Rugare; Chindedza, Winnet

    2013-01-01

    The study sought to establish and compare the views of rural and urban primary school pupils on homework in Zimbabwe, using six purposively sampled Masvingo rural and urban primary schools. The inquiry employed a qualitative methodology in which data were gathered through semi-structured personal interviews and document analysis. A sample of…

  20. A Comparative Study of Entrepreneurship Curriculum Development and Review at the University of Zimbabwe and Botho University, Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munyanyiwa, Takaruza; Svotwa, Douglas; Rudhumbu, Norman; Mutsau, Morgen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to make comparative study of the development and review process of the entrepreneurship curriculum at the University of Zimbabwe (UZ) Faculty of Commerce and Botho University, (BU) Faculty of Business and Accounting in Gaborone, Botswana. The study focused on the processes and influences of curriculum development…

  1. Our Planet Earth. Study Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  2. Our Planet Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities,…

  3. Examination Management as a Way of Achieving Quality Assurance in ODL Institutions: The Case of Zimbabwe Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mafa, Onias; Gudhlanga, Enna Sukutai

    2012-01-01

    An examination is an important component of any institution that educates people. It is a form of assessment used to measure the students' understanding of the concepts and principles they would have learnt. Zimbabwe Open University, an Open and Distance Learning institution has been setting its own examinations for the academic programmes…

  4. Forces in Living Things. Study Guide. Unit H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty; Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  5. Applied Climate Education and Training for Agricultural and Natural Resource Management in India, Indonesia, Zimbabwe and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, D. A.; Clewett, J. F.; Selvaraju, R.; Birch, C.

    2006-01-01

    In parts of the world, including many developing countries, climate variability impacts negatively on agricultural production and natural resource management. Workshops in applied climatology were held in Australia, India, Indonesia and Zimbabwe between 1999 and 2002 to provide farmers and agricultural and meteorological staff a better…

  6. An Analysis of Female Lecturers' Participation in Civil Engineering Research and Development Activities at One Polytechnic in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikuvadze, Pinias; Matswetu, Vimbai Sharon; Mugijima, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to explore female lecturers' participation in civil engineering research and development activities at one polytechnic in Zimbabwe. Case study design was chosen for this study to make predictions, narration of events, comparisons and drawing of conclusions. The female lecturers were purposively sampled to participate in the…

  7. Life, Beginning and Growing. Teacher's Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  8. The Educational System of Zimbabwe Compared with Those of Selected African and Advanced Countries: Costs, Efficiency and Other Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Glyn; Tisdell, Clem

    1989-01-01

    Compares Zimbabwe's rapidly expanding educational system to those of Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United States with regard to enrollment rates, government expenditures, per pupil costs, student teacher ratios, teacher salaries, internal efficiency, and cost per graduate. Contains 16…

  9. Understanding Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  10. Understanding Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  11. Students' Failure to Submit Research Projects on Time: A Case Study from Masvingo Regional Centre at Zimbabwe Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabaya, Owence; Chiome, Chrispen; Chabaya, Raphinos A.

    2009-01-01

    The study sought to determine lecturers' and students' perceptions of factors contributing to students' failure to submit research projects on time in three departments of the Zimbabwe Open University. The study employed a descriptive survey design and was both quantitative and qualitative. The questionnaire used as a data-gathering instrument had…

  12. Using Regression Analysis to Establish the Relationship between Home Environment and Reading Achievement: A Case of Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Certo, Janine; Launcelot, Brown I.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we report results of a study examining the relationship between home environment factors and reading achievement in Zimbabwe. The study utilised data collected by the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ). The data were submitted to linear regression analysis through structural equation…

  13. The Role of Parent Governors in School Governance in Zimbabwe: Perceptions of School Heads, Teachers and Parent Governors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikoko, Vitallis

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the role of parent governors in five neighbouring rural primary schools in Zimbabwe. The study proposed that despite the presence of a legal decentralised school governance structure in which parents form the majority, they did not have the capacity to function effectively therein, and were still marginalised in…

  14. A Comparative Study of Early Intervention in Zimbabwe, Poland, China, India, and the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Yanhui; Richey, Dean

    2005-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces Early Intervention (EI) issues in five countries including Zimbabwe, Poland, People's Republic of China (PRC), India, and the United States of America (USA). In the overview section the national background, including religious, socio-economic development, and political systems, its policies, laws and acts, are…

  15. Learning to be a Scientist. Study Guide. Unit A1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide introduces students to…

  16. Satellite Based Assessment of Hydroclimatic Conditions Related to Cholera in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Aldaach, Haidar; Billian, Hannah; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cholera, an infectious diarrheal disease, has been shown to be associated with large scale hydroclimatic processes. The sudden and sporadic occurrence of epidemic cholera is linked with high mortality rates, in part, due to uncertainty in timing and location of outbreaks. Improved understanding of the relationship between pathogenic abundance and climatic processes allows prediction of disease outbreak to be an achievable goal. In this study, we show association of large scale hydroclimatic processes with the cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe reported to have begun in Chitungwiza, a city in Mashonaland East province, in August, 2008. Principal Findings Climatic factors in the region were found to be associated with triggering cholera outbreak and are shown to be related to anomalies of temperature and precipitation, validating the hypothesis that poor conditions of sanitation, coupled with elevated temperatures, and followed by heavy rainfall can initiate outbreaks of cholera. Spatial estimation by satellite of precipitation and global gridded air temperature captured sensitivities in hydroclimatic conditions that permitted identification of the location in the region where the disease outbreak began. Discussion Satellite derived hydroclimatic processes can be used to capture environmental conditions related to epidemic cholera, as occurred in Zimbabwe, thereby providing an early warning system. Since cholera cannot be eradicated because the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to the aquatic environment, prediction of conditions favorable for its growth and estimation of risks of triggering the disease in a given population can be used to alert responders, potentially decreasing infection and saving lives. PMID:26417994

  17. A survey of feline leukaemia virus infection of domestic cats from selected areas in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Muchaamba, Francis; Mutiringindi, Takudzwa H; Tivapasi, Musavenga T; Dhliwayo, Solomon; Matope, Gift

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) p27 antigen and to determine risk factors and the haematological changes associated with infection in domestic cats in Zimbabwe. Sera were collected for detection of the p27 antigen, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels, whilst whole blood was collected for haematology. FeLV p27 antigen was detected using a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Data on risk factors were analysed using a logistic regression model. Of the 100 cats tested, 41% (95% CI: 31.19% - 50.81%) (41/100) were positive for the FeLV p27 antigen. Sex and health status of cats were not significantly (p > 0.05) associated with infection. Intact cats (OR = 9.73), those living in multicat housing (OR = 5.23) and cats that had access to outdoor life (OR = 35.5) were found to have higher odds of infection compared with neutered cats, those living in single-cat housing, and without access to outdoor life, respectively. Biochemistry and haematology revealed no specific changes. The results showed that FeLV infection was high in sampled cats, providing evidence of active infection. Thus, it would be prudent to introduce specific control measures for FeLV infection in Zimbabwe. PMID:25686080

  18. Is religion the forgotten variable in maternal and child health? Evidence from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Ha, Wei; Salama, Peter; Gwavuya, Stanley; Kanjala, Chifundo

    2014-10-01

    The Apostolic faith, a rapidly growing and increasingly influential force in Zimbabwe, has received attention in the literature due to its potential role in shaping its followers' attitudes and behaviours towards health. Existing literature, however, has only examined small cross-section samples from a few confined survey sites or has failed to adequately control for the many factors that may mediate the effects of religion. This paper examines the effects of the Apostolic faith on the usage of maternal health and child immunization services in Zimbabwe. It is based on a nationally representative sample from the 2009 Multi-Indicator Monitoring Survey and employs the established Andersen model on access to health services. Well controlled multivariate logit regression models derived from these data show that an affiliation with the Apostolic faith is a substantial and significant risk factor in reducing the utilization of both maternal and child health services. Moreover, even when the services were least costly and readily available and when gaps along other social and economic factors were limited, as in the case of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination and one visit to antenatal care, women and children from Apostolic faith families still fared significantly worse than others in accessing them. PMID:25108694

  19. Preliminary estimate of environmental flow requirements of the Rusape River, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Faith; Madamombe, Elisha; Marshall, Brian; Kaseke, Evans

    Environmental flow requirements for the Rusape River, a tributary of the Save River, in Zimbabwe, were estimated using a rapid results approach. Thirty years of hydrological data with daily time steps from gauging stations upstream and downstream of the Rusape Dam were analysed using DRIFT Software. The dam appeared to have caused an increase in intra-annual and inter-annual flood events downstream compared to upstream, including significant dry season releases, while inter-annual floods were larger. The water releases from the dam differ from the natural flow in both volume and frequency, especially in the dry season and may have had a negative impact on the local ecosystem and subsistence farmers. The building block method (BMM) was applied, using the hydrological analyses performed, in order to estimate environmental flow requirements, which are presented in mean monthly flows. The flow regime that is recommended for the Rusape River should reduce or reverse these impacts, whilst ensuring sufficient water resources are released for economic needs. The EFR proposed can be achieved within mean monthly flows observed. However, it should be stressed that the EFR proposed have been developed from a rapid method, and are only a first estimate of the EFR for the Rusape River. This study represents a step in developing a management plan for the Save Basin, shared between Zimbabwe and Mozambique.

  20. The nutritional intake of undergraduates at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R G; Chifamba, J

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries the cost of treating disease is much more than prevention and so there is now a lot of interest in understanding nutrition. In this pilot study we selected a cohort of pre-clinical students studying at the College of Health Sciences in the University of Zimbabwe. This study was carried to investigate the gender-based weekly consumption of different food categories amongst University of Zimbabwe students. Semi-structured questionnaires distributed to 100 undergraduate students (male= 47; female= 52). The proportion of male and female respondents, age and body weight did not differ significantly. Principal foods consumed by males included sadza and cerevita; naartjies, bananas and avocado pears; tomatoes, onions, covo and spinach; beef; and condensed milk and powdered milk occupied the larger proportions. Females frequently ate a lot of bread, cerevita, sadza and cereal; lemons and avocado pears; onions, tomatoes, rape and covo; beef and soya meat; creamer, powdered milk and milk. This study suggests that females consumed a greater variety of food, including the infrequent types by comparison with men. PMID:19445103

  1. Childhood sexual violence in Zimbabwe: evidence for the epidemic against girls.

    PubMed

    Rumble, Lauren; Mungate, Taizivei; Chigiji, Handrick; Salama, Peter; Nolan, Anthony; Sammon, Elayn; Muwoni, Leon

    2015-08-01

    Sexual abuse during childhood is a public health and human rights concern throughout the world, including Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2011, Zimbabwe initiated national prevalence data collection on violence against children to inform government policy and programs. We interviewed 567 females and 589 males, aged 18-24 years following standardized and previously tested survey methods from the region. Of females 32.5%, and of males 8.9%, reported experiencing sexual violence before age 18. Most female (62.7%) and male (47.9%) victims of sexual violence experienced more than one incident of sexual violence prior to age 18 years. Three in four females (77.7%) and one in four males (26.7%) of those who experienced sexual violence reported that the first incident was perpetrated by a boyfriend or girlfriend. Few victims received professional help (2.7% of females and 2.4% of males who had reported experiencing sexual violence). Violence against girls is at epidemic levels in Zimbabwe. Most sexual violence against girls occurs within the context of peer relationships. Child victims who seek potentially life-saving support tend not to receive it. This study is evidence of a national public health and child rights emergency in the country and a case for increased, longer-term investment by the government and its development partners in policy reform for enhancing adolescent girls' empowerment and protection. PMID:25986577

  2. Serological survey of Brucella canis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Chinyoka, Simbarashe; Dhliwayo, Solomon; Marabini, Lisa; Dutlow, Keith; Matope, Gift; Pfukenyi, Davies M

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to detect antibodies for Brucella canis (B. canis) in dogs from urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to B. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 17.6% of sera samples tested (57/324, 95% CI: 13.5-21.7) were positive for B. canis antibodies. For rural dogs, seroprevalence varied from 11.7% - 37.9%. Rural dogs recorded a higher seroprevalence (20.7%, 95% CI: 15.0-26.4) compared with Harare urban dogs (12.7%, 95% CI: 6.9-18.5) but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07). Female dogs from both sectors had a higher seroprevalence compared with males, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Five and two of the positive rural dogs had titres of 1:800 and 1:1600, respectively, whilst none of the positive urban dogs had a titre above 1:400. This study showed that brucellosis was present and could be considered a risk to dogs from the studied areas. Further studies are recommended in order to give insight into the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in Zimbabwe. Screening for other Brucella spp. (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis) other than B. canis is also recommended. PMID:24830899

  3. Traditional herbal remedies used for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Ndamba, J; Nyazema, N; Makaza, N; Anderson, C; Kaondera, K C

    1994-04-01

    A total of 286 traditional healers, 85% of them registered with the Zimbabwe National Traditional Healers' Association (ZINATHA), in five administrative provinces of Zimbabwe, were interviewed to assess their knowledge about the signs and symptoms of urinary schistosomiasis. Information on the names of plants used to treat Schistosoma haematobium infections was solicited. Haematuria was mentioned by 99% of the traditional healers to be the most obvious sign of S. haematobium infection. General body weakness, increased urinary frequency and pain on micturition also were reported to be some of the signs of infection. Eight plant materials were identified as the most commonly used for the treatment of S. haematobium. The plants were identified and parts collected to investigate their antischistosomal properties. The plant materials were prepared according to the guidelines of the traditional healers and their efficacy determined by administering the crude extracts orally to hamsters infected with S. haematobium cercariae. The results obtained suggested that plant extracts from Abrus precatorius (Leguminosae), Pterocarpus angolensis (Leguminosae) and Ozoroa insignis (Anacardiaceae) were lethal to adult schistosomes. PMID:8072305

  4. Bridewealth and sexual and reproductive practices among women in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; van der Straten, Ariane; Padian, Nancy

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the relationship between bridewealth, socio-demographics, and sexual and reproductive practices among a group of women in Harare, Zimbabwe. The study sample was recruited as part of a six-month safety trial of the diaphragm and a microbicide, between August 2004 and April 2005 in Harare, Zimbabwe. Women underwent two screening visits: first, women completed a demographic and behavioral interviewer-administered questionnaire which included questions on bridewealth; at the second visit, women were offered HIV testing and counseling. Our results included: 417 women were married (currently or in the past) and almost half had had bridewealth negotiated as part of the marriage process. In multivariate analyses, women who were married with bridewealth had more years of education (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.03-1.32), a higher age of coital debut (OR 1.37, 95%CI 1.09-1.71), and increased likelihood of having ever used male condoms (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.01-2.37) compared with women who had been married without bridewealth. Bridewealth may be a relevant area of traditional culture to further examine in relation to HIV risk, for its potential association with co-factors that can reduce risk of HIV infection among women in Southern Africa. PMID:20467936

  5. Bridewealth and sexual and reproductive practices among women in Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; van der Straten, Ariane; Padian, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between bridewealth, socio-demographics, and sexual and reproductive practices among a group of women in Harare, Zimbabwe. The study sample was recruited as part of a six-month safety trial of the diaphragm and a microbicide, between August 2004 and April 2005 in Harare, Zimbabwe. Women underwent two screening visits: first, women completed a demographic and behavioral interviewer-administered questionnaire which included questions on bridewealth; at the second visit, women were offered HIV testing and counseling. Our results included: 417 women were married (currently or in the past) and almost half had had bridewealth negotiated as part of the marriage process. In multivariate analyses, women who were married with bridewealth had more years of education (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.03–1.32), a higher age of coital debut (OR 1.37, 95%CI 1.09–1.71), and increased likelihood of having ever used male condoms (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.01–2.37) compared with women who had been married without bridewealth. Bridewealth may be a relevant area of traditional culture to further examine in relation to HIV risk, for its potential association with co-factors that can reduce risk of HIV infection among women in Southern Africa. PMID:20467936

  6. The effects of progressive-resisted exercises on muscle strength and health-related quality of life in persons with HIV-related poly-neuropathy in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mkandla, Khumbula; Myezwa, Hellen; Musenge, Eustasius

    2016-05-01

    Distal symmetrical poly-neuropathy (DSP) is a neurological complication associated with HIV/AIDS and stavudine (d4T) containing antiretroviral therapy. People with DSP experience pain, numbness and muscle weakness, which affect their quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of a progressive-resisted exercise (PRE) intervention on health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in people living with HIV/AIDS-related DSP. An assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted, with participants sourced from 10 clinics with HIV services, the family care clinic at Wilkins Hospital and 2 large hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe. A 12-week PRE intervention was conducted twice weekly for 80 participants, while the control group with 80 participants continued with usual daily activities. The main outcome variable was HR-QOL for which we controlled for demographic and clinical measures in generalised estimating equation population-averaged models. Data were summarised and analysed using an intention to treat analysis approach using the Stata v10 program. Mean age of participants was 42.2 years (SD = 8.5). While d4T was used by 59% (n = 94), an equal proportion of the participants also had moderate to severe neuropathy. PRE was found to significantly improve HR-QOL in the intervention group based on the mean difference between the intervention group mean change and the mean change in the control group (F ratio 4.24; p = .04). This study established that PREs have positive effects on HR-QOL for people living with HIV/AIDS-related DSP. PMID:26729347

  7. Cost-effectiveness of community vegetable gardens for people living with HIV in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is little evidence to date of the potential impact of vegetable gardens on people living with HIV (PLHIV), who often suffer from social and economic losses due to the disease. From 2008 through 2011, Action Contre la Faim France (ACF) implemented a project in Chipinge District, eastern Zimbabwe, providing low-input vegetable gardens (LIGs) to households of PLHIV. Program partners included Médecins du Monde, which provided medical support, and Zimbabwe's Agricultural Extension Service, which supported vegetable cultivation. A survey conducted at the end of the program found LIG participants to have higher Food Consumption Scores (FCS) and Household Dietary Diversity Scores (HDDS) relative to comparator households of PLHIV receiving other support programs. This study assessed the incremental cost-effectiveness of LIGs to improve FCS and HDDS of PLHIV compared to other support programs. Methods This analysis used an activity-based cost model, and combined ACF accounting data with estimates of partner and beneficiary costs derived using an ingredients approach to build an estimate of total program resource use. A societal perspective was adopted to encompass costs to beneficiary households, including their opportunity costs and an estimate of their income earned from vegetable sales. Qualitative methods were used to assess program benefits to beneficiary households. Effectiveness data was taken from a previously-conducted survey. Results Providing LIGs to PLHIV cost an additional 8,299 EUR per household with adequate FCS and 12,456 EUR per household with HDDS in the upper tertile, relative to comparator households of PLHIV receiving other support programs. Beneficiaries cited multiple tangible and intangible benefits from LIGs, and over 80% of gardens observed were still functioning more than one year after the program had finished. Conclusions Cost outcomes were 20–30 times Zimbabwe's per capita GDP, and unlikely to be affordable within government

  8. Improving the efficiency of district hospitals: is contracting an option?

    PubMed

    Mills, A; Hongoro, C; Broomberg, J

    1997-02-01

    A world-wide revolution in thinking about public sector management has occurred in recent years, termed the 'new public management'. It aims to improve the efficiency of service provision primarily through the introduction of market mechanisms into the public sector. The earliest form of marketization in developed countries has tended to be the introduction of competitive tendering and contracts for the provision of public services. In less wealthy countries, the language of contracting is heard with increasing frequency in discussions of health sector reform despite the lack of evidence of the virtues (or vices) of contracting in specific country settings. This paper examines the economic arguments for contracting district hospital care in two rather different settings in Southern Africa: in South Africa using private-for-profit providers, and in Zimbabwe using NGO (mission) providers. The South African study compared the performance of three 'contractor' hospitals with three government-run hospitals, analysing data on costs and quality. There were no significant differences in quality between the two sets of hospitals, but contractor hospitals provided care at significantly lower unit costs. However, the cost to the government of contracting was close to that of direct provision, indicating that the efficiency gains were captured almost entirely by the contractor. A crucial lesson from the study is the importance of developing government capacity to design and negotiate contracts that ensure the government is able to derive significant efficiency gains from contractual arrangements. In other parts of Africa, contracts for hospital care are more likely to be agreed with not-for-profit providers. The Zimbabwean study compared the performance of two government district hospitals with two district 'designated' mission hospitals. It found that the two mission hospitals delivered similar services to those of the two government hospitals but at substantially lower unit

  9. Vulnerability of maize yields to climate change in different farming sectors in Zimbabwe

    SciTech Connect

    Muchena, P.; Iglesias, A.

    1995-12-31

    The possible impact of climate change on maize (Zea mays L.) production in Zimbabwe was evaluated simulating crop production under climate scenarios generated by global climate models (GCMs). The baseline climate data for each site also was modified by increasing daily air temperatures by 2 and 4 C for a sensitivity analysis. Temperature increases of 2 and 4 C, reduced maize yields at all sites. Maize yields also decreased under the GCM climate change scenarios, even when the direct beneficial effects of CO{sub 2} are included in the simulation. Major changes in the farming system can compensate for some of the yield decreases under climate change, but the additional fertilizer, seed supplies, and irrigation required could be costly. The semi-extensive farming zone seems to be particularly sensitive to the changes in climate simulated. Farmers in this zone would be further marginalized if the risk of low maize yields increases as projected by the results of this study.

  10. Infestations of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) on different breeds of cattle in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D

    1996-10-01

    Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species. PMID:8952073