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1

Mistletoe ecophysiology: host-parasite interactions1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mistletoes are highly specialized perennial flowering plants adapted to parasitic life on aerial parts of their hosts. In our discussion on the physiological interactions between parasite and host, we focus on water relations, mineral nutrition, and the effect of host vigour. When host photosynthesis is greatest, the xylem water potential of the host is most negative. To maintain a flux

G. Glatzel; B. W. Geils

2

Host-parasite interactions: Marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, Perkinsus species.  

PubMed

This review assesses and examines the work conducted to date concerning host and parasite interactions between marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, belonging to Perkinsus species. The review focuses on two well-studied host-parasite interaction models: the two clam species, Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus, and the parasite Perkinsus olseni, and the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the parasite Perkinsus marinus. Cellular and humoral defense responses of the host in combating parasitic infection, the mechanisms (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, extracellular products) employed by the parasite in evading host defenses as well as the role of environmental factors in modulating the host-parasite interactions are described. PMID:23871855

Soudant, Philippe; E Chu, Fu-Lin; Volety, Aswani

2013-10-01

3

Malaria Proteins Implicated in Host-Parasite Interactions  

E-print Network

The invasive and transmission stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum express several proteins with domains implicated in host-parasite interactions, that are potential vaccine candidates or drug targets. The expression patterns of two...

Anderson, Laura Fay

2007-01-01

4

A host-parasite multilevel interacting process and continuous approximations  

E-print Network

A host-parasite multilevel interacting process and continuous approximations Sylvie Méléard1) and the evolution of cells (or parasites) of two types living in these individuals. The ecological parameters-death-mutation-competition point process, host-parasite stochastic particle system, nonlinear integro-differential equations

Potsdam, Universität

5

Diet quality determines interspecific parasite interactions in host populations  

PubMed Central

The widespread occurrence of multiple infections and the often vast range of nutritional resources for their hosts allow that interspecific parasite interactions in natural host populations might be determined by host diet quality. Nevertheless, the role of diet quality with respect to multispecies parasite interactions on host population level is not clear. We here tested the effect of host population diet quality on the parasite community in an experimental study using Daphnia populations. We studied the effect of diet quality on Daphnia population demography and the interactions in multispecies parasite infections of this freshwater crustacean host. The results of our experiment show that the fitness of a low-virulent microsporidian parasite decreased in low, but not in high-host-diet quality conditions. Interestingly, infections with the microsporidium protected Daphnia populations against a more virulent bacterial parasite. The observed interspecific parasite interactions are discussed with respect to the role of diet quality-dependent changes in host fecundity. This study reflects that exploitation competition in multispecies parasite infections is environmentally dependent, more in particular it shows that diet quality affects interspecific parasite competition within a single host and that this can be mediated by host population-level effects. PMID:25247066

Lange, Benjamin; Reuter, Max; Ebert, Dieter; Muylaert, Koenraad; Decaestecker, Ellen

2014-01-01

6

The mode of host-parasite interaction shapes coevolutionary dynamics and the fate of host cooperation  

E-print Network

The mode of host-parasite interaction shapes coevolutionary dynamics and the fate of host host- parasite model there are four mechanisms: host birth (bacterial duplication), competition among hosts for finite resources, parasite death (virus degradation) and lysis of a bacterium by a phage

McKane, Alan

7

The effect of host heterogeneity and parasite intragenomic interactions on parasite  

E-print Network

The effect of host heterogeneity and parasite intragenomic interactions on parasite population Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK Understanding the processes that shape the genetic structure of parasite populations and the functional consequences of different parasite genotypes is critical for our ability

Paterson, Steve

8

Host-parasite interactions between eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) and their blowfly (Protocalliphora sp) parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nestling birds are often parasitized while in the nest, and the parasites can have significant negative effects on the nestlings. I examined the host-parasite interactions between eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) and their blowfly (Protocalliphora sp.) parasites over three field seasons in a Pennsylvania bluebird population. I randomly divided broods into control and experimental groups. Control broods had natural levels of

Kristina Michele Hannam

1998-01-01

9

Polymorphism in Multilocus HostParasite Coevolutionary Interactions  

PubMed Central

Numerous loci in host organisms are involved in parasite recognition, such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in vertebrates or genes involved in gene-for-gene (GFG) relationships in plants. Diversity is commonly observed at such loci and at corresponding loci encoding antigenic molecules in parasites. Multilocus theoretical models of hostparasite coevolution predict that polymorphism is more likely than in single-locus interactions because recurrent coevolutionary cycles are sustained by indirect frequency-dependent selection as rare genotypes have a selective advantage. These cycles are stabilized by direct frequency-dependent selection, resulting from repeated reinfection of the same host by a parasite, a feature of most diseases. Here, it is shown that for realistically small costs of resistance and virulence, polycyclic disease and high autoinfection rates, stable polymorphism of all possible genotypes is obtained in parasite populations. Two types of epistatic interactions between loci tend to increase the parameter space in which stable polymorphism can occur with all possible host and parasite genotypes. In the parasite, the marginal cost of each additional virulence allele should increase, while in the host, the marginal cost of each additional resistance allele should decrease. It is therefore predicted that GFG polymorphism will be stable (and hence detectable) when there is partial complementation of avirulence genes in the parasite and of resistance genes in the host. PMID:17947440

Tellier, Aurlien; Brown, James K. M.

2007-01-01

10

Stability of genetic polymorphism in hostparasite interactions  

PubMed Central

Allelic diversity is common at host loci involved in parasite recognition, such as the major histocompatibility complex in vertebrates or gene-for-gene relationships in plants, and in corresponding loci encoding antigenic molecules in parasites. Diverse factors have been proposed in models to account for genetic polymorphism in hostparasite recognition. Here, a simple but general theory of hostparasite coevolution is developed. Coevolution implies the existence of indirect frequency-dependent selection (FDS), because natural selection on the host depends on the frequency of a parasite gene, and vice versa. It is shown that polymorphism can be maintained in both organisms only if there is negative, direct FDS, such that the strength of natural selection for the host resistance allele, the parasite virulence allele or both declines with increasing frequency of that allele itself. This condition may be fulfilled if the parasite has more than one generation in the same host individual, a feature which is common to most diseases. It is argued that the general theory encompasses almost all factors previously proposed to account for polymorphism at corresponding host and parasite loci, including those controlling gene-for-gene interactions. PMID:17251091

Tellier, Aurlien; Brown, James K.M

2006-01-01

11

Evolution of spatially structured host-parasite interactions.  

PubMed

Spatial structure has dramatic effects on the demography and the evolution of species. A large variety of theoretical models have attempted to understand how local dispersal may shape the coevolution of interacting species such as host-parasite interactions. The lack of a unifying framework is a serious impediment for anyone willing to understand current theory. Here, we review previous theoretical studies in the light of a single epidemiological model that allows us to explore the effects of both host and parasite migration rates on the evolution and coevolution of various life-history traits. We discuss the impact of local dispersal on parasite virulence, various host defence strategies and local adaptation. Our analysis shows that evolutionary and coevolutionary outcomes crucially depend on the details of the host-parasite life cycle and on which life-history trait is involved in the interaction. We also discuss experimental studies that support the effects of spatial structure on the evolution of host-parasite interactions. This review highlights major similarities between some theoretical results, but it also reveals an important gap between evolutionary and coevolutionary models. We discuss possible ways to bridge this gap within a more unified framework that would reconcile spatial epidemiology, evolution and coevolution. PMID:25439133

Lion, S; Gandon, S

2015-01-01

12

PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL PAPER Constraints on host use by a parasitic plant  

E-print Network

understanding of the constraints that limit host use by parasitic plants. In Texas salt marshes, the parasiticPLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS - ORIGINAL PAPER Constraints on host use by a parasitic plant Emily S why parasitic plants do not always parasitize potentially suitable hosts requires a better

Pennings, Steven C.

13

*Institut Pasteur,Biology of HostParasite Interactions,25  

E-print Network

to poverty in the developing world.Malaria is estimated to reduce economic growth by approximately 1.3% each*Institut Pasteur,Biology of Host­Parasite Interactions,25 Rue du Docteur Roux,75724, Paris,Cedex 15,France. Plant Cell Biology Research Centre,School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Victoria

McFadden, Geoff

14

Covariance in species diversity and facilitation among non-interactive parasite taxa: all against the host  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Different parasite taxa exploit different host resources and are often unlikely to interact directly. It is unclear, however, whether the diversity of any given parasite taxon is indirectly influenced by that of other parasite taxa on the same host. Some components of host immune defences may operate simultaneously against all kinds of parasites, whereas investment by the host in

B. R. KRASNOV; D. MOUILLOT; I. S. KHOKHLOVA; G. I. SHENBROT; R. POULIN

2005-01-01

15

Non-linear phenomena in host-parasite interactions.  

PubMed

The paper examines non-linear dynamical phenomena in host-parasite interactions by reference to a series of different problems ranging from the impact on transmission of control measures based on vaccination and chemotherapy, to the effects of immunological responses targeted at different stages in a parasite's life-cycle. Throughout, simple mathematical models are employed to aid in interpretation. Analyses reveal that the influence of a defined control measure on the prevalence or intensity of infection, whether vaccination or drug treatment, is non-linearly related to the magnitude of control effort (as defined by the proportion of individuals vaccinated or treated with a drug). Consideration of the relative merits of gametocyte and sporozoite vaccines against malarial parasites suggests that very high leves of cohort immunization will be required to block transmission in endemic areas, with the former type of vaccine being more effective in reducing transmission for a defined level of coverage and the latter being better with respect to a reduction in morbidity. The inclusion of genetic elements in analyses of the transmission of helminth parasites reveals complex non-linear patterns of change in the abundance of different parasite genotypes under selection pressures imposed by either the host immunological defences or the application of chemotherapeutic agents. When resistance genes are present in parasite populations, the degree to which abundance can be suppressed by chemotherapy depends critically on the frequency and intensity of application, with intermediate values of the former being optimal. A more detailed consideration of the impact of immunological defences on parasite population growth within an individual host, by reference to the erythrocytic cycle of malaria, suggests that the effectiveness of a given immunological response is inversely related to the life-expectancy of the target stage in the parasite's developmental cycle. PMID:2682486

Anderson, R M; May, R M; Gupta, S

1989-01-01

16

HOST-PARASITE INTERACTIONS ON AN EXPERIMENTAL LANDSCAPE KARL L. KOSCIUCH  

E-print Network

HOST-PARASITE INTERACTIONS ON AN EXPERIMENTAL LANDSCAPE by KARL L. KOSCIUCH B. S., East Stroudsburg brood parasites and the behavioral responses of their hosts have served as a model of co-evolution in nature. Host adaptations to reduce the costs of parasitism are countered with novel parasite behaviors

Sandercock, Brett K.

17

Host genotype by parasite genotype interactions underlying the resistance of anopheline mosquitoes to Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most studies on the resistance of mosquitoes to their malaria parasites focus on the response of a mosquito line or colony against a single parasite genotype. In natural situations, however, it may be expected that mosquito-malaria relationships are based, as are many other host-parasite systems, on host genotype by parasite genotype interactions. In such systems, certain hosts are resistant

Louis Lambrechts; Jean Halbert; Patrick Durand; Louis C Gouagna; Jacob C Koella

2005-01-01

18

Interacting parasites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

Lafferty, Kevin D.

2010-01-01

19

Toxoplasma gondii : hostparasite interaction and behavior manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes different lesions in men and other warm-blooded animals. Humoral and cellular\\u000a immune response of the host against the parasite keeps the protozoan in a latent stage, and clinical disease ensues when immunological\\u000a response is compromised. Brain parasitism benefits the parasite causing behavioral changes in the host, not only in animals\\u000a but

Rodrigo Costa da Silva; Helio Langoni

2009-01-01

20

Watermite Parasitism of Corixidae: Infection Parameters, Larval Mite Growth, Competitive Interaction and Host Response  

E-print Network

from the largest hosts and from single infections. Intraspecific and interspecific competitionWatermite Parasitism of Corixidae: Infection Parameters, Larval Mite Growth, Competitive parasitism of Corixidae:infection parameters, larval mite growth, competitive interaction and host response P

McCarthy, T.K.

21

Host-Parasite Interaction: Parasite-Derived and -Induced Proteases That Degrade Human Extracellular Matrix  

PubMed Central

Parasitic protozoa are among the most important pathogens worldwide. Diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, and trypanosomiasis affect millions of people. Humans are constantly threatened by infections caused by these pathogens. Parasites engage a plethora of surface and secreted molecules to attach to and enter mammalian cells. The secretion of lytic enzymes by parasites into host organs mediates critical interactions because of the invasion and destruction of interstitial tissues, enabling parasite migration to other sites within the hosts. Extracellular matrix is a complex, cross-linked structure that holds cells together in an organized assembly and that forms the basement membrane lining (basal lamina). The extracellular matrix represents a major barrier to parasites. Therefore, the evolution of mechanisms for connective-tissue degradation may be of great importance for parasite survival. Recent advances have been achieved in our understanding of the biochemistry and molecular biology of proteases from parasitic protozoa. The focus of this paper is to discuss the role of protozoan parasitic proteases in the degradation of host ECM proteins and the participation of these molecules as virulence factors. We divide the paper into two sections, extracellular and intracellular protozoa. PMID:22792442

Pia-Vzquez, Carolina; Reyes-Lpez, Magda; Ortz-Estrada, Guillermo; de la Garza, Mireya; Serrano-Luna, Jess

2012-01-01

22

VECTOR/PATHOGEN/HOST INTERACTION, TRANSMISSION Virulence of a Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, for Its Sand  

E-print Network

VECTOR/PATHOGEN/HOST INTERACTION, TRANSMISSION Virulence of a Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium that virulence of parasites for mobile vector insects will be low for natural parasite-host associations that have coevolved. I determined virulence of the malaria parasite of lizards, Plasmodium mexicanum

Schall, Joseph J.

23

Parasitic plant responses to host plant signals: a model for subterranean plantplant interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of plants to fulfill nutritional needs by parasitizing neighboring plants has originated several times in angiosperm evolution. Molecular tools are now being exploited to investigate the evolutionary origins of plant parasitism and to dissect the genetic mechanisms governing parasitic planthost plant interactions. Investigating the nature of signal exchanges between parasitic plants and their hosts serves as a tractable

John I Yoder

1999-01-01

24

Does timing matter? How priority effects influence the outcome of parasite interactions within hosts.  

PubMed

In nature, hosts are exposed to an assemblage of parasite species that collectively form a complex community within the host. To date, however, our understanding of how within-host-parasite communities assemble and interact remains limited. Using a larval amphibian host (Pacific chorus frog, Pseudacris regilla) and two common trematode parasites (Ribeiroia ondatrae and Echinostoma trivolvis), we experimentally examined how the sequence of host exposure influenced parasite interactions within hosts. While there was no evidence that the parasites interacted when hosts were exposed to both parasites simultaneously, we detected evidence of both intraspecific and interspecific competition when exposures were temporally staggered. However, the strength and outcome of these priority effects depended on the sequence of addition, even after accounting for the fact that parasites added early in host development were more likely to encyst compared to parasites added later. Ribeiroia infection success was reduced by 14 % when Echinostoma was added prior to Ribeiroia, whereas no such effect was noted for Echinostoma when Ribeiroia was added first. Using a novel fluorescent-labeling technique that allowed us to track Ribeiroia infections from different exposure events, we also discovered that, similar to the interspecific interactions, early encysting parasites reduced the encystment success of later arriving parasites by 41 %, which could be mediated by host immune responses and/or competition for space. These results suggest that parasite identity interacts with host immune responses to mediate parasite interactions within the host, such that priority effects may play an important role in structuring parasite communities within hosts. This knowledge can be used to assess host-parasite interactions within natural communities in which environmental conditions can lead to heterogeneity in the timing and composition of host exposure to parasites. PMID:23754306

Hoverman, Jason T; Hoye, Bethany J; Johnson, Pieter T J

2013-12-01

25

Community interactions govern host-switching with implications for hostparasite coevolutionary history  

PubMed Central

Reciprocal selective effects between coevolving species are often influenced by interactions with the broader ecological community. Community-level interactions may also influence macroevolutionary patterns of coevolution, such as cospeciation, but this hypothesis has received little attention. We studied two groups of ecologically similar feather lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) that differ in their patterns of association with a single group of hosts. The two groups, body lice and wing lice, are both parasites of pigeons and doves (Columbiformes). Body lice are more host-specific and show greater population genetic structure than wing lice. The macroevolutionary history of body lice also parallels that of their columbiform hosts more closely than does the evolutionary history of wing lice. The closer association of body lice with hosts, compared with wing lice, can be explained if body lice are less capable of switching hosts than wing lice. Wing lice sometimes disperse phoretically on parasitic flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), but body lice seldom engage in this behavior. We tested the hypothesis that wing lice switch host species more often than body lice, and that the difference is governed by phoresis. Our results show that, where flies are present, wing lice switch to novel host species in sufficient numbers to establish viable populations on the new host. Body lice do not switch hosts, even where flies are present. Thus, differences in the coevolutionary history of wing and body lice can be explained by differences in host-switching, mediated by a member of the broader parasite community. PMID:21606369

Harbison, Christopher W.; Clayton, Dale H.

2011-01-01

26

The mode of hostparasite interaction shapes coevolutionary dynamics and the fate of host cooperation  

PubMed Central

Antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites can have a major impact on host population structures, and hence on the evolution of social traits. Using stochastic modelling techniques in the context of bacteriavirus interactions, we investigate the impact of coevolution across a continuum of hostparasite genetic specificity (specifically, where genotypes have the same infectivity/resistance ranges (matching alleles, MA) to highly variable ranges (gene-for-gene, GFG)) on population genetic structure, and on the social behaviour of the host. We find that host cooperation is more likely to be maintained towards the MA end of the continuum, as the more frequent bottlenecks associated with an MA-like interaction can prevent defector invasion, and can even allow migrant cooperators to invade populations of defectors. PMID:22740644

Quigley, Benjamin J. Z.; Garca Lpez, Diana; Buckling, Angus; McKane, Alan J.; Brown, Sam P.

2012-01-01

27

Food supplementation leads to bottom-up and top-down food-host-parasite interactions.  

PubMed

1. Food-prey-predator interactions may involve both 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' processes. Conventionally, food-host-parasite interactions have been seen as governed solely from the 'bottom-up', i.e. well-fed hosts can better resist parasites and so suffer less parasitism. Recent studies on diverse endo- and ecto-parasites increasingly highlight that well-fed hosts provide parasites with a better resource base, and so may be more likely to be parasitized. 2. Brood parasites exploit host parental behaviour by laying their eggs in others' nests. The brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) is a North American brood parasite that exploits over 100 host species. 3. We conducted a food addition experiment on song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), a frequently parasitized cowbird host, near Victoria, BC, Canada. We expected results consistent with conventional 'bottom-up' effects because we previously found that food supplemented sparrows better eluded nest predation, and we thus also expected them to be better at eluding cowbird parasitism. 4. Here, we report results to the contrary. Food supplemented sparrows were parasitized as often as non-food supplemented sparrows, were multiply parasitized significantly more often, and suffered significantly more parasitism-induced egg loss. Our results suggest cowbirds preferentially parasitized better fed hosts and cowbirds benefited from doing so as food supplemented sparrows fledged significantly more cowbird young per multiply parasitized nest. The pattern of egg loss also accorded with recent evidence indicating that cowbirds may remove just the right number of host eggs to maximize provisioning of the cowbird nestling. 5. Our work suggests that brood parasitism in vertebrates involves both 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' processes consistent with the growing number of studies showing that food-host-parasite interactions are more complex than previously thought. One of the conservation implications of our results is that greater food availability may not provide hosts a respite from brood parasitism, but is, nonetheless, beneficial overall. PMID:20646123

Zanette, Liana; Clinchy, Michael

2010-11-01

28

Genetic variation changes the interactions between the parasitic plant-ecosystem engineer Rhinanthus and its hosts  

PubMed Central

Within-species genetic variation is a potent factor influencing between-species interactions and community-level structure. Species of the hemi-parasitic plant genus Rhinanthus act as ecosystem engineers, significantly altering above- and below-ground community structure in grasslands. Here, we show the importance of genotypic variation within a single host species (barleyHordeum vulgare), and population-level variation among two species of parasite (Rhinanthus minor and Rhinanthus angustifolius) on the outcome of parasite infection for both partners. We measured host fitness (number of seeds) and calculated parasite virulence as the difference in seed set between infected and uninfected hosts (the inverse of host tolerance). Virulence was determined by genetic variation within the host species and among the parasite species, but R. angustifolius was consistently more virulent than R. minor. The most tolerant host had the lowest inherent fitness and did not gain a fitness advantage over other infected hosts. We measured parasite size as a proxy for transmission ability (ability to infect further hosts) and host resistance. Parasite size depended on the specific combination of host genotype, parasite species and parasite population, and no species was consistently larger. We demonstrate that the outcome of infection by Rhinanthus depends not only on the host species, but also on the underlying genetics of both host and parasite. Thus, genetic variations within host and parasite are probably essential components of the ecosystem-altering effects of Rhinanthus. PMID:21444312

Rowntree, Jennifer K.; Cameron, Duncan D.; Preziosi, Richard F.

2011-01-01

29

Long live the Red Queen? Examining environmental influences on host-parasite interactions in Daphnia.  

E-print Network

Long live the Red Queen? Examining environmental influences on host-parasite interactions 2006 #12;Abstract The Red Queen hypothesis proposes that antagonistic coevolution between parasites-dependent selection by parasites against common host genotypes prevents asexual clones capitalising on their two

West, Stuart

30

Genotype-specific interactions and the trade-off between host and parasite fitness  

PubMed Central

Background Evolution of parasite traits is inextricably linked to their hosts. For instance one common definition of parasite virulence is the reduction in host fitness due to infection. Thus, traits of infection must be viewed in both protagonists and may be under shared genetic and physiological control. We investigated these questions on the oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsis (= parasitica), a natural pathogen of the Brassicaceae Arabidopsis thaliana. Results We performed a controlled cross inoculation experiment confronting six lines of the host plant with seven strains of the parasite in order to evaluate genetic variation for phenotypic traits of infection among hosts, parasites, and distinct combinations. Parasite infection intensity and transmission were highly variable among parasite strains and host lines but depended also on the interaction between particular genotypes of the protagonists, and genetic variation for the infection phenotype of parasites from natural populations was found even at a small spatial scale within population. Furthermore, increased parasite fitness led to a significant decrease in host fitness only on a single host line (Gb), although a trade-off between these two traits was expected because host and parasite share the same resource pool for their respective reproduction. We propose that different levels of compatibility dependent on genotype by genotype interactions might lead to different amounts of resources available for host and parasite reproduction. This variation in compatibility could thus mask the expected negative relationship between host and parasite fitness, as the total resource pool would not be constant. Conclusion These results highlight the importance of host variation in the determination of parasite fitness traits. This kind of interaction may in turn decouple the relationship between parasite transmission and its negative effect on host fitness, altering theoretical predictions of parasite evolution. PMID:17919316

Salvaudon, Lucie; Hraudet, Virginie; Shykoff, Jacqui A

2007-01-01

31

Host-parasite genetic interactions and virulence-transmission relationships in natural populations of monarch butterflies.  

PubMed

Evolutionary models predict that parasite virulence (parasite-induced host mortality) can evolve as a consequence of natural selection operating on between-host parasite transmission. Two major assumptions are that virulence and transmission are genetically related and that the relative virulence and transmission of parasite genotypes remain similar across host genotypes. We conducted a cross-infection experiment using monarch butterflies and their protozoan parasites from two populations in eastern and western North America. We tested each of 10 host family lines against each of 18 parasite genotypes and measured virulence (host life span) and parasite transmission potential (spore load). Consistent with virulence evolution theory, we found a positive relationship between virulence and transmission across parasite genotypes. However, the absolute values of virulence and transmission differed among host family lines, as did the rank order of parasite clones along the virulence-transmission relationship. Population-level analyses showed that parasites from western North America caused higher infection levels and virulence, but there was no evidence of local adaptation of parasites on sympatric hosts. Collectively, our results suggest that host genotypes can affect the strength and direction of selection on virulence in natural populations, and that predicting virulence evolution may require building genotype-specific interactions into simpler trade-off models. PMID:19796153

de Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia

2010-02-01

32

On the evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions: addressing the question with regard to bumblebees and their parasites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, there has been a major shift in the study of adaptive patterns and processes towards including the role of host-parasite interactions, informed by concepts from evolutionary ecology. As a consequence, a number of major questions have emerged. For example, how genetics affects host-parasite interactions, whether parasitism selects for offspring diversification, whether parasite virulence is an adaptive trait, and what constrains the use of the host's immune defences. Using bumblebees, Bombus spp, and their parasites as a model system, answers to some of these questions have been found, while at the same time the complexity of the interaction has led expectations away from simple theoretical models. In addition, the results have also led to the unexpected discovery of novel phenomena concerning, for instance, female mating strategies.

Schmid-Hempel, Paul

2001-05-01

33

The Common Swift Louse Fly, Crataerina pallida: An Ideal Species for Studying Host-Parasite Interactions  

PubMed Central

Little is known of the life-history of many parasitic species. This hinders a full understanding of host-parasitic interactions. The common swift louse fly, Crataerina pallida Latreille (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), an obligate haematophagous parasite of the Common Swift, Apus apus Linnaeus 1758, is one such species. No detrimental effect of its parasitism upon the host has been found. This may be because too little is known about C. pallida ecology, and therefore detrimental effects are also unknown. This is a review of what is known about the life-history of this parasite, with the aim of promoting understanding of its ecology. New, previously unreported observations about C. pallida made from personal observations at a nesting swift colony are described. Unanswered questions are highlighted, which may aid understanding of this host-parasite system. C. pallida may prove a suitable model species for the study of other host-parasite relationships. PMID:21268705

Walker, Mark D.; Rotherham, Ian D.

2010-01-01

34

Cooperation and conflict in host manipulation: interactions among macro-parasites and micro-organisms  

PubMed Central

Several parasite species are known to manipulate the phenotype of their hosts in ways that enhance their own transmission. Co-occurrence of manipulative parasites, belonging to the same species or to more than one species, in a single host has been regularly observed. Little is known, however, on interactions between co-occurring manipulative parasites with same or different transmission routes. Several models addressing this problem have provided predictions on how cooperation and conflict between parasites could emerge from multiple infections. Here, we review the empirical evidence in favor of the existence of synergistic or antagonistic interactions between co-occurring parasites, and highlight the neglected role of micro-organisms. We particularly discuss the actual importance of selective forces shaping the evolution of interactions between manipulative parasites in relation to parasite prevalence in natural populations, efficiency in manipulation, and type of transmission (i.e., horizontal versus vertical), and we emphasize the potential for future research. PMID:24966851

Czilly, Frank; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Rigaud, Thierry

2014-01-01

35

Testing GxG interactions between coinfecting microbial parasite genotypes within hosts  

PubMed Central

Hostparasite interactions represent one of the strongest selection pressures in nature. They are often governed by genotype-specific (GxG) interactions resulting in host genotypes that differ in resistance and parasite genotypes that differ in virulence depending on the antagonists genotype. Another type of GxG interactions, which is often neglected but which certainly influences hostparasite interactions, are those between coinfecting parasite genotypes. Mechanistically, within-host parasite interactions may range from competition for limited host resources to cooperation for more efficient host exploitation. The exact type of interaction, i.e., whether competitive or cooperative, is known to affect life-history traits such as virulence. However, the latter has been shown for chosen genotype combinations only, not considering whether the specific genotype combination per se may influence the interaction (i.e., GxG interactions). Here, we want to test for the presence of GxG interactions between coinfections of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis infecting the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by combining two non-pathogenic and five pathogenic strains in all possible ways. Furthermore, we evaluate whether the type of interaction, reflected by the direction of virulence change of multiple compared to single infections, is genotype-specific. Generally, we found no indication for GxG interactions between non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacterial strains, indicating that virulence of pathogenic strains is equally affected by both non-pathogenic strains. Specific genotype combinations, however, differ in the strength of virulence change, indicating that the interaction type between coinfecting parasite strains and thus the virulence mechanism is specific for different genotype combinations. Such interactions are expected to influence hostparasite interactions and to have strong implications for coevolution. PMID:24860594

Bose, Joy; Schulte, Rebecca D.

2014-01-01

36

Hostparasite genotypic interactions in the honey bee: the dynamics of diversity  

PubMed Central

Parasites are thought to be a major driving force shaping genetic variation in their host, and are suggested to be a significant reason for the maintenance of sexual reproduction. A leading hypothesis for the occurrence of multiple mating (polyandry) in social insects is that the genetic diversity generated within-colonies through this behavior promotes disease resistance. This benefit is likely to be particularly significant when colonies are exposed to multiple species and strains of parasites, but hostparasite genotypic interactions in social insects are little known. We investigated this using honey bees, which are naturally polyandrous and consequently produce genetically diverse colonies containing multiple genotypes (patrilines), and which are also known to host multiple strains of various parasite species. We found that host genotypes differed significantly in their resistance to different strains of the obligate fungal parasite that causes chalkbrood disease, while genotypic variation in resistance to the facultative fungal parasite that causes stonebrood disease was less pronounced. Our results show that genetic variation in disease resistance depends in part on the parasite genotype, as well as species, with the latter most likely relating to differences in parasite life history and hostparasite coevolution. Our results suggest that the selection pressure from genetically diverse parasites might be an important driving force in the evolution of polyandry, a mechanism that generates significant genetic diversity in social insects. PMID:23919163

Evison, Sophie E F; Fazio, Geraldine; Chappell, Paula; Foley, Kirsten; Jensen, Annette B; Hughes, William O H

2013-01-01

37

Dietary supply with polyunsaturated fatty acids and resulting maternal effects influence host parasite interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Interactions between hosts and parasites can be substantially modulated by host nutrition. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential dietary nutrients; they are indispensable as structural components of cell membranes and as precursors for eicosanoids, signalling molecules which act on reproduction and immunity. Here, we explored the potential of dietary PUFAs to affect the course of parasitic infections using a well-established invertebrate host parasite system, the freshwater herbivore Daphnia magna and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. Results Using natural food sources differing in their PUFA composition and by experimentally modifying the availability of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) we examined PUFA-mediated effects resulting from direct consumption as well as maternal effects on offspring of treated mothers. We found that both host and parasite were affected by food quality. Feeding on C20 PUFA-containing food sources resulted in higher offspring production of hosts and these effects were conveyed to a great extent to the next generation. While feeding on a diet containing high PUFA concentrations significantly reduced the likelihood of becoming infected, the infection success in the next generation increased whenever the maternal diet contained PUFAs. We suggest that this opposing effect was caused by a trade-off between reproduction and immunity in the second generation. Conclusions Considering the direct and maternal effects of dietary PUFAs on host and parasite we propose that host parasite interactions and thus disease dynamics under natural conditions are subject to the availability of dietary PUFAs. PMID:24175981

2013-01-01

38

A walk on the tundra: Hostparasite interactions in an extreme environment  

PubMed Central

Climate change is occurring very rapidly in the Arctic, and the processes that have taken millions of years to evolve in this very extreme environment are now changing on timescales as short as decades. These changes are dramatic, subtle and non-linear. In this article, we discuss the evolving insights into hostparasite interactions for wild ungulate species, specifically, muskoxen and caribou, in the North American Arctic. These interactions occur in an environment that is characterized by extremes in temperature, high seasonality, and low host species abundance and diversity. We believe that lessons learned in this system can guide wildlife management and conservation throughout the Arctic, and can also be generalized to more broadly understand hostparasite interactions elsewhere. We specifically examine the impacts of climate change on hostparasite interactions and focus on: (I) the direct temperature effects on parasites; (II) the importance of considering the intricacies of host and parasite ecology for anticipating climate change impacts; and (III) the effect of shifting ecological barriers and corridors. Insights gained from studying the history and ecology of hostparasite systems in the Arctic will be central to understanding the role that climate change is playing in these more complex systems. PMID:25180164

Kutz, Susan J.; Hoberg, Eric P.; Molnr, Pter K.; Dobson, Andy; Verocai, Guilherme G.

2014-01-01

39

A walk on the tundra: Host-parasite interactions in an extreme environment.  

PubMed

Climate change is occurring very rapidly in the Arctic, and the processes that have taken millions of years to evolve in this very extreme environment are now changing on timescales as short as decades. These changes are dramatic, subtle and non-linear. In this article, we discuss the evolving insights into host-parasite interactions for wild ungulate species, specifically, muskoxen and caribou, in the North American Arctic. These interactions occur in an environment that is characterized by extremes in temperature, high seasonality, and low host species abundance and diversity. We believe that lessons learned in this system can guide wildlife management and conservation throughout the Arctic, and can also be generalized to more broadly understand host-parasite interactions elsewhere. We specifically examine the impacts of climate change on host-parasite interactions and focus on: (I) the direct temperature effects on parasites; (II) the importance of considering the intricacies of host and parasite ecology for anticipating climate change impacts; and (III) the effect of shifting ecological barriers and corridors. Insights gained from studying the history and ecology of host-parasite systems in the Arctic will be central to understanding the role that climate change is playing in these more complex systems. PMID:25180164

Kutz, Susan J; Hoberg, Eric P; Molnr, Pter K; Dobson, Andy; Verocai, Guilherme G

2014-08-01

40

Malaria proteomics: insights into the parasite-host interactions in the pathogenic space.  

PubMed

Proteomics is improving malaria research by providing global information on relevant protein sets from the parasite and the host in connection with its cellular structures and specific functions. In the last decade, reports have described biologically significant elements in the proteome of Plasmodium, which are selectively targeted and quantified, allowing for sensitive and high-throughput comparisons. The identification of molecules by which the parasite and the host react during the malaria infection is crucial to the understanding of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Hence, proteomics is playing a major role by defining the elements within the pathogenic space between both organisms that change across the parasite life cycle in association with the host transformation and response. Proteomics has identified post-translational modifications in the parasite and the host that are discussed in terms of functional interactions in malaria parasitism. Furthermore, the contribution of proteomics to the investigation of immunogens for potential vaccine candidates is summarized. The malaria-specific technological advances in proteomics are particularly suited now for identifying host-parasite interactions that could lead to promising targets for therapy, diagnosis or prevention. In this review, we examine the knowledge gained on the biology, pathogenesis, immunity and diagnosis of Plasmodium infection from recent proteomic studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Trends in Microbial Proteomics. PMID:24140976

Bautista, Jos M; Marn-Garca, Patricia; Diez, Amalia; Azcrate, Isabel G; Puyet, Antonio

2014-01-31

41

Parasitic plants of the genus Cuscuta and their interaction with susceptible and resistant host plants  

PubMed Central

By comparison with plantmicrobe interaction, little is known about the interaction of parasitic plants with their hosts. Plants of the genus Cuscuta belong to the family of Cuscutaceae and comprise about 200 species, all of which live as stem holoparasites on other plants. Cuscuta spp. possess no roots nor fully expanded leaves and the vegetative portion appears to be a stem only. The parasite winds around plants and penetrates the host stems via haustoria, forming direct connections to the vascular bundles of their hosts to withdraw water, carbohydrates, and other solutes. Besides susceptible hosts, a few plants exist that exhibit an active resistance against infestation by Cuscuta spp. For example, cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fends off Cuscuta reflexa by means of a hypersensitive-type response occurring in the early penetration phase. This report on the plantplant dialog between Cuscuta spp. and its host plants focuses on the incompatible interaction of C. reflexa with tomato. PMID:25699071

Kaiser, Bettina; Vogg, Gerd; Frst, Ursula B.; Albert, Markus

2015-01-01

42

Construction and use of Plasmodium falciparum phage display libraries to identify host parasite interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The development of Plasmodium falciparum within human erythrocytes induces a wide array of changes in the ultrastructure, function and antigenic properties of the host cell. Numerous proteins encoded by the parasite have been shown to interact with the erythrocyte membrane. The identification of new interactions between human erythrocyte and P. falciparum proteins has formed a key area of malaria

Sonja B Lauterbach; Roberto Lanzillotti; Theresa L Coetzer

2003-01-01

43

The role of evolutionarily conserved signalling systems in Echinococcus multilocularis development and hostparasite interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alveolar echinococcosis, one of the most serious and life-threatening zoonoses in the world, is caused by the metacestode\\u000a larval stage of the fox-tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Mostly due to its accessibility to in vitro cultivation, this parasite has recently evolved into an experimental model system\\u000a to study larval cestode development and associated hostparasite interaction mechanisms. Respective advances include the establishment\\u000a of

Klaus Brehm

2010-01-01

44

Betulin derivatives impair Leishmania braziliensis viability and host-parasite interaction.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, including Venezuela. The incidence of treatment failure and the number of cases with Leishmania-HIV co-infection underscore the importance of developing alternative, economical and effective therapies against this disease. The work presented here analyzed whether terpenoids derived from betulin are active against New World Leishmania parasites. Initially we determined the concentration that inhibits the growth of these parasites by 50% or IC50, and subsequently evaluated the chemotactic effect of four compounds with leishmanicidal activity in the sub-micromolar and micromolar range. That is, we measured the migratory capacity of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis in the presence of increasing concentrations of compounds. Finally, we evaluated their cytotoxicity against the host cell and their effect on the infectivity of L. (V.) braziliensis. The results suggest that (1) compounds 14, 17, 18, 25 and 27 are active at concentrations lower than 10 ?M; (2) compound 26 inhibits parasite growth with an IC50 lower than 1 ?M; (3) compounds 18, 26 and 27 inhibit parasite migration at pico- to nanomolar concentrations, suggesting that they impair host-parasite interaction. None of the tested compounds was cytotoxic against J774.A1 macrophages thus indicating their potential as starting points to develop compounds that might affect parasite-host cell interaction, as well as being leishmanicidal. PMID:25240731

Alcazar, Wilmer; Lpez, Adrian Silva; Alakurtti, Sami; Tuononen, Maija-Liisa; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Ponte-Sucre, Alicia

2014-11-01

45

Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry. By 1997, pitch canker was found in 22 counties in California, and the Board of Forestry established 0.34 0.05 162 NZ OP 0.49 0.08 158 Table 3--Heritability estimates for lesion length separated

Standiford, Richard B.

46

Multitrophic interaction facilitates parasite-host relationship between an invasive beetle and the honey bee  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Colony defense by honeybees is associated with a sting and mass attack, fueled by the release of alarm pheromones. As such, alarm pheromones are critically important to survival of honeybee colonies. However, we have discovered that in the host-parasite interaction involving the honeybee and the s...

47

Host-parasite interactions in acanthocephala: a morphological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review recent morphological and histochemical descriptions have been compiled of (mainly outer) features of all developmental stages of the Acanthocephala as well as what is known about the host's defence measures directed against these worms. From acanthors, for intance, it is documented how they escape melanization inside the haemocoel of a suitable intermediate host after they have been

Horst Taraschewski

2000-01-01

48

Let your enemy do the work: within-host interactions between two fungal parasites of leaf-cutting ants.  

PubMed Central

Within-host competition is an important factor in host-parasite relationships, yet most studies consider interactions involving only single parasite species. We investigated the interaction between a virulent obligate entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, and a normally avirulent, opportunistic fungal pathogen, Aspergillus flavus, in their leaf-cutting ant host, Acromyrmex echinatior. Surprisingly, the latter normally out-competed the former in mixed infections and had enhanced fitness relative to when infecting in isolation. The result is most probably due to Metarhizium inhibiting the host's immune defences, which would otherwise normally prevent infections by Aspergillus. With the host defences negated by the virulent parasite, the avirulent parasite was then able to out-compete its competitor. This result is strikingly similar to that seen in immunocompromised vertebrate hosts and indicates that avirulent parasites may play a more important role in host life histories than is generally realized. PMID:15101433

Hughes, W O H; Boomsma, J J

2004-01-01

49

Host defense reinforces hostparasite cospeciation  

PubMed Central

Cospeciation occurs when interacting groups, such as hosts and parasites, speciate in tandem, generating congruent phylogenies. Cospeciation can be a neutral process in which parasites speciate merely because they are isolated on diverging host islands. Adaptive evolution may also play a role, but this has seldom been tested. We explored the adaptive basis of cospeciation by using a model system consisting of feather lice (Columbicola) and their pigeon and dove hosts (Columbiformes). We reconstructed phylogenies for both groups by using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Both phylogenies were well resolved and well supported. Comparing these phylogenies revealed significant cospeciation and correlated evolution of host and parasite body size. The match in body size suggested that adaptive constraints limit the range of hosts lice can use. We tested this hypothesis by transferring lice among hosts of different sizes to simulate host switches. The results of these experiments showed that lice cannot establish viable populations on novel hosts that differ in size from the native host. To determine why size matters, we measured three components of louse fitness: attachment, feeding, and escape from host defense (preening). Lice could remain attached to, and feed on, hosts varying in size by an order of magnitude. However, they could not escape from preening on novel hosts that differed in size from the native host. Overall, our results suggest that host defense reinforces cospeciation in birds and feather lice by preventing lice from switching between hosts of different sizes. PMID:14673114

Clayton, Dale H.; Bush, Sarah E.; Goates, Brad M.; Johnson, Kevin P.

2003-01-01

50

Dual RNA-seq of Parasite and Host Reveals Gene Expression Dynamics during Filarial WormMosquito Interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Parasite biology, by its very nature, cannot be understood without integrating it with that of the host, nor can the host response be adequately explained without considering the activity of the parasite. However, due to experimental limitations, molecular studies of parasite-host systems have been predominantly one-sided investigations focusing on either of the partners involved. Here, we conducted a dual RNA-seq time course analysis of filarial worm parasite and host mosquito to better understand the parasite processes underlying development in and interaction with the host tissue, from the establishment of infection to the development of infective-stage larva. Methodology/Principal Findings Using the Brugia malayiAedes aegypti system, we report parasite gene transcription dynamics, which exhibited a highly ordered developmental program consisting of a series of cyclical and state-transitioning temporal patterns. In addition, we contextualized these parasite data in relation to the concurrent dynamics of the host transcriptome. Comparative analyses using uninfected tissues and different host strains revealed the influence of parasite development on host gene transcription as well as the influence of the host environment on parasite gene transcription. We also critically evaluated the life-cycle transcriptome of B. malayi by comparing developmental stages in the mosquito relative to those in the mammalian host, providing insight into gene expression changes underpinning the mosquito-borne parasitic lifestyle of this heteroxenous parasite. Conclusions/Significance The data presented herein provide the research community with information to design wet lab experiments and select candidates for future study to more fully dissect the whole set of molecular interactions of both organisms in this mosquito-filarial worm symbiotic relationship. Furthermore, characterization of the transcriptional program over the complete life cycle of the parasite, including stages within the mosquito, could help devise novel targets for control strategies. PMID:24853112

Mayhew, George F.; Erickson, Sara M.; Christensen, Bruce M.

2014-01-01

51

Involvement of Apoptosis in Host-Parasite Interactions in the Zebra Mussel  

PubMed Central

The question of whether cell death by apoptosis plays a biological function during infection is key to understanding host-parasite interactions. We investigated the involvement of apoptosis in several host-parasite systems, using zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha as test organisms and their micro- and macroparasites. As a stress response associated with parasitism, heat shock proteins (Hsp) can be induced. In this protein family, Hsp70 are known to be apoptosis inhibitors. Mussels were diagnosed for their respective infections by standard histological methods; apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL methods on paraffin sections and Hsp70 by immunohistochemistry on cryosections. Circulating hemocytes were the main cells observed in apoptosis whereas infected tissues displayed no or few apoptotic cells. Parasitism by intracellular bacteria Rickettsiales-like and the trematode Bucephalus polymorphus were associated with the inhibition of apoptosis whereas ciliates Ophryoglena spp. or the trematode Phyllodistomum folium did not involve significant differences in apoptosis. Even if some parasites were able to modulate apoptosis in zebra mussels, we did not see evidence of any involvement of Hsp70 on this mechanism. PMID:23785455

Minguez, Latitia; Brul, Nelly; Sohm, Bndicte; Devin, Simon; Giambrini, Laure

2013-01-01

52

Involvement of apoptosis in host-parasite interactions in the zebra mussel.  

PubMed

The question of whether cell death by apoptosis plays a biological function during infection is key to understanding host-parasite interactions. We investigated the involvement of apoptosis in several host-parasite systems, using zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha as test organisms and their micro- and macroparasites. As a stress response associated with parasitism, heat shock proteins (Hsp) can be induced. In this protein family, Hsp70 are known to be apoptosis inhibitors. Mussels were diagnosed for their respective infections by standard histological methods; apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL methods on paraffin sections and Hsp70 by immunohistochemistry on cryosections. Circulating hemocytes were the main cells observed in apoptosis whereas infected tissues displayed no or few apoptotic cells. Parasitism by intracellular bacteria Rickettsiales-like and the trematode Bucephalus polymorphus were associated with the inhibition of apoptosis whereas ciliates Ophryoglena spp. or the trematode Phyllodistomum folium did not involve significant differences in apoptosis. Even if some parasites were able to modulate apoptosis in zebra mussels, we did not see evidence of any involvement of Hsp70 on this mechanism. PMID:23785455

Minguez, Latitia; Brul, Nelly; Sohm, Bndicte; Devin, Simon; Giambrini, Laure

2013-01-01

53

Spatial heterogeneity, frequency-dependent selection and polymorphism in host-parasite interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic and pathology analysis has revealed enormous diversity in genes involved in disease, including those encoding host resistance and parasite effectors (also known in plant pathology as avirulence genes). It has been proposed that such variation may persist when an organism exists in a spatially structured metapopulation, following the geographic mosaic of coevolution. Here, we study gene-for-gene relationships governing the outcome of plant-parasite interactions in a spatially structured system and, in particular, investigate the population genetic processes which maintain balanced polymorphism in both species. Results Following previous theory on the effect of heterogeneous environments on maintenance of polymorphism, we analysed a model with two demes in which the demes have different environments and are coupled by gene flow. Environmental variation is manifested by different coefficients of natural selection, the costs to the host of resistance and to the parasite of virulence, the cost to the host of being diseased and the cost to an avirulent parasite of unsuccessfully attacking a resistant host. We show that migration generates negative direct frequency-dependent selection, a condition for maintenance of stable polymorphism in each deme. Balanced polymorphism occurs preferentially if there is heterogeneity for costs of resistance and virulence alleles among populations and to a lesser extent if there is variation in the cost to the host of being diseased. We show that the four fitness costs control the natural frequency of oscillation of host resistance and parasite avirulence alleles. If demes have different costs, their frequencies of oscillation differ and when coupled by gene flow, there is amplitude death of the oscillations in each deme. Numerical simulations show that for a multiple deme island model, costs of resistance and virulence need not to be present in each deme for stable polymorphism to occur. Conclusions Our theoretical results confirm the importance of empirical studies for measuring the environmental heterogeneity for genetic costs of resistance and virulence alleles. We suggest that such studies should be developed to investigate the generality of this mechanism for the long-term maintenance of genetic diversity at host and parasite genes. PMID:22044632

2011-01-01

54

Assessing the Effects of Climate on Host-Parasite Interactions: A Comparative Study of European Birds and Their Parasites  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change potentially has important effects on distribution, abundance, transmission and virulence of parasites in wild populations of animals. Methodology/Principal Finding Here we analyzed paired information on 89 parasite populations for 24 species of bird hosts some years ago and again in 2010 with an average interval of 10 years. The parasite taxa included protozoa, feather parasites, diptera, ticks, mites and fleas. We investigated whether change in abundance and prevalence of parasites was related to change in body condition, reproduction and population size of hosts. We conducted analyses based on the entire dataset, but also on a restricted dataset with intervals between study years being 515 years. Parasite abundance increased over time when restricting the analyses to datasets with an interval of 515 years, with no significant effect of changes in temperature at the time of breeding among study sites. Changes in host body condition and clutch size were related to change in temperature between first and second study year. In addition, changes in clutch size, brood size and body condition of hosts were correlated with change in abundance of parasites. Finally, changes in population size of hosts were not significantly related to changes in abundance of parasites or their prevalence. Conclusions/Significance Climate change is associated with a general increase in parasite abundance. Variation in laying date depended on locality and was associated with latitude while body condition of hosts was associated with a change in temperature. Because clutch size, brood size and body condition were associated with change in parasitism, these results suggest that parasites, perhaps mediated through the indirect effects of temperature, may affect fecundity and condition of their hosts. The conclusions were particularly in accordance with predictions when the restricted dataset with intervals of 515 years was used, suggesting that short intervals may bias findings. PMID:24391725

Mller, Anders Pape; Merino, Santiago; Soler, Juan Jos; Antonov, Anton; Bads, Elisa P.; Calero-Torralbo, Miguel A.; de Lope, Florentino; Eeva, Tapio; Figuerola, Jordi; Flensted-Jensen, Einar; Garamszegi, Laszlo Z.; Gonzlez-Braojos, Sonia; Gwinner, Helga; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Heylen, Dieter; Ilmonen, Petteri; Klarborg, Kurt; Korpimki, Erkki; Martnez, Javier; Martnez-de la Puente, Josue; Marzal, Alfonso; Matthysen, Erik; Matyjasiak, Piotr; Molina-Morales, Mercedes; Moreno, Juan; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Nielsen, Jan Tttrup; Pap, Pter Lszl; Rivero-de Aguilar, Juan; Shurulinkov, Peter; Slagsvold, Tore; Szp, Tibor; Szll?si, Eszter; Trk, Janos; Vaclav, Radovan; Valera, Francisco; Ziane, Nadia

2013-01-01

55

Landscape heterogeneity shapes host-parasite interactions and results in apparent plant-virus codivergence.  

PubMed

Knowledge on how landscape heterogeneity shapes host-parasite interactions is central to understand the emergence, dynamics and evolution of infectious diseases. However, this is an underexplored subject, particularly for plant-virus systems. Here, we analyse how landscape heterogeneity influences the prevalence, spatial genetic structure, and temporal dynamics of Pepper golden mosaic and Pepper huasteco yellow vein begomoviruses infecting populations of the wild pepper Capsicum annuum glabriusculum (chiltepin) in Mexico. Environmental heterogeneity occurred at different nested spatial scales (host populations within biogeographical provinces), with levels of human management varying among host population within a province. Results indicate that landscape heterogeneity affects the epidemiology and genetic structure of chiltepin-infecting begomoviruses in a scale-specific manner, probably related to conditions favouring the viruses' whitefly vector and its dispersion. Increased levels of human management of the host populations were associated with higher virus prevalence and erased the spatial genetic structure of the virus populations. Also, environmental heterogeneity similarly shaped the spatial genetic structures of host and viruses. This resulted in the congruence between host and virus phylogenies, which does not seem to be due to host-virus co-evolution. Thus, results provide evidence of the key role of landscape heterogeneity in determining plant-virus interactions. PMID:23379795

Rodelo-Urrego, M; Pagn, I; Gonzlez-Jara, P; Betancourt, M; Moreno-Letelier, A; Aylln, M A; Fraile, A; Piero, D; Garca-Arenal, F

2013-04-01

56

Hepatic tissue culture model for study of host-parasite interactions in alveolar echinococcosis.  

PubMed

An in vitro model for growth and differentiation of the metacestode tissue of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis is described. This model simulates the organotropism of the parasite toward the liver of the intermediate host. In the presence of collagen-embedded primary hepatocytes from rats and humans, which can be kept in culture for 2 to 3 months, the parasitic vesicles grew by exogenous budding and multiplied about 12-fold within 3 weeks. In contrast, without the hepatocytes, the metacestodes rapidly degenerated. Development of protoscolices was seen only in the presence of rat hepatocytes but not in coculture of the metacestodes with hepatocytes of human origin, thus reflecting the in vivo situation during infection of rodents and in alveolar echinococcosis in humans. The experiments indicated that growth of the metacestodes and development of protoscolices depended on soluble low-molecular-weight factors released by the hepatocytes. The in vitro-grown metacestodes did not differ morphologically from the larvae found in infected intermediate hosts, and their infectivity was completely maintained. This report describes the first in vitro model of alveolar echinococcosis and will be the basis for future studies on host-parasite interactions of this important zoonosis. PMID:8751888

Jura, H; Bader, A; Hartmann, M; Maschek, H; Frosch, M

1996-09-01

57

Synergistic Parasite-Pathogen Interactions Mediated by Host Immunity Can Drive the Collapse of Honeybee Colonies  

PubMed Central

The health of the honeybee and, indirectly, global crop production are threatened by several biotic and abiotic factors, which play a poorly defined role in the induction of widespread colony losses. Recent descriptive studies suggest that colony losses are often related to the interaction between pathogens and other stress factors, including parasites. Through an integrated analysis of the population and molecular changes associated with the collapse of honeybee colonies infested by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, we show that this parasite can de-stabilise the within-host dynamics of Deformed wing virus (DWV), transforming a cryptic and vertically transmitted virus into a rapidly replicating killer, which attains lethal levels late in the season. The de-stabilisation of DWV infection is associated with an immunosuppression syndrome, characterized by a strong down-regulation of the transcription factor NF-?B. The centrality of NF-?B in host responses to a range of environmental challenges suggests that this transcription factor can act as a common currency underlying colony collapse that may be triggered by different causes. Our results offer an integrated account for the multifactorial origin of honeybee losses and a new framework for assessing, and possibly mitigating, the impact of environmental challenges on honeybee health. PMID:22719246

Nazzi, Francesco; Brown, Sam P.; Annoscia, Desiderato; Del Piccolo, Fabio; Di Prisco, Gennaro; Varricchio, Paola; Della Vedova, Giorgio; Cattonaro, Federica; Caprio, Emilio; Pennacchio, Francesco

2012-01-01

58

Host Sexual Dimorphism and Parasite Adaptation  

PubMed Central

In species with separate sexes, parasite prevalence and disease expression is often different between males and females. This effect has mainly been attributed to sex differences in host traits, such as immune response. Here, we make the case for how properties of the parasites themselves can also matter. Specifically, we suggest that differences between host sexes in many different traits, such as morphology and hormone levels, can impose selection on parasites. This selection can eventually lead to parasite adaptations specific to the host sex more commonly encountered, or to differential expression of parasite traits depending on which host sex they find themselves in. Parasites adapted to the sex of the host in this way can contribute to differences between males and females in disease prevalence and expression. Considering those possibilities can help shed light on hostparasite interactions, and impact epidemiological and medical science. PMID:22389630

Duneau, David; Ebert, Dieter

2012-01-01

59

Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) parasite-host interactions in the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prediction of how host mortality responds to efforts to control sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) is central to the integrated management strategy for sea lamprey (IMSL) in the Great Lakes. A parasite-host submodel is used as part of this strategy, and this includes a type-2 multi-species functional response, a developmental response, but no numerical response. General patterns of host species and size selection are consistent with the model assumptions, but some observations appear to diverge. For example, some patterns in sea lamprey marking on hosts suggest increases in selectivity for less preferred hosts and lower host survival when preferred hosts are scarce. Nevertheless, many of the IMSL assumptions may be adequate under conditions targeted by fish community objectives. Of great concern is the possibility that the survival of young parasites (parasitic-phase sea lampreys) varies substantially among lakes or over time. Joint analysis of abundance estimates for parasites being produced in streams and returning spawners could address this. Data on sea lamprey marks is a critical source of information on sea lamprey activity and potential effects. Theory connecting observed marks to sea lamprey feeding activity and host mortality is reviewed. Uncertainties regarding healing and attachment times, the probability of hosts surviving attacks, and problems in consistent classification of marks have led to widely divergent estimates of damages caused by sea lamprey. Laboratory and field studies are recommended to provide a firmer linkage between host blood loss, host mortality, and observed marks on surviving hosts, so as to improve estimates of damage.

Bence, James R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Christie, Gavin C.; Cochran, Phillip A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Koonce, Joseph F.; Rutter, Michael A.; Swink, William D.

2003-01-01

60

A synthetic workflow for coordinated direct observation and genetic tagging applied to a complex host-parasite interaction.  

PubMed

An important aspect influencing host specificity is a parasite's compatibility, or ability, to infect a potential host. Here, we examine the compatibility between different trematode genotypes of the same species and several host species. To execute this study, we developed a synthetic workflow which combines the use of a fluorescent dye and standard molecular techniques to study host-parasite interactions and host specificity. The utility of the fluorescent dye, BIODIPY FL C12, was evaluated to label and track larval trematodes during experimental infections using the Cerithidea californica-trematode host-parasite system. Our results showed that low dye concentrations (200 nM) did not significantly affect survival or infectivity of Acanthoparyphium spinulosum and proved to be useful for labeling cercariae. Parasites were genotyped based on sequences from cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) prior to labeling and experimental infections. Samples with low COI PCR product yield were reamplified using the M13 tails to obtain enough material for sequencing. Three parasite genotypes were recovered and results from experimental infections demonstrated varying levels of host specificity. Of the three host species used (C. californica, Polydora nuchalis, Tagelus californianus), genotype B was unable to infect P. nuchalis. Genotype A individuals were less likely to infect P. nuchalis than the other host species. Additionally, genotype C was unable to infect any host offered in this study. These findings reflect possible suboptimal pairings between parasite genotype and host species. Furthermore, the present study provides procedures that are useful for exploring parasite ecology at the molecular level. PMID:25846835

Nguyen, A T; Kuwata, C; Kuris, A M

2015-05-01

61

Insights into the Trypanosome-Host Interactions Revealed through Transcriptomic Analysis of Parasitized Tsetse Fly Salivary Glands  

PubMed Central

The agents of sleeping sickness disease, Trypanosoma brucei complex parasites, are transmitted to mammalian hosts through the bite of an infected tsetse. Information on tsetse-trypanosome interactions in the salivary gland (SG) tissue, and on mammalian infective metacyclic (MC) parasites present in the SG, is sparse. We performed RNA-seq analyses from uninfected and T. b. brucei infected SGs of Glossina morsitans morsitans. Comparison of the SG transcriptomes to a whole body fly transcriptome revealed that only 2.7% of the contigs are differentially expressed during SG infection, and that only 263 contigs (0.6%) are preferentially expressed in the SGs (SG-enriched). The expression of only 37 contigs (0.08%) and 27 SG-enriched contigs (10%) were suppressed in infected SG. These suppressed contigs accounted for over 55% of the SG transcriptome, and included the most abundant putative secreted proteins with anti-hemostatic functions present in saliva. In contrast, expression of putative host proteins associated with immunity, stress, cell division and tissue remodeling were enriched in infected SG suggesting that parasite infections induce host immune and stress response(s) that likely results in tissue renewal. We also performed RNA-seq analysis from mouse blood infected with the same parasite strain, and compared the transcriptome of bloodstream form (BSF) cells with that of parasites obtained from the infected SG. Over 30% of parasite transcripts are differentially regulated between the two stages, and reflect parasite adaptations to varying host nutritional and immune ecology. These differences are associated with the switch from an amino acid based metabolism in the SG to one based on glucose utilization in the blood, and with surface coat modifications that enable parasite survival in the different hosts. This study provides a foundation on the molecular aspects of the trypanosome dialogue with its tsetse and mammalian hosts, necessary for future functional investigations. PMID:24763140

Zhao, Xin; Savage, Amy F.; Regmi, Sandesh; e Silva, Thiago Luiz Alves; O'Neill, Michelle; Aksoy, Serap

2014-01-01

62

Insights into the trypanosome-host interactions revealed through transcriptomic analysis of parasitized tsetse fly salivary glands.  

PubMed

The agents of sleeping sickness disease, Trypanosoma brucei complex parasites, are transmitted to mammalian hosts through the bite of an infected tsetse. Information on tsetse-trypanosome interactions in the salivary gland (SG) tissue, and on mammalian infective metacyclic (MC) parasites present in the SG, is sparse. We performed RNA-seq analyses from uninfected and T. b. brucei infected SGs of Glossina morsitans morsitans. Comparison of the SG transcriptomes to a whole body fly transcriptome revealed that only 2.7% of the contigs are differentially expressed during SG infection, and that only 263 contigs (0.6%) are preferentially expressed in the SGs (SG-enriched). The expression of only 37 contigs (0.08%) and 27 SG-enriched contigs (10%) were suppressed in infected SG. These suppressed contigs accounted for over 55% of the SG transcriptome, and included the most abundant putative secreted proteins with anti-hemostatic functions present in saliva. In contrast, expression of putative host proteins associated with immunity, stress, cell division and tissue remodeling were enriched in infected SG suggesting that parasite infections induce host immune and stress response(s) that likely results in tissue renewal. We also performed RNA-seq analysis from mouse blood infected with the same parasite strain, and compared the transcriptome of bloodstream form (BSF) cells with that of parasites obtained from the infected SG. Over 30% of parasite transcripts are differentially regulated between the two stages, and reflect parasite adaptations to varying host nutritional and immune ecology. These differences are associated with the switch from an amino acid based metabolism in the SG to one based on glucose utilization in the blood, and with surface coat modifications that enable parasite survival in the different hosts. This study provides a foundation on the molecular aspects of the trypanosome dialogue with its tsetse and mammalian hosts, necessary for future functional investigations. PMID:24763140

Telleria, Erich Loza; Benoit, Joshua B; Zhao, Xin; Savage, Amy F; Regmi, Sandesh; Alves e Silva, Thiago Luiz; O'Neill, Michelle; Aksoy, Serap

2014-04-01

63

Interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasite infection in wild bovids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study, I explored the interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasitism in wild bovids by examining temporal patterns of nematode faecal egg shedding in species with different diet types during a drought and non-drought year. Study species included three grass and roughage feeders (buffalo, hartebeest, waterbuck), four mixed or intermediate feeders (eland, Grant's gazelle, impala, Thomson's gazelle) and two concentrate selectors (dik-dik, klipspringer). Six out of the nine focal species had higher mean faecal egg counts in the drought year compared to the normal year, and over the course of the dry year, monthly faecal egg counts were correlated with drought intensity in four species with low-quality diets, but no such relationship was found for species with high-quality diets. Comparisons of dietary crude protein and faecal egg count in impala showed that during the dry season, individuals with high faecal egg counts (???1550 eggs/g of faeces) had significantly lower crude protein levels than individuals with low (0-500 eggs/g) or moderate (550-1500 eggs/g) egg counts. These results suggest that under drought conditions, species unable to maintain adequate nutrition, mainly low-quality feeders, are less able to cope with gastrointestinal parasite infections. In particular, during dry periods, reduced protein intake seems to be associated with declining resilience and resistance to infection. ?? 2003 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ezenwa, V.O.

2004-01-01

64

Hostparasite interaction between branchiurans (Crustacea: Argulidae) and piranhas (Osteichthyes: Serrasalminae) in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological studies of hostparasite interactions in the tropics are generally restricted to descriptive taxonomic aspects. The present study had as its objective identification of the metazoan ectoparasites of piranhas Pygocentrus nattereri, Serrasalmus spilopleura and S. marginatus in lentic and lotic environments in the Pantanal region, Brazil. We collected the samples in the Miranda River basin and in three ponds. We

Luclia Nobre Carvalho; Kleber Del-Claro; Ricardo Massato Takemoto

2003-01-01

65

The Arctic as a model for anticipating, preventing, and mitigating climate change impacts on hostparasite interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is influencing the structure and function of natural ecosystems around the world, including hostparasite interactions and disease emergence. Understanding the influence of climate change on infectious disease at temperate and tropical latitudes can be challenging because of numerous complicating biological, social, and political factors. Arctic and Subarctic regions may be particularly good models for unraveling the impacts of

Susan J. Kutz; Emily J. Jenkins; Alasdair M. Veitch; Julie Ducrocq; Lydden Polley; Brett Elkin; Stephane Lair

2009-01-01

66

The Arctic as a model for anticipating, preventing, and mitigating climate change impacts on host-parasite interactions.  

PubMed

Climate change is influencing the structure and function of natural ecosystems around the world, including host-parasite interactions and disease emergence. Understanding the influence of climate change on infectious disease at temperate and tropical latitudes can be challenging because of numerous complicating biological, social, and political factors. Arctic and Subarctic regions may be particularly good models for unraveling the impacts of climate change on parasite ecology because they are relatively simple systems with low biological diversity and few other complicating anthropogenic factors. We examine some changing dynamics of host-parasite interactions at high latitudes and use these to illustrate a framework for approaching understanding, preventing, and mitigating climate change impacts on infectious disease, including zoonoses, in wildlife. PMID:19560274

Kutz, Susan J; Jenkins, Emily J; Veitch, Alasdair M; Ducrocq, Julie; Polley, Lydden; Elkin, Brett; Lair, Stephane

2009-08-01

67

Do different parasite species interact in their effects on host fitness? A case study on parasites of the amphipod  

E-print Network

of the amphipod Paracalliope fluviatilis C. A. RAUQUE1 *, R. A. PATERSON2 , R. POULIN2 and D. M. TOMPKINS3 1 fitness components of the amphipod Paracalliope fluviatilis, using a combination of infection surveys parasites and measures of amphipod survival, maturity, mating success and behaviour, interactions between

Poulin, Robert

68

Getting What Is Served? Feeding Ecology Influencing Parasite-Host Interactions in Invasive Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus  

PubMed Central

Freshwater ecosystems are increasingly impacted by alien invasive species which have the potential to alter various ecological interactions like predator-prey and host-parasite relationships. Here, we simultaneously examined predator-prey interactions and parasitization patterns of the highly invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in the rivers Rhine and Main in Germany. A total of 350 N. melanostomus were sampled between June and October 2011. Gut content analysis revealed a broad prey spectrum, partly reflecting temporal and local differences in prey availability. For the major food type (amphipods), species compositions were determined. Amphipod fauna consisted entirely of non-native species and was dominated by Dikerogammarus villosus in the Main and Echinogammarus trichiatus in the Rhine. However, the availability of amphipod species in the field did not reflect their relative abundance in gut contents of N. melanostomus. Only two metazoan parasites, the nematode Raphidascaris acus and the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus sp., were isolated from N. melanostomus in all months, whereas unionid glochidia were only detected in June and October in fish from the Main. To analyse infection pathways, we examined 17,356 amphipods and found Pomphorhynchus sp. larvae only in D. villosus in the river Rhine at a prevalence of 0.15%. Dikerogammarus villosus represented the most important amphipod prey for N. melanostomus in both rivers but parasite intensities differed between rivers, suggesting that final hosts (large predatory fishes) may influence host-parasite dynamics of N. melanostomus in its introduced range. PMID:25338158

Emde, Sebastian; Kochmann, Judith; Kuhn, Thomas; Plath, Martin; Klimpel, Sven

2014-01-01

69

Getting what is served? Feeding ecology influencing parasite-host interactions in invasive round goby Neogobius melanostomus.  

PubMed

Freshwater ecosystems are increasingly impacted by alien invasive species which have the potential to alter various ecological interactions like predator-prey and host-parasite relationships. Here, we simultaneously examined predator-prey interactions and parasitization patterns of the highly invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in the rivers Rhine and Main in Germany. A total of 350 N. melanostomus were sampled between June and October 2011. Gut content analysis revealed a broad prey spectrum, partly reflecting temporal and local differences in prey availability. For the major food type (amphipods), species compositions were determined. Amphipod fauna consisted entirely of non-native species and was dominated by Dikerogammarus villosus in the Main and Echinogammarus trichiatus in the Rhine. However, the availability of amphipod species in the field did not reflect their relative abundance in gut contents of N. melanostomus. Only two metazoan parasites, the nematode Raphidascaris acus and the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus sp., were isolated from N. melanostomus in all months, whereas unionid glochidia were only detected in June and October in fish from the Main. To analyse infection pathways, we examined 17,356 amphipods and found Pomphorhynchus sp. larvae only in D. villosus in the river Rhine at a prevalence of 0.15%. Dikerogammarus villosus represented the most important amphipod prey for N. melanostomus in both rivers but parasite intensities differed between rivers, suggesting that final hosts (large predatory fishes) may influence host-parasite dynamics of N. melanostomus in its introduced range. PMID:25338158

Emde, Sebastian; Kochmann, Judith; Kuhn, Thomas; Plath, Martin; Klimpel, Sven

2014-01-01

70

Electron microscope cytochemistry of hostparasite membrane interactions in malaria*  

PubMed Central

Two membrane-bound enzymes were localized by electron microscope cytochemical techniques in Plasmodium lophurae and its host erythrocyte. Parasites were prepared by saponin lysis, French pressure cell lysis, or anti-red blood cell serum lysis; infected and uninfected erythrocyte ghosts were prepared by saponin or French pressure cell lysis. Enzyme incubations were performed on unfixed cells. Adenosinetriphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.3) activity was found on the inside of the ghost membrane and on the inside of the outer parasite membrane. NADH oxidase was found on the outside of the erythrocyte membrane and on the outside of the parasite outer membrane. The parasite plasma membrane was negative for both enzymes. The location of both enzymes on the outer parasite membrane were reversed from what one would have expected if the outer membrane had remained merely an invaginated erythrocyte membrane. It is concluded that the outer membrane, although derived from the red cell membrane, has been altered by its association with the malarial parasite. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20 PMID:145326

Langreth, Susan G.

1977-01-01

71

To eject or to abandon? Life history traits of hosts and parasites interact to influence the fitness payoffs of alternative anti-parasite strategies.  

PubMed

Hosts either tolerate avian brood parasitism or reject it by ejecting parasitic eggs, as seen in most rejecter hosts of common cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, or by abandoning parasitized clutches, as seen in most rejecter hosts of brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater. What explains consistent variation between alternative rejection behaviours of hosts within the same species and across species when exposed to different types of parasites? Life history theory predicts that when parasites decrease the fitness of host offspring, but not the future reproductive success of host adults, optimal clutch size should decrease. Consistent with this prediction, evolutionarily old cowbird hosts, but not cuckoo hosts, have lower clutch sizes than related rarely- or newly parasitized species. We constructed a mathematical model to calculate the fitness payoffs of egg ejector vs. nest abandoner hosts to determine if various aspects of host life history traits and brood parasites' virulence on adult and young host fitness differentially influence the payoffs of alternative host defences. These calculations showed that in general egg ejection was a superior anti-parasite strategy to nest abandonment. Yet, increasing parasitism rates and increasing fitness values of hosts' eggs in both currently parasitized and future replacement nests led to switch points in fitness payoffs in favour of nest abandonment. Nonetheless, nest abandonment became selectively more favourable only at lower clutch sizes and only when hosts faced parasitism by a cowbird- rather than a cuckoo-type brood parasite. We suggest that, in addition to evolutionary lag and gape-size limitation, our estimated fitness differences based on life history trait variation provide new insights for the consistent differences observed in the anti-parasite rejection strategies between many cuckoo- and cowbird-hosts. PMID:16910987

Servedio, M R; Hauber, M E

2006-09-01

72

Urbanization Breaks Up Host-Parasite Interactions: A Case Study on Parasite Community Ecology of Rufous-Bellied Thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a Rural-Urban Gradient  

PubMed Central

Urbanization drastically alters natural ecosystems and the structure of their plant and animal communities. Whereas some species cope successfully with these environmental changes, others may go extinct. In the case of parasite communities, the expansion of urban areas has a critical effect by changing the availability of suitable substrates for the eggs or free-larval stages of those species with direct life cycles or for the range of hosts of those species with complex cycles. In this study we investigated the influence of the degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity on helminth richness, abundance and community structure of rufous-bellied thrushes (Turdus rufiventris) along a rural-urban gradient in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This common native bird species of southern Brazil hosts 15 endoparasite species at the study region. A total of 144 thrushes were collected with mist nets at 11 sites. The degree of urbanization and environmental heterogeneity were estimated by quantifying five landscape elements: buildings, woodlands, fields, bare lands, and water. Landscape analyses were performed at two spatial scales (10 and 100 ha) taking into account home range size and the potential dispersal distance of thrushes and their prey (intermediate hosts). Mean parasite richness showed an inverse relationship with the degree of urbanization, but a positive relationship with environmental heterogeneity. Changes in the structure of component communities along the rural-urban gradient resulted from responses to the availability of particular landscape elements that are compatible with the parasites' life cycles. We found that the replacement of natural environments with buildings breaks up host-parasite interactions, whereas a higher environmental (substrate) diversity allows the survival of a wider range of intermediate hosts and vectors and their associated parasites. PMID:25068271

Calegaro-Marques, Cludia; Amato, Suzana B.

2014-01-01

73

Outcomes of Brood ParasiteHost Interactions Mediated by Egg Matching: Common Cuckoos Cuculus canorus versus Fringilla Finches  

PubMed Central

Background Antagonistic species often interact via matching of phenotypes, and interactions between brood parasitic common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) and their hosts constitute classic examples. The outcome of a parasitic event is often determined by the match between host and cuckoo eggs, giving rise to potentially strong associations between fitness and egg phenotype. Yet, empirical efforts aiming to document and understand the resulting evolutionary outcomes are in short supply. Methods/Principal Findings We used avian color space models to analyze patterns of egg color variation within and between the cuckoo and two closely related hosts, the nomadic brambling (Fringilla montifringilla) and the site fidelic chaffinch (F. coelebs). We found that there is pronounced opportunity for disruptive selection on brambling egg coloration. The corresponding cuckoo host race has evolved egg colors that maximize fitness in both sympatric and allopatric brambling populations. By contrast, the chaffinch has a more bimodal egg color distribution consistent with the evolutionary direction predicted for the brambling. Whereas the brambling and its cuckoo host race show little geographical variation in their egg color distributions, the chaffinch's distribution becomes increasingly dissimilar to the brambling's distribution towards the core area of the brambling cuckoo host race. Conclusion High rates of brambling gene flow is likely to cool down coevolutionary hot spots by cancelling out the selection imposed by a patchily distributed cuckoo host race, thereby promoting a matching equilibrium. By contrast, the site fidelic chaffinch is more likely to respond to selection from adapting cuckoos, resulting in a markedly more bimodal egg color distribution. The geographic variation in the chaffinch's egg color distribution could reflect a historical gradient in parasitism pressure. Finally, marked cuckoo egg polymorphisms are unlikely to evolve in these systems unless the hosts evolve even more exquisite egg recognition capabilities than currently possessed. PMID:21559400

Vikan, Johan Reinert; Fossy, Frode; Huhta, Esa; Moksnes, Arne; Rskaft, Eivin; Stokke, Brd Gunnar

2011-01-01

74

A role for host-parasite interactions in the horizontal transfer of DNA transposons across animal phyla  

PubMed Central

Horizontal transfer (HT), or the passage of genetic material between non-mating species, is increasingly recognized as an important force in the evolution of eukaryotic genomes1,2. Transposons, with their inherent ability to mobilize and amplify within genomes, may be especially prone to HT37. However, the means by which transposons can spread across widely diverged species remain elusive. Here we present evidence that host-parasite interactions have promoted the HT of four transposon families between invertebrates and vertebrates. We found that Rhodnius prolixus, a triatomine bug feeding on the blood of diverse tetrapods and vector of the Chagas disease in humans, carries in its genome four distinct transposon families that also invaded the genomes of a diverse, but overlapping, set of tetrapods. The bug transposons are ~98% identical and cluster phylogenetically with those of the opossum and squirrel monkey, two of its preferred mammalian hosts in South America. We also identified one of these transposon families in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, a nearly cosmopolitan vector of trematodes infecting diverse vertebrates, whose ancestral sequence is nearly identical and clusters with those found in Old World mammals. Together these data provide evidence for a previously hypothesized role of host-parasite interactions in facilitating HT among animals3,7. Furthermore, the large amount of DNA generated by the amplification of the horizontally-transferred transposons supports the idea that the exchange of genetic material between hosts and parasites influence their genomic evolution. PMID:20428170

Gilbert, Clment; Schaack, Sarah; Pace, John K.; Brindley, Paul J.; Feschotte, Cdric

2010-01-01

75

Synergistic Parasite-Pathogen Interactions Mediated by Host Immunity Can Drive the Collapse of Honeybee Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health of the honeybee and, indirectly, global crop production are threatened by several biotic and abiotic factors, which play a poorly defined role in the induction of widespread colony losses. Recent descriptive studies suggest that colony losses are often related to the interaction between pathogens and other stress factors, including parasites. Through an integrated analysis of the population and

Francesco Nazzi; Sam P. Brown; Desiderato Annoscia; Fabio Del Piccolo; Gennaro Di Prisco; Paola Varricchio; Giorgio Della Vedova; Federica Cattonaro; Emilio Caprio; Francesco Pennacchio

2012-01-01

76

Hosts and parasites as aliens.  

PubMed

Over the past decades, various free-living animals (hosts) and their parasites have invaded recipient areas in which they had not previously occurred, thus gaining the status of aliens or exotics. In general this happened to a low extent for hundreds of years. With variable frequency, invasions have been followed by the dispersal and establishment of non-indigenous species, whether host or parasite. In the literature thus far, colonizations by both hosts and parasites have not been treated and reviewed together, although both are usually interwoven in various ways. As to those factors permitting invasive success and colonization strength, various hypotheses have been put forward depending on the scientific background of respective authors and on the conspicuousness of certain invasions. Researchers who have tried to analyse characteristic developmental patterns, the speed of dispersal or the degree of genetic divergence in populations of alien species have come to different conclusions. Among parasitologists, the applied aspects of parasite invasions, such as the negative effects on economically important hosts, have long been at the centre of interest. In this contribution, invasions by hosts as well as parasites are considered comparatively, revealing many similarities and a few differences. Two helminths, the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, of cattle and sheep and the swimbladder nematode, Anguillicola crassus, of eels are shown to be useful as model parasites for the study of animal invasions and environmental global change. Introductions of F. hepatica have been associated with imports of cattle or other grazing animals. In various target areas, susceptible lymnaeid snails serving as intermediate hosts were either naturally present and/or were introduced from the donor continent of the parasite (Europe) and/or from other regions which were not within the original range of the parasite, partly reflecting progressive stages of a global biota change. In several introduced areas, F. hepatica co-occurs with native or exotic populations of the congeneric F. gigantica, with thus far unknown implications. Over the fluke's extended range, in addition to domestic stock animals, wild native or naturalized mammals can also serve as final hosts. Indigenous and displaced populations of F. hepatica, however, have not yet been studied comparatively from an evolutionary perspective. A. crassus, from the Far East, has invaded three continents, without the previous naturalization of its natural host Anguilla japonica, by switching to the respective indigenous eel species. Local entomostrac crustaceans serve as susceptible intermediate hosts. The novel final hosts turned out to be naive in respect to the introduced nematode with far reaching consequences for the parasite's morphology (size), abundance and pathogenicity. Comparative infection experiments with Japanese and European eels yielded many differences in the hosts' immune defence, mirroring coevolution versus an abrupt host switch associated with the introduction of the helminth. In other associations of native hosts and invasive parasites, the elevated pathogenicity of the parasite seems to result from other deficiencies such as a lack of anti-parasitic behaviour of the nave host compared to the donor host which displays distinct behavioural patterns, keeping the abundance of the parasite low. From the small amount of available literature, it can be concluded that the adaptation of certain populations of the novel host to the alien parasite takes several decades to a century or more. Summarizing all we know about hosts and parasites as aliens, tentative patterns and principles can be figured out, but individual case studies teach us that generalizations should be avoided. PMID:16768855

Taraschewski, H

2006-06-01

77

Castrating parasites and colonial hosts.  

PubMed

Trajectories of life-history traits such as growth and reproduction generally level off with age and increasing size. However, colonial animals may exhibit indefinite, exponential growth via modular iteration thus providing a long-lived host source for parasite exploitation. In addition, modular iteration entails a lack of germ line sequestration. Castration of such hosts by parasites may therefore be impermanent or precluded, unlike the general case for unitary animal hosts. Despite these intriguing correlates of coloniality, patterns of colonial host exploitation have not been well studied. We examined these patterns by characterizing the responses of a myxozoan endoparasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, and its colonial bryozoan host, Fredericella sultana, to 3 different resource levels. We show that (1) the development of infectious stages nearly always castrates colonies regardless of host condition, (2) castration reduces partial mortality and (3) development of transmission stages is resource-mediated. Unlike familiar castrator-host systems, this system appears to be characterized by periodic rather than permanent castration. Periodic castration may be permitted by 2 key life history traits: developmental cycling of the parasite between quiescent (covert infections) and virulent infectious stages (overt infections) and the absence of germ line sequestration which allows host reproduction in between bouts of castration. PMID:22309795

Hartikainen, H; Okamura, B

2012-04-01

78

Comparing mechanisms of host manipulation across host and parasite taxa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Parasites affect host behavior in several ways. They can alter activity, microhabitats or both. For trophically transmitted parasites (the focus of our study), decreased activity might impair the ability of hosts to respond to final-host predators, and increased activity and altered microhabitat choice might increase contact rates between hosts and final-host predators. In an analysis of trophically transmitted parasites, more parasite groups altered activity than altered microhabitat choice. Parasites that infected vertebrates were more likely to impair the hosts reaction to predators, whereas parasites that infected invertebrates were more likely to increase the hosts contact with predators. The site of infection might affect how parasites manipulate their hosts. For instance, parasites in the central nervous system seem particularly suited to manipulating host behavior. Manipulative parasites commonly occupy the body cavity, muscles and central nervous systems of their hosts. Acanthocephalans in the data set differed from other taxa in that they occurred exclusively in the body cavity of invertebrates. In addition, they were more likely to alter microhabitat choice than activity. Parasites in the body cavity (across parasite types) were more likely to be associated with increased host contact with predators. Parasites can manipulate the host through energetic drain, but most parasites use more sophisticated means. For instance, parasites target four physiological systems that shape behavior in both invertebrates and vertebrates: neural, endocrine, neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory. The interconnections between these systems make it difficult to isolate specific mechanisms of host behavioral manipulation.

Lafferty, Kevin D.; Shaw, Jenny C.

2013-01-01

79

Evidence of horizontal transfer of non-autonomous Lep1 Helitrons facilitated by host-parasite interactions  

PubMed Central

Horizontal transfer (HT) of transposable elements has been recognized to be a major force driving genomic variation and biological innovation of eukaryotic organisms. However, the mechanisms of HT in eukaryotes remain poorly appreciated. The non-autonomous Helitron family, Lep1, has been found to be widespread in lepidopteran species, and showed little interspecific sequence similarity of acquired sequences at 3? end, which makes Lep1 a good candidate for the study of HT. In this study, we describe the Lep1-like elements in multiple non-lepidopteran species, including two aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Aphis gossypii, two parasitoid wasps, Cotesia vestalis, and Copidosoma floridanum, one beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, as well as two bracoviruses in parasitoid wasps, and one intracellular microsporidia parasite, Nosema bombycis. The patchy distribution and high sequence similarity of Lep1-like elements among distantly related lineages as well as incongruence of Lep1-like elements and host phylogeny suggest the occurrence of HT. Remarkably, the acquired sequences of both NbLep1 from N. bombycis and CfLep1 from C. floridanum showed over 90% identity with their lepidopteran host Lep1. Thus, our study provides evidence of HT facilitated by host-parasite interactions. Furthermore, in the context of these data, we discuss the putative directions and vectors of HT of Lep1 Helitrons. PMID:24874102

Guo, Xuezhu; Gao, Jingkun; Li, Fei; Wang, Jianjun

2014-01-01

80

When parasites disagree: Evidence for parasite-induced sabotage of host manipulation.  

PubMed

Host manipulation is a common parasite strategy to alter host behavior in a manner to enhance parasite fitness usually by increasing the parasite's transmission to the next host. In nature, hosts often harbor multiple parasites with agreeing or conflicting interests over host manipulation. Natural selection might drive such parasites to cooperation, compromise, or sabotage. Sabotage would occur if one parasite suppresses the manipulation of another. Experimental studies on the effect of multi-parasite interactions on host manipulation are scarce, clear experimental evidence for sabotage is elusive. We tested the effect of multiple infections on host manipulation using laboratory-bred copepods experimentally infected with the trophically transmitted tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus. This parasite is known to manipulate its host depending on its own developmental stage. Coinfecting parasites with the same aim enhance each other's manipulation but only after reaching infectivity. If the coinfecting parasites disagree over host manipulation, the infective parasite wins this conflict: the noninfective one has no effect. The winning (i.e., infective) parasite suppresses the manipulation of its noninfective competitor. This presents conclusive experimental evidence for both cooperation in and sabotage of host manipulation and hence a proof of principal that one parasite can alter and even neutralize manipulation by another. PMID:25643621

Hafer, Nina; Milinski, Manfred

2015-03-01

81

Host plant species affects virulence in monarch butterfly parasites.  

PubMed

1. Studies have considered how intrinsic host and parasite properties determine parasite virulence, but have largely ignored the role of extrinsic ecological factors in its expression. 2. We studied how parasite genotype and host plant species interact to determine virulence of the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (McLaughlin & Myers 1970) in the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus L. We infected monarch larvae with one of four parasite genotypes and reared them on two milkweed species that differed in their levels of cardenolides: toxic chemicals involved in predator defence. 3. Parasite infection, replication and virulence were affected strongly by host plant species. While uninfected monarchs lived equally long on both plant species, infected monarchs suffered a greater reduction in their life spans (55% vs. 30%) on the low-cardenolide vs. the high-cardenolide host plant. These life span differences resulted from different levels of parasite replication in monarchs reared on the two plant species. 4. The virulence rank order of parasite genotypes was unaffected by host plant species, suggesting that host plant species affected parasite genotypes similarly, rather than through complex plant species-parasite genotype interactions. 5. Our results demonstrate that host ecology importantly affects parasite virulence, with implications for host-parasite dynamics in natural populations. PMID:18177332

de Roode, Jacobus C; Pedersen, Amy B; Hunter, Mark D; Altizer, Sonia

2008-01-01

82

NEOSPORA CANINUM CYCLOPHILIN: A INTERFERON-GAMMA-INDUCING PROTEIN THAT MAY MEDIATE THE PARASITE-HOST INTERACTIONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) response is required for the development of a host protective immunity when infected by intracellular parasites. Neosporosis, caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Neospora caninum, is known to be fatal when there is a complete lack of IFN-gamma in the infected ...

83

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: opportunities in comparative genomics and molecular host-parasite interactions.  

PubMed

Most Bursaphelenchus species are fungal feeding nematodes that colonize dead or dying trees. However, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the pine wood nematode, is also a pathogen of trees and is the causal agent of pine wilt disease. B. xylophilus is native to North America and here it causes little damage to trees. Where it is introduced to new regions it causes huge damage. The most severely affected areas are found in the Far East but more recently B. xylophilus has been introduced into Portugal and the potential for damage here is also high. As incidence and severity of pine wilt disease are linked to temperature we suggest that climate change is likely to exacerbate the problems caused by B. xylophilus and, in addition, will extend (northwards in Europe) the range in which pine wilt disease can occur. Here we review what is currently known about the interactions of B. xylophilus with its hosts, including recent developments in our understanding of the molecular biology of pathogenicity in the nematode. We also examine the potential developments that could be made by more widespread use of genomics tools to understand interactions between B. xylophilus, bacterial pathogens that have been implicated in disease and host trees. PMID:18705876

Jones, John T; Moens, Maurice; Mota, Manuel; Li, Hongmei; Kikuchi, Taisei

2008-05-01

84

Parasite and host assemblages: embracing the reality will improve our knowledge of parasite transmission and virulence  

PubMed Central

Interactions involving several parasite species (multi-parasitized hosts) or several host species (multi-host parasites) are the rule in nature. Only a few studies have investigated these realistic, but complex, situations from an evolutionary perspective. Consequently, their impact on the evolution of parasite virulence and transmission remains poorly understood. The mechanisms by which multiple infections may influence virulence and transmission include the dynamics of intrahost competition, mediation by the host immune system and an increase in parasite genetic recombination. Theoretical investigations have yet to be conducted to determine which of these mechanisms are likely to be key factors in the evolution of virulence and transmission. In contrast, the relationship between multi-host parasites and parasite virulence and transmission has seen some theoretical investigation. The key factors in these models are the trade-off between virulence across different host species, variation in host species quality and patterns of transmission. The empirical studies on multi-host parasites suggest that interspecies transmission plays a central role in the evolution of virulence, but as yet no complete picture of the phenomena involved is available. Ultimately, determining how complex hostparasite interactions impact the evolution of hostparasite relationships will require the development of cross-disciplinary studies linking the ecology of quantitative networks with the evolution of virulence. PMID:20667874

Rigaud, Thierry; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Brown, Mark J. F.

2010-01-01

85

Plastic behaviors in hosts promote the emergence of retaliatory parasites  

PubMed Central

Mafia like behavior, where individuals cooperate under the threat of punishment, occurs not only in humans, but is also observed in several animal species. Observations suggest that avian hosts tend to accept a certain degree of parasitism in order to avoid retaliating punishment from the brood parasite. To understand under which conditions it will be beneficial for a host to cooperate, we model the interaction between hosts and parasites as an evolutionary game. In our model, the host's behavior is plastic, and thus, its response depends on the previous interactions with the parasite. We find that such learned behavior in turn is crucial for the evolution of retaliating parasites. The abundance of this kind of mafia behavior oscillates in time and does not settle to an equilibrium. Our results suggest that retaliation is a mechanism for the parasite to evade specialization and to induce acceptance by the host. PMID:24589512

Chakra, Maria Abou; Hilbe, Christian; Traulsen, Arne

2014-01-01

86

Evolution of host specificity in monogeneans parasitizing African cichlid fish  

PubMed Central

Background The patterns and processes linked to the host specificity of parasites represent one of the central themes in the study of host-parasite interactions. We investigated the evolution and determinants of host specificity in gill monogeneans of Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus species parasitizing African freshwater fish of Cichlidae. Methods We analyzed (1) the link between host specificity and parasite phylogeny, (2) potential morphometric correlates of host specificity (i.e. parasite body size and the morphometrics of the attachment apparatus), and (3) potential determinants of host specificity following the hypothesis of ecological specialization and the hypothesis of specialization on predictable resources (i.e. host body size and longevity were considered as measures of host predictability), and (4) the role of brooding behavior of cichlids in Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus diversification. Results No significant relationships were found between host specificity and phylogeny of Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus species. The mapping of host specificity onto the parasite phylogenetic tree revealed that an intermediate specialist parasitizing congeneric cichlid hosts represents the ancestral state for the Cichlidogyrus/Scutogyrus group. Only a weak relationship was found between the morphometry of the parasites attachment apparatus and host specificity. Our study did not support the specialization on predictable resources or ecological specialization hypotheses. Nevertheless, host specificity was significantly related to fish phylogeny and form of parental care. Conclusions Our results confirm that host specificity is not a derived condition for Cichlidogyrus/Scutogyrus parasites and may reflect other than historical constraints. Attachment apparatus morphometry reflects only partially (if at all) parasite adaptation to the host species, probably because of the morphological similarity of rapidly evolved cichlids (analyzed in our study). However, we showed that parental care behavior of cichlids may play an important role linked to host specificity of Cichlidogyrus/Scutogyrus parasites. PMID:24529542

2014-01-01

87

Fundamental Factors Determining the Nature of Parasite Aggregation in Hosts  

PubMed Central

The distribution of parasites in hosts is typically aggregated: a few hosts harbour many parasites, while the remainder of hosts are virtually parasite free. The origin of this almost universal pattern is central to our understanding of host-parasite interactions; it affects many facets of their ecology and evolution. Despite this, the standard statistical framework used to characterize parasite aggregation does not describe the processes generating such a pattern. In this work, we have developed a mathematical framework for the distribution of parasites in hosts, starting from a simple statistical description in terms of two fundamental processes: the exposure of hosts to parasites and the infection success of parasites. This description allows the level of aggregation of parasites in hosts to be related to the random variation in these two processes and to true host heterogeneity. We show that random variation can generate an aggregated distribution and that the common view, that encounters and success are two equivalent filters, applies to the average parasite burden under neutral assumptions but it does not apply to the variance of the parasite burden, and it is not true when heterogeneity between hosts is incorporated in the model. We find that aggregation decreases linearly with the number of encounters, but it depends non-linearly on parasite success. We also find additional terms in the variance of the parasite burden which contribute to the actual level of aggregation in specific biological systems. We have derived the formal expressions of these contributions, and these provide new opportunities to analyse empirical data and tackle the complexity of the origin of aggregation in various host-parasite associations. PMID:25689685

Gourbire, Sbastien; Morand, Serge; Waxman, David

2015-01-01

88

Host-parasite interactions between the piranha Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes: Characidae) and isopods and branchiurans (Crustacea) in the rio Araguaia basin, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the tropics, studies on the ecology of host-parasite interactions are incipient and generally related to taxonomic aspects. The main objective of the present work was to analyze ecological aspects and identify the metazoan fauna of ectoparasites that infest the piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri. In May 2002, field samples were collected in the rio Araguaia basin, State of Gois (Brazil). A

Luclia Nobre Carvalho; Rafael Arruda; Kleber Del-Claro

2004-01-01

89

The evolution of host protection by vertically transmitted parasites  

PubMed Central

Hosts are often infected by a variety of different parasites, leading to competition for hosts and coevolution between parasite species. There is increasing evidence that some vertically transmitted parasitic symbionts may protect their hosts from further infection and that this protection may be an important reason for their persistence in nature. Here, we examine theoretically when protection is likely to evolve and its selective effects on other parasites. Our key result is that protection is most likely to evolve in response to horizontally transmitted parasites that cause a significant reduction in host fecundity. The preponderance of sterilizing horizontally transmitted parasites found in arthropods may therefore explain the evolution of protection seen by their symbionts. We also find that protection is more likely to evolve in response to highly transmissible parasites that cause intermediate, rather than high, virulence (increased death rate when infected). Furthermore, intermediate levels of protection select for faster, more virulent horizontally transmitted parasites, suggesting that protective symbionts may lead to the evolution of more virulent parasites in nature. When we allow for coevolution between the symbiont and the parasite, more protection is likely to evolve in the vertically transmitted symbionts of longer lived hosts. Therefore, if protection is found to be common in nature, it has the potential to be a major selective force on hostparasite interactions. PMID:20861052

Jones, Edward O.; White, Andrew; Boots, Michael

2011-01-01

90

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities  

E-print Network

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities Pieter T. J, Berkeley, CA, and approved September 10, 2013 (received for review June 3, 2013) Host­parasite interactions parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite

Johnson, Pieter

91

Potential parasite transmission in multi-host networks based on parasite sharing.  

PubMed

Epidemiological networks are commonly used to explore dynamics of parasite transmission among individuals in a population of a given host species. However, many parasites infect multiple host species, and thus multi-host networks may offer a better framework for investigating parasite dynamics. We investigated the factors that influence parasite sharing - and thus potential transmission pathways - among rodent hosts in Southeast Asia. We focused on differences between networks of a single host species and networks that involve multiple host species. In host-parasite networks, modularity (the extent to which the network is divided into subgroups of rodents that interact with similar parasites) was higher in the multi-species than in the single-species networks. This suggests that phylogeny affects patterns of parasite sharing, which was confirmed in analyses showing that it predicted affiliation of individuals to modules. We then constructed "potential transmission networks" based on the host-parasite networks, in which edges depict the similarity between a pair of individuals in the parasites they share. The centrality of individuals in these networks differed between multi- and single-species networks, with species identity and individual characteristics influencing their position in the networks. Simulations further revealed that parasite dynamics differed between multi- and single-species networks. We conclude that multi-host networks based on parasite sharing can provide new insights into the potential for transmission among hosts in an ecological community. In addition, the factors that determine the nature of parasite sharing (i.e. structure of the host-parasite network) may impact transmission patterns. PMID:25748947

Pilosof, Shai; Morand, Serge; Krasnov, Boris R; Nunn, Charles L

2015-01-01

92

Potential Parasite Transmission in Multi-Host Networks Based on Parasite Sharing  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological networks are commonly used to explore dynamics of parasite transmission among individuals in a population of a given host species. However, many parasites infect multiple host species, and thus multi-host networks may offer a better framework for investigating parasite dynamics. We investigated the factors that influence parasite sharing and thus potential transmission pathways among rodent hosts in Southeast Asia. We focused on differences between networks of a single host species and networks that involve multiple host species. In host-parasite networks, modularity (the extent to which the network is divided into subgroups of rodents that interact with similar parasites) was higher in the multi-species than in the single-species networks. This suggests that phylogeny affects patterns of parasite sharing, which was confirmed in analyses showing that it predicted affiliation of individuals to modules. We then constructed potential transmission networks based on the host-parasite networks, in which edges depict the similarity between a pair of individuals in the parasites they share. The centrality of individuals in these networks differed between multi- and single-species networks, with species identity and individual characteristics influencing their position in the networks. Simulations further revealed that parasite dynamics differed between multi- and single-species networks. We conclude that multi-host networks based on parasite sharing can provide new insights into the potential for transmission among hosts in an ecological community. In addition, the factors that determine the nature of parasite sharing (i.e. structure of the host-parasite network) may impact transmission patterns. PMID:25748947

Pilosof, Shai; Morand, Serge; Krasnov, Boris R.; Nunn, Charles L.

2015-01-01

93

Thermal biology in insect-parasite interactions  

E-print Network

Thermal biology in insect-parasite interactions Matthew B. Thomas1 and Simon Blanford2 1 Department-by-genotype-by- environment' interaction. Given the importance of para- meters such as virulence and resistance in determining the course of a hostparasite interaction, such effects of temperature could have profound implications

Read, Andrew

94

Within-Host Speciation of Malaria Parasites  

PubMed Central

Background Sympatric speciationthe divergence of populations into new species in absence of geographic barriers to hybridizationis the most debated mode of diversification of life forms. Parasitic organisms are prominent models for sympatric speciation, because they may colonise new hosts within the same geographic area and diverge through host specialization. However, it has been argued that this mode of parasite divergence is not strict sympatric speciation, because host shifts likely cause the sudden effective isolation of parasites, particularly if these are transmitted by vectors and therefore cannot select their hosts. Strict sympatric speciation would involve parasite lineages diverging within a single host species, without any population subdivision. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a case of extraordinary divergence of sympatric, ecologically distinct, and reproductively isolated malaria parasites within a single avian host species, which apparently occurred without historical or extant subdivision of parasite or host populations. Conclusions/Significance This discovery of within-host speciation changes our current view on the diversification potential of malaria parasites, because neither geographic isolation of host populations nor colonization of new host species are any longer necessary conditions to the formation of new parasite species. PMID:17311104

Prez-Tris, Javier; Hellgren, Olof; Krianauskien?, Asta; Waldenstrm, Jonas; Secondi, Jean; Bonneaud, Camille; Fjelds, Jon; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan

2007-01-01

95

(macro-) Evolutionary ecology of parasite diversity: From determinants of parasite species richness to host diversification  

PubMed Central

The present review summarized the factors or determinants that may explain parasite diversity among host species and the consequences of this parasite diversity on the evolution of host-life history traits. As hostparasite interactions are asymmetrical exploitedexploiter relationships, ecological and epidemiological theories produce hypotheses to find the potential determinants of parasite species richness, while life-history theory helps for testing potential consequences on parasite diversity on the evolution of hosts. This review referred only to studies that have specifically controlled or took into account phylogenetic information illustrated with parasites of mammals. Several points needing more investigation were identified with a special emphasis to develop the metabolic theory of epidemiology.

Morand, Serge

2015-01-01

96

Parasite predators exhibit a rapid numerical response to increased parasite abundance and reduce transmission to hosts.  

PubMed

Predators of parasites have recently gained attention as important parts of food webs and ecosystems. In aquatic systems, many taxa consume free-living stages of parasites, and can thus reduce parasite transmission to hosts. However, the importance of the functional and numerical responses of parasite predators to disease dynamics is not well understood. We collected host-parasite-predator cooccurrence data from the field, and then experimentally manipulated predator abundance, parasite abundance, and the presence of alternative prey to determine the consequences for parasite transmission. The parasite predator of interest was a ubiquitous symbiotic oligochaete of mollusks, Chaetogaster limnaei limnaei, which inhabits host shells and consumes larval trematode parasites. Predators exhibited a rapid numerical response, where predator populations increased or decreased by as much as 60% in just 5 days, depending on the parasite:predator ratio. Furthermore, snail infection decreased substantially with increasing parasite predator densities, where the highest predator densities reduced infection by up to 89%. Predators of parasites can play an important role in regulating parasite transmission, even when infection risk is high, and especially when predators can rapidly respond numerically to resource pulses. We suggest that these types of interactions might have cascading effects on entire disease systems, and emphasize the importance of considering disease dynamics at the community level. PMID:24340184

Hopkins, Skylar R; Wyderko, Jennie A; Sheehy, Robert R; Belden, Lisa K; Wojdak, Jeremy M

2013-11-01

97

Effects of salinity on an intertidal hostparasite system: Is the parasite more sensitive than its host?  

E-print Network

Effects of salinity on an intertidal host­parasite system: Is the parasite more sensitive than its Host­parasite interaction Parasitism Salinity Transmission Trematoda Intertidal habitats are characterised by highly fluctuating environmental conditions including varying salinity regimes. Changes

Poulin, Robert

98

Functional genomics of a generalist parasitic plant: Laser microdissection of host-parasite interface reveals host-specific patterns of parasite gene expression  

PubMed Central

Background Orobanchaceae is the only plant family with members representing the full range of parasitic lifestyles plus a free-living lineage sister to all parasitic lineages, Lindenbergia. A generalist member of this family, and an important parasitic plant model, Triphysaria versicolor regularly feeds upon a wide range of host plants. Here, we compare de novo assembled transcriptomes generated from laser micro-dissected tissues at the host-parasite interface to uncover details of the largely uncharacterized interaction between parasitic plants and their hosts. Results The interaction of Triphysaria with the distantly related hosts Zea mays and Medicago truncatula reveals dramatic host-specific gene expression patterns. Relative to above ground tissues, gene families are disproportionally represented at the interface including enrichment for transcription factors and genes of unknown function. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of a T. versicolor ?-expansin shows strong differential (120x) upregulation in response to the monocot host Z. mays; a result that is concordant with our read count estimates. Pathogenesis-related proteins, other cell wall modifying enzymes, and orthologs of genes with unknown function (annotated as such in sequenced plant genomes) are among the parasite genes highly expressed by T. versicolor at the parasite-host interface. Conclusions Laser capture microdissection makes it possible to sample the small region of cells at the epicenter of parasite host interactions. The results of our analysis suggest that T. versicolors generalist strategy involves a reliance on overlapping but distinct gene sets, depending upon the host plant it is parasitizing. The massive upregulation of a T. versicolor ?-expansin is suggestive of a mechanism for parasite success on grass hosts. In this preliminary study of the interface transcriptomes, we have shown that T. versicolor, and the Orobanchaceae in general, provide excellent opportunities for the characterization of plant genes with unknown functions. PMID:23302495

2013-01-01

99

Analysis of the transcriptome of adult Dictyocaulus filaria and comparison with Dictyocaulus viviparus, with a focus on molecules involved in host-parasite interactions?  

PubMed Central

Parasitic nematodes cause diseases of major economic importance in animals. Key representatives are species of Dictyocaulus (= lungworms), which cause bronchitis (= dictyocaulosis, commonly known as husk) and have a major adverse impact on the health of livestock. In spite of their economic importance, very little is known about the immunomolecular biology of these parasites. Here, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of the adult transcriptome of Dictyocaulus filaria of small ruminants and compared it with that of Dictyocaulus viviparus of bovids. We then identified a subset of highly transcribed molecules inferred to be linked to host-parasite interactions, including cathepsin B peptidases, fatty-acid and/or retinol-binding proteins, ?-galactoside-binding galectins, secreted protein 6 precursors, macrophage migration inhibitory factors, glutathione peroxidases, a transthyretin-like protein and a type 2-like cystatin. We then studied homologs of D. filaria type 2-like cystatin encoded in D. viviparus and 24 other nematodes representing seven distinct taxonomic orders, with a particular focus on their proposed role in immunomodulation and/or metabolism. Taken together, the present study provides new insights into nematode-host interactions. The findings lay the foundation for future experimental studies and could have implications for designing new interventions against lungworms and other parasitic nematodes. The future characterization of the genomes of Dictyocaulus spp. should underpin these endeavors. PMID:24487001

Mangiola, Stefano; Young, Neil D.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Strube, Christina; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Mitreva, Makedonka; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Hofmann, Andreas; Jex, Aaron R.; Gasser, Robin B.

2014-01-01

100

Host diversity begets parasite diversity: Bird final hosts and trematodes in snail intermediate hosts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An unappreciated facet of biodiversity is that rich communities and high abundance may foster parasitism. For parasites that sequentially use different host species throughout complex life cycles, parasite diversity and abundance in 'downstream' hosts should logically increase with the diversity and abundance of 'upstream' hosts (which carry the preceding stages of parasites). Surprisingly, this logical assumption has little empirical support, especially regarding metazoan parasites. Few studies have attempted direct tests of this idea and most have lacked the appropriate scale of investigation. In two different studies, we used time-lapse videography to quantify birds at fine spatial scales, and then related bird communities to larval trematode communities in snail populations sampled at the same small spatial scales. Species richness, species heterogeneity and abundance of final host birds were positively correlated with species richness, species heterogeneity and abundance of trematodes in host snails. Such community-level interactions have rarely been demonstrated and have implications for community theory, epidemiological theory and ecosystem management. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

Hechinger, R.F.; Lafferty, K.D.

2005-01-01

101

Host Centrality in Food Web Networks Determines Parasite Diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Parasites significantly alter topological metrics describing food web structure, yet few studies have explored the relationship between food web topology and parasite diversity. Methods/Principal Findings This study uses quantitative metrics describing network structure to investigate the relationship between the topology of the host food web and parasite diversity. Food webs were constructed for four restored brackish marshes that vary in species diversity, time post restoration and levels of parasitism. Our results show that the topology of the food web in each brackish marsh is highly nested, with clusters of generalists forming a distinct modular structure. The most consistent predictors of parasite diversity within a host were: trophic generality, and eigenvector centrality. These metrics indicate that parasites preferentially colonise host species that are highly connected, and within modules of tightly interacting species in the food web network. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that highly connected free-living species within the food web may represent stable trophic relationships that allow for the persistence of complex parasite life cycles. Our data demonstrate that the structure of host food webs can have a significant effect on the establishment of parasites, and on the potential for evolution of complex parasite life cycles. PMID:22046360

Anderson, Tavis K.; Sukhdeo, Michael V. K.

2011-01-01

102

Differential reproductive success favours strong host preference in a highly specialized brood parasite  

PubMed Central

Obligate avian brood parasites show dramatic variation in the degree to which they are host specialists or host generalists. The screaming cowbird Molothrus rufoaxillaris is one of the most specialized brood parasites, using a single host, the bay-winged cowbird (Agelaioides badius) over most of its range. Coevolutionary theory predicts increasing host specificity the longer the parasite interacts with a particular avian community, as hosts evolve defences that the parasite cannot counteract. According to this view, host specificity can be maintained if screaming cowbirds avoid parasitizing potentially suitable hosts that have developed effective defences against parasitic females or eggs. Specialization may also be favoured, even in the absence of host defences, if the parasite's reproductive success in alternative hosts is lower than that in the main host. We experimentally tested these hypotheses using as alternative hosts two suitable but unparasitized species: house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus). We assessed host defences against parasitic females and eggs, and reproductive success of the parasite in current and alternative hosts. Alternative hosts did not discriminate against screaming cowbird females or eggs. Egg survival and hatching success were similarly high in current and alternative hosts, but the survival of parasitic chicks was significantly lower in alternative hosts. Our results indicate that screaming cowbirds have the potential to colonize novel hosts, but higher reproductive success in the current host may favour host fidelity. PMID:18647716

De Mrsico, Mara C; Reboreda, Juan C

2008-01-01

103

Differential reproductive success favours strong host preference in a highly specialized brood parasite.  

PubMed

Obligate avian brood parasites show dramatic variation in the degree to which they are host specialists or host generalists. The screaming cowbird Molothrus rufoaxillaris is one of the most specialized brood parasites, using a single host, the bay-winged cowbird (Agelaioides badius) over most of its range. Coevolutionary theory predicts increasing host specificity the longer the parasite interacts with a particular avian community, as hosts evolve defences that the parasite cannot counteract. According to this view, host specificity can be maintained if screaming cowbirds avoid parasitizing potentially suitable hosts that have developed effective defences against parasitic females or eggs. Specialization may also be favoured, even in the absence of host defences, if the parasite's reproductive success in alternative hosts is lower than that in the main host. We experimentally tested these hypotheses using as alternative hosts two suitable but unparasitized species: house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus). We assessed host defences against parasitic females and eggs, and reproductive success of the parasite in current and alternative hosts. Alternative hosts did not discriminate against screaming cowbird females or eggs. Egg survival and hatching success were similarly high in current and alternative hosts, but the survival of parasitic chicks was significantly lower in alternative hosts. Our results indicate that screaming cowbirds have the potential to colonize novel hosts, but higher reproductive success in the current host may favour host fidelity. PMID:18647716

De Mrsico, Mara C; Reboreda, Juan C

2008-11-01

104

Development of some larval nematodes in experimental and natural animal hosts: an insight into development of pathological lesions vis-a-vis host-parasite interactions.  

PubMed

Infective third-stage larvae of three spiruroid nematodes, Ascarops strongylina and Physocephalus sexalatus of pigs and Spirocerca lupi of dogs, were recovered from 14 species of coprophagous beetles belonging to 4 different genera. These larvae were fed to rabbits and/or guinea pigs to study their development in these experimental hosts. Larvae of A. strongylina reached the adult stage in all rabbits and one guinea pig. The adult worms recovered in these hosts were 40% and 4%, respectively, and became diminutive in comparison to their natural hosts. The larvae of P. sexalatus became reencysted in the gastric wall of rabbits inducing marked pathological changes. The infective larvae of S. lupi became reencapsulated in the stomach wall of the rabbit and also showed development in the aortic wall. Adults of Toxocara canis of dog, collected from 5 different regions of the Indian subcontinent, varied significantly in size. The mouse passage of infective larvae of one of these types led to the recovery of the adults from the experimental dogs that were smaller in size and caused severe pathology in natural experimental hosts. Developmental effects shown in experimental hosts and host specificity are of value in understanding the evolution of nematode parasitism. PMID:24453801

Chowdhury, N; Sood, N K; Lal, Shyam; Gupta, Kuldip; Singla, L D

2013-01-01

105

Morphology and host-parasite interaction of Henneguya azevedoi n. sp., parasite of gills of Leporinus obtusidens from Mogi-Guau River, Brazil.  

PubMed

Henneguya azevedoi n. sp. is described from the piava (Leporinus obtusidens). Between 2005 and 2007, 60 fish were collected from the Mogi-Guau River near Cachoeira de Emas Falls located in the municipality of Pirassununga, state of So Paulo, Brazil. A total of 70% had plasmodia of the parasite. The plasmodia were white, spherical, and measured 40-200 ?m in diameter. Histopathological analysis revealed that the development of the parasite was intralamellar and caused stretching of the epithelium, with accentuated deformation, as well as compression of the capillary and adjacent tissues. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that the wall of the plasmodium was a single membrane in direct contact with the host cells and contained pinocytic canals that extended into the plasmodium. The development of the parasite was asynchronous, with the earliest stages at the periphery and mature spores in the central region. Mature spores were elongated in the frontal view [mean??standard deviation (range)]: 45.2??0.6 (45.0-47.0)??m in total length, 10.0??0.07 (9.9-10.2)??m in body length, 35.6??0.9 (34.9-36.5)??m in caudal process length, and 4.4??0.4 (4.0-5.0)??m in body width. The polar capsules were elongated and equal in size: 3.8??0.3 (3.5-4.0)??m in length and 1.0 ?m in width. The polar filaments were coiled in six to seven turns and perpendicular to the axis of the capsule. Scanning electron microscopy revealed smooth valves and a conspicuous rim around the spore body. This is the first time that a myxosporean has been reported in L. obtusidens. PMID:21842391

Barassa, Bianca; Adriano, Edson A; Cordeiro, Nelson S; Arana, Sarah; Ceccarelli, Paulo S

2012-02-01

106

Modulating the Modulators: Parasites, Neuromodulators and Host Behavioral Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuromodulators can resculpt neural circuits, giving an animal the behavioral flexibility it needs to survive in a complex changing world. This ability, however, provides parasites with a potential mechanism for manipulating host behavior. This paper reviews three invertebrate host-parasite systems to examine whether parasites can change host behavior by secreting neuromodulators. The parasitic wasp, Cotesia congregata, suppresses host feeding partly

Shelley A. Adamo; Invertebrate W Neuroimmunology

2002-01-01

107

Variation for host range within and among populations of the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica.  

PubMed

Striga hermonthica is an angiosperm parasite that causes substantial damage to a wide variety of cereal crop species, and to the livelihoods of subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. The broad host range of this parasite makes it a fascinating model for the study of host-parasite interactions, and suggests that effective long-term control strategies for the parasite will require an understanding of the potential for host range adaptation in parasite populations. We used a controlled experiment to test the extent to which the success or failure of S. hermonthica parasites to develop on a particular host cultivar (host resistance/compatibility) depends upon the identity of interacting host genotypes and parasite populations. We also tested the hypothesis that there is a genetic component to host range within individual S. hermonthica populations, using three rice cultivars with known, contrasting abilities to resist infection. The developmental success of S. hermonthica parasites growing on different rice-host cultivars (genotypes) depended significantly on a parasite population by host-genotype interaction. Genetic analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers revealed that a small subset of AFLP markers showed 'outlier' genetic differentiation among sub-populations of S. hermonthica attached to different host cultivars. We suggest that, this indicates a genetic component to host range within populations of S. hermonthica, and that a detailed understanding of the genomic loci involved will be crucial in understanding host-parasite specificity and in breeding crop cultivars with broad spectrum resistance to S. hermonthica. PMID:21731054

Huang, K; Whitlock, R; Press, M C; Scholes, J D

2012-02-01

108

Evolution of parasite virulence against qualitative or quantitative host resistance  

E-print Network

Evolution of parasite virulence against qualitative or quantitative host resistance Sylvain Gandon¡ects of two di¡erent modes of host resistance on the evolution of parasite virulence. Hosts can either adopt of resistance (i.e. which reduces the within-host growth rate of the parasite). We show that the mode of host

109

Evans Blue Staining Reveals Vascular Leakage Associated with Focal Areas of Host-Parasite Interaction in Brains of Pigs Infected with Taenia solium  

PubMed Central

Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n?=?6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n?=?2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy. PMID:24915533

Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

2014-01-01

110

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities  

PubMed Central

Hostparasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversitydisease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 1165%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ?40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 1520%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversitydisease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Preston, Daniel L.; Hoverman, Jason T.; LaFonte, Bryan E.

2013-01-01

111

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities.  

PubMed

Host-parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity-disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11-65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ?40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15-20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity-disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

Johnson, Pieter T J; Preston, Daniel L; Hoverman, Jason T; LaFonte, Bryan E

2013-10-15

112

Benefits of host genetic diversity for resistance to infection depend on parasite diversity  

PubMed Central

Host populations with high genetic diversity are predicted to have lower levels of infection prevalence. This theory assumes that host genetic diversity results in variation in susceptibility and that parasites exhibit variation in infectivity. Empirical studies on the effects of host heterogeneity typically neglect the role of parasite diversity. We conducted three laboratory experiments designed to test if genetic variation in Daphnia magna populations and genetic variation in its parasites together influence the course of parasite spread after introduction. We found that a natural D. magna population exhibited variation in susceptibility to infection by three parasite species and had strong host cloneparasite species interactions. There was no effect of host heterogeneity in experimental host populations (polycultures and monocultures) separately exposed to single strains of three parasite species. When we manipulated the genetic diversity of a single parasite species and exposed them to host monocultures and polycultures, we found that parasite prevalence increased with the number of parasite strains. Host monocultures exposed to several parasite strains had higher mean parasite prevalence and higher variance than polycultures. These results indicate that effect of host genetic diversity on the spread of infection depends on the level of genetic diversity in the parasite population. PMID:20503859

Ganz, Holly H.; Ebert, Dieter

2011-01-01

113

Host range, host ecology, and distribution of more than 11800 fish parasite species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our data set includes 38?008 fish parasite records (for Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda) compiled from the scientific literature, Internet databases, and museum collections paired to the corresponding host ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic traits (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, habitat preference, geographical range size, taxonomy). The data focus on host features, because specific parasite traits are not consistently available across records. For this reason, the data set is intended as a flexible resource able to extend the principles of ecological niche modeling to the hostparasite system, providing researchers with the data to model parasite niches based on their distribution in host species and the associated host features. In this sense, the database offers a framework for testing general ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic hypotheses based on the identification of hosts as parasite habitat. Potential applications of the data set are, for example, the investigation of speciesarea relationships or the taxonomic distribution of host-specificity. The provided hostparasite list is that currently used by Fish Parasite Ecology Software Tool (FishPEST, http://purl.oclc.org/fishpest), which is a website that allows researchers to model several aspects of the relationships between fish parasites and their hosts. The database is intended for researchers who wish to have more freedom to analyze the database than currently possible with FishPEST. However, for readers who have not seen FishPEST, we recommend using this as a starting point for interacting with the database.

Strona, Giovanni; Palomares, Maria Lourdes D.; Bailly, Nicholas; Galli, Paolo; Lafferty, Kevin D.

2013-01-01

114

Gene expression differences underlying genotype-by-genotype specificity in a hostparasite system  

PubMed Central

In many systems, hostparasite evolutionary dynamics have led to the emergence and maintenance of diverse parasite and host genotypes within the same population. Genotypes vary in key attributes: Parasite genotypes vary in ability to infect, host genotypes vary in susceptibility, and infection outcome is frequently the result of both parties genotypic identities. These hostparasite genotype-by-genotype (GH GP) interactions influence evolutionary and ecological dynamics in important ways. Interactions can be produced through genetic variation; however, here, we assess the role of variable gene expression as an additional source of GH GP interactions. The bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its trypanosome gut parasite Crithidia bombi are a model system for hostparasite matching. Full-transcriptome sequencing of the bumblebee host revealed that different parasite genotypes indeed induce fundamentally different host expression responses and host genotypes vary in their responses to the infecting parasite genotype. It appears that broadly and successfully infecting parasite genotypes lead to reduced host immune gene expression relative to unexposed bees but induce the expression of genes responsible for controlling gene expression. Contrastingly, a poorly infecting parasite genotype induced the expression of immunologically important genes, including antimicrobial peptides. A targeted expression assay confirmed the transcriptome results and also revealed strong host genotype effects. In all, the expression of a number of genes depends on the host genotype and the parasite genotype and the interaction between both host and parasite genotypes. These results suggest that alongside sequence variation in coding immunological genes, variation that controls immune gene expression can also produce patterns of hostparasite specificity. PMID:24550506

Barribeau, Seth M.; Sadd, Ben M.; du Plessis, Louis; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

2014-01-01

115

Lotus hosts delimit the mutualism-parasitism continuum of Bradyrhizobium.  

PubMed

Symbioses are modelled as evolutionarily and ecologically variable with fitness outcomes for hosts shifting on a continuum from mutualism to parasitism. In a classic example, rhizobia fix atmospheric nitrogen for legume hosts in exchange for photosynthetic carbon. Rhizobial infection often enhances legume growth, but hosts also incur interaction costs because of root tissues and or metabolites needed to support symbionts in planta. Rhizobia exhibit genetic variation in symbiotic effectiveness, and ecological changes in light or mineral nitrogen availability can also alter the benefits of rhizobial infection for hosts. The net effects of symbiosis thus can range from mutualistic to parasitic in a context-dependent manner. We tested the extent of the mutualism-parasitism continuum in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis and the degree to which host investment can shape its limits. We infected Lotus strigosus with sympatric Bradyrhizobium genotypes that vary in symbiotic effectiveness. Inoculations occurred under different mineral nitrogen and light regimes spanning ecologically relevant ranges. Net growth benefits of Bradyrhizobium infection varied for Lotus and were reduced or eliminated dependent on Bradyrhizobium genotype, mineral nitrogen and light availability. But we did not detect parasitism. Lotus proportionally reduced investment in Bradyrhizobium as net benefit from infection decreased. Lotus control occurred primarily after infection, via fine-scale modulation of nodule growth, as opposed to control over initial nodulation. Our results show how divestment of symbiosis by Lotus can prevent shifts to parasitism. PMID:25557323

Regus, J U; Gano, K A; Hollowell, A C; Sofish, V; Sachs, J L

2015-02-01

116

Maintenance of host variation in tolerance to pathogens and parasites  

E-print Network

Maintenance of host variation in tolerance to pathogens and parasites A. Besta,1 , A. Whiteb and resistance provide hosts with two distinct defense strategies against parasitism. In resistance the hosts ``fight'' the parasite directly, whereas in tolerance the hosts fight the disease by ameliorating

White, Andrew

117

Social learning of a brood parasite by its host  

PubMed Central

Arms races between brood parasites and their hosts provide model systems for studying the evolutionary repercussions of species interactions. However, how naive hosts identify brood parasites as enemies remains poorly understood, despite its ecological and evolutionary significance. Here, we investigate whether young, cuckoo-naive superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize cuckoos as a threat through social transmission of information. Naive individuals were initially unresponsive to a cuckoo specimen, but after observing conspecifics mob a cuckoo, they made more whining and mobbing alarm calls, and spent more time physically mobbing the cuckoo. This is the first direct evidence that naive hosts can learn to identify brood parasites as enemies via social learning. PMID:23760171

Feeney, William E.; Langmore, Naomi E.

2013-01-01

118

Social learning of a brood parasite by its host.  

PubMed

Arms races between brood parasites and their hosts provide model systems for studying the evolutionary repercussions of species interactions. However, how naive hosts identify brood parasites as enemies remains poorly understood, despite its ecological and evolutionary significance. Here, we investigate whether young, cuckoo-naive superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize cuckoos as a threat through social transmission of information. Naive individuals were initially unresponsive to a cuckoo specimen, but after observing conspecifics mob a cuckoo, they made more whining and mobbing alarm calls, and spent more time physically mobbing the cuckoo. This is the first direct evidence that naive hosts can learn to identify brood parasites as enemies via social learning. PMID:23760171

Feeney, William E; Langmore, Naomi E

2013-08-23

119

Parasite Invades Its Host's DNA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Number 73 out of the top 100 science stories of 2007, this article highlights the ability of Wolbachia bacteria to transfer nearly their entire genome into the cells of a multicellular host. The article offers an overview of the related research as well as a link to the primary literature.

Nicholas Bakalar

120

The potential for arms race and Red Queen coevolution in a protist hostparasite system  

PubMed Central

The dynamics and consequences of hostparasite coevolution depend on the nature of host genotype-by-parasite genotype interactions (G G) for host and parasite fitness. G G with crossing reaction norms can yield cyclic dynamics of allele frequencies (Red Queen dynamics) while G G where the variance among host genotypes differs between parasite genotypes results in selective sweeps (arms race dynamics). Here, we investigate the relative potential for arms race and Red Queen coevolution in a protist hostparasite system, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum and its parasite Parvilucifera sinerae. We challenged nine different clones of A. minutum with 10 clones of P. sinerae in a fully factorial design and measured infection success and host and parasite fitness. Each host genotype was successfully infected by four to ten of the parasite genotypes. There were strong G Gs for infection success, as well as both host and parasite fitness. About three quarters of the G G variance components for host and parasite fitness were due to crossing reaction norms. There were no general costs of resistance or infectivity. We conclude that there is high potential for Red Queen dynamics in this hostparasite system. PMID:25558368

Rberg, Lars; Alacid, Elisabet; Garces, Esther; Figueroa, Rosa

2014-01-01

121

Modelling parasite transmission in a grazing system: the importance of host behaviour and immunity.  

PubMed

Parasitic helminths present one of the most pervasive challenges to grazing herbivores. Many macro-parasite transmission models focus on host physiological defence strategies, omitting more complex interactions between hosts and their environments. This work represents the first model that integrates both the behavioural and physiological elements of gastro-intestinal nematode transmission dynamics in a managed grazing system. A spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model is developed, that incorporates both the hosts' immunological responses to parasitism, and key grazing behaviours including faecal avoidance. The results demonstrate that grazing behaviour affects both the timing and intensity of parasite outbreaks, through generating spatial heterogeneity in parasite risk and nutritional resources, and changing the timing of exposure to the parasites' free-living stages. The influence of grazing behaviour varies with the host-parasite combination, dependent on the development times of different parasite species and variations in host immune response. Our outputs include the counterintuitive finding that under certain conditions perceived parasite avoidance behaviours (faecal avoidance) can increase parasite risk, for certain host-parasite combinations. Through incorporating the two-way interaction between infection dynamics and grazing behaviour, the potential benefits of parasite-induced anorexia are also demonstrated. Hosts with phenotypic plasticity in grazing behaviour, that make grazing decisions dependent on current parasite burden, can reduce infection with minimal loss of intake over the grazing season. This paper explores how both host behaviours and immunity influence macro-parasite transmission in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment. The magnitude and timing of parasite outbreaks is influenced by host immunity and behaviour, and the interactions between them; the incorporation of both regulatory processes is required to fully understand transmission dynamics. Understanding of both physiological and behavioural defence strategies will aid the development of novel approaches for control. PMID:24223133

Fox, Naomi J; Marion, Glenn; Davidson, Ross S; White, Piran C L; Hutchings, Michael R

2013-01-01

122

Rapid evolution of antimicrobial peptide genes in an insect host-social parasite system.  

PubMed

Selection, as a major driver for evolution in host-parasite interactions, may act on two levels; the virulence of the pathogen, and the hosts' defence system. Effectors of the host defence system might evolve faster than other genes e.g. those involved in adaptation to changes in life history or environmental fluctuations. Host-parasite interactions at the level of hosts and their specific social parasites, present a special setting for evolutionarily driven selection, as both share the same environmental conditions and pathogen pressures. Here, we study the evolution of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes, in six host bumblebee and their socially parasitic cuckoo bumblebee species. The selected AMP genes evolved much faster than non-immune genes, but only defensin-1 showed significant differences between host and social parasite. Nucleotide diversity and codon-by-codon analyses confirmed that purifying selection is the main selective force acting on bumblebee defence genes. PMID:24530902

Erler, Silvio; Lhomme, Patrick; Rasmont, Pierre; Lattorff, H Michael G

2014-04-01

123

The evolution of parasite manipulation of host dispersal  

E-print Network

The evolution of parasite manipulation of host dispersal Se´bastien Lion1,*, Minus van Baalen1 of host dispersal behaviour by parasites using spatially explicit individual-based simulations. We find that when dispersal is local, parasites always gain from increasing their hosts' dispersal rate, although

Lion, Sébastien

124

Stability analysis of within-host parasite models with delays  

E-print Network

Stability analysis of within-host parasite models with delays Abderrahman Iggidr a, Joseph Mbang a. Abstract We provide a global analysis of systems of within-host parasitic infections. The sys- tems studied be thought as systems arising from within-host parasitic systems with distributed continuous delays. We

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

125

Host life history responses to parasitism Philip Agnewa  

E-print Network

Review Host life history responses to parasitism Philip Agnewa ,b* , Jacob C. Koellaa , Yannis cedex 01, France ABSTRACT ­ Parasites and their infections can adversely effect a host's growth in this manner. These studies indicate that one way for hosts to reduce the costs of parasitism is by altering

126

Controlled Chaos of Polymorphic Mucins in a Metazoan Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni) Interacting with Its Invertebrate Host (Biomphalaria glabrata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata)). Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites.

Emmanuel Roger; Christoph Grunau; Raymond J. Pierce; Hirohisa Hirai; Benjamin Gourbal; Richard Galinier; Rmi Emans; Italo M. Cesari; Cline Cosseau; Guillaume Mitta

2008-01-01

127

Genetic architecture of resistance in Daphnia hosts against two species of host-specific parasites.  

PubMed

Understanding the genetic architecture of host resistance is key for understanding the evolution of host-parasite interactions. Evolutionary models often assume simple genetics based on few loci and strong epistasis. It is unknown, however, whether these assumptions apply to natural populations. Using a quantitative trait loci (QTL) approach, we explore the genetic architecture of resistance in the crustacean Daphnia magna to two of its natural parasites: the horizontally transmitted bacterium Pasteuria ramosa and the horizontally and vertically transmitted microsporidium Hamiltosporidium tvaerminnensis. These two systems have become models for studies on the evolution of host-parasite interactions. In the QTL panel used here, Daphnia's resistance to P. ramosa is controlled by a single major QTL (which explains 50% of the observed variation). Resistance to H. tvaerminnensis horizontal infections shows a signature of a quantitative trait based in multiple loci with weak epistatic interactions (together explaining 38% variation). Resistance to H. tvaerminnensis vertical infections, however, shows only one QTL (explaining 13.5% variance) that colocalizes with one of the QTLs for horizontal infections. QTLs for resistance to Pasteuria and Hamiltosporidium do not colocalize. We conclude that the genetics of resistance in D. magna are drastically different for these two parasites. Furthermore, we infer that based on these and earlier results, the mechanisms of coevolution differ strongly for the two host-parasite systems. Only the Pasteuria-Daphnia system is expected to follow the negative frequency-dependent selection (Red Queen) model. How coevolution works in the Hamiltosporidium-Daphnia system remains unclear. PMID:25335558

Routtu, J; Ebert, D

2015-02-01

128

Infection outcomes under genetic and environmental variation in a host-parasite system: Implications for maintenance of polymorphism and the evolution of virulence  

E-print Network

Virulence (the harm to the host during infection) is the outcome of continuous coevolution between hosts and parasites. This thesis adds to a growing body of work on host-parasite interactions, and describes experiments ...

Ferreira do Vale, Pedro Filipe

2009-01-01

129

Early host-pathogen interactions in marine bivalves: evidence that the alveolate parasite Perkinsus marinus infects through the oyster mantle during rejection of pseudofeces.  

PubMed

Parasites have developed myriad strategies to reach and infect their specific hosts. One of the most common mechanisms for non-vector transmitted parasites to reach the internal host environment is by ingestion during feeding. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of oyster host colonization by the alveolate Perkinsus marinus and focused on how oysters process infective waterborne P. marinus cells during feeding in order to determine the portal(s) of entry of this parasite to its host. We also compared the infectivity of freely-suspended cells of P. marinus with that of cells incorporated into marine aggregates to link changes in particle processing by the feeding organs with infection success and route. Finally, we evaluated the effect of oyster secretions (mucus) covering the feeding organs on P. marinus physiology because these host factors are involved in the processing of waterborne particles. The ensemble of results shows a unique mechanism for infection by which the parasite is mostly acquired during the feeding process, but not via ingestion. Rather, infection commonly occurs during the rejection of material as pseudofeces before reaching the mouth. The pseudofeces discharge area, a specialized area of the mantle where unwanted particles are accumulated for rejection as pseudofeces, showed significantly higher parasite loads than other host tissues including other parts of the mantle. Aggregated P. marinus cells caused significantly higher disease prevalence and infection intensities when compared to freely-suspended parasite cells. Mucus covering the mantle caused a quick and significant increase in parasite replication rates suggesting rapid impact on P. marinus physiology. A new model for P. marinus acquisition in oysters is proposed. PMID:23274079

Allam, Bassem; Carden, Wade E; Ward, J Evan; Ralph, Gina; Winnicki, Sarah; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle

2013-05-01

130

Diversification and host switching in avian malaria parasites.  

PubMed Central

The switching of parasitic organisms to novel hosts, in which they may cause the emergence of new diseases, is of great concern to human health and the management of wild and domesticated populations of animals. We used a phylogenetic approach to develop a better statistical assessment of host switching in a large sample of vector-borne malaria parasites of birds (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) over their history of parasite-host relations. Even with sparse sampling, the number of parasite lineages was almost equal to the number of avian hosts. We found that strongly supported sister lineages of parasites, averaging 1.2% sequence divergence, exhibited highly significant host and geographical fidelity. Event-based matching of host and parasite phylogenetic trees revealed significant cospeciation. However, the accumulated effects of host switching and long distance dispersal cause these signals to disappear before 4% sequence divergence is achieved. Mitochondrial DNA nucleotide substitution appears to occur about three times faster in hosts than in parasites, contrary to findings on other parasite-host systems. Using this mutual calibration, the phylogenies of the parasites and their hosts appear to be similar in age, suggesting that avian malaria parasites diversified along with their modern avian hosts. Although host switching has been a prominent feature over the evolutionary history of avian malaria parasites, it is infrequent and unpredictable on time scales germane to public health and wildlife management. PMID:12028770

Ricklefs, Robert E; Fallon, Sylvia M

2002-01-01

131

Larval size in acanthocephalan parasites: Influence of intraspecific competition and effects on intermediate host behavioural changes  

PubMed Central

Background Parasites often face a trade-off between exploitation of host resources and transmission probabilities to the next host. In helminths, larval growth, a major component of adult parasite fitness, is linked to exploitation of intermediate host resources and is influenced by the presence of co-infecting conspecifics. In manipulative parasites, larval growth strategy could also interact with their ability to alter intermediate host phenotype and influence parasite transmission. Methods We used experimental infections of Gammarus pulex by Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala), to investigate larval size effects on host behavioural manipulation among different parasite sibships and various degrees of intra-host competition. Results Intra-host competition reduced mean P. laevis cystacanth size, but the largest cystacanth within a host always reached the same size. Therefore, all co-infecting parasites did not equally suffer from intraspecific competition. Under no intra-host competition (1 parasite per host), larval size was positively correlated with host phototaxis. At higher infection intensities, this relationship disappeared, possibly because of strong competition for host resources, and thus larval growth, and limited manipulative abilities of co-infecting larval acanthocephalans. Conclusions Our study indicates that behavioural manipulation is a condition-dependant phenomenon that needs the integration of parasite-related variables to be fully understood. PMID:22876882

2012-01-01

132

Brood parasitic cowbird nestlings use host young to procure resources.  

PubMed

Young brood parasites that tolerate the company of host offspring challenge the existing evolutionary view of family life. In theory, all parasitic nestlings should be ruthlessly self-interested and should kill host offspring soon after hatching. Yet many species allow host young to live, even though they are rivals for host resources. Here we show that the tolerance of host nestlings by the parasitic brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater is adaptive. Host young procure the cowbird a higher provisioning rate, so it grows more rapidly. The cowbird's unexpected altruism toward host offspring simply promotes its selfish interests in exploiting host parents. PMID:15297677

Kilner, Rebecca M; Madden, Joah R; Hauber, Mark E

2004-08-01

133

Schistosome glycoconjugates in host-parasite interplay.  

PubMed

Schistosomes are digenetic trematodes which cause schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, one of the main parasitic infections in man. In tropical and subtropical areas an estimated 200 million people are infected and suffer from the debilitating effects of this chronic disease. Schistosomes live in the blood vessels and strongly modulate the immune response of their host to be able to survive the hostile environment that they are exposed to. It has become increasingly clear that glycoconjugates of schistosome larvae, adult worms and eggs play an important role in the evasion mechanisms that schistosomes utilise to withstand the immunological measures of the host. Upon infection, the host mounts innate as well as adaptive immune responses to antigenic glycan elements, setting the immunological scene characteristic for schistosomiasis. In this review we summarise the structural data now available on schistosome glycans and provide data and ideas regarding the role that these glycans play in the various aspects of the glycobiology and immunology of schistosomiasis. PMID:12376724

Hokke, C H; Deelder, A M

2001-08-01

134

Original article Genetic variability of host-parasite relationship  

E-print Network

Original article Genetic variability of host-parasite relationship traits: utilization of isofemale lines in a Drosophila simulans parasitic wasp Y. Carton P. Capy A.J. Nappi 1Centre National de la in the successful parasitization of larvae of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans by the hymenopteran parasite

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

Inflammasomes in host response to protozoan parasites.  

PubMed

Inflammasomes are multimeric complexes of proteins that are assembled in the host cell cytoplasm in response to specific stress signals or contamination of the cytoplasm by microbial molecules. The canonical inflammasomes are composed of at least three main components: an inflammatory caspase (caspase-1, caspase-11), an adapter molecule (such as ASC), and a sensor protein (such as NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRP12, NAIP1, NAIP2, NAIP5, or AIM2). The sensor molecule determines the inflammasome specificity by detecting specific microbial products or cell stress signals. Upon activation, these molecular platforms facilitate restriction of microbial replication and trigger an inflammatory form of cell death called pyroptosis, thus accounting for the genesis of inflammatory processes. Inflammasome activation has been widely reported in response to pathogenic bacteria. However, recent reports have highlighted the important role of the inflammasomes in the host response to the pathogenesis of infections caused by intracellular protozoan parasites. Herein, we review the activation and specific roles of inflammasomes in recognition and host responses to intracellular protozoan parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium spp., and Leishmania spp. PMID:25879291

Zamboni, Dario S; Lima-Junior, Djalma S

2015-05-01

136

Modulating the modulators: parasites, neuromodulators and host behavioral change.  

PubMed

Neuromodulators can resculpt neural circuits, giving an animal the behavioral flexibility it needs to survive in a complex changing world. This ability, however, provides parasites with a potential mechanism for manipulating host behavior. This paper reviews three invertebrate host-parasite systems to examine whether parasites can change host behavior by secreting neuromodulators. The parasitic wasp, Cotesia congregata, suppresses host feeding partly by inducing the host (Manduca sexta) to increase the octopamine concentration in its hemolymph. The increased octopamine concentration disrupts the motor pattern produced by the frontal ganglion, preventing the ingestion of food. Polymorphus paradoxus (Acanthocephalan) alters the escape behavior of its host, Gammarus lacustris (Crustacea), possibly through an effect on the host's serotonergic system. The trematode Trichobilharzia ocellata inhibits egg-laying in its snail host (Lymnaea stagnalis), partly by inducing the host to secrete schistosomin. Schistosomin decreases electrical excitability of the caudodorsal cells. The parasite also alters gene expression for some neuromodulators within the host's central nervous system. In at least two of these three examples, it appears that the host, not the parasite, produces the neuromodulators that alter host behavior. Producing physiologically potent concentrations of neuromodulators may be energetically expensive for many parasites. Parasites may exploit indirect less energetically expensive methods of altering host behavior. For example, parasites may induce the host's immune system to produce the appropriate neuromodulators. In many parasites, the ability to manipulate host behavior may have evolved from adaptations designed to circumvent the host's immune system. Immune-neural-behavioral connections may be pre-adapted for parasitic manipulation. PMID:12563169

Adamo, Shelley A

2002-01-01

137

Species formation by host shifting in avian malaria parasites  

PubMed Central

The malaria parasites (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) of birds are believed to have diversified across the avian host phylogeny well after the origin of most major host lineages. Although many symbionts with direct transmission codiversify with their hosts, mechanisms of species formation in vector-borne parasites, including the role of host shifting, are poorly understood. Here, we examine the hosts of sister lineages in a phylogeny of 181 putative species of malaria parasites of New World terrestrial birds to determine the role of shifts between host taxa in the formation of new parasite species. We find that host shifting, often across host genera and families, is the rule. Sympatric speciation by host shifting would require local reproductive isolation as a prerequisite to divergent selection, but this mechanism is not supported by the generalized host-biting behavior of most vectors of avian malaria parasites. Instead, the geographic distribution of individual parasite lineages in diverse hosts suggests that species formation is predominantly allopatric and involves host expansion followed by local hostpathogen coevolution and secondary sympatry, resulting in local shifting of parasite lineages across hosts. PMID:25271324

Ricklefs, Robert E.; Outlaw, Diana C.; Svensson-Coelho, Maria; Medeiros, Matthew C. I.; Ellis, Vincenzo A.; Latta, Steven

2014-01-01

138

Knowing your enemies: seasonal dynamics of host social parasite recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite its evolutionary significance, behavioural flexibility of social response has rarely been investigated in insects. We studied a host social parasite system: the slave-making ant Polyergus rufescens and its host Formica rufibarbis. Free-living host workers from parasitized and from unparasitized areas were compared in their level of aggression against the parasite and alien conspecifics. We expected that a seasonal change would occur in the acceptance threshold of F. rufibarbis workers from a parasitized area towards the parasite, whereas F. rufibarbis workers from an unparasitized area would not show substantial changes connected with the parasites peak in activity (raiding and colony-founding season). The results showed a significant adaptive behavioural flexibility of host species workers and are consistent with the acceptance threshold models (Reeve 1989) prediction that recognition systems are not fixed but context-dependent. In particular, host workers from the unparasitized area were highly aggressive towards the parasite regardless of the season, whereas host workers from the parasitized area significantly increased their aggression towards the parasite during its raiding and colony-founding season. Being able to detect and possibly kill a Polyergus scout searching for host nests can be an effective strategy for a Formica colony to avoid being raided or usurped by a parasite queen.

D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Brunner, Elisabeth; Wenseleers, Tom; Heinze, Jrgen

2004-12-01

139

Brood parasitism causes female-biased host nestling mortality regardless of parasite species  

E-print Network

Brood parasitism causes female-biased host nestling mortality regardless of parasite species ROBERT Molothrus ater brood parasitism of Song Sparrows Melospiza melodia results in a 50% reduction is as signifi- cant as nest predation in affecting demography. Many avian brood parasites possess special

Zanette, Liana

140

Temporal dynamics of direct reciprocal and indirect effects in a host-parasite network.  

PubMed

1. Temporal variation in the direct and indirect influence that hosts and parasites exert on each other is still poorly understood. However, variation in species' influence due to species and interactions turnover can have important consequences for host community dynamics and/or for parasite transmission dynamics, and eventually for the risk of zoonotic diseases. 2. We used data on a network of small mammals and their ectoparasites surveyed over 6 years to test hypotheses exploring (i) the temporal variability in direct and indirect influences species exert on each other in a community, and (ii) the differences in temporal variability of direct/indirect influences between temporally persistent (TP) and temporally intermittent species. 3. We modelled the temporal variation in (i) direct reciprocal influence between hosts and parasites (hosts providing resources to parasites and parasites exploiting the resources of hosts), using an asymmetry index, and (ii) indirect influence among species within a community (e.g. facilitation of parasite infestation by other parasites), using betweenness centrality. We also correlated asymmetry and centrality to examine the relationship between them. 4. Network dynamics was determined by TP species but even those species had strong among-species heterogeneity in the temporal variation of the direct/indirect effects they exerted. In addition, there was a significant positive linear correlation between asymmetry and centrality. 5. We conclude that the temporal dynamics of host-parasite interactions is driven by TP hosts. However, even within this group of persistent species, some exhibit large temporal variation, such that the functional roles they play (e.g. in promoting parasite transmission) change over time. In addition, parasites having a large negative impact on hosts are also those facilitating the spread of other parasites through the entire host community. Our results provide new insights into community dynamics and can be applied in the management of antagonistic networks aimed at preventing disease outbreaks. PMID:23672501

Pilosof, Shai; Fortuna, Miguel A; Vinarski, Maxim V; Korallo-Vinarskaya, Natalia P; Krasnov, Boris R

2013-09-01

141

Manipulation of host-resource dynamics impacts transmission of trophic parasites.  

PubMed

Many complex life cycle parasites rely on predator-prey interactions for transmission, whereby definitive hosts become infected via the consumption of an infected intermediate host. As such, these trophic parasites are embedded in the larger community food web. We postulated that exposure to infection and, hence, parasite transmission are inherently linked to host foraging ecology, and that perturbation of the host-resource dynamic will impact parasite transmission dynamics. We employed a field manipulation experiment in which natural populations of the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) were provisioned with a readily available food resource in clumped or uniform spatial distributions. Using replicated longitudinal capture-mark-recapture techniques, replicated supplemented and unsupplemented control sites were monitored before and after treatment for changes in infection levels with three gastro-intestinal helminth parasites. We predicted that definitive hosts subject to food supplementation would experience lower rates of exposure to infective intermediate hosts, presumably because they shifted their diet away from the intermediate host towards the more readily available resource (sunflower seeds). As predicted, prevalence of infection by the trophically transmitted parasite decreased in response to supplemental food treatment, but no such change in infection prevalence was detected for the two directly transmitted parasites in the system. The fact that food supplementation only had an impact on the transmission of the trophically transmitted parasite, and not the directly transmitted parasites, supports our hypothesis that host foraging ecology directly affects exposure to parasites that rely on the ingestion of intermediate hosts for transmission. We concluded that the relative availability of different food resources has important consequences for the transmission of parasites and, more specifically, parasites that are embedded in the food web. The broader implications of these findings for food web dynamics and disease ecology are discussed. PMID:24929136

Luong, Lien T; Grear, Daniel A; Hudson, Peter J

2014-09-01

142

Ecology of avian brood parasitism at an early interfacing of host and parasite populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis), a brood parasite, has recently spread into the Greater Antilles from South America via the Lesser Antilles. This species is a host generalist and upon reaching Puerto Rico exploited avian communities with no history of social parasitism. Forty-two percent of the resident non-raptorial land bird species were parasitized in mangrove habitat study areas. Cowbird parasitism affected hosts by (1) depressing nest success an average of 41 percent below non-parasitized nests, and (2) reducing host productivity. Parasitized hosts produced 12 percent fewer eggs and fledged 67 percent fewer of their own chicks than non-parasitized pairs. Growth rates of chicks of some host species were lower in parasitized nests compared with non-parasitized nests while growth of others was not affected by brood parasitism. Cowbird chick growth varied directly with host size; i.e., cowbird chicks grew faster and attained greater fledging weight and body size in nests of larger hosts. Factors important in shiny cowbird host selection were examined within the mangrove study community. Cowbirds did not parasitize avian species in proportion to their abundance. The cowbird breeding season coincided with that of its major hosts, which were high quality foster species, and did not extend into other periods even though nests of poor quality species were available. Food habits and egg size of cowbirds were similar to those of their hosts, suggesting that cowbirds choose hosts partly on the basis of this alignment. Cowbirds locate nests by cryptically watching activities of birds in likely habitat. Despite the recency of the cowbird's arrival in Puerto Rico, some nesting species have effective anti-parasite strategies, including alien egg rejection and nest guarding. Behavior effective in avoiding parasitism is similar to that used by certain birds in evading nest predators. It is suggested that anti-predator behavior is preadaptive to countering cowbird parasitism.

Wiley, J.W.

1982-01-01

143

Interactions among co-infecting parasite species: a mechanism maintaining genetic variation in parasites?  

PubMed Central

Individuals of free-living organisms are often infected simultaneously by a community of parasites. If the co-infecting parasites interact, then this can add significantly to the diversity of host genotypeparasite genotype interactions. However, interactions between parasite species are usually not examined considering potential variation in interactions between different strain combinations of co-infecting parasites. Here, we examined the importance of interactions between strains of fish eye flukes Diplostomum spathaceum and Diplostomum gasterostei on their infectivity in naive fish hosts. We assessed the infection success of strains of both species in single-strain exposures and in co-exposures with a random strain of the other species. Parasite infection success did not consistently increase or decrease in the co-exposure treatment, but depended on the combinations of co-infecting parasite strains. This disrupted the relative infectivity of D. spathaceum strains observed in single-strain exposures. The infection success of D. gasterostei strains was independent of exposure type. These results suggest that interactions among parasite species may be strain specific and potentially promote maintenance of genetic polymorphism in parasite populations. PMID:18957364

Seppl, Otto; Karvonen, Anssi; Tellervo Valtonen, E.; Jokela, Jukka

2008-01-01

144

Host cell preference and variable transmission strategies in malaria parasites  

E-print Network

Host cell preference and variable transmission strategies in malaria parasites Sarah E. Reece1LA, UK Malaria and other haemosporin parasites must undergo a round of sexual reproduction that, consistent with evolutionary theory, the sex ratios of malaria parasites are negatively

West, Stuart

145

mRNA-Seq and microarray development for the Grooved carpet shell clam, Ruditapes decussatus: a functional approach to unravel host -parasite interaction  

PubMed Central

Background The Grooved Carpet shell clam Ruditapes decussatus is the autochthonous European clam and the most appreciated from a gastronomic and economic point of view. The production is in decline due to several factors such as Perkinsiosis and habitat invasion and competition by the introduced exotic species, the manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. After we sequenced R. decussatus transcriptome we have designed an oligo microarray capable of contributing to provide some clues on molecular response of the clam to Perkinsiosis. Results A database consisting of 41,119 unique transcripts was constructed, of which 12,479 (30.3%) were annotated by similarity. An oligo-DNA microarray platform was then designed and applied to profile gene expression in R. decussatus heavily infected by Perkinsus olseni. Functional annotation of differentially expressed genes between those two conditionswas performed by gene set enrichment analysis. As expected, microarrays unveil genes related with stress/infectious agents such as hydrolases, proteases and others. The extensive role of innate immune system was also analyzed and effect of parasitosis upon expression of important molecules such as lectins reviewed. Conclusions This study represents a first attempt to characterize Ruditapes decussatus transcriptome, an important marine resource for the European aquaculture. The trancriptome sequencing and consequent annotation will increase the available tools and resources for this specie, introducing the possibility of high throughput experiments such as microarrays analysis. In this specific case microarray approach was used to unveil some important aspects of host-parasite interaction between the Carpet shell clam and Perkinsus, two non-model species, highlighting some genes associated with this interaction. Ample information was obtained to identify biological processes significantly enriched among differentially expressed genes in Perkinsus infected versus non-infected gills. An overview on the genes related with the immune system on R. decussatus transcriptome is also reported. PMID:24168212

2013-01-01

146

Tactics of parasitic American coots: host choice and the pattern of egg dispersion among host nests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary I examined the tactics adopted by a conspecific brood parasite, the American coot (Fulica americana), and the degree to which these tactics reflect sources of mortality for parasitic eggs. Only 8% of parasitic eggs produced independent offspring, compared to a 35% success rate for non-parasitic eggs, and most mortality was due to egg-rejection by hosts or the consequences of

Bruce E. Lyon

1993-01-01

147

Retaliatory mafia behavior by a parasitic cowbird favors host acceptance of parasitic eggs  

PubMed Central

Why do many hosts accept costly avian brood parasitism even when parasitic eggs and nestlings differ dramatically in appearance from their own? Scientists argue that evolutionary lag or equilibrium can explain this evolutionary enigma. Few, however, consider the potential of parasitic birds to enforce acceptance by destroying eggs or nestlings of hosts that eject parasitic eggs and thereby reject parasitism. This retaliatory mafia behavior has been reported in one species of parasitic cuckoo but never in parasitic cowbirds. Here we present experimental evidence of mafia behavior in the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), a widely distributed North American brood parasite. We manipulated ejection of cowbird eggs and cowbird access to predator-proof nests in a common host to test experimentally for mafia behavior. When cowbird access was allowed, 56% of ejector nests were depredated compared with only 6% of accepter nests. No nests were destroyed when cowbird access was always denied or when access was denied after we removed cowbird eggs, indicating that cowbirds were responsible. Nonparasitized nests were depredated at an intermediate rate (20%) when cowbirds were allowed access, suggesting that cowbirds may occasionally farm hosts to create additional opportunities for parasitism. Cowbirds parasitized most (85%) renests of the hosts whose nests were depredated. Ejector nests produced 60% fewer host offspring than accepter nests because of the predatory behavior attributed to cowbirds. Widespread predatory behaviors in cowbirds could slow the evolution of rejection behaviors and further threaten populations of some of the >100 species of regular cowbird hosts. PMID:17360549

Hoover, Jeffrey P.; Robinson, Scott K.

2007-01-01

148

Retaliatory mafia behavior by a parasitic cowbird favors host acceptance of parasitic eggs.  

PubMed

Why do many hosts accept costly avian brood parasitism even when parasitic eggs and nestlings differ dramatically in appearance from their own? Scientists argue that evolutionary lag or equilibrium can explain this evolutionary enigma. Few, however, consider the potential of parasitic birds to enforce acceptance by destroying eggs or nestlings of hosts that eject parasitic eggs and thereby reject parasitism. This retaliatory "mafia" behavior has been reported in one species of parasitic cuckoo but never in parasitic cowbirds. Here we present experimental evidence of mafia behavior in the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), a widely distributed North American brood parasite. We manipulated ejection of cowbird eggs and cowbird access to predator-proof nests in a common host to test experimentally for mafia behavior. When cowbird access was allowed, 56% of "ejector" nests were depredated compared with only 6% of "accepter" nests. No nests were destroyed when cowbird access was always denied or when access was denied after we removed cowbird eggs, indicating that cowbirds were responsible. Nonparasitized nests were depredated at an intermediate rate (20%) when cowbirds were allowed access, suggesting that cowbirds may occasionally "farm" hosts to create additional opportunities for parasitism. Cowbirds parasitized most (85%) renests of the hosts whose nests were depredated. Ejector nests produced 60% fewer host offspring than accepter nests because of the predatory behavior attributed to cowbirds. Widespread predatory behaviors in cowbirds could slow the evolution of rejection behaviors and further threaten populations of some of the >100 species of regular cowbird hosts. PMID:17360549

Hoover, Jeffrey P; Robinson, Scott K

2007-03-13

149

Parasite transmission in complex communities: predators and alternative hosts alter pathogenic infections in amphibians.  

PubMed

While often studied in isolation, host-parasite interactions are typically embedded within complex communities. Other community members, including predators and alternative hosts, can therefore alter parasite transmission (e.g., the dilution effect), yet few studies have experimentally evaluated more than one such mechanism. Here, we used data from natural wetlands to design experiments investigating how alternative hosts and predators of parasites mediate trematode (Ribeiroia ondatrae) infection in a focal amphibian host (Pseudacris regilla). In short-term predation bioassays involving mollusks, zooplankton, fish, larval insects, or newts, four of seven tested species removed 62-93% of infectious stages. In transmission experiments, damselfly nymphs (predators) and newt larvae (alternative hosts) reduced infection in P. regilla tadpoles by -50%, whereas mosquitofish (potential predators and alternative hosts) did not significantly influence transmission. Additional bioassays indicated that predators consumed parasites even in the presence of alternative prey. In natural wetlands, newts had similar infection intensities as P. regilla, suggesting that they commonly function as alternative hosts despite their unpalatability to downstream hosts, whereas mosquitofish had substantially lower infection intensities and are unlikely to function as hosts. These results underscore the importance of studying host-parasite interactions in complex communities and of broadly linking research on predation, biodiversity loss, and infectious diseases. PMID:22834364

Orlofske, Sarah A; Jadin, Robert C; Preston, Daniel L; Johnson, Pieter T J

2012-06-01

150

How will global climate change affect parasite-host assemblages?  

PubMed

Parasites are integral components of the biosphere. Host switching correlated with events of episodic climate change is ubiquitous in evolutionary and ecological time. Global climate change produces ecological perturbations, which cause geographical and phenological shifts, and alteration in the dynamics of parasite transmission, increasing the potential for host switching. The intersection of climate change with evolutionary conservative aspects of host specificity and transmission dynamics, called ecological fitting, permits emergence of parasites and diseases without evolutionary changes in their capacity for host utilization. PMID:17962073

Brooks, Daniel R; Hoberg, Eric P

2007-12-01

151

Host compatibility rather than vectorhost-encounter rate determines the host range of avian Plasmodium parasites  

PubMed Central

Blood-feeding arthropod vectors are responsible for transmitting many parasites between vertebrate hosts. While arthropod vectors often feed on limited subsets of potential host species, little is known about the extent to which this influences the distribution of vector-borne parasites in some systems. Here, we test the hypothesis that different vector species structure parasitehost relationships by restricting access of certain parasites to a subset of available hosts. Specifically, we investigate how the feeding patterns of Culex mosquito vectors relate to distributions of avian malaria parasites among hosts in suburban Chicago, IL, USA. We show that Plasmodium lineages, defined by cytochrome b haplotypes, are heterogeneously distributed across avian hosts. However, the feeding patterns of the dominant vectors (Culex restuans and Culex pipiens) are similar across these hosts, and do not explain the distributions of Plasmodium parasites. Phylogenetic similarity of avian hosts predicts similarity in their Plasmodium parasites. This effect was driven primarily by the general association of Plasmodium parasites with particular host superfamilies. Our results suggest that a mosquito-imposed encounter rate does not limit the distribution of avian Plasmodium parasites across hosts. This implies that compatibility between parasites and their avian hosts structure Plasmodium host range. PMID:23595266

Medeiros, Matthew C. I.; Hamer, Gabriel L.; Ricklefs, Robert E.

2013-01-01

152

Against all odds: Explaining high host specificity in dispersal-prone parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host specificity gauges the degree to which a parasite occurs in association with a single host species. The measure is indicative of properties of the host and parasite, as well as their ecological and co-evolutionary relationships. Host specificity is influenced by the behavior and ecology of both parasite and host. Where parasites are active, vagile and coupled with hosts whose

Carl W. Dick; Bruce D. Patterson

2007-01-01

153

Malaria parasite liver stages render host hepatocytes susceptible to mitochondria-initiated apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Intracellular eukaryotic parasites and their host cells constitute complex, coevolved cellular interaction systems that frequently cause disease. Among them, Plasmodium parasites cause a significant health burden in humans, killing up to one million people annually. To succeed in the mammalian host after transmission by mosquitoes, Plasmodium parasites must complete intracellular replication within hepatocytes and then release new infectious forms into the blood. Using Plasmodium yoelii rodent malaria parasites, we show that some liver stage (LS)-infected hepatocytes undergo apoptosis without external triggers, but the majority of infected cells do not, and can also resist Fas-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, apoptosis is dramatically increased in hepatocytes infected with attenuated parasites. Furthermore, we find that blocking total or mitochondria-initiated host cell apoptosis increases LS parasite burden in mice, suggesting that an anti-apoptotic host environment fosters parasite survival. Strikingly, although LS infection confers strong resistance to extrinsic host hepatocyte apoptosis, infected hepatocytes lose their ability to resist apoptosis when anti-apoptotic mitochondrial proteins are inhibited. This is demonstrated by our finding that B-cell lymphoma 2 family inhibitors preferentially induce apoptosis in LS-infected hepatocytes and significantly reduce LS parasite burden in mice. Thus, targeting critical points of susceptibility in the LS-infected host cell might provide new avenues for malaria prophylaxis. PMID:23928701

Kaushansky, A; Metzger, P G; Douglass, A N; Mikolajczak, S A; Lakshmanan, V; Kain, H S; Kappe, S HI

2013-01-01

154

Malaria parasite liver stages render host hepatocytes susceptible to mitochondria-initiated apoptosis.  

PubMed

Intracellular eukaryotic parasites and their host cells constitute complex, coevolved cellular interaction systems that frequently cause disease. Among them, Plasmodium parasites cause a significant health burden in humans, killing up to one million people annually. To succeed in the mammalian host after transmission by mosquitoes, Plasmodium parasites must complete intracellular replication within hepatocytes and then release new infectious forms into the blood. Using Plasmodium yoelii rodent malaria parasites, we show that some liver stage (LS)-infected hepatocytes undergo apoptosis without external triggers, but the majority of infected cells do not, and can also resist Fas-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, apoptosis is dramatically increased in hepatocytes infected with attenuated parasites. Furthermore, we find that blocking total or mitochondria-initiated host cell apoptosis increases LS parasite burden in mice, suggesting that an anti-apoptotic host environment fosters parasite survival. Strikingly, although LS infection confers strong resistance to extrinsic host hepatocyte apoptosis, infected hepatocytes lose their ability to resist apoptosis when anti-apoptotic mitochondrial proteins are inhibited. This is demonstrated by our finding that B-cell lymphoma 2 family inhibitors preferentially induce apoptosis in LS-infected hepatocytes and significantly reduce LS parasite burden in mice. Thus, targeting critical points of susceptibility in the LS-infected host cell might provide new avenues for malaria prophylaxis. PMID:23928701

Kaushansky, A; Metzger, P G; Douglass, A N; Mikolajczak, S A; Lakshmanan, V; Kain, H S; Kappe, S Hi

2013-01-01

155

Brood parasite eggs enhance egg survivorship in a multiply parasitized host  

PubMed Central

Despite the costs to avian parents of rearing brood parasitic offspring, many species do not reject foreign eggs from their nests. We show that where multiple parasitism occurs, rejection itself can be costly, by increasing the risk of host egg loss during subsequent parasite attacks. Chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus) are heavily parasitized by shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis), which also puncture eggs in host nests. Mockingbirds struggle to prevent cowbirds puncturing and laying, but seldom remove cowbird eggs once laid. We filmed cowbird visits to nests with manipulated clutch compositions and found that mockingbird eggs were more likely to escape puncture the more cowbird eggs accompanied them in the clutch. A Monte Carlo simulation of this dilution effect, comparing virtual hosts that systematically either reject or accept parasite eggs, shows that acceptors enjoy higher egg survivorship than rejecters in host populations where multiple parasitism occurs. For mockingbirds or other hosts in which host nestlings fare well in parasitized broods, this benefit might be sufficient to offset the fitness cost of rearing parasite chicks, making egg acceptance evolutionarily stable. Thus, counterintuitively, high intensities of parasitism might decrease or even reverse selection pressure for host defence via egg rejection. PMID:22158956

Gloag, Ros; Fiorini, Vanina D.; Reboreda, Juan C.; Kacelnik, Alex

2012-01-01

156

Distinct Lineages of Schistocephalus Parasites in Threespine and Ninespine Stickleback Hosts Revealed by DNA Sequence Analysis  

PubMed Central

Parasitic interactions are often part of complex networks of interspecific relationships that have evolved in biological communities. Despite many years of work on the evolution of parasitism, the likelihood that sister taxa of parasites can co-evolve with their hosts to specifically infect two related lineages, even when those hosts occur sympatrically, is still unclear. Furthermore, when these specific interactions occur, the molecular and physiological basis of this specificity is still largely unknown. The presence of these specific parasitic relationships can now be tested using molecular markers such as DNA sequence variation. Here we test for specific parasitic relationships in an emerging host-parasite model, the stickleback-Schistocephalus system. Threespine and ninespine stickleback fish are intermediate hosts for Schistocephalus cestode parasites that are phenotypically very similar and have nearly identical life cycles through plankton, stickleback, and avian hosts. We analyzed over 2000 base pairs of COX1 and NADH1 mitochondrial DNA sequences in 48 Schistocephalus individuals collected from threespine and ninespine stickleback hosts from disparate geographic regions distributed across the Northern Hemisphere. Our data strongly support the presence of two distinct clades of Schistocephalus, each of which exclusively infects either threespine or ninespine stickleback. These clades most likely represent different species that diverged soon after the speciation of their stickleback hosts. In addition, genetic structuring exists among Schistocephalus taken from threespine stickleback hosts from Alaska, Oregon and Wales, although it is much less than the divergence between hosts. Our findings emphasize that biological communities may be even more complex than they first appear, and beg the question of what are the ecological, physiological, and genetic factors that maintain the specificity of the Schistocephalus parasites and their stickleback hosts. PMID:21811623

Nishimura, Nicole; Heins, David C.; Andersen, Ryan O.; Barber, Iain; Cresko, William A.

2011-01-01

157

Decay of similarity with host phylogenetic distance in parasite faunas.  

PubMed

Exponential decay in community similarity as a function of distance is a ubiquitous phenomenon in biogeography. Thus, for parasite communities, pairwise similarity decreases with increasing geographical distance between host populations. This biogeographical rule should also apply along other dimensions characterizing the separation between communities. Since host-switching and phylogenetic affinities among host species affect the evolution of parasite faunas across host phylogenetic space the same way as dispersal and environmental gradients affect the assembly of local communities in geographical space, an exponential decay in similarity of parasite faunas with increasing host phylogenetic distance should be observed. This prediction is tested using data on metazoan parasites of 45 species of Canadian freshwater fishes belonging to 5 families. Across all host species, pairwise similarity in the composition of parasite faunas decayed exponentially, though not strongly, with increasing phylogenetic distance between hosts (measured as the number of substitutions per site along DNA sequences). A meta-analysis of correlations computed for separate fish families indicates only a very weak overall relationship. Data distribution indicates that phylogenetically close host species tend to share many of their parasites, while phylogenetically distant hosts have roughly equal chances of harbouring very similar or very dissimilar parasite faunas. The same pattern was seen when monogenean and trematode parasites were analysed separately, whereas no significant decay was observed for cestodes or nematodes, suggesting different patterns of host-switching and parasite colonization among these taxa. The results show that similarity in species composition decreases, though weakly, with increasing distance in the same manner in phylogenetic space as it does in geographical space. PMID:19849890

Poulin, R

2010-04-01

158

Cross-kingdom host shifts of phytomyxid parasites  

PubMed Central

Background Phytomyxids (plasmodiophorids and phagomyxids) are cosmopolitan, obligate biotrophic protist parasites of plants, diatoms, oomycetes and brown algae. Plasmodiophorids are best known as pathogens or vectors for viruses of arable crops (e.g. clubroot in brassicas, powdery potato scab, and rhizomania in sugar beet). Some phytomyxid parasites are of considerable economic and ecologic importance globally, and their hosts include important species in marine and terrestrial environments. However most phytomyxid diversity remains uncharacterised and knowledge of their relationships with host taxa is very fragmentary. Results Our molecular and morphological analyses of phytomyxid isolatesincluding for the first time oomycete and sea-grass parasitesdemonstrate two cross-kingdom host shifts between closely related parasite species: between angiosperms and oomycetes, and from diatoms/brown algae to angiosperms. Switching between such phylogenetically distant hosts is generally unknown in host-dependent eukaryote parasites. We reveal novel plasmodiophorid lineages in soils, suggesting a much higher diversity than previously known, and also present the most comprehensive phytomyxid phylogeny to date. Conclusion Such large-scale host shifts between closely related obligate biotrophic eukaryote parasites is to our knowledge unique to phytomyxids. Phytomyxids may readily adapt to a wide diversity of new hosts because they have retained the ability to covertly infect alternative hosts. A high cryptic diversity and ubiquitous distribution in agricultural and natural habitats implies that in a changing environment phytomyxids could threaten the productivity of key species in marine and terrestrial environments alike via host shift speciation. PMID:24559266

2014-01-01

159

Host-specific races in the holoparasitic angiosperm Orobanche minor: implications for speciation in parasitic plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Orobanche minor is a root-holoparasitic angiosperm that attacks a wide range of host species, including a number of commonly cultivated crops. The extent to which genetic divergence among natural populations of O. minor is influenced by host specificity has not been determined previously. Here, the host specificity of natural populations of O. minor is quantified for the first time, and evidence that this species may comprise distinct physiological races is provided. Methods A tripartite approach was used to examine the physiological basis for the divergence of populations occurring on different hosts: (1) hostparasite interactions were cultivated in rhizotron bioassays in order to quantify the early stages of the infection and establishment processes; (2) using reciprocal-infection experiments, parasite races were cultivated on their natural and alien hosts, and their fitness determined in terms of biomass; and (3) the anatomy of the hostparasite interface was investigated using histochemical techniques, with a view to comparing the infection process on different hosts. Key Results Races occurring naturally on red clover (Trifolium pratense) and sea carrot (Daucus carota ssp. gummifer) showed distinct patterns of host specificity: parasites cultivated in cross-infection studies showed a higher fitness on their natural hosts, suggesting that races show local adaptation to specific hosts. In addition, histological evidence suggests that clover and carrot roots vary in their responses to infection. Different root anatomy and responses to infection may underpin a physiological basis for host specificity. Conclusions It is speculated that host specificity may isolate races of Orobanche on different hosts, accelerating divergence and ultimately speciation in this genus. The rapid life cycle and broad host range of O. minor make this species an ideal model with which to study the interactions of parasitic plants with their host associates. PMID:19251714

Thorogood, C. J.; Rumsey, F. J.; Hiscock, S. J.

2009-01-01

160

Selection by parasites may increase host recombination frequency.  

PubMed

Meiotic recombination destroys successful genotypes and it is therefore thought to evolve only under a very limited set of conditions. Here, we experimentally show that recombination rates across two linkage groups of the host, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, increase with exposure to the microsporidian parasite, Nosema whitei, particularly when parasites were allowed to coevolve with their hosts. Selection by randomly varied parasites resulted in smaller effects, while directional selection for insecticide resistance initially reduced recombination slightly. These results, at least tentatively, suggest that short-term benefits of recombination--and thus the evolution of sex--may be related to parasitism. PMID:17148164

Fischer, O; Schmid-Hempel, P

2005-06-22

161

Interactions between hemiparasitic plants and their hosts  

PubMed Central

Hemiparasitic plants display a unique strategy of resource acquisition combining parasitism of other species and own photosynthetic activity. Despite the active photoassimilation and green habit, they acquire substantial amount of carbon from their hosts. The organic carbon transfer has a crucial influence on the nature of the interaction between hemiparasites and their hosts which can oscillate between parasitism and competition for light. In this minireview, we summarize methodical approaches and results of various studies dealing with carbon budget of hemiparasites and the ecological implications of carbon heterotrophy in hemiparasites. PMID:20729638

Plavcov, Lenka; Cameron, Duncan D

2010-01-01

162

Suppression of Host Photosynthesis by the Parasitic Plant Rhinanthus minor  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Parasitism is well understood to have wide-ranging deleterious effects on host performance in species thus far characterized. Photosynthetic performance reductions have been noted in the StrigaZea mays association; however, no such information exists for facultative hemiparasitic plants and their hosts, nor are the effects of host species understood. Methods Chlorophyll fluorimetry was used to study the effects of parasitism by the hemiparasite Rhinanthus minor on the grass Phleum bertolinii and the forb Plantago lanceolata, and the effects of host species on the photosynthetic apparatus of R. minor. Key Results Parasitism by Rhinanthus led to a significant decrease in the host, and total (host + parasite) biomass in Phleum; however, in Plantago, no significant repression of growth was noted. Maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) was reduced in parasitized Plantago, relative to control plants, but not in Phleum. Fv/Fm was significantly lower in R. minor parasitizing Phleum than Plantago, suggesting Phleum to be a superior host to Plantago for R. minor. Steady-state quantum yield (?PSII) was significantly depressed in parasitized Phleum, but only at low irradiances in Plantago. ?PSII was very low for R. minor grown on Plantago, but not Phleum. Conclusions Shown here is the first evidence of the suppression of host photosynthesis by a facultative hemiparasitic plant, which has significant effects on total biomass production. Host identity is a significant factor in parasite success, with the forb Plantago lanceolata exhibiting apparent chemical as well as previously identified physical defences to parasitism. It is proposed that the electron transport rate (as denoted by ?PSII) represents the limiting factor for biomass accumulation in this system, and that Plantago is able to suppress the growth of Rhinanthus by suppressing the electron transport rate. PMID:18211886

Cameron, Duncan D.; Geniez, Jean-Michelle; Seel, Wendy E.; Irving, Louis J.

2008-01-01

163

A novel method of rejection of brood parasitic eggs reduces parasitism intensity in a cowbird host  

PubMed Central

The hosts of brood parasitic birds are under strong selection pressure to recognize and remove foreign eggs from their nests, but parasite eggs may be too large to be grasped whole and too strong to be readily pierced by the host's bill. Such operating constraints on egg removal are proposed to force some hosts to accept parasite eggs, as the costs of deserting parasitized clutches can outweigh the cost of rearing parasites. By fitting microcameras inside nests, we reveal that the Neotropical baywing (Agelaioides badius), a host of the screaming cowbird (Molothrus rufoaxillaris) and shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis), instead circumvents such constraints by kicking parasite eggs out of the nest. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a passerine bird using its feet to remove objects from the nest. Kick-ejection was an all-or-nothing response. Baywings kick-ejected parasite eggs laid before their own first egg and, if heavily parasitized, they ejected entire clutches and began again in the same nest. Few baywings were able to rid their nests of every parasite egg, but their novel ejection method allowed them to reduce the median parasitism intensity by 75 per cent (from four to one cowbird eggs per nest), providing an effective anti-parasite defence. PMID:23485877

De Mrsico, Mara C.; Gloag, Ros; Ursino, Cynthia A.; Reboreda, Juan C.

2013-01-01

164

Density-dependence and within-host competition in a semelparous parasite of leaf-cutting ants  

PubMed Central

Background Parasite heterogeneity and within-host competition are thought to be important factors influencing the dynamics of host-parasite relationships. Yet, while there have been many theoretical investigations of how these factors may act, empirical data is more limited. We investigated the effects of parasite density and heterogeneity on parasite virulence and fitness using four strains of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, and its leaf-cutting ant host Acromyrmex echinatior as the model system. Results The relationship between parasite density and infection was sigmoidal, with there being an invasion threshold for an infection to occur (an Allee effect). Although spore production was positively density-dependent, parasite fitness decreased with increasing parasite density, indicating within-host scramble competition. The dynamics differed little between the four strains tested. In mixed infections of three strains the infection-growth dynamics were unaffected by parasite heterogeneity. Conclusions The strength of within-host competition makes dispersal the best strategy for the parasite. Parasite heterogeneity may not have effected virulence or the infection dynamics either because the most virulent strain outcompeted the others, or because the interaction involved scramble competition that was impervious to parasite heterogeneity. The dynamics observed may be common for virulent parasites, such as Metarhizium, that produce aggregated transmission stages. Such parasites make useful models for investigating infection dynamics and the impact of parasite competition. PMID:15541185

Hughes, William OH; Petersen, Klaus S; Ugelvig, Line V; Pedersen, Dorthe; Thomsen, Lene; Poulsen, Michael; Boomsma, Jacobus J

2004-01-01

165

Hosts improve the reliability of chick recognition by delaying the hatching of brood parasitic eggs.  

PubMed

The reliability of information that animals use to make decisions has fitness consequences. Accordingly, selection should favor the evolution of strategies that enhance the reliability of information used in learning and decision making. For example, hosts of avian brood parasites should be selected to increase the reliability of the information they use to learn to recognize their own eggs and chicks. The American coot (Fulica americana), a conspecific brood parasite, uses cues learned from the first-hatched chicks of each brood to recognize and reject parasitic chicks. However, if parasitic eggs are among the first to hatch, recognition cues are confounded and parents then fail to distinguish parasitic chicks from their own chicks. Therefore, hosts could ensure correct chick recognition by delaying parasitic eggs from hatching until after the first host eggs. Here we demonstrate that discriminatory incubation, whereby coots specifically delay the hatching of parasitic eggs, improves the reliability of parasitic chick recognition. In effect, coots gain fitness benefits by enhancing the reliability of information they later use for learning. Our study shows that a positive interaction between two host adaptations in coots--egg recognition and chick recognition--increases the overall effectiveness of host defense. PMID:21396823

Shizuka, Daizaburo; Lyon, Bruce E

2011-03-22

166

Parasite virulence when the infection reduces the host immune response  

PubMed Central

Parasite infections often induce a reduction in host immune response either because of a direct manipulation of the immune system by the parasite or because of energy depletion. Although infection-induced immunodepression can favour the establishment of the parasite within the host, a too severe immunodepression may increase the risk of infection with opportunistic pathogens, stopping the period over which the parasite can be transmitted to other hosts. Here, we explore how the risk of contracting opportunistic diseases affects the survival of the amphipod Gammarus pulex infected by the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis. Previous work with this system has shown that upon infection, G. pulex has a substantially reduced immune response. Non-infected and P. laevis-infected hosts were maintained either in control or in micro-organism-enriched water, so as to vary the risk of encountering opportunistic pathogens. As predicted, we found that host mortality was exacerbated when infected gammarids were maintained in micro-organism-enriched water compared with clean, control water; whereas for non-infected gammarids, living in micro-organism-enriched water only moderately increased the risk of mortality. These results show that the virulence of parasites that reduce the host immune response is an environmentally sensitive trait that depends on the concomitant risk for the host of contracting opportunistic diseases. This extra source of host mortality probably represents a cost for P. laevis, and we tentatively predict that the optimal level of parasite exploitation should depend on environmental conditions. PMID:20200031

Cornet, Stphane; Sorci, Gabriele

2010-01-01

167

Multi-parasite host susceptibility and multi-host parasite infectivity: a new approach of the Biomphalaria glabrata / Schistosoma mansoni compatibility  

E-print Network

1 Multi-parasite host susceptibility and multi-host parasite infectivity: a new approach mansoni strains. A total of 20 homopatric and heteropatric host- parasite combinations were tested B. glabrata strain by its "multi-parasite susceptibility phenotype" that reflects better

Boyer, Edmond

168

HOW SPECIFICITY AND EPIDEMIOLOGY DRIVE THE COEVOLUTION OF STATIC TRAIT DIVERSITY IN HOSTS AND PARASITES  

PubMed Central

There is typically considerable variation in the level of infectivity of parasites and the degree of resistance of hosts within populations. This trait variation is critical not only to the evolutionary dynamics but also to the epidemiology, and potentially the control of infectious disease. However, we lack an understanding of the processes that generate and maintain this trait diversity. We examine theoretically how epidemiological feedbacks and the characteristics of the interaction between host types and parasites strains determine the coevolution of hostparasite diversity. The interactions include continuous characterizations of the key phenotypic features of classic gene-for-gene and matching allele models. We show that when there are costs to resistance in the hosts and infectivity in the parasite, epidemiological feedbacks may generate diversity but this is limited to dimorphism, often of extreme types, in a broad range of realistic infection scenarios. For trait polymorphism, there needs to be both specificity of infection between host types and parasite strains as well as incompatibility between particular strains and types. We emphasize that although the high specificity is well known to promote temporal Red Queen diversity, it is costs and combinations of hosts and parasites that cannot infect that will promote static trait diversity. PMID:24593303

Boots, Mike; White, Andy; Best, Alex; Bowers, Roger

2014-01-01

169

A review of the helminth parasites using polychaetes as hosts.  

PubMed

An updated review of the helminth parasites using polychaetes as hosts is provided. Fifteen relevant search terms were entered into the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science online database in order to locate papers published since the last review, and subsequent supplementary article, given by Margolis (J Fish Res Board Can 28:1385-1392, 1971, J Fish Res Board Can 30:469-470, 1973), entitled "Polychaetes as intermediate hosts of helminth parasites of vertebrates: a review" and "Additional notes on polychaetes as intermediate hosts of helminth parasites of vertebrates," respectively. The World Register of Marine Species was used to provide the most current scientific names for both helminth parasites and their respective polychaete hosts. A total of 35 new reports were found. Across the taxa examined, digenetic trematodes appear to be the most prominent of the helminth parasites utilizing polychaete annelids as hosts. Nematodes are the second most common helminth grouping--followed by cestodes--using polychaetes as hosts. An incidence of possible parasitism by a turbellarian using a polychaete as a host is also reported. PMID:23828193

Peoples, Robert C

2013-10-01

170

Evolution of parasite virulence when host responses cause disease  

E-print Network

The trade-off hypothesis of virulence evolution rests on the assumption that infection-induced mortality is a consequence of host exploitation by parasites. This hypothesis lies at the heart of many empirical and theoretical ...

Day, Troy; Graham, Andrea; Read, Andrew F

171

Direct and indirect costs of co-infection in the wild: Linking gastrointestinal parasite communities, host hematology, and immune function.  

PubMed

Most animals are concurrently infected with multiple parasites, and interactions among these parasites may influence both disease dynamics and host fitness. However, the sublethal costs of parasite infections are difficult to measure and the effects of concomitant infections with multiple parasite species on individual physiology and fitness are poorly described for wild hosts. To understand the direct and indirect physiological costs of co-infection, we investigated the relationships among gastrointestinal parasite richness, species identity, and abundance and host hematological parameters, body condition, and investment in lymphocyte defenses. Using aggregate-scale parasite data from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), we found few direct or indirect associations between infection and hematology in male hosts, and no significant associations were observed in female hosts or with respect to body condition in either sex. These results suggest that only strong physiological effects are detectable with aggregate-scale parasite data, and that hematological variables may be more sensitive to changes in condition than standard body fat condition indices. Analyses accounting for parasite species identity in female buffalo revealed that different parasites show distinct relationships with host hematology, body condition, and immune investment. However, four of six species-specific associations were obscured when parasites were considered in combination. Overall, fitness-related physiological mediators such as hematological indices may provide assessments of direct and indirect effects of parasite infection, particularly when parasite species identity and community composition are considered. PMID:24533308

Budischak, Sarah A; Jolles, Anna E; Ezenwa, Vanessa O

2012-12-01

172

Consistent pattern of local adaptation during an experimental heat wave in a pipefish-trematode host-parasite system.  

PubMed

Extreme climate events such as heat waves are expected to increase in frequency under global change. As one indirect effect, they can alter magnitude and direction of species interactions, for example those between hosts and parasites. We simulated a summer heat wave to investigate how a changing environment affects the interaction between the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) as a host and its digenean trematode parasite (Cryptocotyle lingua). In a fully reciprocal laboratory infection experiment, pipefish from three different coastal locations were exposed to sympatric and allopatric trematode cercariae. In order to examine whether an extreme climatic event disrupts patterns of locally adapted host-parasite combinations we measured the parasite's transmission success as well as the host's adaptive and innate immune defence under control and heat wave conditions. Independent of temperature, sympatric cercariae were always more successful than allopatric ones, indicating that parasites are locally adapted to their hosts. Hosts suffered from heat stress as suggested by fewer cells of the adaptive immune system (lymphocytes) compared to the same groups that were kept at 18C. However, the proportion of the innate immune cells (monocytes) was higher in the 18C water. Contrary to our expectations, no interaction between host immune defence, parasite infectivity and temperature stress were found, nor did the pattern of local adaptation change due to increased water temperature. Thus, in this host-parasite interaction, the sympatric parasite keeps ahead of the coevolutionary dynamics across sites, even under increasing temperatures as expected under marine global warming. PMID:22303448

Landis, Susanne H; Kalbe, Martin; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Roth, Olivia

2012-01-01

173

Attachment of the parasitic weed dodder to the host.  

PubMed

The parasitic weed dodder (Cuscuta pentagona L.) invades a number of potential host species, but the mechanisms responsible for ensuring tight adhesion to the wide variety of host surfaces have yet to be identified. In this study, a battery of microscopy protocols is used to examine the host-parasite interface in an effort to deduce these mechanisms. As the dodder shoot approaches the host tissue, epidermal cells in the parasite shoot elongate and differentiate into secretory type trichomes. The trichome cell walls are malleable, allowing them to elongate towards the host and bend their walls to conform to the shape of the host cell surface. The presence of osmiophilic particles (probable cell-wall-loosening complexes) at far greater numbers than found in other species presages the expansion and malleable nature of the epidermal cells. In addition to the changes in cell shape, the dodder trichome cells secrete an electron-opaque cementing substance that covers the host-parasite interface. When probed with antibodies that recognize cell wall components, the cement reacted only with antibodies that recognize chiefly de-esterified pectins but not other common wall constituents. These data indicate that dodder utilizes both a cementing layer of pectin and a radically modified epidermal cell wall to secure the parasite to the perspective host. PMID:12099223

Vaughn, K C

2002-05-01

174

Do hosts and parasites coevolve? Empirical support from the Schistosoma system.  

PubMed

Coevolution between host and parasite is, in principle, a powerful determinant of the biology and genetics of infection and disease. However, coevolution is difficult to demonstrate rigorously in practice and therefore has rarely been observed empirically, particularly in animal-parasite systems. Research on host-schistosome interactions has the potential for making an important contribution to the study of coevolution or reciprocal adaptation. This may be particularly pertinent because schistosomes represent an indirectly transmitted macroparasite, so often overlooked among both theoretical and empirical studies. Here we present ideas and experiments on host-schistosome interactions, in part reviewed from published work but focusing in particular on preliminary novel data from our ongoing studies of potential host-schistosome evolution and coevolution in the laboratory. The article is split into three main sections: we first focus on the evidence for evolution in the host, then in the parasite, before combining both to illustrate the gathering evidence of host-parasite coevolution in the snail-schistosome system. In particular, we demonstrate that genetic architecture, variability, and selective pressures are present for the evolution of resistance and susceptibility, virulence, and infectivity to occur, the mechanisms allowing such polymorphisms to be maintained, and that hosts and parasites appear to have reciprocal effects on each other's phenotype and genotype. PMID:15540140

Webster, J P; Gower, C M; Blair, L

2004-11-01

175

Effects of epistasis on infectivity range during host-parasite coevolution.  

PubMed

Understanding how parasites adapt to changes in host resistance is crucial to evolutionary epidemiology. Experimental studies have demonstrated that parasites are more capable of adapting to gradual, rather than sudden changes in host phenotype, as the latter may require multiple mutations that are unlikely to arise simultaneously. A key, but as yet unexplored factor is precisely how interactions between mutations (epistasis) affect parasite evolution. Here, we investigate this phenomenon in the context of infectivity range, where parasites may experience selection to infect broader sets of genotypes. When epistasis is strongly positive, we find that parasites are unlikely to evolve broader infectivity ranges if hosts exhibit sudden, rather than gradual changes in phenotype, in close agreement with empirical observations. This is due to a low probability of fixing multiple mutations that individually confer no immediate advantage. When epistasis is weaker, parasites are more likely to evolve broader infectivity ranges if hosts make sudden changes in phenotype, which can be explained by a balance between mutation supply and selection. Thus, we demonstrate that both the rate of phenotypic change in hosts and the form of epistasis between mutations in parasites are crucial in shaping the evolution of infectivity range. PMID:24957848

Ashby, Ben; Gupta, Sunetra; Buckling, Angus

2014-10-01

176

EFFECTS OF EPISTASIS ON INFECTIVITY RANGE DURING HOST-PARASITE COEVOLUTION  

PubMed Central

Understanding how parasites adapt to changes in host resistance is crucial to evolutionary epidemiology. Experimental studies have demonstrated that parasites are more capable of adapting to gradual, rather than sudden changes in host phenotype, as the latter may require multiple mutations that are unlikely to arise simultaneously. A key, but as yet unexplored factor is precisely how interactions between mutations (epistasis) affect parasite evolution. Here, we investigate this phenomenon in the context of infectivity range, where parasites may experience selection to infect broader sets of genotypes. When epistasis is strongly positive, we find that parasites are unlikely to evolve broader infectivity ranges if hosts exhibit sudden, rather than gradual changes in phenotype, in close agreement with empirical observations. This is due to a low probability of fixing multiple mutations that individually confer no immediate advantage. When epistasis is weaker, parasites are more likely to evolve broader infectivity ranges if hosts make sudden changes in phenotype, which can be explained by a balance between mutation supply and selection. Thus, we demonstrate that both the rate of phenotypic change in hosts and the form of epistasis between mutations in parasites are crucial in shaping the evolution of infectivity range. PMID:24957848

Ashby, Ben; Gupta, Sunetra; Buckling, Angus

2014-01-01

177

Manipulation of host behaviour by parasites: a weakening paradigm?  

PubMed Central

New scientific paradigms often generate an early wave of enthusiasm among researchers and a barrage of studies seeking to validate or refute the newly proposed idea. All else being equal, the strength and direction of the empirical evidence being published should not change over time, allowing one to assess the generality of the paradigm based on the gradual accumulation of evidence. Here, I examine the relationship between the magnitude of published quantitative estimates of parasite-induced changes in host behaviour and year of publication from the time the adaptive host manipulation hypothesis was first proposed. Two independent data sets were used, both originally gathered for other purposes. First, across 137 comparisons between the behaviour of infected and uninfected hosts, the estimated relative influence of parasites correlated negatively with year of publication. This effect was contingent upon the transmission mode of the parasites studied. The negative relationship was very strong among studies of parasites which benefit from host manipulation (transmission to the next host occurs by predation on an infected intermediate host), i.e. among studies which were explicit tests of the adaptive manipulation hypothesis. There was no correlation with year of publication among studies on other types of parasites which do not seem to receive benefits from host manipulation. Second, among 14 estimates of the relative, parasite-mediated increase in transmission rate (i.e. increases in predation rates by definitive hosts on intermediate hosts), the estimated influence of parasites again correlated negatively with year of publication. These results have several possible explanations, but tend to suggest biases with regard to what results are published through time as accepted paradigms changed. PMID:10819148

Poulin, R

2000-01-01

178

A shared chemical basis of avian hostparasite egg colour mimicry  

PubMed Central

Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in other birds' nests and impose considerable fitness costs on their hosts. Historically and scientifically, the best studied example of circumventing host defences is the mimicry of host eggshell colour by the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). Yet the chemical basis of eggshell colour similarity, which impacts hosts' tolerance towards parasitic eggs, remains unknown. We tested the alternative scenarios that (i) cuckoos replicate host egg pigment chemistry, or (ii) cuckoos use alternative mechanisms to produce a similar perceptual effect to mimic host egg appearance. In parallel with patterns of similarity in avian-perceived colour mimicry, the concentrations of the two key eggshell pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin, were most similar between the cuckoo host-races and their respective hosts. Thus, the chemical basis of avian hostparasite egg colour mimicry is evolutionarily conserved, but also intraspecifically flexible. These analyses of pigment composition reveal a novel proximate dimension of coevolutionary interactions between avian brood parasites and hosts, and imply that alternative phenotypes may arise by the modifications of already existing biochemical and physiological mechanisms and pathways. PMID:21920975

Igic, Branislav; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tom; Greenwood, David R.; Moskt, Csaba; Rutila, Jarkko; Hauber, Mark E.

2012-01-01

179

Host densities as determinants of abundance in parasite communities  

PubMed Central

Several epidemiological models predict a positive relationship between host population density and abundance of directly transmitted macroparasites. Here, we generalize these, and test the prediction by a comparative study. We used data on communities of gastrointestinal strongylid nematodes from 19 mammalian species, representing examination of 6670 individual hosts. We studied both the average abundance of all strongylid nematodes within a host species, and the two components of abundance, prevalence and intensity. The effects of host body weight, diet, fecundity and age at maturity and parasite body size were controlled for directly, and the phylogenetically independent contrast method was used to control for confounding factors more generally. Host population density and average parasite abundance were strongly positively correlated within mammalian taxa, and across all species when the effects of host body weight were controlled for. Controlling for other variables did not change this. Even when looking at single parasite species occurring in several host species, abundance was highest in the host species with the highest population density. Prevalence and intensity showed similar patterns. These patterns provide the first macroecological evidence consistent with the prediction that transmission rates depend on host population density in natural parasite communities.

Arneberg, P.; Skorping, A.; Grenfell, B.; Read, A. F.

1998-01-01

180

Individual patterns of habitat and nest-site use by hosts promote transgenerational transmission of avian brood parasitism status.  

PubMed

Brood parasitic birds impose variable fitness costs upon their hosts by causing the partial or complete loss of the hosts' own brood. Growing evidence from multiple avian host-parasite taxa indicates that exposure of individual hosts to parasitism is not necessarily random and varies with habitat use, nest-site selection, age or other phenotypic attributes. For instance, nonrandom patterns of brood parasitism had similar evolutionary consequences to those of limited horizontal transmission of parasites and pathogens across space and time and altered the dynamics of both population productivity and co-evolutionary interactions of hosts and parasites. We report that brood parasitism status of hosts of brown-headed cowbirds Molothrus ater is also transmitted across generations in individually colour-banded female prothonotary warblers Protonotaria citrea. Warbler daughters were more likely to share their mothers' parasitism status when showing natal philopatry at the scale of habitat patch. Females never bred in their natal nestboxes but daughters of parasitized mothers had shorter natal dispersal distances than daughters of nonparasitized mothers. Daughters of parasitized mothers were more likely to use nestboxes that had been parasitized by cowbirds in both the previous and current years. Although difficult to document in avian systems, different propensities of vertical transmission of parasitism status within host lineages will have critical implications both for the evolution of parasite tolerance in hosts and, if found to be mediated by lineages of parasites themselves, for the difference in virulence between such extremes as the nestmate-tolerant and nestmate-eliminator strategies of different avian brood parasite species. PMID:17922717

Hoover, Jeffrey P; Hauber, Mark E

2007-11-01

181

Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches  

PubMed Central

Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitized nests showed lower chromatic contrast to host eggs than those assigned randomly to other nests with egg-laying date similar to naturally parasitized clutches. Moreover, egg matching in terms of chromaticity was better in naturally parasitized nests than it would be in the nests of the nearest active non-parasitized neighbour. However, there was no indication of matching in achromatic spectral characteristics whatsoever. Thus, our results clearly indicate that cuckoos select certain host nests to increase matching of their own eggs with host clutches, but only in chromatic characteristics. Our results suggest that the ability of cuckoos to actively choose host nests based on the eggshell appearance imposes a strong selection pressure on host egg recognition. PMID:24258721

Honza, Marcel; ulc, Michal; Jelnek, Vclav; Pogayov, Milica; Prochzka, Petr

2014-01-01

182

Parasite diversity and coinfection determine pathogen infection success and host fitness  

E-print Network

Parasite diversity and coinfection determine pathogen infection success and host fitness Pieter T continues to gain empirical support, the influence of natural variation in parasite diversity hosts representing 158 parasite assemblages with mechanistic experiments to evaluate the influ- ence

Johnson, Pieter

183

No evidence for specificity between host and parasite genotypes in experimental Strongyloides ratti (Nematoda) infections  

E-print Network

No evidence for specificity between host and parasite genotypes in experimental Strongyloides ratti host and parasite genotypes, i.e. the resistance of particular host genotypes to particular parasite genotypes and the infectivity of particular parasite genotypes for particular host genotypes. Determining

Paterson, Steve

184

Incomplete reproductive isolation following host shift in brood parasitic indigobirds  

PubMed Central

Behavioural and molecular studies suggest that brood parasitic indigobirds (Vidua spp.) rapidly diversified through a process of speciation by host shift. However, behavioural imprinting on host song, the key mechanism promoting speciation in this system, may also lead to hybridization and gene flow among established indigobird species when and if female indigobirds parasitize hosts already associated with other indigobird species. It is therefore not clear to what extent the low level of genetic differentiation among indigobird species is due to recent common ancestry versus ongoing gene flow. We tested for reproductive isolation among three indigobird species in Cameroon, one of which comprises two morphologically indistinguishable host races. Mimicry of host songs corresponded with plumage colour in 184 male indigobirds, suggesting that females rarely parasitize the host of another indigobird species. Paternity analyses, however, suggest that imperfect specificity in host and/or mate choice allows for continuing gene flow between recently formed host races of the Cameroon Indigobird Vidua camerunensis; while 63 pairs of close relatives were associated with the same host, two strongly supported fatherson pairs included males mimicking the songs of the two different hosts of V. camerunensis. Thus, complete reproductive isolation is not necessarily an automatic consequence of host shifts, a result that suggests an important role for natural and/or sexual selection in indigobird speciation. PMID:18812294

Balakrishnan, Christopher N.; Sefc, Kristina M.; Sorenson, Michael D.

2008-01-01

185

Differential responses to related hosts by nesting and non-nesting parasites in a brood-parasitic duck.  

PubMed

Host-parasite relatedness may facilitate the evolution of conspecific brood parasitism, but empirical support for this contention remains inconclusive. One reason for this disparity may relate to the diversity of parasitic tactics, a key distinguishing feature being whether the parasite has a nest of her own. Previous work suggests that parasites without nests of their own may be of inferior phenotypic quality, but because of difficulties in identifying these parasitic individuals, little is known about their host selection criteria. We used high-resolution molecular maternity tests to assign parasitic offspring to known parasites with and without their own nests in a population of Barrow's goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica). We determined whether parasite nesting status, host-parasite relatedness and distance between host and parasite nests affected the probability of parasitizing a host and the number of eggs laid per host. We also investigated whether nesting parasites, conventionally nesting females and non-nesting parasites differed regarding their age, structural size, body condition, nesting phenology or total brood size. The probability of engaging in parasitism increased with host-parasite relatedness and spatial proximity to host nests for nesting and non-nesting females alike. However, nesting parasites increased the number of eggs donated with relatedness to the host, while non-nesting parasites did not do so. Non-nesting parasites laid fewer eggs in total, but did not differ by any of the other quality measures from conventional nesters or nesting parasites. Our study provides the first demonstration that nesting and non-nesting parasites from the same population may use different host selection criteria. PMID:21923774

Jaatinen, Kim; st, Markus; Gienapp, Phillip; Meril, Juha

2011-12-01

186

Host Sexual Dimorphism and Parasite Adaptation David Duneau*  

E-print Network

host sexes in many different traits, such as morphology and hormone lev- els, can impose selection commonly encountered, or to differential ex- pression of parasite traits depend- ing on which host sex, the male hormone negative- ly affects the efficiency of the immune system. Other sex-dependent characteris

Lazzaro, Brian

187

Beyond immunity: quantifying the effects of host anti-parasite behavior on parasite transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hosts first line of defense in response to the threat of parasitic infection is behavior, yet the efficacy of anti-parasite\\u000a behaviors in reducing infection are rarely quantified relative to immunological defense mechanisms. Larval amphibians developing\\u000a in aquatic habitats are at risk of infection from a diverse assemblage of pathogens, some of which cause substantial morbidity\\u000a and mortality, suggesting that

Elizabeth W. Daly; Pieter T. J. Johnson

2011-01-01

188

Testing for local host-parasite adaptation: an experiment with Gyrodactylus ectoparasites and guppy hosts.  

PubMed

Hosts and parasites are in a perpetual co-evolutionary "arms race". Due to their short generation time and large reproductive output, parasites are commonly believed to be ahead in this race, although increasing evidence exists that parasites are not always ahead in the arms race - in part owing to evolutionary lineage and recent ecological history. We assess local adaptation of hosts and parasites, and determine whether adaptation was influenced by ecological or evolutionary history, using full reciprocal cross-infections of four Gyrodactylus ectoparasite populations and their four guppy (Poecilia reticulata) host populations in Trinidad. To consider effects of evolutionary lineage and recent ecology, these four populations were collected from two different river drainages (Marianne and Aripo) and two different predation environments (high and low). The highest infection levels were obtained when parasites from the Aripo lineage infected guppies from the Marianne lineage, indicating a higher infectivity, virulence and/or reproductive success of the Aripo parasites. Aripo lineage guppies were also better able to limit Gyrodactylus population growth than guppies from the Marianne River, indicating their strong "resistance" to Gyrodactylus regardless of the source of the parasite. Predation environment had no detectable influence on host-parasite population dynamics of sympatric or allopatric combinations. The much stronger effect of evolutionary lineage (i.e., river) than recent ecological history (i.e., predation) emphasises its importance in driving co-evolutionary dynamics, and should be explored further in future studies on local host-parasite adaptation. PMID:25770861

Prez-Jvostov, Felipe; Hendry, Andrew P; Fussmann, Gregor F; Scott, Marilyn E

2015-05-01

189

Cophylogeny of the anther smut fungi and their caryophyllaceous hosts: Prevalence of host shifts and importance of delimiting parasite species for inferring cospeciation  

PubMed Central

Background Using phylogenetic approaches, the expectation that parallel cladogenesis should occur between parasites and hosts has been validated in some studies, but most others provided evidence for frequent host shifts. Here we examine the evolutionary history of the association between Microbotryum fungi that cause anther smut disease and their Caryophyllaceous hosts. We investigated the congruence between host and parasite phylogenies, inferred cospeciation events and host shifts, and assessed whether geography or plant ecology could have facilitated the putative host shifts identified. For cophylogeny analyses on microorganisms, parasite strains isolated from different host species are generally considered to represent independent evolutionary lineages, often without checking whether some strains actually belong to the same generalist species. Such an approach may mistake intraspecific nodes for speciation events and thus bias the results of cophylogeny analyses if generalist species are found on closely related hosts. A second aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the impact of species delimitation on the inferences of cospeciation. Results We inferred a multiple gene phylogeny of anther smut strains from 21 host plants from several geographic origins, complementing a previous study on the delimitation of fungal species and their host specificities. We also inferred a multi-gene phylogeny of their host plants, and the two phylogenies were compared. A significant level of cospeciation was found when each host species was considered to harbour a specific parasite strain, i.e. when generalist parasite species were not recognized as such. This approach overestimated the frequency of cocladogenesis because individual parasite species capable of infecting multiple host species (i.e. generalists) were found on closely related hosts. When generalist parasite species were appropriately delimited and only a single representative of each species was retained, cospeciation events were not more frequent than expected under a random distribution, and many host shifts were inferred. Current geographic distributions of host species seemed to be of little relevance for understanding the putative historical host shifts, because most fungal species had overlapping geographic ranges. We did detect some ecological similarities, including shared pollinators and habitat types, between host species that were diseased by closely related anther smut species. Overall, genetic similarity underlying the host-parasite interactions appeared to have the most important influence on specialization and host-shifts: generalist multi-host parasite species were found on closely related plant species, and related species in the Microbotryum phylogeny were associated with members of the same host clade. Conclusion We showed here that Microbotryum species have evolved through frequent host shifts to moderately distant hosts, and we show further that accurate delimitation of parasite species is essential for interpreting cophylogeny studies. PMID:18371215

2008-01-01

190

Glycoconjugates in Host-Helminth Interactions  

PubMed Central

Helminths are multicellular parasitic worms that comprise a major class of human pathogens and cause an immense amount of suffering worldwide. Helminths possess an abundance of complex and unique glycoconjugates that interact with both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity in definitive and intermediate hosts. These glycoconjugates represent a major untapped reservoir of immunomodulatory compounds, which have the potential to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and antigenic glycans, which could be exploited as vaccines and diagnostics. This review will survey current knowledge of the interactions between helminth glycans and host immunity and highlight the gaps in our understanding which are relevant to advancing therapeutics, vaccine development, and diagnostics. PMID:24009607

Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Mickum, Megan L.; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Cummings, Richard D.

2013-01-01

191

Corticosterone levels in host and parasite nestlings: is brood parasitism a hormonal stressor?  

PubMed

Parasite chicks from non-evictor species usually try to monopolize host parental care, thereby increasing considerably the level of food competition in the nest. Here, we propose that brood parasitism is an important stressor for host and parasite nestlings and explore this hypothesis in the non-evictor great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) and its main hosts, the same-sized black-billed magpie (Pica pica) and the larger carrion crow (Corvus corone). We experimentally created 3-nestling broods of different brood compositions (only cuckoo chicks, only host chicks, or cuckoo and host chicks together) and measured baseline corticosterone levels of nestlings along their developmental period (early, middle and late). We found that brood parasitism increased corticosterone levels in magpie nestlings in the mid and late nestling period compared to those raised in unparasitized nests. Interestingly, carrion crow nestlings from parasitized nests only increased their corticosterone levels in the mid nestling period, when the competition for food with the cuckoo nestling was highest. Our results suggest that brood parasitism could be a potential physiological stressor for host nestlings, especially during the developmental stages where food requirements are highest. Conversely, cuckoo nestlings could be physiologically adapted to high competition levels since they did not show significant differences in corticosterone levels in relation to brood composition. PMID:22366505

Ibez-lamo, Juan Diego; De Neve, Liesbeth; Roldn, Mara; Rodrguez, Juan; Trouv, Colette; Chastel, Olivier; Soler, Manuel

2012-04-01

192

Sex differences in host defence interfere with parasite-mediated selection for outcrossing during host-parasite coevolution.  

PubMed

The Red Queen hypothesis proposes that coevolving parasites select for outcrossing in the host. Outcrossing relies on males, which often show lower immune investment due to, for example, sexual selection. Here, we demonstrate that such sex differences in immunity interfere with parasite-mediated selection for outcrossing. Two independent coevolution experiments with Caenorhabditis elegans and its microparasite Bacillus thuringiensis produced decreased yet stable frequencies of outcrossing male hosts. A subsequent systematic analysis verified that male C. elegans suffered from a direct selective disadvantage under parasite pressure (i.e. lower resistance, decreased sexual activity, increased escape behaviour), which can reduce outcrossing and thus male frequencies. At the same time, males offered an indirect selective benefit, because male-mediated outcrossing increased offspring resistance, thus favouring male persistence in the evolving populations. As sex differences in immunity are widespread, such interference of opposing selective constraints is likely of central importance during host adaptation to a coevolving parasite. PMID:23301667

Masri, Leila; Schulte, Rebecca D; Timmermeyer, Nadine; Thanisch, Stefanie; Crummenerl, Lena Luise; Jansen, Gunther; Michiels, Nico K; Schulenburg, Hinrich

2013-04-01

193

Host density and competency determine the effects of host diversity on trematode parasite infection.  

PubMed

Variation in host species composition can dramatically alter parasite transmission in natural communities. Whether diverse host communities dilute or amplify parasite transmission is thought to depend critically on species traits, particularly on how hosts affect each other's densities, and their relative competency as hosts. Here we studied a community of potential hosts and/or decoys (i.e. non-competent hosts) for two trematode parasite species, Echinostoma trivolvis and Ribeiroia ondatrae, which commonly infect wildlife across North America. We manipulated the density of a focal host (green frog tadpoles, Rana clamitans), in concert with manipulating the diversity of alternative species, to simulate communities where alternative species either (1) replace the focal host species so that the total number of individuals remains constant (substitution) or (2) add to total host density (addition). For E. trivolvis, we found that total parasite transmission remained roughly equal (or perhaps decreased slightly) when alternative species replaced focal host individuals, but parasite transmission was higher when alternative species were added to a community without replacing focal host individuals. Given the alternative species were roughly equal in competency, these results are consistent with current theory. Remarkably, both total tadpole and per-capita tadpole infection intensity by E. trivolvis increased with increasing intraspecific host density. For R. ondatrae, alternative species did not function as effective decoys or hosts for parasite infective stages, and the diversity and density treatments did not produce clear changes in parasite transmission, although high tank to tank variation in R. ondatrae infection could have obscured patterns. PMID:25119568

Wojdak, Jeremy M; Edman, Robert M; Wyderko, Jennie A; Zemmer, Sally A; Belden, Lisa K

2014-01-01

194

Toxoplasma gondii Relies on Both Host and Parasite Isoprenoids and Can Be Rendered Sensitive to Atorvastatin  

PubMed Central

Intracellular pathogens have complex metabolic interactions with their host cells to ensure a steady supply of energy and anabolic building blocks for rapid growth. Here we use the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii to probe this interaction for isoprenoids, abundant lipidic compounds essential to many cellular processes including signaling, trafficking, energy metabolism, and protein translation. Synthesis of precursors for isoprenoids in Apicomplexa occurs in the apicoplast and is essential. To synthesize longer isoprenoids from these precursors, T. gondii expresses a bifunctional farnesyl diphosphate/geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (TgFPPS). In this work we construct and characterize T. gondii null mutants for this enzyme. Surprisingly, these mutants have only a mild growth phenotype and an isoprenoid composition similar to wild type parasites. However, when extracellular, the loss of the enzyme becomes phenotypically apparent. This strongly suggests that intracellular parasite salvage FPP and/or geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) from the host. We test this hypothesis using inhibitors of host cell isoprenoid synthesis. Mammals use the mevalonate pathway, which is susceptible to statins. We document strong synergy between statin treatment and pharmacological or genetic interference with the parasite isoprenoid pathway. Mice can be cured with atorvastatin (Lipitor) from a lethal infection with the TgFPPs mutant. We propose a double-hit strategy combining inhibitors of host and parasite pathways as a novel therapeutic approach against Apicomplexan parasites. PMID:24146616

Li, Zhu-Hong; Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan; Striepen, Boris; Moreno, Silvia N. J.

2013-01-01

195

Network transmission inference: host behavior and parasite life cycle make social networks meaningful in disease ecology.  

PubMed

The process of disease transmission is determined by the interaction of host susceptibility and exposure to parasite infectious stages. Host behavior is an important determinant of the likelihood of exposure to infectious stages but is difficult to measure and often assumed to be homogenous in models of disease spread. We evaluated the importance of precisely defining host contact when using networks that estimate exposure and predict infection prevalence in a replicated, empirical system. In particular, we hypothesized that infection patterns would be predicted only by a contact network that is defined according to host behavior and parasite life cycle. Two competing host contact criteria were used to construct networks defined by parasite life cycle and social contacts. First, parasite-defined contacts were based on shared space with a time delay corresponding to the environmental development time of nematode parasites with a direct fecal-oral life cycle. Second, social contacts were defined by shared space in the same time period. To quantify the competing networks of exposure and infection, we sampled natural populations of the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) and infection of their gastrointestinal helminth community using replicated longitudinal capture-mark-recapture techniques. We predicted that (1) infection with parasites with direct fecal-oral life cycles would be explained by the time delay contact network, but not the social contact network; (2) infection with parasites with trophic life cycles (via a mobile intermediate host; thus, spatially decoupling transmission from host contact) would not be explained by either contact network. The prevalence of fecal-oral life cycle nematode parasites was strongly correlated to the number and strength of network connections from the parasite-defined network (including the time delay), while the prevalence of trophic life cycle parasites was not correlated with any network metrics. We concluded that incorporating the parasite life cycle, relative to the way that exposure is measured, is key to inferring transmission and can be empirically quantified using network techniques. In addition, appropriately defining and measuring contacts according the life history of the parasite and relevant behaviors of the host is a crucial step in applying network analyses to empirical systems. PMID:24555316

Grear, Daniel A; Luong, Lien T; Hudson, Peter J

2013-12-01

196

A parasite reveals cryptic phylogeographic history of its host.  

PubMed Central

This study compares the continental phylogeographic patterns of two wild European species linked by a host-parasite relationship: the field mouse Apodemus sylvaticus and one of its specific parasites, the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. A total of 740 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene were sequenced in 122 specimens of H. polygyrus and compared with 94 cyt b gene sequences (974 bp) previously acquired for A. sylvaticus. The results reveal partial spatial and temporal congruences in the differentiation of both species' lineages: the parasite and its host present three similar genetic and geographical lineages, i.e. Western European, Italian and Sicilian, and both species recolonized northwestern Europe from the Iberian refuge at the end of the Pleistocene. However, H. polygyrus presents three particular differentiation events. The relative rate of molecular evolution of the cyt b gene was estimated to be 1.5-fold higher in the parasite than in its host. Therefore, the use of H. polygyrus as a biological magnifying glass is discussed as this parasite may highlight previously undetected historical events of its host. The results show how incorporating phylogeographic information of an obligate associate can help to better understand the phylogeographic pattern of its host. PMID:15615681

Nieberding, C.; Morand, S.; Libois, R.; Michaux, J. R.

2004-01-01

197

Correlated evolution between host immunity and parasite life histories in primates and oxyurid parasites.  

PubMed Central

Maturation time is a pivotal life-history trait of parasitic nematodes, determining adult body size, as well as daily and total fecundity. Recent theoretical work has emphasized the influence of prematurational mortality on the optimal values of age and size at maturity in nematodes. Eosinophils are a family of white blood cells often associated with infections by parasitic nematodes. Although the role of eosinophils in nematode resistance is controversial, recent work has suggested that the action of these immune effectors might be limited to the larval stages of the parasite. If eosinophils act on larval survival, one might predict, in line with theoretical models, that nematode species living in hosts with large eosinophil numbers should show reduced age and size at maturity. We tested this prediction using the association between the pinworms (Oxyuridae, Nematoda) and their primate hosts. Pinworms are highly host specific and are expected to be involved in a coevolutionary process with their hosts. We found that the body size of female parasites was negatively correlated with eosinophil concentration, whereas the concentration of two other leucocyte families-neutrophils and lymphocytes-was unrelated to female body size. Egg size of parasites also decreased with host eosinophil concentration, independently of female size. Male body size was unrelated to host immune parameters. Primates with the highest immune defence, therefore, harbour small female pinworms laying small eggs. These results are in agreement with theoretical expectations and suggest that life histories of oxyurid parasites covary with the immune defence of their hosts. Our findings illustrate the potential for host immune defence as a factor driving parasite life-history evolution. PMID:14667339

Sorci, Gabriele; Skarstein, Frode; Morand, Serge; Hugot, Jean-Pierre

2003-01-01

198

Research paper Are cryptic host species also cryptic to parasites? Host specificity and geographical  

E-print Network

) or Acanthocephala (Kennedy, 2006). The existence of multiple host species can have important epidemiological Cryptic species Acanthocephala Amphipods A B S T R A C T Many parasites infect multiple host species. Gammarus pulex is a common host for multiple species of Acanthocephala in Europe but, in Switzerland

199

Inferring host-parasite relationships using stable isotopes: implications for disease transmission and host specificity.  

PubMed

Identifying the roles of different hosts and vectors is a major challenge in the study of the ecology of diseases caused by multi-host pathogens. Intensive field studies suggested that grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster) help spread the bacterium that causes plague (Yersinia pestis) in prairie dog colonies by sharing fleas with prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus); yet conclusive evidence that prairie dog fleas (Oropsylla hirsuta) feed on grasshopper mice is lacking. Using stable nitrogen isotope analysis, we determined that many blood-engorged O. hirsuta collected from wild grasshopper mice apparently contained blood meals of prairie dogs. These results suggest that grasshopper mice may be infected with Y. pestis via mechanisms other than flea feeding, e.g., early phase or mechanical transmission or scavenging carcasses, and raise questions about the ability of grasshopper mice to maintain Y. pestis in prairie dog colonies during years between plague outbreaks. They also indicate that caution may be warranted when inferring feeding relationships based purely on the occurrence of fleas or other haematophagous ectoparasites on hosts. Stable-isotope analysis may complement or provide a useful alternative to immunological or molecular techniques for identifying hosts of cryptically feeding ectoparasites, and for clarifying feeding relationships in studies of host-parasite interactions. PMID:19967881

Stapp, Paul; Salkeld, Daniel J

2009-11-01

200

PARASITOLOGY: When the Host Is Smarter Than the Parasite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The wily malaria parasite has become resistant to many affordable frontline antimalarial drugs, and new drug targets are desperately needed. Reporting in a Perspective on new work (Zhang et al.), Goldberg suggests that we look for drug targets among proteins that are shared by the host and parasite but whose synthesis is regulated in a different way.

Daniel E. Goldberg (Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Washington University; Department of Medicine and Department of Molecular Microbiology)

2002-04-19

201

Competition promotes the evolution of host generalists in obligate parasites  

PubMed Central

Ecological theory traditionally predicts that interspecific competition selects for an increase in ecological specialization. Specialization, in turn, is often thought to be an evolutionary dead end, with specialist lineages unlikely to evolve into generalist lineages. In hostparasite systems, this specialization can take the form of host specificity, with more specialized parasites using fewer hosts. We tested the hypothesis that specialists are evolutionarily more derived, and whether competition favours specialization, using the ectoparasitic feather lice of doves. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that complete host specificity is actually the ancestral condition, with generalists repeatedly evolving from specialist ancestors. These multiple origins of generalists are correlated with the presence of potentially competing species of the same genus. A competition experiment with captive doves and lice confirmed that congeneric species of lice do, in fact, have the potential to compete in ecological time. Taken together, these results suggest that interspecific competition can favour the evolution of host generalists, not specialists, over macroevolutionary time. PMID:19710056

Johnson, Kevin P.; Malenke, Jael R.; Clayton, Dale H.

2009-01-01

202

Beyond immunity: quantifying the effects of host anti-parasite behavior on parasite transmission.  

PubMed

A host's first line of defense in response to the threat of parasitic infection is behavior, yet the efficacy of anti-parasite behaviors in reducing infection are rarely quantified relative to immunological defense mechanisms. Larval amphibians developing in aquatic habitats are at risk of infection from a diverse assemblage of pathogens, some of which cause substantial morbidity and mortality, suggesting that behavioral avoidance and resistance could be significant defensive strategies. To quantify the importance of anti-parasite behaviors in reducing infection, we exposed larval Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) to pathogenic trematodes (Ribeiroia and Echinostoma) in one of two experimental conditions: behaviorally active (unmanipulated) or behaviorally impaired (anesthetized). By quantifying both the number of successful and unsuccessful parasites, we show that host behavior reduces infection prevalence and intensity for both parasites. Anesthetized hosts were 20-39% more likely to become infected and, when infected, supported 2.8-fold more parasitic cysts. Echinostoma had a 60% lower infection success relative to the more deadly Ribeiroia and was also more vulnerable to behaviorally mediated reductions in transmission. For Ribeiroia, increases in host mass enhanced infection success, consistent with epidemiological theory, but this relationship was eroded among active hosts. Our results underscore the importance of host behavior in mitigating disease risk and suggest that, in some systems, anti-parasite behaviors can be as or more effective than immune-mediated defenses in reducing infection. Considering the severe pathologies induced by these and other pathogens of amphibians, we emphasize the value of a broader understanding of anti-parasite behaviors and how co-occurring stressors affect them. PMID:20857146

Daly, Elizabeth W; Johnson, Pieter T J

2011-04-01

203

COPEPODS AND SCOMBRID FISHES: A STUDY IN HOST-PARASITE RELATIONSHIPS  

E-print Network

COPEPODS AND SCOMBRID FISHES: A STUDY IN HOST-PARASITE RELATIONSHIPS ROGER F. CRESSEY,I BRUCE B. COLLE'ITE,' AND JOSEPH L. Russo' ABSTRACT Host specificity ofthe copepods parasitic on scombrid fishes is the basis for an analysis ofthe host-parasite relationship. A total of 46 different species of parasitic

204

Host responses to historical climate change shape parasite communities in North Americas intermountain west  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host-parasite co-speciation, in which parasite divergence occurs in response to host divergence, is commonly proposed as a driver of parasite diversification, yet few empirical examples of strict co-speciation exist. Host-parasite co-evolutionary histories commonly reflect complex mosaics of co-spe...

205

Interactions between parasites and microbial communities in the human gut.  

PubMed

The interactions between intestinal microbiota, immune system, and pathogens describe the human gut as a complex ecosystem, where all components play a relevant role in modulating each other and in the maintenance of homeostasis. The balance among the gut microbiota and the human body appear to be crucial for health maintenance. Intestinal parasites, both protozoans and helminths, interact with the microbial community modifying the balance between host and commensal microbiota. On the other hand, gut microbiota represents a relevant factor that may strongly interfere with the pathophysiology of the infections. In addition to the function that gut commensal microbiota may have in the processes that determine the survival and the outcome of many parasitic infections, including the production of nutritive macromolecules, also probiotics can play an important role in reducing the pathogenicity of many parasites. On these bases, there is a growing interest in explaining the rationale on the possible interactions between the microbiota, immune response, inflammatory processes, and intestinal parasites. PMID:23162802

Berrilli, Federica; Di Cave, David; Cavallero, Serena; D'Amelio, Stefano

2012-01-01

206

Table 1: Examples of direct and indirect effects of parasites in biological invasions. Host(s)Parasite(s) system Direct effect of parasite on  

E-print Network

1 Table 1: Examples of direct and indirect effects of parasites in biological invasions. Host(s)­Parasite(s) system Direct effect of parasite on the host(s) Indirect effect and wider impact Example citation increased competitive replacement of reds Tompkins White & Boots 2003; H: Invasive Asian cyprinid fish

Holt, Robert D.

207

Horizontal transmission of a parasite is influenced by infected host phenotype and density.  

PubMed

Transmission is a key determinant of parasite fitness, and understanding the dynamics of transmission is fundamental to the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions. Successful transmission is often reliant on contact between infected individuals and susceptible hosts. The social insects consist of aggregated groups of genetically similar hosts, making them particularly vulnerable to parasite transmission. Here we investigate how the ratio of infected to susceptible individuals impacts parasite transmission, using the honey bee, Apis mellifera and its microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae. We used 2 types of infected hosts found simultaneously in colonies; sterile female workers and sexual males. We found a higher ratio of infected to susceptible individuals in groups resulted in a greater proportion of susceptibles becoming infected, but this effect was non-linear and interestingly, the ratio also affected the spore production of infected individuals. The transmission level was much greater in an experiment where the infected individuals were drones than in an experiment where they were workers, suggesting drones may act as intracolonial 'superspreaders'. Understanding the subtleties of transmission and how it is influenced by the phenotype of the infected/susceptible individuals is important for understanding pathogen transmission at population level, and for optimum targeting of parasite control strategies. PMID:25111753

Roberts, K E; Hughes, W O H

2015-02-01

208

Nematodecoccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal health and co-infection patterns in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We use data on two groups of gastrointestinal parasites, coccidia and nematodes, to test the hypothesis that co-infection and season interact to influence (1) parasite prevalence and intensity and (2) three proxies for host fitness: host pregnancy, host body condition, and parasite aggregation. Our results suggest that season-dependent interactions between nematodes and coccidia affect the distribution of infections. Coccidia prevalence, coccidia intensity and nematode prevalence were sensitive to factors that influence host immunity and exposure (age, sex, and season) but nematode intensity was most strongly predicted by co-infection with coccidia and its interaction with season. The influence of co-infection on host body condition and parasite aggregation occurred in season-dependent manner. Co-infected buffalo in the early wet season were in worse condition, had a less aggregated distribution of nematode parasites, and lower nematode infection intensity than buffalo infected with nematodes alone. We did not detect an effect of infection or co-infection on host pregnancy. These results suggest that demographic and seasonal variation may mediate the effects of parasites, and their interactions, on the distribution and fitness costs of infection. PMID:25161911

Gorsich, Erin E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

2014-01-01

209

Nematode-coccidia parasite co-infections in African buffalo: Epidemiology and associations with host condition and pregnancy.  

PubMed

Co-infections are common in natural populations and interactions among co-infecting parasites can significantly alter the transmission and host fitness costs of infection. Because both exposure and susceptibility vary over time, predicting the consequences of parasite interactions on host fitness and disease dynamics may require detailed information on their effects across different environmental (season) and host demographic (age, sex) conditions. This study examines five years of seasonal health and co-infection patterns in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We use data on two groups of gastrointestinal parasites, coccidia and nematodes, to test the hypothesis that co-infection and season interact to influence (1) parasite prevalence and intensity and (2) three proxies for host fitness: host pregnancy, host body condition, and parasite aggregation. Our results suggest that season-dependent interactions between nematodes and coccidia affect the distribution of infections. Coccidia prevalence, coccidia intensity and nematode prevalence were sensitive to factors that influence host immunity and exposure (age, sex, and season) but nematode intensity was most strongly predicted by co-infection with coccidia and its interaction with season. The influence of co-infection on host body condition and parasite aggregation occurred in season-dependent manner. Co-infected buffalo in the early wet season were in worse condition, had a less aggregated distribution of nematode parasites, and lower nematode infection intensity than buffalo infected with nematodes alone. We did not detect an effect of infection or co-infection on host pregnancy. These results suggest that demographic and seasonal variation may mediate the effects of parasites, and their interactions, on the distribution and fitness costs of infection. PMID:25161911

Gorsich, Erin E; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

2014-08-01

210

Cowbird removals unexpectedly increase productivity of a brood parasite and the songbird host.  

PubMed

Generalist brood parasites reduce productivity and population growth of avian hosts and have been implicated in population declines of several songbirds of conservation concern. To estimate the demographic effects of brood parasitism on Bell's Vireos (Vireo bellii), we removed Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in a replicated switchback experimental design. Cowbird removals decreased parasitism frequency from 77% and 85% at unmanipulated plots to 58% and 47% at removal plots in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Vireo productivity per pair was higher at cowbird removal plots when years were pooled (mean = 2.6 +/- 0.2 [SE] young per pair) compared to unmanipulated plots (1.2 +/- 0.1). Nest desertion frequency was lower at cowbird removal plots (35% of parasitized nests) compared to unmanipulated plots (69%) because removal of host eggs was the proximate cue for nest desertion, and vireos experienced lower rates of egg loss at cowbird removal plots. Nest success was higher among unparasitized than parasitized nests, and parasitized nests at cowbird removal plots had a higher probability of success than parasitized nests at unmanipulated plots. Unexpectedly, cowbird productivity from vireo pairs was higher at cowbird removal plots (mean = 0.3 +/- 0.06 young per pair) than at unmanipulated plots (0.1 +/- 0.03) because fewer parasitized nests were deserted and the probability of nest success was higher. Our study provides the first evidence that increases in cowbird productivity may be an unintended consequence of cowbird control programs, especially during the initial years of trapping when parasitism may only be moderately reduced. Thus, understanding the demographic impacts of cowbird removals requires an informed understanding of the behavioral ecology of host-parasite interactions. PMID:18488614

Kosciuch, Karl L; Sandercock, Brett K

2008-03-01

211

Host-parasite population dynamics under combined frequency-and density-dependent transmission  

E-print Network

Host-parasite population dynamics under combined frequency- and density-dependent transmission, Scotland, EH14 4AS. Many host-parasite models assume that transmission increases linearly with host alternative (usually applied to sexually transmitted parasites) assumes instead that the rate at which hosts

White, Andrew

212

Host physiological condition regulates parasitic plant performance: Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum on Pinus ponderosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has focused on effects of plant parasites on host-plant physiology and growth, but little is known about effects of host physiological condition on parasite growth. Using the parasitic dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum (Viscaceae) and its host Pinus ponderosa, we investigated whether changes in host physiological condition influenced mistletoe shoot development in northern Arizona forests. We conducted

Christopher P. Bickford; Thomas E. Kolb; Brian W. Geils

2005-01-01

213

Immunity, resistance and tolerance in bird-parasite interactions.  

PubMed

Interacting pathogens and hosts have evolved reciprocal adaptations whose function is to allow host exploitation (from the pathogen stand point) or minimize the cost of infection (from the host stand point). Once infected, two strategies are offered to the host: parasite clearing (resistance) or withstanding the infection while paying a low fitness cost (tolerance). In both cases, the immune system plays a central role. Interestingly, whatever the defence strategy adopted by the host, this is likely to have an effect on parasite evolution. Given their short generation time and large population size, parasites are expected to rapidly adapt to the environmental conditions provided by their hosts. The immune system can therefore represent a powerful engine of parasite evolution, with the direction of such evolutionary trajectory depending on, among other factors, i) the type of mechanism involved (resistance or tolerance), ii) the damage induced by overreacting immune defences. In this article, I will discuss these different issues focusing on selected examples of recent work conducted on two bird pathogens, the protozoa responsible for avian malaria (Plasmodium sp.), and the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:23800152

Sorci, Gabriele

2013-06-26

214

Multiple host-switching of Haemosporidia parasites in bats  

PubMed Central

Background There have been reported cases of host-switching in avian and lizard species of Plasmodium (Apicomplexa, Haemosporidia), as well as in those infecting different primate species. However, no evidence has previously been found for host-swapping between wild birds and mammals. Methods This paper presents the results of the sampling of blood parasites of wild-captured bats from Madagascar and Cambodia. The presence of Haemosporidia infection in these animals is confirmed and cytochrome b gene sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic analysis. Results Results reveal at least three different and independent Haemosporidia evolutionary histories in three different bat lineages from Madagascar and Cambodia. Conclusion Phylogenetic analysis strongly suggests multiple host-switching of Haemosporidia parasites in bats with those from avian and primate hosts. PMID:18045505

Duval, Linda; Robert, Vincent; Csorba, Gabor; Hassanin, Alexandre; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Walston, Joe; Nhim, Thy; Goodman, Steve M; Ariey, Frdric

2007-01-01

215

Nocardia species: host-parasite relationships.  

PubMed Central

The nocardiae are bacteria belonging to the aerobic actinomycetes. They are an important part of the normal soil microflora worldwide. The type species, Nocardia asteroides, and N. brasiliensis, N. farcinica, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. nova, and N. transvalensis cause a variety of diseases in both normal and immunocompromised humans and animals. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are complex, not fully understood, and include the capacity to evade or neutralize the myriad microbicidal activities of the host. The relative virulence of N. asteroides correlates with the ability to inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion in phagocytes; to neutralize phagosomal acidification; to detoxify the microbicidal products of oxidative metabolism; to modify phagocyte function; to grow within phagocytic cells; and to attach to, penetrate, and grow within host cells. Both activated macrophages and immunologically specific T lymphocytes constitute the major mechanisms for host resistance to nocardial infection, whereas B lymphocytes and humoral immunity do not appear to be as important in protecting the host. Thus, the nocardiae are facultative intracellular pathogens that can persist within the host, probably in a cryptic form (L-form), for life. Silent invasion of brain cells by some Nocardia strains can induce neurodegeneration in experimental animals; however, the role of nocardiae in neurodegenerative diseases in humans needs to be investigated. Images PMID:8055469

Beaman, B L; Beaman, L

1994-01-01

216

Parasite mediated mortality and host immune response explain age-related differences in blood parasitism in birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important pattern in host-parasite assemblages is a higher intensity of parasites in juveniles than in adults, but the reasons for these differences remain obscure. Three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses have been proposed: (1) heavily parasitized juveniles die before being recruited into the adult population ('selection' hypothesis); (2) the development of an acquired immunity by the host in front of the

Daniel Sol; Roger Jovani; Jordi Torres

2003-01-01

217

Malaria Parasite Development in the Mosquito and Infection of the Mammalian Host  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium sporozoites are the product of a complex developmental process in the mosquito vector and are destined to infect the mammalian liver. Attention has been drawn to the mosquito stages and preerythrocytic stages owing to recognition that these are bottlenecks in the parasite life cycle and that intervention at these stages can block transmission and prevent infection. Parasite progression in the Anopheles mosquito, sporozoite transmission to the mammalian host by mosquito bite, and subsequent infection of the liver are characterized by extensive migration of invasive stages, cell invasion, and developmental changes. Preparation for the liver phase in the mammalian host begins in the mosquito with an extensive reprogramming of the sporozoite to support efficient infection and survival. Here, we discuss what is known about the molecular and cellular basis of the developmental progression of parasites and their interactions with host tissues in the mosquito and during the early phase of mammalian infection. PMID:19575563

Aly, Ahmed S.I.; Vaughan, Ashley M.; Kappe, Stefan H.I.

2010-01-01

218

Begging Behaviour and Host Exploitation in Parasitic Cowbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we explore the begging behaviour of cowbirds, obligate brood parasites that are typically raised in mixed\\u000a broods with host young. As strangers in the nest, cowbird nestlings present both challenges and opportunities to evolutionary\\u000a biologists. After a brief overview, we delve into four main topics: (1) the means by which cowbird young achieve success in\\u000a host nests;

Donald C. Dearborn; Gabriela Lichtenstein

219

Habitat selection for parasite-free space by hosts of parasitic cowbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Choice of breeding habitat can have a major impact on fitness. Sensitivity of habitat choice to environmental cues predicting reproductive success, such as density of harmful enemy species, should be favored by natural selection. Yet, experimental tests of this idea are in short supply. Brown-headed cowbirds Molothrus ater commonly reduce reproductive success of a wide diversity of birds by parasitizing their nests. We used song playbacks to simulate high cowbird density and tested whether cowbird hosts avoid such areas in habitat selection. Host species that made settlement decisions during manipulations were significantly less abundant in the cowbird treatment as a group. In contrast, hosts that settled before manipulations started and non-host species did not respond to treatments. These results suggest that hosts of cowbirds can use vocal cues to assess parasitism risk among potential habitat patches and avoid high risk habitats. This can affect community structure by affecting habitat choices of species with differential vulnerability.

Forsman, J.T.; Martin, T.E.

2009-01-01

220

HOST INNATE IMMUNITY AGAINST INTESTINAL PARASITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the poultry industry, there are mounting concerns over the ability of current vaccines to adequately protect against emerging hyper-virulent strains of pathogens and a lack of suitable, cost effective adjuvants. Thorough investigation of the immunogenetic responses involved in host-pathogen inte...

221

PATERNITY-PARASITISM TRADE-OFFS: A MODEL AND TEST OF HOST-PARASITE COOPERATION IN AN AVIAN CONSPECIFIC BROOD PARASITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Efforts to evaluate the evolutionary and ecological dynamics,of conspecific,brood parasitism in birds and other animals have focused on the fitness costs of parasitism to hosts and fitness benefits to parasites. However, it has been speculated recently that, in species with biparental care, host males might cooperate with parasitic females by allowing,access to the host nest in exchange,for copulations. We

Bruce E. Lyon; Wesley M. Hochachka; John M. Eadie

2002-01-01

222

Original article Host sex and parasite genetic diversity  

E-print Network

: 1) a host sex-specific duration of cercariae recruitment; 2) a difference in the behaviour of male constitute different environments for parasites. One difference between sexes is their immuno- competence], mobility, home range and dispersal rates [6] can also differ between sexes and hence render male and female

223

Population mixing promotes arms race host-parasite coevolution.  

PubMed

The consequences of host-parasite coevolution are highly contingent on the qualitative coevolutionary dynamics: whether selection fluctuates (fluctuating selection dynamic; FSD), or is directional towards increasing infectivity/resistance (arms race dynamic; ARD). Both genetics and ecology can play an important role in determining whether coevolution follows FSD or ARD, but the ecological conditions under which FSD shifts to ARD, and vice versa, are not well understood. The degree of population mixing is thought to increase host exposure to parasites, hence selecting for greater resistance and infectivity ranges, and we hypothesize this promotes ARD. We tested this by coevolving bacteria and viruses in soil microcosms and found that population mixing shifted bacteria-virus coevolution from FSD to ARD. A simple theoretical model produced qualitatively similar results, showing that mechanisms that increase host exposure to parasites tend to push dynamics towards ARD. The shift from FSD to ARD with increased population mixing may help to explain variation in coevolutionary dynamics between different host-parasite systems, and more specifically the observed discrepancies between laboratory and field bacteria-virus coevolutionary studies. PMID:25429018

Gmez, Pedro; Ashby, Ben; Buckling, Angus

2015-01-01

224

Population mixing promotes arms race hostparasite coevolution  

PubMed Central

The consequences of hostparasite coevolution are highly contingent on the qualitative coevolutionary dynamics: whether selection fluctuates (fluctuating selection dynamic; FSD), or is directional towards increasing infectivity/resistance (arms race dynamic; ARD). Both genetics and ecology can play an important role in determining whether coevolution follows FSD or ARD, but the ecological conditions under which FSD shifts to ARD, and vice versa, are not well understood. The degree of population mixing is thought to increase host exposure to parasites, hence selecting for greater resistance and infectivity ranges, and we hypothesize this promotes ARD. We tested this by coevolving bacteria and viruses in soil microcosms and found that population mixing shifted bacteriavirus coevolution from FSD to ARD. A simple theoretical model produced qualitatively similar results, showing that mechanisms that increase host exposure to parasites tend to push dynamics towards ARD. The shift from FSD to ARD with increased population mixing may help to explain variation in coevolutionary dynamics between different hostparasite systems, and more specifically the observed discrepancies between laboratory and field bacteriavirus coevolutionary studies. PMID:25429018

Gmez, Pedro; Ashby, Ben; Buckling, Angus

2015-01-01

225

The Relationship between Parasite Fitness and Host Condition in an Insect - Virus System  

PubMed Central

Research in host-parasite evolutionary ecology has demonstrated that environmental variation plays a large role in mediating the outcome of parasite infection. For example, crowding or low food availability can reduce host condition and make them more vulnerable to parasite infection. This observation that poor-condition hosts often suffer more from parasite infection compared to healthy hosts has led to the assumption that parasite productivity is higher in poor-condition hosts. However, the ubiquity of this negative relationship between host condition and parasite fitness is unknown. Moreover, examining the effect of environmental variation on parasite fitness has been largely overlooked in the host-parasite literature. Here we investigate the relationship between parasite fitness and host condition by using a laboratory experiment with the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni and its viral pathogen, AcMNPV, and by surveying published host-parasite literature. Our experiments demonstrated that virus productivity was positively correlated with host food availability and the literature survey revealed both positive and negative relationships between host condition and parasite fitness. Together these data demonstrate that contrary to previous assumptions, parasite fitness can be positively or negatively correlated with host fitness. We discuss the significance of these findings for host-parasite population biology. PMID:25208329

Tseng, Michelle; Myers, Judith H.

2014-01-01

226

Paternity-parasitism trade-offs: a model and test of host-parasite cooperation in an avian conspecific brood parasite.  

PubMed

Efforts to evaluate the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of conspecific brood parasitism in birds and other animals have focused on the fitness costs of parasitism to hosts and fitness benefits to parasites. However, it has been speculated recently that, in species with biparental care, host males might cooperate with parasitic females by allowing access to the host nest in exchange for copulations. We develop a cost-benefit model to explore the conditions under which such host-parasite cooperation might occur. When the brood parasite does not have a nest of her own, the only benefit to the host male is siring some of the parasitic eggs (quasi-parasitism). Cooperation with the parasite is favored when the ratio of host male paternity of his own eggs relative to his paternity of parasitic eggs exceeds the cost of parasitism. When the brood parasite has a nest of her own, a host male can gain additional, potentially more important benefits by siring the high-value, low-cost eggs laid by the parasite in her own nest. Under these conditions, host males should be even more likely to accept parasitic eggs in return for copulations with the parasitic female. We tested these predictions for American coots (Fulica americana), a species with a high frequency of conspecific brood parasitism. Multilocus DNA profiling indicated that host males did not sire any of the parasitic eggs laid in host nests, nor did they sire eggs laid by the parasite in her own nest. We used field estimates of the model parameters from a four-year study of coots to predict the minimum levels of paternity required for the costs of parasitism to be offset by the benefits of mating with brood parasites. Observed levels of paternity were significantly lower than those predicted under a variety of assumptions, and we reject the hypothesis that host males cooperated with parasitic females. Our model clarifies the specific costs and benefits that influence host-parasite cooperation and, more generally, yields precise predictions about expected levels of host male paternity. These predictions will enable a more rigorous assessment of field studies designed to test adaptive hypotheses of host-parasite cooperation. PMID:12144024

Lyon, Bruce E; Hochachka, Wesley M; Eadie, John M

2002-06-01

227

Malaria: Cooperation among Parasite, Vector, and Host  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a website containing an excellent flash animation showing the life cycle of the Plasmodium (falciparum) as it enters the human host, multiplies, and then is picked back up by the mosquito. The animation goes into good detail about each life cycle stage of the plasmodium, making this a great source for understanding detailed facets of malaria. There are also links about Malaria including World Heath Organization tracking reports. It is about 2 minutes long.

0000-00-00

228

Selection Strategies of Parasitized Hosts in a Generalist Parasitoid Depend on Patch Quality but Also on Host Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host rejection, superparasitism, and ovicide are three possible host selection strategies that parasitoid females can adopt when they encounter parasitized hosts. These differ in costs (in terms of time and energy required) and benefits (in terms of number and quality of offspring produced). Their relative payoff should vary with patch quality, (i.e., proportion of parasitized hosts present), and female choice

Marlne Goubault; Julie Fourrier; Liliane Krespi; Denis Poinsot; AnneMarie Cortesero

2004-01-01

229

Transfected Plasmodium knowlesi Produces Bioactive Host Gamma Interferon: a New Perspective for Modulating Immune Responses to Malaria Parasites  

PubMed Central

Transgenic pathogenic microorganisms expressing host cytokines such as gamma interferon (IFN-?) have been shown to manipulate host-pathogen interaction, leading to immunomodulation and enhanced protection. Expression of host cytokines in malaria parasites offers the opportunity to investigate the potential of an immunomodulatory approach by generating immunopotentiated parasites. Using the primate malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi, we explored the conditions for expressing host cytokines in malaria parasites. P. knowlesi parasites transfected with DNA constructs for expressing rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) IFN-? under the control of the heterologous P. berghei apical membrane antigen 1 promoter, produced bioactive IFN-? in a developmentally regulated manner. IFN-? expression had no marked effect on in vitro parasite development. Bioactivity of the parasite-produced IFN-? was shown through inhibition of virus cytopathic effect and confirmed by using M. mulatta peripheral blood cells in vitro. These data indicate for the first time that it is feasible to generate malaria parasites expressing bioactive host immunomodulatory cytokines. Furthermore, cytokine-expressing malaria parasites offer the opportunity to analyze cytokine-mediated modulation of malaria during the blood and liver stages of the infection. PMID:12874315

Ozwara, Hastings; Langermans, Jan A. M.; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; van der Wel, Annemarie; van der Meide, Peter H.; Vervenne, Richard A. W.; Mwenda, Jason M.; Thomas, Alan W.

2003-01-01

230

Host responses to interspecific brood parasitism: a by-product of adaptations to conspecific parasitism?  

PubMed Central

Background Why have birds evolved the ability to reject eggs? Typically, foreign egg discrimination is interpreted as evidence that interspecific brood parasitism (IP) has selected for the hosts ability to recognize and eliminate foreign eggs. Fewer studies explore the alternative hypothesis that rejection of interspecific eggs is a by-product of host defenses, evolved against conspecific parasitism (CP). We performed a large scale study with replication across taxa (two congeneric Turdus thrushes), space (populations), time (breeding seasons), and treatments (three types of experimental eggs), using a consistent design of egg rejection experiments (n?=?1057 nests; including controls), in areas with potential IP either present (Europe; native populations) or absent (New Zealand; introduced populations). These comparisons benefited from the known length of allopatry (one and a half centuries), with no gene flow between native and introduced populations, which is rarely available in host-parasite systems. Results Hosts rejected CP at unusually high rates for passerines (up to 60%). CP rejection rates were higher in populations with higher conspecific breeding densities and no risks of IP, supporting the CP hypothesis. IP rejection rates did not covary geographically with IP risk, contradicting the IP hypothesis. High egg rejection rates were maintained in the relatively long-term isolation from IP despite non-trivial rejection costs and errors. Conclusions These egg rejection patterns, combined with recent findings that these thrushes are currently unsuitable hosts of the obligate parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), are in agreement with the hypothesis that the rejection of IP is a by-product of fine-tuned egg discrimination evolved due to CP. Our study highlights the importance of considering both IP and CP simultaneously as potential drivers in the evolution of egg discrimination, and illustrates how populations introduced to novel ecological contexts can provide critical insights into brood parasite-host coevolution. PMID:24834103

2014-01-01

231

Parasite Manipulation of Host Behaviour: Acanthocephalans and Shrimps in the Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three experiments for undergraduates which illustrate associations of parasites with their host. Includes a table of parasite-induced alterations of selected host species. Instructional suggestions are also provided. (ML)

Brown, A. F.; Thompson, D. B. A.

1986-01-01

232

Blending in with the crowd: social parasites integrate into their host colonies using a flexible chemical signature.  

PubMed Central

Social parasites are able to exploit their host's communication code and achieve social integration. For colony foundation, a newly mated slave-making ant queen must usurp a host colony. The parasite's brood is cared for by the hosts and newly eclosed slave-making workers integrate to form a mixed ant colony. To elucidate the social integration strategy of the slave-making workers, Polyergus rufescens, behavioural and chemical analyses were carried out. Cocoons of P. rufescens were introduced into subcolonies of four potential host species: Formica subgenus Serviformica (Formica cunicularia and F. rufibarbis, usual host species; F. gagates, rare host; F. selysi, non-natural host). Slave-making broods were cared for and newly emerged workers showed several social interactions with adult Formica. We recorded the occurrence of abdominal trophallaxis, in which P. rufescens, the parasite, was the donor. Social integration of P. rufescens workers into host colonies appears to rely on the ability of the parasite to modify its cuticular hydrocarbon profile to match that of the rearing species. To study the specific P. rufescens chemical profile, newly emerged callows were reared in isolation from the mother colony (without any contact with adult ants). The isolated P. rufescens workers exhibited a chemical profile closely matching that of the primary host species, indicating the occurrence of local host adaptation in the slave-maker population. However, the high flexibility in the ontogeny of the parasite's chemical signature could allow for host switching. PMID:12350253

D'Ettorre, P; Mondy, N; Lenoir, A; Errard, C

2002-01-01

233

Uncovering Dangerous Cheats: How Do Avian Hosts Recognize Adult Brood Parasites?  

PubMed Central

Background Co-evolutionary struggles between dangerous enemies (e.g., brood parasites) and their victims (hosts) lead to the emergence of sophisticated adaptations and counter-adaptations. Salient host tricks to reduce parasitism costs include, as front line defence, adult enemy discrimination. In contrast to the well studied egg stage, investigations addressing the specific cues for adult enemy recognition are rare. Previous studies have suggested barred underparts and yellow eyes may provide cues for the recognition of cuckoos Cuculus canorus by their hosts; however, no study to date has examined the role of the two cues simultaneously under a consistent experimental paradigm. Methodology/Principal Findings We modify and extend previous work using a novel experimental approach custom-made dummies with various combinations of hypothesized recognition cues. The salient recognition cue turned out to be the yellow eye. Barred underparts, the only trait examined previously, had a statistically significant but small effect on host aggression highlighting the importance of effect size vs. statistical significance. Conclusion Relative importance of eye vs. underpart phenotypes may reflect ecological context of host-parasite interaction: yellow eyes are conspicuous from the typical direction of host arrival (from above), whereas barred underparts are poorly visible (being visually blocked by the upper part of the cuckoo's body). This visual constraint may reduce usefulness of barred underparts as a reliable recognition cue under a typical situation near host nests. We propose a novel hypothesis that recognition cues for enemy detection can vary in a context-dependent manner (e.g., depending on whether the enemy is approached from below or from above). Further we suggest a particular cue can trigger fear reactions (escape) in some hosts/populations whereas the same cue can trigger aggression (attack) in other hosts/populations depending on presence/absence of dangerous enemies that are phenotypically similar to brood parasites and costs and benefits associated with particular host responses. PMID:22624031

Trnka, Alfrd; Prokop, Pavol; Grim, Tom

2012-01-01

234

Do parasitic trematode cercariae demonstrate a preference for susceptible host species?  

PubMed

Many parasites are motile and exhibit behavioural preferences for certain host species. Because hosts can vary in their susceptibility to infections, parasites might benefit from preferentially detecting and infecting the most susceptible host, but this mechanistic hypothesis for host-choice has rarely been tested. We evaluated whether cercariae (larval trematode parasites) prefer the most susceptible host species by simultaneously presenting cercariae with four species of tadpole hosts. Cercariae consistently preferred hosts in the following order: Anaxyrus (?=?Bufo) terrestris (southern toad), Hyla squirella (squirrel tree frog), Lithobates (?=?Rana) sphenocephala (southern leopard frog), and Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban tree frog). These host species varied in susceptibility to cercariae in an order similar to their attractiveness with a correlation that approached significance. Host attractiveness to parasites also varied consistently and significantly among individuals within a host species. If heritable, this individual-level host variation would represent the raw material upon which selection could act, which could promote a Red Queen "arms race" between host cues and parasite detection of those cues. If, in general, motile parasites prefer to infect the most susceptible host species, this phenomenon could explain aggregated distributions of parasites among hosts and contribute to parasite transmission rates and the evolution of virulence. Parasite preferences for hosts belie the common assumption of disease models that parasites seek and infect hosts at random. PMID:23272084

Sears, Brittany F; Schlunk, Andrea D; Rohr, Jason R

2012-01-01

235

Do Parasitic Trematode Cercariae Demonstrate a Preference for Susceptible Host Species?  

PubMed Central

Many parasites are motile and exhibit behavioural preferences for certain host species. Because hosts can vary in their susceptibility to infections, parasites might benefit from preferentially detecting and infecting the most susceptible host, but this mechanistic hypothesis for host-choice has rarely been tested. We evaluated whether cercariae (larval trematode parasites) prefer the most susceptible host species by simultaneously presenting cercariae with four species of tadpole hosts. Cercariae consistently preferred hosts in the following order: Anaxyrus (?=?Bufo) terrestris (southern toad), Hyla squirella (squirrel tree frog), Lithobates (?=?Rana) sphenocephala (southern leopard frog), and Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban tree frog). These host species varied in susceptibility to cercariae in an order similar to their attractiveness with a correlation that approached significance. Host attractiveness to parasites also varied consistently and significantly among individuals within a host species. If heritable, this individual-level host variation would represent the raw material upon which selection could act, which could promote a Red Queen arms race between host cues and parasite detection of those cues. If, in general, motile parasites prefer to infect the most susceptible host species, this phenomenon could explain aggregated distributions of parasites among hosts and contribute to parasite transmission rates and the evolution of virulence. Parasite preferences for hosts belie the common assumption of disease models that parasites seek and infect hosts at random. PMID:23272084

Sears, Brittany F.; Schlunk, Andrea D.; Rohr, Jason R.

2012-01-01

236

Hostparasite relatedness shown by protein fingerprinting in a brood parasitic bird  

PubMed Central

Brood parasitism as an alternative female breeding tactic is particularly common in ducks, where hosts often receive eggs laid by parasitic females of the same species and raise their offspring. Herein, we test several aspects of a kin selection explanation for this phenomenon in goldeneye ducks (Bucephala clangula) by using techniques of egg albumen sampling and statistical bandsharing analysis based on resampling. We find that host and primary parasite are indeed often related, with mean r = 0.13, about as high as between first cousins. Relatedness to the host is higher in nests where a parasite lays several eggs than in those where she lays only one. Returning young females parasitize their birth nestmates (social mothers or sisters, which are usually also their genetic mothers and sisters) more often than expected by chance. Such adult relatives are also observed together in the field more often than expected and for longer periods than other females. Relatedness and kin discrimination, which can be achieved by recognition of birth nestmates, therefore play a role in these tactics and probably influence their success. PMID:11050150

Andersson, Malte; ?hlund, Matti

2000-01-01

237

Spatially and temporally structured avian brood parasitism affects the fitness benefits of hosts' rejection strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avian brood parasitism reduces the success of parasitized broods, yet most hosts of brown-headed cow- birds, Molothrus ater, neither desert parasitized clutches nor eject parasite eggs. We investigated whether spatial and temporal patterns of repeated cowbird parasitism on individuals influence the benefits of desertion or ejection in prothonotary warblers, Protonotaria citrea, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoe- niceus. First, we demonstrated

Jeffrey P. Hoover; Ken Yasukawa; Mark E. Hauber

2006-01-01

238

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access The effect of host social system on parasite  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access The effect of host social system on parasite population genetic structure of a parasite, and consequently its ability to adapt to a given host, is strongly linked to its own life history as well as the life history of its host. While the effects of parasite life history

Alvarez, Nadir

239

Effects of parasites on host energy expenditure: the resting metabolic rate stalemate  

E-print Network

Effects of parasites on host energy expenditure: the resting metabolic rate stalemate Nicholas Robar, Dennis L. Murray, and Gary Burness Abstract: Detrimental effects of parasitism on host fitness are frequently attributed to parasite-associated perturbations to host energy budgets. It has therefore been

240

Parasite species richness in carnivores: effects of host body mass, latitude, geographical range and population density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Comparative studies have revealed strong links between ecological factors and the number of parasite species harboured by different hosts, but studies of different taxonomic host groups have produced inconsistent results. As a step towards under- standing the general patterns of parasite species richness, we present results from a new comprehensive data base of over 7000 host-parasite combinations representing 146

Patrik Lindenfors; Charles L. Nunn; Kate E. Jones; Andrew A. Cunningham; Wes Sechrest; John L. Gittleman

2007-01-01

241

Analytical approaches to measuring cospeciation of host and parasites: through a glass, darkly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of cophylogenetic associations between hosts and parasites have become increasingly common. Historically, congruence between host and parasite phylogenies has been seen as evidence for cospeciation. Analyses of such coevolutionary relationships, however, are made extremely difficult by the complex interplay of cospeciation, host switching, sorting (extinction), duplication (intrahost speciation) and inertia (lack of parasite speciation) events, all of which may

Adrian M. Paterson; Jonathan Banks

2001-01-01

242

Functional genomics of a generalist parasitic plant: Laser microdissection of host-parasite  

E-print Network

. Keywords: Parasitic plant, RNA-Seq, Illumina, De novo assembly, Transcriptome, Laser microdissection de novo assembled transcriptomes generated from laser micro-dissected tissues at the host. In this preliminary study of the interface transcriptomes, we have shown that T. versicolor, and the Orobanchaceae

Yoder, John I.

243

Social hackers: integration in the host chemical recognition system by a paper wasp social parasite.  

PubMed

Obligate social parasites in the social insects have lost the worker caste and the ability to establish nests. As a result, parasites must usurp a host nest, overcome the host recognition system, and depend on the host workers to rear their offspring. We analysed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of live parasite females of the paper wasp social parasite Polistes sulcifer before and after usurpation of host nests, using the non-destructive technique of solid-phase micro-extraction. Our results reveal that hydrocarbon profiles of parasites change after usurpation of host nests to match the cuticular profile of the host species. Chemical evidence further shows that the parasite queen changes the odour of the nest by the addition of a parasite-specific hydrocarbon. We discuss the possible role of this in the recognition and acceptance of the parasite and its offspring in the host colony. PMID:10840803

Turillazzi, S; Sledge, M F; Dani, F R; Cervo, R; Massolo, A; Fondelli, L

2000-04-01

244

Social Hackers: Integration in the Host Chemical Recognition System by a Paper Wasp Social Parasite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obligate social parasites in the social insects have lost the worker caste and the ability to establish nests. As a result, parasites must usurp a host nest, overcome the host recognition system, and depend on the host workers to rear their offspring. We analysed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of live parasite females of the paper wasp social parasite Polistes sulcifer before and after usurpation of host nests, using the non-destructive technique of solid-phase micro-extraction. Our results reveal that hydrocarbon profiles of parasites change after usurpation of host nests to match the cuticular profile of the host species. Chemical evidence further shows that the parasite queen changes the odour of the nest by the addition of a parasite-specific hydrocarbon. We discuss the possible role of this in the recognition and acceptance of the parasite and its offspring in the host colony.

Turillazzi, S.; Sledge, M. F.; Dani, F. R.; Cervo, R.; Massolo, A.; Fondelli, L.

245

Conflict between parasites with different transmission strategies infecting an amphipod host  

PubMed Central

Competition between parasites within a host can influence the evolution of parasite virulence and host resistance, but few studies examine the effects of unrelated parasites with conflicting transmission strategies infecting the same host. Vertically transmitted (VT) parasites, transmitted from mother to offspring, are in conflict with virulent, horizontally transmitted (HT) parasites, because healthy hosts are necessary to maximize VT parasite fitness. Resolution of the conflict between these parasites should lead to the evolution of one of two strategies: avoidance, or sabotage of HT parasite virulence by the VT parasite. We investigated two co-infecting parasites in the amphipod host, Gammarus roeseli: VT microsporidia have little effect on host fitness, but acanthocephala modify host behaviour, increasing the probability that the amphipod is predated by the acanthocephalan's definitive host. We found evidence for sabotage: the behavioural manipulation induced by the Acanthocephala Polymorphus minutus was weaker in hosts also infected by the microsporidia Dictyocoela sp. (roeselum) compared to hosts infected by P. minutus alone. Such conflicts may explain a significant portion of the variation generally observed in behavioural measures, and since VT parasites are ubiquitous in invertebrates, often passing undetected, conflict via transmission may be of great importance in the study of hostparasite relationships. PMID:16271976

Haine, Eleanor R; Boucansaud, Karelle; Rigaud, Thierry

2005-01-01

246

Petromyzon marinus (Petromyzontidae), an unusual host for helminth parasites in western Europe.  

PubMed

The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, which is among the most phylogenetically ancient vertebrates, is a hematophagous ectoparasite that feeds on vertebrates and is considered vulnerable in Europe but is a pest in the North American Great Lakes. We conducted a literature review of helminth parasites of P. marinus and investigated postmetamorphic lampreys sampled in rivers and northeast Atlantic coastal waters (western France) during spawning migration. Based on the literature review, 16 helminth taxa have been recorded in P. marinus, among them 14 in North America but only 2 in Europe, with no species in common between these areas. Specific parasites are lacking, and helminth parasites recorded in P. marinus are mostly opportunistic and are trophically transmitted to fish hosts with both extremely low prevalence and mean intensity. Thus, P. marinus seems an unusual host that is probably infected through accidental ingestion of parasites by microphagous larvae (ammocoetes) and/or hematophagous postmetamorphs. Our field study supports this hypothesis, since only a single third-stage larva of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto was found in 2 postmetamorphic P. marinus among the 115 individuals dissected. This opportunistic, trophically transmitted, and cosmopolitan nematode species has never been recorded in North American sea lampreys and only once in Galician rivers (southern Europe). Infestation pathways of P. marinus by A. simplex are proposed vis--vis the feeding strategy of postmetamorphs and fish host species which potentially harbor anisakid larvae in their musculature. More generally, the complexity of biotic interactions is discussed considering P. marinus both as a host for helminth parasites and as a parasite for hosts such as fish and mammals, which are also potential predators of sea lamprey. PMID:25850404

Grard, Claudia; Verrez-Bagnis, Vronique; Jrme, Marc; Lasne, Emilien

2015-04-01

247

Host-Parasite Relationship in Cystic Echinococcosis: An Evolving Story  

PubMed Central

The larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus causes cystic echinococcosis, a neglected infectious disease that constitutes a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite being under constant barrage by the immune system, E. granulosus modulates antiparasite immune responses and persists in the human hosts with detectable humoral and cellular responses against the parasite. In vitro and in vivo immunological approaches, together with molecular biology and immunoproteomic technologies, provided us exciting insights into the mechanisms involved in the initiation of E. granulosus infection and the consequent induction and regulation of the immune response. Although the last decade has clarified many aspects of host-parasite relationship in human cystic echinococcosis, establishing the full mechanisms that cause the disease requires more studies. Here, we review some of the recent developments and discuss new avenues in this evolving story of E. granulosus infection in man. PMID:22110535

Siracusano, Alessandra; Delunardo, Federica; Teggi, Antonella; Ortona, Elena

2012-01-01

248

Toxoplasma gondii dissemination: a parasite's journey through the infected host.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is a highly successful global pathogen that is remarkable in its ability to infect nearly any nucleated cell in any warm-blooded animal. Infection with T.gondii typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water, but the parasite then breaches the intestinal epithelial barrier and spreads from the lamina propria to a large variety of other organs in the body. A key feature of T.gondii pathogenesis is the parasite's ability to cross formidable biological barriers in the infected host and enter tissues such as the brain, eye and placenta. The dissemination of T.gondii into these organs underlies the severe disease that accompanies human toxoplasmosis. In this review, we will focus on seminal studies as well as exciting recent findings that have shaped our current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which T.gondii journeys throughout the host and enters organs to cause disease. PMID:25408224

Harker, K S; Ueno, N; Lodoen, M B

2015-03-01

249

ALTERNATIVELY ACTIVATED MACROPHAGES ACCUMULATE AT THE HOST PARASITE INTERFACE AND CONTRIBUTE TO PROTECTION AGAINST A NEMATODE PARASITE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mechanisms leading to host protection against intestinal nematode parasites are little understood, although physiological changes in the intestines are sighted as primary host-defense mechanisms. The memory response to Heligmosomoides polygyrus, a natural murine gastrointestinal helminth parasi...

250

Leishmania development in sand flies: parasite-vector interactions overview.  

PubMed

Leishmaniases are vector-borne parasitic diseases with 0.9 - 1.4 million new human cases each year worldwide. In the vectorial part of the life-cycle, Leishmania development is confined to the digestive tract. During the first few days after blood feeding, natural barriers to Leishmania development include secreted proteolytic enzymes, the peritrophic matrix surrounding the ingested blood meal and sand fly immune reactions. As the blood digestion proceeds, parasites need to bind to the midgut epithelium to avoid being excreted with the blood remnant. This binding is strictly stage-dependent as it is a property of nectomonad and leptomonad forms only. While the attachment in specific vectors (P. papatasi, P. duboscqi and P. sergenti) involves lipophosphoglycan (LPG), this Leishmania molecule is not required for parasite attachment in other sand fly species experimentally permissive for various Leishmania. During late-stage infections, large numbers of parasites accumulate in the anterior midgut and produce filamentous proteophosphoglycan creating a gel-like plug physically obstructing the gut. The parasites attached to the stomodeal valve cause damage to the chitin lining and epithelial cells of the valve, interfering with its function and facilitating reflux of parasites from the midgut. Transformation to metacyclic stages highly infective for the vertebrate host is the other prerequisite for effective transmission. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of molecular interactions occurring in all these distinct phases of parasite colonization of the sand fly gut, highlighting recent discoveries in the field. PMID:23206339

Dostlov, Anna; Volf, Petr

2012-01-01

251

Sex-specific effects of a parasite evolving in a female-biased host population  

PubMed Central

Background Males and females differ in many ways and might present different opportunities and challenges to their parasites. In the same way that parasites adapt to the most common host type, they may adapt to the characteristics of the host sex they encounter most often. To explore this hypothesis, we characterized host sex-specific effects of the parasite Pasteuria ramosa, a bacterium evolving in naturally, strongly, female-biased populations of its host Daphnia magna. Results We show that the parasite proliferates more successfully in female hosts than in male hosts, even though males and females are genetically identical. In addition, when exposure occurred when hosts expressed a sexual dimorphism, females were more infected. In both host sexes, the parasite causes a similar reduction in longevity and leads to some level of castration. However, only in females does parasite-induced castration result in the gigantism that increases the carrying capacity for the proliferating parasite. Conclusions We show that mature male and female Daphnia represent different environments and reveal one parasite-induced symptom (host castration), which leads to increased carrying capacity for parasite proliferation in female but not male hosts. We propose that parasite induced host castration is a property of parasites that evolved as an adaptation to specifically exploit female hosts. PMID:23249484

2012-01-01

252

Heterogeneous hosts: how variation in host size, behaviour and immunity affects parasite aggregation.  

PubMed

Infection heterogeneity is one of the most fundamental patterns in disease ecology, yet surprisingly few studies have experimentally explored its underlying drivers. Here, we used large-scale field assessments to evaluate the degree of parasite aggregation within amphibian host populations followed by a novel experimental approach to assess the potential influence of host size, behaviour and immunity in reproducing such heterogeneity. Among 227 wetlands, 2468 hosts and seven parasite species, infections were consistently aggregated among host individuals within populations of the Pacific chorus frog (Pseudacris regilla). For each parasite species, the relationship between the log-mean and log-variance of infection load was strongly linear (R(2) : 091-098) with a slope between 137 and 167, indicative of aggregation relative to the expected Poisson slope of unity. In laboratory trials with P.regilla and the most virulent trematode (Ribeiroia ondatrae), experimental reductions in either host immunity (through corticosterone exposure) or antiparasite behaviours (through anaesthesia exposure) increased parasite infection loads in isolated hosts by 62-102% relative to unmanipulated individuals. In a second experiment designed to test how variation in host immunity, behaviour and body size affected variation in infection load within small groups (dyads), a reduction in immune function or behaviour of one host significantly amplified infection heterogeneity within the group, effectively doubling the variance-to-mean ratio. However, immunity affected aggregation only in the absence of behavioural manipulation, and changing the size distribution of hosts did not appreciably affect aggregation. Using Taylor's Power Law to integrate field and laboratory data, we found that only treatments involving behavioural reductions achieved aggregation levels comparable to natural host populations. Thus, despite their short duration, our treatments generated heterogeneity in infection loads similar to natural observations. These results emphasize how, alongside extrinsic variation in parasite exposure risk, individual host attributes generally and behaviour in particular have the potential to influence infection success and parasite aggregation. Continued integration of infection heterogeneity research across space, among host species, and over time has important implications for understanding and managing human and wildlife diseases. PMID:24548254

Johnson, Pieter T J; Hoverman, Jason T

2014-02-18

253

Ambient temperature affects mechanosensory host location in a parasitic wasp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain parasitic wasps (Ichneumonidae, Pimplinae) use self-produced vibrations transmitted on plant substrate to locate their\\u000a immobile concealed hosts (i.e. lepidopteran pupae). This mechanosensory mechanism, called the vibrational sounding, depends\\u000a both on physical cues of the environment and physical activity of the parasitoid and is postulated to depend on ambient temperature.\\u000a We analysed the influences of temperature on vibrational sounding by

J. Samietz; S. Kroder; D. Schneider; S. Dorn

2006-01-01

254

Mimetic host shifts in an endangered social parasite of ants  

PubMed Central

An emerging problem in conservation is whether listed morpho-species with broad distributions, yet specialized lifestyles, consist of more than one cryptic species or functionally distinct forms that have different ecological requirements. We describe extreme regional divergence within an iconic endangered butterfly, whose socially parasitic young stages use non-visual, non-tactile cues to infiltrate and supplant the brood in ant societies. Although indistinguishable morphologically or when using current mitochondrial and nuclear sequence-, or microsatellite data, Maculinea rebeli from Spain and southeast Poland exploit different Myrmica ant species and experience 100 per cent mortality with each other's hosts. This reflects major differences in the hydrocarbons synthesized from each region by the larvae, which so closely mimic the recognition profiles of their respective hosts that nurse ants afford each parasite a social status above that of their own kin larvae. The two host ants occupy separate niches within grassland; thus, conservation management must differ in each region. Similar cryptic differentiation may be common, yet equally hard to detect, among the approximately 10 000 unstudied morpho-species of social parasite that are estimated to exist, many of which are Red Data Book listed. PMID:23193127

Thomas, Jeremy A.; Elmes, Graham W.; Sielezniew, Marcin; Stankiewicz-Fiedurek, Anna; Simcox, David J.; Settele, Josef; Schnrogge, Karsten

2013-01-01

255

Discrimination of fish populations using parasites: Random Forests on a 'predictable' host-parasite system.  

PubMed

We address the effect of spatial scale and temporal variation on model generality when forming predictive models for fish assignment using a new data mining approach, Random Forests (RF), to variable biological markers (parasite community data). Models were implemented for a fish host-parasite system sampled along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of Spain and were validated using independent datasets. We considered 2 basic classification problems in evaluating the importance of variations in parasite infracommunities for assignment of individual fish to their populations of origin: multiclass (2-5 population models, using 2 seasonal replicates from each of the populations) and 2-class task (using 4 seasonal replicates from 1 Atlantic and 1 Mediterranean population each). The main results are that (i) RF are well suited for multiclass population assignment using parasite communities in non-migratory fish; (ii) RF provide an efficient means for model cross-validation on the baseline data and this allows sample size limitations in parasite tag studies to be tackled effectively; (iii) the performance of RF is dependent on the complexity and spatial extent/configuration of the problem; and (iv) the development of predictive models is strongly influenced by seasonal change and this stresses the importance of both temporal replication and model validation in parasite tagging studies. PMID:20602856

Prez-Del-Olmo, A; Montero, F E; Fernndez, M; Barrett, J; Raga, J A; Kostadinova, A

2010-10-01

256

Host activity and the risk of nest parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proportions of nests parasitized by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) vary greatly among host species, but factors under- lying this variation remain poorly understood. Cowbirds are believed to find nests by watching host behavior. We tested the hypothesis that the activity of hosts during nest building correlates with the probability of parasitism among and within four sympatric hosts: dusky flycatchers (Empidonax

Alison J. Banks; Thomas E. Martin

2001-01-01

257

Marine protected areas facilitate parasite populations among four fished host species of central Chile.  

PubMed

1. Parasites comprise a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and exert important ecological influences on hosts, communities and ecosystems, but our knowledge of how parasite populations respond to human impacts is in its infancy. 2. Here, we present the results of a natural experiment in which we used a system of highly successful marine protected areas and matched open-access areas in central Chile to assess the influence of fishing-driven biodiversity loss on parasites of exploited fish and invertebrate hosts. We measured the burden of gill parasites for two reef fishes (Cheilodactylus variegatus and Aplodactylus punctatus), trematode parasites for a keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata), and pinnotherid pea crab parasites for a sea urchin (Loxechinus albus). We also measured host density for all four hosts. 3. We found that nearly all parasite species exhibited substantially greater density (# parasites m(-2)) in protected than in open-access areas, but only one parasite species (a gill monogenean of C. variegatus) was more abundant within hosts collected from protected relative to open-access areas. 4. These data indicate that fishing can drive declines in parasite abundance at the parasite population level by reducing the availability of habitat and resources for parasites, but less commonly affects the abundance of parasites at the infrapopulation level (within individual hosts). 5. Considering the substantial ecological role that many parasites play in marine communities, fishing and other human impacts could exert cryptic but important effects on marine community structure and ecosystem functioning via reductions in parasite abundance. PMID:23855822

Wood, Chelsea L; Micheli, Fiorenza; Fernndez, Miriam; Gelcich, Stefan; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Carvajal, Juan

2013-11-01

258

Parasite diversity declines with host evolutionary distinctiveness: A global analysis of carnivores.  

PubMed

Evolutionarily distinctive host lineages might harbor fewer parasite species because they have fewer opportunities for parasite sharing than hosts having extant close relatives, or because diverse parasite assemblages promote host diversification. We evaluate these hypotheses using data from 930 species of parasites reported to infect free-living carnivores. We applied nonparametric richness estimators to estimate parasite diversity among well-sampled carnivore species and assessed how well host evolutionary distinctiveness, relative to other biological and environmental factors, explained variation in estimated parasite diversity. Species richness estimates indicate that the current published literature captures less than 50% of the true parasite diversity for most carnivores. Parasite species richness declined with evolutionary distinctiveness of carnivore hosts (i.e., length of terminal ranches of the phylogeny) and increased with host species body mass and geographic range area. We found no support for the hypothesis that hosts from more diverse lineages support a higher number of generalist parasites, but we did find evidence that parasite assemblages might have driven host lineage diversification through mechanisms linked to sexual selection. Collectively, this work provides strong support for host evolutionary history being an essential predictor of parasite diversity, and offers a simple model for predicting parasite diversity in understudied carnivore species. PMID:25639279

Huang, Shan; Drake, John M; Gittleman, John L; Altizer, Sonia

2015-03-01

259

Does interspecies hybridization affect the host specificity of parasites in cyprinid fish?  

PubMed Central

Background Host specificity varies among parasite species. Some parasites are strictly host-specific, others show a specificity for congeneric or non-congeneric phylogenetically related host species, whilst some others are non-specific (generalists). Two cyprinids, Cyprinus carpio and Carassius gibelio, plus their respective hybrids were investigated for metazoan parasites. The aim of this study was to analyze whether interspecies hybridization affects host specificity. The different degrees of host specificity within a phylogenetic framework were taken into consideration (i.e. strict specialist, intermediate specialist, and intermediate generalist). Methods Fish were collected during harvesting the pond and identified using meristic traits and molecular markers. Metazoan parasite species were collected. Host specificity of parasites was determined using the following classification: strict specialist, intermediate specialist, intermediate generalist and generalist. Parasite species richness was compared between parental species and their hybrids. The effect of host species on abundance of parasites differing in host specificity was tested. Results Hybrids harbored more different parasite species but their total parasite abundance was lower in comparison with parental species. Interspecies hybridization affected the host specificity of ecto- and endoparasites. Parasite species exhibiting different degrees of host specificity for C. carpio and C. gibelio were also present in hybrids. The abundance of strict specialists of C. carpio was significantly higher in parental species than in hybrids. Intermediate generalists parasitizing C. carpio and C. gibelio as two phylogenetically closely related host species preferentially infected C. gibelio when compared to C. carpio, based on prevalence and maximum intensity of infection. Hybrids were less infected by intermediate generalists when compared to C. gibelio. Conclusions This finding does not support strict co-adaptation between host and parasite genotypes resulting in narrow host specificity, and showed that hybrid genotypes are susceptible to parasites exhibiting host specificity. The immune mechanisms specific to parental species might represent potential mechanisms explaining the low abundance of parasites in C. gibelio x C. carpio hybrids. PMID:23587287

2013-01-01

260

Evidence of long-term structured cuckoo parasitism on individual magpie hosts.  

PubMed

Brood parasites usually reduce their host's breeding success, resulting in strong selection for the evolution of host defences. Intriguingly, some host individuals/populations show no defence against parasitism, which has been explained within the frame of three different evolutionary hypotheses. One of these hypotheses posits that intermediate levels of defence at the population level may result from nonrandom distribution of parasitism among host individuals (i.e. structured parasitism). Empirical evidence for structured brood parasitism is, however, lacking for hosts of European cuckoos due to the absence of long-term studies. Here, we seek to identify the patterns of structured parasitism by studying great spotted cuckoo parasitism on individual magpie hosts over five breeding seasons. We also aim to identify whether individual characteristics of female magpies and/or their territories were related to the status of repeated parasitism. We found that 283% of the females in our population consistently escaped from cuckoo parasitism. Only 113% of females were always parasitized, and the remaining 604% changed their parasitism status. The percentage of females that maintained their status of parasitism (i.e. either parasitized or nonparasitized) between consecutive years varied over the study. Females that never suffered cuckoo parasitism built bigger nests than parasitized females at the beginning of the breeding season and smaller nests than those of parasitized females later in the season. Nonparasitized females also moved little from year to year and preferred areas with different characteristics over the course of the breeding season than parasitized females. Overall, females escaping from cuckoo parasitism reared twice as many chicks per year than those that were parasitized. In conclusion, our study reveals for first time the existence of a structured pattern of cuckoo parasitism based on phenotypic characteristics of individual hosts and of their territories. PMID:23237197

Molina-Morales, Mercedes; Gabriel Martnez, Juan; Martn-Glvez, David; A Dawson, Deborah; Rodrguez-Ruiz, Juan; Burke, Terry; Avils, Jess M

2013-03-01

261

Host selection and parasite infection in Aedes taeniorhynchus, endemic disease vector in the Galpagos Islands.  

PubMed

Host selection in blood-sucking arthropods has important evolutionary and ecological implications for the transmission dynamics, distribution and host-specificity of the parasites they transmit. The black salt-marsh mosquito (Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann) is distributed throughout tropical to temperate coastal zones in the Americas, and continental populations are primarily mammalphilic. It is the only indigenous mosquito in the Galpagos Islands, having colonised the archipelago around 200,000 years ago, potentially adapting its host selection, and in the process, altering the dynamics of vector mediated pathogen interactions in the archipelago. Here, we use blood-meal analysis and PCR-based parasite screening approach to determine the blood-feeding patterns of A. taeniorhynchus in the Galpagos Islands and identify potential parasite transmission with which this mosquito could be involved. Our results show that A. taeniorhynchus feeds equally on mammals and reptiles, and only one avian sample was observed in 190 successful PCR amplifications from blood meals. However, we detected endemic filarial worms and Haemoproteus parasites known to infect various Galpagos bird species in mosquito thoraces, suggesting that feeding on birds must occur at low frequency, and that A. taeniorhynchus may play a role in maintaining some avian vector-borne pathogens, although more work is needed to explore this possibility. We also isolated three different DNA sequences corresponding to hemogregarine parasites of the genus Hepatozoon from mosquito and iguana blood samples, suggesting that more than one species of Hepatozoon parasites are present in Galpagos. Phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon 18sRNA sequences indicates that A. taeniorhynchus may have facilitated a recent breakdown in host-species association of formerly isolated Hepatozoon spp. infecting the reptile populations in the Galpagos Islands. PMID:22921730

Bataille, Arnaud; Fourni, Guillaume; Cruz, Marilyn; Cedeo, Virna; Parker, Patricia G; Cunningham, Andrew A; Goodman, Simon J

2012-12-01

262

Manipulative parasites may not alter intermediate host distribution but still enhance their transmission: field evidence for increased vulnerability to definitive hosts and non-host predator avoidance.  

PubMed

Behavioural alterations induced by parasites in their intermediate hosts can spatially structure host populations, possibly resulting in enhanced trophic transmission to definitive hosts. However, such alterations may also increase intermediate host vulnerability to non-host predators. Parasite-induced behavioural alterations may thus vary between parasite species and depend on each parasite definitive host species. We studied the influence of infection with 2 acanthocephalan parasites (Echinorhynchus truttae and Polymorphus minutus) on the distribution of the amphipod Gammarus pulex in the field. Predator presence or absence and predator species, whether suitable definitive host or dead-end predator, had no effect on the micro-distribution of infected or uninfected G. pulex amphipods. Although neither parasite species seem to influence intermediate host distribution, E. truttae infected G. pulex were still significantly more vulnerable to predation by fish (Cottus gobio), the parasite's definitive hosts. In contrast, G. pulex infected with P. minutus, a bird acanthocephalan, did not suffer from increased predation by C. gobio, a predator unsuitable as host for P. minutus. These results suggest that effects of behavioural changes associated with parasite infections might not be detectable until intermediate hosts actually come in contact with predators. However, parasite-induced changes in host spatial distribution may still be adaptive if they drive hosts into areas of high transmission probabilities. PMID:23068018

Lagrue, C; Gvenatam, A; Bollache, L

2013-02-01

263

Different meal, same flavor: cospeciation and host switching of haemosporidian parasites in some non-passerine birds  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that haemosporidian parasites (Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) and Plasmodium) infecting passerine birds have an evolutionary history of host switching with little cospeciation, in particular at low taxonomic levels (e.g., below the family level), which is suggested as the main speciation mechanism of this group of parasites. Recent studies have characterized diverse clades of haemosporidian parasites (H. (Haemoproteus) and H. (Parahaemoproteus)) infecting non-passerine birds (e.g., Columbiformes, Pelecaniiformes). Here, we explore the cospeciation history of H. (Haemoproteus) and H. (Parahaemoproteus) parasites with their non-passerine hosts. Methods We sequenced the mtDNA cyt b gene of both haemosporidian parasites and their avian non-passerine hosts. We built Bayesian phylogenetic hypotheses and created concensus phylograms that were subsequently used to conduct cospeciation analyses. We used both a global cospeciation test, PACo, and an event-cost algorithm implemented in CoRe-PA. Results The global test suggests that H. (Haemoproteus) and H. (Parahaemoproteus) parasites have a diversification history dominated by cospeciation events particularly at the family level. Host-parasite links from the PACo analysis show that host switching events are common within families (i.e., among genera and among species within genera), and occasionally across different orders (e.g., Columbiformes to Pelecaniiformes). Event-cost analyses show that haemosporidian coevolutionary history is dominated by host switching and some codivergence, but with duplication events also present. Genetic lineages unique to raptor species (e.g., FALC11) commonly switch between Falconiformes and Strigiformes. Conclusions Our results corroborate previous findings that have detected a global cospeciation signal at the family taxonomic level, and they also support a history of frequent switching closer to the tips of the host phylogeny, which seems to be the main diversification mechanism of haemosporidians. Such dynamic host-parasite associations are relevant to the epidemiology of emerging diseases because low parasite host specificity is a prerequisite for the emergence of novel diseases. The evidence on host distributions suggests that haemosporidian parasites have the potential to rapidly develop novel host-associations. This pattern has also been recorded in fish-monogenean interactions, suggesting a general diversification mechanism for parasites when host choice is not restricted by ecological barriers. PMID:24957563

2014-01-01

264

Parasite-induced and parasite development-dependent alteration of the swimming behavior of fish hosts.  

PubMed

Parasites with complex life cycles have the ability to change the behavior of their intermediate host in a way that increases their transmission rate to the next host. However, the level of behavioral changes can vary considerably, depending on the stage of parasite development and parasite intensity. To investigate the influence of such parameters, we evaluated the locomotory activity of the fish Poecilia vivipara prior to experimental infections, 7 days post-infection (dpi) and 14dpi with cercariae of the digenean Ascocotyle (Phagicola) pindoramensis. The locomotory activity was monitored using an image system, Videomex(), linked to with a video camera able to record the swimming behavior of the fishes. At the end of the experiments, fishes were dissected and all metacercariae from the gills and mesenteries, the specific sites utilized by A. (P.) pindoramensis, were recovered and counted. There was a significant decrease in the swimming behavior of fishes after 14dpi. Similarly, we found a significant correlation between the swimming behavior of the fishes and parasite intensity in both sites of infection. It is surmised that the decrease in locomotory activity of P. vivipara caused by A. (P.) pindoramensis can disturb its predator-prey relationship in natural environment. PMID:23545127

Santos, E G N; Santos, C Portes

2013-07-01

265

1 Introduction New developments in the study of host-parasite phylogenies have given insights into  

E-print Network

1 Introduction New developments in the study of host-parasite phylogenies have given insights of an association between hosts and parasites (Page, 2003). However, there are no reliable statistical tests phyloge- nies imply a lack of cospeciation. Parasites have long been used to make infer- ences about

Barber, Stuart

266

Climate change effects on migration phenology may mismatch brood parasitic cuckoos and their hosts.  

PubMed

Phenological responses to climate change vary among taxa and across trophic levels. This can lead to a mismatch between the life cycles of ecologically interrelated populations (e.g. predators and prey), with negative consequences for population dynamics of some of the interacting species. Here we provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that climate change might disrupt the association between the life cycles of the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), a migratory brood parasitic bird, and its hosts. We investigated changes in timing of spring arrival of the cuckoo and its hosts throughout Europe over six decades, and found that short-distance, but not long-distance, migratory hosts have advanced their arrival more than the cuckoo. Hence, cuckoos may keep track of phenological changes of long-distance, but not short-distance migrant hosts, with potential consequences for breeding of both cuckoo and hosts. The mismatch to some of the important hosts may contribute to the decline of cuckoo populations and explain some of the observed local changes in parasitism rates of migratory hosts. PMID:19443508

Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego; Lehikoinen, Esa; Sokolov, Leonid V; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Ambrosini, Roberto; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Mller, Anders P

2009-08-23

267

Host cell deformability is linked to transmission in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

E-print Network

Host cell deformability is linked to transmission in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium the majority of parasites proliferate asexu- ally in red blood cells, a small fraction of parasites undergo of asexual red blood cell stage parasites has been investigated in great detail. These studies have

Suresh, Subra

268

Local adaptation, resistance, and virulence in a hemiparasitic plant-host plant interaction.  

PubMed

Coevolution may lead to local adaptation of parasites to their sympatric hosts. Locally adapted parasites are, on average, more infectious to sympatric hosts than to allopatric hosts of the same species or their fitness on the sympatric hosts is superior to that on allopatric hosts. We tested local adaptation of a hemiparasitic plant, Rhinanthus serotinus (Scrophulariaceae), to its host plant, the grass Agrostis capillaris. Using a reciprocal cross-infection experiment, we exposed host plants from four sites to hemiparasites originating from the same four sites in a common environment. The parasites were equally able to establish haustorial connections to sympatric and allopatric hosts, and their performance was similar on both host types. Therefore, these results do not indicate local adaptation of the parasites to their sympatric hosts. However, the parasite populations differed in average biomass and number of flowers per plant and in their effect on host biomass. These results indicate that the virulence of the parasite varied among populations, suggesting genetic variation. Theoretical models suggest that local adaptation is likely to be detected if the host and the parasite have different evolutionary potentials, different migration rates, and the parasite is highly virulent. In the interaction between R. serotinus and A. capillaris all the theoretical prerequisites for local adaptation may not be fulfilled. PMID:10937220

Mutikainen, P; Salonen, V; Puustinen, S; Koskela, T

2000-04-01

269

Imaging of the host/parasite interplay in cutaneous leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

An understanding of hostparasite interplay is essential for the development of therapeutics and vaccines. Immunoparasitologists have learned a great deal from conventional in vitro and in vivo approaches, but recent developments in imaging technologies have provided us (immunologists and parasitologists) with the ability to ask new and exciting questions about the dynamic nature of the parasiteimmune system interface. These studies are providing us with new insights into the mechanisms involved in the initiation of a Leishmania infection and the consequent induction and regulation of the immune response. Here, we review some of the recent developments and discuss how these observations can be further developed to understand the immunology of cutaneous Leishmania infection in vivo. PMID:20501336

Millington, Owain R.; Myburgh, Elmarie; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Alexander, James

2010-01-01

270

Role for Parasite Genetic Diversity in Differential Host Responses to Trypanosoma brucei Infection ?  

PubMed Central

The postgenomic era has revolutionized approaches to defining host-pathogen interactions and the investigation of the influence of genetic variation in either protagonist upon infection outcome. We analyzed pathology induced by infection with two genetically distinct Trypanosoma brucei strains and found that pathogenesis is partly strain specific, involving distinct host mechanisms. Infections of BALB/c mice with one strain (927) resulted in more severe anemia and greater erythropoietin production compared to infections with the second strain (247), which, contrastingly, produced greater splenomegaly and reticulocytosis. Plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) and gamma interferon levels were significantly higher in strain 927-infected mice, whereas IL-12 was higher in strain 247-infected mice. To define mechanisms underlying these differences, expression microarray analysis of host genes in the spleen at day 10 postinfection was undertaken. Rank product analysis (RPA) showed that 40% of the significantly differentially expressed genes were specific to infection with one or the other trypanosome strain. RPA and pathway analysis identified LXR/RXR signaling, IL-10 signaling, and alternative macrophage activation as the most significantly differentially activated host processes. These data suggest that innate immune response modulation is a key determinant in trypanosome infections, the pattern of which can vary, dependent upon the trypanosome strain. This strongly suggests that a parasite genetic component is responsible for causing disease in the host. Our understanding of trypanosome infections is largely based on studies involving single parasite strains, and our results suggest that an integrated host-parasite approach is required for future studies on trypanosome pathogenesis. Furthermore, it is necessary to incorporate parasite variation into both experimental systems and models of pathogenesis. PMID:20086091

Morrison, Liam J.; McLellan, Sarah; Sweeney, Lindsay; Chan, Chi N.; MacLeod, Annette; Tait, Andy; Turner, C. Michael R.

2010-01-01

271

Host-parasite coevolutionary dynamics with generalized success/failure infection genetics.  

PubMed

Host-parasite infection genetics can be more complex than envisioned by classic models such as the gene-for-gene or matching-allele models. By means of a mathematical model, I investigate the coevolutionary dynamics arising from a large set of generalized models of infection genetics in which hosts are either fully resistant or fully susceptible to a parasite, depending on the genotype of both individuals. With a single diploid interaction locus in the hosts, many of the infection genetic models produce stable or neutrally stable genotype polymorphisms. However, only a few models, which are all different versions of the matching-allele model, lead to sustained cycles of genotype frequency fluctuations in both interacting species ("Red Queen" dynamics). By contrast, with two diploid interaction loci in the hosts, many infection genetics models that cannot be classified as one of the standard infection genetics models produce Red Queen dynamics. Sexual versus asexual reproduction and, in the former case, the rate of recombination between the interaction loci have a large impact on whether Red Queen dynamics arise from a given infection genetics model. This may have interesting but as yet unexplored implications with respect to the Red Queen hypothesis for the evolution of sex. PMID:25905512

Engelstdter, Jan

2015-05-01

272

Brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds and the expression of sexual characters in their hosts.  

PubMed

Interspecific brood parasites may use the secondary sexual characters of the hosts to decide which species to parasitize. Hence, species with conspicuous and well-recognisable traits may have higher chances of becoming parasitised. Using North American birds and their frequent brood parasite, the brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater, we tested the relationship between features of song and plumage coloration of hosts and the frequency of brood parasitism while controlling for several potentially confounding factors. Relying on two sets of analysis, we focused separately on the evolutionary view of the parasite and the host. From the cowbird's perspective, we found that males of heavily parasitized species posit songs with low syllable repertoire size, shorter inter-song interval and have brighter plumage. From the host's perspective, a phylogenetic analysis revealed similar associations for features of song, but not for plumage characteristics that were unrelated to brood parasitism. These comparative findings may imply that brood parasites choose novel hosts based on heterospecific signals; and/or host species working against sexual selection escape from brood parasitism by evolving inconspicuous sexual signals. Although our data do not allow us to distinguish between these two evolutionary scenarios, our results suggest that selection factors mediating cowbird parasitism via host recognition by heterospecific signals may have an important role in the evolutionary relationship between brood parasites and their hosts. PMID:15647904

Garamszegi, Lszl Zsolt; Avils, Jess Miguel

2005-03-01

273

Heritable variation in host tolerance and resistance inferred from a wild hostparasite system  

PubMed Central

Hosts have evolved two distinct defence strategies against parasites: resistance (which prevents infection or limit parasite growth) and tolerance (which alleviates the fitness consequences of infection). However, heritable variation in resistance and tolerance and the genetic correlation between these two traits have rarely been characterized in wild host populations. Here, we estimate these parameters for both traits in Leuciscus burdigalensis, a freshwater fish parasitized by Tracheliastes polycolpus. We used a genetic database to construct a full-sib pedigree in a wild L. burdigalensis population. We then used univariate animal models to estimate inclusive heritability (i.e. all forms of genetic and non-genetic inheritance) in resistance and tolerance. Finally, we assessed the genetic correlation between these two traits using a bivariate animal model. We found significant heritability for resistance (H = 17.6%; 95% CI: 7.232.2%) and tolerance (H = 18.8%; 95% CI: 4.436.1%), whereas we found no evidence for the existence of a genetic correlation between these traits. Furthermore, we confirm that resistance and tolerance are strongly affected by environmental effects. Our results demonstrate that (i) heritable variation exists for parasite resistance and tolerance in wild host populations, and (ii) these traits can evolve independently in populations. PMID:24478295

Maz-Guilmo, Elise; Loot, Graldine; Pez, David J.; Lefvre, Thierry; Blanchet, Simon

2014-01-01

274

Differential impact of a shared nematode parasite on two gamebird hosts: implications for apparent competition.  

PubMed

If the deleterious effects of non-specific parasites are greater on vulnerable host species than on reservoir host species then exclusion of the vulnerable host through apparent competition is more likely. Evidence suggests that such a mechanism occurs in interactions between the ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), the grey partridge (Perdix perdix), and their shared caecal nematode Heterakis gallinarum. Modelling of the system predicts that the reduced parasite impact on the pheasant compared to the partridge results in the force of infection transmitted from pheasants to partridges being sufficient to cause partridge exclusion. Since the parasite impacts are currently estimated from correlational work, controlled infections were conducted to experimentally compare the impact of H. gallinarum on the two hosts and verify cause and effect. While challenged partridges showed reduced mass gain, decreased food consumption, and impaired caecal activity, in comparison to controls, the only detectable effect of parasite challenge on the pheasant was impaired caecal activity. The impact of H. gallinarum on challenged partridges conforms with previous correlational data, supporting the prediction that parasite-mediated apparent competition with the ring-necked pheasant may result in grey partridge exclusion. However, the observed decrease in the caecal activity of challenged pheasants could imply that H. gallinarum may also have an impact on the fecundity and survival of pheasants in the wild, particularly if food is limiting. If this is the case, the associated decrease in the force of infection to which the partridge is exposed may be sufficient to change the model prediction from partridge exclusion to pheasant and partridge coexistence. PMID:11272650

Tompkins, D M; Greenman, J V; Hudson, P J

2001-02-01

275

Competitive interactions between parasitoids provide new insight into host suppression.  

PubMed

Understanding the dynamics of potential inter- and intraspecific competition in parasitoid communities is crucial in the screening of efficient parasitoid species and for utilization of the best parasitoid species combinations. In this respect, the host-parasitoid systems, Bemisia tabaci and two parasitoids, Eretmocerus hayati (exotic) and Encarsia sophia (existing) were studied under laboratory conditions to investigate whether interference competition between the exotic and existing species occurs as well as the influence of potential interference competition on the suppression of the host B. tabaci. Studies on interspecific-, intraspecific- and self-interference competition in two parasitoid species were conducted under both rich and limited host resource conditions. Results showed that (1) both parasitoid species negatively affect the progeny production of the other under both rich and limited host resource conditions; (2) both parasitoid species interfered intraspecifically on conspecific parasitized hosts when the available hosts are scarce and; 3) the mortality of B. tabaci induced by parasitoids via parasitism, host-feeding or both parasitism and host-feeding together varied among treatments under different host resource conditions, but showed promise for optimizing control strategies. As a result of our current findings, we suggest a need to investigate the interactions between the two parasitoids on continuous generations. PMID:24312394

Xu, Hai-Yun; Yang, Nian-Wan; Wan, Fang-Hao

2013-01-01

276

Competitive Interactions between Parasitoids Provide New Insight into Host Suppression  

PubMed Central

Understanding the dynamics of potential inter- and intraspecific competition in parasitoid communities is crucial in the screening of efficient parasitoid species and for utilization of the best parasitoid species combinations. In this respect, the host-parasitoid systems, Bemisia tabaci and two parasitoids, Eretmocerus hayati (exotic) and Encarsia sophia (existing) were studied under laboratory conditions to investigate whether interference competition between the exotic and existing species occurs as well as the influence of potential interference competition on the suppression of the host B. tabaci. Studies on interspecific-, intraspecific- and self-interference competition in two parasitoid species were conducted under both rich and limited host resource conditions. Results showed that (1) both parasitoid species negatively affect the progeny production of the other under both rich and limited host resource conditions; (2) both parasitoid species interfered intraspecifically on conspecific parasitized hosts when the available hosts are scarce and; 3) the mortality of B. tabaci induced by parasitoids via parasitism, host-feeding or both parasitism and host-feeding together varied among treatments under different host resource conditions, but showed promise for optimizing control strategies. As a result of our current findings, we suggest a need to investigate the interactions between the two parasitoids on continuous generations. PMID:24312394

Wan, Fang-Hao

2013-01-01

277

Patterns of interactions of a large fish-parasite network in a tropical floodplain.  

PubMed

1.?Describing and explaining the structure of species interaction networks is of paramount importance for community ecology. Yet much has to be learned about the mechanisms responsible for major patterns, such as nestedness and modularity in different kinds of systems, of which large and diverse networks are a still underrepresented and scarcely studied fraction. 2.?We assembled information on fishes and their parasites living in a large floodplain of key ecological importance for freshwater ecosystems in the Paran River basin in South America. The resulting fish-parasite network containing 72 and 324 species of fishes and parasites, respectively, was analysed to investigate the patterns of nestedness and modularity as related to fish and parasite features. 3.?Nestedness was found in the entire network and among endoparasites, multiple-host life cycle parasites and native hosts, but not in networks of ectoparasites, single-host life cycle parasites and non-native fishes. All networks were significantly modular. Taxonomy was the major host's attribute influencing both nestedness and modularity: more closely related host species tended to be associated with more nested parasite compositions and had greater chance of belonging to the same network module. Nevertheless, host abundance had a positive relationship with nestedness when only native host species pairs of the same network module were considered for analysis. 4.?These results highlight the importance of evolutionary history of hosts in linking patterns of nestedness and formation of modules in the network. They also show that functional attributes of parasites (i.e. parasitism mode and life cycle) and origin of host populations (i.e. natives versus non-natives) are crucial to define the relative contribution of these two network properties and their dependence on other ecological factors (e.g. host abundance), with potential implications for community dynamics and stability. PMID:22339475

Lima, Dilermando P; Giacomini, Henrique C; Takemoto, Ricardo M; Agostinho, Angelo A; Bini, Luis M

2012-07-01

278

Egg color variation, but not egg rejection behavior, changes in a cuckoo host breeding in the absence of brood parasitism  

PubMed Central

Interactions between parasitic cuckoos and their songbird hosts form a classical reciprocal arms race, and are an excellent model for understanding the process of coevolution. Changes in host egg coloration via the evolution of interclutch variation in egg color or intraclutch consistency in egg color are hypothesized counter adaptations that facilitate egg recognition and thus limit brood parasitism. Whether these antiparasitism strategies are maintained when the selective pressure of parasitism is relaxed remains debated. However, introduced species provide unique opportunities for testing the direction and extent of natural selection on phenotypic trait maintenance and variation. Here, we investigated egg rejection behavior and egg color polymorphism in the red-billed leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea), a common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) host, in a population introduced to Hawaii 100 years ago (breeding without cuckoos) and a native population in China (breeding with cuckoos). We found that egg rejection ability was equally strong in both the native and the introduced populations, but levels of interclutch variation and intraclutch consistency in egg color in the native population were higher than in the introduced population. This suggests that egg rejection behavior in hosts can be maintained in the absence of brood parasitism and that egg appearance is maintained by natural selection as a counter adaptation to brood parasitism. This study provides rare evidence that host antiparasitism strategies can change under parasite-relaxed conditions and reduced selection pressure. PMID:25360264

Yang, Canchao; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Lijin; Liang, Wei

2014-01-01

279

Host performance as a target of manipulation by parasites: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying parasite-altered host behavior and fitness remain largely unanswered. The purpose of this review is to provide a perspective that has not been fully incorporated into the debate on how parasites manipulate their hosts. We argue that performance capacity is an important target of parasitic manipulation, and we aim to integrate the study of performance with that of parasitic manipulations of host behavior and fitness. We performed a meta-analysis from the published literature of 101 measures of the effect of parasites on host performance capacity to address the following questions. (1) Do parasites exert an important effect on host performance capacity? (2) Is that effect routinely to decrease or enhance performance capacity? And, (3) what factors explain variation in the effect sizes that have been quantified? Although negligible-small effect sizes were detected in 40/101 measures, host performance capacity was overall affected by parasitic infection, with a negative direction and medium-large magnitude in 58/101 measures and an increase in performance capacity in 3/101 measures. Host age, type of host performance, the host tissue infected by the parasite, and whether the study was experimental or based on natural infections each explained a significant amount of the variation in effect size. The significance of each factor is briefly discussed in light of the potential adaptive character of host manipulations by parasites. PMID:24766282

McElroy, Eric J; de Buron, I

2014-08-01

280

Parasites alter host phenotype and may create a new ecological niche for snail hosts  

PubMed Central

By modifying the behaviour and morphology of hosts, parasites may strongly impact host individuals, populations and communities. We examined the effects of a common trematode parasite on its snail host, Batillaria cumingi (Batillariidae). This widespread snail is usually the most abundant invertebrate in salt marshes and mudflats of the northeastern coast of Asia. More than half (52.6%, n=1360) of the snails in our study were infected. We found that snails living in the lower intertidal zone were markedly larger and exhibited different shell morphology than those in the upper intertidal zone. The large morphotypes in the lower tidal zone were all infected by the trematode, Cercaria batillariae (Heterophyidae). We used a transplant experiment, a mark-and-recapture experiment and stable carbon isotope ratios to reveal that snails infected by the trematode move to the lower intertidal zone, resume growth after maturation and consume different resources. By simultaneously changing the morphology and behaviour of individual hosts, this parasite alters the demographics and potentially modifies resource use of the snail population. Since trematodes are common and often abundant in marine and freshwater habitats throughout the world, their effects potentially alter food webs in many systems. PMID:16777719

Miura, Osamu; Kuris, Armand M; Torchin, Mark E; Hechinger, Ryan F; Chiba, Satoshi

2006-01-01

281

The Role of Host Traits, Season and Group Size on Parasite Burdens in a Cooperative Mammal  

PubMed Central

The distribution of parasites among hosts is often characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity with a small number of hosts harbouring the majority of parasites. Such patterns of aggregation have been linked to variation in host exposure and susceptibility as well as parasite traits and environmental factors. Host exposure and susceptibility may differ with sexes, reproductive effort and group size. Furthermore, environmental factors may affect both the host and parasite directly and contribute to temporal heterogeneities in parasite loads. We investigated the contributions of host and parasite traits as well as season on parasite loads in highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae). This cooperative breeder exhibits a reproductive division of labour and animals live in colonies of varying sizes that procreate seasonally. Mole-rats were parasitised by lice, mites, cestodes and nematodes with mites (Androlaelaps sp.) and cestodes (Mathevotaenia sp.) being the dominant ecto- and endoparasites, respectively. Sex and reproductive status contributed little to the observed parasite prevalence and abundances possibly as a result of the shared burrow system. Clear seasonal patterns of parasite prevalence and abundance emerged with peaks in summer for mites and in winter for cestodes. Group size correlated negatively with mite abundance while it had no effect on cestode burdens and group membership affected infestation with both parasites. We propose that the mode of transmission as well as social factors constrain parasite propagation generating parasite patterns deviating from those commonly predicted. PMID:22069481

Viljoen, Hermien; Bennett, Nigel C.; Ueckermann, Edward A.; Lutermann, Heike

2011-01-01

282

Parasite diversity and coinfection determine pathogen infection success and host fitness  

PubMed Central

While the importance of changes in host biodiversity for disease risk continues to gain empirical support, the influence of natural variation in parasite diversity on epidemiological outcomes remains largely overlooked. Here, we combined field infection data from 2,191 amphibian hosts representing 158 parasite assemblages with mechanistic experiments to evaluate the influence of parasite richness on both parasite transmission and host fitness. Using a guild of larval trematode parasites (six species) and an amphibian host, our experiments contrasted the effects of parasite richness vs. composition, observed vs. randomized assemblages, and additive vs. replacement designs. Consistent with the dilution effect hypothesis extended to intrahost diversity, increases in parasite richness reduced overall infection success, including infections by the most virulent parasite. However, the effects of parasite richness on host growth and survival were context dependent; pathology increased when parasites were administered additively, even when the presence of the most pathogenic species was held constant, but decreased when added species replaced or reduced virulent species, emphasizing the importance of community composition and assembly. These results were similar or stronger when community structures were weighted by their observed frequencies in nature. The field data also revealed the highly nested structure of parasite assemblages, with virulent species generally occupying basal positions, suggesting that increases in parasite richness and antagonism in nature will decrease virulent infections. Our findings emphasize the importance of parasite biodiversity and coinfection in affecting epidemiological responses and highlight the value of integrating research on biodiversity and community ecology for understanding infectious diseases. PMID:22615371

Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Hoverman, Jason T.

2012-01-01

283

Effects of shortened host life span on the evolution of parasite life history and virulence in a microbial host-parasite system  

PubMed Central

Background Ecological factors play an important role in the evolution of parasite exploitation strategies. A common prediction is that, as shorter host life span reduces future opportunities of transmission, parasites compensate with an evolutionary shift towards earlier transmission. They may grow more rapidly within the host, have a shorter latency time and, consequently, be more virulent. Thus, increased extrinsic (i.e., not caused by the parasite) host mortality leads to the evolution of more virulent parasites. To test these predictions, we performed a serial transfer experiment, using the protozoan Paramecium caudatum and its bacterial parasite Holospora undulata. We simulated variation in host life span by killing hosts after 11 (early killing) or 14 (late killing) days post inoculation; after killing, parasite transmission stages were collected and used for a new infection cycle. Results After 13 cycles (? 300 generations), parasites from the early-killing treatment were less infectious, but had shorter latency time and higher virulence than those from the late-killing treatment. Overall, shorter latency time was associated with higher parasite loads and thus presumably with more rapid within-host replication. Conclusion The analysis of the means of the two treatments is thus consistent with theory, and suggests that evolution is constrained by trade-offs between virulence, transmission and within-host growth. In contrast, we found little evidence for such trade-offs across parasite selection lines within treatments; thus, to some extent, these traits may evolve independently. This study illustrates how environmental variation (experienced by the host) can lead to the evolution of distinct parasite strategies. PMID:19320981

Nidelet, Thibault; Koella, Jacob C; Kaltz, Oliver

2009-01-01

284

Benefits of fidelity: does host specialization impact nematode parasite life history and fecundity?  

PubMed

The range of hosts used by a parasite is influenced by macro-evolutionary processes (host switching, host-parasite co-evolution), as well as 'encounter filters' and 'compatibility filters' at the micro-evolutionary level driven by host/parasite ecology and physiology. Host specialization is hypothesized to result in trade-offs with aspects of parasite life history (e.g. reproductive output), but these have not been well studied. We used previously published data to create models examining general relationships among host specificity and important aspects of life history and reproduction for nematodes parasitizing animals. Our results indicate no general trade-off between host specificity and the average pre-patent period (time to first reproduction), female size, egg size, or fecundity of these nematodes. However, female size was positively related to egg size, fecundity, and pre-patent period. Host compatibility may thus not be the primary determinant of specificity in these parasitic nematodes if there are few apparent trade-offs with reproduction, but rather, the encounter opportunities for new host species at the micro-evolutionary level, and other processes at the macro-evolutionary level (i.e. phylogeny). Because host specificity is recognized as a key factor determining the spread of parasitic diseases understanding factors limiting host use are essential to predict future changes in parasite range and occurrence. PMID:23343907

Koprivnikar, J; Randhawa, H S

2013-04-01

285

Host immune constraints on malaria transmission: insights from population biology of within-host parasites  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium infections trigger complex immune reactions from their hosts against several life stages of the parasite, including gametocytes. These immune responses are highly variable, depending on age, genetics, and exposure history of the host as well as species and strain of parasite. Although the effects of host antibodies that act against gamete stages in the mosquito (due to uptake in the blood meal) are well documented, the effects of host immunity upon within-host gametocytes are not as well understood. This report consists of a theoretical population biology-based analysis to determine constraints that host immunity impose upon gametocyte population growth. The details of the mathematical models used for the analysis were guided by published reports of clinical and animal studies, incorporated plausible modalities of immune reactions to parasites, and were tailored to the life cycl es of the two most widespread human malaria pathogens, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Results For the same ability to bind and clear a target, the model simulations suggest that an antibody attacking immature gametocytes would tend to lower the overall density of transmissible mature gametocytes more than an antibody attacking the mature forms directly. Transmission of P. falciparum would be especially vulnerable to complete blocking by antibodies to its immature forms since its gametocytes take much longer to reach maturity than those of P. vivax. On the other hand, antibodies attacking the mature gametocytes directly would reduce the time the mature forms can linger in the host. Simulation results also suggest that varying the standard deviation in the time necessary for individual asexual parasites to develop and produce schizonts can affect the efficiency of production of transmissible gametocytes. Conclusions If mature gametocyte density determines the probability of transmission, both Plasmodium species, but especially P. falciparum, could bolster this probability through evasion or suppression of host immune responses against the immature gametocytes. However, if the long term lingering of mature gametocytes at low density in the host is also important to ensure transmission, then evasion or suppression of antibodies against the mature stages would bolster probability of transmission as well. PMID:23767770

2013-01-01

286

Interactions among four parasite species in an amphipod population from Patagonia.  

PubMed

Parasites commonly share their hosts with specimens of the same or different parasite species, resulting in multiple parasites obtaining resources from the same host. This could potentially lead to conflicts between co-infecting parasites, especially at high infection intensities. In Pool Los Juncos (Patagonia, Argentina), the amphipod Hyalella patagonica is an intermediate host to three parasites that mature in birds (the acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma sp. and larval stages of two Cyclophyllidea cestodes), in addition to a microsporidian (Thelohania sp.), whose life cycle is unknown, but very likely to be monoxenous. The aim of this study was to describe interactions between these parasite species in their amphipod host population. Amphipods were collected monthly between June 2002 and January 2004 to assess parasite infection. Infection prevalence and mean intensity were greatest in larger male amphipods for all parasite species. We also found a positive association between Thelohania sp. and both Pseudocorynosoma sp. and Cyclophyllidea sp. 1 infections, though Pseudocorynosoma sp. and Cyclophyllidea sp. 1 were negatively associated with each other. We conclude that contrasting associations between parasite species may be associated with competition for both food intake and space in the haemocoel. PMID:22335997

Rauque, C A; Semenas, L

2013-03-01

287

Impacts of a native parasitic plant on an introduced and a native host species: implications for the control of an invasive weed  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims While invasive species may escape from natural enemies in the new range, the establishment of novel biotic interactions with species native to the invaded range can determine their success. Biological control of plant populations can be achieved by manipulation of a species' enemies in the invaded range. Interactions were therefore investigated between a native parasitic plant and an invasive legume in Mediterranean-type woodlands of South Australia. Methods The effects of the native stem parasite, Cassytha pubescens, on the introduced host, Cytisus scoparius, and a co-occurring native host, Leptospermum myrsinoides, were compared. The hypothesis that the parasitic plant would have a greater impact on the introduced host than the native host was tested. In a field study, photosynthesis, growth and survival of hosts and parasite were examined. Key Results As predicted, Cassytha had greater impacts on the introduced host than the native host. Dead Cytisus were associated with dense Cassytha infections but mortality of Leptospermum was not correlated with parasite infection. Cassytha infection reduced the photosynthetic rates of both hosts. Infected Cytisus showed slower recovery of photosystem II efficiency, lower transpiration rates and reduced photosynthetic biomass in comparison with uninfected plants. Parasite photosynthetic rates and growth rates were higher when growing on the introduced host Cytisus, than on Leptospermum. Conclusions Infection by a native parasitic plant had strong negative effects on the physiology and above-ground biomass allocation of an introduced species and was correlated with increased plant mortality. The greater impact of the parasite on the introduced host may be due to either the greater resources that this host provides or increased resistance to infection by the native host. This disparity of effects between introduced host and native host indicates the potential for Cassytha to be exploited as a control tool. PMID:19001426

Prider, Jane; Watling, Jennifer; Facelli, Jos M.

2009-01-01

288

The Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Modulating the Host Immune Response during Parasitic Infections  

PubMed Central

Parasites are the cause of major diseases affecting billions of people. As the inflictions caused by these parasites affect mainly developing countries, they are considered as neglected diseases. These parasitic infections are often chronic and lead to significant immunomodulation of the host immune response by the parasite, which could benefit both the parasite and the host and are the result of millions of years of co-evolution. The description of parasite extracellular vesicles (EVs) in protozoa and helminths suggests that they may play an important role in hostparasite communication. In this review, recent studies on parasitic (protozoa and helminths) EVs are presented and their potential use as novel therapeutical approaches is discussed. PMID:25250031

Montaner, Sergio; Galiano, Alicia; Trelis, Mara; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; del Portillo, Hernando A.; Bernal, Dolores; Marcilla, Antonio

2014-01-01

289

[Seed germination characteristics of parasitic plant and its host recognition mechanisms].  

PubMed

Parasitic plants are widely distributed in various ecological environments, with different growth habits and host recognition mechanisms. This paper discussed the distinctive seed germination characteristics of root parasitic plants such as Orobanche and Striga, summarized the signals for parasitic seed germination discovered up to now, and reviewed the effects of various germination signals, plant hormones and several fungal metabolites on the host recognition of parasitic plants, as well as the respiration characteristics during the conditioning, and the activating mechanism of the signals for parasitic seed germination. The induction of various differentiated calli in different Orobanche species, and the establishment of novel in vitro aseptic infection system and its application in the host recognition of parasitic plants were also discussed, with the present problems in researching the recognition mechanisms between parasitic plants and hosts put forward, and the further work prospected. PMID:16706065

Song, Wenjian; Jin, Zonglai; Cao, Dongdong; Tang, Guixiang; Zhou, Weijun

2006-02-01

290

Is the population genetic structure of complex life cycle parasites determined by the geographic range of the most motile host?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to their particular way of life, dispersal of parasites is often mediated by their host's biology. Dispersal distance is relevant for parasites because high degree of dispersal leads to high gene flow, which counters the rate of parasite local adaptation in the host populations. Parasites with complex life cycles need to exploit sequentially more than one host species to

Katja-Riikka Louhi; Anssi Karvonen; Christian Rellstab; Jukka Jokela

2010-01-01

291

Born in an Alien Nest : How Do Social Parasite Male Offspring Escape from Host Aggression?  

PubMed Central

Social parasites exploit the colony resources of social insects. Some of them exploit the host colony as a food resource or as a shelter whereas other species also exploit the brood care behavior of their social host. Some of these species have even lost the worker caste and rely completely on the host's worker force to rear their offspring. To avoid host defenses and bypass their recognition code, these social parasites have developed several sophisticated chemical infiltration strategies. These infiltration strategies have been highly studied in several hymenopterans. Once a social parasite has successfully entered a host nest and integrated its social system, its emerging offspring still face the same challenge of avoiding host recognition. However, the strategy used by the offspring to survive within the host nest without being killed is still poorly documented. In cuckoo bumblebees, the parasite males completely lack the morphological and chemical adaptations to social parasitism that the females possess. Moreover, young parasite males exhibit an early production of species-specific cephalic secretions, used as sexual pheromones. Host workers might thus be able to recognize them. Here we used a bumblebee host-social parasite system to test the hypothesis that social parasite male offspring exhibit a chemical defense strategy to escape from host aggression during their intranidal life. Using behavioral assays, we showed that extracts from the heads of young cuckoo bumblebee males contain a repellent odor that prevents parasite males from being attacked by host workers. We also show that social parasitism reduces host worker aggressiveness and helps parasite offspring acceptance. PMID:23028441

Lhomme, Patrick; Ayasse, Manfred; Valterov, Irena; Lecocq, Thomas; Rasmont, Pierre

2012-01-01

292

Habitat selection for parasite-free space by hosts of parasitic Jukka T. Forsman and Thomas E. Martin  

E-print Network

Habitat selection for parasite-free space by hosts of parasitic cowbirds Jukka T. Forsman Unit, Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA. Choice of breeding habitat can have a major impact on fitness. Sensitivity of habitat choice to environmental cues predicting reproductive success

Martin, Thomas E.

293

Parasite Prevalence Corresponds to Host Life History in a Diverse Assemblage of Afrotropical Birds and Haemosporidian Parasites  

PubMed Central

Avian host life history traits have been hypothesized to predict rates of infection by haemosporidian parasites. Using molecular techniques, we tested this hypothesis for parasites from three haemosporidian genera (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon) collected from a diverse sampling of birds in northern Malawi. We found that host life history traits were significantly associated with parasitism rates by all three parasite genera. Nest type and nest location predicted infection probability for all three parasite genera, whereas flocking behavior is an important predictor of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus infection and habitat is an important predictor of Leucocytozoon infection. Parasite prevalence was 79.1% across all individuals sampled, higher than that reported for comparable studies from any other region of the world. Parasite diversity was also exceptionally high, with 248 parasite cytochrome b lineages identified from 152 host species. A large proportion of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon parasite DNA sequences identified in this study represent new, previously undocumented lineages (n = 201; 81% of total identified) based on BLAST queries against the avian malaria database, MalAvi. PMID:25853491

Lutz, Holly L.; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Engel, Joshua I.; Bell, Jeffrey A.; Tkach, Vasyl V.; Bates, John M.; Hackett, Shannon J.; Weckstein, Jason D.

2015-01-01

294

Heterogeneous Host Susceptibility Enhances Prevalence of Mixed-Genotype Micro-Parasite Infections  

PubMed Central

Dose response in micro-parasite infections is usually shallower than predicted by the independent action model, which assumes that each infectious unit has a probability of infection that is independent of the presence of other infectious units. Moreover, the prevalence of mixed-genotype infections was greater than predicted by this model. No probabilistic infection model has been proposed to account for the higher prevalence of mixed-genotype infections. We use model selection within a set of four alternative models to explain high prevalence of mixed-genotype infections in combination with a shallow dose response. These models contrast dependent versus independent action of micro-parasite infectious units, and homogeneous versus heterogeneous host susceptibility. We specifically consider a situation in which genome differences between genotypes are minimal, and highly unlikely to result in genotype-genotype interactions. Data on dose response and mixed-genotype infection prevalence were collected by challenging fifth instar Spodoptera exigua larvae with two genotypes of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), differing only in a 100 bp PCR marker sequence. We show that an independent action model that includes heterogeneity in host susceptibility can explain both the shallow dose response and the high prevalence of mixed-genotype infections. Theoretical results indicate that variation in host susceptibility is inextricably linked to increased prevalence of mixed-genotype infections. We have shown, to our knowledge for the first time, how heterogeneity in host susceptibility affects mixed-genotype infection prevalence. No evidence was found that virions operate dependently. While it has been recognized that heterogeneity in host susceptibility must be included in models of micro-parasite transmission and epidemiology to account for dose response, here we show that heterogeneity in susceptibility is also a fundamental principle explaining patterns of pathogen genetic diversity among hosts in a population. This principle has potentially wide implications for the monitoring, modeling and management of infectious diseases. PMID:21738463

Vlak, Just M.; Zwart, Mark P.

2011-01-01

295

Host plant-related parasitism and host feeding activities of Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on Liriomyza huidobrensis, Liriomyza sativae, and Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae).  

PubMed

Host plant species can affect the behavior and attributes of parasitoids, such as host searching, oviposition, and offspring fitness. In this study, parasitism, host feeding, and sex ratios of Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard), Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, and Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) larvae reared on Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., Solanum lycopersicum L., and Vicia faba L. were determined. In no-choice tests, L. huidobrensis had the highest rate of parasitism when reared on P. vulgaris (46%), L. sativae when reared on V. faba (59%) and P. vulgaris (59%), and L. trifolii when reared on S. lycopersicum (68%). Host feeding in no-choice tests ranged between 2% and 36% and was highest on L. trifolii reared on V. faba. Results of choice tests showed a significant interaction effect for host plant and Liriomyza species on parasitism and host feeding. Within plant mixtures, L. sativae reared on P. vulgaris had the highest rate of parasitism (31%), followed by L. trifolii on S. lycopersicum (29%) and L. huidobrensis on V. faba (28%). Host feeding was highest on L. trifolii reared on S. lycopersicum (14%) and lowest on L. huidobrensis reared on P. sativum and S. lycopersicum (1%). In some instances, plant mixtures resulted in a higher proportion of females of D. isaea than single plant species. The highest proportion of females was obtained in plant mixtures on L. huidobrensis and L. trifolii on V. faba (71 and 72%, respectively). This study suggests that planting crop mixtures can potentially lead to higher proportions of females, thus improving parasitism and host feeding, depending on Liriomyza and host plant species. PMID:22420268

Musundire, Robert; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Salifu, Daisy; Krger, Kerstin

2012-02-01

296

The intriguing host innate immune response: novel anti-parasitic defence by neutrophil extracellular traps.  

PubMed

The capacity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and other leucocytes of the innate immune system to expel their DNA in a controlled process into the extracellular environment to trap and kill pathogenic microorganisms led to a paradigm shift in our comprehension of host leucocyte-pathogen interactions. Formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has recently been recognized as a novel effector mechanism of the host innate immune response against microbial infections. Meanwhile evidence has arisen that NET formation is a widely spread mechanism in vertebrates and invertebrates and extends not only to the entrapment of microbes, fungi and viruses but also to the capture of protozoan and metazoan parasites. PMN produce NETs after stimulation with mitogens, cytokines or pathogens in a controlled process which depends on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the induction of the Raf-MEK-ERK-mediated signalling pathway cascade. NETs consist of nuclear DNA as a backbone decorated with histones, antimicrobial peptides, and PMN-specific granular enzymes thereby providing an extracellular matrix capable of entrapping and killing invasive pathogens. This review is intended to summarize parasite-related data on NETs. Special attention will be given to NET-associated mechanisms by which parasites, in particular apicomplexa, might be hampered in their ability to reproduce within the host cell and complete the life cycle. PMID:24721985

Hermosilla, Carlos; Caro, Tamara Muoz; Silva, Liliana M R; Ruiz, Antonio; Taubert, Anja

2014-09-01

297

Techniques for assessment of interactions of mucins with microbes and parasites in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Most mammalian pathogens and parasites infect their hosts via the mucosal surfaces. The first barrier they encounter in all mucosal tissues is a layer of viscous mucus which can be modulated by immune responses to the pathogen or parasite. The major macromolecular constituents of mucus are secreted mucin glycoproteins which give mucus its viscous properties. Underneath the mucus layer, the mucosal epithelial cells have a cell surface glycocalyx that is rich in transmembrane mucin glycoproteins. Both the cell surface and secreted mucins present a vast array of potential binding sites for pathogens and parasites and both forms of mucins are involved in protecting the host from infection. However, many pathogens and parasites have evolved mechanisms to subvert the mucin barrier. Thus, studying mucin interactions with pathogens and parasites is critical to understanding host-pathogen interactions at the mucosal surfaces. In this chapter, we describe methods for studying the interactions between mucins and pathogens and parasites, methods for studying the degradation of mucins by pathogens and parasites, and in vitro and in vivo methods for exploring the functional significance of the mucins in host defence from infection. PMID:22259144

Sheng, Yong H; Hasnain, Sumaira Z; Png, Chin Wen; McGuckin, Michael A; Lindn, Sara K

2012-01-01

298

Host Plant Use by Competing Acacia-Ants: Mutualists Monopolize While Parasites Share Hosts  

PubMed Central

Protective ant-plant mutualisms that are exploited by non-defending parasitic ants represent prominent model systems for ecology and evolutionary biology. The mutualist Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus is an obligate plant-ant and fully depends on acacias for nesting space and food. The parasite Pseudomyrmex gracilis facultatively nests on acacias and uses host-derived food rewards but also external food sources. Integrative analyses of genetic microsatellite data, cuticular hydrocarbons and behavioral assays showed that an individual acacia might be inhabited by the workers of several P. gracilis queens, whereas one P. ferrugineus colony monopolizes one or more host trees. Despite these differences in social organization, neither of the species exhibited aggressive behavior among conspecific workers sharing a tree regardless of their relatedness. This lack of aggression corresponds to the high similarity of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles among ants living on the same tree. Host sharing by unrelated colonies, or the presence of several queens in a single colony are discussed as strategies by which parasite colonies could achieve the observed social organization. We argue that in ecological terms, the non-aggressive behavior of non-sibling P. gracilis workers regardless of the route to achieve this social structure enables this species to efficiently occupy and exploit a host plant. By contrast, single large and long-lived colonies of the mutualist P. ferrugineus monopolize individual host plants and defend them aggressively against invaders from other trees. Our findings highlight the necessity for using several methods in combination to fully understand how differing life history strategies affect social organization in ants. PMID:22662191

Kautz, Stefanie; Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Kroiss, Johannes; Pauls, Steffen U.; Moreau, Corrie S.; Eilmus, Sascha; Strohm, Erhard; Heil, Martin

2012-01-01

299

Host plant use by competing acacia-ants: mutualists monopolize while parasites share hosts.  

PubMed

Protective ant-plant mutualisms that are exploited by non-defending parasitic ants represent prominent model systems for ecology and evolutionary biology. The mutualist Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus is an obligate plant-ant and fully depends on acacias for nesting space and food. The parasite Pseudomyrmex gracilis facultatively nests on acacias and uses host-derived food rewards but also external food sources. Integrative analyses of genetic microsatellite data, cuticular hydrocarbons and behavioral assays showed that an individual acacia might be inhabited by the workers of several P. gracilis queens, whereas one P. ferrugineus colony monopolizes one or more host trees. Despite these differences in social organization, neither of the species exhibited aggressive behavior among conspecific workers sharing a tree regardless of their relatedness. This lack of aggression corresponds to the high similarity of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles among ants living on the same tree. Host sharing by unrelated colonies, or the presence of several queens in a single colony are discussed as strategies by which parasite colonies could achieve the observed social organization. We argue that in ecological terms, the non-aggressive behavior of non-sibling P. gracilis workers--regardless of the route to achieve this social structure--enables this species to efficiently occupy and exploit a host plant. By contrast, single large and long-lived colonies of the mutualist P. ferrugineus monopolize individual host plants and defend them aggressively against invaders from other trees. Our findings highlight the necessity for using several methods in combination to fully understand how differing life history strategies affect social organization in ants. PMID:22662191

Kautz, Stefanie; Ballhorn, Daniel J; Kroiss, Johannes; Pauls, Steffen U; Moreau, Corrie S; Eilmus, Sascha; Strohm, Erhard; Heil, Martin

2012-01-01

300

An invasive species reverses the roles in a host-parasite relationship between bitterling fish and unionid mussels.  

PubMed

The impact of multiple invading species can be magnified owing to mutual facilitation--termed 'invasional meltdown'--but invasive species can also be adversely affected by their interactions with other invaders. Using a unique reciprocal host-parasite relationship between a bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus) and unionid mussels, we show that an invasive mussel reverses the roles in the relationship. Bitterling lay their eggs into mussel gills, and mussel larvae parasitize fish. Bitterling recently colonized Europe and parasitize all sympatric European mussels, but are unable to use a recently invasive mussel, Anodonta woodiana. The parasitic larvae of A. woodiana successfully develop on R. amarus, whereas larvae of European mussels are rejected by bitterling. This demonstrates that invading species may temporarily benefit from a coevolutionary lag by exploiting evolutionarily naive hosts, but the resulting relaxed selection may facilitate its exploitation by subsequent invading species, leading to unexpected consequences for established interspecific relationships. PMID:22337503

Reichard, Martin; Vrtlek, Milan; Douda, Karel; Smith, Carl

2012-08-23

301

Co-invaders: The effects of alien parasites on native hosts.  

PubMed

We define co-introduced parasites as those which have been transported with an alien host to a new locality, outside of their natural range, and co-invading parasites as those which have been co-introduced and then spread to new, native hosts. Of 98 published studies of co-introductions, over 50% of hosts were freshwater fishes and 49% of parasites were helminths. Although we would expect parasites with simple, direct life cycles to be much more likely to be introduced and establish in a new locality, a substantial proportion (36%) of co-introductions were of parasites with an indirect life cycle. Seventy-eight per cent of co-introduced parasites were found in native host species and can therefore be classed as co-invaders. Host switching was equally common among parasites with direct and indirect life cycles. The magnitude of the threat posed to native species by co-invaders will depend, among other things, on parasite virulence. In 16 cases where co-introduced parasites have switched to native hosts and information was available on relative virulence, 14 (85%) were more virulent in native hosts than in the co-introduced alien host. We argue that this does not necessarily support the nave host theory that co-invading parasites will have greater pathogenic effects in native hosts with which they have no coevolutionary history, but may instead be a consequence of the greater likelihood for parasites with lower virulence in their natural host to be co-introduced. PMID:25180161

Lymbery, Alan J; Morine, Mikayla; Kanani, Hosna Gholipour; Beatty, Stephen J; Morgan, David L

2014-08-01

302

Co-invaders: The effects of alien parasites on native hosts  

PubMed Central

We define co-introduced parasites as those which have been transported with an alien host to a new locality, outside of their natural range, and co-invading parasites as those which have been co-introduced and then spread to new, native hosts. Of 98 published studies of co-introductions, over 50% of hosts were freshwater fishes and 49% of parasites were helminths. Although we would expect parasites with simple, direct life cycles to be much more likely to be introduced and establish in a new locality, a substantial proportion (36%) of co-introductions were of parasites with an indirect life cycle. Seventy-eight per cent of co-introduced parasites were found in native host species and can therefore be classed as co-invaders. Host switching was equally common among parasites with direct and indirect life cycles. The magnitude of the threat posed to native species by co-invaders will depend, among other things, on parasite virulence. In 16 cases where co-introduced parasites have switched to native hosts and information was available on relative virulence, 14 (85%) were more virulent in native hosts than in the co-introduced alien host. We argue that this does not necessarily support the nave host theory that co-invading parasites will have greater pathogenic effects in native hosts with which they have no coevolutionary history, but may instead be a consequence of the greater likelihood for parasites with lower virulence in their natural host to be co-introduced. PMID:25180161

Lymbery, Alan J.; Morine, Mikayla; Kanani, Hosna Gholipour; Beatty, Stephen J.; Morgan, David L.

2014-01-01

303

Are parasite intensity and related costs of the milichiid fly Carnus hemapterus related to host sociality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ectoparasites have often been shown to have detrimental effects on their host. Not much is known, however, about determinants\\u000a of infestation, e.g. the question of which factors affect distribution and occurrence of parasites on different host species\\u000a (degree of host specificity) and their infestation rates. In this study we examine possible effects of host determinants on\\u000a parasite intensity of Carnus

H. Hoi; J. Kritofk; A. Darolov; C. Hoi

2010-01-01

304

Experimental support for the use of egg uniformity in parasite egg discrimination by cuckoo hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) parasitism drastically reduces the reproductive success of their hosts and selects for host discrimination of cuckoo eggs.\\u000a In a second stage of anti-parasite adaptation, once cuckoos can lay eggs that mimic those of their hosts, a high uniformity\\u000a of host egg appearance within a clutch may favour cuckoo egg discrimination. Comparative evidence provides indirect support\\u000a for

Csaba Moskt; Jess M. Avils; Mikls Bn; Rita Hargitai; Anik Zlei

2008-01-01

305

Coevolution, communication, and host chick mimicry in parasitic finches: who mimics whom?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do brood parasitic Vidua nestlings mimic the intricate gape patterns of their hosts young so precisely? The classic explanation is that mimicry is\\u000a the outcome of a coevolutionary arms race, driven by host rejection of odd-looking offspring. Selection favors parasitic nestlings\\u000a that converge on the host youngs mouth markings, and simultaneously benefits hosts whose mouth markings diverge from those

Mark E. Hauber; Rebecca M. Kilner

2007-01-01

306

Hostile Takeover by Plasmodium: Reorganization of Parasite and Host Cell Membranes during Liver Stage  

E-print Network

Hostile Takeover by Plasmodium: Reorganization of Parasite and Host Cell Membranes during Liver of Cell Biology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Abstract The protozoan parasite Plasmodium the membrane of these merosomes was derived from the parasite membrane, the parasitophorous vacuole membrane

Arnold, Jonathan

307

Associations between host migration and the prevalence of a protozoan parasite in natural  

E-print Network

Associations between host migration and the prevalence of a protozoan parasite in natural to infection by the obligate protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (McLaughlin and Myers) (Apicomplexa and geographical variation in the prevalence of an obligate protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha

308

Pathological and Ecological Host Consequences of Infection by an Introduced Fish Parasite  

PubMed Central

The infection consequences of the introduced cestode fish parasite Bothriocephalus acheilognathi were studied in a cohort of wild, young-of-the-year common carp Cyprinus carpio that lacked co-evolution with the parasite. Within the cohort, parasite prevalence was 42% and parasite burdens were up to 12% body weight. Pathological changes within the intestinal tract of parasitized carp included distension of the gut wall, epithelial compression and degeneration, pressure necrosis and varied inflammatory changes. These were most pronounced in regions containing the largest proportion of mature proglottids. Although the body lengths of parasitized and non-parasitized fish were not significantly different, parasitized fish were of lower body condition and reduced weight compared to non-parasitized conspecifics. Stable isotope analysis (?15N and ?13C) revealed trophic impacts associated with infection, particularly for ?15N where values for parasitized fish were significantly reduced as their parasite burden increased. In a controlled aquarium environment where the fish were fed ad libitum on an identical food source, there was no significant difference in values of ?15N and ?13C between parasitized and non-parasitized fish. The growth consequences remained, however, with parasitized fish growing significantly slower than non-parasitized fish, with their feeding rate (items s?1) also significantly lower. Thus, infection by an introduced parasite had multiple pathological, ecological and trophic impacts on a host with no experience of the parasite. PMID:22022606

Britton, J. Robert; Pegg, Josephine; Williams, Chris F.

2011-01-01

309

Interaction of pathogenic fungi with host cells: Molecular and cellular approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review provides an overview of several molecular and cellular approaches that are likely to supply insights into the hostfungus interaction. Fungi present intra- and\\/or extracellular hostparasite interfaces, the parasitism phenomenon being dependent on complementary surface molecules. The entry of the pathogen into the host cell is initiated by the fungus adhering to the cell surface, which generates an uptake

Christiane Pienna Soares; Juliana Leal Monteiro da Silva

2005-01-01

310

Effects of Rearing Host Species on the Host-Feeding Capacity and Parasitism of the Whitefly Parasitoid Encarsia formosa  

PubMed Central

Parasitoids of the Encarsia genus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) are important biological control agents against whiteflies. Some of the species in this genus not only parasitize their hosts, but also kill them through host feeding. The whitefly parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan, was examined to determine whether the rearing host species affects its subsequent host-feeding capacity and parasitism. E. formosa wasps were reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Q, and their subsequent host-feeding capacity and parasitism of T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci were examined. E. formosa reared on T. vaporariorum were significantly larger in body size than those reared on B. tabaci, but these wasps killed a similar number of whitefly nymphs by host feeding when they attacked the same host species on which they were reared. Regardless of the species on which it was reared, E. formosa fed significantly more on the B. tabaci nymphs than on the T. vaporariorum nymphs. The number of whitefly nymphs parasitized by E. formosa differed between the wasps reared on T. vaporariorum and those reared on B. tabaci depending on which whitefly species was offered as a host. In addition, the wasps reared on T. vaporariorum parasitized significantly more on T. vaporariorum than those reared on B. tabaci. The wasps reared on B. tabaci, however, parasitized similar numbers of whiteflies of both host species. The results indicated that the host-feeding capacity of E. formosa was affected more by the host species attacked than by the rearing host species, but the parasitism was affected by the host species attacked and the rearing host species. Generally, E. formosa reared on T. vaporariorum killed more T. vaporariorum nymphs by parasitism and host feeding than those reared on B. tabaci. Additionally, a similar number of B. tabaci nymphs were killed by parasitism and host feeding regardless of the rearing host species. Currently coexistence of B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum on vegetable crops usually occurs in some areas; our results may provide helpful information on using mass-reared parasitoids against mixed whitefly infestations in biological control programs. PMID:25368062

Dai, Peng; Ruan, Changchun; Zang, Liansheng; Wan, Fanghao; Liu, Linzhou

2014-01-01

311

Nave hosts of avian brood parasites accept foreign eggs, whereas older hosts fine-tune foreign egg discrimination during laying  

PubMed Central

Background Many potential hosts of social parasites recognize and reject foreign intruders, and reduce or altogether escape the negative impacts of parasitism. The ontogenetic basis of whether and how avian hosts recognize their own and the brood parasitic eggs remains unclear. By repeatedly parasitizing the same hosts with a consistent parasitic egg type, and contrasting the responses of nave and older breeders, we studied ontogenetic plasticity in the rejection of foreign eggs by the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), a host species of the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). Results In response to experimental parasitism before the onset of laying, first time breeding hosts showed almost no egg ejection, compared to higher rates of ejection in older breeders. Young birds continued to accept foreign eggs when they were subjected to repeated parasitism, whereas older birds showed even higher ejection rates later in the same laying cycle. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the hypotheses that (i) nave hosts need to see and learn the appearance of their own eggs to discriminate and reject foreign eggs, whereas (ii) experienced breeders possess a recognition template of their own eggs and reject parasitic eggs even without having to see their own eggs. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that other external cues and internal processes, accumulated simply with increasing age, may also modify age-specific patterns in egg rejection (e.g. more sightings of the cuckoo by older breeders). Future research should specifically track the potential role of learning in responses of individual hosts between first and subsequent breeding attempts by testing whether imprinting on a parasitized clutch reduces the rates of rejecting foreign eggs in subsequent parasitized clutches. PMID:25024736

2014-01-01

312

Microevolutionary change and population dynamics of a brood parasite and its primary host: the intermittent arms race hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term study of the interactions between a brood parasite, the great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius, and its primary host the magpie Pica pica, demonstrated local changes in the distribution of both magpies and cuckoos and a rapid increase of rejection of both mimetic\\u000a and non-mimetic model eggs by the host. In rich areas, magpies improved three of their defensive

Manuel Soler; Juan J. Soler; Juan G. Martinez; Toms Prez-Contreras; Anders P. Mller

1998-01-01

313

Intestinal distribution and fecundity of two species of Diplostomum parasites in definitive hosts.  

PubMed

This paper investigated the intestinal distribution and fecundity of 2 species of Diplostomum parasites, D. spathaceum and D. pseudospathaceum, in 2 species of definitive hosts, herring gull (Larus argentatus) and common gull (L. canus), using both empirical field data and experimental infections. At the level of individual hosts, the parasite species occupied different parts within the intestine, but the fecundity of the worms, measured as the number of eggs in the uterus, did not differ between the parasite species except in wild common gulls. Interestingly, egg numbers in individual hosts were positively correlated between the parasite species suggesting that some birds provided better resources for the parasite species. At the host population level, fecundity of the worms did not differ between the host species or between adult birds and chicks. Both parasite species were also aggregated to the same host individuals and it is likely that aggregation is transferred to gulls from fish intermediate hosts. Individual differences in suitability and parasite numbers between hosts provide important grounds and implications for epidemiological model-based parasite prevention strategies. PMID:16318675

Karvonen, A; Cheng, G-H; Seppl, O; Valtonen, E T

2006-03-01

314

Host and parasite population structure in a natural plantpathogen system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the genetic population structure in a metapopulation of the plant Silene latifolia (Caryophyllaceae) and its fungal pathogen Microbotryum violaceum (Ustilaginales), a pollinator-borne disease. Population structure of the host plant was estimated using allozyme markers and that of the fungus by microsatellites. Both host and parasite showed significant differentiation, but parasite populations were 12 times more strongly differentiated than

Franois Delmotte; Erika Bucheli; JACQUI A. SHYKOFF

1999-01-01

315

Sarcocystis cernae : A parasite increasing the risk of predation of its intermediate host, Microtus arvalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

1)The transmission dynamics of the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis carnae (Cern and Louckov 1976) (Apicomplexa, Eimeroidea, Sarcocystidae) in natural populations were studied in the Lauwersmeerpolder in the northern Netherlands. This parasite needs two hosts to complete its life cycle; the common vole (Microtus arvalis) as its intermediate host and the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) which preys on the vole, as its final

I. Hoogenboom; C. Dijkstra

1987-01-01

316

Host choice and offspring sex allocation in a solitary parasitic wasp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females of the parasitic wasp Antrocephalus pandens can detect differences in the quality of their hosts (pupae of Corcyra cephalonica, a stored-product moth) and allocate offspring of either sex accordingly. Larger and younger hosts are accepted more often in both dead and live hosts; more female offspring emerge from the perceived better hosts, while more males emerge from the smaller,

Solange Brault

1991-01-01

317

Host-specificity of monogenean (platyhelminth) parasites: a role for anterior adhesive areas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monogeneans (flatworms) are among the most host-specific of parasites in general and may be the most host-specific of all fish parasites. Specificity, in terms of a restricted spatial distribution within an environment, is not unique to parasites and is displayed by some fungi, insects, birds, symbionts and pelagic larvae of free-living marine invertebrates. The nature of cues, how habitats are

Ian D. Whittington; Bronwen W. Cribb; Tamarind E. Hamwood; Judy A. Halliday

2000-01-01

318

Host cell deformability is linked to transmission in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Gametocyte maturation in Plasmodium falciparum is a critical step in the transmission of malaria. While the majority of parasites proliferate asexually in red blood cells, a small fraction of parasites undergo sexual conversion and mature over two weeks to become competent for transmission to a mosquito vector. Immature gametocytes sequester in deep tissues while mature stages must be able to circulate, pass the spleen and present themselves to the mosquito vector in order to complete transmission. Sequestration of asexual red blood cell stage parasites has been investigated in great detail. These studies have demonstrated that induction of cytoadherence properties through specific receptor-ligand interactions coincides with a significant increase in host cell stiffness. In contrast, the adherence and biophysical properties of gametocyte-infected red blood cells have not been studied systematically. Utilizing a transgenic line for 3D live imaging, in vitro capillary assays and 3D finite element whole cell modeling, we studied the role of cellular deformability in determining the circulatory characteristics of gametocytes. Our analysis shows that the red blood cell deformability of immature gametocytes displays an overall decrease followed by rapid restoration in mature gametocytes. Intriguingly, simulations suggest that along with deformability variations, the morphological changes of the parasite may play an important role in tissue distribution in vivo. Taken together we present a model, which suggests that mature but not immature gametocytes circulate in the peripheral blood for uptake in the mosquito blood meal and transmission to another human host thus ensuring long term survival of the parasite. PMID:22417683

Aingaran, Mythili; Zhang, Rou; Law, Sue KaYee; Peng, Zhangli; Undisz, Andreas; Meyer, Evan; Diez-Silva, Monica; Burke, Thomas A.; Spielmann, Tobias; Lim, Chwee Teck; Suresh, Subra; Dao, Ming; Marti, Matthias

2012-01-01

319

Apoptotic-like Leishmania exploit the hosts autophagy machinery to reduce T-cell-mediated parasite elimination.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is a well-defined cellular process in which a cell dies, characterized by cell shrinkage and DNA fragmentation. In parasites like Leishmania, the process of apoptosis-like cell death has been described. Moreover upon infection, the apoptotic-like population is essential for disease development, in part by silencing host phagocytes. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism of how apoptosis in unicellular organisms may support infectivity remains unclear. Therefore we investigated the fate of apoptotic-like Leishmania parasites in human host macrophages. Our data showed-in contrast to viable parasites-that apoptotic-like parasites enter an LC3(+), autophagy-like compartment. The compartment was found to consist of a single lipid bilayer, typical for LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). As LAP can provoke anti-inflammatory responses and autophagy modulates antigen presentation, we analyzed how the presence of apoptotic-like parasites affected the adaptive immune response. Macrophages infected with viable Leishmania induced proliferation of CD4(+) T-cells, leading to a reduced intracellular parasite survival. Remarkably, the presence of apoptotic-like parasites in the inoculum significantly reduced T-cell proliferation. Chemical induction of autophagy in human monocyte-derived macrophage (hMDM), infected with viable parasites only, had an even stronger proliferation-reducing effect, indicating that host cell autophagy and not parasite viability limits the T-cell response and enhances parasite survival. Concluding, our data suggest that apoptotic-like Leishmania hijack the host cells autophagy machinery to reduce T-cell proliferation. Furthermore, the overall population survival is guaranteed, explaining the benefit of apoptosis-like cell death in a single-celled parasite and defining the host autophagy pathway as a potential therapeutic target in treating Leishmaniasis. PMID:25801301

Crauwels, Peter; Bohn, Rebecca; Thomas, Meike; Gottwalt, Stefan; Jckel, Florian; Krmer, Susi; Bank, Elena; Tenzer, Stefan; Walther, Paul; Bastian, Max; Zandbergen, Ger van

2015-02-01

320

Host adaptation and hostparasite co-evolution in Cryptosporidium: implications for taxonomy and public health  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the genetic diversity and evolution of Cryptosporidium parasites, the partial ssrRNA, actin, and 70kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) genes of 15 new Cryptosporidium parasites were sequenced. Sequence data were analysed together with those previously obtained from other Cryptosporidium parasites (10 Cryptosporidium spp. and eight Cryptosporidium genotypes). Results of this multi-locus genetic characterisation indicate that host adaptation is a

Lihua Xiao; Irshad M Sulaiman; Una M Ryan; Ling Zhou; Edward R Atwill; Monica L Tischler; Xichen Zhang; Ronald Fayer; Altaf A Lal

2002-01-01

321

Host-parasite kinship in a female-philopatric bird population: evidence from relatedness trend analysis.  

PubMed

Conspecific brood parasitism (CBP), an alternative reproductive tactic where some females lay eggs in the nests of other females of the same species, occurs in many animals with egg care. It is particularly common in waterfowl, for reasons that are debated. Many waterfowl females nest near their birthplace, making it likely that some local females are relatives. We analyse brood parasitism in a Hudson Bay population of common eiders, testing predictions from two alternative hypotheses on the role of relatedness in CBP. Some models predict host-parasite relatedness, others predict that parasites avoid close relatives as hosts. To distinguish between the alternatives, we use a novel approach, where the relatedness of host-parasite pairs is tested against the spatial population trend in pairwise relatedness. We estimate parasitism, nest take-over and relatedness with protein fingerprinting and bandsharing analysis of egg albumen, nondestructively sampled from each new egg in the nest throughout the laying period. The results refute the hypothesis that parasites avoid laying eggs in the nests of related hosts, and corroborate the alternative of host-parasite relatedness. With an estimated r of 0.12-0.14, females laying eggs in the same nest are on average closer kin than nesting neighbour females. Absence of a population trend in female pairwise relatedness vs. distance implies that host-parasite relatedness is not only an effect of strong natal philopatry: some additional form of kin bias is also involved. PMID:17594448

Andersson, Malte; Waldeck, Peter

2007-07-01

322

Experimental evidence for chick discrimination without recognition in a brood parasite host  

PubMed Central

Recognition is considered a critical basis for discriminatory behaviours in animals. Theoretically, recognition and discrimination of parasitic chicks are not predicted to evolve in hosts of brood parasitic birds that evict nest-mates. Yet, an earlier study showed that host reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) of an evicting parasite, the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), can avoid the costs of prolonged care for unrelated young by deserting the cuckoo chick before it fledges. Desertion was not based on specific recognition of the parasite because hosts accept any chick cross-fostered into their nests. Thus, the mechanism of this adaptive host response remains enigmatic. Here, I show experimentally that the cue triggering this discrimination without recognition behaviour is the duration of parental care. Neither the intensity of brood care nor the presence of a single-chick in the nest could explain desertions. Hosts responded similarly to foreign chicks, whether heterospecific or experimental conspecifics. The proposed mechanism of discrimination strikingly differs from those found in other parasitehost systems because hosts do not need an internal recognition template of the parasite's appearance to effectively discriminate. Thus, host defences against parasitic chicks may be based upon mechanisms qualitatively different from those operating against parasitic eggs. I also demonstrate that this discriminatory mechanism is non-costly in terms of recognition errors. Comparative data strongly suggest that parasites cannot counter-evolve any adaptation to mitigate effects of this host defence. These findings have crucial implications for the process and end-result of hostparasite arms races and our understanding of the cognitive basis of discriminatory mechanisms in general. PMID:17164201

Grim, Tom

2006-01-01

323

Alternative mechanisms of increased eggshell hardness of avian brood parasites relative to host species  

PubMed Central

Obligate brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in nests of other species and parasite eggs typically have evolved greater structural strength relative to host eggs. Increased mechanical strength of the parasite eggshell is an adaptation that can interfere with puncture ejection behaviours of discriminating hosts. We investigated whether hardness of eggshells is related to differences between physical and chemical traits from three different races of the parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, and their respective hosts. Using tools developed for materials science, we discovered a novel correlate of increased strength of parasite eggs: the common cuckoo's egg exhibits a greater microhardness, especially in the inner region of the shell matrix, relative to its host and sympatric non-host species. We then tested predictions of four potential mechanisms of shell strength: (i) increased relative thickness overall, (ii) greater proportion of the structurally harder shell layers, (iii) higher concentration of inorganic components in the shell matrix, and (iv) elevated deposition of a high density compound, MgCO3, in the shell matrix. We confirmed support only for hypothesis (i). Eggshell characteristics did not differ between parasite eggs sampled from different host nests in distant geographical sites, suggesting an evolutionarily shared microstructural mechanism of stronger parasite eggshells across diverse host-races of brood parasitic cuckoos. PMID:21561966

Igic, Branislav; Braganza, Kim; Hyland, Margaret M.; Silyn-Roberts, Heather; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas; Rutila, Jarkko; Moskt, Csaba; Hauber, Mark E.

2011-01-01

324

Host genotype and age have no effect on rejection of parasitic eggs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Egg rejection belongs to a widely used host tactic to prevent the costs incurred by avian brood parasitism. However, the genetic basis of this behaviour and the effect of host age on the probability of rejecting the parasitic egg remain largely unknown. Here, we used a set of 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci, including a previously detected candidate locus (Ase64), to link genotypes of female great reed warblers ( Acrocephalus arundinaceus), a known rejecter, with their egg rejection responses in two host populations. We also tested whether host female age, as a measure of the experience with own eggs, plays a role in rejection of common cuckoo ( Cuculus canorus) eggs. We failed to find any consistent association of egg rejection responses with host female genotypes or age. It seems that host decisions on egg rejection show high levels of phenotypic plasticity and are likely to depend on the spatiotemporal variation in the parasitism pressure. Future studies exploring the repeatability of host responses towards parasitic eggs and the role of host individual experience with parasitic eggs would greatly improve our understanding of the variations in host behaviours considering the persistence of brood parasitism in host populations with rejecter phenotypes.

Prochzka, Petr; Konvi?kov-Patzenhauerov, Hana; Pogayov, Milica; Trnka, Alfrd; Jelnek, Vclav; Honza, Marcel

2014-05-01

325

Expression of parasite genetic variation changes over the course of infection: implications of within-host dynamics for the evolution of virulence.  

PubMed

How infectious disease agents interact with their host changes during the course of infection and can alter the expression of disease-related traits. Yet by measuring parasite life-history traits at one or few moments during infection, studies have overlooked the impact of variable parasite growth trajectories on disease evolution. Here we show that infection-age-specific estimates of host and parasite fitness components can reveal new insight into the evolution of parasites. We do so by characterizing the within-host dynamics over an entire infection period for five genotypes of the castrating bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa infecting the crustacean Daphnia magna. Our results reveal that genetic variation for parasite-induced gigantism, host castration and parasite spore loads increases with the age of infection. Driving these patterns appears to be variation in how well the parasite maintains control of host reproduction late in the infection process. We discuss the evolutionary consequences of this finding with regard to natural selection acting on different ages of infection and the mechanism underlying the maintenance of castration efficiency. Our results highlight how elucidating within-host dynamics can shed light on the selective forces that shape infection strategies and the evolution of virulence. PMID:25761710

Clerc, Melanie; Ebert, Dieter; Hall, Matthew D

2015-04-01

326

Hyperdiverse Gene Cluster in Snail Host Conveys Resistance to Human Schistosome Parasites  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis, a neglected global pandemic, may be curtailed by blocking transmission of the parasite via its intermediate hosts, aquatic snails. Elucidating the genetic basis of snail-schistosome interaction is a key to this strategy. Here we map a natural parasite-resistance polymorphism from a Caribbean population of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. In independent experimental evolution lines, RAD genotyping shows that the same genomic region responds to selection for resistance to the parasite Schistosoma mansoni. A dominant allele in this region conveys an 8-fold decrease in the odds of infection. Fine-mapping and RNA-Seq characterization reveal a <1Mb region, the Guadeloupe Resistance Complex (GRC), with 15 coding genes. Seven genes are single-pass transmembrane proteins with putative immunological roles, most of which show strikingly high nonsynonymous divergence (5-10%) among alleles. High linkage disequilibrium among three intermediate-frequency (>25%) haplotypes across the GRC, a significantly non-neutral pattern, suggests that balancing selection maintains diversity at the GRC. Thus, the GRC resembles immune gene complexes seen in other taxa and is likely involved in parasite recognition. The GRC is a potential target for controlling transmission of schistosomiasis, including via genetic manipulation of snails. PMID:25775214

Tennessen, Jacob A.; Thron, Andr; Marine, Melanie; Yeh, Jan-Ying; Rognon, Anne; Blouin, Michael S.

2015-01-01

327

Host-Parasite Biology of Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

PubMed Central

Thripinema fuscum is a natural enemy of Frankliniella fusca in peanut. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the reproductive biology of T. fuscum as affected by gender and stage of development of the host and to determine the effects of parasitism on host longevity, fecundity, and mortality. The adult females of F. fusca were the most readily parasitized (P < 0.001) in the laboratory experiments followed by the second instars, the first instars, and the adult males. One generation of T. fuscum developed within the parasitized larvae and adults, with the males and females emerging only during the adult stage of the host. Parasitism did not cause mortality of the host. Parasitism affected male longevity (P < 0.001) but not female longevity. The adult female thrips that were parasitized as first or second instars did not lay eggs, and the adult females stopped laying eggs within 3 days of being parasitized. The female-to-male sex ratio of T. fuscum emerging from parasitized male and female F. fusca was 22 and 18 to 1, respectively. More T. fuscum emerged from female hosts than from male hosts (P < 0.001). More emerged from hosts parasitized as larvae compared with hosts parasitized as adults (P < 0.05). The intrinsic capacity of increase of T. fuscum ranged between 0.29 and 0.37 when parasitizing the adult males and females and between 0.18 and 0.21 when parasitizing the larval males and females. Percent parasitism of F. fusca was estimated in peanut fields. The flowers were the primary site for aggregation of the adults of F. fusca and for the free-living females of T. fuscum to parasitize new hosts. As under laboratory conditions, field parasitism of adult males was less than parasitism of adult females in 2001 and 2002 (P < 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). Our study indicates that T. fuscum is a potential biological control agent capable of suppressing F. fusca populations in peanut. PMID:19262837

Sims, Kelly; Funderburk, Joe; Boucias, Drion

2005-01-01

328

INFLUENCE OF ALTERNATE HOST DENSITIES ON BROWN-HEADED COWBIRD PARASITISM RATES IN BLACK-CAPPED VIREOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism is thought to be partly influenced by density of the host species, although tests of host density are relatively rare. We examined parasitism rates relative to the density of individual host species and densities of coexisting host species. We monitored 392 nests among coexisting host species and measured their densities among six habitats on Fort

DAVID R. BARBER; THOMAS E. MARTINS

329

Nestling discrimination without recognition: a possible defence mechanism for hosts towards cuckoo parasitism?  

PubMed Central

One of the great evolutionary puzzles is why hosts of parasitic birds discriminate finely against alien eggs, but almost never discriminate against parasitic chicks. A theoretical model has shown that an adaptive host response to alien eggs can be based on learning. However, learned nestling discrimination is too costly to be favoured by selection in hosts of evicting parasites, such as the European cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). Indeed, parasitic chick rejection has never been reported for any European cuckoo host species. As learned nestling discrimination is maladaptive, one can expect that a viable alternative for hosts would be to use discrimination mechanisms not involving learning and/or recognition. We suggest that hosts may starve and desert cuckoo chicks that require higher amounts of food than an average host brood at fledging (i.e. feeding rates to a parasite are outside the normal range of host behaviour in unparasitized nests). Our observations of the reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) at parasitized nests indicate that such behaviour could possibly work in this host species. PMID:12952641

Grim, Toms; Kleven, Oddmund; Mikulica, Oldrich

2003-01-01

330

Hostparasite coevolution beyond the nestling stage? Mimicry of host fledglings by the specialist screaming cowbird  

PubMed Central

Egg mimicry by obligate avian brood parasites and host rejection of non-mimetic eggs are well-known textbook examples of hostparasite coevolution. By contrast, reciprocal adaptations and counteradaptations beyond the egg stage in brood parasites and their hosts have received less attention. The screaming cowbird (Molothrus rufoaxillaris) is a specialist obligate brood parasite whose fledglings look identical to those of its primary host, the baywing (Agelaioides badius). Such a resemblance has been proposed as an adaptation in response to host discrimination against odd-looking young, but evidence supporting this idea is scarce. Here, we examined this hypothesis by comparing the survival rates of young screaming cowbirds and non-mimetic shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis) cross-fostered to baywing nests and quantifying the similarity in plumage colour and begging calls between host and cowbird fledglings. Shiny cowbirds suffered higher post-fledging mortality rates (83%) than screaming cowbirds (0%) owing to host rejection. Visual modelling revealed that screaming cowbirds, but not shiny cowbirds, were indistinguishable from host young in plumage colour. Similarly, screaming cowbirds matched baywings' begging calls more closely than shiny cowbirds. Our results strongly support the occurrence of host fledgling mimicry in screaming cowbirds and suggest a role of visual and vocal cues in fledgling discrimination by baywings. PMID:22648157

De Mrsico, Mara C.; Gantchoff, Mariela G.; Reboreda, Juan C.

2012-01-01

331

Cell Host & Microbe A Malaria Parasite Formin Regulates Actin  

E-print Network

, another type of actin nucle- ator. Here, we demonstrate that one of two malaria parasite formins, Plasmodium falciparum formin 1 (PfFormin 1), and its ortholog in the related parasite Toxoplasma gondii

332

Relic behaviours, coevolution and the retention versus loss of host defences after episodes of avian brood parasitism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous studies of brood parasitism have stressed that host defences, such as egg recognition, are lost in the absence of parasitism. Such losses could result in coevolutionary cycles in which parasites shift away from well-defended hosts only to switch back to them later at a time when these hosts have lost much or all of their defences and the

Stephen I. Rothstein

2001-01-01

333

Distance decay of similarity among parasite communities of three marine invertebrate hosts.  

PubMed

The similarity in species composition between two communities generally decays as a function of increasing distance between them. Parasite communities in vertebrate definitive hosts follow this pattern but the respective relationship in intermediate invertebrate hosts of parasites with complex life cycles is unknown. In intermediate hosts, parasite communities are affected not only by the varying vagility of their definitive hosts (dispersing infective propagules) but also by the necessary coincidence of all their hosts in environmentally suitable localities. As intermediate hosts often hardly move they do not contribute to parasite dispersal. Hence, their parasite assemblages may decrease faster in similarity with increasing distance than those in highly mobile vertebrate definitive hosts. We use published field survey data to investigate distance decay of similarity in trematode communities from three prominent coastal molluscs of the Eastern North-Atlantic: the gastropods Littorina littorea and Hydrobia ulvae, and the bivalve Cerastoderma edule. We found that the similarity of trematode communities in all three hosts decayed with distance, independently of local sampling effort, and whether or not the parasites used the mollusc as first or second intermediate host in their life cycle. In H. ulvae, the halving distance (i.e. the distance that halves the similarity from its initial similarity at 1 km distance) for the trematode species using birds as definitive hosts was approximately two to three times larger than for species using fish. The initial similarities (estimated at 1 km distance) among trematode communities were relatively higher, whereas mean halving distances were lower, compared to published values for parasite communities in vertebrate hosts. We conclude that the vagility of definitive hosts accounts for a high similarity at the local scale, while the strong decay of similarity across regions is a consequence of the low probability that all necessary hosts and suitable environmental conditions coincide on a large scale. PMID:19189130

Thieltges, David W; Ferguson, MacNeill A D; Jones, Cathy S; Krakau, Manuela; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Noble, Leslie R; Reise, Karsten; Poulin, Robert

2009-05-01

334

Host specificity shapes population structure of pinworm parasites in Caribbean reptiles.  

PubMed

Host specificity is one of the potential factors affecting parasite diversification because gene flow may be facilitated or constrained by the number of host species that a parasite can exploit. We test this hypothesis using a costructure approach, comparing two sympatric pinworm parasites that differ in host specificity - Parapharyngodon cubensis and Spauligodon anolis - on the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix in the Caribbean. Spauligodon anolis specializes on Anolis lizards, whereas P.cubensis parasitizes Anolis lizards as well as many other species of lizards and snakes. We collected lizards from across the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix, sampled them for S.anolis and P.cubensis and generated nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data from the parasites. We used these data to show that P.cubensis is comprised of multiple cryptic species that exhibit limited population structure relative to S.anolis, which is consistent with our prediction based on their host specificity. We also provide evidence that the distribution of P.cubensis species is maintained by competitive exclusion, and in contrast to previous theoretical work, the parasites with the greatest number of host species also reach the highest prevalence rates. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that host specificity shapes parasite diversification, and suggest that even moderate differences in host specificity may contribute to substantial differences in diversification. PMID:23848187

Falk, Bryan G; Perkins, Susan L

2013-09-01

335

Chronology of parasite-induced alteration of fish behaviour: effects of parasite maturation and host experience  

E-print Network

Chronology of parasite-induced alteration of fish behaviour: effects of parasite maturation (Ornithodiplostomum ptychocheilus). This parasite develops and then encysts in a region of the brain that mediates experienced the drum. Because maximum parasite- induced reduction in OMR coincided with the period of maximum

Wisenden, Brian D.

336

Drivers of aggregation in a novel arboreal parasite: the influence of host size and infra-populations.  

PubMed

As a novel arboreal parasite, New Zealand's largest endemic moth, Aenetus virescens, is a biological oddity. With arguably the most unusual lepidopteran life history on earth, larvae grow to 100mm, spending ?6years as wood-boring parasites feeding on host tree phloem. Parasite fitness is a product of host suitability. Parasite discrimination between heterogeneous hosts in fragmented populations shapes parasite aggregation. We investigated whether A. virescens aggregation among hosts occurs randomly (target area effect), or if larvae select hosts based on host quality (ideal free distribution). Using long-term larval growth as an indicator of energy intake, we examined A. virescens aggregation in relation to host size and infra-population. Using a generalised linear model, the relationship between parasite intensity and host tree size was analysed. Reduced major axis regression was used to evaluate A. virescens growth after 1year. Linear mixed-effects models inferred the influence of parasite infra-population on parasite growth, with host tree as a random factor. Results indicate parasite intensity scaled positively with host size. Furthermore, parasite growth remained consistent throughout ontogeny regardless of host size or parasite infra-population. Aenetus virescens aggregation among hosts violates the ideal free distribution hypothesis, occurring instead as a result of host size, supporting the target area effect. PMID:25535954

Yule, Kirsty J; Burns, Kevin C

2015-02-01

337

Carp erythrodermatitis: host defense-pathogen interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outcome of a bacterial infection depends on the interaction between pathogen and host. The ability of the microbe to survive in the host depends on its invasive potential (i.e. spreading and multiplication), and its ability to obtain essential nutrients and to resist the host's defense system. On the other hand, the host's resistance to a bacterial attack depends on

C. N. Pourreau

1990-01-01

338

Parasite richness\\/sampling effort\\/host range: The fancy three-piece jigsaw puzzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, Jean-Franois Gugan and Clive Kennedy propose an alternative explanation for the confounding effects of host geographical range and sampling effort on parasite species richness using pathway analysis procedure. They suggest that much of the species richness revealed by sampling effort is also a reflection of host range. Thus, the total contribution of host range logically incorporates a

J-F Gugan; C. R Kennedy

1996-01-01

339

Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae): localities, hosts and host-parasite ecology.  

PubMed

Only a few aspects of the biology of Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann are known. Adults of this hard tick species are parasites of South American camelids in the Andean plateau of Argentina, Bolivia, Peru and Chile and also in the Argentine Patagonia, but they have been also rarely found on other artyodactils and two species of birds. The larva has been collected from reptiles in northern Chile, whereas the hosts for the nymph remain unknown. On nine localities included within Altitude Tropical and Perarid Mediterranean ecoregions in northern Chile, we analyzed 237 reptiles, 285 birds, 624 rodents and 52 camelids for infestation with A. parvitarsum to calculate seasonal prevalence of this tick. We also reviewed the literature of this tick and three entomological collections for obtaining and summarizing all the information to date about this tick. None of the analyzed birds and rodents were parasitized with A. parvitarsum; however, seven over a total of ten reptile species that we caught were infested with the larva. In the camelid species Lama glama and Vicugna pacos we collected adult specimens of this tick. Larval prevalence was higher during fall (75 %) in Liolaemus pleopholis in the Altitude Tropical ecoregion. We also collected adult specimens of A. parvitarsum from camelid manure heaps during summer in Salar de Surire and Llullaillaco localities. Additionally, we also reviewed the literature of this tick and examined specimens in three entomological collections for obtaining and summarizing all the information to date about this tick. By this study, nine localities and seven new hosts are added for A. parvitarsum and we confirm reptiles as specific hosts of this tick larva. PMID:23979654

Muoz-Leal, Sebastin; Gonzlez-Acua, Daniel; Beltrn-Saavedra, L Fabin; Limachi, Juan M; Guglielmone, Alberto A

2014-01-01

340

Current opinions: Zeros in hostparasite food webs: Are they real??  

PubMed Central

As the data have poured in, and the number of published food webs containing parasites has increased, questions have been raised as to why free-living species consistently outnumber parasites, even though most general reviews on the subject of host:parasite species richness suggest the contrary. Here, I describe this pattern as it exists in the literature, posit both real and artifactual sources of these findings, and suggest ways that we might interpret existing parasite-inclusive food webs. In large part, the reporting of free-living species devoid of any associated parasites (termed here in the coding of food web matrices as zeros) is a consequence of either sampling issues or the intent of the study. However, there are also several powerful explanatory features that validate real cases of this phenomenon. Some hosts appear to authentically lack parasitism in portions of their geographic ranges, and parasites are often lost from systems that are either in early phases of community re-colonization or are compromised by environmental perturbation. Additionally, multi-stage parasite life cycles and broad host spectra allow some parasite species to partially saturate systems without providing a corresponding increase in parasite species richness, leading to low parasite species richness values relative to the free-living community. On the whole, the existing published food webs are sufficient to, at least in principle, determine basic patterns and pathways associated with parasite establishment and persistence in free-living communities because (1) for the purpose of those features, species rarity is roughly analogous to absence and (2) the existing data seem to suggest that the addition of more parasite taxa would reinforce the patterns already observed. This is particularly true for helminth parasites, in which our understanding and the resolution of our work is most robust. PMID:24533341

Rossiter, Wayne

2013-01-01

341

Biology of Pediobius furvus (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae): a parasite introduced for the control of Eoreuma loftini (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)  

E-print Network

solitary parasites. Two host parameters whose effects on host suitability and acceptance were discussed for gregarious parasites are host size and age. Host size affects many aspects of the parasite-host interaction, including parasite sex ratio... similar aspects of parasite- host interactions (Vinson 1976, Lashomb et. al. 1983, Lashomb et. al. 1987). The effects of E. loftini pupal size and age on host suitability for parasitization were examined. Results from this study were used to choose a...

Pfannenstiel, R. S

1988-01-01

342

Host sex-specific parasites in a functionally dioecious fig: a preference way of adaptation to their hosts  

PubMed Central

Hostparasites interaction is a common phenomenon in nature. Diffusive coevolution might maintain stable cooperation in a figfig wasps system, in which the exploiter might diversify their genotype, phenotype, or behavior as a result of competition with pollinator, whereas the figs change flower syconia, fruits thickness, and syconia structure. In functionally dioecious Ficus auriculata, male figs and female figs contain two types of florets on separate plant, and share high similarities in outside morphology. Apocryptophagus (Sycophaginae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera) is one of few groups of nonpollinating fig wasps that can reproduce within both male and female figs. On the basis of the morphology and DNA barcoding, evidence from partial sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2, we found that there are two nonsibling Apocryptophagus species living on male and female F. auriculata figs, respectively. We estimated that these two species diverged about 19.2 million years ago. Our study suggests that the host shift from Ficus variegate or Ficus prostrata fig species to male figs is a preference way for Apocryptophagus wasps to adapt to the separation of sexual function in diecious figs. Furthermore, to escape the disadvantage or sanction impact of the host, the exploiter Apocryptophagus wasps can preferably adapt to exploiting each sex of the figs, by changing their oviposition, niche shift, and habitat. PMID:24101987

Wang, Qi; Jiang, Zi-Feng; Wang, Ning-xin; Niu, Li-ming; Li, Zi; Huang, Da-Wei

2013-01-01

343

Parasitic aphrodisiacs: manipulation of the hosts' behavioral defenses by sexually transmitted parasites.  

PubMed

Animals have a number of behavioral defenses against infection. For example, they typically avoid sick conspecifics, especially during mating. Most animals also alter their behavior after infection and thereby promote recovery (i.e., sickness behavior). For example, sick animals typically reduce the performance of energetically demanding behaviors, such as sexual behavior. Finally, some animals can increase their reproductive output when they face a life-threatening immune challenge (i.e., terminal reproductive investment). All of these behavioral responses probably rely on immune/neural communication signals for their initiation. Unfortunately, this communication channel is prone to manipulation by parasites. In the case of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), these parasites/pathogens must subvert some of these behavioral defenses for successful transmission. There is evidence that STIs suppress systemic signals of immune activation (e.g., pro-inflammatory cytokines). This manipulation is probably important for the suppression of sickness behavior and other behavioral defenses, as well as for the prevention of attack by the host's immune system. For example, the cricket, Gryllus texensis, is infected with an STI, the iridovirus IIV-6/CrIV. The virus attacks the immune system, which suffers a dramatic decline in its ability to make proteins important for immune function. This attack also hampers the ability of the immune system to activate sickness behavior. Infected crickets cannot express sickness behavior, even when challenged with heat-killed bacteria. Understanding how STIs suppress sickness behavior in humans and other animals will significantly advance the field of psychoneuroimmunology and could also provide practical benefits. PMID:24813461

Adamo, Shelley A

2014-07-01

344

A Transcriptomic Analysis of Echinococcus granulosus Larval Stages: Implications for Parasite Biology and Host Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background The cestode Echinococcus granulosus - the agent of cystic echinococcosis, a zoonosis affecting humans and domestic animals worldwide - is an excellent model for the study of host-parasite cross-talk that interfaces with two mammalian hosts. To develop the molecular analysis of these interactions, we carried out an EST survey of E. granulosus larval stages. We report the salient features of this study with a focus on genes reflecting physiological adaptations of different parasite stages. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated ?10,000 ESTs from two sets of full-length enriched libraries (derived from oligo-capped and trans-spliced cDNAs) prepared with three parasite materials: hydatid cyst wall, larval worms (protoscoleces), and pepsin/H+-activated protoscoleces. The ESTs were clustered into 2700 distinct gene products. In the context of the biology of E. granulosus, our analyses reveal: (i) a diverse group of abundant long non-protein coding transcripts showing homology to a middle repetitive element (EgBRep) that could either be active molecular species or represent precursors of small RNAs (like piRNAs); (ii) an up-regulation of fermentative pathways in the tissue of the cyst wall; (iii) highly expressed thiol- and selenol-dependent antioxidant enzyme targets of thioredoxin glutathione reductase, the functional hub of redox metabolism in parasitic flatworms; (iv) candidate apomucins for the external layer of the tissue-dwelling hydatid cyst, a mucin-rich structure that is critical for survival in the intermediate host; (v) a set of tetraspanins, a protein family that appears to have expanded in the cestode lineage; and (vi) a set of platyhelminth-specific gene products that may offer targets for novel pan-platyhelminth drug development. Conclusions/Significance This survey has greatly increased the quality and the quantity of the molecular information on E. granulosus and constitutes a valuable resource for gene prediction on the parasite genome and for further genomic and proteomic analyses focused on cestodes and platyhelminths. PMID:23209850

Parkinson, John; Wasmuth, James D.; Salinas, Gustavo; Bizarro, Cristiano V.; Sanford, Chris; Berriman, Matthew; Ferreira, Henrique B.; Zaha, Arnaldo; Blaxter, Mark L.; Maizels, Rick M.; Fernndez, Cecilia

2012-01-01

345

Colony kin structure and host-parasite relatedness in the barnacle goose.  

PubMed

Conspecific brood parasitism (CBP), females laying eggs in the nest of other 'host' females of the same species, is a common alternative reproductive tactic among birds. For hosts there are likely costs of incubating and rearing foreign offspring, but costs may be low in species with precocial chicks such as waterfowl, among which CBP is common. Waterfowl show strong female natal philopatry, and spatial relatedness among females may influence the evolution of CBP. Here we investigate fine-scale kin structure in a Baltic colony of barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis, estimating female spatial relatedness using protein fingerprints of egg albumen, and testing the performance of this estimator in known mother-daughter pairs. Relatedness was significantly higher between neighbour females (nesting < or = 40 metres from each other) than between females nesting farther apart, but there was no further distance trend in relatedness. This pattern may be explained by earlier observations of females nesting close to their mother or brood sisters, even when far from the birth nest. Hosts and parasites were on average not more closely related than neighbour females. In 25 of 35 sampled parasitized nests, parasitic eggs were laid after the host female finished laying, too late to develop and hatch. Timely parasites, laying eggs in the host's laying sequence, had similar relatedness to hosts as that between neighbours. Females laying late parasitic eggs tended to be less related to the host, but not significantly so. Our results suggest that CBP in barnacle geese might represent different tactical life-history responses. PMID:19889040

Anderholm, Sofia; Waldeck, Peter; VAN DER Jeugd, Henk P; Marshall, Rupert C; Larsson, Kjell; Andersson, Malte

2009-12-01

346

Food plant derived disease tolerance and resistance in a natural butterfly-plant-parasite interactions.  

PubMed

Organisms can protect themselves against parasite-induced fitness costs through resistance or tolerance. Resistance includes mechanisms that prevent infection or limit parasite growth while tolerance alleviates the fitness costs from parasitism without limiting infection. Although tolerance and resistance affect host-parasite coevolution in fundamentally different ways, tolerance has often been ignored in animal-parasite systems. Where it has been studied, tolerance has been assumed to be a genetic mechanism, unaffected by the host environment. Here we studied the effects of host ecology on tolerance and resistance to infection by rearing monarch butterflies on 12 different species of milkweed food plants and infecting them with a naturally occurring protozoan parasite. Our results show that monarch butterflies experience different levels of tolerance to parasitism depending on the species of milkweed that they feed on, with some species providing over twofold greater tolerance than other milkweed species. Resistance was also affected by milkweed species, but there was no relationship between milkweed-conferred resistance and tolerance. Chemical analysis suggests that infected monarchs obtain highest fitness when reared on milkweeds with an intermediate concentration, diversity, and polarity of toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides. Our results demonstrate that environmental factors-such as interacting species in ecological food webs-are important drivers of disease tolerance. PMID:23106703

Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefvre, Thierry; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Li, Hui; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

2012-11-01

347

Bot fly parasitism of the red-backed vole: host survival, infection risk, and population growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasites can play an important role in the dynamics of host populations, but empirical evidence remains sparse. We investigated\\u000a the role of bot fly (Cuterebra spp.) parasitism in red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi) by first assessing the impacts of the parasite on the probability of vole survival under stressful conditions as well as\\u000a on the reproductive activity of females. We then

Jrme Lematre; Daniel Fortin; Pierre-Olivier Montiglio; Marcel Darveau

2009-01-01

348

MicrobeHost Interactions are Positively and Negatively Regulated by GalectinGlycan Interactions  

PubMed Central

Microbehost interactions are complex processes that are directly and indirectly regulated by a variety of factors, including microbe presentation of specific molecular signatures on the microbial surface, as well as host cell presentation of receptors that recognize these pathogen signatures. Cell surface glycans are one important class of microbial signatures that are recognized by a variety of host cell lectins. Host cell lectins that recognize microbial glycans include members of the galectin family of lectins that recognize specific glycan ligands on viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this review, we will discuss the ways that the interactions of microbial glycans with host cell galectins positively and negatively regulate pathogen attachment, invasion, and survival, as well as regulate host responses that mitigate microbial pathogenesis. PMID:24995007

Baum, Linda G.; Garner, Omai B.; Schaefer, Katrin; Lee, Benhur

2014-01-01

349

GEOGRAPHIC GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF A MALARIA PARASITE, PLASMODIUM MEXICANUM, AND ITS LIZARD HOST, SCELOPORUS OCCIDENTALIS  

E-print Network

, SCELOPORUS OCCIDENTALIS Jennifer M. Fricke, Anne M. Vardo-Zalik*, and Jos. J. Schall? Department of Biology parasite Plasmodium mexicanum, and its lizard host, Sceloporus occidentalis, at 8 sites in northern

Schall, Joseph J.

350

A Parasite Cysteine Protease Is Key to Host Protein Degradation and Iron Acquisition*S  

E-print Network

for parasitism is the degradation of host transferrin, which is necessary for iron acquisition. Sub- strate and these were confirmed experimentally using FRET-based sub- strates. Degradation of transferrin was validated

Craik, Charles S.

351

Human land use and patterns of parasitism in tropical amphibian hosts  

E-print Network

Human land use and patterns of parasitism in tropical amphibian hosts Valerie J. Mc: Amphibian Parasite Land use Tropics Forest Pasture A B S T R A C T Landscape alterations by humans can amphibians was associated with land use change, I studied three species of amphibians, Rana vaillanti

McKenzie, Valerie

352

The review of "The Oestrid Flies: Biology, host-parasite relationships, impact and management"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Oestrid flies are a diverse group of parasitic insects whose larval forms are adapted for a parasitic life-style. Their armament of spines and mouth hooks, enables their migration within host tissues and provides for beastly images as depicted on the front cover of the book and within the text....

353

Behavioral Ecology Vol. 12 No. 1: 3140 Host activity and the risk of nest parasitism by  

E-print Network

(Dendroica petechia), and American redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla). Daily probability of parasitism varied of hosts during nest building to locate nests. Key words: American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), brood, warbling vireo (Vireo gilvus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). [Behav Ecol 12:31­40 (2001)] Parasitism

Martin, Thomas E.

354

Do Native Parasitic Plants Cause More Damage to Exotic Invasive Hosts Than Native Non-Invasive Hosts? An Implication for Biocontrol  

PubMed Central

Field studies have shown that native, parasitic plants grow vigorously on invasive plants and can cause more damage to invasive plants than native plants. However, no empirical test has been conducted and the mechanism is still unknown. We conducted a completely randomized greenhouse experiment using 3 congeneric pairs of exotic, invasive and native, non-invasive herbaceous plant species to quantify the damage caused by parasitic plants to hosts and its correlation with the hosts' growth rate and resource use efficiency. The biomass of the parasitic plants on exotic, invasive hosts was significantly higher than on congeneric native, non-invasive hosts. Parasites caused more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to congeneric, native, non-invasive hosts. The damage caused by parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the biomass of parasitic plants. The damage of parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the relative growth rate and the resource use efficiency of its host plants. It may be the mechanism by which parasitic plants grow more vigorously on invasive hosts and cause more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to native, non-invasive hosts. These results suggest a potential biological control effect of native, parasitic plants on invasive species by reducing the dominance of invasive species in the invaded community. PMID:22493703

Li, Junmin; Jin, Zexin; Song, Wenjing

2012-01-01

355

Host response to cuckoo song is predicted by the future risk of brood parasitism  

PubMed Central

Introduction Risk assessment occurs over different temporal and spatial scales and is selected for when individuals show an adaptive response to a threat. Here, we test if birds respond to the threat of brood parasitism using the acoustical cues of brood parasites in the absence of visual stimuli. We broadcast the playback of song of three brood parasites (Chalcites cuckoo species) and a sympatric non-parasite (striated thornbill, Acanthiza lineata) in the territories of superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) during the peak breeding period and opportunistic breeding period. The three cuckoo species differ in brood parasite prevalence and the probability of detection by the host, which we used to rank the risk of parasitism (high risk, moderate risk, low risk). Results Host birds showed the strongest response to the threat of cuckoo parasitism in accordance with the risk of parasitism. Resident wrens had many alarm calls and close and rapid approach to the playback speaker that was broadcasting song of the high risk brood parasite (Horsfields bronze-cuckoo, C. basalis) across the year (peak and opportunistic breeding period), some response to the moderate risk brood parasite (shining bronze-cuckoo, C. lucidus) during the peak breeding period, and the weakest response to the low risk brood parasite (little bronze-cuckoo, C. minutillus). Playback of the familiar control stimulus in wren territories evoked the least response. Conclusion Host response to the threat of cuckoo parasitism was assessed using vocal cues of the cuckoo and was predicted by the risk of future parasitism. PMID:23692969

2013-01-01

356

Geographic genetic differentiation of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and its lizard host, Sceloporus occidentalis.  

PubMed

Gene flow, and resulting degree of genetic differentiation among populations, will shape geographic genetic patterns and possibly local adaptation of parasites and their hosts. Some studies of Plasmodium falciparum in humans show substantial differentiation of the parasite in locations separated by only a few kilometers, a paradoxical finding for a parasite in a large, mobile host. We examined genetic differentiation of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum, and its lizard host, Sceloporus occidentalis, at 8 sites in northern California, with the use of variable microsatellite markers for both species. These lizards are small and highly territorial, so we expected local genetic differentiation of both parasite and lizard. Populations of P. mexicanum were found to be differentiated by analysis of 5 markers (F(st) values >0.05-0.10) over distances as short as 230-400 m, and greatly differentiated (F(st) values >0.25) for sites separated by approximately 10 km. In contrast, the lizard host had no, or very low, levels of differentiation for 3 markers, even for sites >40 km distant. Thus, gene flow for the lizard was great, but despite the mobility of the vertebrate host, the parasite was locally genetically distinct. This discrepancy could result if infected lizards move little, but their noninfected relatives were more mobile. Previous studies on the virulence of P. mexicanum for fence lizards support this hypothesis. However, changing prevalence of the parasite, without changes in density of the lizard, could also result in this pattern. PMID:19916631

Fricke, Jennifer M; Vardo-Zalik, Anne M; Schall, Jos J

2010-04-01

357

Using parasites to infer host population history: a new rationale for parasite conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only one of the 5000 extant louse species (Phthiraptera) and no species of flea (Siphonaptera), parasitic helminth (Platyhelminthes), parasitic nematode (Nemata), mite, or tick (Acari) is listed as threatened by the IUCN, despite impassioned pleas for parasite conservation beginning more than a decade ago. Although they should be conserved for their own sake, past arguments, highlighting the intrinsic and utilitarian

Noah Kerness Whiteman; Patricia G. Parker

2005-01-01

358

The Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein ROP 2 is inserted into the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, surrounding the intracellular parasite, and is exposed to the host cell cytoplasm  

PubMed Central

The origin of the vacuole membrane surrounding the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is not known. Although unique secretory organelles, the rhoptries, discharge during invasion of the host cell and may contribute to the formation of this parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM), no direct evidence for this hypothesis exists. Using a novel approach we have determined that parasite-encoded proteins are present in the PVM, exposed to the host cell cytoplasm. In infected cells incubated with streptolysin-O or low concentrations of digitonin, the host cell plasma membrane was selectively permeabilized without significantly affecting the integrity of the PVM. Antisera prepared against whole parasites or a parasite fraction enriched in rhoptries and dense granules reacted with the PVM in these permeabilized cells, indicating that parasite-encoded antigens were exposed on the cytoplasmic side of the PVM. Parasite antigens responsible for this staining of the PVM were identified by fractionating total parasite proteins by SDS-PAGE and velocity sedimentation, and then affinity purifying "fraction-specific" antibodies from the crude antisera. Proteins responsible for the PVM- staining, identified with fraction-specific antibodies, cofractionated with known rhoptry proteins. The gene encoding one of the rhoptry proteins, ROP 2, was cloned and sequenced, predicting and integral membrane protein. Antibodies specific for ROP 2 reacted with the intact PVM. These results provide the first direct evidence that rhoptry contents participate in the formation of the PVM of T. gondii and suggest a possible role of ROP 2 in parasite-host cell interactions. PMID:7962077

1994-01-01

359

Exploring the Host Parasitism of the Migratory Plant-Parasitic Nematode Ditylenchus destuctor by Expressed Sequence Tags Analysis  

PubMed Central

The potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor, is a very destructive nematode pest on many agriculturally important crops worldwide, but the molecular characterization of its parasitism of plant has been limited. The effectors involved in nematode parasitism of plant for several sedentary endo-parasitic nematodes such as Heterodera glycines, Globodera rostochiensis and Meloidogyne incognita have been identified and extensively studied over the past two decades. Ditylenchus destructor, as a migratory plant parasitic nematode, has different feeding behavior, life cycle and host response. Comparing the transcriptome and parasitome among different types of plant-parasitic nematodes is the way to understand more fully the parasitic mechanism of plant nematodes. We undertook the approach of sequencing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a mixed stage cDNA library of D. destructor. This is the first study of D. destructor ESTs. A total of 9800 ESTs were grouped into 5008 clusters including 3606 singletons and 1402 multi-member contigs, representing a catalog of D. destructor genes. Implementing a bioinformatics' workflow, we found 1391 clusters have no match in the available gene database; 31 clusters only have similarities to genes identified from D. africanus, the most closely related species to D. destructor; 1991 clusters were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO); 1550 clusters were assigned enzyme commission (EC) numbers; and 1211 clusters were mapped to 181 KEGG biochemical pathways. 22 ESTs had similarities to reported nematode effectors. Interestedly, most of the effectors identified in this study are involved in host cell wall degradation or modification, such as 1,4-beta-glucanse, 1,3-beta-glucanse, pectate lyase, chitinases and expansin, or host defense suppression such as calreticulin, annexin and venom allergen-like protein. This result implies that the migratory plant-parasitic nematode D. destructor secrets similar effectors to those of sedentary plant nematodes. Finally we further characterized the two D. destructor expansin proteins. PMID:23922743

Peng, Huan; Gao, Bing-li; Kong, Ling-an; Yu, Qing; Huang, Wen-kun; He, Xu-feng; Long, Hai-bo; Peng, De-liang

2013-01-01

360

The importance of gobies (Gobiidae, Teleostei) as hosts and transmitters of parasites in the SW Baltic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parasite fauna of five goby species (Gobiidae, Teleostei) was investigated in the Baltic Sea during the period 1987 to 1990. 13 parasite species were found in samples from the Lbeck Bight: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Schistocephalus sp. (Cestoda); Cryptocotyle concavum, Cryptocotyle lingua, Podocotyle atomon, Derogenes varicus (Digenea); Hysterothylacium sp. (cf. auctum), Contracaecum sp., Anisakis simplex (Nematoda); Corynosoma sp., Echinorhynchus gadi, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The number of parasite species were: 10 in the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, 8 in the black goby Gobius niger, 7 in the two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens, 6 in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and 5 in the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus. Neoechinorhynchus rutili occurred only in P. minutus, and Corynosoma sp. only in G. niger. The extent to which the gobies were parasitized clearly depended on the respective ways of life and, moreover, on the kind of prey ingested by the hosts. Additionally, the age of the hosts might be important. The highest rate of parasitism, more than 60%, was reached by Hysterothylacium sp. in G. niger and by Cryptocotyle concavum in P. microps. Infestation incidence lay mostly below 40% which means a satellite species status (Holmes, 1991). The number of parasite species was highest in summer; the highest intensities of single parasites occurred in spring ( Podocotyle atomon) or autumn ( Crytocotyle concavum). Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium sp. and Podocotyle infested their juvenile hosts very early, but only Hysterothylacium was accumulated by G. niger during its whole life span, whereas Bothriocephalus persisted also in older gobies in low intensities. The cercariae of Cryptocotyle spp. penetrate actively into their hosts; all the other parasites named were transmitted in larval form by prey organisms which consisted mainly of planktonic and benthic crustaceans. The gobies were final hosts for only 5 parasites; but two species may be transmitted to larger fish, and 6 species to sea birds or mammals. The parasite community of the five gobies may possibly be taken to characterize the ecological quality of the environment of the Lbeck Bight.

Zander, C. D.; Strohbach, U.; Groenewold, S.

1993-02-01

361

Differential sources of host species heterogeneity influence the transmission and control of multihost parasites  

PubMed Central

Controlling parasites that infect multiple host species often requires targeting single species that dominate transmission. Yet, it is rarely recognised that such key hosts can arise through disparate mechanisms, potentially requiring different approaches for control. We identify three distinct, but not mutually exclusive, processes that underlie host species heterogeneity: infection prevalence, population abundance and infectiousness. We construct a theoretical framework to isolate the role of each process from ecological data and to explore the outcome of different control approaches. Applying this framework to data on 11 gastrointestinal parasites in small mammal communities across the eastern United States reveals variation not only in the magnitude of transmission asymmetries among host species but also in the processes driving heterogeneity. These differences influence the efficiency by which different control strategies reduce transmission. Identifying and tailoring interventions to a specific type of key host may therefore enable more effective management of multihost parasites. PMID:23714379

Streicker, Daniel G; Fenton, Andy; Pedersen, Amy B

2013-01-01

362

Species density distributions as null models for ecologically significant interactions of parasite species in an assemblage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple-kind lottery model is presented for use in determining whether species density distributions in parasite species assemblages reveal regularly occurring species-to-species interactions. The model utilizes a recurrence vector algorithm to rapidly calculate expected frequencies of species per host classes in such assemblages. These calculations have been a computational problem because the probability of a host individual acquiring one species

J. Janovy; R. E. Clopton; D. A. Clopton; Scott D. Snyder; Aris Efting; Laura Krebs

1995-01-01

363

Communication between Toxoplasma gondii and its host: impact on parasite growth, development, immune evasion, and virulence  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect most warm-blooded animals and cause severe and life-threatening disease in developing fetuses and in immune-compromised patients. Although Toxoplasma was discovered over 100 years ago, we are only now beginning to appreciate the importance of the role that parasite modulation of its host has on parasite growth, bradyzoite development, immune evasion, and virulence. The goal of this review is to highlight these findings, to develop an integrated model for communication between Toxoplasma and its host, and to discuss new questions that arise out of these studies. PMID:19400868

BLADER, IRA J.; SAEIJ, JEROEN P.

2010-01-01

364

Supporting Information 3. Host-parasite simulations Deterministic computer simulations were performed to evaluate the effect of maternally-  

E-print Network

Supporting Information 3. Host-parasite simulations Deterministic computer simulations were performed to evaluate the effect of maternally- transmitted parasites on the evolution of sex. Briefly, the simulations work as follows. Hosts are assumed to be diploid and parasites to be haploid. Both species have

Agrawal, Aneil F.

365

A Large Repertoire of Parasite Epitopes Matched by a Large Repertoire of Host Immune Receptors in an  

E-print Network

A Large Repertoire of Parasite Epitopes Matched by a Large Repertoire of Host Immune Receptors in an Invertebrate Host/Parasite Model Yves Mone´1 , Benjamin Gourbal1 , David Duval1 , Louis Du Pasquier2 , Sylvie against trematode parasites. Following not yet well understood somatic mechanisms, the FREP repertoire

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

366

Ecomorphology and disease: cryptic effects of parasitism on host habitat use, thermoregulation, and predator avoidance.  

PubMed

Parasites can cause dramatic changes in the phenotypes of their hosts, sometimes leading to a higher probability of predation and parasite transmission. Because an organism's morphology directly affects its locomotion, even subtle changes in key morphological traits may affect survival and behavior. However, despite the ubiquity of parasites in natural communities, few studies have incorporated parasites into ecomorphological research. Here, we evaluated the effects of parasite-induced changes in host phenotype on the habitat use, thermal biology, and simulated predator-escape ability of Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) in natural environments. Frogs with parasite-induced limb malformations were more likely to use ground microhabitats relative to vertical refugia and selected less-angled perches closer to the ground in comparison with normal frogs. Although both groups had similar levels of infection, malformed frogs used warmer microhabitats, which resulted in higher body temperatures. Likely as a result of their morphological abnormalities, malformed frogs allowed a simulated predator to approach closer before escaping and escaped shorter distances relative to normal frogs. These data indicate that parasite-induced morphological changes can significantly alter host behavior and habitat use, highlighting the importance of incorporating the ubiquitous, albeit cryptic, role of parasites into ecomorphological research. PMID:21608461

Goodman, Brett A; Johnson, Pieter T J

2011-03-01

367

First study on parasites of Hemibrycon surinamensis (Characidae), a host from the eastern Amazon region.  

PubMed

This study was the first investigation of communities and infracommunities of parasites of Hemibrycon surinamensis. All the fish collected in a tributary of the Amazon river were parasitized by one or more parasite species. The Brillouin diversity index (HB) was 0.46 0.28 and the mean species richness was 3.5 1.2 parasites per host. A total of 14,734 parasites were collected, including Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Piscinoodinium pillulare (Protozoa); Jainus hexops and Tereancistrum sp. (Monogenoidea); Ergasilus turucuyus and Argulus sp. (Crustacea); metacercariae of Derogenidae gen. sp.; metacercariae and adults of Genarchella genarchella (Digenea); and Cucullanus larvae and Contracaecum larvae (Nematoda). The dominant parasite was I. multifiliis, followed by P. pillulare. The parasites showed aggregated dispersion, except for E. turucuyus, which had random dispersion. The condition factor (Kn) indicated that the parasitism levels had not affected host body condition. The high levels of infection observed were due to host behavior, and this was discussed. This was the first report of I. multifiliis, P. pillulare, Argulus sp., E. turucuyus, G. genarchella, J. hexops and Tereancistrum sp. in H. surinamensis, and it expanded the occurrence of E. turucuyus and G. genarchella to the eastern Amazon region. PMID:25271454

Hoshino, Maria Danielle Figueiredo Guimares; Hoshino, Erico Melo; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

2014-01-01

368

Selection from parasites favours immunogenetic diversity but not divergence among locally adapted host populations.  

PubMed

The unprecedented polymorphism in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is thought to be maintained by balancing selection from parasites. However, do parasites also drive divergence at MHC loci between host populations, or do the effects of balancing selection maintain similarities among populations? We examined MHC variation in populations of the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana and characterized their parasite communities. Poecilia mexicana populations in the Cueva del Azufre system are locally adapted to darkness and the presence of toxic hydrogen sulphide, representing highly divergent ecotypes or incipient species. Parasite communities differed significantly across populations, and populations with higher parasite loads had higher levels of diversity at class II MHC genes. However, despite different parasite communities, marked divergence in adaptive traits and in neutral genetic markers, we found MHC alleles to be remarkably similar among host populations. Our findings indicate that balancing selection from parasites maintains immunogenetic diversity of hosts, but this process does not promote MHC divergence in this system. On the contrary, we suggest that balancing selection on immunogenetic loci may outweigh divergent selection causing divergence, thereby hindering host divergence and speciation. Our findings support the hypothesis that balancing selection maintains MHC similarities among lineages during and after speciation (trans-species evolution). PMID:24725091

Tobler, M; Plath, M; Riesch, R; Schlupp, I; Grasse, A; Munimanda, G K; Setzer, C; Penn, D J; Moodley, Y