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1

Olfaction shapes host-parasite interactions in parasitic nematodes.  

PubMed

Many parasitic nematodes actively seek out hosts in which to complete their lifecycles. Olfaction is thought to play an important role in the host-seeking process, with parasites following a chemical trail toward host-associated odors. However, little is known about the olfactory cues that attract parasitic nematodes to hosts or the behavioral responses these cues elicit. Moreover, what little is known focuses on easily obtainable laboratory hosts rather than on natural or other ecologically relevant hosts. Here we investigate the olfactory responses of six diverse species of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) to seven ecologically relevant potential invertebrate hosts, including one known natural host and other potential hosts collected from the environment. We show that EPNs respond differentially to the odor blends emitted by live potential hosts as well as to individual host-derived odorants. In addition, we show that EPNs use the universal host cue CO(2) as well as host-specific odorants for host location, but the relative importance of CO(2) versus host-specific odorants varies for different parasite-host combinations and for different host-seeking behaviors. We also identified host-derived odorants by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and found that many of these odorants stimulate host-seeking behaviors in a species-specific manner. Taken together, our results demonstrate that parasitic nematodes have evolved specialized olfactory systems that likely contribute to appropriate host selection. PMID:22851767

Dillman, Adler R; Guillermin, Manon L; Lee, Joon Ha; Kim, Brian; Sternberg, Paul W; Hallem, Elissa A

2012-08-28

2

Host-parasite interactions: Marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, Perkinsus species.  

PubMed

This review assesses and examines the work conducted to date concerning host and parasite interactions between marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, belonging to Perkinsus species. The review focuses on two well-studied host-parasite interaction models: the two clam species, Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus, and the parasite Perkinsus olseni, and the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the parasite Perkinsus marinus. Cellular and humoral defense responses of the host in combating parasitic infection, the mechanisms (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, extracellular products) employed by the parasite in evading host defenses as well as the role of environmental factors in modulating the host-parasite interactions are described. PMID:23871855

Soudant, Philippe; E Chu, Fu-Lin; Volety, Aswani

2013-10-01

3

Diet quality determines interspecific parasite interactions in host populations  

PubMed Central

The widespread occurrence of multiple infections and the often vast range of nutritional resources for their hosts allow that interspecific parasite interactions in natural host populations might be determined by host diet quality. Nevertheless, the role of diet quality with respect to multispecies parasite interactions on host population level is not clear. We here tested the effect of host population diet quality on the parasite community in an experimental study using Daphnia populations. We studied the effect of diet quality on Daphnia population demography and the interactions in multispecies parasite infections of this freshwater crustacean host. The results of our experiment show that the fitness of a low-virulent microsporidian parasite decreased in low, but not in high-host-diet quality conditions. Interestingly, infections with the microsporidium protected Daphnia populations against a more virulent bacterial parasite. The observed interspecific parasite interactions are discussed with respect to the role of diet quality-dependent changes in host fecundity. This study reflects that exploitation competition in multispecies parasite infections is environmentally dependent, more in particular it shows that diet quality affects interspecific parasite competition within a single host and that this can be mediated by host population-level effects.

Lange, Benjamin; Reuter, Max; Ebert, Dieter; Muylaert, Koenraad; Decaestecker, Ellen

2014-01-01

4

Diet quality determines interspecific parasite interactions in host populations.  

PubMed

The widespread occurrence of multiple infections and the often vast range of nutritional resources for their hosts allow that interspecific parasite interactions in natural host populations might be determined by host diet quality. Nevertheless, the role of diet quality with respect to multispecies parasite interactions on host population level is not clear. We here tested the effect of host population diet quality on the parasite community in an experimental study using Daphnia populations. We studied the effect of diet quality on Daphnia population demography and the interactions in multispecies parasite infections of this freshwater crustacean host. The results of our experiment show that the fitness of a low-virulent microsporidian parasite decreased in low, but not in high-host-diet quality conditions. Interestingly, infections with the microsporidium protected Daphnia populations against a more virulent bacterial parasite. The observed interspecific parasite interactions are discussed with respect to the role of diet quality-dependent changes in host fecundity. This study reflects that exploitation competition in multispecies parasite infections is environmentally dependent, more in particular it shows that diet quality affects interspecific parasite competition within a single host and that this can be mediated by host population-level effects. PMID:25247066

Lange, Benjamin; Reuter, Max; Ebert, Dieter; Muylaert, Koenraad; Decaestecker, Ellen

2014-08-01

5

Host-Parasite Interactions in Some Fish Species  

PubMed Central

Host-parasite interactions are complex, compounded by factors that are capable of shifting the balance in either direction. The host's age, behaviour, immunological status, and environmental change can affect the association that is beneficial to the host whereas evasion of the host's immune response favours the parasite. In fish, some infections that induce mortality are age and temperature dependent. Environmental change, especially habitat degradation by anthropogenic pollutants and oceanographic alterations induced by climatic, can influence parasitic-host interaction. The outcome of these associations will hinge on susceptibility and resistance. PMID:22900144

Khan, R. A.

2012-01-01

6

Host-parasite interactions and global climate oscillations.  

PubMed

It is suspected that host-parasite interactions are influenced by climatic oscillations such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). However, the effects of climatic oscillations on host-parasite interactions have never been investigated. A long-term (1982-1999) dataset of the host snail Lymnaea stagnalis and trematode metacercariae infection has been collected for Lake Chany in Western Siberia. Using this dataset, we estimated the impact of the NAO on the population dynamics of hosts and parasites as well as their interactions. The results of general linear models showed that the abundance of dominant parasite species and the total parasite abundance significantly increased with NAO, with the exception of Moliniella anceps. Other climatic and biological factors were relatively weak to explain the abundance. There was no significant relationship between NAO and the population density of host snails. The prevalence of infection was related to the total abundance of parasites, but not to the NAO. Thus, the responses to the NAO differed between the host and parasites, indicating mismatching in host-parasite interactions. Therefore, climatic oscillations, such as the NAO, influence common parasitism. PMID:21733260

Doi, Hideyuki; Yurlova, Natalia I

2011-07-01

7

Host-parasite interactions between whiteflies and their parasitoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is relatively little information available concerning the physiological and biochemical interactions between whiteflies and their parasitoids. In this report, we describe interactions between aphelinid parasitoids and their aleyrodid hosts that we have observed in four host-parasite systems: Bemisia tabaci\\/Encarsia formosa, Trialeurodes vaporariorum\\/ E. formosa, B. tabaci\\/Eretmocerus mundus, and T. lauri\\/Encarsia scapeata. In the absence of reported polydnavirus and teratocytes,

Dale B. Gelman; Dan Gerling; Michael B. Blackburn; Jing S. Hu

2005-01-01

8

Leishmania cell surface prohibitin: role in host-parasite interaction.  

PubMed

Proteins selectively upregulated in infective parasitic forms could be critical for disease pathogenesis. A mammalian prohibitin orthologue is upregulated in infective metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania donovani prohibitin shares 41% similarity with mammalian prohibitin and 95-100% within the genus. Prohibitin is concentrated at the surface of the flagellar and the aflagellar pole, the aflagellar pole being a region through which host-parasite interactions occur. Prohibitin is attached to the membrane through a GPI anchor. Overexpression of wild-type prohibitin increases protein surface density resulting in parasites with higher infectivity. However, parasites overexpressing a mutant prohibitin with an amino acid substitution at the GPI anchor site to prevent surface expression through GPI-link show lesser surface expression and lower infective abilities. Furthermore, the presence of anti-prohibitin antibodies during macrophage-Leishmania interaction in vitro reduces infection. The cognate binding partner for Leishmania prohibitin on the host cell appears to be macrophage surface HSP70, siRNA mediated downregulation of which abrogates the capability of the macrophage to bind to parasites. Leishmania prohibitin is able to generate a strong humoral response in visceral leishmaniasis patients. The above observations suggest that prohibitin plays an important role in events leading to Leishmania-host interaction. PMID:19888987

Jain, Rohit; Ghoshal, Angana; Mandal, Chitra; Shaha, Chandrima

2010-04-01

9

Covariance in species diversity and facilitation among non-interactive parasite taxa: all against the host  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Different parasite taxa exploit different host resources and are often unlikely to interact directly. It is unclear, however, whether the diversity of any given parasite taxon is indirectly influenced by that of other parasite taxa on the same host. Some components of host immune defences may operate simultaneously against all kinds of parasites, whereas investment by the host in

B. R. KRASNOV; D. MOUILLOT; I. S. KHOKHLOVA; G. I. SHENBROT; R. POULIN

2005-01-01

10

On the evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions: addressing the question with regard to bumblebees and their parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, there has been a major shift in the study of adaptive patterns and processes towards including the role of host-parasite interactions, informed by concepts from evolutionary ecology. As a consequence, a number of major questions have emerged. For example, how genetics affects host-parasite interactions, whether parasitism selects for offspring diversification, whether parasite virulence is an adaptive

Paul Schmid-Hempel

2001-01-01

11

Host-parasite interactions between whiteflies and their parasitoids.  

PubMed

There is relatively little information available concerning the physiological and biochemical interactions between whiteflies and their parasitoids. In this report, we describe interactions between aphelinid parasitoids and their aleyrodid hosts that we have observed in four host-parasite systems: Bemisia tabaci/Encarsia formosa, Trialeurodes vaporariorum/E. formosa, B. tabaci/Eretmocerus mundus, and T. lauri/Encarsia scapeata. In the absence of reported polydnavirus and teratocytes, these parasitoids probably inject and/or produce compounds that interfere with the host immune response and also manipulate host development to suit their own needs. In addition, parasitoids must coordinate their own development with that of their host. Although eggs are deposited under all four instars of B. tabaci, Eretmocerus larvae only penetrate 4th instar B. tabaci nymphs. A pre-penetrating E. mundus first instar was capable of inducing permanent developmental arrest in its host, and upon penetration stimulated its host to produce a capsule (epidermal in origin) in which the parasitoid larva developed. T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci parasitized by E. formosa initiated adult development, and, on occasion, produced abnormal adult wings and eyes. In these systems, the site of parasitoid oviposition depended on the host species, occurring within or pressing into the ventral ganglion in T. vaporariorum and at various locations in B. tabaci. E. formosa's final larval molt is cued by the initiation of adult development in its host. In the T. lauri-E. scapeata system, both the host whitefly and the female parasitoid diapause during most of the year, i.e., from June until the middle of February (T. lauri) or from May until the end of December (E. scapeata). It appears that the growth and development of the insects are directed by the appearance of new, young foliage on Arbutus andrachne, the host tree. When adult female parasitoids emerged in the spring, they laid unfertilized male-producing eggs in whiteflies containing a female parasitoid [autoparasitism (development of male larvae utilizing female parasitoid immatures for nutrition)]. Upon hatching, these male larvae did not diapause, but initiated development, and the adult males that emerged several weeks later mated with available females to produce the next generation of parasitoid females. Thus, the interactions that exist between whiteflies and their parasitoids are complex and can be quite diverse in the various host-parasitoid systems. PMID:16304614

Gelman, Dale B; Gerling, Dan; Blackburn, Michael B; Hu, Jing S

2005-12-01

12

Impact of protozoan cell death on parasite-host interactions and pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCD in protozoan parasites has emerged as a fascinating field of parasite biology. This not only relates to the underlying mechanisms and their evolutionary implications but also to the impact on the parasite-host interactions within mammalian hosts and arthropod vectors. During recent years, common functions of apoptosis and autophagy in protozoa and during parasitic infections have emerged. Here, we review

Carsten GK Lüder; Jenny Campos-Salinas; Elena Gonzalez-Rey; Ger van Zandbergen

2010-01-01

13

Community interactions govern host-switching with implications for host-parasite coevolutionary history  

PubMed Central

Reciprocal selective effects between coevolving species are often influenced by interactions with the broader ecological community. Community-level interactions may also influence macroevolutionary patterns of coevolution, such as cospeciation, but this hypothesis has received little attention. We studied two groups of ecologically similar feather lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) that differ in their patterns of association with a single group of hosts. The two groups, “body lice” and “wing lice,” are both parasites of pigeons and doves (Columbiformes). Body lice are more host-specific and show greater population genetic structure than wing lice. The macroevolutionary history of body lice also parallels that of their columbiform hosts more closely than does the evolutionary history of wing lice. The closer association of body lice with hosts, compared with wing lice, can be explained if body lice are less capable of switching hosts than wing lice. Wing lice sometimes disperse phoretically on parasitic flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), but body lice seldom engage in this behavior. We tested the hypothesis that wing lice switch host species more often than body lice, and that the difference is governed by phoresis. Our results show that, where flies are present, wing lice switch to novel host species in sufficient numbers to establish viable populations on the new host. Body lice do not switch hosts, even where flies are present. Thus, differences in the coevolutionary history of wing and body lice can be explained by differences in host-switching, mediated by a member of the broader parasite community. PMID:21606369

Harbison, Christopher W.; Clayton, Dale H.

2011-01-01

14

Does timing matter? How priority effects influence the outcome of parasite interactions within hosts.  

PubMed

In nature, hosts are exposed to an assemblage of parasite species that collectively form a complex community within the host. To date, however, our understanding of how within-host-parasite communities assemble and interact remains limited. Using a larval amphibian host (Pacific chorus frog, Pseudacris regilla) and two common trematode parasites (Ribeiroia ondatrae and Echinostoma trivolvis), we experimentally examined how the sequence of host exposure influenced parasite interactions within hosts. While there was no evidence that the parasites interacted when hosts were exposed to both parasites simultaneously, we detected evidence of both intraspecific and interspecific competition when exposures were temporally staggered. However, the strength and outcome of these priority effects depended on the sequence of addition, even after accounting for the fact that parasites added early in host development were more likely to encyst compared to parasites added later. Ribeiroia infection success was reduced by 14 % when Echinostoma was added prior to Ribeiroia, whereas no such effect was noted for Echinostoma when Ribeiroia was added first. Using a novel fluorescent-labeling technique that allowed us to track Ribeiroia infections from different exposure events, we also discovered that, similar to the interspecific interactions, early encysting parasites reduced the encystment success of later arriving parasites by 41 %, which could be mediated by host immune responses and/or competition for space. These results suggest that parasite identity interacts with host immune responses to mediate parasite interactions within the host, such that priority effects may play an important role in structuring parasite communities within hosts. This knowledge can be used to assess host-parasite interactions within natural communities in which environmental conditions can lead to heterogeneity in the timing and composition of host exposure to parasites. PMID:23754306

Hoverman, Jason T; Hoye, Bethany J; Johnson, Pieter T J

2013-12-01

15

Parasite transmission in social interacting hosts: Monogenean epidemics in guppies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background: Infection incidence increases with the average number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals. Contact rates are normally assumed to increase linearly with host density. However, social species seek out each other at low density and saturate their contact rates at high densities. Although predicting epidemic behaviour requires knowing how contact rates scale with host density, few empirical studies have investigated the effect of host density. Also, most theory assumes each host has an equal probability of transmitting parasites, even though individual parasite load and infection duration can vary. To our knowledge, the relative importance of characteristics of the primary infected host vs. the susceptible population has never been tested experimentally. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here, we examine epidemics using a common ectoparasite, Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting its guppy host (Poecilia reticulata). Hosts were maintained at different densities (3, 6, 12 and 24 fish in 40 L aquaria), and we monitored gyrodactylids both at a population and individual host level. Although parasite population size increased with host density, the probability of an epidemic did not. Epidemics were more likely when the primary infected fish had a high mean intensity and duration of infection. Epidemics only occurred if the primary infected host experienced more than 23 worm days. Female guppies contracted infections sooner than males, probably because females have a higher propensity for shoaling. Conclusions/Significance: These findings suggest that in social hosts like guppies, the frequency of social contact largely governs disease epidemics independent of host density. ?? 2011 Johnson et al.

Johnson, M. B.; Lafferty, K. D.; van, Oosterhout, C.; Cable, J.

2011-01-01

16

Parasite transmission in social interacting hosts: Monogenean epidemics in guppies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background Infection incidence increases with the average number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals. Contact rates are normally assumed to increase linearly with host density. However, social species seek out each other at low density and saturate their contact rates at high densities. Although predicting epidemic behaviour requires knowing how contact rates scale with host density, few empirical studies have investigated the effect of host density. Also, most theory assumes each host has an equal probability of transmitting parasites, even though individual parasite load and infection duration can vary. To our knowledge, the relative importance of characteristics of the primary infected host vs. the susceptible population has never been tested experimentally. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we examine epidemics using a common ectoparasite, Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting its guppy host (Poecilia reticulata). Hosts were maintained at different densities (3, 6, 12 and 24 fish in 40 L aquaria), and we monitored gyrodactylids both at a population and individual host level. Although parasite population size increased with host density, the probability of an epidemic did not. Epidemics were more likely when the primary infected fish had a high mean intensity and duration of infection. Epidemics only occurred if the primary infected host experienced more than 23 worm days. Female guppies contracted infections sooner than males, probably because females have a higher propensity for shoaling. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that in social hosts like guppies, the frequency of social contact largely governs disease epidemics independent of host density.

Johnson, Mirelle B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

2011-01-01

17

Parasite Transmission in Social Interacting Hosts: Monogenean Epidemics in Guppies  

PubMed Central

Background Infection incidence increases with the average number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals. Contact rates are normally assumed to increase linearly with host density. However, social species seek out each other at low density and saturate their contact rates at high densities. Although predicting epidemic behaviour requires knowing how contact rates scale with host density, few empirical studies have investigated the effect of host density. Also, most theory assumes each host has an equal probability of transmitting parasites, even though individual parasite load and infection duration can vary. To our knowledge, the relative importance of characteristics of the primary infected host vs. the susceptible population has never been tested experimentally. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we examine epidemics using a common ectoparasite, Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting its guppy host (Poecilia reticulata). Hosts were maintained at different densities (3, 6, 12 and 24 fish in 40 L aquaria), and we monitored gyrodactylids both at a population and individual host level. Although parasite population size increased with host density, the probability of an epidemic did not. Epidemics were more likely when the primary infected fish had a high mean intensity and duration of infection. Epidemics only occurred if the primary infected host experienced more than 23 worm days. Female guppies contracted infections sooner than males, probably because females have a higher propensity for shoaling. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that in social hosts like guppies, the frequency of social contact largely governs disease epidemics independent of host density. PMID:21897838

Johnson, Mirelle B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

2011-01-01

18

Food supplementation leads to bottom-up and top-down food-host-parasite interactions.  

PubMed

1. Food-prey-predator interactions may involve both 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' processes. Conventionally, food-host-parasite interactions have been seen as governed solely from the 'bottom-up', i.e. well-fed hosts can better resist parasites and so suffer less parasitism. Recent studies on diverse endo- and ecto-parasites increasingly highlight that well-fed hosts provide parasites with a better resource base, and so may be more likely to be parasitized. 2. Brood parasites exploit host parental behaviour by laying their eggs in others' nests. The brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) is a North American brood parasite that exploits over 100 host species. 3. We conducted a food addition experiment on song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), a frequently parasitized cowbird host, near Victoria, BC, Canada. We expected results consistent with conventional 'bottom-up' effects because we previously found that food supplemented sparrows better eluded nest predation, and we thus also expected them to be better at eluding cowbird parasitism. 4. Here, we report results to the contrary. Food supplemented sparrows were parasitized as often as non-food supplemented sparrows, were multiply parasitized significantly more often, and suffered significantly more parasitism-induced egg loss. Our results suggest cowbirds preferentially parasitized better fed hosts and cowbirds benefited from doing so as food supplemented sparrows fledged significantly more cowbird young per multiply parasitized nest. The pattern of egg loss also accorded with recent evidence indicating that cowbirds may remove just the right number of host eggs to maximize provisioning of the cowbird nestling. 5. Our work suggests that brood parasitism in vertebrates involves both 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' processes consistent with the growing number of studies showing that food-host-parasite interactions are more complex than previously thought. One of the conservation implications of our results is that greater food availability may not provide hosts a respite from brood parasitism, but is, nonetheless, beneficial overall. PMID:20646123

Zanette, Liana; Clinchy, Michael

2010-11-01

19

Genetic variation changes the interactions between the parasitic plant-ecosystem engineer Rhinanthus and its hosts  

PubMed Central

Within-species genetic variation is a potent factor influencing between-species interactions and community-level structure. Species of the hemi-parasitic plant genus Rhinanthus act as ecosystem engineers, significantly altering above- and below-ground community structure in grasslands. Here, we show the importance of genotypic variation within a single host species (barley—Hordeum vulgare), and population-level variation among two species of parasite (Rhinanthus minor and Rhinanthus angustifolius) on the outcome of parasite infection for both partners. We measured host fitness (number of seeds) and calculated parasite virulence as the difference in seed set between infected and uninfected hosts (the inverse of host tolerance). Virulence was determined by genetic variation within the host species and among the parasite species, but R. angustifolius was consistently more virulent than R. minor. The most tolerant host had the lowest inherent fitness and did not gain a fitness advantage over other infected hosts. We measured parasite size as a proxy for transmission ability (ability to infect further hosts) and host resistance. Parasite size depended on the specific combination of host genotype, parasite species and parasite population, and no species was consistently larger. We demonstrate that the outcome of infection by Rhinanthus depends not only on the host species, but also on the underlying genetics of both host and parasite. Thus, genetic variations within host and parasite are probably essential components of the ecosystem-altering effects of Rhinanthus. PMID:21444312

Rowntree, Jennifer K.; Cameron, Duncan D.; Preziosi, Richard F.

2011-01-01

20

The effect of host mycorrhizal status on host plant–parasitic plant interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two pot experiments were conducted to examine three-level interactions between host plants, mycorrhizal fungi and parasitic\\u000a plants. In a greenhouse experiment, Poa annua plants were grown in the presence or absence of an AM fungus (either Glomus lamellosum V43a or G. mosseae BEG29) and in the presence or absence of a root hemiparasitic plant (Odontites vulgaris). In a laboratory experiment,

Veikko Salonen; Mauritz Vestberg; Marko Vauhkonen

2001-01-01

21

Lectin Activation in Giardia lamblia by Host Protease: A Novel Host-Parasite Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lectin in Giardia lamblia was activated by secretions from the human duodenum, the environment where the parasite lives. Incubation of the secretions with trypsin inhibitors prevented the appearance of lectin activity, implicating proteases as the activating agent. Accordingly, lectin activation was also produced by crystalline trypsin and Pronase; other proteases tested were ineffective. When activated, the lectin agglutinated intestinal cells to which the parasite adheres in vivo. The lectin was most specific to mannose-6-phosphate and apparently was bound to the plasma membrane. Activation of a parasite lectin by a host protease represents a novel mechanism of hostparasite interaction and may contribute to the affinity of Giardia lamblia to the infection site.

Lev, Boaz; Ward, Honorine; Keusch, Gerald T.; Pereira, Miercio E. A.

1986-04-01

22

Cooperation and conflict in host manipulation: interactions among macro-parasites and micro-organisms  

PubMed Central

Several parasite species are known to manipulate the phenotype of their hosts in ways that enhance their own transmission. Co-occurrence of manipulative parasites, belonging to the same species or to more than one species, in a single host has been regularly observed. Little is known, however, on interactions between co-occurring manipulative parasites with same or different transmission routes. Several models addressing this problem have provided predictions on how cooperation and conflict between parasites could emerge from multiple infections. Here, we review the empirical evidence in favor of the existence of synergistic or antagonistic interactions between co-occurring parasites, and highlight the neglected role of micro-organisms. We particularly discuss the actual importance of selective forces shaping the evolution of interactions between manipulative parasites in relation to parasite prevalence in natural populations, efficiency in manipulation, and type of transmission (i.e., horizontal versus vertical), and we emphasize the potential for future research. PMID:24966851

Cezilly, Frank; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Rigaud, Thierry

2014-01-01

23

The Ecology of Parasite-Host Interactions at Montezuma Well National Monument, Arizona - Appreciating the Importance of Parasites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although parasites play important ecological roles through the direct interactions they have with their hosts, historically that fact has been underappreciated. Today, scientists have a growing appreciation of the scope of such impacts. Parasites have been reported to dominate food webs, alter predator-prey relationships, act as ecosystem engineers, and alter community structure. In spite of this growing awareness in the scientific community, parasites are still often neglected in the consideration of the management and conservation of resources and ecosystems. Given that at least half of the organisms on earth are probably parasitic, it should be evident that the ecological functions of parasites warrant greater attention. In this report, we explore different aspects of parasite-host relationships found at a desert spring pond within Montezuma Well National Monument, Arizona. In three separate but related chapters, we explore interactions between a novel amphipod host and two parasites. First, we identify how host behavior responds to this association and how this association affects interactions with both invertebrate non-host predators and a vertebrate host predator. Second, we look at the human dimension, investigating how human recreation can indirectly affect patterns of disease by altering patterns of vertebrate host space use. Finally - because parasites and diseases are of increasing importance in the management of wildlife species, especially those that are imperiled or of management concern - the third chapter argues that research would benefit from increased attention to the statistical analysis of wildlife disease studies. This report also explores issues of statistical parasitology, providing information that may better inform those designing research projects and analyzing data from studies of wildlife disease. In investigating the nature of parasite-host interactions, the role that relationships play in ecological communities, and how human activities alter these associations, scientists usually make inferences by methods of statistical hypotheses testing. This type of hypothesis testing places additional importance on the analysis and interpretation of parasite-host interactions. We address these ideas in this report, focusing on the following questions: (1) How do two parasites with complex life cycles alter the behavior of a novel amphipod host, and how do host and non-host predators respond to infected amphipod prey? (2) Does human recreation affect spatial patterns of infection in an otherwise natural ecosystem? (3) How is hypothesis-testing applied in studies of wildlife disease? (4) What conclusions can we make about the relative usefulness of these methodologies? and (5) How can the analysis and interpretation of wildlife disease studies be improved? Each chapter of this report contains its own literature-cited section, with tables included in appendixes at the end of the full report.

O'Brien, Chris; van Riper, Charles, III

2009-01-01

24

Dietary supply with polyunsaturated fatty acids and resulting maternal effects influence host - parasite interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Interactions between hosts and parasites can be substantially modulated by host nutrition. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential dietary nutrients; they are indispensable as structural components of cell membranes and as precursors for eicosanoids, signalling molecules which act on reproduction and immunity. Here, we explored the potential of dietary PUFAs to affect the course of parasitic infections using a well-established invertebrate hostparasite system, the freshwater herbivore Daphnia magna and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. Results Using natural food sources differing in their PUFA composition and by experimentally modifying the availability of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) we examined PUFA-mediated effects resulting from direct consumption as well as maternal effects on offspring of treated mothers. We found that both host and parasite were affected by food quality. Feeding on C20 PUFA-containing food sources resulted in higher offspring production of hosts and these effects were conveyed to a great extent to the next generation. While feeding on a diet containing high PUFA concentrations significantly reduced the likelihood of becoming infected, the infection success in the next generation increased whenever the maternal diet contained PUFAs. We suggest that this opposing effect was caused by a trade-off between reproduction and immunity in the second generation. Conclusions Considering the direct and maternal effects of dietary PUFAs on host and parasite we propose that hostparasite interactions and thus disease dynamics under natural conditions are subject to the availability of dietary PUFAs. PMID:24175981

2013-01-01

25

Host-parasite interactions in sympatric and allopatric populations of European bitterling.  

PubMed

Susceptibility to parasite infection was examined in a field experiment for four populations of 0+ juvenile European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus): one sympatric to local parasite fauna, one allopatric, and two hybrid populations. Significantly higher parasite abundance was recorded in the allopatric bitterling population, suggesting a maladaptation of parasites to their sympatric host. Type of parasite life cycle played an important role in host-parasite interactions. While the abundance of allogenic species between populations was comparable, a significant difference was found in abundance of autogenic parasite species between fish populations, with the allopatric population more infected. These results correspond with a prediction of higher dispersion probability and higher gene flow among geographically distant populations of allogenic species as compared to autogenic species. Increased susceptibility to parasites that do not occur within the natural host's geographical distribution was found in the allopatric host, but only for autogenic species. A difference in infection susceptibility was detected among populations of early-hatched bitterling exposed to infection during a period of high parasite abundance and richness in the environment. Differences in parasite abundance and species diversity among populations diminished, however, with increasing time of exposure. No difference was found within late-hatched populations, probably due to a lower probability of infection in late-hatched cohorts. PMID:21431383

Francová, Kate?ina; Ondra?ková, Markéta

2011-09-01

26

Avian brood parasitism and ectoparasite richness-scale-dependent diversity interactions in a three-level host-parasite system.  

PubMed

Brood parasitic birds, their foster species and their ectoparasites form a complex coevolving system composed of three hierarchical levels. However, effects of hosts' brood parasitic life-style on the evolution of their louse (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) lineages have never been tested. We present two phylogenetic analyses of ectoparasite richness of brood parasitic clades. Our hypothesis was that brood parasitic life-style affects louse richness negatively across all avian clades due to the lack of vertical transmission routes. Then, narrowing our scope to brood parasitic cuckoos, we explored macroevolutionary factors responsible for the variability of their louse richness. Our results show that taxonomic richness of lice is lower on brood parasitic clades than on their nonparasitic sister clades. However, we found a positive covariation between the richness of cuckoos' Ischnoceran lice and the number of their foster species, possibly due to the complex and dynamic subpopulation structure of cuckoo species that utilize several host species. We documented diversity interactions across a three-level host parasite system and we found evidence that brood parasitism has opposing effects on louse richness at two slightly differing macroevolutionary scales, namely the species richness and the genera richness. PMID:23550748

Vas, Zoltán; Fuisz, Tibor I; Fehérvári, Péter; Reiczigel, Jen?; Rózsa, Lajos

2013-04-01

27

Malaria proteomics: insights into the parasite-host interactions in the pathogenic space.  

PubMed

Proteomics is improving malaria research by providing global information on relevant protein sets from the parasite and the host in connection with its cellular structures and specific functions. In the last decade, reports have described biologically significant elements in the proteome of Plasmodium, which are selectively targeted and quantified, allowing for sensitive and high-throughput comparisons. The identification of molecules by which the parasite and the host react during the malaria infection is crucial to the understanding of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Hence, proteomics is playing a major role by defining the elements within the pathogenic space between both organisms that change across the parasite life cycle in association with the host transformation and response. Proteomics has identified post-translational modifications in the parasite and the host that are discussed in terms of functional interactions in malaria parasitism. Furthermore, the contribution of proteomics to the investigation of immunogens for potential vaccine candidates is summarized. The malaria-specific technological advances in proteomics are particularly suited now for identifying host-parasite interactions that could lead to promising targets for therapy, diagnosis or prevention. In this review, we examine the knowledge gained on the biology, pathogenesis, immunity and diagnosis of Plasmodium infection from recent proteomic studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Trends in Microbial Proteomics. PMID:24140976

Bautista, José M; Marín-García, Patricia; Diez, Amalia; Azcárate, Isabel G; Puyet, Antonio

2014-01-31

28

A Virus Essential for Insect Host-Parasite Interactions Encodes Cystatins  

PubMed Central

Cotesia congregata is a parasitoid wasp that injects its eggs in the host caterpillar Manduca sexta. In this host-parasite interaction, successful parasitism is ensured by a third partner: a bracovirus. The relationship between parasitic wasps and bracoviruses constitutes one of the few known mutualisms between viruses and eukaryotes. The C. congregata bracovirus (CcBV) is injected at the same time as the wasp eggs in the host hemolymph. Expression of viral genes alters the caterpillar's immune defense responses and developmental program, resulting in the creation of a favorable environment for the survival and emergence of adult parasitoid wasps. Here, we describe the characterization of a CcBV multigene family which is highly expressed during parasitism and which encodes three proteins with homology to members of the cystatin superfamily. Cystatins are tightly binding, reversible inhibitors of cysteine proteases. Other cysteine protease inhibitors have been described for lepidopteran viruses; however, this is the first description of the presence of cystatins in a viral genome. The expression and purification of a recombinant form of one of the CcBV cystatins, cystatin 1, revealed that this viral cystatin is functional having potent inhibitory activity towards the cysteine proteases papain, human cathepsins L and B and Sarcophaga cathepsin B in assays in vitro. CcBV cystatins are, therefore, likely to play a role in host caterpillar physiological deregulation by inhibiting host target proteases in the course of the host-parasite interaction. PMID:16014938

Espagne, E.; Douris, V.; Lalmanach, G.; Provost, B.; Cattolico, L.; Lesobre, J.; Kurata, S.; Iatrou, K.; Drezen, J.-M.; Huguet, E.

2005-01-01

29

Life history determines genetic structure and evolutionary potential of host-parasite interactions  

PubMed Central

Measures of population genetic structure and diversity of disease-causing organisms are commonly used to draw inferences regarding their evolutionary history and potential to generate new variation in traits that determine interactions with their hosts. Parasite species exhibit a range of population structures and life-history strategies, including different transmission modes, life-cycle complexity, off-host survival mechanisms and dispersal ability. These are important determinants of the frequency and predictability of interactions with host species. Yet the complex causal relationships between spatial structure, life history and the evolutionary dynamics of parasite populations are not well understood. We demonstrate that a clear picture of the evolutionary potential of parasitic organisms and their demographic and evolutionary histories can only come from understanding the role of life history and spatial structure in influencing population dynamics and epidemiological patterns. PMID:18947899

Barrett, Luke G.; Thrall, Peter H.; Burdon, Jeremy J.; Linde, Celeste C.

2009-01-01

30

Host parasite interactions between freshwater phytoplankton and chytrid fungi (Chytridiomycota)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some chytrids are host-specific parasiticfungithat may have a considerable impact on phytoplankton dynamics. The phylum Chytridiomycota contains one class, the Chytridiomycetes, and is composed of five different orders. Molecular studies now firmly place the Chytridiomycota within the fungal kingdom. Chytrids are characterized by having zoospores, a motile stage in their life cycle. Zoospores are attracted to the host cell by

Bas W. Ibelings; Arnout De Bruin; Maiko Kagami; Machteld Rijkeboer; Michaela Brehm; Ellen Van Donk

2004-01-01

31

Temperature-driven shifts in a host-parasite interaction drive nonlinear changes in disease risk  

E-print Network

decline, amphibian malformations, climate change, emerging disease, freshwater, global warming, mismatch understanding of these ecologi- cal responses to climate change, their effects on disease risk remain a pressingTemperature-driven shifts in a host-parasite interaction drive nonlinear changes in disease risk

Johnson, Pieter

32

Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry  

E-print Network

are applied to genetic improvement of Eucalyptus to obtain new clones of interspecific and intraspecific conditions to select disease-resistant genetic materials for commercial cloning or identifying sourcesProceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry

Standiford, Richard B.

33

Interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasite infection in wild bovids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, I explored the interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasitism in wild bovids by examining temporal patterns of nematode faecal egg shedding in species with different diet types during a drought and non-drought year. Study species included three grass and roughage feeders (buffalo, hartebeest, waterbuck), four mixed or intermediate feeders (eland, Grant's gazelle, impala, Thomson's

Vanessa O Ezenwa

2004-01-01

34

Infection genetics and the likelihood of host shifts in coevolving host-parasite interactions.  

PubMed

Identifying factors that promote host shifts is crucial for understanding the origin and maintenance of biodiversity as well as the emergence of novel infectious diseases. Previous research has demonstrated that the opportunity for cross-species transmission and parasite adaptation can play an important role in determining if and when a host shift occurs. Another possibility is that the genetic basis of infection and resistance, when coupled with the process of coevolution (i.e., coevolutionary genetics), plays a pivotal role in determining when, if ever, a host shift occurs. Here we explore this possibility by developing and analyzing a genetically explicit epidemiological model that allows for coevolution and alternative forms of infection genetics. Approximate analytical solutions to this model demonstrate that infection genetics can influence the likelihood of a host shift. Stochastic simulations confirm the important role of infection genetics but in some cases reveal that coevolutionary dynamics modulate the likelihood of host shifts. Our results demonstrate that predicting host shifts requires a detailed understanding of the underlying genetics of infection and resistance. Thus, identifying the genetic architecture of infection and resistance in real systems is of central importance. PMID:23070322

Poullain, Virginie; Nuismer, Scott L

2012-11-01

35

Host defense reinforces host-parasite cospeciation  

PubMed Central

Cospeciation occurs when interacting groups, such as hosts and parasites, speciate in tandem, generating congruent phylogenies. Cospeciation can be a neutral process in which parasites speciate merely because they are isolated on diverging host islands. Adaptive evolution may also play a role, but this has seldom been tested. We explored the adaptive basis of cospeciation by using a model system consisting of feather lice (Columbicola) and their pigeon and dove hosts (Columbiformes). We reconstructed phylogenies for both groups by using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Both phylogenies were well resolved and well supported. Comparing these phylogenies revealed significant cospeciation and correlated evolution of host and parasite body size. The match in body size suggested that adaptive constraints limit the range of hosts lice can use. We tested this hypothesis by transferring lice among hosts of different sizes to simulate host switches. The results of these experiments showed that lice cannot establish viable populations on novel hosts that differ in size from the native host. To determine why size matters, we measured three components of louse fitness: attachment, feeding, and escape from host defense (preening). Lice could remain attached to, and feed on, hosts varying in size by an order of magnitude. However, they could not escape from preening on novel hosts that differed in size from the native host. Overall, our results suggest that host defense reinforces cospeciation in birds and feather lice by preventing lice from switching between hosts of different sizes. PMID:14673114

Clayton, Dale H.; Bush, Sarah E.; Goates, Brad M.; Johnson, Kevin P.

2003-01-01

36

Phenotypic plasticity of host-parasite interactions in response to the route of infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microsporidium Octosporea bayeri can infect its host, the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna, vertically and horizontally. The two routes differ greatly in the way the parasite leaves the harbouring host (transmission) and in the way it enters a new, susceptible host (infection). Infections resulting from each route may thus vary in the way they affect host and parasite life-histories and,

D. B. VIZOSO; D. EBERT

2005-01-01

37

Parasite-grass-forb interactions and rock-paper- scissor dynamics: predicting the effects of the parasitic plant Rhinanthus minor on host plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Parasitic plants affect the growth, reproduction and metabolism of their hosts and may also influence the outcome of competitive interactions between host species and, consequently, the struc- ture of entire host communities. 2. We investigate the effect of the root hemiparasitic plant Rhinanthus minor on plant community dynamics using a spatial theoretical model. The model is parameterized with

Duncan D. Cameron; Andy White; Janis Antonovics

2009-01-01

38

Assessing the Effects of Climate on Host-Parasite Interactions: A Comparative Study of European Birds and Their Parasites  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change potentially has important effects on distribution, abundance, transmission and virulence of parasites in wild populations of animals. Methodology/Principal Finding Here we analyzed paired information on 89 parasite populations for 24 species of bird hosts some years ago and again in 2010 with an average interval of 10 years. The parasite taxa included protozoa, feather parasites, diptera, ticks, mites and fleas. We investigated whether change in abundance and prevalence of parasites was related to change in body condition, reproduction and population size of hosts. We conducted analyses based on the entire dataset, but also on a restricted dataset with intervals between study years being 5–15 years. Parasite abundance increased over time when restricting the analyses to datasets with an interval of 5–15 years, with no significant effect of changes in temperature at the time of breeding among study sites. Changes in host body condition and clutch size were related to change in temperature between first and second study year. In addition, changes in clutch size, brood size and body condition of hosts were correlated with change in abundance of parasites. Finally, changes in population size of hosts were not significantly related to changes in abundance of parasites or their prevalence. Conclusions/Significance Climate change is associated with a general increase in parasite abundance. Variation in laying date depended on locality and was associated with latitude while body condition of hosts was associated with a change in temperature. Because clutch size, brood size and body condition were associated with change in parasitism, these results suggest that parasites, perhaps mediated through the indirect effects of temperature, may affect fecundity and condition of their hosts. The conclusions were particularly in accordance with predictions when the restricted dataset with intervals of 5–15 years was used, suggesting that short intervals may bias findings. PMID:24391725

M?ller, Anders Pape; Merino, Santiago; Soler, Juan Jose; Antonov, Anton; Badas, Elisa P.; Calero-Torralbo, Miguel A.; de Lope, Florentino; Eeva, Tapio; Figuerola, Jordi; Flensted-Jensen, Einar; Garamszegi, Laszlo Z.; Gonzalez-Braojos, Sonia; Gwinner, Helga; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Heylen, Dieter; Ilmonen, Petteri; Klarborg, Kurt; Korpimaki, Erkki; Martinez, Javier; Martinez-de la Puente, Josue; Marzal, Alfonso; Matthysen, Erik; Matyjasiak, Piotr; Molina-Morales, Mercedes; Moreno, Juan; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Nielsen, Jan T?ttrup; Pap, Peter Laszlo; Rivero-de Aguilar, Juan; Shurulinkov, Peter; Slagsvold, Tore; Szep, Tibor; Szollosi, Eszter; Torok, Janos; Vaclav, Radovan; Valera, Francisco; Ziane, Nadia

2013-01-01

39

Parasite biodiversity and host defenses: chewing lice and immune response of their avian hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antagonistic host-parasite interactions lead to coevolution of host defenses and parasite virulence. Such adaptation by parasites to host defenses may occur to the detriment of the ability of parasites to exploit alternative hosts, causing parasite specialization and speciation. We investigated the relationship between le- vel of anti-parasite defense in hosts and taxonomic richness of two chewing louse suborders (Phthiraptera: Amblycera,

Anders Pape Mřller; Lajos Rozsa

2005-01-01

40

Control strategies for a stochastic model of host-parasite interaction in a seasonal environment.  

PubMed

We examine a nonlinear stochastic model for the parasite load of a single host over a predetermined time interval. We use nonhomogeneous Poisson processes to model the acquisition of parasites, the parasite-induced host mortality, the natural (no parasite-induced) host mortality, and the reproduction and death of parasites within the host. Algebraic results are first obtained on the age-dependent distribution of the number of parasites infesting the host at an arbitrary time t. The interest is in control strategies based on isolation of the host and the use of an anthelmintic at a certain intervention instant t0. This means that the host is free living in a seasonal environment, and it is transferred to a uninfected area at age t0. In the uninfected area, the host does not acquire new parasites, undergoes a treatment to decrease the parasite load, and its natural and parasite-induced mortality are altered. For a suitable selection of t0, we present two control criteria that appropriately balance effectiveness and cost of intervention. Our approach is based on simple probabilistic principles, and it allows us to examine seasonal fluctuations of gastrointestinal nematode burden in growing lambs. PMID:24657746

Gómez-Corral, A; López García, M

2014-08-01

41

Roles of Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin in parasite-host interactions and in tumor growth.  

PubMed

In Latin America, there are about 10-12 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, one of the most important neglected tropical parasitism. Identification of molecular targets, specific for the aggressor or host cells or both, may be useful in the development of pharmacological and/or immunological therapeutic tools. Classic efforts in Chagas' disease explore those strategies. Although the immune system frequently controls parasite aggressions, sterile immunity is seldom achieved and chronic interactions are thus established. However, laboratory-modified immunologic probes aimed at selected parasite targets, may be more effective than their unmodified counterparts. Calreticulin (CRT) from vertebrates is a calcium binding protein, present mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it directs the conformation of proteins and controls calcium levels. We have isolated, gene-cloned, expressed and characterized T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT). Upon infection, the parasite can translocate this molecule from the ER to the surface, where it inhibits both the classical and lectin complement pathways. Moreover, by virtue of its capacity to bind and inactivate first complement component C1, it promotes parasite infectivity. These two related properties reside in the central domain of this molecule. A different domain, amino terminal, binds to endothelial cells, thus inhibiting their angiogenic capacity. Since tumor growth depends, to a large extent on angiogenesis, their growth is also inhibited. PMID:22673211

Ramírez, Galia; Valck, Carolina; Aguilar, Lorena; Kemmerling, Ulrike; López-Muńoz, Rodrigo; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Morello, Antonio; Ferreira, Jorge; Maya, Juan Diego; Galanti, Norbel; Ferreira, Arturo

2012-10-01

42

PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL PAPER Constraints on host use by a parasitic plant  

E-print Network

plant Cuscuta indecora rarely parasitizes three hosts that support vigorous growth in the greenhouse. We identified three constraints on host use by C. indecora. First, a mismatch between the phenology of C. indecora and some suitable hosts meant that these hosts were not abundant when C. indecora was growing most

Pennings, Steven C.

43

[Parasites of Salmo trutta L. from the Tirino River. II. Host-parasite interactions of helminth species].  

PubMed

The hundred and sixteen brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) which were examined for helminth parasites were captured in the River Tirino, (L'Acquila - Italy). Six parasite species (Phyllodistomum simile, Crowcrocaecum testiobliquum, Crepidostomum metoecus, Cyathocephalus truncatus, Truttaedacnitis truttae and Dentitruncus truttae) were recovered. Ecological studies on each helminth species recovered have been carried out analysing the following aspects; the preference of each parasite species for certain microhabitats in the host; the incidence and intensity of each parasitic infection according to sex, age and season. PMID:553267

Paggi, L; Orecchia, P; Del Marro, M; Iori, A; Manilla, G

1978-12-01

44

Synergistic Parasite-Pathogen Interactions Mediated by Host Immunity Can Drive the Collapse of Honeybee Colonies  

PubMed Central

The health of the honeybee and, indirectly, global crop production are threatened by several biotic and abiotic factors, which play a poorly defined role in the induction of widespread colony losses. Recent descriptive studies suggest that colony losses are often related to the interaction between pathogens and other stress factors, including parasites. Through an integrated analysis of the population and molecular changes associated with the collapse of honeybee colonies infested by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, we show that this parasite can de-stabilise the within-host dynamics of Deformed wing virus (DWV), transforming a cryptic and vertically transmitted virus into a rapidly replicating killer, which attains lethal levels late in the season. The de-stabilisation of DWV infection is associated with an immunosuppression syndrome, characterized by a strong down-regulation of the transcription factor NF-?B. The centrality of NF-?B in host responses to a range of environmental challenges suggests that this transcription factor can act as a common currency underlying colony collapse that may be triggered by different causes. Our results offer an integrated account for the multifactorial origin of honeybee losses and a new framework for assessing, and possibly mitigating, the impact of environmental challenges on honeybee health. PMID:22719246

Nazzi, Francesco; Brown, Sam P.; Annoscia, Desiderato; Del Piccolo, Fabio; Di Prisco, Gennaro; Varricchio, Paola; Della Vedova, Giorgio; Cattonaro, Federica; Caprio, Emilio; Pennacchio, Francesco

2012-01-01

45

Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) parasite-host interactions in the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prediction of how host mortality responds to efforts to control sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) is central to the integrated management strategy for sea lamprey (IMSL) in the Great Lakes. A parasite-host submodel is used as part of this strategy, and this includes a type-2 multi-species functional response, a developmental response, but no numerical response. General patterns of host species and size selection are consistent with the model assumptions, but some observations appear to diverge. For example, some patterns in sea lamprey marking on hosts suggest increases in selectivity for less preferred hosts and lower host survival when preferred hosts are scarce. Nevertheless, many of the IMSL assumptions may be adequate under conditions targeted by fish community objectives. Of great concern is the possibility that the survival of young parasites (parasitic-phase sea lampreys) varies substantially among lakes or over time. Joint analysis of abundance estimates for parasites being produced in streams and returning spawners could address this. Data on sea lamprey marks is a critical source of information on sea lamprey activity and potential effects. Theory connecting observed marks to sea lamprey feeding activity and host mortality is reviewed. Uncertainties regarding healing and attachment times, the probability of hosts surviving attacks, and problems in consistent classification of marks have led to widely divergent estimates of damages caused by sea lamprey. Laboratory and field studies are recommended to provide a firmer linkage between host blood loss, host mortality, and observed marks on surviving hosts, so as to improve estimates of damage.

Bence, James R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Christie, Gavin C.; Cochran, Phillip A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Koonce, Joseph F.; Rutter, Michael A.; Swink, William D.

2003-01-01

46

Long live the Red Queen? Examining environmental influences on host-parasite interactions in Daphnia.  

E-print Network

and their hosts is responsible for the evolutionary maintenance of sexual reproduction. It suggests that frequency-dependent selection by parasites against common host genotypes prevents asexual clones capitalising on their two-fold reproductive advantage and out-competing their sexual counterparts. However, in order for the Red Queen

West, Stuart

47

The geographic structure of selection on a coevolving interaction between social parasitic wasps and their hosts hampers social evolution.  

PubMed

Social parasites exploit societies, rather than organisms, and rear their brood in social insect colonies at the expense of their hosts, triggering a coevolutionary process that may affect host social structure. The resulting coevolutionary trajectories may be further altered by selection imposed by predators, which exploit the abundant resources concentrated in these nests. Here, we show that geographic differences in selection imposed by predators affects the structure of selection on coevolving hosts and their social parasites. In a multiyear study, we monitored the fate of the annual breeding attempts of the solitary nesting foundresses of Polistes biglumis wasps in four geographically distinct populations that varied in levels of attack by the congeneric social parasite, P. atrimandibularis. Foundress fitness depended mostly on whether, during the long founding phase, a colony was invaded by social parasites or attacked by predators. Foundresses from each population differed in morphological traits and reproductive tactics that were consistent with selection imposed by their natural enemies and in ways that may affect host sociality. In turn, parasite traits were consistent with selection imposed locally by hosts, implying a geographic mosaic of coevolution in this brood parasitic interaction. PMID:22133223

Lorenzi, M Cristina; Thompson, John N

2011-12-01

48

Sea Lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus) Parasite-host Interactions in the Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of how host mortality responds to efforts to control sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) is central to the integrated management strategy for sea lamprey (IMSL) in the Great Lakes. A parasite-host submodel is used as part of this strategy, and this includes a type-2 multi-species functional response, a developmental response, but no numerical response. General patterns of host species and

James R. Bence; Roger A. Bergstedt; Gavin C. Christie; Phillip A. Cochran; Mark P. Ebener; Joseph F. Koonce; Michael A. Rutter; William D. Swink

2003-01-01

49

Insights into the trypanosome-host interactions revealed through transcriptomic analysis of parasitized tsetse fly salivary glands.  

PubMed

The agents of sleeping sickness disease, Trypanosoma brucei complex parasites, are transmitted to mammalian hosts through the bite of an infected tsetse. Information on tsetse-trypanosome interactions in the salivary gland (SG) tissue, and on mammalian infective metacyclic (MC) parasites present in the SG, is sparse. We performed RNA-seq analyses from uninfected and T. b. brucei infected SGs of Glossina morsitans morsitans. Comparison of the SG transcriptomes to a whole body fly transcriptome revealed that only 2.7% of the contigs are differentially expressed during SG infection, and that only 263 contigs (0.6%) are preferentially expressed in the SGs (SG-enriched). The expression of only 37 contigs (0.08%) and 27 SG-enriched contigs (10%) were suppressed in infected SG. These suppressed contigs accounted for over 55% of the SG transcriptome, and included the most abundant putative secreted proteins with anti-hemostatic functions present in saliva. In contrast, expression of putative host proteins associated with immunity, stress, cell division and tissue remodeling were enriched in infected SG suggesting that parasite infections induce host immune and stress response(s) that likely results in tissue renewal. We also performed RNA-seq analysis from mouse blood infected with the same parasite strain, and compared the transcriptome of bloodstream form (BSF) cells with that of parasites obtained from the infected SG. Over 30% of parasite transcripts are differentially regulated between the two stages, and reflect parasite adaptations to varying host nutritional and immune ecology. These differences are associated with the switch from an amino acid based metabolism in the SG to one based on glucose utilization in the blood, and with surface coat modifications that enable parasite survival in the different hosts. This study provides a foundation on the molecular aspects of the trypanosome dialogue with its tsetse and mammalian hosts, necessary for future functional investigations. PMID:24763140

Telleria, Erich Loza; Benoit, Joshua B; Zhao, Xin; Savage, Amy F; Regmi, Sandesh; e Silva, Thiago Luiz Alves; O'Neill, Michelle; Aksoy, Serap

2014-04-01

50

Cortisol influences the host-parasite interaction between the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the crustacean ectoparasite Argulus japonicus.  

PubMed

The host-parasite interaction between the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the fish louse Argulus japonicus was investigated by administering low levels of dietary cortisol before infecting the fish with low numbers of the parasite. After 24 h, the dietary cortisol treatment elevated blood cortisol and glucose levels and stimulated the synthesis of secretory granules in the upper layer of skin cells. Infection with 6 lice per fish caused skin infiltration by lymphocytes, also in areas without parasites. The lymphocyte numbers in the blood at 48 h post-parasite infection were reduced. Other changes, typical for exposure to many stressors and mediated by cortisol, were also found in the epidermis of parasitized fish, although neither plasma cortisol nor glucose levels were noticeably affected. Glucocorticoid receptors were localized immunohistochemically and found in the upper epidermal layer of pavement and filament cells, and in the leucocytes migrating in these layers. Cortisol-fed fish had reduced numbers of parasites and the changes in the host skin are likely involved in this reduction. Thus a mild cortisol stress response might be adaptive in rejecting these parasites. Further, the data suggest that this effect of cortisol is mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor in the skin epidermis, as these are located directly at the site of parasite attachment and feeding in the upper skin cells that produce more secretory granules in response to cortisol feeding. PMID:14700191

Haond, C; Nolan, D T; Ruane, N M; Rotllant, J; Wendelaar Bonga, S E

2003-12-01

51

Haemonchus contortus P-Glycoproteins Interact with Host Eosinophil Granules: A Novel Insight into the Role of ABC Transporters in Host-Parasite Interaction  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are one of the major mammalian effector cells encountered by helminths during infection. In the present study, we investigated the effects of eosinophil granule exposure on the sheep parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus as a model. H. contortus eggs exposed to eosinophil granule products showed increased rhodamine 123 efflux and this effect was not due to loss of egg integrity. Rh123 is known to be a specific P-glycoprotein (Pgp) substrate and led to the hypothesis that in addition to their critical role in xenobiotic resistance, helminth ABC transporters such as Pgp may also be involved in the detoxification of host cytotoxic products. We showed by quantitative RT-PCR that, among nine different H. contortus Pgp genes, Hco-pgp-3, Hco-pgp-9.2, Hco-pgp-11 and, Hco-pgp-16 were specifically up-regulated in parasitic life stages suggesting a potential involvement of these Pgps in the detoxification of eosinophil granule products. Using exsheathed L3 larvae that mimic the first life stage in contact with the host, we demonstrated that eosinophil granules induced a dose dependent overexpression of Hco-pgp-3 and the closely related Hco-pgp-16. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that a subset of helminth Pgps interact with, and could be involved in the detoxification of, host products. This opens the way for further studies aiming to explore the role of helminth Pgps in the host-parasite interaction, including evasion of the host immune response. PMID:24498376

Issouf, Mohamed; Guegnard, Fabrice; Koch, Christine; Le Vern, Yves; Blanchard-Letort, Alexandra; Che, Hua; Beech, Robin N.; Kerboeuf, Dominique; Neveu, Cedric

2014-01-01

52

Getting What Is Served? Feeding Ecology Influencing Parasite-Host Interactions in Invasive Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus  

PubMed Central

Freshwater ecosystems are increasingly impacted by alien invasive species which have the potential to alter various ecological interactions like predator-prey and host-parasite relationships. Here, we simultaneously examined predator-prey interactions and parasitization patterns of the highly invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in the rivers Rhine and Main in Germany. A total of 350 N. melanostomus were sampled between June and October 2011. Gut content analysis revealed a broad prey spectrum, partly reflecting temporal and local differences in prey availability. For the major food type (amphipods), species compositions were determined. Amphipod fauna consisted entirely of non-native species and was dominated by Dikerogammarus villosus in the Main and Echinogammarus trichiatus in the Rhine. However, the availability of amphipod species in the field did not reflect their relative abundance in gut contents of N. melanostomus. Only two metazoan parasites, the nematode Raphidascaris acus and the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus sp., were isolated from N. melanostomus in all months, whereas unionid glochidia were only detected in June and October in fish from the Main. To analyse infection pathways, we examined 17,356 amphipods and found Pomphorhynchus sp. larvae only in D. villosus in the river Rhine at a prevalence of 0.15%. Dikerogammarus villosus represented the most important amphipod prey for N. melanostomus in both rivers but parasite intensities differed between rivers, suggesting that final hosts (large predatory fishes) may influence host-parasite dynamics of N. melanostomus in its introduced range. PMID:25338158

Emde, Sebastian; Kochmann, Judith; Kuhn, Thomas; Plath, Martin; Klimpel, Sven

2014-01-01

53

Complex interactions among a nematode parasite (Daubaylia potomaca), a commensalistic annelid (Chaetogaster limnaei limnaei), and trematode parasites in a snail host (Helisoma anceps).  

PubMed

Many biotic interactions can affect the prevalence and intensity of parasite infections in aquatic snails. Historically, these studies have centered on interactions between trematode parasites or between trematodes and other organisms. The present investigation focuses on the nematode parasite Daubaylia potomaca and its interactions with a commensal, Chaetogaster limnaei limnaei , and a variety of trematode species. It was found that the presence of C. l. limnaei indirectly increased the mean intensity of D. potomaca infections, apparently by acting as a restraint for various trematode parasites, particularly the rediae of Echinostoma sp. In turn, Echinostoma sp. rediae adversely affected the mean intensity of D. potomaca by their consumption of both juvenile and adult nematodes present in tissues of the snail. These organisms not only belong to 3 different phyla but occupy distinct trophic levels as well. The complex interactions among these 3 organisms in the snail host provide an excellent example of biotic interactions influencing the infection dynamics of parasites in aquatic snails. PMID:21506797

Zimmermann, Michael R; Luth, Kyle E; Esch, Gerald W

2011-10-01

54

To eject or to abandon? Life history traits of hosts and parasites interact to influence the fitness payoffs of alternative anti-parasite strategies.  

PubMed

Hosts either tolerate avian brood parasitism or reject it by ejecting parasitic eggs, as seen in most rejecter hosts of common cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, or by abandoning parasitized clutches, as seen in most rejecter hosts of brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater. What explains consistent variation between alternative rejection behaviours of hosts within the same species and across species when exposed to different types of parasites? Life history theory predicts that when parasites decrease the fitness of host offspring, but not the future reproductive success of host adults, optimal clutch size should decrease. Consistent with this prediction, evolutionarily old cowbird hosts, but not cuckoo hosts, have lower clutch sizes than related rarely- or newly parasitized species. We constructed a mathematical model to calculate the fitness payoffs of egg ejector vs. nest abandoner hosts to determine if various aspects of host life history traits and brood parasites' virulence on adult and young host fitness differentially influence the payoffs of alternative host defences. These calculations showed that in general egg ejection was a superior anti-parasite strategy to nest abandonment. Yet, increasing parasitism rates and increasing fitness values of hosts' eggs in both currently parasitized and future replacement nests led to switch points in fitness payoffs in favour of nest abandonment. Nonetheless, nest abandonment became selectively more favourable only at lower clutch sizes and only when hosts faced parasitism by a cowbird- rather than a cuckoo-type brood parasite. We suggest that, in addition to evolutionary lag and gape-size limitation, our estimated fitness differences based on life history trait variation provide new insights for the consistent differences observed in the anti-parasite rejection strategies between many cuckoo- and cowbird-hosts. PMID:16910987

Servedio, M R; Hauber, M E

2006-09-01

55

Calcium signaling during the plant-plant interaction of parasitic Cuscuta reflexa with its hosts  

PubMed Central

The plant parasite Cuscuta reflexa induces various responses in compatible and incompatible host plants. The visual reactions of both types of host plants including obvious morphological changes require the recognition of Cuscuta ssp. A consequently initiated signaling cascade is triggered which leads to a tolerance of the infection or, in the case of some incompatible host plants, to resistance. Calcium (Ca2+) release is the major second messenger during signal transduction. Therefore, we have studied Ca2+ spiking in tomato and tobacco during infection with C. reflexa. In our recently published study1 Ca2+ signals were monitored as bioluminescence in aequorin-expressing tomato plants after the onset of C. reflexa infestation. Signals at the attachment sites were observed from 30 to 48 h after infection. In an assay with leaf disks of aequorin-expressing tomato which were treated with different C. reflexa plant extracts it turned out that the substance that induced Ca2+ release in the host plant was closely linked to the parasite's haustoria. PMID:20818172

Kaiser, Bettina; van der Krol, Sander; Kaldenhoff, Ralf

2010-01-01

56

A role for host-parasite interactions in the horizontal transfer of DNA transposons across animal phyla  

PubMed Central

Horizontal transfer (HT), or the passage of genetic material between non-mating species, is increasingly recognized as an important force in the evolution of eukaryotic genomes1,2. Transposons, with their inherent ability to mobilize and amplify within genomes, may be especially prone to HT3–7. However, the means by which transposons can spread across widely diverged species remain elusive. Here we present evidence that host-parasite interactions have promoted the HT of four transposon families between invertebrates and vertebrates. We found that Rhodnius prolixus, a triatomine bug feeding on the blood of diverse tetrapods and vector of the Chagas disease in humans, carries in its genome four distinct transposon families that also invaded the genomes of a diverse, but overlapping, set of tetrapods. The bug transposons are ~98% identical and cluster phylogenetically with those of the opossum and squirrel monkey, two of its preferred mammalian hosts in South America. We also identified one of these transposon families in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, a nearly cosmopolitan vector of trematodes infecting diverse vertebrates, whose ancestral sequence is nearly identical and clusters with those found in Old World mammals. Together these data provide evidence for a previously hypothesized role of host-parasite interactions in facilitating HT among animals3,7. Furthermore, the large amount of DNA generated by the amplification of the horizontally-transferred transposons supports the idea that the exchange of genetic material between hosts and parasites influence their genomic evolution. PMID:20428170

Gilbert, Clement; Schaack, Sarah; Pace, John K.; Brindley, Paul J.; Feschotte, Cedric

2010-01-01

57

Synergistic Parasite-Pathogen Interactions Mediated by Host Immunity Can Drive the Collapse of Honeybee Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health of the honeybee and, indirectly, global crop production are threatened by several biotic and abiotic factors, which play a poorly defined role in the induction of widespread colony losses. Recent descriptive studies suggest that colony losses are often related to the interaction between pathogens and other stress factors, including parasites. Through an integrated analysis of the population and

Francesco Nazzi; Sam P. Brown; Desiderato Annoscia; Fabio Del Piccolo; Gennaro Di Prisco; Paola Varricchio; Giorgio Della Vedova; Federica Cattonaro; Emilio Caprio; Francesco Pennacchio

2012-01-01

58

Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry  

E-print Network

mutualists that protect the host plant from pathogens and herbivores. Defensive mutualism appears to hold 5 Endophyte Mediated Plant-Herbivore Interactions or Cross Resistance to Fungi and Insect Herbivores that the mutualistic nature of plant-endophyte interactions via enhanced plant resistance to pathogens and herbivores

Standiford, Richard B.

59

Differential host defense against multiple parasites in ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host–parasite interactions are ideal systems for the study of coevolutionary processes. Although infections with multiple\\u000a parasite species are presumably common in nature, most studies focus on the interactions of a single host and a single parasite.\\u000a To the best of our knowledge, we present here the first study on the dependency of parasite virulence and host resistance\\u000a in a multiple

Christoph von Beeren; Munetoshi Maruyama; Rosli Hashim; Volker Witte

2011-01-01

60

Local adaptation, evolutionary potential and host-parasite coevolution: interactions between migration, mutation, population size and generation time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local adaptation of parasites to their sympatric hosts has been investigated on different biological systems through reciprocal transplant experiments. Most of these studies revealed a local adaptation of the parasite. In several cases, however, parasites were found to be locally maladapted or neither adapted nor maladapted. In the present paper, we try to determine the causes of such variability in

S. G ANDON; Y. MICHALAKIS

2002-01-01

61

Predictors of host specificity among behavior-manipulating parasites.  

PubMed

A trade-off between resource-specialization and the breadth of the ecological niche is one of the most fundamental biological characteristics. A true generalist (Jack-of-all-trades) displays a broad ecological niche with little resource specialization while the opposite is true for a resource-specialist that has a restricted ecological niche that it masters. Parasites that manipulate hosts' behavior are often thought to represent resource-specialists based on a few spectacular examples of manipulation of the host's behavior. However, the determinants of which, and how many, hosts a manipulating parasite can exploit (i.e., niche breadth) are basically unknown. Here, I present an analysis based on published records of the use of hosts by 67 species from 38 genera of helminths inducing parasite increased trophic transmission, a widespread strategy of parasites that has been reported from many taxa of parasites and hosts. Using individual and multivariate analyses, I examined the effect of the host's and parasite's taxonomy, location of the parasite in the host, type of behavioral change, and the effect of debilitation on host-specificity, measured as the mean taxonomic relatedness of hosts that a parasite can manipulate. Host-specificity varied substantially across taxa suggesting great variation in the level of resource-specialization among manipulating parasites. Location of the parasite, level of debilitation, and type of host were all significant predictors of host-specificity. More specifically, hosts' behavioral modification that involves interaction with the central nervous system presumably restricts parasites to more closely related hosts than does manipulation of the host's behavior via debilitation of the host's physiology. The results of the analysis suggest that phylogenetic relatedness of hosts is a useful measure of host-specificity in comparative studies of the complexity of interactions taking place between manipulating parasites and their hosts. PMID:24859997

Fredensborg, B L

2014-07-01

62

HOST-PARASITE INTERACTIONS ON AN EXPERIMENTAL LANDSCAPE KARL L. KOSCIUCH  

E-print Network

anti- parasite defense behaviors, and parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) may cause by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) may cause population declines in some species. Bell's Vireo

Sandercock, Brett K.

63

Comparing mechanisms of host manipulation across host and parasite taxa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Parasites affect host behavior in several ways. They can alter activity, microhabitats or both. For trophically transmitted parasites (the focus of our study), decreased activity might impair the ability of hosts to respond to final-host predators, and increased activity and altered microhabitat choice might increase contact rates between hosts and final-host predators. In an analysis of trophically transmitted parasites, more parasite groups altered activity than altered microhabitat choice. Parasites that infected vertebrates were more likely to impair the host’s reaction to predators, whereas parasites that infected invertebrates were more likely to increase the host’s contact with predators. The site of infection might affect how parasites manipulate their hosts. For instance, parasites in the central nervous system seem particularly suited to manipulating host behavior. Manipulative parasites commonly occupy the body cavity, muscles and central nervous systems of their hosts. Acanthocephalans in the data set differed from other taxa in that they occurred exclusively in the body cavity of invertebrates. In addition, they were more likely to alter microhabitat choice than activity. Parasites in the body cavity (across parasite types) were more likely to be associated with increased host contact with predators. Parasites can manipulate the host through energetic drain, but most parasites use more sophisticated means. For instance, parasites target four physiological systems that shape behavior in both invertebrates and vertebrates: neural, endocrine, neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory. The interconnections between these systems make it difficult to isolate specific mechanisms of host behavioral manipulation.

Lafferty, Kevin D.; Shaw, Jenny C.

2013-01-01

64

From parasitism to mutualism: unexpected interactions between a cuckoo and its host.  

PubMed

Avian brood parasites lay eggs in the nests of other birds, which raise the unrelated chicks and typically suffer partial or complete loss of their own brood. However, carrion crows Corvus corone corone can benefit from parasitism by the great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius. Parasitized nests have lower rates of predation-induced failure due to production of a repellent secretion by cuckoo chicks, but among nests that are successful, those with cuckoo chicks fledge fewer crows. The outcome of these counterbalancing effects fluctuates between parasitism and mutualism each season, depending on the intensity of predation pressure. PMID:24653032

Canestrari, Daniela; Bolopo, Diana; Turlings, Ted C J; Röder, Gregory; Marcos, José M; Baglione, Vittorio

2014-03-21

65

Subcellular distribution of the Entamoeba histolytica 140 kDa FN-binding molecule during host-parasite interaction.  

PubMed

Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites recovered from the host-parasite interface during abscess development obtain different stimuli compared with long-term cultured cells. In order to have a better understanding about the mechanisms in which the 140 kDa fibronectin (FN)-binding molecule (EhFNR) is involved during the invasive process, we decided to compare the regulation process of this molecule among long-term cultured trophozoites, FN-stimulated trophozoites, and trophozoites recently recovered from a liver abscess. A cDNA clone (5A) containing a fragment of the EhFNR that shows identity to the C-terminal region of the intermediate galactose lectin subunit Igl, was selected with a mAb (3C10). Identity of EhFNR with Igl was confirmed by immunoprecipitation with 3C10 and EH3015 (against the Gal/GalNAc intermediate subunit) mAbs. The 3C10 mAb was used as a tool to explore the modulation of the amoebic receptor (EhFNR). Our results showed specific regulation of the EhFNR in FN-interacted amoebas, as well as in trophozoites recovered at different stages of abscess development. This regulation involved mobilization of the receptor molecule from internal vesicles to the plasma membrane. Therefore, we suggest that in the host-parasite interface, the EhFNR (Igl) plays an important role in the adhesion process during abscess development. PMID:17076927

Hernández-Ramírez, V I; Rios, A; Angel, A; Magos, M A; Pérez-Castillo, L; Rosales-Encina, J L; Castillo-Henkel, E; Talamás-Rohana, P

2007-02-01

66

HOST-DEPENDENT GENETIC STRUCTURE OF PARASITE POPULATIONS: DIFFERENTIAL DISPERSAL OF SEABIRD TICK HOST RACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that parasite dispersal is likely to be one of the most important processes influencing the dynamics and coevolution of host-parasite interactions, little information is available on the factors that affect it. In most cases, opportunities for parasite dispersal should be closely linked to host biology. Here we use microsatellite genetic markers to compare the population structure and

Karen D. McCoy; Thierry Boulinier; Claire Tirard; Yannis Michalakis

2003-01-01

67

Parasite and host assemblages: embracing the reality will improve our knowledge of parasite transmission and virulence.  

PubMed

Interactions involving several parasite species (multi-parasitized hosts) or several host species (multi-host parasites) are the rule in nature. Only a few studies have investigated these realistic, but complex, situations from an evolutionary perspective. Consequently, their impact on the evolution of parasite virulence and transmission remains poorly understood. The mechanisms by which multiple infections may influence virulence and transmission include the dynamics of intrahost competition, mediation by the host immune system and an increase in parasite genetic recombination. Theoretical investigations have yet to be conducted to determine which of these mechanisms are likely to be key factors in the evolution of virulence and transmission. In contrast, the relationship between multi-host parasites and parasite virulence and transmission has seen some theoretical investigation. The key factors in these models are the trade-off between virulence across different host species, variation in host species quality and patterns of transmission. The empirical studies on multi-host parasites suggest that interspecies transmission plays a central role in the evolution of virulence, but as yet no complete picture of the phenomena involved is available. Ultimately, determining how complex host-parasite interactions impact the evolution of host-parasite relationships will require the development of cross-disciplinary studies linking the ecology of quantitative networks with the evolution of virulence. PMID:20667874

Rigaud, Thierry; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Brown, Mark J F

2010-12-22

68

Parasite and host assemblages: embracing the reality will improve our knowledge of parasite transmission and virulence  

PubMed Central

Interactions involving several parasite species (multi-parasitized hosts) or several host species (multi-host parasites) are the rule in nature. Only a few studies have investigated these realistic, but complex, situations from an evolutionary perspective. Consequently, their impact on the evolution of parasite virulence and transmission remains poorly understood. The mechanisms by which multiple infections may influence virulence and transmission include the dynamics of intrahost competition, mediation by the host immune system and an increase in parasite genetic recombination. Theoretical investigations have yet to be conducted to determine which of these mechanisms are likely to be key factors in the evolution of virulence and transmission. In contrast, the relationship between multi-host parasites and parasite virulence and transmission has seen some theoretical investigation. The key factors in these models are the trade-off between virulence across different host species, variation in host species quality and patterns of transmission. The empirical studies on multi-host parasites suggest that interspecies transmission plays a central role in the evolution of virulence, but as yet no complete picture of the phenomena involved is available. Ultimately, determining how complex host–parasite interactions impact the evolution of host–parasite relationships will require the development of cross-disciplinary studies linking the ecology of quantitative networks with the evolution of virulence. PMID:20667874

Rigaud, Thierry; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Brown, Mark J. F.

2010-01-01

69

Plastic behaviors in hosts promote the emergence of retaliatory parasites  

PubMed Central

Mafia like behavior, where individuals cooperate under the threat of punishment, occurs not only in humans, but is also observed in several animal species. Observations suggest that avian hosts tend to accept a certain degree of parasitism in order to avoid retaliating punishment from the brood parasite. To understand under which conditions it will be beneficial for a host to cooperate, we model the interaction between hosts and parasites as an evolutionary game. In our model, the host's behavior is plastic, and thus, its response depends on the previous interactions with the parasite. We find that such learned behavior in turn is crucial for the evolution of retaliating parasites. The abundance of this kind of mafia behavior oscillates in time and does not settle to an equilibrium. Our results suggest that retaliation is a mechanism for the parasite to evade specialization and to induce acceptance by the host. PMID:24589512

Chakra, Maria Abou; Hilbe, Christian; Traulsen, Arne

2014-01-01

70

Evolution of host specificity in monogeneans parasitizing African cichlid fish  

PubMed Central

Background The patterns and processes linked to the host specificity of parasites represent one of the central themes in the study of host-parasite interactions. We investigated the evolution and determinants of host specificity in gill monogeneans of Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus species parasitizing African freshwater fish of Cichlidae. Methods We analyzed (1) the link between host specificity and parasite phylogeny, (2) potential morphometric correlates of host specificity (i.e. parasite body size and the morphometrics of the attachment apparatus), and (3) potential determinants of host specificity following the hypothesis of ecological specialization and the hypothesis of specialization on predictable resources (i.e. host body size and longevity were considered as measures of host predictability), and (4) the role of brooding behavior of cichlids in Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus diversification. Results No significant relationships were found between host specificity and phylogeny of Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus species. The mapping of host specificity onto the parasite phylogenetic tree revealed that an intermediate specialist parasitizing congeneric cichlid hosts represents the ancestral state for the Cichlidogyrus/Scutogyrus group. Only a weak relationship was found between the morphometry of the parasites’ attachment apparatus and host specificity. Our study did not support the specialization on predictable resources or ecological specialization hypotheses. Nevertheless, host specificity was significantly related to fish phylogeny and form of parental care. Conclusions Our results confirm that host specificity is not a derived condition for Cichlidogyrus/Scutogyrus parasites and may reflect other than historical constraints. Attachment apparatus morphometry reflects only partially (if at all) parasite adaptation to the host species, probably because of the morphological similarity of rapidly evolved cichlids (analyzed in our study). However, we showed that parental care behavior of cichlids may play an important role linked to host specificity of Cichlidogyrus/Scutogyrus parasites. PMID:24529542

2014-01-01

71

Whipworm genome and dual-species transcriptome analyses provide molecular insights into an intimate host-parasite interaction.  

PubMed

Whipworms are common soil-transmitted helminths that cause debilitating chronic infections in man. These nematodes are only distantly related to Caenorhabditis elegans and have evolved to occupy an unusual niche, tunneling through epithelial cells of the large intestine. We report here the whole-genome sequences of the human-infective Trichuris trichiura and the mouse laboratory model Trichuris muris. On the basis of whole-transcriptome analyses, we identify many genes that are expressed in a sex- or life stage-specific manner and characterize the transcriptional landscape of a morphological region with unique biological adaptations, namely, bacillary band and stichosome, found only in whipworms and related parasites. Using RNA sequencing data from whipworm-infected mice, we describe the regulated T helper 1 (TH1)-like immune response of the chronically infected cecum in unprecedented detail. In silico screening identified numerous new potential drug targets against trichuriasis. Together, these genomes and associated functional data elucidate key aspects of the molecular host-parasite interactions that define chronic whipworm infection. PMID:24929830

Foth, Bernardo J; Tsai, Isheng J; Reid, Adam J; Bancroft, Allison J; Nichol, Sarah; Tracey, Alan; Holroyd, Nancy; Cotton, James A; Stanley, Eleanor J; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Liu, Jimmy Z; Huckvale, Thomas; Cooper, Philip J; Grencis, Richard K; Berriman, Matthew

2014-07-01

72

Exploring a Parasite-Host Model with Monte Carlo Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore parasite-host interactions, a less investigated subset of the well-established predator-prey model. In particular, it is not well known how the numerous parameters of the system affect its characteristics. Parasite-host systems rely on their spatial interaction, as a parasite must make physical contact with the host to reproduce. Using C++ to program a Monte Carlo simulation, we study how the speed and type of movement of the host affect the spatial and temporal distribution of the parasites. By drawing on mean-field theoretics, we find the exact solution for the parasite distribution with a stationary host at the center and analyze the distributions for a moving host. The findings of the study provide rich behavior of a non-equilibrium system and bring insights to pest-control and, on a larger scale, epidemics spreading.

Breecher, Nyles; Dong, Jiajia

2011-03-01

73

Host Behavior Manipulation by Parasitic Insects and Insect Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects and parasites are ubiquitous. In any environment, there are numerous insects and parasites. Independent evolutionary selection has occurred and parasites and insects are taxonomically diverse (Roy et al, 2006). However, many insect-parasite interacts have evolved between insects and parasites due to the number and habitat overlap of the groups (Roy et al, 2006). In addition, to the separation of

Rustie Robison

74

Parasites gained: alien parasites switching to native hosts.  

PubMed

Three parasitic copepods new to the well-studied Mediterranean fauna are reported. Two of them, Mitrapus oblongus (Pillai, 1964) and Clavellisa ilishae Pillai, 1962, are of Indo-Pacific origin and are considered here to have co-invaded the Mediterranean through the Suez Canal on Erythrean (Red Sea) immigrant hosts. Both are reported here from native Mediterranean clupeid fish hosts; this is the first evidence of host switching of any metazoan parasites from Erythrean immigrants to native fish hosts. The third parasite, Nothobomolochus fradei Marques, 1965, was previously known from the Gulf of Guinea and the Arabian Gulf. Possible explanations of its presence on clupeid hosts in Egyptian waters off Alexandria are discussed. The parasite utilizes an Erythrean immigrant clupeid and a native Mediterranean species as hosts. This account provides evidence of parasite and host faunal mixing on an unexpected scale. PMID:19642811

El-Rashidy, Hoda H; Boxshall, Geoff A

2009-12-01

75

Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry  

E-print Network

statistics of forest reproductive material sales). Of the three parental species involved, P. deltoides clones found in the French registry of poplar cultivars, except two cultivars involving the non-host species P. alba, are susceptible to Mlp, and (ii) from 1990 to 2004, the proportion of immune clones

Standiford, Richard B.

76

Water Temperature Affects a Host–Parasite Interaction: Tubifex tubifex and Myxobolus cerebralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic oligochaete worm Tubifex tubifex is an obligate host of Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of salmonid whirling disease. Tubifex tubifex becomes infected by ingesting M. cerebralis myxospores and releases triactinomyxons (TAMs) into the water that then infect salmonids. In a laboratory experiment, we examined how water temperature influenced changes in oligochaete population size and biomass and the release

Billie L. Kerans; Richard I. Stevens; J. C. Lemmon

2005-01-01

77

Within-Host Speciation of Malaria Parasites  

PubMed Central

Background Sympatric speciation—the divergence of populations into new species in absence of geographic barriers to hybridization—is the most debated mode of diversification of life forms. Parasitic organisms are prominent models for sympatric speciation, because they may colonise new hosts within the same geographic area and diverge through host specialization. However, it has been argued that this mode of parasite divergence is not strict sympatric speciation, because host shifts likely cause the sudden effective isolation of parasites, particularly if these are transmitted by vectors and therefore cannot select their hosts. Strict sympatric speciation would involve parasite lineages diverging within a single host species, without any population subdivision. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a case of extraordinary divergence of sympatric, ecologically distinct, and reproductively isolated malaria parasites within a single avian host species, which apparently occurred without historical or extant subdivision of parasite or host populations. Conclusions/Significance This discovery of within-host speciation changes our current view on the diversification potential of malaria parasites, because neither geographic isolation of host populations nor colonization of new host species are any longer necessary conditions to the formation of new parasite species. PMID:17311104

Perez-Tris, Javier; Hellgren, Olof; Krizanauskiene, Asta; Waldenstrom, Jonas; Secondi, Jean; Bonneaud, Camille; Fjeldsa, Jon; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan

2007-01-01

78

Repeated targeting of the same hosts by a brood parasite compromises host egg rejection.  

PubMed

Cuckoo eggs famously mimic those of their foster parents to evade rejection from discriminating hosts. Here we test whether parasites benefit by repeatedly parasitizing the same host nest. This should make accurate rejection decisions harder, regardless of the mechanism that hosts use to identify foreign eggs. Here we find strong support for this prediction in the African tawny-flanked prinia (Prinia subflava), the most common host of the cuckoo finch (Anomalospiza imberbis). We show experimentally that hosts reject eggs that differ from an internal template, but crucially, as the proportion of foreign eggs increases, hosts are less likely to reject them and require greater differences in appearance to do so. Repeated parasitism by the same cuckoo finch female is common in host nests and likely to be an adaptation to increase the probability of host acceptance. Thus, repeated parasitism interacts with egg mimicry to exploit cognitive and sensory limitations in host defences. PMID:24064931

Stevens, Martin; Troscianko, Jolyon; Spottiswoode, Claire N

2013-01-01

79

Interaction of L Cells and Chlamydia psittaci: Entry of the Parasite and Host Responses to Its Development  

PubMed Central

The entry and development of Chlamydia psittaci in the L cell was studied by using purified, infectious parasites at high multiplicity. Entry of the parasite was accomplished by an act of phagocytosis by the host which was independent of an adsorption stage but was temperature-dependent. Kinetic studies of phagocytosis performed with 14C-amino acid-labeled, purified parasites indicated that the rate of phagocytosis was directly proportional to the multiplicity of inoculation. Electron microscopy of cells infected at high multiplicity with purified infectious C. psittaci showed that phagocytosed chlamydiae were segregated in a host phagocytic vacuole throughout their developmental cycle which consisted of the transition of infecting elementary bodies to reticulate bodies dividing by binary fission, followed by the reemergence of a population of elementary bodies. The process of the transition was examined and a proposed sequence of intermediate bodies is presented. In isopycnic gradients of fractionated, infected L cells, chlamydial phagocytic vacuoles were apparent as a dense band distinct from lysosome and mitochondrion peaks, as indicated by acid phosphatase and cytochrome oxidase activities. Chlamydiae inactivated by heat or neutralized by antiserum were phagocytosed and appeared in lysosomes within 12 hr after infection according to electron microscopy; however, chlamydiae which were continuously inhibited in their development by chloramphenicol were retained intact in the cell for 24 hr without lysosomal response. The possibility of a lysosomal inhibitor on the native parasite is discussed. Images PMID:4336694

Friis, Robert R.

1972-01-01

80

Host range and local parasite adaptation.  

PubMed Central

Parasites may be expected to become locally adapted to their hosts. However, while many empirical studies have demonstrated local parasite adaptation, others have failed to demonstrate it, or have shown local parasite maladaptation. Researchers have suggested that gene flow can swamp local parasite-host dynamics and produce local adaptation only at certain geographical scales; others have argued that evolutionary lags can account for both null and maladaptive results. In this paper, we use item response theory (IRT) to test whether host range influences the likelihood of parasites locally adapting to their hosts. We collated 32 independent experiments testing for local adaptation, where parasites could be assigned as having either broad or narrow host ranges (BHR and NHR, respectively). Twenty-five tests based on BHR parasites had a significantly lower average effect size than seven NHR tests, indicating that studies based on BHR parasites are less likely to demonstrate local parasite adaptation. We argue that this may relate to evolutionary lags during diffuse coevolution of BHR parasites with their hosts, rather than differences in experimental approaches or other confounds between BHR and NHR studies. PMID:11934361

Lajeunesse, Marc J; Forbes, Mark R

2002-01-01

81

Experimental coevolution: rapid local adaptation by parasites depends on host mating system.  

PubMed

Host-parasite interactions can drive rapid, reciprocal genetic changes (coevolution), provided both hosts and parasites have high heritabilities for resistance/infectivity. Similarly, the host's mating system should also affect the rate of coevolutionary change in host-parasite interactions. Using experimental coevolution, we determined the effect of obligate outcrossing verses partial self-fertilization (mixed mating) on the rate of evolutionary change in a nematode host (Caenorhabditis elegans) and its bacterial parasite (Serratia marcescens). Bacterial populations were derived from a common ancestor. We measured the effects of host mating system on host adaptation to the parasite. We then determined the extent of parasite adaptation to their local host populations. Obligately outcrossing hosts exhibited more rapid adaptation to parasites than did mixed mating hosts. In addition, most of the parasites became adapted to infecting their local hosts, but parasites from obligately outcrossing hosts showed a greater level of local adaptation. These results suggest that host populations evolved along separate trajectories and that outcrossing host populations diverged further than partially selfing populations. Finally, parasites tracking outcrossing host populations diverged further than parasites tracking the partially selfing host populations. These results show that the evolutionary trajectories of both hosts and parasites can be shaped by the host's mating system. PMID:25061681

Morran, Levi T; Parrish, Raymond C; Gelarden, Ian A; Allen, Michael B; Lively, Curtis M

2014-08-01

82

Plant Host Finding by Parasitic Plants  

PubMed Central

Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-documented examples of plant-to-plant communication via volatiles, and the ecological significance of such interactions has been much debated. To date, nearly all studies of volatile-mediated interactions among plant species have focused on the reception of herbivore-induced volatiles by neighboring plants. We recently documented volatile effects in another system, demonstrating that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona uses volatile cues to locate its hosts. This finding may broaden the discussion regarding plant-to-plant communication, and suggests that new classes of volatile-meditated interactions among plant species await discovery. PMID:19704627

Mescher, Mark C; Runyon, Justin B

2006-01-01

83

Thiacloprid-Nosema ceranae interactions in honey bees: host survivorship but not parasite reproduction is dependent on pesticide dose.  

PubMed

Interactions between stressors contribute to the recently reported increase in losses of honey bee colonies. Here we demonstrated that a synergistic effect on mortality by the low toxic, commonly used neonicotinoid thiacloprid and the nearly ubiquitous gut parasite Nosemaceranae is dependent on the pesticide dose. Furthermore, thiacloprid had a negative influence on N.ceranae reproduction. Our results highlight that interactions among honey bee health stressors can be dynamic and should be studied across a broader range of combinations. PMID:24594300

Retschnig, Gina; Neumann, Peter; Williams, Geoffrey R

2014-05-01

84

Host diversity begets parasite diversity: bird final hosts and trematodes in snail intermediate hosts  

PubMed Central

An unappreciated facet of biodiversity is that rich communities and high abundance may foster parasitism. For parasites that sequentially use different host species throughout complex life cycles, parasite diversity and abundance in ‘downstream’ hosts should logically increase with the diversity and abundance of ‘upstream’ hosts (which carry the preceding stages of parasites). Surprisingly, this logical assumption has little empirical support, especially regarding metazoan parasites. Few studies have attempted direct tests of this idea and most have lacked the appropriate scale of investigation. In two different studies, we used time-lapse videography to quantify birds at fine spatial scales, and then related bird communities to larval trematode communities in snail populations sampled at the same small spatial scales. Species richness, species heterogeneity and abundance of final host birds were positively correlated with species richness, species heterogeneity and abundance of trematodes in host snails. Such community-level interactions have rarely been demonstrated and have implications for community theory, epidemiological theory and ecosystem management. PMID:16024365

Hechinger, Ryan F; Lafferty, Kevin D

2005-01-01

85

Functional genomics of a generalist parasitic plant: Laser microdissection of host-parasite interface reveals host-specific patterns of parasite gene expression  

PubMed Central

Background Orobanchaceae is the only plant family with members representing the full range of parasitic lifestyles plus a free-living lineage sister to all parasitic lineages, Lindenbergia. A generalist member of this family, and an important parasitic plant model, Triphysaria versicolor regularly feeds upon a wide range of host plants. Here, we compare de novo assembled transcriptomes generated from laser micro-dissected tissues at the host-parasite interface to uncover details of the largely uncharacterized interaction between parasitic plants and their hosts. Results The interaction of Triphysaria with the distantly related hosts Zea mays and Medicago truncatula reveals dramatic host-specific gene expression patterns. Relative to above ground tissues, gene families are disproportionally represented at the interface including enrichment for transcription factors and genes of unknown function. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of a T. versicolor ?-expansin shows strong differential (120x) upregulation in response to the monocot host Z. mays; a result that is concordant with our read count estimates. Pathogenesis-related proteins, other cell wall modifying enzymes, and orthologs of genes with unknown function (annotated as such in sequenced plant genomes) are among the parasite genes highly expressed by T. versicolor at the parasite-host interface. Conclusions Laser capture microdissection makes it possible to sample the small region of cells at the epicenter of parasite host interactions. The results of our analysis suggest that T. versicolor’s generalist strategy involves a reliance on overlapping but distinct gene sets, depending upon the host plant it is parasitizing. The massive upregulation of a T. versicolor ?-expansin is suggestive of a mechanism for parasite success on grass hosts. In this preliminary study of the interface transcriptomes, we have shown that T. versicolor, and the Orobanchaceae in general, provide excellent opportunities for the characterization of plant genes with unknown functions. PMID:23302495

2013-01-01

86

Development of Some Larval Nematodes in Experimental and Natural Animal Hosts: An Insight into Development of Pathological Lesions vis-a-vis Host-Parasite Interactions  

PubMed Central

Infective third-stage larvae of three spiruroid nematodes, Ascarops strongylina and Physocephalus sexalatus of pigs and Spirocerca lupi of dogs, were recovered from 14 species of coprophagous beetles belonging to 4 different genera. These larvae were fed to rabbits and/or guinea pigs to study their development in these experimental hosts. Larvae of A. strongylina reached the adult stage in all rabbits and one guinea pig. The adult worms recovered in these hosts were 40% and 4%, respectively, and became diminutive in comparison to their natural hosts. The larvae of P. sexalatus became reencysted in the gastric wall of rabbits inducing marked pathological changes. The infective larvae of S. lupi became reencapsulated in the stomach wall of the rabbit and also showed development in the aortic wall. Adults of Toxocara canis of dog, collected from 5 different regions of the Indian subcontinent, varied significantly in size. The mouse passage of infective larvae of one of these types led to the recovery of the adults from the experimental dogs that were smaller in size and caused severe pathology in natural experimental hosts. Developmental effects shown in experimental hosts and host specificity are of value in understanding the evolution of nematode parasitism. PMID:24453801

Chowdhury, N.; Sood, N. K.; Lal, Shyam; Gupta, Kuldip; Singla, L. D.

2013-01-01

87

Host Centrality in Food Web Networks Determines Parasite Diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Parasites significantly alter topological metrics describing food web structure, yet few studies have explored the relationship between food web topology and parasite diversity. Methods/Principal Findings This study uses quantitative metrics describing network structure to investigate the relationship between the topology of the host food web and parasite diversity. Food webs were constructed for four restored brackish marshes that vary in species diversity, time post restoration and levels of parasitism. Our results show that the topology of the food web in each brackish marsh is highly nested, with clusters of generalists forming a distinct modular structure. The most consistent predictors of parasite diversity within a host were: trophic generality, and eigenvector centrality. These metrics indicate that parasites preferentially colonise host species that are highly connected, and within modules of tightly interacting species in the food web network. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that highly connected free-living species within the food web may represent stable trophic relationships that allow for the persistence of complex parasite life cycles. Our data demonstrate that the structure of host food webs can have a significant effect on the establishment of parasites, and on the potential for evolution of complex parasite life cycles. PMID:22046360

Anderson, Tavis K.; Sukhdeo, Michael V. K.

2011-01-01

88

The Interaction of Classical Complement Component C1 with Parasite and Host Calreticulin Mediates Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Human Placenta  

PubMed Central

Background 9 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in Latin America, plus more than 300,000 in the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and Japan. Approximately 30% of infected individuals develop circulatory or digestive pathology. While in underdeveloped countries transmission is mainly through hematophagous arthropods, transplacental infection prevails in developed ones. Methodology/Principal Findings During infection, T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT) translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the area of flagellum emergence. There, TcCRT acts as virulence factor since it binds maternal classical complement component C1q that recognizes human calreticulin (HuCRT) in placenta, with increased parasite infectivity. As measured ex vivo by quantitative PCR in human placenta chorionic villi explants (HPCVE) (the closest available correlate of human congenital T. cruzi infection), C1q mediated up to a 3–5-fold increase in parasite load. Because anti-TcCRT and anti-HuCRT F(ab?)2 antibody fragments are devoid of their Fc-dependent capacity to recruit C1q, they reverted the C1q-mediated increase in parasite load by respectively preventing its interaction with cell-bound CRTs from both parasite and HPCVE origins. The use of competing fluid-phase recombinant HuCRT and F(ab?)2 antibody fragments anti-TcCRT corroborated this. These results are consistent with a high expression of fetal CRT on placental free chorionic villi. Increased C1q-mediated infection is paralleled by placental tissue damage, as evidenced by histopathology, a damage that is ameliorated by anti-TcCRT F(ab?)2 antibody fragments or fluid-phase HuCRT. Conclusions/Significance T. cruzi infection of HPCVE is importantly mediated by human and parasite CRTs and C1q. Most likely, C1q bridges CRT on the parasite surface with its receptor orthologue on human placental cells, thus facilitating the first encounter between the parasite and the fetal derived placental tissue. The results presented here have several potential translational medicine aspects, specifically related with the capacity of antibody fragments to inhibit the C1q/CRT interactions and thus T. cruzi infectivity. PMID:23991234

Castillo, Christian; Ramirez, Galia; Valck, Carolina; Aguilar, Lorena; Maldonado, Ismael; Rosas, Carlos; Galanti, Norbel; Kemmerling, Ulrike; Ferreira, Arturo

2013-01-01

89

Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) of Mexico: Parasite-Host and Host-Parasite Checklists.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parasite-host and host-parasite checklists are provided for all species of Ixodes known from Mexico; host and locality data are from specimens housed in the Coleccion Nacional de Acaros, Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, and ...

C. Guzman-Cornejo, R. G. Robbins, T. M. Perez

2007-01-01

90

Host-parasite network structure is associated with community-level immunogenetic diversity.  

PubMed

Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode proteins that recognize foreign antigens and are thus crucial for immune response. In a population of a single host species, parasite-mediated selection drives MHC allelic diversity. However, in a community-wide context, species interactions may modulate selection regimes because the prevalence of a given parasite in a given host may depend on its prevalence in other hosts. By combining network analysis with immunogenetics, we show that host species infected by similar parasites harbour similar alleles with similar frequencies. We further show, using a Bayesian approach, that the probability of mutual occurrence of a functional allele and a parasite in a given host individual is nonrandom and depends on other host-parasite interactions, driving co-evolution within subgroups of parasite species and functional alleles. Therefore, indirect effects among hosts and parasites can shape host MHC diversity, scaling it from the population to the community level. PMID:25312328

Pilosof, Shai; Fortuna, Miguel A; Cosson, Jean-François; Galan, Maxime; Kittipong, Chaisiri; Ribas, Alexis; Segal, Eran; Krasnov, Boris R; Morand, Serge; Bascompte, Jordi

2014-01-01

91

Modulating the Modulators: Parasites, Neuromodulators and Host Behavioral Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuromodulators can resculpt neural circuits, giving an animal the behavioral flexibility it needs to survive in a complex changing world. This ability, however, provides parasites with a potential mechanism for manipulating host behavior. This paper reviews three invertebrate host-parasite systems to examine whether parasites can change host behavior by secreting neuromodulators. The parasitic wasp, Cotesia congregata, suppresses host feeding partly

Shelley A. Adamo; Invertebrate W Neuroimmunology

2002-01-01

92

Constraints on host choice: why do parasitic birds rarely exploit some common potential hosts?  

PubMed

1. Why are some common and apparently suitable resources avoided by potential users? This interesting ecological and evolutionary conundrum is vividly illustrated by obligate brood parasites. Parasitic birds lay their eggs into nests of a wide range of host species, including many rare ones, but do not parasitize some commonly co-occurring potential hosts. 2. Attempts to explain the absence of parasitism in common potential hosts are limited and typically focused on single-factor explanations while ignoring other potential factors. We tested why thrushes Turdus spp. are extremely rarely parasitized by common cuckoos Cuculus canorus despite breeding commonly in sympatry and building the most conspicuous nests among forest-breeding passerines. 3. No single examined factor explained cuckoo avoidance of thrushes. Life-history traits of all six European thrush species and the 10 most frequently used cuckoo hosts in Europe were similar except body/egg size, nest design and nestling diet. 4. Experiments (n = 1211) in several populations across Europe showed that host defences at egg-laying and incubation stages did not account for the lack of cuckoo parasitism in thrushes. However, cross-fostering experiments disclosed that various factors during the nestling period prevent cuckoos from successfully parasitizing thrushes. Specifically, in some thrush species, the nest cup design forced cuckoo chicks to compete with host chicks with fatal consequences for the parasite. Other species were reluctant to care even for lone cuckoo chicks. 5. Importantly, in an apparently phylogenetically homogenous group of hosts, there were interspecific differences in factors responsible for the absence of cuckoo parasitism. 6. This study highlights the importance of considering multiple potential factors and their interactions for understanding absence of parasitism in potential hosts of parasitic birds. In the present study, comparative and experimental procedures are integrated, which represent a novel approach that should prove useful for the understanding of interspecific ecological relationships in general. PMID:21244420

Grim, Tomáš; Samaš, Peter; Moskát, Csaba; Kleven, Oddmund; Honza, Marcel; Moksnes, Arne; Rřskaft, Eivin; Stokke, Bĺrd G

2011-05-01

93

Manipulation of host behavior by parasitic insects and insect parasites.  

PubMed

Parasites often alter the behavior of their hosts in ways that are ultimately beneficial to the parasite or its offspring. Although the alteration of host behavior by parasites is a widespread phenomenon, the underlying neuronal mechanisms are only beginning to be understood. Here, we focus on recent advances in the study of behavioral manipulation via modulation of the host central nervous system. We elaborate on a few case studies, in which recently published data provide explanations for the neuronal basis of parasite-induced alteration of host behavior. Among these, we describe how a worm may influence the nervous system of its cricket host and manipulate the cricket into committing suicide by jumping into water. We then focus on Ampulex compressa, which uses an Alien-like strategy for the sake of its offspring. Unlike most venomous hunters, this wasp injects venom directly into specific cerebral regions of its cockroach prey. As a result of the sting, the cockroach remains alive but immobile, but not paralyzed, and serves to nourish the developing wasp larva. PMID:19067631

Libersat, Frederic; Delago, Antonia; Gal, Ram

2009-01-01

94

Constraints on host use by a parasitic plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers do not always utilize all suitable hosts. Understanding why parasitic plants do not always parasitize potentially\\u000a suitable hosts requires a better understanding of the constraints that limit host use by parasitic plants. In Texas salt marshes,\\u000a the parasitic plant Cuscuta indecora rarely parasitizes three hosts that support vigorous growth in the greenhouse. We identified three constraints on host use

Emily S. Marquardt; Steven C. Pennings

2010-01-01

95

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities.  

PubMed

Host-parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity-disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11-65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ?40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15-20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity-disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

Johnson, Pieter T J; Preston, Daniel L; Hoverman, Jason T; LaFonte, Bryan E

2013-10-15

96

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities  

PubMed Central

Host–parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity–disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11–65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ?40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15–20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity–disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Preston, Daniel L.; Hoverman, Jason T.; LaFonte, Bryan E.

2013-01-01

97

Host range, host ecology, and distribution of more than 11800 fish parasite species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our data set includes 38?008 fish parasite records (for Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda) compiled from the scientific literature, Internet databases, and museum collections paired to the corresponding host ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic traits (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, habitat preference, geographical range size, taxonomy). The data focus on host features, because specific parasite traits are not consistently available across records. For this reason, the data set is intended as a flexible resource able to extend the principles of ecological niche modeling to the host–parasite system, providing researchers with the data to model parasite niches based on their distribution in host species and the associated host features. In this sense, the database offers a framework for testing general ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic hypotheses based on the identification of hosts as parasite habitat. Potential applications of the data set are, for example, the investigation of species–area relationships or the taxonomic distribution of host-specificity. The provided host–parasite list is that currently used by Fish Parasite Ecology Software Tool (FishPEST, http://purl.oclc.org/fishpest), which is a website that allows researchers to model several aspects of the relationships between fish parasites and their hosts. The database is intended for researchers who wish to have more freedom to analyze the database than currently possible with FishPEST. However, for readers who have not seen FishPEST, we recommend using this as a starting point for interacting with the database.

Strona, Giovanni; Palomares, Maria Lourdes D.; Bailly, Nicholas; Galli, Paolo; Lafferty, Kevin D.

2013-01-01

98

Advice of the rose: experimental coevolution of a trematode parasite and its snail host.  

PubMed

Understanding host-parasite coevolution requires multigenerational studies in which changes in both parasite infectivity and host susceptibility are monitored. We conducted a coevolution experiment that examined six generations of interaction between a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) and one of its common parasites (the sterilizing trematode, Microphallus sp.). In one treatment (recycled), the parasite was reintroduced into the same population of host snails. In the second treatment (lagged), the host snails received parasites from the recycled treatment, but the addition of these parasites did not begin until the second generation. Hence any parasite-mediated genetic changes of the host in the lagged treatment were expected to be one generation behind those in the recycled treatment. The lagged treatment thus allowed us to test for time lags in parasite adaptation, as predicted by the Red Queen model of host-parasite coevolution. Finally, in the third treatment (control), parasites were not added. The results showed that parasites from the recycled treatment were significantly more infective to snails from the lagged treatment than from the recycled treatment. In addition, the hosts from the recycled treatment diverged from the control hosts with regard to their susceptibility to parasites collected from the field. Taken together, the results are consistent with time lagged, frequency-dependent selection and rapid coevolution between hosts and parasites. PMID:17300434

Koskella, Britt; Lively, Curtis M

2007-01-01

99

Social learning of a brood parasite by its host  

PubMed Central

Arms races between brood parasites and their hosts provide model systems for studying the evolutionary repercussions of species interactions. However, how naive hosts identify brood parasites as enemies remains poorly understood, despite its ecological and evolutionary significance. Here, we investigate whether young, cuckoo-naive superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize cuckoos as a threat through social transmission of information. Naive individuals were initially unresponsive to a cuckoo specimen, but after observing conspecifics mob a cuckoo, they made more whining and mobbing alarm calls, and spent more time physically mobbing the cuckoo. This is the first direct evidence that naive hosts can learn to identify brood parasites as enemies via social learning. PMID:23760171

Feeney, William E.; Langmore, Naomi E.

2013-01-01

100

Social learning of a brood parasite by its host.  

PubMed

Arms races between brood parasites and their hosts provide model systems for studying the evolutionary repercussions of species interactions. However, how naive hosts identify brood parasites as enemies remains poorly understood, despite its ecological and evolutionary significance. Here, we investigate whether young, cuckoo-naive superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize cuckoos as a threat through social transmission of information. Naive individuals were initially unresponsive to a cuckoo specimen, but after observing conspecifics mob a cuckoo, they made more whining and mobbing alarm calls, and spent more time physically mobbing the cuckoo. This is the first direct evidence that naive hosts can learn to identify brood parasites as enemies via social learning. PMID:23760171

Feeney, William E; Langmore, Naomi E

2013-08-23

101

The interaction of the novel 30C02 cyst nematode effector protein with a plant ?-1,3-endoglucanase may suppress host defence to promote parasitism  

PubMed Central

Phytoparasitic nematodes secrete an array of effector proteins to modify selected recipient plant cells into elaborate and essential feeding sites. The biological function of the novel 30C02 effector protein of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, was studied using Arabidopsis thaliana as host and the beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, which contains a homologue of the 30C02 gene. Expression of Hg30C02 in Arabidopsis did not affect plant growth and development but increased plant susceptibility to infection by H. schachtii. The 30C02 protein interacted with a specific (AT4G16260) host plant ?-1,3-endoglucanase in both yeast and plant cells, possibly to interfere with its role as a plant pathogenesis-related protein. Interestingly, the peak expression of 30C02 in the nematode and peak expression of At4g16260 in plant roots coincided at around 3–5 d after root infection by the nematode, after which the relative expression of At4g16260 declined significantly. An Arabidopsis At4g16260 T-DNA mutant showed increased susceptibility to cyst nematode infection, and plants that overexpressed At4g16260 were reduced in nematode susceptibility, suggesting a potential role of host ?-1,3-endoglucanase in the defence response against H. schachtii infection. Arabidopsis plants that expressed dsRNA and its processed small interfering RNA complementary to the Hg30C02 sequence were not phenotypically different from non-transformed plants, but they exhibited a strong RNA interference-mediated resistance to infection by H. schachtii. The collective results suggest that, as with other pathogens, active suppression of host defence is a critical component for successful parasitism by nematodes and a vulnerable target to disrupt the parasitic cycle. PMID:22442414

Hamamouch, Noureddine; Hewezi, Tarek; Baum, Thomas J.; Mitchum, Melissa G.; Hussey, Richard S.; Vodkin, Lila O.; Davis, Eric L.

2012-01-01

102

The interaction of the novel 30C02 cyst nematode effector protein with a plant ?-1,3-endoglucanase may suppress host defence to promote parasitism.  

PubMed

Phytoparasitic nematodes secrete an array of effector proteins to modify selected recipient plant cells into elaborate and essential feeding sites. The biological function of the novel 30C02 effector protein of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, was studied using Arabidopsis thaliana as host and the beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, which contains a homologue of the 30C02 gene. Expression of Hg30C02 in Arabidopsis did not affect plant growth and development but increased plant susceptibility to infection by H. schachtii. The 30C02 protein interacted with a specific (AT4G16260) host plant ?-1,3-endoglucanase in both yeast and plant cells, possibly to interfere with its role as a plant pathogenesis-related protein. Interestingly, the peak expression of 30C02 in the nematode and peak expression of At4g16260 in plant roots coincided at around 3-5 d after root infection by the nematode, after which the relative expression of At4g16260 declined significantly. An Arabidopsis At4g16260 T-DNA mutant showed increased susceptibility to cyst nematode infection, and plants that overexpressed At4g16260 were reduced in nematode susceptibility, suggesting a potential role of host ?-1,3-endoglucanase in the defence response against H. schachtii infection. Arabidopsis plants that expressed dsRNA and its processed small interfering RNA complementary to the Hg30C02 sequence were not phenotypically different from non-transformed plants, but they exhibited a strong RNA interference-mediated resistance to infection by H. schachtii. The collective results suggest that, as with other pathogens, active suppression of host defence is a critical component for successful parasitism by nematodes and a vulnerable target to disrupt the parasitic cycle. PMID:22442414

Hamamouch, Noureddine; Li, Chunying; Hewezi, Tarek; Baum, Thomas J; Mitchum, Melissa G; Hussey, Richard S; Vodkin, Lila O; Davis, Eric L

2012-06-01

103

Gene expression differences underlying genotype-by-genotype specificity in a host-parasite system  

PubMed Central

In many systems, host–parasite evolutionary dynamics have led to the emergence and maintenance of diverse parasite and host genotypes within the same population. Genotypes vary in key attributes: Parasite genotypes vary in ability to infect, host genotypes vary in susceptibility, and infection outcome is frequently the result of both parties’ genotypic identities. These host–parasite genotype-by-genotype (GH × GP) interactions influence evolutionary and ecological dynamics in important ways. Interactions can be produced through genetic variation; however, here, we assess the role of variable gene expression as an additional source of GH × GP interactions. The bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its trypanosome gut parasite Crithidia bombi are a model system for host–parasite matching. Full-transcriptome sequencing of the bumblebee host revealed that different parasite genotypes indeed induce fundamentally different host expression responses and host genotypes vary in their responses to the infecting parasite genotype. It appears that broadly and successfully infecting parasite genotypes lead to reduced host immune gene expression relative to unexposed bees but induce the expression of genes responsible for controlling gene expression. Contrastingly, a poorly infecting parasite genotype induced the expression of immunologically important genes, including antimicrobial peptides. A targeted expression assay confirmed the transcriptome results and also revealed strong host genotype effects. In all, the expression of a number of genes depends on the host genotype and the parasite genotype and the interaction between both host and parasite genotypes. These results suggest that alongside sequence variation in coding immunological genes, variation that controls immune gene expression can also produce patterns of host–parasite specificity. PMID:24550506

Barribeau, Seth M.; Sadd, Ben M.; du Plessis, Louis; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

2014-01-01

104

Gene expression differences underlying genotype-by-genotype specificity in a host-parasite system.  

PubMed

In many systems, host-parasite evolutionary dynamics have led to the emergence and maintenance of diverse parasite and host genotypes within the same population. Genotypes vary in key attributes: Parasite genotypes vary in ability to infect, host genotypes vary in susceptibility, and infection outcome is frequently the result of both parties' genotypic identities. These host-parasite genotype-by-genotype (GH × GP) interactions influence evolutionary and ecological dynamics in important ways. Interactions can be produced through genetic variation; however, here, we assess the role of variable gene expression as an additional source of GH × GP interactions. The bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its trypanosome gut parasite Crithidia bombi are a model system for host-parasite matching. Full-transcriptome sequencing of the bumblebee host revealed that different parasite genotypes indeed induce fundamentally different host expression responses and host genotypes vary in their responses to the infecting parasite genotype. It appears that broadly and successfully infecting parasite genotypes lead to reduced host immune gene expression relative to unexposed bees but induce the expression of genes responsible for controlling gene expression. Contrastingly, a poorly infecting parasite genotype induced the expression of immunologically important genes, including antimicrobial peptides. A targeted expression assay confirmed the transcriptome results and also revealed strong host genotype effects. In all, the expression of a number of genes depends on the host genotype and the parasite genotype and the interaction between both host and parasite genotypes. These results suggest that alongside sequence variation in coding immunological genes, variation that controls immune gene expression can also produce patterns of host-parasite specificity. PMID:24550506

Barribeau, Seth M; Sadd, Ben M; du Plessis, Louis; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

2014-03-01

105

Controlled Chaos of Polymorphic Mucins in a Metazoan Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni) Interacting with Its Invertebrate Host (Biomphalaria glabrata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata)). Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites.

Emmanuel Roger; Christoph Grunau; Raymond J. Pierce; Hirohisa Hirai; Benjamin Gourbal; Richard Galinier; Rémi Emans; Italo M. Cesari; Céline Cosseau; Guillaume Mitta

2008-01-01

106

Modelling parasite transmission in a grazing system: the importance of host behaviour and immunity.  

PubMed

Parasitic helminths present one of the most pervasive challenges to grazing herbivores. Many macro-parasite transmission models focus on host physiological defence strategies, omitting more complex interactions between hosts and their environments. This work represents the first model that integrates both the behavioural and physiological elements of gastro-intestinal nematode transmission dynamics in a managed grazing system. A spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model is developed, that incorporates both the hosts' immunological responses to parasitism, and key grazing behaviours including faecal avoidance. The results demonstrate that grazing behaviour affects both the timing and intensity of parasite outbreaks, through generating spatial heterogeneity in parasite risk and nutritional resources, and changing the timing of exposure to the parasites' free-living stages. The influence of grazing behaviour varies with the host-parasite combination, dependent on the development times of different parasite species and variations in host immune response. Our outputs include the counterintuitive finding that under certain conditions perceived parasite avoidance behaviours (faecal avoidance) can increase parasite risk, for certain host-parasite combinations. Through incorporating the two-way interaction between infection dynamics and grazing behaviour, the potential benefits of parasite-induced anorexia are also demonstrated. Hosts with phenotypic plasticity in grazing behaviour, that make grazing decisions dependent on current parasite burden, can reduce infection with minimal loss of intake over the grazing season. This paper explores how both host behaviours and immunity influence macro-parasite transmission in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment. The magnitude and timing of parasite outbreaks is influenced by host immunity and behaviour, and the interactions between them; the incorporation of both regulatory processes is required to fully understand transmission dynamics. Understanding of both physiological and behavioural defence strategies will aid the development of novel approaches for control. PMID:24223133

Fox, Naomi J; Marion, Glenn; Davidson, Ross S; White, Piran C L; Hutchings, Michael R

2013-01-01

107

Modelling Parasite Transmission in a Grazing System: The Importance of Host Behaviour and Immunity  

PubMed Central

Parasitic helminths present one of the most pervasive challenges to grazing herbivores. Many macro-parasite transmission models focus on host physiological defence strategies, omitting more complex interactions between hosts and their environments. This work represents the first model that integrates both the behavioural and physiological elements of gastro-intestinal nematode transmission dynamics in a managed grazing system. A spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model is developed, that incorporates both the hosts’ immunological responses to parasitism, and key grazing behaviours including faecal avoidance. The results demonstrate that grazing behaviour affects both the timing and intensity of parasite outbreaks, through generating spatial heterogeneity in parasite risk and nutritional resources, and changing the timing of exposure to the parasites’ free-living stages. The influence of grazing behaviour varies with the host-parasite combination, dependent on the development times of different parasite species and variations in host immune response. Our outputs include the counterintuitive finding that under certain conditions perceived parasite avoidance behaviours (faecal avoidance) can increase parasite risk, for certain host-parasite combinations. Through incorporating the two-way interaction between infection dynamics and grazing behaviour, the potential benefits of parasite-induced anorexia are also demonstrated. Hosts with phenotypic plasticity in grazing behaviour, that make grazing decisions dependent on current parasite burden, can reduce infection with minimal loss of intake over the grazing season. This paper explores how both host behaviours and immunity influence macro-parasite transmission in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment. The magnitude and timing of parasite outbreaks is influenced by host immunity and behaviour, and the interactions between them; the incorporation of both regulatory processes is required to fully understand transmission dynamics. Understanding of both physiological and behavioural defence strategies will aid the development of novel approaches for control. PMID:24223133

Fox, Naomi J.; Marion, Glenn; Davidson, Ross S.; White, Piran C. L.; Hutchings, Michael R.

2013-01-01

108

Rapid evolution of antimicrobial peptide genes in an insect host-social parasite system.  

PubMed

Selection, as a major driver for evolution in host-parasite interactions, may act on two levels; the virulence of the pathogen, and the hosts' defence system. Effectors of the host defence system might evolve faster than other genes e.g. those involved in adaptation to changes in life history or environmental fluctuations. Host-parasite interactions at the level of hosts and their specific social parasites, present a special setting for evolutionarily driven selection, as both share the same environmental conditions and pathogen pressures. Here, we study the evolution of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes, in six host bumblebee and their socially parasitic cuckoo bumblebee species. The selected AMP genes evolved much faster than non-immune genes, but only defensin-1 showed significant differences between host and social parasite. Nucleotide diversity and codon-by-codon analyses confirmed that purifying selection is the main selective force acting on bumblebee defence genes. PMID:24530902

Erler, Silvio; Lhomme, Patrick; Rasmont, Pierre; Lattorff, H Michael G

2014-04-01

109

Diversification and host switching in avian malaria parasites.  

PubMed Central

The switching of parasitic organisms to novel hosts, in which they may cause the emergence of new diseases, is of great concern to human health and the management of wild and domesticated populations of animals. We used a phylogenetic approach to develop a better statistical assessment of host switching in a large sample of vector-borne malaria parasites of birds (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) over their history of parasite-host relations. Even with sparse sampling, the number of parasite lineages was almost equal to the number of avian hosts. We found that strongly supported sister lineages of parasites, averaging 1.2% sequence divergence, exhibited highly significant host and geographical fidelity. Event-based matching of host and parasite phylogenetic trees revealed significant cospeciation. However, the accumulated effects of host switching and long distance dispersal cause these signals to disappear before 4% sequence divergence is achieved. Mitochondrial DNA nucleotide substitution appears to occur about three times faster in hosts than in parasites, contrary to findings on other parasite-host systems. Using this mutual calibration, the phylogenies of the parasites and their hosts appear to be similar in age, suggesting that avian malaria parasites diversified along with their modern avian hosts. Although host switching has been a prominent feature over the evolutionary history of avian malaria parasites, it is infrequent and unpredictable on time scales germane to public health and wildlife management. PMID:12028770

Ricklefs, Robert E; Fallon, Sylvia M

2002-01-01

110

Volatile Chemical Cues Guide Host Location and Host Selection by Parasitic Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of plant volatiles in mediating interactions between plant species is much debated. Here, we demonstrate that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona (dodder) uses volatile cues for host location. Cuscuta pentagona seedlings exhibit directed growth toward nearby tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) and toward extracted tomato-plant volatiles presented in the absence of other cues. Impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) and wheat plants

Justin B. Runyon; Mark C. Mescher; Consuelo M. De Moraes

2006-01-01

111

Brood parasitic cowbird nestlings use host young to procure resources.  

PubMed

Young brood parasites that tolerate the company of host offspring challenge the existing evolutionary view of family life. In theory, all parasitic nestlings should be ruthlessly self-interested and should kill host offspring soon after hatching. Yet many species allow host young to live, even though they are rivals for host resources. Here we show that the tolerance of host nestlings by the parasitic brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater is adaptive. Host young procure the cowbird a higher provisioning rate, so it grows more rapidly. The cowbird's unexpected altruism toward host offspring simply promotes its selfish interests in exploiting host parents. PMID:15297677

Kilner, Rebecca M; Madden, Joah R; Hauber, Mark E

2004-08-01

112

Host-dependent genetic structure of parasite populations: differential dispersal of seabird tick host races.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that parasite dispersal is likely to be one of the most important processes influencing the dynamics and coevolution of host-parasite interactions, little information is available on the factors that affect it. In most cases, opportunities for parasite dispersal should be closely linked to host biology. Here we use microsatellite genetic markers to compare the population structure and dispersal of two host races of the seabird tick Ixodes uriae at the scale of the North Atlantic. Interestingly, tick populations showed high within-population genetic variation and relatively low population differentiation. However, gene flow at different spatial scales seemed to depend on the host species exploited. The black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) had structured tick populations showing patterns of isolation by distance, whereas tick populations of the Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica) were only weakly structured at the largest scale considered. Host-dependent rates of tick dispersal between colonies will alter infestation probabilities and local dynamics and may thus modify the adaptation potential of ticks to local hosts. Moreover, as I. uriae is a vector of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in both hemispheres, the large-scale movements of birds and the subsequent dispersal of ticks will have important consequences for the dynamics and coevolutionary interactions of this microparasite with its different vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. PMID:12683525

McCoy, Karen D; Boulinier, Thierry; Tirard, Claire; Michalakis, Yannis

2003-02-01

113

Why do parasitized hosts look different? Resolving the "chicken-egg" dilemma.  

PubMed

Phenotypic differences between infected and non-infected hosts are often assumed to be the consequence of parasite infection. However, pre-existing differences in hosts' phenotypes may promote differential susceptibility to infection. The phenotypic variability observed within the host population may therefore be a cause rather than a consequence of infection. In this study, we aimed at disentangling the causes and the consequences of parasite infection by calculating the value of a phenotypic trait (i.e., the growth rate) of the hosts both before and after infection occurred. That procedure was applied to two natural systems of host-parasite interactions. In the first system, the infection level of an ectoparasite (Tracheliastes polycolpus) decreases the growth rate of its fish host (the rostrum dace, Leuciscus leuciscus). Reciprocally, this same phenotypic trait before infection modulated the future level of host sensitivity to the direct pathogenic effect of the parasite, namely the level of fin degradation. In the second model, causes and consequences linked the growth rate of the fish host (the rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax) and the level of endoparasite infection (Proteocephalus tetrastomus). Indeed, the host's growth rate before infection determined the number of parasites later in life, and the parasite biovolume then decreased the host's growth rate of heavily infected hosts. We demonstrated that reciprocal effects between host phenotypes and parasite infection can occur simultaneously in the wild, and that the observed variation in the host phenotype population was not necessarily a consequence of parasite infection. Disentangling the causality of host-parasite interactions should contribute substantially to evaluating the role of parasites in ecological and evolutionary processes. PMID:19189131

Blanchet, Simon; Méjean, Lionel; Bourque, Jean-François; Lek, Sovan; Thomas, Frédéric; Marcogliese, David J; Dodson, Julian J; Loot, Géraldine

2009-05-01

114

Coevolution in Action: Disruptive Selection on Egg Colour in an Avian Brood Parasite and Its Host  

PubMed Central

Background Trait polymorphism can evolve as a consequence of frequency-dependent selection. Coevolutionary interactions between hosts and parasites may lead to selection on both to evolve extreme phenotypes deviating from the norm, through disruptive selection. Methodology/Principal finding Here, we show through detailed field studies and experimental procedures that the ashy-throated parrotbill (Paradoxornis alphonsianus) and its avian brood parasite, the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), have both evolved egg polymorphism manifested in discrete immaculate white, pale blue, and blue egg phenotypes within a single population. In this host-parasite system the most common egg colours were white and blue, with no significant difference in parasitism rates between hosts laying eggs of either colour. Furthermore, selection on parasites for countering the evolution of host egg types appears to be strong, since ashy-throated parrotbills have evolved rejection abilities for even partially mimetic eggs. Conclusions/Significance The parrotbill-cuckoo system constitutes a clear outcome of disruptive selection on both host and parasite egg phenotypes driven by coevolution, due to the cost of parasitism in the host and by host defences in the parasite. The present study is to our knowledge the first to report the influence of disruptive selection on evolution of discrete phenotypes in both parasite and host traits in an avian brood parasitism system. PMID:20520815

Cai, Yan; Shi, Suhua; Takasu, Fugo; M?ller, Anders P.; Antonov, Anton; Foss?y, Frode; Moksnes, Arne; R?skaft, Eivin; Stokke, Bard G.

2010-01-01

115

Genetic analysis of host-parasite coevolution in human malaria.  

PubMed

Recent twin studies of clinical malaria and immune responses to malaria antigens have underscored the importance of both major histocompatability complex (MHC) and non-MHC genes in determining variable susceptibility and immune responsiveness. By using a combination of whole genome genetic linkage studies of families and candidate genes analysis, non-MHC genes are being mapped and identified. Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genotype was found to affect susceptibility to severe malaria in a large study of West African children. T lymphocytes that may mediate such resistance have been identified and their target antigens and epitopes characterized. Some of these epitopes show substantial polymorphism, which appears to result from immune selection pressure. Natural variant epitopes have been found to escape T-cell recognition in cytolytic and other T-cell assays. More recently a novel immune escape mechanism has been described in viral infections, altered peptide ligand antagonism, whereby variants of a T-cell epitope can downregulate or ablate a T cell response to the index peptide. The likely implications of such immune escape mechanisms for the population structure of malaria parasites, for HLA associations with malaria infection and disease, and for the design of new malaria vaccines, are discussed. The evolutionary consequences of such molecular interactions can be assessed by using mathematical models that capture the dynamic of variable host and parasite molecules. Combined genetic, immunological and mathematical analysis of host and parasite variants in natural populations can identify some mechanisms driving host-parasite coevolution. PMID:9355123

Hill, A V; Jepson, A; Plebanski, M; Gilbert, S C

1997-09-29

116

Modulating the modulators: parasites, neuromodulators and host behavioral change.  

PubMed

Neuromodulators can resculpt neural circuits, giving an animal the behavioral flexibility it needs to survive in a complex changing world. This ability, however, provides parasites with a potential mechanism for manipulating host behavior. This paper reviews three invertebrate host-parasite systems to examine whether parasites can change host behavior by secreting neuromodulators. The parasitic wasp, Cotesia congregata, suppresses host feeding partly by inducing the host (Manduca sexta) to increase the octopamine concentration in its hemolymph. The increased octopamine concentration disrupts the motor pattern produced by the frontal ganglion, preventing the ingestion of food. Polymorphus paradoxus (Acanthocephalan) alters the escape behavior of its host, Gammarus lacustris (Crustacea), possibly through an effect on the host's serotonergic system. The trematode Trichobilharzia ocellata inhibits egg-laying in its snail host (Lymnaea stagnalis), partly by inducing the host to secrete schistosomin. Schistosomin decreases electrical excitability of the caudodorsal cells. The parasite also alters gene expression for some neuromodulators within the host's central nervous system. In at least two of these three examples, it appears that the host, not the parasite, produces the neuromodulators that alter host behavior. Producing physiologically potent concentrations of neuromodulators may be energetically expensive for many parasites. Parasites may exploit indirect less energetically expensive methods of altering host behavior. For example, parasites may induce the host's immune system to produce the appropriate neuromodulators. In many parasites, the ability to manipulate host behavior may have evolved from adaptations designed to circumvent the host's immune system. Immune-neural-behavioral connections may be pre-adapted for parasitic manipulation. PMID:12563169

Adamo, Shelley A

2002-01-01

117

Constraints on host use by a parasitic plant.  

PubMed

Consumers do not always utilize all suitable hosts. Understanding why parasitic plants do not always parasitize potentially suitable hosts requires a better understanding of the constraints that limit host use by parasitic plants. In Texas salt marshes, the parasitic plant Cuscuta indecora rarely parasitizes three hosts that support vigorous growth in the greenhouse. We identified three constraints on host use by C. indecora. First, a mismatch between the phenology of C. indecora and some suitable hosts meant that these hosts were not abundant when C. indecora was growing most vigorously, and therefore were underutilized. Second, C. indecora preferentially parasitized tall plants versus short ones, causing relatively short species to be underutilized. Third, C. indecora overwinters in some perennial hosts but has to reinfect annual hosts each year, causing annuals and perennials that do not support overwintering to be underutilized. In combination, these constraints, which reflect the general lack of mobility of parasitic plants relative to herbivores, remove half of the potential host species from the actual diet of C. indecora, and therefore likely represent a major limitation on the success of this parasite. Similar constraints are likely to limit the realized host range of many parasitic plants and select for generalized diet preferences. PMID:20490550

Marquardt, Emily S; Pennings, Steven C

2010-09-01

118

Echinococcus multilocularis and Its Intermediate Host: A Model of Parasite-Host Interplay  

PubMed Central

Host-parasite interactions in the E. multilocularis-intermediate host model depend on a subtle balance between cellular immunity, which is responsible for host's resistance towards the metacestode, the larval stage of the parasite, and tolerance induction and maintenance. The pathological features of alveolar echinococcosis. the disease caused by E. multilocularis, are related both to parasitic growth and to host's immune response, leading to fibrosis and necrosis, The disease spectrum is clearly dependent on the genetic background of the host as well as on acquired disturbances of Th1-related immunity. The laminated layer of the metacestode, and especially its carbohydrate components, plays a major role in tolerance induction. Th2-type and anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-?, as well as nitric oxide, are involved in the maintenance of tolerance and partial inhibition of cytotoxic mechanisms. Results of studies in the experimental mouse model and in patients suggest that immune modulation with cytokines, such as interferon-?, or with specific antigens could be used in the future to treat patients with alveolar echinococcosis and/or to prevent this very severe parasitic disease. PMID:20339517

Vuitton, Dominique Angele; Gottstein, Bruno

2010-01-01

119

Species formation by host shifting in avian malaria parasites.  

PubMed

The malaria parasites (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) of birds are believed to have diversified across the avian host phylogeny well after the origin of most major host lineages. Although many symbionts with direct transmission codiversify with their hosts, mechanisms of species formation in vector-borne parasites, including the role of host shifting, are poorly understood. Here, we examine the hosts of sister lineages in a phylogeny of 181 putative species of malaria parasites of New World terrestrial birds to determine the role of shifts between host taxa in the formation of new parasite species. We find that host shifting, often across host genera and families, is the rule. Sympatric speciation by host shifting would require local reproductive isolation as a prerequisite to divergent selection, but this mechanism is not supported by the generalized host-biting behavior of most vectors of avian malaria parasites. Instead, the geographic distribution of individual parasite lineages in diverse hosts suggests that species formation is predominantly allopatric and involves host expansion followed by local host-pathogen coevolution and secondary sympatry, resulting in local shifting of parasite lineages across hosts. PMID:25271324

Ricklefs, Robert E; Outlaw, Diana C; Svensson-Coelho, Maria; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Ellis, Vincenzo A; Latta, Steven

2014-10-14

120

LETTER Phylogenetic host specificity and understanding parasite sharing in primates  

E-print Network

mode (e.g. sexually transmitted diseases are less likely to be encountered by new hosts than environmentally transmitted diseases); the parasite's abundance in the original host; and similaritiesLETTER Phylogenetic host specificity and understanding parasite sharing in primates Natalie Cooper

Nunn, Charles

121

Review on Trypanosoma cruzi: Host Cell Interaction  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, which affects a large number of individuals in Central and South America, is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. This protozoan is an obligate intracellular parasite. The infective forms of the parasite are metacyclic and bloodstream trypomastigote and amastigote. Metacyclic trypomastigotes are released with the feces of the insect while amastigotes and bloodstream trypomastigotes are released from the infected host cells of the vertebrate host after a complex intracellular life cycle. The recognition between parasite and mammalian host cell involves numerous molecules present in both cell types. Here, we present a brief review of the interaction between Trypanosoma cruzi and its host cells, mainly emphasizing the mechanisms and molecules that participate in the T. cruzi invasion process of the mammalian cells. PMID:20811486

de Souza, Wanderley; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria Ulisses; Barrias, Emile Santos

2010-01-01

122

Knowing your enemies: seasonal dynamics of host social parasite recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite its evolutionary significance, behavioural flexibility of social response has rarely been investigated in insects. We studied a host social parasite system: the slave-making ant Polyergus rufescens and its host Formica rufibarbis. Free-living host workers from parasitized and from unparasitized areas were compared in their level of aggression against the parasite and alien conspecifics. We expected that a seasonal change would occur in the acceptance threshold of F. rufibarbis workers from a parasitized area towards the parasite, whereas F. rufibarbis workers from an unparasitized area would not show substantial changes connected with the parasite’s peak in activity (raiding and colony-founding season). The results showed a significant adaptive behavioural flexibility of host species workers and are consistent with the acceptance threshold model’s (Reeve 1989) prediction that recognition systems are not fixed but context-dependent. In particular, host workers from the unparasitized area were highly aggressive towards the parasite regardless of the season, whereas host workers from the parasitized area significantly increased their aggression towards the parasite during its raiding and colony-founding season. Being able to detect and possibly kill a Polyergus scout searching for host nests can be an effective strategy for a Formica colony to avoid being raided or usurped by a parasite queen.

D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Brunner, Elisabeth; Wenseleers, Tom; Heinze, Jürgen

2004-12-01

123

Interaction between Parasitophorous Vacuolar Membrane-associated GRA3 and Calcium Modulating Ligand of Host Cell Endoplasmic Reticulum in the Parasitism of Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

A monoclonal antibody against Toxoplasma gondii of Tg556 clone (Tg556) blotted a 29 kDa protein, which was localized in the dense granules of tachyzoites and secreted into the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) after infection to host cells. A cDNA fragment encoding the protein was obtained by screening a T. gondii cDNA expression library with Tg556, and the full-length was completed by 5'-RACE of 2,086 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 669 bp. The ORF encoded a polypeptide of 222 amino acids homologous to the revised GRA3 but not to the first reported one. The polypeptide has 3 hydrophobic moieties of an N-terminal stop transfer sequence and 2 transmembrane domains (TMD) in posterior half of the sequence, a cytoplasmic localization motif after the second TMD and an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrival motif in the C-terminal end, which suggests GRA3 as a type III transmembrane protein. With the ORF of GRA3, yeast two-hybrid assay was performed in HeLa cDNA expression library, which resulted in the interaction of GRA3 with calcium modulating ligand (CAMLG), a type II transmembrane protein of ER. The specific binding of GRA3 and CAMLG was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays. The localities of fluorescence transfectionally expressed from GRA3 and CAMLG plasmids were overlapped completely in HeLa cell cytoplasm. In immunofluorescence assay, GRA3 and CAMLG were shown to be co-localized in the PVM of host cells. Structural binding of PVM-inserted GRA3 to CAMLG of ER suggested the receptor-ligand of ER recruitment to PVM during the parasitism of T. gondii. PMID:19127325

Kim, Ji Yeon; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Ryu, Kyung Ju

2008-01-01

124

Interaction between parasitophorous vacuolar membrane-associated GRA3 and calcium modulating ligand of host cell endoplasmic reticulum in the parasitism of Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

A monoclonal antibody against Toxoplasma gondii of Tg556 clone (Tg556) blotted a 29 kDa protein, which was localized in the dense granules of tachyzoites and secreted into the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) after infection to host cells. A cDNA fragment encoding the protein was obtained by screening a T. gondii cDNA expression library with Tg556, and the full-length was completed by 5'-RACE of 2,086 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 669 bp. The ORF encoded a polypeptide of 222 amino acids homologous to the revised GRA3 but not to the first reported one. The polypeptide has 3 hydrophobic moieties of an N-terminal stop transfer sequence and 2 transmembrane domains (TMD) in posterior half of the sequence, a cytoplasmic localization motif after the second TMD and an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrival motif in the C-terminal end, which suggests GRA3 as a type III transmembrane protein. With the ORF of GRA3, yeast two-hybrid assay was performed in HeLa cDNA expression library, which resulted in the interaction of GRA3 with calcium modulating ligand (CAMLG), a type II transmembrane protein of ER. The specific binding of GRA3 and CAMLG was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays. The localities of fluorescence transfectionally expressed from GRA3 and CAMLG plasmids were overlapped completely in HeLa cell cytoplasm. In immunofluorescence assay, GRA3 and CAMLG were shown to be co-localized in the PVM of host cells. Structural binding of PVM-inserted GRA3 to CAMLG of ER suggested the receptor-ligand of ER recruitment to PVM during the parasitism of T. gondii. PMID:19127325

Kim, Ji Yeon; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Ryu, Kyung Ju; Nam, Ho-Woo

2008-12-01

125

Does chemical aposematic (warning) signaling occur between host plants and their potential parasitic plants?  

PubMed Central

Aposematism (warning) signaling is a common defensive mechanism toward predatory or herbivorous animals, i.e., interactions between different trophic levels. I propose that it should be considered at least as a working hypothesis that chemical aposematism operates between certain host plants and their plant predators, parasitic plants, and that although they are also plants, they belong to a higher trophic level. Specific host plant genotypes emit known repelling chemical signals toward parasitic plants, which reduce the level of, slow the directional parasite growth (attack) toward the signaling hosts, or even cause parasitic plants to grow away from them in response to these chemicals. Chemical host aposematism toward parasitic plants may be a common but overlooked defense from parasitic plants. PMID:23656862

Lev-Yadun, Simcha

2013-01-01

126

Host-parasite relatedness in wood ducks: patterns of kinship and parasite success  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the role of kinship in intraspecific nest parasitism of wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Among waterfowl, female philopatry creates the potential for female relatives to nest in proximity. Costs of intraspecific nest parasitism to host females may be reduced if parasites lay eggs with kin. However, previous observations of marked wood ducks indicated that females avoided parasitizing clutch mates

Charlotte Roy Nielsen; Brad Semel; Paul W. Sherman; David F. Westneat; Patricia G. Parkera

2006-01-01

127

Topic 3: Toward Understanding the Role of Diet in Host–Parasite Interactions: The Case for Japanese Macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Central to understanding animal ecology are interactions between consumers and the consumed, whether predator–prey, herbivore–plant,\\u000a or mycophage–mushroom. A wealth of information exists describing just such relationships (Stephens and Krebs 1986; Stephens\\u000a et al. 2007). The first systematic and naturalistic study of primates (Alouatta palliata: Carpenter 1934) reported a partial list of items consumed by howler monkeys. Since then, countless food

Andrew J. J. MacIntosh; Michael A. Huffman

128

Trematode parasites infect or die in snail hosts  

PubMed Central

The Red Queen hypothesis is based on the assumption that parasites must genetically match their hosts to infect them successfully. If the parasites fail, they are assumed to be killed by the host's immune system. Here, we tested this using sympatric (mostly susceptible) and allopatric (mostly resistant) populations of a freshwater snail and its trematode parasite. We determined whether parasites which do not infect are either killed or passed through the host's digestive tract and remain infectious. Our results show that parasites do not get a second chance: they either infect or are killed by the host. The results suggest strong selection against parasites that are not adapted to local host genotypes. PMID:20961880

King, Kayla C.; Jokela, Jukka; Lively, Curtis M.

2011-01-01

129

Modelling the maintenance of egg polymorphism in avian brood parasites and their hosts.  

PubMed

In avian brood parasitism, egg phenotype plays a key role for both host and parasite reproduction. Several parrotbill species of the genus Paradoxornis are parasitized by the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, and clear polymorphism in egg phenotype is observed. In this article, we develop a population genetics model in order to identify the key parameters that control the maintenance of egg polymorphism. The model analyses show that egg polymorphism can be maintained either statically as an equilibrium or dynamically with frequency oscillations depending on the sensitivity of the host against unlike eggs and how the parasite targets host nests with specific egg phenotypes. On the basis of the model, we discuss egg polymorphism observed in parrotbills and other host species parasitized by the cuckoo. We suggest the possibility that frequencies of egg phenotypes oscillate and we appeal for monitoring of cuckoo-host interactions over a large spatiotemporal scale. PMID:22404333

Liang, W; Yang, C; Stokke, B G; Antonov, A; Fossřy, F; Vikan, J R; Moksnes, A; Rřskaft, E; Shykoff, J A; Mřller, A P; Takasu, F

2012-05-01

130

mRNA-Seq and microarray development for the Grooved carpet shell clam, Ruditapes decussatus: a functional approach to unravel host -parasite interaction  

PubMed Central

Background The Grooved Carpet shell clam Ruditapes decussatus is the autochthonous European clam and the most appreciated from a gastronomic and economic point of view. The production is in decline due to several factors such as Perkinsiosis and habitat invasion and competition by the introduced exotic species, the manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. After we sequenced R. decussatus transcriptome we have designed an oligo microarray capable of contributing to provide some clues on molecular response of the clam to Perkinsiosis. Results A database consisting of 41,119 unique transcripts was constructed, of which 12,479 (30.3%) were annotated by similarity. An oligo-DNA microarray platform was then designed and applied to profile gene expression in R. decussatus heavily infected by Perkinsus olseni. Functional annotation of differentially expressed genes between those two conditionswas performed by gene set enrichment analysis. As expected, microarrays unveil genes related with stress/infectious agents such as hydrolases, proteases and others. The extensive role of innate immune system was also analyzed and effect of parasitosis upon expression of important molecules such as lectins reviewed. Conclusions This study represents a first attempt to characterize Ruditapes decussatus transcriptome, an important marine resource for the European aquaculture. The trancriptome sequencing and consequent annotation will increase the available tools and resources for this specie, introducing the possibility of high throughput experiments such as microarrays analysis. In this specific case microarray approach was used to unveil some important aspects of host-parasite interaction between the Carpet shell clam and Perkinsus, two non-model species, highlighting some genes associated with this interaction. Ample information was obtained to identify biological processes significantly enriched among differentially expressed genes in Perkinsus infected versus non-infected gills. An overview on the genes related with the immune system on R. decussatus transcriptome is also reported. PMID:24168212

2013-01-01

131

Host cell preference and variable transmission strategies in malaria parasites  

E-print Network

Host cell preference and variable transmission strategies in malaria parasites Sarah E. Reece1LA, UK Malaria and other haemosporin parasites must undergo a round of sexual reproduction that, consistent with evolutionary theory, the sex ratios of malaria parasites are negatively

West, Stuart

132

Interactions among co-infecting parasite species: a mechanism maintaining genetic variation in parasites?  

PubMed Central

Individuals of free-living organisms are often infected simultaneously by a community of parasites. If the co-infecting parasites interact, then this can add significantly to the diversity of host genotype×parasite genotype interactions. However, interactions between parasite species are usually not examined considering potential variation in interactions between different strain combinations of co-infecting parasites. Here, we examined the importance of interactions between strains of fish eye flukes Diplostomum spathaceum and Diplostomum gasterostei on their infectivity in naive fish hosts. We assessed the infection success of strains of both species in single-strain exposures and in co-exposures with a random strain of the other species. Parasite infection success did not consistently increase or decrease in the co-exposure treatment, but depended on the combinations of co-infecting parasite strains. This disrupted the relative infectivity of D. spathaceum strains observed in single-strain exposures. The infection success of D. gasterostei strains was independent of exposure type. These results suggest that interactions among parasite species may be strain specific and potentially promote maintenance of genetic polymorphism in parasite populations. PMID:18957364

Seppala, Otto; Karvonen, Anssi; Tellervo Valtonen, E.; Jokela, Jukka

2008-01-01

133

Intraspecific brood parasitism in the moorhen: parentage and parasite-host relationships determined by DNA fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic female moorhens (Gallinula chloropus) lay from one to six eggs in the nests of conspecific neighbours. DNA fingerprinting was used to show that parasitic eggs\\u000a could be correctly identified when they appeared in addition to or outside the host’s laying sequence. Moorhen hosts accept\\u000a all parasitic eggs laid after the 2nd day of their laying period. To understand why

Susan B. McRae; Terry Burke

1996-01-01

134

Tactics of parasitic American coots: host choice and the pattern of egg dispersion among host nests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary I examined the tactics adopted by a conspecific brood parasite, the American coot (Fulica americana), and the degree to which these tactics reflect sources of mortality for parasitic eggs. Only 8% of parasitic eggs produced independent offspring, compared to a 35% success rate for non-parasitic eggs, and most mortality was due to egg-rejection by hosts or the consequences of

Bruce E. Lyon

1993-01-01

135

Host compatibility rather than vector-host-encounter rate determines the host range of avian Plasmodium parasites  

PubMed Central

Blood-feeding arthropod vectors are responsible for transmitting many parasites between vertebrate hosts. While arthropod vectors often feed on limited subsets of potential host species, little is known about the extent to which this influences the distribution of vector-borne parasites in some systems. Here, we test the hypothesis that different vector species structure parasite–host relationships by restricting access of certain parasites to a subset of available hosts. Specifically, we investigate how the feeding patterns of Culex mosquito vectors relate to distributions of avian malaria parasites among hosts in suburban Chicago, IL, USA. We show that Plasmodium lineages, defined by cytochrome b haplotypes, are heterogeneously distributed across avian hosts. However, the feeding patterns of the dominant vectors (Culex restuans and Culex pipiens) are similar across these hosts, and do not explain the distributions of Plasmodium parasites. Phylogenetic similarity of avian hosts predicts similarity in their Plasmodium parasites. This effect was driven primarily by the general association of Plasmodium parasites with particular host superfamilies. Our results suggest that a mosquito-imposed encounter rate does not limit the distribution of avian Plasmodium parasites across hosts. This implies that compatibility between parasites and their avian hosts structure Plasmodium host range. PMID:23595266

Medeiros, Matthew C. I.; Hamer, Gabriel L.; Ricklefs, Robert E.

2013-01-01

136

Anthelmintic treatment alters the parasite community in a wild mouse host  

PubMed Central

Individuals are often co-infected with several parasite species, yet the consequences of drug treatment on the dynamics of parasite communities in wild populations have rarely been measured. Here, we experimentally reduced nematode infection in a wild mouse population and measured the effects on other non-target parasites. A single oral dose of the anthelmintic, ivermectin, significantly reduced nematode infection, but resulted in a reciprocal increase in other gastrointestinal parasites, specifically coccidial protozoans and cestodes. These results highlight the possibility that drug therapy may have unintended consequences for non-target parasites and that host–parasite dynamics cannot always be fully understood in the framework of single host–parasite interactions. PMID:23658004

Pedersen, Amy B.; Antonovics, Janis

2013-01-01

137

Retaliatory mafia behavior by a parasitic cowbird favors host acceptance of parasitic eggs.  

PubMed

Why do many hosts accept costly avian brood parasitism even when parasitic eggs and nestlings differ dramatically in appearance from their own? Scientists argue that evolutionary lag or equilibrium can explain this evolutionary enigma. Few, however, consider the potential of parasitic birds to enforce acceptance by destroying eggs or nestlings of hosts that eject parasitic eggs and thereby reject parasitism. This retaliatory "mafia" behavior has been reported in one species of parasitic cuckoo but never in parasitic cowbirds. Here we present experimental evidence of mafia behavior in the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), a widely distributed North American brood parasite. We manipulated ejection of cowbird eggs and cowbird access to predator-proof nests in a common host to test experimentally for mafia behavior. When cowbird access was allowed, 56% of "ejector" nests were depredated compared with only 6% of "accepter" nests. No nests were destroyed when cowbird access was always denied or when access was denied after we removed cowbird eggs, indicating that cowbirds were responsible. Nonparasitized nests were depredated at an intermediate rate (20%) when cowbirds were allowed access, suggesting that cowbirds may occasionally "farm" hosts to create additional opportunities for parasitism. Cowbirds parasitized most (85%) renests of the hosts whose nests were depredated. Ejector nests produced 60% fewer host offspring than accepter nests because of the predatory behavior attributed to cowbirds. Widespread predatory behaviors in cowbirds could slow the evolution of rejection behaviors and further threaten populations of some of the >100 species of regular cowbird hosts. PMID:17360549

Hoover, Jeffrey P; Robinson, Scott K

2007-03-13

138

Impact of host nutritional status on infection dynamics and parasite virulence in a bird-malaria system.  

PubMed

Host resources can drive the optimal parasite exploitation strategy by offering a good or a poor environment to pathogens. Hosts living in resource-rich habitats might offer a favourable environment to developing parasites because they provide a wealth of resources. However, hosts living in resource-rich habitats might afford a higher investment into costly immune defences providing an effective barrier against infection. Understanding how parasites can adapt to hosts living in habitats of different quality is a major challenge in the light of the current human-driven environmental changes. We studied the role of nutritional resources as a source of phenotypic variation in host exploitation by the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum. We investigated how the nutritional status of birds altered parasite within-host dynamics and virulence, and how the interaction between past and current environments experienced by the parasite accounts for the variation in the infection dynamics. Experimentally infected canaries were allocated to control or supplemented diets. Plasmodium parasites experiencing the two different environments were subsequently transmitted in a full-factorial design to new hosts reared under similar control or supplemented diets. Food supplementation was effective since supplemented hosts gained body mass during a 15-day period that preceded the infection. Host nutrition had strong effects on infection dynamics and parasite virulence. Overall, parasites were more successful in control nonsupplemented birds, reaching larger population sizes and producing more sexual (transmissible) stages. However, supplemented hosts paid a higher cost of infection, and when keeping parasitaemia constant, they had lower haematocrit than control hosts. Parasites grown on control hosts were better able to exploit the subsequent hosts since they reached higher parasitaemia than parasites originating from supplemented hosts. They were also more virulent since they induced higher mass and haematocrit loss. Our study highlights that parasite virulence can be shaped by the host nutritional status and that parasite can adapt to the environment provided by their hosts, possibly through genetic selection. PMID:23926945

Cornet, Stéphane; Bichet, Coraline; Larcombe, Stephen; Faivre, Bruno; Sorci, Gabriele

2014-01-01

139

Parasite transmission in complex communities: predators and alternative hosts alter pathogenic infections in amphibians.  

PubMed

While often studied in isolation, host-parasite interactions are typically embedded within complex communities. Other community members, including predators and alternative hosts, can therefore alter parasite transmission (e.g., the dilution effect), yet few studies have experimentally evaluated more than one such mechanism. Here, we used data from natural wetlands to design experiments investigating how alternative hosts and predators of parasites mediate trematode (Ribeiroia ondatrae) infection in a focal amphibian host (Pseudacris regilla). In short-term predation bioassays involving mollusks, zooplankton, fish, larval insects, or newts, four of seven tested species removed 62-93% of infectious stages. In transmission experiments, damselfly nymphs (predators) and newt larvae (alternative hosts) reduced infection in P. regilla tadpoles by -50%, whereas mosquitofish (potential predators and alternative hosts) did not significantly influence transmission. Additional bioassays indicated that predators consumed parasites even in the presence of alternative prey. In natural wetlands, newts had similar infection intensities as P. regilla, suggesting that they commonly function as alternative hosts despite their unpalatability to downstream hosts, whereas mosquitofish had substantially lower infection intensities and are unlikely to function as hosts. These results underscore the importance of studying host-parasite interactions in complex communities and of broadly linking research on predation, biodiversity loss, and infectious diseases. PMID:22834364

Orlofske, Sarah A; Jadin, Robert C; Preston, Daniel L; Johnson, Pieter T J

2012-06-01

140

Interactions between hemiparasitic plants and their hosts  

PubMed Central

Hemiparasitic plants display a unique strategy of resource acquisition combining parasitism of other species and own photosynthetic activity. Despite the active photoassimilation and green habit, they acquire substantial amount of carbon from their hosts. The organic carbon transfer has a crucial influence on the nature of the interaction between hemiparasites and their hosts which can oscillate between parasitism and competition for light. In this minireview, we summarize methodical approaches and results of various studies dealing with carbon budget of hemiparasites and the ecological implications of carbon heterotrophy in hemiparasites. PMID:20729638

Plavcova, Lenka; Cameron, Duncan D

2010-01-01

141

Attachment of the parasitic weed dodder to the host  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The parasitic weed dodder (Cuscuta pentagona L.) invades a number of potential host species, but the mechanisms responsible for ensuring tight adhesion to the wide variety\\u000a of host surfaces have yet to be identified. In this study, a battery of microscopy protocols is used to examine the host–parasite\\u000a interface in an effort to deduce these mechanisms. As the dodder shoot

K. C. Vaughn

2002-01-01

142

Within-host competition and diversification of macro-parasites  

PubMed Central

Although competitive speciation is more and more regarded as a plausible mechanism for sympatric speciation of non-parasite species, virtually no empirical or theoretical study has considered this evolutionary process to explain intra-host diversification of parasites. We expanded the theory of competitive speciation to parasite species looking at the effect of macro-parasite life history on the conditions for sympatric speciation under the so-called pleiotropic scenario. We included within-host competition in the classical Anderson and May framework assuming that individuals exploit within-host resources according to a quantitative trait. We derived the invasion fitness function of mutants considering different distributions of individuals among hosts. Although the mutant fitness depends on parameters describing the key features of macro-parasite life history, and on the relative distributions of mutant and residents in hosts, the conditions for competitive speciation of macro-parasites are exactly the same as those previously established for free-living species. As an interesting by-product, within-host competitive speciation is expected not to depend on the aggregation level of the parasites. This theoretical pattern is confirmed by comparing the speciation rate of weakly and strongly aggregated monogenean parasites. PMID:22696483

Guilhem, Rascalou; Simkova, Andrea; Morand, Serge; Gourbiere, Sebastien

2012-01-01

143

Within-host competition and diversification of macro-parasites.  

PubMed

Although competitive speciation is more and more regarded as a plausible mechanism for sympatric speciation of non-parasite species, virtually no empirical or theoretical study has considered this evolutionary process to explain intra-host diversification of parasites. We expanded the theory of competitive speciation to parasite species looking at the effect of macro-parasite life history on the conditions for sympatric speciation under the so-called pleiotropic scenario. We included within-host competition in the classical Anderson and May framework assuming that individuals exploit within-host resources according to a quantitative trait. We derived the invasion fitness function of mutants considering different distributions of individuals among hosts. Although the mutant fitness depends on parameters describing the key features of macro-parasite life history, and on the relative distributions of mutant and residents in hosts, the conditions for competitive speciation of macro-parasites are exactly the same as those previously established for free-living species. As an interesting by-product, within-host competitive speciation is expected not to depend on the aggregation level of the parasites. This theoretical pattern is confirmed by comparing the speciation rate of weakly and strongly aggregated monogenean parasites. PMID:22696483

Guilhem, Rascalou; Simková, Andrea; Morand, Serge; Gourbičre, Sébastien

2012-11-01

144

Homage to Linnaeus: How many parasites? How many hosts?  

PubMed Central

Estimates of the total number of species that inhabit the Earth have increased significantly since Linnaeus's initial catalog of 20,000 species. The best recent estimates suggest that there are ?6 million species. More emphasis has been placed on counts of free-living species than on parasitic species. We rectify this by quantifying the numbers and proportion of parasitic species. We estimate that there are between 75,000 and 300,000 helminth species parasitizing the vertebrates. We have no credible way of estimating how many parasitic protozoa, fungi, bacteria, and viruses exist. We estimate that between 3% and 5% of parasitic helminths are threatened with extinction in the next 50 to 100 years. Because patterns of parasite diversity do not clearly map onto patterns of host diversity, we can make very little prediction about geographical patterns of threat to parasites. If the threats reflect those experienced by avian hosts, then we expect climate change to be a major threat to the relatively small proportion of parasite diversity that lives in the polar and temperate regions, whereas habitat destruction will be the major threat to tropical parasite diversity. Recent studies of food webs suggest that ?75% of the links in food webs involve a parasitic species; these links are vital for regulation of host abundance and potentially for reducing the impact of toxic pollutants. This implies that parasite extinctions may have unforeseen costs that impact the health and abundance of a large number of free-living species. PMID:18695218

Dobson, Andy; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Jetz, Walter

2008-01-01

145

Brood parasite eggs enhance egg survivorship in a multiply parasitized host  

PubMed Central

Despite the costs to avian parents of rearing brood parasitic offspring, many species do not reject foreign eggs from their nests. We show that where multiple parasitism occurs, rejection itself can be costly, by increasing the risk of host egg loss during subsequent parasite attacks. Chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus) are heavily parasitized by shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis), which also puncture eggs in host nests. Mockingbirds struggle to prevent cowbirds puncturing and laying, but seldom remove cowbird eggs once laid. We filmed cowbird visits to nests with manipulated clutch compositions and found that mockingbird eggs were more likely to escape puncture the more cowbird eggs accompanied them in the clutch. A Monte Carlo simulation of this ‘dilution effect’, comparing virtual hosts that systematically either reject or accept parasite eggs, shows that acceptors enjoy higher egg survivorship than rejecters in host populations where multiple parasitism occurs. For mockingbirds or other hosts in which host nestlings fare well in parasitized broods, this benefit might be sufficient to offset the fitness cost of rearing parasite chicks, making egg acceptance evolutionarily stable. Thus, counterintuitively, high intensities of parasitism might decrease or even reverse selection pressure for host defence via egg rejection. PMID:22158956

Gloag, Ros; Fiorini, Vanina D.; Reboreda, Juan C.; Kacelnik, Alex

2012-01-01

146

A sensory code for host seeking in parasitic nematodes  

PubMed Central

Summary Nematodes comprise a large phylum of both free-living and parasitic species that show remarkably diverse lifestyles, ecological niches, and behavioral repertoires. Parasitic species in particular often display highly specialized host-seeking behaviors that reflect their specific host preferences. Many host-seeking behaviors can be triggered by the presence of host odors, yet little is known about either the specific olfactory cues that trigger these behaviors or the neural circuits that underlie them. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae are phylogenetically distant insect-parasitic nematodes whose host-seeking and host-invasion behavior resembles that of some of the most devastating human- and plant-parasitic nematodes. Here we compare the olfactory responses of H. bacteriophora and S. carpocapsae infective juveniles (IJs) to those of Caenorhabditis elegans dauers, which are analogous life stages [1]. We show that the broad host range of these parasites results from their ability to respond to the universally-produced signal carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as a wide array of odors, including host-specific odors that we identified using TD-GC-MS. We show that CO2 is attractive for the parasitic IJs and C. elegans dauers despite being repulsive for C. elegans adults [2–4], and we identify an ancient and conserved sensory neuron that mediates CO2 response in both parasitic and free-living species regardless of whether CO2 is an attractive or a repulsive cue. Finally, we show that the parasites’ odor response profiles are more similar to each other than to that of C. elegans despite their greater phylogenetic distance, likely reflecting evolutionary convergence to insect parasitism. Our results suggest that the olfactory responses of parasitic versus free-living nematodes are highly diverse and that this diversity is critical to the evolution of nematode behavior. PMID:21353558

Hallem, Elissa A.; Dillman, Adler R.; Hong, Annie V.; Zhang, Yuanjun; Yano, Jessica M.; DeMarco, Stephanie F.

2011-01-01

147

Parasite virulence when the infection reduces the host immune response  

PubMed Central

Parasite infections often induce a reduction in host immune response either because of a direct manipulation of the immune system by the parasite or because of energy depletion. Although infection-induced immunodepression can favour the establishment of the parasite within the host, a too severe immunodepression may increase the risk of infection with opportunistic pathogens, stopping the period over which the parasite can be transmitted to other hosts. Here, we explore how the risk of contracting opportunistic diseases affects the survival of the amphipod Gammarus pulex infected by the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis. Previous work with this system has shown that upon infection, G. pulex has a substantially reduced immune response. Non-infected and P. laevis-infected hosts were maintained either in control or in micro-organism-enriched water, so as to vary the risk of encountering opportunistic pathogens. As predicted, we found that host mortality was exacerbated when infected gammarids were maintained in micro-organism-enriched water compared with clean, control water; whereas for non-infected gammarids, living in micro-organism-enriched water only moderately increased the risk of mortality. These results show that the virulence of parasites that reduce the host immune response is an environmentally sensitive trait that depends on the concomitant risk for the host of contracting opportunistic diseases. This extra source of host mortality probably represents a cost for P. laevis, and we tentatively predict that the optimal level of parasite exploitation should depend on environmental conditions. PMID:20200031

Cornet, Stephane; Sorci, Gabriele

2010-01-01

148

A novel method of rejection of brood parasitic eggs reduces parasitism intensity in a cowbird host  

PubMed Central

The hosts of brood parasitic birds are under strong selection pressure to recognize and remove foreign eggs from their nests, but parasite eggs may be too large to be grasped whole and too strong to be readily pierced by the host's bill. Such operating constraints on egg removal are proposed to force some hosts to accept parasite eggs, as the costs of deserting parasitized clutches can outweigh the cost of rearing parasites. By fitting microcameras inside nests, we reveal that the Neotropical baywing (Agelaioides badius), a host of the screaming cowbird (Molothrus rufoaxillaris) and shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis), instead circumvents such constraints by kicking parasite eggs out of the nest. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a passerine bird using its feet to remove objects from the nest. Kick-ejection was an all-or-nothing response. Baywings kick-ejected parasite eggs laid before their own first egg and, if heavily parasitized, they ejected entire clutches and began again in the same nest. Few baywings were able to rid their nests of every parasite egg, but their novel ejection method allowed them to reduce the median parasitism intensity by 75 per cent (from four to one cowbird eggs per nest), providing an effective anti-parasite defence. PMID:23485877

De Mársico, María C.; Gloag, Ros; Ursino, Cynthia A.; Reboreda, Juan C.

2013-01-01

149

RNA translocation between parasitic plants and their hosts.  

PubMed

Recent research indicates that RNA translocation occurs between certain parasitic plant species and their hosts. The movement of at least 27 mRNAs has been demonstrated between hosts and Cuscuta pentagona Engelm., with the largest proportion of these being regulatory genes. Movement of RNAi signals has been documented from hosts to the parasites Triphysaria versicolor (Frisch & CA Mey) and Orobanche aegyptiaca (Pers.), demonstrating that the regulation of genes in one species can be influenced by transfer of RNA signals through a parasitic association. This review considers the implications of these findings in light of present understanding of host-parasite connections and the growing body of evidence that RNAs are able to act as signal molecules that convey regulatory information in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. Together, this suggests that parasitic plants can exchange RNAs with their hosts, and that this may be part of the coordinated growth and development that occurs during the process of parasitism. This phenomenon offers promise for new insights into parasitic plants, and new opportunities for the control of parasitic weeds. PMID:19253417

Westwood, James H; Roney, Jeannine K; Khatibi, Piyum A; Stromberg, Verlyn K

2009-05-01

150

Hosts improve the reliability of chick recognition by delaying the hatching of brood parasitic eggs.  

PubMed

The reliability of information that animals use to make decisions has fitness consequences. Accordingly, selection should favor the evolution of strategies that enhance the reliability of information used in learning and decision making. For example, hosts of avian brood parasites should be selected to increase the reliability of the information they use to learn to recognize their own eggs and chicks. The American coot (Fulica americana), a conspecific brood parasite, uses cues learned from the first-hatched chicks of each brood to recognize and reject parasitic chicks. However, if parasitic eggs are among the first to hatch, recognition cues are confounded and parents then fail to distinguish parasitic chicks from their own chicks. Therefore, hosts could ensure correct chick recognition by delaying parasitic eggs from hatching until after the first host eggs. Here we demonstrate that discriminatory incubation, whereby coots specifically delay the hatching of parasitic eggs, improves the reliability of parasitic chick recognition. In effect, coots gain fitness benefits by enhancing the reliability of information they later use for learning. Our study shows that a positive interaction between two host adaptations in coots--egg recognition and chick recognition--increases the overall effectiveness of host defense. PMID:21396823

Shizuka, Daizaburo; Lyon, Bruce E

2011-03-22

151

Parasite-induced aggression and impaired contest ability in a fish host  

PubMed Central

Background Success of trophically transmitted parasites depends to a great extent on their ability to manipulate their intermediate hosts in a way that makes them easier prey for target hosts. Parasite-induced behavioural changes are the most spectacular and diverse examples of manipulation. Most of the studies have been focused on individual behaviour of hosts including fish. We suggest that agonistic interactions and territoriality in fish hosts may affect their vulnerability to predators and thus the transmission efficiency of trophically transmitted parasites. The parasite Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda) and juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were used to study whether infection can alter aggression rates and territorial behaviour of intermediate fish hosts. Results The changes in behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, infected with an eye fluke Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda), was monitored over the course of an experimental infection for 1.5 months. At the beginning of their development, not yet infective D. spathaceum metacercariae decreased the aggressiveness of rainbow trout. By the time that metacercariae were fully infective to their definitive hosts, the aggressiveness increased and exceeded that of control fish. Despite the increased aggressiveness, the experimentally infected fish lost contests for a territory (dark parts of the bottom) against the control fish. Conclusions The results obtained indicate that the parasitized fish pay the cost of aggressiveness without the benefit of acquiring a territory that would provide them with better protection against predators. This behaviour should increase transmission of the parasite as expected by the parasite manipulation hypothesis. PMID:20226098

2010-01-01

152

Parasitic castration by Xenos vesparum depends on host gender.  

PubMed

Host castration represents a mechanism used by parasites to exploit energy resources from their hosts by interfering with their reproductive development or to extend host lifespan by removing risks associated with reproductive activity. One of the most intriguing groups of parasitic castrators is represented by the insects belonging to the order Strepsiptera. The macroparasite Xenos vesparum can produce dramatic phenotypic alterations in its host, the paper wasp Polistes dominula. Parasitized female wasps have undeveloped ovaries and desert the colony without performing any social task. However, very little attention has been given to the parasitic impact of X. vesparum on the male phenotype. Here, we investigated the effects of this parasite on the sexual behaviour and the morpho-physiology of P. dominula males. We found that, differently from female wasps, parasitized males are not heavily affected by Xenos: they maintain their sexual behaviour and ability to discriminate between female castes. Furthermore, the structure of their reproductive apparatus is not compromised by the parasite. We think that our results, demonstrating that the definition of X. vesparum as a parasitoid does not apply to infected males of P. dominula, provide a new perspective to discuss and maybe reconsider the traditional view of strepsipteran parasites. PMID:24776461

Cappa, Federico; Manfredini, Fabio; Dallai, Romano; Gottardo, Marco; Beani, Laura

2014-07-01

153

Behavioral mechanisms of parasitic wasps for searching concealed insect hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood borers are important forest insect pests and difficult to be controlled owing to their concealed behavior. However, parasitic wasps can effectively ascertain and parasitize wood borers as well as other concealed pests by using special searching, finding and attacking mechanisms, which have been developed during the course of long-term coevolution with their hosts. The present paper summarizes the behavioral

Wang Xiaoyi; Yang Zhongqi

2008-01-01

154

Antimalarial Drugs Clear Resistant Parasites from Partially Immune Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circumstantial evidence in human malaria suggests that elimination of parasites by drug treatment meets higher success rates in individuals having some background immunity. In this study, using the rodent malaria model Plasmodium chabaudi, we show that drug-resistant parasites can be cleared by drugs when the host is partially immune. Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is still a major cause of

PEDRO CRAVO; RICHARD CULLETON; PAUL HUNT; DAVID WALLIKER; MARGARET J. MACKINNON

2001-01-01

155

Antimalarial drugs clear resistant parasites from partially immune hosts.  

PubMed

Circumstantial evidence in human malaria suggests that elimination of parasites by drug treatment meets higher success rates in individuals having some background immunity. In this study, using the rodent malaria model Plasmodium chabaudi, we show that drug-resistant parasites can be cleared by drugs when the host is partially immune. PMID:11557487

Cravo, P; Culleton, R; Hunt, P; Walliker, D; Mackinnon, M J

2001-10-01

156

How specificity and epidemiology drive the coevolution of static trait diversity in hosts and parasites.  

PubMed

There is typically considerable variation in the level of infectivity of parasites and the degree of resistance of hosts within populations. This trait variation is critical not only to the evolutionary dynamics but also to the epidemiology, and potentially the control of infectious disease. However, we lack an understanding of the processes that generate and maintain this trait diversity. We examine theoretically how epidemiological feedbacks and the characteristics of the interaction between host types and parasites strains determine the coevolution of host-parasite diversity. The interactions include continuous characterizations of the key phenotypic features of classic gene-for-gene and matching allele models. We show that when there are costs to resistance in the hosts and infectivity in the parasite, epidemiological feedbacks may generate diversity but this is limited to dimorphism, often of extreme types, in a broad range of realistic infection scenarios. For trait polymorphism, there needs to be both specificity of infection between host types and parasite strains as well as incompatibility between particular strains and types. We emphasize that although the high specificity is well known to promote temporal "Red Queen" diversity, it is costs and combinations of hosts and parasites that cannot infect that will promote static trait diversity. PMID:24593303

Boots, Mike; White, Andy; Best, Alex; Bowers, Roger

2014-06-01

157

Host-parasite coevolution in a multilocus gene-for-gene system.  

PubMed Central

This paper examines a mathematical model for the coevolution of parasite virulence and host resistance under a multilocus gene-for-gene interaction. The degrees of parasite virulence and host resistance show coevolutionary cycles for sufficiently small costs of virulence and resistance. Besides these coevolutionary cycles of a longer period, multilocus genotype frequencies show complex fluctuations over shorter periods. All multilocus genotypes are maintained within host and parasite classes having the same number of resistant/virulent alleles and their frequencies fluctuate with approximately equally displaced phases. If either the cost of virulence or the number of resistance loci is larger then a threshold, the host maintains the static polymorphism of singly (or doubly or more, depending on the cost of resistance) resistant genotypes and the parasite remains universally avirulent. In other words, host polymorphism can prevent the invasion of any virulent strain in the parasite. Thus, although assuming an empirically common type of asymmetrical gene-for-gene interaction, both host and parasite populations can maintain polymorphism in each locus and retain complex fluctuations. Implications for the red queen hypothesis of the evolution of sex and the control of multiple drug resistance are discussed. PMID:11413631

Sasaki, A

2000-01-01

158

Attachment of the parasitic weed dodder to the host.  

PubMed

The parasitic weed dodder (Cuscuta pentagona L.) invades a number of potential host species, but the mechanisms responsible for ensuring tight adhesion to the wide variety of host surfaces have yet to be identified. In this study, a battery of microscopy protocols is used to examine the host-parasite interface in an effort to deduce these mechanisms. As the dodder shoot approaches the host tissue, epidermal cells in the parasite shoot elongate and differentiate into secretory type trichomes. The trichome cell walls are malleable, allowing them to elongate towards the host and bend their walls to conform to the shape of the host cell surface. The presence of osmiophilic particles (probable cell-wall-loosening complexes) at far greater numbers than found in other species presages the expansion and malleable nature of the epidermal cells. In addition to the changes in cell shape, the dodder trichome cells secrete an electron-opaque cementing substance that covers the host-parasite interface. When probed with antibodies that recognize cell wall components, the cement reacted only with antibodies that recognize chiefly de-esterified pectins but not other common wall constituents. These data indicate that dodder utilizes both a cementing layer of pectin and a radically modified epidermal cell wall to secure the parasite to the perspective host. PMID:12099223

Vaughn, K C

2002-05-01

159

Parasite interactions in natural populations: insights from longitudinal data  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The physiological and immunological state of an animal can be influenced by current infections and infection history. Consequently, both ongoing and previous infections can affect host susceptibility to another parasite, the biology of the subsequent infection (e.g. infection length) and the impact of infection on host morbidity (pathology). In natural populations, most animals will be infected by a succession of different parasites throughout the course of their lives, with probably frequent concomitant infections. The relative timing of different infections experienced by a host (i.e. the sequence of infection events), and the effects on factors such as host susceptibility and host survival, can only be derived from longitudinal data on individual hosts. Here we review some of the evidence for the impact of co-infection on host susceptibility, infection biology and pathology focusing on insights obtained from both longitudinal studies in humans and experiments that explicitly consider the sequence of infection. We then consider the challenges posed by longitudinal infection data collected from natural populations of animals. We illustrate their usefulness using our data of microparasite infections associated with field vole (Microtus agrestis) populations to examine impacts on susceptibility and infection length. Our primary aim is to describe an analytical approach that can be used on such data to identify interactions among the parasites. The preliminary analyses presented here indicate both synergistic and antagonistic interactions between microparasites within this community and emphasise that such interactions could have significant impacts on host-parasite fitness and dynamics. PMID:18474121

TELFER, S.; BIRTLES, R.; BENNETT, M.; LAMBIN, X.; PATERSON, S.; BEGON, M.

2010-01-01

160

Manipulation of host behaviour by parasites: a weakening paradigm?  

PubMed Central

New scientific paradigms often generate an early wave of enthusiasm among researchers and a barrage of studies seeking to validate or refute the newly proposed idea. All else being equal, the strength and direction of the empirical evidence being published should not change over time, allowing one to assess the generality of the paradigm based on the gradual accumulation of evidence. Here, I examine the relationship between the magnitude of published quantitative estimates of parasite-induced changes in host behaviour and year of publication from the time the adaptive host manipulation hypothesis was first proposed. Two independent data sets were used, both originally gathered for other purposes. First, across 137 comparisons between the behaviour of infected and uninfected hosts, the estimated relative influence of parasites correlated negatively with year of publication. This effect was contingent upon the transmission mode of the parasites studied. The negative relationship was very strong among studies of parasites which benefit from host manipulation (transmission to the next host occurs by predation on an infected intermediate host), i.e. among studies which were explicit tests of the adaptive manipulation hypothesis. There was no correlation with year of publication among studies on other types of parasites which do not seem to receive benefits from host manipulation. Second, among 14 estimates of the relative, parasite-mediated increase in transmission rate (i.e. increases in predation rates by definitive hosts on intermediate hosts), the estimated influence of parasites again correlated negatively with year of publication. These results have several possible explanations, but tend to suggest biases with regard to what results are published through time as accepted paradigms changed. PMID:10819148

Poulin, R

2000-01-01

161

Differential Resistance among Host and Non-host Species Underlies the Variable Success of the Hemi-parasitic Plant Rhinanthus minor  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Rhinanthus minor is a root hemiparasitic plant that attacks a wide range of host species which are severely damaged by the parasite. Rhinanthus minor also attempts unsuccessfully to form connections to a range of non-hosts which in contrast are not damaged by the parasite; however, the underlying physiological basis of these differences is not fully understood. • Methods Biomass of host–parasite combinations was studied, and histology, electron microscopy and FT-IR microspectroscopy were used to determine the cellular-level interactions between Rhinanthus haustoria (the parasite's connective structure) and the roots of a range of potential host species. • Results Two distinct defence responses were observed in the non-host forbs Plantago lanceolata and Leucanthemum vulgare. Firstly, L. vulgare was able to encapsulate the parasite's invading structures preventing it from gaining access to the stele. This was supported by FT-IR microspectroscopy, used to monitor lignification in response to Rhinanthus haustoria. Secondly, host cell fragmentation was observed at the interface between the parasite and P. lanceolata. Growth data confirmed the non-host status of the two forbs whilst, in contrast, grasses and a legume which were good hosts showed no evidence of defence at the host/parasite interface. • Conclusions Variable resistance to Rhinanthus is shown for the first time to be controlled by cellular-level resistance to haustoria by either cell fragmentation or lignification at the host/parasite interface. PMID:17008350

CAMERON, DUNCAN D.; COATS, ALISON M.; SEEL, WENDY E.

2006-01-01

162

Host densities as determinants of abundance in parasite communities  

PubMed Central

Several epidemiological models predict a positive relationship between host population density and abundance of directly transmitted macroparasites. Here, we generalize these, and test the prediction by a comparative study. We used data on communities of gastrointestinal strongylid nematodes from 19 mammalian species, representing examination of 6670 individual hosts. We studied both the average abundance of all strongylid nematodes within a host species, and the two components of abundance, prevalence and intensity. The effects of host body weight, diet, fecundity and age at maturity and parasite body size were controlled for directly, and the phylogenetically independent contrast method was used to control for confounding factors more generally. Host population density and average parasite abundance were strongly positively correlated within mammalian taxa, and across all species when the effects of host body weight were controlled for. Controlling for other variables did not change this. Even when looking at single parasite species occurring in several host species, abundance was highest in the host species with the highest population density. Prevalence and intensity showed similar patterns. These patterns provide the first macroecological evidence consistent with the prediction that transmission rates depend on host population density in natural parasite communities.

Arneberg, P.; Skorping, A.; Grenfell, B.; Read, A. F.

1998-01-01

163

Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches.  

PubMed

Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitized nests showed lower chromatic contrast to host eggs than those assigned randomly to other nests with egg-laying date similar to naturally parasitized clutches. Moreover, egg matching in terms of chromaticity was better in naturally parasitized nests than it would be in the nests of the nearest active non-parasitized neighbour. However, there was no indication of matching in achromatic spectral characteristics whatsoever. Thus, our results clearly indicate that cuckoos select certain host nests to increase matching of their own eggs with host clutches, but only in chromatic characteristics. Our results suggest that the ability of cuckoos to actively choose host nests based on the eggshell appearance imposes a strong selection pressure on host egg recognition. PMID:24258721

Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

2014-01-01

164

Effects of epistasis on infectivity range during host-parasite coevolution.  

PubMed

Understanding how parasites adapt to changes in host resistance is crucial to evolutionary epidemiology. Experimental studies have demonstrated that parasites are more capable of adapting to gradual, rather than sudden changes in host phenotype, as the latter may require multiple mutations that are unlikely to arise simultaneously. A key, but as yet unexplored factor is precisely how interactions between mutations (epistasis) affect parasite evolution. Here, we investigate this phenomenon in the context of infectivity range, where parasites may experience selection to infect broader sets of genotypes. When epistasis is strongly positive, we find that parasites are unlikely to evolve broader infectivity ranges if hosts exhibit sudden, rather than gradual changes in phenotype, in close agreement with empirical observations. This is due to a low probability of fixing multiple mutations that individually confer no immediate advantage. When epistasis is weaker, parasites are more likely to evolve broader infectivity ranges if hosts make sudden changes in phenotype, which can be explained by a balance between mutation supply and selection. Thus, we demonstrate that both the rate of phenotypic change in hosts and the form of epistasis between mutations in parasites are crucial in shaping the evolution of infectivity range. PMID:24957848

Ashby, Ben; Gupta, Sunetra; Buckling, Angus

2014-10-01

165

A shared chemical basis of avian host-parasite egg colour mimicry  

PubMed Central

Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in other birds' nests and impose considerable fitness costs on their hosts. Historically and scientifically, the best studied example of circumventing host defences is the mimicry of host eggshell colour by the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). Yet the chemical basis of eggshell colour similarity, which impacts hosts' tolerance towards parasitic eggs, remains unknown. We tested the alternative scenarios that (i) cuckoos replicate host egg pigment chemistry, or (ii) cuckoos use alternative mechanisms to produce a similar perceptual effect to mimic host egg appearance. In parallel with patterns of similarity in avian-perceived colour mimicry, the concentrations of the two key eggshell pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin, were most similar between the cuckoo host-races and their respective hosts. Thus, the chemical basis of avian host–parasite egg colour mimicry is evolutionarily conserved, but also intraspecifically flexible. These analyses of pigment composition reveal a novel proximate dimension of coevolutionary interactions between avian brood parasites and hosts, and imply that alternative phenotypes may arise by the modifications of already existing biochemical and physiological mechanisms and pathways. PMID:21920975

Igic, Branislav; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas; Greenwood, David R.; Moskat, Csaba; Rutila, Jarkko; Hauber, Mark E.

2012-01-01

166

A shared chemical basis of avian host-parasite egg colour mimicry.  

PubMed

Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in other birds' nests and impose considerable fitness costs on their hosts. Historically and scientifically, the best studied example of circumventing host defences is the mimicry of host eggshell colour by the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). Yet the chemical basis of eggshell colour similarity, which impacts hosts' tolerance towards parasitic eggs, remains unknown. We tested the alternative scenarios that (i) cuckoos replicate host egg pigment chemistry, or (ii) cuckoos use alternative mechanisms to produce a similar perceptual effect to mimic host egg appearance. In parallel with patterns of similarity in avian-perceived colour mimicry, the concentrations of the two key eggshell pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin, were most similar between the cuckoo host-races and their respective hosts. Thus, the chemical basis of avian host-parasite egg colour mimicry is evolutionarily conserved, but also intraspecifically flexible. These analyses of pigment composition reveal a novel proximate dimension of coevolutionary interactions between avian brood parasites and hosts, and imply that alternative phenotypes may arise by the modifications of already existing biochemical and physiological mechanisms and pathways. PMID:21920975

Igic, Branislav; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomás; Greenwood, David R; Moskát, Csaba; Rutila, Jarkko; Hauber, Mark E

2012-03-22

167

Incomplete reproductive isolation following host shift in brood parasitic indigobirds  

PubMed Central

Behavioural and molecular studies suggest that brood parasitic indigobirds (Vidua spp.) rapidly diversified through a process of speciation by host shift. However, behavioural imprinting on host song, the key mechanism promoting speciation in this system, may also lead to hybridization and gene flow among established indigobird species when and if female indigobirds parasitize hosts already associated with other indigobird species. It is therefore not clear to what extent the low level of genetic differentiation among indigobird species is due to recent common ancestry versus ongoing gene flow. We tested for reproductive isolation among three indigobird species in Cameroon, one of which comprises two morphologically indistinguishable host races. Mimicry of host songs corresponded with plumage colour in 184 male indigobirds, suggesting that females rarely parasitize the host of another indigobird species. Paternity analyses, however, suggest that imperfect specificity in host and/or mate choice allows for continuing gene flow between recently formed host races of the Cameroon Indigobird Vidua camerunensis; while 63 pairs of close relatives were associated with the same host, two strongly supported father–son pairs included males mimicking the songs of the two different hosts of V. camerunensis. Thus, complete reproductive isolation is not necessarily an automatic consequence of host shifts, a result that suggests an important role for natural and/or sexual selection in indigobird speciation. PMID:18812294

Balakrishnan, Christopher N.; Sefc, Kristina M.; Sorenson, Michael D.

2008-01-01

168

Experimental warming drives a seasonal shift in the timing of host-parasite dynamics with consequences for disease risk.  

PubMed

Multi-species experiments are critical for identifying the mechanisms through which climate change influences population dynamics and community interactions within ecological systems, including infectious diseases. Using a host-parasite system involving freshwater snails, amphibians and trematode parasites, we conducted a year-long, outdoor experiment to evaluate how warming affected net parasite production, the timing of infection and the resultant pathology. Warming of 3 °C caused snail intermediate hosts to release parasites 9 months earlier and increased infected snail mortality by fourfold, leading to decreased overlap between amphibians and parasites. As a result, warming halved amphibian infection loads and reduced pathology by 67%, despite comparable total parasite production across temperature treatments. These results demonstrate that climate-disease theory should be expanded to account for predicted changes in host and parasite phenology, which may often be more important than changes in total parasite output for predicting climate-driven changes in disease risk. PMID:24401007

Paull, Sara H; Johnson, Pieter T J

2014-04-01

169

Glycoconjugates in Host-Helminth Interactions  

PubMed Central

Helminths are multicellular parasitic worms that comprise a major class of human pathogens and cause an immense amount of suffering worldwide. Helminths possess an abundance of complex and unique glycoconjugates that interact with both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity in definitive and intermediate hosts. These glycoconjugates represent a major untapped reservoir of immunomodulatory compounds, which have the potential to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and antigenic glycans, which could be exploited as vaccines and diagnostics. This review will survey current knowledge of the interactions between helminth glycans and host immunity and highlight the gaps in our understanding which are relevant to advancing therapeutics, vaccine development, and diagnostics. PMID:24009607

Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Mickum, Megan L.; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Cummings, Richard D.

2013-01-01

170

Ambient fauna impairs parasite transmission in a marine parasite-host system.  

PubMed

To understand possible factors controlling transmission of trematode larvae between first and second intermediate hosts we examined the impact of ambient fauna on parasite transmission in a marine intertidal parasite-host association. Cockle hosts (Cerastoderma edule) kept together with selected co-occurring macrozoobenthic species in mesocosms acquired a lower parasite load compared to cockles kept alone, when targeted by cercariae of the trematode Himasthla elongata. The reduction of parasite load in the cockles differed between the 7 macrozoobenthic species tested and was between 35 and 91%. Three different types of reduction could be distinguished: (1) predators (Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon) actively preying upon cercariae, (2) non-host filter feeders (Crepidula fornicata, Mya arenaria, Crassostrea gigas) filtering cercariae but not becoming infected and (3) alternative hosts (Mytilus edulis, Macoma balthica) becoming infected by the cercariae and thus distracting cercariae from the target hosts. In addition, interference competition may occur in the form of disturbance of cockles by ambient organisms resulting in lower filtration rates and subsequently lower parasite loads. Our results suggest that the species composition and relative abundance of the ambient fauna of parasite-host systems play an important role in controlling trematode transmission rates in benthic marine systems. PMID:18561867

Thieltges, D W; Bordalo, M D; Hernández, A Caballero; Prinz, K; Jensen, K T

2008-08-01

171

Molecular mechanisms of host cell egress by malaria parasites.  

PubMed

Egress is a crucial step for malaria parasites to progress from one host cell to another. The rapid transition between host cells is mediated by the invasive merozoite stages. Merozoite egress from the enveloping cell includes the rupture of two membranes, the membrane of the parasitophorous vacuole and the host cell membrane. Egress from the host cell is also of importance for the intraerythrocytic gametocytes in order to undergo gametogenesis following their transmission to the mosquito during the blood meal. An increasing number of studies have aimed to identify the molecules involved in host cell egress by malaria parasites and decipher the sequence of membrane rupture. Recent work has acknowledged the crucial roles of plasmodial and host-derived proteases in membrane rupture and has indicated the involvement of secretory vesicles in priming the enveloping membranes for egress. This review highlights recent insight into the mechanisms of host cell egress by Plasmodium parasites. We will discuss the mode of egress of intrahepatic and intraerythrocytic parasites and their measures to evade the host immune system during this process. PMID:22951233

Wirth, Christine C; Pradel, Gabriele

2012-10-01

172

Host-parasite interface of Veronica persica and Sorosphaera veronicae (Plasmodiophoromycetes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host-parasite interface between host, Veronica persica Poir., and parasite, Sorosphaera veronicae Schroeter, is observed to consist of a single, unit membrane, presumably the plasma membrane of the fungal parasite.

James P. Braselton; Charles E. Miller

1975-01-01

173

Brood parasitism selects for no defence in a cuckoo host.  

PubMed

In coevolutionary arms races, like between cuckoos and their hosts, it is easy to understand why the host is under selection favouring anti-parasitism behaviour, such as egg rejection, which can lead to parasites evolving remarkable adaptations to 'trick' their host, such as mimetic eggs. But what about cases where the cuckoo egg is not mimetic and where the host does not act against it? Classically, such apparently non-adaptive behaviour is put down to evolutionary lag: given enough time, egg mimicry and parasite avoidance strategies will evolve. An alternative is that absence of egg mimicry and of anti-parasite behaviour is stable. Such stability is at first sight highly paradoxical. I show, using both field and experimental data to parametrize a simulation model, that the absence of defence behaviour by Cape bulbuls (Pycnonotus capensis) against parasitic eggs of the Jacobin cuckoo (Clamator jacobinus) is optimal behaviour. The cuckoo has evolved massive eggs (double the size of bulbul eggs) with thick shells, making it very hard or impossible for the host to eject the cuckoo egg. The host could still avoid brood parasitism by nest desertion. However, higher predation and parasitism risks later in the season makes desertion more costly than accepting the cuckoo egg, a strategy aided by the fact that many cuckoo eggs are incorrectly timed, so do not hatch in time and hence do not reduce host fitness to zero. Selection will therefore prevent the continuation of any coevolutionary arms race. Non-mimetic eggs and absence of defence strategies against cuckoo eggs will be the stable, if at first sight paradoxical, result. PMID:21288944

Krüger, Oliver

2011-09-22

174

Individual patterns of habitat and nest-site use by hosts promote transgenerational transmission of avian brood parasitism status.  

PubMed

Brood parasitic birds impose variable fitness costs upon their hosts by causing the partial or complete loss of the hosts' own brood. Growing evidence from multiple avian host-parasite taxa indicates that exposure of individual hosts to parasitism is not necessarily random and varies with habitat use, nest-site selection, age or other phenotypic attributes. For instance, nonrandom patterns of brood parasitism had similar evolutionary consequences to those of limited horizontal transmission of parasites and pathogens across space and time and altered the dynamics of both population productivity and co-evolutionary interactions of hosts and parasites. We report that brood parasitism status of hosts of brown-headed cowbirds Molothrus ater is also transmitted across generations in individually colour-banded female prothonotary warblers Protonotaria citrea. Warbler daughters were more likely to share their mothers' parasitism status when showing natal philopatry at the scale of habitat patch. Females never bred in their natal nestboxes but daughters of parasitized mothers had shorter natal dispersal distances than daughters of nonparasitized mothers. Daughters of parasitized mothers were more likely to use nestboxes that had been parasitized by cowbirds in both the previous and current years. Although difficult to document in avian systems, different propensities of vertical transmission of parasitism status within host lineages will have critical implications both for the evolution of parasite tolerance in hosts and, if found to be mediated by lineages of parasites themselves, for the difference in virulence between such extremes as the nestmate-tolerant and nestmate-eliminator strategies of different avian brood parasite species. PMID:17922717

Hoover, Jeffrey P; Hauber, Mark E

2007-11-01

175

Differential responses to related hosts by nesting and non-nesting parasites in a brood-parasitic duck.  

PubMed

Host-parasite relatedness may facilitate the evolution of conspecific brood parasitism, but empirical support for this contention remains inconclusive. One reason for this disparity may relate to the diversity of parasitic tactics, a key distinguishing feature being whether the parasite has a nest of her own. Previous work suggests that parasites without nests of their own may be of inferior phenotypic quality, but because of difficulties in identifying these parasitic individuals, little is known about their host selection criteria. We used high-resolution molecular maternity tests to assign parasitic offspring to known parasites with and without their own nests in a population of Barrow's goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica). We determined whether parasite nesting status, host-parasite relatedness and distance between host and parasite nests affected the probability of parasitizing a host and the number of eggs laid per host. We also investigated whether nesting parasites, conventionally nesting females and non-nesting parasites differed regarding their age, structural size, body condition, nesting phenology or total brood size. The probability of engaging in parasitism increased with host-parasite relatedness and spatial proximity to host nests for nesting and non-nesting females alike. However, nesting parasites increased the number of eggs donated with relatedness to the host, while non-nesting parasites did not do so. Non-nesting parasites laid fewer eggs in total, but did not differ by any of the other quality measures from conventional nesters or nesting parasites. Our study provides the first demonstration that nesting and non-nesting parasites from the same population may use different host selection criteria. PMID:21923774

Jaatinen, Kim; Öst, Markus; Gienapp, Phillip; Merilä, Juha

2011-12-01

176

Higher resources decrease fluctuating selection during host-parasite coevolution.  

PubMed

We still know very little about how the environment influences coevolutionary dynamics. Here, we investigated both theoretically and empirically how nutrient availability affects the relative extent of escalation of resistance and infectivity (arms race dynamic; ARD) and fluctuating selection (fluctuating selection dynamic; FSD) in experimentally coevolving populations of bacteria and viruses. By comparing interactions between clones of bacteria and viruses both within- and between-time points, we show that increasing nutrient availability resulted in coevolution shifting from FSD, with fluctuations in average infectivity and resistance ranges over time, to ARD. Our model shows that range fluctuations with lower nutrient availability can be explained both by elevated costs of resistance (a direct effect of nutrient availability), and reduced benefits of resistance when population sizes of hosts and parasites are lower (an indirect effect). Nutrient availability can therefore predictably and generally affect qualitative coevolutionary dynamics by both direct and indirect (mediated through ecological feedbacks) effects on costs of resistance. PMID:25167763

Lopez Pascua, Laura; Hall, Alex R; Best, Alex; Morgan, Andrew D; Boots, Mike; Buckling, Angus

2014-11-01

177

Sex differences in host defence interfere with parasite-mediated selection for outcrossing during host–parasite coevolution  

PubMed Central

The Red Queen hypothesis proposes that coevolving parasites select for outcrossing in the host. Outcrossing relies on males, which often show lower immune investment due to, for example, sexual selection. Here, we demonstrate that such sex differences in immunity interfere with parasite-mediated selection for outcrossing. Two independent coevolution experiments with Caenorhabditis elegans and its microparasite Bacillus thuringiensis produced decreased yet stable frequencies of outcrossing male hosts. A subsequent systematic analysis verified that male C. elegans suffered from a direct selective disadvantage under parasite pressure (i.e. lower resistance, decreased sexual activity, increased escape behaviour), which can reduce outcrossing and thus male frequencies. At the same time, males offered an indirect selective benefit, because male-mediated outcrossing increased offspring resistance, thus favouring male persistence in the evolving populations. As sex differences in immunity are widespread, such interference of opposing selective constraints is likely of central importance during host adaptation to a coevolving parasite. PMID:23301667

Masri, Leila; Schulte, Rebecca D; Timmermeyer, Nadine; Thanisch, Stefanie; Crummenerl, Lena Luise; Jansen, Gunther; Michiels, Nico K; Schulenburg, Hinrich

2013-01-01

178

The cellular immune response of Daphnia magna under host-parasite genetic variation and variation in initial dose  

PubMed Central

In invertebrate-parasite systems, the likelihood of infection following parasite exposure is often dependent on the specific combination of host and parasite genotypes (termed genetic specificity). Genetic specificity can maintain diversity in host and parasite populations and is a major component of the Red Queen hypothesis. However, invertebrate immune systems are thought to only distinguish between broad classes of parasite. Using a natural host-parasite system with a well-established pattern of genetic specificity, the crustacean Daphnia magna and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa, we found that only hosts from susceptible host-parasite genetic combinations mounted a cellular response following exposure to the parasite. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that genetic specificity is attributable to barrier defenses at the site of infection (the gut), and that the systemic immune response is general, reporting the number of parasite spores entering the hemocoel. Further supporting this, we found that larger cellular responses occurred at higher initial parasite doses. By studying the natural infection route, where parasites must pass barrier defenses before interacting with systemic immune responses, these data shed light on which components of invertebrate defense underlie genetic specificity. PMID:23025616

Auld, Stuart K. J. R; Edel, Kai H.; Little, Tom J.

2013-01-01

179

Host Density and Competency Determine the Effects of Host Diversity on Trematode Parasite Infection  

PubMed Central

Variation in host species composition can dramatically alter parasite transmission in natural communities. Whether diverse host communities dilute or amplify parasite transmission is thought to depend critically on species traits, particularly on how hosts affect each other’s densities, and their relative competency as hosts. Here we studied a community of potential hosts and/or decoys (i.e. non-competent hosts) for two trematode parasite species, Echinostoma trivolvis and Ribeiroia ondatrae, which commonly infect wildlife across North America. We manipulated the density of a focal host (green frog tadpoles, Rana clamitans), in concert with manipulating the diversity of alternative species, to simulate communities where alternative species either (1) replace the focal host species so that the total number of individuals remains constant (substitution) or (2) add to total host density (addition). For E. trivolvis, we found that total parasite transmission remained roughly equal (or perhaps decreased slightly) when alternative species replaced focal host individuals, but parasite transmission was higher when alternative species were added to a community without replacing focal host individuals. Given the alternative species were roughly equal in competency, these results are consistent with current theory. Remarkably, both total tadpole and per-capita tadpole infection intensity by E. trivolvis increased with increasing intraspecific host density. For R. ondatrae, alternative species did not function as effective decoys or hosts for parasite infective stages, and the diversity and density treatments did not produce clear changes in parasite transmission, although high tank to tank variation in R. ondatrae infection could have obscured patterns. PMID:25119568

Wojdak, Jeremy M.; Edman, Robert M.; Wyderko, Jennie A.; Zemmer, Sally A.; Belden, Lisa K.

2014-01-01

180

Corticosterone levels in host and parasite nestlings: is brood parasitism a hormonal stressor?  

PubMed

Parasite chicks from non-evictor species usually try to monopolize host parental care, thereby increasing considerably the level of food competition in the nest. Here, we propose that brood parasitism is an important stressor for host and parasite nestlings and explore this hypothesis in the non-evictor great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) and its main hosts, the same-sized black-billed magpie (Pica pica) and the larger carrion crow (Corvus corone). We experimentally created 3-nestling broods of different brood compositions (only cuckoo chicks, only host chicks, or cuckoo and host chicks together) and measured baseline corticosterone levels of nestlings along their developmental period (early, middle and late). We found that brood parasitism increased corticosterone levels in magpie nestlings in the mid and late nestling period compared to those raised in unparasitized nests. Interestingly, carrion crow nestlings from parasitized nests only increased their corticosterone levels in the mid nestling period, when the competition for food with the cuckoo nestling was highest. Our results suggest that brood parasitism could be a potential physiological stressor for host nestlings, especially during the developmental stages where food requirements are highest. Conversely, cuckoo nestlings could be physiologically adapted to high competition levels since they did not show significant differences in corticosterone levels in relation to brood composition. PMID:22366505

Ibáńez-Álamo, Juan Diego; De Neve, Liesbeth; Roldán, María; Rodríguez, Juan; Trouvé, Colette; Chastel, Olivier; Soler, Manuel

2012-04-01

181

Parasites in Hosts with Special Life Histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred and forty seven specimens of the Cuckoo Cuculus canorus, 356 individuals of the Crossbill Loxia curvirostra and 79 specimens of the Swift Apus apus were captured on the Curonian Spit in the Baltic Sea and investigated for haematozoa by microscopic examination of stained blood smears. Haemosporidian parasites (Sporozoa, Haemosporida) were not recorded in the Cuckoo and the Swift. However,

Gediminas Valki?nas; Tatjana Aleksandrovna Iezhova

2001-01-01

182

Cophylogeny of the anther smut fungi and their caryophyllaceous hosts: Prevalence of host shifts and importance of delimiting parasite species for inferring cospeciation  

PubMed Central

Background Using phylogenetic approaches, the expectation that parallel cladogenesis should occur between parasites and hosts has been validated in some studies, but most others provided evidence for frequent host shifts. Here we examine the evolutionary history of the association between Microbotryum fungi that cause anther smut disease and their Caryophyllaceous hosts. We investigated the congruence between host and parasite phylogenies, inferred cospeciation events and host shifts, and assessed whether geography or plant ecology could have facilitated the putative host shifts identified. For cophylogeny analyses on microorganisms, parasite strains isolated from different host species are generally considered to represent independent evolutionary lineages, often without checking whether some strains actually belong to the same generalist species. Such an approach may mistake intraspecific nodes for speciation events and thus bias the results of cophylogeny analyses if generalist species are found on closely related hosts. A second aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the impact of species delimitation on the inferences of cospeciation. Results We inferred a multiple gene phylogeny of anther smut strains from 21 host plants from several geographic origins, complementing a previous study on the delimitation of fungal species and their host specificities. We also inferred a multi-gene phylogeny of their host plants, and the two phylogenies were compared. A significant level of cospeciation was found when each host species was considered to harbour a specific parasite strain, i.e. when generalist parasite species were not recognized as such. This approach overestimated the frequency of cocladogenesis because individual parasite species capable of infecting multiple host species (i.e. generalists) were found on closely related hosts. When generalist parasite species were appropriately delimited and only a single representative of each species was retained, cospeciation events were not more frequent than expected under a random distribution, and many host shifts were inferred. Current geographic distributions of host species seemed to be of little relevance for understanding the putative historical host shifts, because most fungal species had overlapping geographic ranges. We did detect some ecological similarities, including shared pollinators and habitat types, between host species that were diseased by closely related anther smut species. Overall, genetic similarity underlying the host-parasite interactions appeared to have the most important influence on specialization and host-shifts: generalist multi-host parasite species were found on closely related plant species, and related species in the Microbotryum phylogeny were associated with members of the same host clade. Conclusion We showed here that Microbotryum species have evolved through frequent host shifts to moderately distant hosts, and we show further that accurate delimitation of parasite species is essential for interpreting cophylogeny studies. PMID:18371215

2008-01-01

183

A parasite reveals cryptic phylogeographic history of its host.  

PubMed Central

This study compares the continental phylogeographic patterns of two wild European species linked by a host-parasite relationship: the field mouse Apodemus sylvaticus and one of its specific parasites, the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. A total of 740 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene were sequenced in 122 specimens of H. polygyrus and compared with 94 cyt b gene sequences (974 bp) previously acquired for A. sylvaticus. The results reveal partial spatial and temporal congruences in the differentiation of both species' lineages: the parasite and its host present three similar genetic and geographical lineages, i.e. Western European, Italian and Sicilian, and both species recolonized northwestern Europe from the Iberian refuge at the end of the Pleistocene. However, H. polygyrus presents three particular differentiation events. The relative rate of molecular evolution of the cyt b gene was estimated to be 1.5-fold higher in the parasite than in its host. Therefore, the use of H. polygyrus as a biological magnifying glass is discussed as this parasite may highlight previously undetected historical events of its host. The results show how incorporating phylogeographic information of an obligate associate can help to better understand the phylogeographic pattern of its host. PMID:15615681

Nieberding, C.; Morand, S.; Libois, R.; Michaux, J. R.

2004-01-01

184

Parasites Induced Skin Allergy: A Strategic Manipulation of the Host Immunity  

PubMed Central

The absence of a consistent link between parasitoses and skin allergic symptoms in the clinical investigations contrasts to the fact that some parasites are the most potent inducers of immunoglobulin E that exist in nature. To shed some light into this question, this review is focused on the actual knowledge regarding parasites life cycle, interactions with host immunity, the influence on host behavior, and finally the role of all these factors on the skin allergy. The collected data demonstrate that parasites could manipulate the host behavior for its own benefit in different ways, altering its (epi)genetic, biochemical, immunologic or physiologic functions as well as altering its behavior and activity. In this context, skin allergy may be associated with certain stages of the parasites' life cycle and migration into biological barriers, but not necessarily with presence of the parasitosis in the host organism. As compared to T helper (Th) 1 response, the Th2 one, the eosinophilic infiltration and the complement inhibition could assure better conditions for the development of some parasites. Taken together, the suggested hypotheses could be a plausible explanation for the epidemiological puzzle regarding urticaria occurrence, Th2 response and parasitoses, but further studies are necessary to provide better-based conclusions. Keywords Eosinophilic Infiltration; Host behavior; Parasites life cycle; Skin allergy; Th1/Th2 response PMID:22043257

Bakiri, Alketa Hysni; Mingomataj, Ervin Cerciz

2010-01-01

185

Not to be suppressed? Rethinking the host response at a root-parasite interface.  

PubMed

Root-knot nematodes are highly efficient plant parasites that establish permanent feeding sites within host roots. The initiation of this feeding site is critical for parasitic success and requires an interaction with multiple signaling pathways involved in plant development and environmental response. Resistance against root-knot nematodes is relatively rare amongst their broad host range and they remain a major threat to agriculture. The development of effective and sustainable control strategies depends on understanding how host signaling pathways are manipulated during invasion of susceptible hosts. It is generally understood that root-knot nematodes either suppress host defense signaling during infestation or are able to avoid detection altogether, explaining their profound success as parasites. However, when compared to the depth of knowledge from other well-studied pathogen interactions, the published data on host responses to root-knot nematode infestation do not yet provide convincing support for this hypothesis and alternative explanations also exist. It is equally possible that defense-like signaling responses are actually induced and required during the early stages of root-knot nematode infestation. We describe how defense-signaling is highly context-dependent and that caution is necessary when interpreting transcriptional responses in the absence of appropriate control data or stringent validation of gene annotation. Further hypothesis-driven studies on host defense-like responses are required to account for these limitations and advance our understanding of root-knot nematode parasitism of plants. PMID:24157203

Goto, Derek B; Miyazawa, Hikota; Mar, Jessica C; Sato, Masanao

2013-12-01

186

Competition promotes the evolution of host generalists in obligate parasites  

PubMed Central

Ecological theory traditionally predicts that interspecific competition selects for an increase in ecological specialization. Specialization, in turn, is often thought to be an evolutionary ‘dead end,’ with specialist lineages unlikely to evolve into generalist lineages. In host–parasite systems, this specialization can take the form of host specificity, with more specialized parasites using fewer hosts. We tested the hypothesis that specialists are evolutionarily more derived, and whether competition favours specialization, using the ectoparasitic feather lice of doves. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that complete host specificity is actually the ancestral condition, with generalists repeatedly evolving from specialist ancestors. These multiple origins of generalists are correlated with the presence of potentially competing species of the same genus. A competition experiment with captive doves and lice confirmed that congeneric species of lice do, in fact, have the potential to compete in ecological time. Taken together, these results suggest that interspecific competition can favour the evolution of host generalists, not specialists, over macroevolutionary time. PMID:19710056

Johnson, Kevin P.; Malenke, Jael R.; Clayton, Dale H.

2009-01-01

187

Network transmission inference: host behavior and parasite life cycle make social networks meaningful in disease ecology.  

PubMed

The process of disease transmission is determined by the interaction of host susceptibility and exposure to parasite infectious stages. Host behavior is an important determinant of the likelihood of exposure to infectious stages but is difficult to measure and often assumed to be homogenous in models of disease spread. We evaluated the importance of precisely defining host contact when using networks that estimate exposure and predict infection prevalence in a replicated, empirical system. In particular, we hypothesized that infection patterns would be predicted only by a contact network that is defined according to host behavior and parasite life cycle. Two competing host contact criteria were used to construct networks defined by parasite life cycle and social contacts. First, parasite-defined contacts were based on shared space with a time delay corresponding to the environmental development time of nematode parasites with a direct fecal-oral life cycle. Second, social contacts were defined by shared space in the same time period. To quantify the competing networks of exposure and infection, we sampled natural populations of the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) and infection of their gastrointestinal helminth community using replicated longitudinal capture-mark-recapture techniques. We predicted that (1) infection with parasites with direct fecal-oral life cycles would be explained by the time delay contact network, but not the social contact network; (2) infection with parasites with trophic life cycles (via a mobile intermediate host; thus, spatially decoupling transmission from host contact) would not be explained by either contact network. The prevalence of fecal-oral life cycle nematode parasites was strongly correlated to the number and strength of network connections from the parasite-defined network (including the time delay), while the prevalence of trophic life cycle parasites was not correlated with any network metrics. We concluded that incorporating the parasite life cycle, relative to the way that exposure is measured, is key to inferring transmission and can be empirically quantified using network techniques. In addition, appropriately defining and measuring contacts according the life history of the parasite and relevant behaviors of the host is a crucial step in applying network analyses to empirical systems. PMID:24555316

Grear, Daniel A; Luong, Lien T; Hudson, Peter J

2013-12-01

188

Beyond immunity: quantifying the effects of host anti-parasite behavior on parasite transmission.  

PubMed

A host's first line of defense in response to the threat of parasitic infection is behavior, yet the efficacy of anti-parasite behaviors in reducing infection are rarely quantified relative to immunological defense mechanisms. Larval amphibians developing in aquatic habitats are at risk of infection from a diverse assemblage of pathogens, some of which cause substantial morbidity and mortality, suggesting that behavioral avoidance and resistance could be significant defensive strategies. To quantify the importance of anti-parasite behaviors in reducing infection, we exposed larval Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) to pathogenic trematodes (Ribeiroia and Echinostoma) in one of two experimental conditions: behaviorally active (unmanipulated) or behaviorally impaired (anesthetized). By quantifying both the number of successful and unsuccessful parasites, we show that host behavior reduces infection prevalence and intensity for both parasites. Anesthetized hosts were 20-39% more likely to become infected and, when infected, supported 2.8-fold more parasitic cysts. Echinostoma had a 60% lower infection success relative to the more deadly Ribeiroia and was also more vulnerable to behaviorally mediated reductions in transmission. For Ribeiroia, increases in host mass enhanced infection success, consistent with epidemiological theory, but this relationship was eroded among active hosts. Our results underscore the importance of host behavior in mitigating disease risk and suggest that, in some systems, anti-parasite behaviors can be as or more effective than immune-mediated defenses in reducing infection. Considering the severe pathologies induced by these and other pathogens of amphibians, we emphasize the value of a broader understanding of anti-parasite behaviors and how co-occurring stressors affect them. PMID:20857146

Daly, Elizabeth W; Johnson, Pieter T J

2011-04-01

189

Regulation of host workers' oviposition by the social parasite ant Polyergus samurai.  

PubMed

Polyergus samurai, an obligatory social parasite ant, lacks the ability to perform usual colony tasks. It depends completely on host Formica japonica workers. In the mixed colony, arrhenotokous reproduction by host workers must be detrimental to the parasites. This study, conducted under artificial rearing conditions, investigated the behavioral influence by P. samurai worker on the production of host workers' male eggs. Host workers started laying eggs when the P. samurai queen was removed, but most eggs were destroyed by P. samurai workers. In a queenless condition, P. samurai workers showed frequent intraspecific dominance interactions, but few interspecific ones. After a short while the P. samurai worker started laying eggs, the F. japonica worker stopped laying eggs. The ovary had no mature oocyte. These results suggest that both the P. samurai queen and dominant workers can inhibit host workers' oviposition. A mesh experiment revealed that the dominant P. samurai workers were able to inhibit host workers' oviposition without contacts. The dominant workers and queens of P. samurai frequently received grooming and trophallaxis from host workers just as a host queen does, suggesting that the parasites secreted similar products to those of the host queen to inhibit the host workers' oviposition. PMID:25001911

Tsuneoka, Yousuke

2014-07-01

190

Multiple reciprocal adaptations and rapid genetic change upon experimental coevolution of an animal host and its microbial parasite  

PubMed Central

The coevolution between hosts and parasites is predicted to have complex evolutionary consequences for both antagonists, often within short time periods. To date, conclusive experimental support for the predictions is available mainly for microbial host systems, but for only a few multicellular host taxa. We here introduce a model system of experimental coevolution that consists of the multicellular nematode host Caenorhabditis elegans and the microbial parasite Bacillus thuringiensis. We demonstrate that 48 host generations of experimental coevolution under controlled laboratory conditions led to multiple changes in both parasite and host. These changes included increases in the traits of direct relevance to the interaction such as parasite virulence (i.e., host killing rate) and host resistance (i.e., the ability to survive pathogens). Importantly, our results provide evidence of reciprocal effects for several other central predictions of the coevolutionary dynamics, including (i) possible adaptation costs (i.e., reductions in traits related to the reproductive rate, measured in the absence of the antagonist), (ii) rapid genetic changes, and (iii) an overall increase in genetic diversity across time. Possible underlying mechanisms for the genetic effects were found to include increased rates of genetic exchange in the parasite and elevated mutation rates in the host. Taken together, our data provide comprehensive experimental evidence of the consequences of host–parasite coevolution, and thus emphasize the pace and complexity of reciprocal adaptations associated with these antagonistic interactions. PMID:20368449

Schulte, Rebecca D.; Makus, Carsten; Hasert, Barbara; Michiels, Nico K.; Schulenburg, Hinrich

2010-01-01

191

Volatile chemical cues guide host location and host selection by parasitic plants.  

PubMed

The importance of plant volatiles in mediating interactions between plant species is much debated. Here, we demonstrate that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona (dodder) uses volatile cues for host location. Cuscuta pentagona seedlings exhibit directed growth toward nearby tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) and toward extracted tomato-plant volatiles presented in the absence of other cues. Impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) and wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) also elicit directed growth. Moreover, seedlings can distinguish tomato and wheat volatiles and preferentially grow toward the former. Several individual compounds from tomato and wheat elicit directed growth by C. pentagona, whereas one compound from wheat is repellent. These findings provide compelling evidence that volatiles mediate important ecological interactions among plant species. PMID:17008532

Runyon, Justin B; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

2006-09-29

192

Predation risk, host immune response, and parasitism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation risk may affect the allocation priorities of limiting resources by potential prey. Investment in immune function should receive reduced priority, when hosts are exposed to predators because of the costs of immune function. We tested this hypothesis by randomly exposing adult house sparrows, Passer domesticus, to either a cat, Felis catus, or a rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, for 6 h

C. Navarro; F. de Lope; A. P. Mřllerb; A. P. Mřller

2004-01-01

193

Begging Behaviour and Host Exploitation in Parasitic Cowbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we explore the begging behaviour of cowbirds, obligate brood parasites that are typically raised in mixed\\u000a broods with host young. As ‘strangers in the nest’, cowbird nestlings present both challenges and opportunities to evolutionary\\u000a biologists. After a brief overview, we delve into four main topics: (1) the means by which cowbird young achieve success in\\u000a host nests;

Donald C. Dearborn; Gabriela Lichtenstein

194

Cowbird removals unexpectedly increase productivity of a brood parasite and the songbird host.  

PubMed

Generalist brood parasites reduce productivity and population growth of avian hosts and have been implicated in population declines of several songbirds of conservation concern. To estimate the demographic effects of brood parasitism on Bell's Vireos (Vireo bellii), we removed Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in a replicated switchback experimental design. Cowbird removals decreased parasitism frequency from 77% and 85% at unmanipulated plots to 58% and 47% at removal plots in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Vireo productivity per pair was higher at cowbird removal plots when years were pooled (mean = 2.6 +/- 0.2 [SE] young per pair) compared to unmanipulated plots (1.2 +/- 0.1). Nest desertion frequency was lower at cowbird removal plots (35% of parasitized nests) compared to unmanipulated plots (69%) because removal of host eggs was the proximate cue for nest desertion, and vireos experienced lower rates of egg loss at cowbird removal plots. Nest success was higher among unparasitized than parasitized nests, and parasitized nests at cowbird removal plots had a higher probability of success than parasitized nests at unmanipulated plots. Unexpectedly, cowbird productivity from vireo pairs was higher at cowbird removal plots (mean = 0.3 +/- 0.06 young per pair) than at unmanipulated plots (0.1 +/- 0.03) because fewer parasitized nests were deserted and the probability of nest success was higher. Our study provides the first evidence that increases in cowbird productivity may be an unintended consequence of cowbird control programs, especially during the initial years of trapping when parasitism may only be moderately reduced. Thus, understanding the demographic impacts of cowbird removals requires an informed understanding of the behavioral ecology of host-parasite interactions. PMID:18488614

Kosciuch, Karl L; Sandercock, Brett K

2008-03-01

195

Recurrent evolution of host-specialized races in a globally distributed parasite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outcome of coevolutionary interactions is predicted to vary across landscapes depending on local conditions and levels of gene flow, with some populations evolving more extreme specializations than others. Using a globally distributed parasite of colonial seabirds, the tick Ixodes uriae, we examined how host availability and geographic isolation influences this process. In particular, we sampled ticks from 30 populations

Karen D. McCoy; Elodie Chapuis; Claire Tirard; Thierry Boulinier; Yannis Michalakis; Céline Le Bohec; Yvon Le Maho; Michel Gauthier-Clerc

2005-01-01

196

Homage to Linnaeus: How many parasites? How many hosts?  

E-print Network

Homage to Linnaeus: How many parasites? How many hosts? Andy Dobson* , Kevin D. Lafferty , Armand M of the total number of species that inhabit the Earth have increased significantly since Linnaeus's initial biodiversity The year 2008 marks the tercentenary of the birth of Linnaeus, the scientist who first provided

Utrecht, Universiteit

197

Habitat selection for parasite-free space by hosts of parasitic cowbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Choice of breeding habitat can have a major impact on fitness. Sensitivity of habitat choice to environmental cues predicting reproductive success, such as density of harmful enemy species, should be favored by natural selection. Yet, experimental tests of this idea are in short supply. Brown-headed cowbirds Molothrus ater commonly reduce reproductive success of a wide diversity of birds by parasitizing their nests. We used song playbacks to simulate high cowbird density and tested whether cowbird hosts avoid such areas in habitat selection. Host species that made settlement decisions during manipulations were significantly less abundant in the cowbird treatment as a group. In contrast, hosts that settled before manipulations started and non-host species did not respond to treatments. These results suggest that hosts of cowbirds can use vocal cues to assess parasitism risk among potential habitat patches and avoid high risk habitats. This can affect community structure by affecting habitat choices of species with differential vulnerability.

Forsman, J. T.; Martin, T. E.

2009-01-01

198

A slowly evolving host moves first in symbiotic interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbiotic relationships, both parasitic and mutualistic, are ubiquitous in nature. Understanding how these symbioses evolve, from bacteria and their phages to humans and our gut microflora, is crucial in understanding how life operates. Often, symbioses consist of a slowly evolving host species with each host only interacting with its own sub-population of symbionts. The Red Queen hypothesis describes coevolutionary relationships

James Damore; Jeff Gore

2011-01-01

199

An unlikely partnership: parasites, concomitant immunity and host defence.  

PubMed

Concomitant immunity (CI) against macroparasites describes a state of effective anti-larval immunity coupled with persistent adult infection. Experimental studies indicate that immunologically concealed adult worms might promote anti-larval immunity via the release of cross-reactive antigens, thus creating a barrier against continual infection and restricting burden size within the host. CI offers an important potential benefit to established worms by preventing overcrowding within the host. Thus, CI may be interpreted as akin to vaccination; relatively long-lived adult worms 'vaccinate' their host with larval surface antigens and so benefit from reduced conspecific competition. The shared responsibility for host vaccination among adult worms leads to a problem of collective action. Here, we build on earlier analytical findings about the evolutionary forces that shape cooperation among parasites in order to produce a stochastic simulation model of macroparasite social evolution. First, we theoretically investigate a parasite adaptation hypothesis of CI and demonstrate its plausibility under defined conditions, despite the possibility of evolutionary 'cheats'. Then we derive a set of predictions for testing the hypothesis that CI is partly a host-manipulative parasite adaptation. Evidence in support of this model would present an unusual case of adaptive population regulation. PMID:11749708

Brown, S P; Grenfell, B T

2001-12-22

200

PATERNITY-PARASITISM TRADE-OFFS: A MODEL AND TEST OF HOST-PARASITE COOPERATION IN AN AVIAN CONSPECIFIC BROOD PARASITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Efforts to evaluate the evolutionary and ecological dynamics,of conspecific,brood parasitism in birds and other animals have focused on the fitness costs of parasitism to hosts and fitness benefits to parasites. However, it has been speculated recently that, in species with biparental care, host males might cooperate with parasitic females by allowing,access to the host nest in exchange,for copulations. We

Bruce E. Lyon; Wesley M. Hochachka; John M. Eadie

2002-01-01

201

Influence of host profitability and microenvironmental conditions on parasite specialization on a main and an alternative hosts.  

PubMed

Parasite success depends on both host profitability and the microenvironment provided by the host, which together define host-parasite compatibility and can differ between hosts. We experimentally disentangled the effects of host profitability and microenvironmental conditions provided by nest material on the reproduction of a nest-based ectoparasite when exploiting its main and an alternative avian host species. Parasite reproductive performance was similar on both hosts when breeding in nests of their own species, suggesting no difference in host-parasite compatibility between hosts. The apparent parasite specialization could therefore result from differences in host-parasite encounter processes. However, when hosts were successful, the main host produced more young in infested nests, whereas the alternative host produced less; furthermore, host reproductive performance was higher in nests of the main host species, suggesting that this nest material alleviates parasitism cost. Therefore, our results suggest different evolutionary responses to parasites of the main and alternative hosts, with either higher tolerance or higher resistance, modulated by nest material. PMID:21418114

Lemoine, M; Doligez, B; Passerault, M; Richner, H

2011-06-01

202

Host responses to interspecific brood parasitism: a by-product of adaptations to conspecific parasitism?  

PubMed Central

Background Why have birds evolved the ability to reject eggs? Typically, foreign egg discrimination is interpreted as evidence that interspecific brood parasitism (IP) has selected for the host’s ability to recognize and eliminate foreign eggs. Fewer studies explore the alternative hypothesis that rejection of interspecific eggs is a by-product of host defenses, evolved against conspecific parasitism (CP). We performed a large scale study with replication across taxa (two congeneric Turdus thrushes), space (populations), time (breeding seasons), and treatments (three types of experimental eggs), using a consistent design of egg rejection experiments (n?=?1057 nests; including controls), in areas with potential IP either present (Europe; native populations) or absent (New Zealand; introduced populations). These comparisons benefited from the known length of allopatry (one and a half centuries), with no gene flow between native and introduced populations, which is rarely available in host-parasite systems. Results Hosts rejected CP at unusually high rates for passerines (up to 60%). CP rejection rates were higher in populations with higher conspecific breeding densities and no risks of IP, supporting the CP hypothesis. IP rejection rates did not covary geographically with IP risk, contradicting the IP hypothesis. High egg rejection rates were maintained in the relatively long-term isolation from IP despite non-trivial rejection costs and errors. Conclusions These egg rejection patterns, combined with recent findings that these thrushes are currently unsuitable hosts of the obligate parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), are in agreement with the hypothesis that the rejection of IP is a by-product of fine-tuned egg discrimination evolved due to CP. Our study highlights the importance of considering both IP and CP simultaneously as potential drivers in the evolution of egg discrimination, and illustrates how populations introduced to novel ecological contexts can provide critical insights into brood parasite-host coevolution. PMID:24834103

2014-01-01

203

Movement of the parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita in the presence of mucus from the host slug Deroceras reticulatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a parasitic nematode capable of killing several species of slugs including Deroceras reticulatum, the most widespread slug pest in the world. This nematode can control slug infestations in a wide range of crops such as wheat, lettuce and strawberries. Optimization of this biocontrol agent depends on a proper understanding of the interaction between the host and parasite.

Simona Hapca; John Crawford; Robert Rae; Michael Wilson; Iain Young

2007-01-01

204

Host-parasite arms races and rapid changes in bird egg appearance.  

PubMed

Coevolutionary arms races are a powerful force driving evolution, adaptation, and diversification. They can generate phenotypic polymorphisms that render it harder for a coevolving parasite or predator to exploit any one individual of a given species. In birds, egg polymorphisms should be an effective defense against mimetic brood parasites and are extreme in the African tawny-flanked prinia (Prinia subflava) and its parasite, the cuckoo finch (Anomalospiza imberbis). Here we use models of avian visual perception to analyze the appearance of prinia and cuckoo finch eggs from the same location over 40 years. We show that the two interacting populations have experienced rapid changes in egg traits. Egg colors of both species have diversified over time, expanding into avian color space as expected under negative frequency-dependent selection. Egg pattern showed signatures of both frequency-dependent and directional selection in different traits, which appeared to be evolving independently of one another. Host and parasite appear to be closely tracking one another's evolution, since parasites showed closer color mimicry of contemporaneous hosts. This correlational evidence suggests that hosts and parasites are locked in an ongoing arms race in egg appearance, driven by constant change in the selective advantage of different phenotypes, and that coevolutionary arms races can generate remarkably rapid phenotypic change. PMID:22504545

Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stevens, Martin

2012-05-01

205

Paternity-parasitism trade-offs: a model and test of host-parasite cooperation in an avian conspecific brood parasite.  

PubMed

Efforts to evaluate the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of conspecific brood parasitism in birds and other animals have focused on the fitness costs of parasitism to hosts and fitness benefits to parasites. However, it has been speculated recently that, in species with biparental care, host males might cooperate with parasitic females by allowing access to the host nest in exchange for copulations. We develop a cost-benefit model to explore the conditions under which such host-parasite cooperation might occur. When the brood parasite does not have a nest of her own, the only benefit to the host male is siring some of the parasitic eggs (quasi-parasitism). Cooperation with the parasite is favored when the ratio of host male paternity of his own eggs relative to his paternity of parasitic eggs exceeds the cost of parasitism. When the brood parasite has a nest of her own, a host male can gain additional, potentially more important benefits by siring the high-value, low-cost eggs laid by the parasite in her own nest. Under these conditions, host males should be even more likely to accept parasitic eggs in return for copulations with the parasitic female. We tested these predictions for American coots (Fulica americana), a species with a high frequency of conspecific brood parasitism. Multilocus DNA profiling indicated that host males did not sire any of the parasitic eggs laid in host nests, nor did they sire eggs laid by the parasite in her own nest. We used field estimates of the model parameters from a four-year study of coots to predict the minimum levels of paternity required for the costs of parasitism to be offset by the benefits of mating with brood parasites. Observed levels of paternity were significantly lower than those predicted under a variety of assumptions, and we reject the hypothesis that host males cooperated with parasitic females. Our model clarifies the specific costs and benefits that influence host-parasite cooperation and, more generally, yields precise predictions about expected levels of host male paternity. These predictions will enable a more rigorous assessment of field studies designed to test adaptive hypotheses of host-parasite cooperation. PMID:12144024

Lyon, Bruce E; Hochachka, Wesley M; Eadie, John M

2002-06-01

206

Antagonistic experimental coevolution with a parasite increases host recombination frequency  

PubMed Central

Background One of the big remaining challenges in evolutionary biology is to understand the evolution and maintenance of meiotic recombination. As recombination breaks down successful genotypes, it should be selected for only under very limited conditions. Yet, recombination is very common and phylogenetically widespread. The Red Queen Hypothesis is one of the most prominent hypotheses for the adaptive value of recombination and sexual reproduction. The Red Queen Hypothesis predicts an advantage of recombination for hosts that are coevolving with their parasites. We tested predictions of the hypothesis with experimental coevolution using the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and its microsporidian parasite, Nosema whitei. Results By measuring recombination directly in the individuals under selection, we found that recombination in the host population was increased after 11 generations of coevolution. Detailed insights into genotypic and phenotypic changes occurring during the coevolution experiment furthermore helped us to reconstruct the coevolutionary dynamics that were associated with this increase in recombination frequency. As coevolved lines maintained higher genetic diversity than control lines, and because there was no evidence for heterozygote advantage or for a plastic response of recombination to infection, the observed increase in recombination most likely represented an adaptive host response under Red Queen dynamics. Conclusions This study provides direct, experimental evidence for an increase in recombination frequency under host-parasite coevolution in an obligatory outcrossing species. Combined with earlier results, the Red Queen process is the most likely explanation for this observation. PMID:22330615

2012-01-01

207

Host-parasite relatedness shown by protein fingerprinting in a brood parasitic bird.  

PubMed

Brood parasitism as an alternative female breeding tactic is particularly common in ducks, where hosts often receive eggs laid by parasitic females of the same species and raise their offspring. Herein, we test several aspects of a kin selection explanation for this phenomenon in goldeneye ducks (Bucephala clangula) by using techniques of egg albumen sampling and statistical bandsharing analysis based on resampling. We find that host and primary parasite are indeed often related, with mean r = 0.13, about as high as between first cousins. Relatedness to the host is higher in nests where a parasite lays several eggs than in those where she lays only one. Returning young females parasitize their birth nestmates (social mothers or sisters, which are usually also their genetic mothers and sisters) more often than expected by chance. Such adult relatives are also observed together in the field more often than expected and for longer periods than other females. Relatedness and kin discrimination, which can be achieved by recognition of birth nestmates, therefore play a role in these tactics and probably influence their success. PMID:11050150

Andersson, M; Ahlund, M

2000-11-21

208

Do parasitic trematode cercariae demonstrate a preference for susceptible host species?  

PubMed

Many parasites are motile and exhibit behavioural preferences for certain host species. Because hosts can vary in their susceptibility to infections, parasites might benefit from preferentially detecting and infecting the most susceptible host, but this mechanistic hypothesis for host-choice has rarely been tested. We evaluated whether cercariae (larval trematode parasites) prefer the most susceptible host species by simultaneously presenting cercariae with four species of tadpole hosts. Cercariae consistently preferred hosts in the following order: Anaxyrus (?=?Bufo) terrestris (southern toad), Hyla squirella (squirrel tree frog), Lithobates (?=?Rana) sphenocephala (southern leopard frog), and Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban tree frog). These host species varied in susceptibility to cercariae in an order similar to their attractiveness with a correlation that approached significance. Host attractiveness to parasites also varied consistently and significantly among individuals within a host species. If heritable, this individual-level host variation would represent the raw material upon which selection could act, which could promote a Red Queen "arms race" between host cues and parasite detection of those cues. If, in general, motile parasites prefer to infect the most susceptible host species, this phenomenon could explain aggregated distributions of parasites among hosts and contribute to parasite transmission rates and the evolution of virulence. Parasite preferences for hosts belie the common assumption of disease models that parasites seek and infect hosts at random. PMID:23272084

Sears, Brittany F; Schlunk, Andrea D; Rohr, Jason R

2012-01-01

209

Do Parasitic Trematode Cercariae Demonstrate a Preference for Susceptible Host Species?  

PubMed Central

Many parasites are motile and exhibit behavioural preferences for certain host species. Because hosts can vary in their susceptibility to infections, parasites might benefit from preferentially detecting and infecting the most susceptible host, but this mechanistic hypothesis for host-choice has rarely been tested. We evaluated whether cercariae (larval trematode parasites) prefer the most susceptible host species by simultaneously presenting cercariae with four species of tadpole hosts. Cercariae consistently preferred hosts in the following order: Anaxyrus (?=?Bufo) terrestris (southern toad), Hyla squirella (squirrel tree frog), Lithobates (?=?Rana) sphenocephala (southern leopard frog), and Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban tree frog). These host species varied in susceptibility to cercariae in an order similar to their attractiveness with a correlation that approached significance. Host attractiveness to parasites also varied consistently and significantly among individuals within a host species. If heritable, this individual-level host variation would represent the raw material upon which selection could act, which could promote a Red Queen “arms race” between host cues and parasite detection of those cues. If, in general, motile parasites prefer to infect the most susceptible host species, this phenomenon could explain aggregated distributions of parasites among hosts and contribute to parasite transmission rates and the evolution of virulence. Parasite preferences for hosts belie the common assumption of disease models that parasites seek and infect hosts at random. PMID:23272084

Sears, Brittany F.; Schlunk, Andrea D.; Rohr, Jason R.

2012-01-01

210

Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in recruitment of larval parasites to shore crab intermediate hosts: the influence of shorebird definitive hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitism is a major biotic determinant of animal population dynamics and community structure. Temporal and spatial heterogeneity in parasitism is commonly observed in intermediate host populations. Understanding the causes of temporal and spatial variation in the recruitment of parasites is crucial if we are to manage host populations and animal communities effectively. Here, the temporal and spatial dynamics of Profilicollis

A. David M. Latham; Robert Poulin

2003-01-01

211

Surface antigen cross-linking triggers forced exit of a protozoan parasite from its host.  

PubMed Central

We used the common fish pathogen Ichthyophthirius multifiliis as a model for studying interactions between parasitic ciliates and their vertebrate hosts. Although highly pathogenic, Ichthyophthirius can elicit a strong protective immune response in fish after exposure to controlled infections. To investigate the mechanisms underlying host resistance, a series of passive immunization experiments were carried out using mouse monoclonal antibodies against a class of surface membrane proteins, known as immobilization antigens (or i-antigens), thought to play a role in the protective response. Such antibodies bind to cilia and immobilize I. multifiliis in vitro. Surprisingly, we found that passive antibody transfer in vivo caused rapid exit of parasites from the host. The effect was highly specific for a given I. multifiliis serotype. F(ab)2 subfragments had the same effect as intact antibody, whereas monovalent Fab fragments failed to protect. The activity of Fab could, nevertheless, be restored after subsequent i.p. injection of bivalent goat anti-mouse IgG. Parasites that exit the host had detectable antibody on their surface and appeared viable in all respects. These findings represent a novel instance among protists in which protective immunity (and evasion of the host response) result from an effect of antibody on parasite behavior. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8692903

Clark, T G; Lin, T L; Dickerson, H W

1996-01-01

212

Social Hackers: Integration in the Host Chemical Recognition System by a Paper Wasp Social Parasite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obligate social parasites in the social insects have lost the worker caste and the ability to establish nests. As a result, parasites must usurp a host nest, overcome the host recognition system, and depend on the host workers to rear their offspring. We analysed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of live parasite females of the paper wasp social parasite Polistes sulcifer before and after usurpation of host nests, using the non-destructive technique of solid-phase micro-extraction. Our results reveal that hydrocarbon profiles of parasites change after usurpation of host nests to match the cuticular profile of the host species. Chemical evidence further shows that the parasite queen changes the odour of the nest by the addition of a parasite-specific hydrocarbon. We discuss the possible role of this in the recognition and acceptance of the parasite and its offspring in the host colony.

Turillazzi, S.; Sledge, M. F.; Dani, F. R.; Cervo, R.; Massolo, A.; Fondelli, L.

213

Host-Parasite Relationship in Cystic Echinococcosis: An Evolving Story  

PubMed Central

The larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus causes cystic echinococcosis, a neglected infectious disease that constitutes a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite being under constant barrage by the immune system, E. granulosus modulates antiparasite immune responses and persists in the human hosts with detectable humoral and cellular responses against the parasite. In vitro and in vivo immunological approaches, together with molecular biology and immunoproteomic technologies, provided us exciting insights into the mechanisms involved in the initiation of E. granulosus infection and the consequent induction and regulation of the immune response. Although the last decade has clarified many aspects of host-parasite relationship in human cystic echinococcosis, establishing the full mechanisms that cause the disease requires more studies. Here, we review some of the recent developments and discuss new avenues in this evolving story of E. granulosus infection in man. PMID:22110535

Siracusano, Alessandra; Delunardo, Federica; Teggi, Antonella; Ortona, Elena

2012-01-01

214

Pollination niche overlap between a parasitic plant and its host  

Microsoft Academic Search

Niche theory predicts that species which share resources should evolve strategies to minimise competition for those resources,\\u000a or the less competitive species would be extirpated. Some plant species are constrained to co-occur, for example parasitic\\u000a plants and their hosts, and may overlap in their pollination niche if they flower at the same time and attract the same pollinators.\\u000a Using field

Jeff Ollerton; Adrian Stott; Emma Allnutt; Sam Shove; Chloe Taylor; Ellen Lamborn

2007-01-01

215

Conflict between parasites with different transmission strategies infecting an amphipod host  

PubMed Central

Competition between parasites within a host can influence the evolution of parasite virulence and host resistance, but few studies examine the effects of unrelated parasites with conflicting transmission strategies infecting the same host. Vertically transmitted (VT) parasites, transmitted from mother to offspring, are in conflict with virulent, horizontally transmitted (HT) parasites, because healthy hosts are necessary to maximize VT parasite fitness. Resolution of the conflict between these parasites should lead to the evolution of one of two strategies: avoidance, or sabotage of HT parasite virulence by the VT parasite. We investigated two co-infecting parasites in the amphipod host, Gammarus roeseli: VT microsporidia have little effect on host fitness, but acanthocephala modify host behaviour, increasing the probability that the amphipod is predated by the acanthocephalan's definitive host. We found evidence for sabotage: the behavioural manipulation induced by the Acanthocephala Polymorphus minutus was weaker in hosts also infected by the microsporidia Dictyocoela sp. (roeselum) compared to hosts infected by P. minutus alone. Such conflicts may explain a significant portion of the variation generally observed in behavioural measures, and since VT parasites are ubiquitous in invertebrates, often passing undetected, conflict via transmission may be of great importance in the study of host–parasite relationships. PMID:16271976

Haine, Eleanor R; Boucansaud, Karelle; Rigaud, Thierry

2005-01-01

216

Host specificity of a generalist parasite: genetic evidence of sympatric host races in the seabird tick Ixodes uriae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the close association between parasites and their hosts, many 'generalist' parasites have a high potential to become specialized on different host species. We investigated this hypothesis for a common ectoparasite of seabirds, the tick Ixodes uriae that is often found in mixed host sites. We examined patterns of neutral genetic variation between ticks collected from Black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa

K. D. Mccoy; T. Boulinier; C. Tirard; Y. Michalakis

2001-01-01

217

Sex-specific effects of a parasite evolving in a female-biased host population  

PubMed Central

Background Males and females differ in many ways and might present different opportunities and challenges to their parasites. In the same way that parasites adapt to the most common host type, they may adapt to the characteristics of the host sex they encounter most often. To explore this hypothesis, we characterized host sex-specific effects of the parasite Pasteuria ramosa, a bacterium evolving in naturally, strongly, female-biased populations of its host Daphnia magna. Results We show that the parasite proliferates more successfully in female hosts than in male hosts, even though males and females are genetically identical. In addition, when exposure occurred when hosts expressed a sexual dimorphism, females were more infected. In both host sexes, the parasite causes a similar reduction in longevity and leads to some level of castration. However, only in females does parasite-induced castration result in the gigantism that increases the carrying capacity for the proliferating parasite. Conclusions We show that mature male and female Daphnia represent different environments and reveal one parasite-induced symptom (host castration), which leads to increased carrying capacity for parasite proliferation in female but not male hosts. We propose that parasite induced host castration is a property of parasites that evolved as an adaptation to specifically exploit female hosts. PMID:23249484

2012-01-01

218

Cleptoparasites, social parasites and a common host: chemical insignificance for visiting host nests, chemical mimicry for living in.  

PubMed

Social insect colonies contain attractive resources for many organisms. Cleptoparasites sneak into their nests and steal food resources. Social parasites sneak into their social organisations and exploit them for reproduction. Both cleptoparasites and social parasites overcome the ability of social insects to detect intruders, which is mainly based on chemoreception. Here we compared the chemical strategies of social parasites and cleptoparasites that target the same host and analyse the implication of the results for the understanding of nestmate recognition mechanisms. The social parasitic wasp Polistes atrimandibularis (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), and the cleptoparasitic velvet ant Mutilla europaea (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae), both target the colonies of the paper wasp Polistes biglumis (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). There is no chemical mimicry with hosts in the cuticular chemical profiles of velvet ants and pre-invasion social parasites, but both have lower concentrations of recognition cues (chemical insignificance) and lower proportions of branched alkanes than their hosts. Additionally, they both have larger proportions of alkenes than their hosts. In contrast, post-invasion obligate social parasites have proportions of branched hydrocarbons as large as those of their hosts and their overall cuticular profiles resemble those of their hosts. These results suggest that the chemical strategies for evading host detection vary according to the lifestyles of the parasites. Cleptoparasites and pre-invasion social parasites that sneak into host colonies limit host overaggression by having few recognition cues, whereas post-invasion social parasites that sneak into their host social structure facilitate social integration by chemical mimicry with colony members. PMID:22759412

Uboni, Alessia; Bagnčres, Anne-Genevičve; Christidčs, Jean-Philippe; Lorenzi, Maria Cristina

2012-09-01

219

An experimental evaluation of host specificity: the role of encounter and compatibility filters for a rhizocephalan parasite of crabs.  

PubMed

The encounter/compatibility paradigm of host specificity provides three qualitative pathways to the success or failure of a potential host-parasite interaction. It is usually impossible to distinguish between two of these (encounter and compatibility filters closed versus encounter filter open and compatibility filter closed) because unsuccessful infection attempts are difficult to observe in nature. We were able to open the encounter filter under experimental laboratory conditions. Our analytical system used the rhizocephalan barnacle, Sacculina carcini, a parasitic castrator of the European green crab, Carcinus maenas, and Pachygrapsus marmoratus, a native European crab that occurs with C. maenas but is not parasitized by S. carcini in nature. Penetration followed by unsuccessful infection of P. marmoratus crabs by parasitic barnacle larvae leaves a uniquely permanent record in the thoracic ganglion of the crabs. This provided us with a novel tool to quantify the encounter filter in a host-parasite system in nature. We demonstrated, in the laboratory, that the compatibility filter was closed and that, in nature, even where barnacle larvae were present, the encounter filter was also effectively closed. The closure of both filters in nature explains the failure of this potential host-parasite interaction, an outcome favored by selection in both host and parasite. PMID:17275825

Kuris, Armand M; Goddard, Jeffrey H R; Torchin, Mark E; Murphy, Nicole; Gurney, Robert; Lafferty, Kevin D

2007-04-01

220

Predators and patterns of within-host growth can mediate both among-host competition and evolution of transmission potential of parasites.  

PubMed

Parasite prevalence shows tremendous spatiotemporal variation. Theory indicates that this variation might stem from life-history characteristics of parasites and key ecological factors. Here, we illustrate how the interaction of an important predator and the schedule of transmission potential of two parasites can explain parasite abundance. A field survey showed that a noncastrating fungus (Metschnikowia bicuspidata) commonly infected a dominant zooplankton host (Daphnia dentifera), while a castrating bacterial parasite (Pasteuria ramosa) was rare. This result seemed surprising given that the bacterium produces many more infectious propagules (spores) than the fungus upon host death. The fungus's dominance can be explained by the schedule of within-host growth of parasites (i.e., how transmission potential changes over the course of infection) and the release of spores from "sloppy" predators (Chaoborus spp., who consume Daphnia prey whole and then later regurgitate the carapace and parasite spores). In essence, sloppy predators create a niche that the faster-schedule fungus currently occupies. However, a selection experiment showed that the slower-schedule bacterium can evolve into this faster-schedule, predator-mediated niche (but pays a cost in maximal spore yield to do so). Hence, our study shows how parasite life history can interact with predation to strongly influence the ecology, epidemiology, and evolution of infectious disease. PMID:25061679

Auld, Stuart K J R; Hall, Spencer R; Housley Ochs, Jessica; Sebastian, Mathew; Duffy, Meghan A

2014-08-01

221

Host activity and the risk of nest parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proportions of nests parasitized by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) vary greatly among host species, but factors under- lying this variation remain poorly understood. Cowbirds are believed to find nests by watching host behavior. We tested the hypothesis that the activity of hosts during nest building correlates with the probability of parasitism among and within four sympatric hosts: dusky flycatchers (Empidonax

Alison J. Banks; Thomas E. Martin

2001-01-01

222

Early host-pathogen interactions in marine bivalves: Evidence that the alveolate parasite Perkinsus marinus infects through the oyster mantle during  

E-print Network

marinus infects through the oyster mantle during rejection of pseudofeces Bassem Allam a, , Wade E. Carden feeding. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of oyster host colonization by the alveolate Perkinsus marinus and focused on how oysters process infective waterborne P. marinus cells during feeding

Allam, Bassem

223

Does interspecies hybridization affect the host specificity of parasites in cyprinid fish?  

PubMed Central

Background Host specificity varies among parasite species. Some parasites are strictly host-specific, others show a specificity for congeneric or non-congeneric phylogenetically related host species, whilst some others are non-specific (generalists). Two cyprinids, Cyprinus carpio and Carassius gibelio, plus their respective hybrids were investigated for metazoan parasites. The aim of this study was to analyze whether interspecies hybridization affects host specificity. The different degrees of host specificity within a phylogenetic framework were taken into consideration (i.e. strict specialist, intermediate specialist, and intermediate generalist). Methods Fish were collected during harvesting the pond and identified using meristic traits and molecular markers. Metazoan parasite species were collected. Host specificity of parasites was determined using the following classification: strict specialist, intermediate specialist, intermediate generalist and generalist. Parasite species richness was compared between parental species and their hybrids. The effect of host species on abundance of parasites differing in host specificity was tested. Results Hybrids harbored more different parasite species but their total parasite abundance was lower in comparison with parental species. Interspecies hybridization affected the host specificity of ecto- and endoparasites. Parasite species exhibiting different degrees of host specificity for C. carpio and C. gibelio were also present in hybrids. The abundance of strict specialists of C. carpio was significantly higher in parental species than in hybrids. Intermediate generalists parasitizing C. carpio and C. gibelio as two phylogenetically closely related host species preferentially infected C. gibelio when compared to C. carpio, based on prevalence and maximum intensity of infection. Hybrids were less infected by intermediate generalists when compared to C. gibelio. Conclusions This finding does not support strict co-adaptation between host and parasite genotypes resulting in narrow host specificity, and showed that hybrid genotypes are susceptible to parasites exhibiting host specificity. The immune mechanisms specific to parental species might represent potential mechanisms explaining the low abundance of parasites in C. gibelio x C. carpio hybrids. PMID:23587287

2013-01-01

224

Evidence of long-term structured cuckoo parasitism on individual magpie hosts.  

PubMed

Brood parasites usually reduce their host's breeding success, resulting in strong selection for the evolution of host defences. Intriguingly, some host individuals/populations show no defence against parasitism, which has been explained within the frame of three different evolutionary hypotheses. One of these hypotheses posits that intermediate levels of defence at the population level may result from nonrandom distribution of parasitism among host individuals (i.e. structured parasitism). Empirical evidence for structured brood parasitism is, however, lacking for hosts of European cuckoos due to the absence of long-term studies. Here, we seek to identify the patterns of structured parasitism by studying great spotted cuckoo parasitism on individual magpie hosts over five breeding seasons. We also aim to identify whether individual characteristics of female magpies and/or their territories were related to the status of repeated parasitism. We found that 28·3% of the females in our population consistently escaped from cuckoo parasitism. Only 11·3% of females were always parasitized, and the remaining 60·4% changed their parasitism status. The percentage of females that maintained their status of parasitism (i.e. either parasitized or nonparasitized) between consecutive years varied over the study. Females that never suffered cuckoo parasitism built bigger nests than parasitized females at the beginning of the breeding season and smaller nests than those of parasitized females later in the season. Nonparasitized females also moved little from year to year and preferred areas with different characteristics over the course of the breeding season than parasitized females. Overall, females escaping from cuckoo parasitism reared twice as many chicks per year than those that were parasitized. In conclusion, our study reveals for first time the existence of a structured pattern of cuckoo parasitism based on phenotypic characteristics of individual hosts and of their territories. PMID:23237197

Molina-Morales, Mercedes; Gabriel Martínez, Juan; Martín-Gálvez, David; A Dawson, Deborah; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Juan; Burke, Terry; Avilés, Jesús M

2013-03-01

225

Parasite-induced and parasite development-dependent alteration of the swimming behavior of fish hosts.  

PubMed

Parasites with complex life cycles have the ability to change the behavior of their intermediate host in a way that increases their transmission rate to the next host. However, the level of behavioral changes can vary considerably, depending on the stage of parasite development and parasite intensity. To investigate the influence of such parameters, we evaluated the locomotory activity of the fish Poecilia vivipara prior to experimental infections, 7 days post-infection (dpi) and 14dpi with cercariae of the digenean Ascocotyle (Phagicola) pindoramensis. The locomotory activity was monitored using an image system, Videomex(®), linked to with a video camera able to record the swimming behavior of the fishes. At the end of the experiments, fishes were dissected and all metacercariae from the gills and mesenteries, the specific sites utilized by A. (P.) pindoramensis, were recovered and counted. There was a significant decrease in the swimming behavior of fishes after 14dpi. Similarly, we found a significant correlation between the swimming behavior of the fishes and parasite intensity in both sites of infection. It is surmised that the decrease in locomotory activity of P. vivipara caused by A. (P.) pindoramensis can disturb its predator-prey relationship in natural environment. PMID:23545127

Santos, E G N; Santos, C Portes

2013-07-01

226

Effects of shortened host life span on the evolution of parasite life history and virulence in a microbial host-parasite system  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ecological factors play an important role in the evolution of parasite exploitation strategies. A common prediction is that, as shorter host life span reduces future opportunities of transmission, parasites compensate with an evolutionary shift towards earlier transmission. They may grow more rapidly within the host, have a shorter latency time and, consequently, be more virulent. Thus, increased extrinsic (i.e.,

Thibault Nidelet; Jacob C Koella; Oliver Kaltz

2009-01-01

227

Inferring host range dynamics from comparative data: the protozoan parasites of new world monkeys.  

PubMed

Uncovering the ecological determinants of parasite host range is a central goal of comparative parasitology and infectious disease ecology. But while parasites are often distributed nonrandomly across the host phylogeny, such patterns are difficult to interpret without a genealogy for the parasite samples and without knowing what sorts of ecological dynamics might lead to what sorts of nonrandomness. We investigated inferences from comparative data, using presence/absence records from protozoan parasites of the New World monkeys. We first demonstrate several distinct types of phylogenetic signal in these data, showing, for example, that parasite species are clustered on the host tree and that closely related host species harbor similar numbers of parasite species. We then show that all of these patterns can be generated by a single, simple dynamical model, in which parasite host range changes more rapidly than host speciation/extinction and parasites preferentially colonize uninfected host species that are closely related to their existing hosts. Fitting this model to data, we then estimate its parameters. Finally, we caution that quite different ecological processes can lead to similar signatures but show how phylogenetic variation in host susceptibility can be distinguished from a tendency for parasites to colonize closely related hosts. Our new process-based analyses, which estimate meaningful parameters, should be useful for inferring the determinants of parasite host range and transmission success. PMID:24921601

Waxman, David; Weinert, Lucy A; Welch, John J

2014-07-01

228

Collective defence portfolios of ant hosts shift with social parasite pressure.  

PubMed

Host defences become increasingly costly as parasites breach successive lines of defence. Because selection favours hosts that successfully resist parasitism at the lowest possible cost, escalating coevolutionary arms races are likely to drive host defence portfolios towards ever more expensive strategies. We investigated the interplay between host defence portfolios and social parasite pressure by comparing 17 populations of two Temnothorax ant species. When successful, collective aggression not only prevents parasitation but also spares host colonies the cost of searching for and moving to a new nest site. However, once parasites breach the host's nest defence, host colonies should resort to flight as the more beneficial resistance strategy. We show that under low parasite pressure, host colonies more likely responded to an intruding Protomognathus americanus slavemaker with collective aggression, which prevented the slavemaker from escaping and potentially recruiting nest-mates. However, as parasite pressure increased, ant colonies of both host species became more likely to flee rather than to fight. We conclude that host defence portfolios shift consistently with social parasite pressure, which is in accordance with the degeneration of frontline defences and the evolution of subsequent anti-parasite strategies often invoked in hosts of brood parasites. PMID:25100690

Jongepier, Evelien; Kleeberg, Isabelle; Job, Sylwester; Foitzik, Susanne

2014-09-22

229

Use of transgenic parasites and host reporters to dissect events that promote interleukin-12 production during toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii has multiple strategies to alter host cell function, including the injection of rhoptry proteins into the cytosol of host cells as well as bystander populations, but the consequence of these events is unclear. Here, a reporter system using fluorescent parasite strains that inject Cre recombinase with their rhoptry proteins (Toxoplasma-Cre) was combined with Ai6 Cre reporter mice to identify cells that have been productively infected, that have been rhoptry injected but lack the parasite, or that have phagocytosed T. gondii. The ability to distinguish these host-parasite interactions was then utilized to dissect the events that lead to the production of interleukin-12 p40 (IL-12p40), which is required for resistance to T. gondii. In vivo, the use of invasion-competent or invasion-inhibited (phagocytosed) parasites with IL-12p40 (YET40) reporter mice revealed that dendritic cell (DC) and macrophage populations that phagocytose the parasite or are infected can express IL-12p40 but are not the major source, as larger numbers of uninfected cells secrete this cytokine. Similarly, the use of Toxoplasma-Cre parasite strains indicated that dendritic cells and inflammatory monocytes untouched by the parasite and not cells injected by the parasite are the primary source of IL-12p40. These results imply that a soluble host or parasite factor is responsible for the bulk of IL-12p40 production in vivo, rather than cellular interactions with T. gondii that result in infection, infection and clearance, injection of rhoptry proteins, or phagocytosis of the parasite. PMID:25024368

Christian, David A; Koshy, Anita A; Reuter, Morgan A; Betts, Michael R; Boothroyd, John C; Hunter, Christopher A

2014-10-01

230

Extracellular Vesicles from Parasitic Helminths Contain Specific Excretory/Secretory Proteins and Are Internalized in Intestinal Host Cells  

PubMed Central

The study of host-parasite interactions has increased considerably in the last decades, with many studies focusing on the identification of parasite molecules (i.e. surface or excretory/secretory proteins (ESP)) as potential targets for new specific treatments and/or diagnostic tools. In parallel, in the last few years there have been significant advances in the field of extracellular vesicles research. Among these vesicles, exosomes of endocytic origin, with a characteristic size ranging from 30–100 nm, carry several atypical secreted proteins in different organisms, including parasitic protozoa. Here, we present experimental evidence for the existence of exosome-like vesicles in parasitic helminths, specifically the trematodes Echinostoma caproni and Fasciola hepatica. These microvesicles are actively released by the parasites and are taken up by host cells. Trematode extracellular vesicles contain most of the proteins previously identified as components of ESP, as confirmed by proteomic, immunogold labeling and electron microscopy studies. In addition to parasitic proteins, we also identify host proteins in these structures. The existence of extracellular vesicles explains the secretion of atypical proteins in trematodes, and the demonstration of their uptake by host cells suggests an important role for these structures in host-parasite communication, as described for other infectious agents. PMID:23029346

Marcilla, Antonio; Trelis, Maria; Cortes, Alba; Sotillo, Javier; Cantalapiedra, Fernando; Minguez, Maria Teresa; Valero, Maria Luz; Sanchez del Pino, Manuel Mateo; Munoz-Antoli, Carla; Toledo, Rafael; Bernal, Dolores

2012-01-01

231

Different meal, same flavor: cospeciation and host switching of haemosporidian parasites in some non-passerine birds  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that haemosporidian parasites (Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) and Plasmodium) infecting passerine birds have an evolutionary history of host switching with little cospeciation, in particular at low taxonomic levels (e.g., below the family level), which is suggested as the main speciation mechanism of this group of parasites. Recent studies have characterized diverse clades of haemosporidian parasites (H. (Haemoproteus) and H. (Parahaemoproteus)) infecting non-passerine birds (e.g., Columbiformes, Pelecaniiformes). Here, we explore the cospeciation history of H. (Haemoproteus) and H. (Parahaemoproteus) parasites with their non-passerine hosts. Methods We sequenced the mtDNA cyt b gene of both haemosporidian parasites and their avian non-passerine hosts. We built Bayesian phylogenetic hypotheses and created concensus phylograms that were subsequently used to conduct cospeciation analyses. We used both a global cospeciation test, PACo, and an event-cost algorithm implemented in CoRe-PA. Results The global test suggests that H. (Haemoproteus) and H. (Parahaemoproteus) parasites have a diversification history dominated by cospeciation events particularly at the family level. Host-parasite links from the PACo analysis show that host switching events are common within families (i.e., among genera and among species within genera), and occasionally across different orders (e.g., Columbiformes to Pelecaniiformes). Event-cost analyses show that haemosporidian coevolutionary history is dominated by host switching and some codivergence, but with duplication events also present. Genetic lineages unique to raptor species (e.g., FALC11) commonly switch between Falconiformes and Strigiformes. Conclusions Our results corroborate previous findings that have detected a global cospeciation signal at the family taxonomic level, and they also support a history of frequent switching closer to the tips of the host phylogeny, which seems to be the main diversification mechanism of haemosporidians. Such dynamic host-parasite associations are relevant to the epidemiology of emerging diseases because low parasite host specificity is a prerequisite for the emergence of novel diseases. The evidence on host distributions suggests that haemosporidian parasites have the potential to rapidly develop novel host-associations. This pattern has also been recorded in fish-monogenean interactions, suggesting a general diversification mechanism for parasites when host choice is not restricted by ecological barriers. PMID:24957563

2014-01-01

232

Brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds and the expression of sexual characters in their hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific brood parasites may use the secondary sexual characters of the hosts to decide which species to parasitize. Hence, species with conspicuous and well-recognisable traits may have higher chances of becoming parasitised. Using North American birds and their frequent brood parasite, the brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater, we tested the relationship between features of song and plumage coloration of hosts and

László Zsolt Garamszegi; Jesús Miguel Avilés

2005-01-01

233

Molecular mimicry between host and pathogen: examples from parasites and implication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies summarized in this paper suggest that parasites may trigger activation of autoimmune mechanisms. The association between parasites and autoimmunity could by manifested by the development of pathogenic anti-parasitic antibodies and cytotoxic T cells that attack and damage self tissues as a result of molecular mimicry between host and parasites. On the other hand, the homology between self and

Mahmoud Abu-Shakra; Dan Buskila; Yehuda Shoenfeld

1999-01-01

234

Human land use and patterns of parasitism in tropical amphibian hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landscape alterations by humans can change patterns of parasite transmission. Depending on the type alteration and the life histories of parasites and hosts, parasitism may increase or decrease. To investigate whether parasitism in tropical amphibians was associated with land use change, I studied three species of amphibians, Rana vaillanti, Eleutherodactylus fitzingeri, and Smilisca puma from the Province of Heredia, Costa

Valerie J. McKenzie

2007-01-01

235

Patterns of co-speciation and host switching in primate malaria parasites  

PubMed Central

Background The evolutionary history of many parasites is dependent on the evolution of their hosts, leading to an association between host and parasite phylogenies. However, frequent host switches across broad phylogenetic distances may weaken this close evolutionary link, especially when vectors are involved in parasites transmission, as is the case for malaria pathogens. Several studies suggested that the evolution of the primate-infective malaria lineages may be constrained by the phylogenetic relationships of their hosts, and that lateral switches between distantly related hosts may have been occurred. However, no systematic analysis has been quantified the degree of phylogenetic association between primates and their malaria parasites. Methods Here phylogenetic approaches have been used to discriminate statistically between events due to co-divergence, duplication, extinction and host switches that can potentially cause historical association between Plasmodium parasites and their primate hosts. A Bayesian reconstruction of parasite phylogeny based on genetic information for six genes served as basis for the analyses, which could account for uncertainties about the evolutionary hypotheses of malaria parasites. Results Related lineages of primate-infective Plasmodium tend to infect hosts within the same taxonomic family. Different analyses testing for congruence between host and parasite phylogenies unanimously revealed a significant association between the corresponding evolutionary trees. The most important factor that resulted in this association was host switching, but depending on the parasite phylogeny considered, co-speciation and duplication may have also played some additional role. Sorting seemed to be a relatively infrequent event, and can occur only under extreme co-evolutionary scenarios. The concordance between host and parasite phylogenies is heterogeneous: while the evolution of some malaria pathogens is strongly dependent on the phylogenetic history of their primate hosts, the congruent evolution is less emphasized for other parasite lineages (e.g. for human malaria parasites). Estimation of ancestral states of host use along the phylogenetic tree of parasites revealed that lateral transfers across distantly related hosts were likely to occur in several cases. Parasites cannot infect all available hosts, and they should preferentially infect hosts that provide a similar environment for reproduction. Marginally significant evidence suggested that there might be a consistent variation within host ranges in terms of physiology. Conclusion The evolution of primate malarias is constrained by the phylogenetic associations of their hosts. Some parasites can preserve a great flexibility to infect hosts across a large phylogenetic distance, thus host switching can be an important factor in mediating host ranges observed in nature. Due to this inherent flexibility and the potential exposure to various vectors, the emergence of new malaria disease in primates including humans cannot be predicted from the phylogeny of parasites. PMID:19463162

Garamszegi, Laszlo Zsolt

2009-01-01

236

Heritable variation in host tolerance and resistance inferred from a wild host-parasite system.  

PubMed

Hosts have evolved two distinct defence strategies against parasites: resistance (which prevents infection or limit parasite growth) and tolerance (which alleviates the fitness consequences of infection). However, heritable variation in resistance and tolerance and the genetic correlation between these two traits have rarely been characterized in wild host populations. Here, we estimate these parameters for both traits in Leuciscus burdigalensis, a freshwater fish parasitized by Tracheliastes polycolpus. We used a genetic database to construct a full-sib pedigree in a wild L. burdigalensis population. We then used univariate animal models to estimate inclusive heritability (i.e. all forms of genetic and non-genetic inheritance) in resistance and tolerance. Finally, we assessed the genetic correlation between these two traits using a bivariate animal model. We found significant heritability for resistance (H = 17.6%; 95% CI: 7.2-32.2%) and tolerance (H = 18.8%; 95% CI: 4.4-36.1%), whereas we found no evidence for the existence of a genetic correlation between these traits. Furthermore, we confirm that resistance and tolerance are strongly affected by environmental effects. Our results demonstrate that (i) heritable variation exists for parasite resistance and tolerance in wild host populations, and (ii) these traits can evolve independently in populations. PMID:24478295

Mazé-Guilmo, Elise; Loot, Géraldine; Páez, David J; Lefčvre, Thierry; Blanchet, Simon

2014-03-22

237

Parasites alter host phenotype and may create a new ecological niche for snail hosts  

PubMed Central

By modifying the behaviour and morphology of hosts, parasites may strongly impact host individuals, populations and communities. We examined the effects of a common trematode parasite on its snail host, Batillaria cumingi (Batillariidae). This widespread snail is usually the most abundant invertebrate in salt marshes and mudflats of the northeastern coast of Asia. More than half (52.6%, n=1360) of the snails in our study were infected. We found that snails living in the lower intertidal zone were markedly larger and exhibited different shell morphology than those in the upper intertidal zone. The large morphotypes in the lower tidal zone were all infected by the trematode, Cercaria batillariae (Heterophyidae). We used a transplant experiment, a mark-and-recapture experiment and stable carbon isotope ratios to reveal that snails infected by the trematode move to the lower intertidal zone, resume growth after maturation and consume different resources. By simultaneously changing the morphology and behaviour of individual hosts, this parasite alters the demographics and potentially modifies resource use of the snail population. Since trematodes are common and often abundant in marine and freshwater habitats throughout the world, their effects potentially alter food webs in many systems. PMID:16777719

Miura, Osamu; Kuris, Armand M; Torchin, Mark E; Hechinger, Ryan F; Chiba, Satoshi

2006-01-01

238

Brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds and the expression of sexual characters in their hosts.  

PubMed

Interspecific brood parasites may use the secondary sexual characters of the hosts to decide which species to parasitize. Hence, species with conspicuous and well-recognisable traits may have higher chances of becoming parasitised. Using North American birds and their frequent brood parasite, the brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater, we tested the relationship between features of song and plumage coloration of hosts and the frequency of brood parasitism while controlling for several potentially confounding factors. Relying on two sets of analysis, we focused separately on the evolutionary view of the parasite and the host. From the cowbird's perspective, we found that males of heavily parasitized species posit songs with low syllable repertoire size, shorter inter-song interval and have brighter plumage. From the host's perspective, a phylogenetic analysis revealed similar associations for features of song, but not for plumage characteristics that were unrelated to brood parasitism. These comparative findings may imply that brood parasites choose novel hosts based on heterospecific signals; and/or host species working against sexual selection escape from brood parasitism by evolving inconspicuous sexual signals. Although our data do not allow us to distinguish between these two evolutionary scenarios, our results suggest that selection factors mediating cowbird parasitism via host recognition by heterospecific signals may have an important role in the evolutionary relationship between brood parasites and their hosts. PMID:15647904

Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Avilés, Jesús Miguel

2005-03-01

239

Differential impact of a shared nematode parasite on two gamebird hosts: implications for apparent competition.  

PubMed

If the deleterious effects of non-specific parasites are greater on vulnerable host species than on reservoir host species then exclusion of the vulnerable host through apparent competition is more likely. Evidence suggests that such a mechanism occurs in interactions between the ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), the grey partridge (Perdix perdix), and their shared caecal nematode Heterakis gallinarum. Modelling of the system predicts that the reduced parasite impact on the pheasant compared to the partridge results in the force of infection transmitted from pheasants to partridges being sufficient to cause partridge exclusion. Since the parasite impacts are currently estimated from correlational work, controlled infections were conducted to experimentally compare the impact of H. gallinarum on the two hosts and verify cause and effect. While challenged partridges showed reduced mass gain, decreased food consumption, and impaired caecal activity, in comparison to controls, the only detectable effect of parasite challenge on the pheasant was impaired caecal activity. The impact of H. gallinarum on challenged partridges conforms with previous correlational data, supporting the prediction that parasite-mediated apparent competition with the ring-necked pheasant may result in grey partridge exclusion. However, the observed decrease in the caecal activity of challenged pheasants could imply that H. gallinarum may also have an impact on the fecundity and survival of pheasants in the wild, particularly if food is limiting. If this is the case, the associated decrease in the force of infection to which the partridge is exposed may be sufficient to change the model prediction from partridge exclusion to pheasant and partridge coexistence. PMID:11272650

Tompkins, D M; Greenman, J V; Hudson, P J

2001-02-01

240

The effect of the host immune response on the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti  

E-print Network

The effect of the host immune response on the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti C. P. WILKES1 2003) SUMMARY The host immune response has profound effects on parasitic nematode infections. Here we by the host immune response. Key words: immune response, Strongyloides ratti, nematode infections

Paterson, Steve

241

Recurrent evolution of host-specialized races in a globally distributed parasite  

PubMed Central

The outcome of coevolutionary interactions is predicted to vary across landscapes depending on local conditions and levels of gene flow, with some populations evolving more extreme specializations than others. Using a globally distributed parasite of colonial seabirds, the tick Ixodes uriae, we examined how host availability and geographic isolation influences this process. In particular, we sampled ticks from 30 populations of six different seabird host species, three in the Southern Hemisphere and three in the Northern Hemisphere. We show that parasite races have evolved independently on hosts of both hemispheres. Moreover, the degree of differentiation between tick races varied spatially within each region and suggests that the divergence of tick races is an ongoing process that has occurred multiple times across isolated areas. As I. uriae is vector to the bacterium responsible for Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, these results may have important consequence for the epidemiology of this disease. With the increased occurrence of novel interspecific interactions due to global change, these results also stress the importance of the combined effects of gene flow and selection for parasite diversification. PMID:16243689

McCoy, Karen D; Chapuis, Elodie; Tirard, Claire; Boulinier, Thierry; Michalakis, Yannis; Bohec, Celine Le; Maho, Yvon Le; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

2005-01-01

242

The avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum causes marked structural changes on the surface of its host erythrocyte  

PubMed Central

Using a combination of atomic force, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, we found that avian erythrocytes infected with the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum develop ~60 nm wide and ~430 nm long furrow-like structures on the surface. Furrows begin to appear during the early trophozoite stage of the parasite’s development. They remain constant in size and density during the course of parasite maturation and are uniformly distributed in random orientations over the erythrocyte surface. In addition, the density of furrows is directly proportional to the number of parasites contained within the erythrocyte. These findings suggest that parasite-induced intraerythrocytic processes are involved in modifying the surface of host erythrocytes. These processes may be analogous to those of the human malaria parasite P. falciparum, which induces knob-like protrusions that mediate the pathogenic adherence of parasitized erythrocytes to microvessels. Although P. gallinaceum-infected erythrocytes do not seem to adhere to microvessels in the host chicken, the furrows might be involved in the pathogenesis of P. gallinaceum infections by some other mechanism involving host-pathogen interactions. PMID:18442920

Nagao, Eriko; Arie, Takayuki; Dorward, David W.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Dvorak, James A.

2008-01-01

243

Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions for Parasite Control  

PubMed Central

Finding new drug targets for pathogenic infections would be of great utility for humanity, as there is a large need to develop new drugs to fight infections due to the developing resistance and side effects of current treatments. Current drug targets for pathogen infections involve only a single protein. However, proteins rarely act in isolation, and the majority of biological processes occur via interactions with other proteins, so protein-protein interactions (PPIs) offer a realm of unexplored potential drug targets and are thought to be the next-generation of drug targets. Parasitic worms were chosen for this study because they have deleterious effects on human health, livestock, and plants, costing society billions of dollars annually and many sequenced genomes are available. In this study, we present a computational approach that utilizes whole genomes of 6 parasitic and 1 free-living worm species and 2 hosts. The species were placed in orthologous groups, then binned in species-specific ortholgous groups. Proteins that are essential and conserved among species that span a phyla are of greatest value, as they provide foundations for developing broad-control strategies. Two PPI databases were used to find PPIs within the species specific bins. PPIs with unique helminth proteins and helminth proteins with unique features relative to the host, such as indels, were prioritized as drug targets. The PPIs were scored based on RNAi phenotype and homology to the PDB (Protein DataBank). EST data for the various life stages, GO annotation, and druggability were also taken into consideration. Several PPIs emerged from this study as potential drug targets. A few interactions were supported by co-localization of expression in M. incognita (plant parasite) and B. malayi (H. sapiens parasite), which have extremely different modes of parasitism. As more genomes of pathogens are sequenced and PPI databases expanded, this methodology will become increasingly applicable. PMID:21556146

Taylor, Christina M.; Fischer, Kerstin; Abubucker, Sahar; Wang, Zhengyuan; Martin, John; Jiang, Daojun; Magliano, Marc; Rosso, Marie-Noelle; Li, Ben-Wen; Fischer, Peter U.; Mitreva, Makedonka

2011-01-01

244

The Role of Host Traits, Season and Group Size on Parasite Burdens in a Cooperative Mammal  

PubMed Central

The distribution of parasites among hosts is often characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity with a small number of hosts harbouring the majority of parasites. Such patterns of aggregation have been linked to variation in host exposure and susceptibility as well as parasite traits and environmental factors. Host exposure and susceptibility may differ with sexes, reproductive effort and group size. Furthermore, environmental factors may affect both the host and parasite directly and contribute to temporal heterogeneities in parasite loads. We investigated the contributions of host and parasite traits as well as season on parasite loads in highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae). This cooperative breeder exhibits a reproductive division of labour and animals live in colonies of varying sizes that procreate seasonally. Mole-rats were parasitised by lice, mites, cestodes and nematodes with mites (Androlaelaps sp.) and cestodes (Mathevotaenia sp.) being the dominant ecto- and endoparasites, respectively. Sex and reproductive status contributed little to the observed parasite prevalence and abundances possibly as a result of the shared burrow system. Clear seasonal patterns of parasite prevalence and abundance emerged with peaks in summer for mites and in winter for cestodes. Group size correlated negatively with mite abundance while it had no effect on cestode burdens and group membership affected infestation with both parasites. We propose that the mode of transmission as well as social factors constrain parasite propagation generating parasite patterns deviating from those commonly predicted. PMID:22069481

Viljoen, Hermien; Bennett, Nigel C.; Ueckermann, Edward A.; Lutermann, Heike

2011-01-01

245

Egg color variation, but not egg rejection behavior, changes in a cuckoo host breeding in the absence of brood parasitism  

PubMed Central

Interactions between parasitic cuckoos and their songbird hosts form a classical reciprocal “arms race,” and are an excellent model for understanding the process of coevolution. Changes in host egg coloration via the evolution of interclutch variation in egg color or intraclutch consistency in egg color are hypothesized counter adaptations that facilitate egg recognition and thus limit brood parasitism. Whether these antiparasitism strategies are maintained when the selective pressure of parasitism is relaxed remains debated. However, introduced species provide unique opportunities for testing the direction and extent of natural selection on phenotypic trait maintenance and variation. Here, we investigated egg rejection behavior and egg color polymorphism in the red-billed leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea), a common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) host, in a population introduced to Hawaii 100 years ago (breeding without cuckoos) and a native population in China (breeding with cuckoos). We found that egg rejection ability was equally strong in both the native and the introduced populations, but levels of interclutch variation and intraclutch consistency in egg color in the native population were higher than in the introduced population. This suggests that egg rejection behavior in hosts can be maintained in the absence of brood parasitism and that egg appearance is maintained by natural selection as a counter adaptation to brood parasitism. This study provides rare evidence that host antiparasitism strategies can change under parasite-relaxed conditions and reduced selection pressure. PMID:25360264

Yang, Canchao; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Lijin; Liang, Wei

2014-01-01

246

Egg color variation, but not egg rejection behavior, changes in a cuckoo host breeding in the absence of brood parasitism.  

PubMed

Interactions between parasitic cuckoos and their songbird hosts form a classical reciprocal "arms race," and are an excellent model for understanding the process of coevolution. Changes in host egg coloration via the evolution of interclutch variation in egg color or intraclutch consistency in egg color are hypothesized counter adaptations that facilitate egg recognition and thus limit brood parasitism. Whether these antiparasitism strategies are maintained when the selective pressure of parasitism is relaxed remains debated. However, introduced species provide unique opportunities for testing the direction and extent of natural selection on phenotypic trait maintenance and variation. Here, we investigated egg rejection behavior and egg color polymorphism in the red-billed leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea), a common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) host, in a population introduced to Hawaii 100 years ago (breeding without cuckoos) and a native population in China (breeding with cuckoos). We found that egg rejection ability was equally strong in both the native and the introduced populations, but levels of interclutch variation and intraclutch consistency in egg color in the native population were higher than in the introduced population. This suggests that egg rejection behavior in hosts can be maintained in the absence of brood parasitism and that egg appearance is maintained by natural selection as a counter adaptation to brood parasitism. This study provides rare evidence that host antiparasitism strategies can change under parasite-relaxed conditions and reduced selection pressure. PMID:25360264

Yang, Canchao; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Lijin; Liang, Wei

2014-06-01

247

[Ultrastructural study of host-parasite relations: early phases of Venturia inaequalis installation on susceptible and resistance apple leaves].  

PubMed

The penetration mechanism study of Venturia inaequalis is undertaken on leaves of scab-susceptible and scab-resistant apple cultivars. The penetration through the cuticle occurs whatever the host phenotype. The resistance will be expressed when the infectious hyphae is in contact with the epidermal cell wall. The epidermal cell of susceptible variety does not show any modification. The resistant variety reaction is very fast, since twenty hours after penetration many wall appositions are setting, the cytoplasm strongly degenerates and the parasite hyphae are already necrotic. The contact between the host and the parasite is always very complex in the case of resistant host. The rapidity and the important cytological modifications of the host parasite interaction connect this reaction to an hypersensitive reaction. PMID:8054694

Chevalier, M; Lespinasse, Y

1994-03-01

248

Benefits of fidelity: does host specialization impact nematode parasite life history and fecundity?  

PubMed

The range of hosts used by a parasite is influenced by macro-evolutionary processes (host switching, host-parasite co-evolution), as well as 'encounter filters' and 'compatibility filters' at the micro-evolutionary level driven by host/parasite ecology and physiology. Host specialization is hypothesized to result in trade-offs with aspects of parasite life history (e.g. reproductive output), but these have not been well studied. We used previously published data to create models examining general relationships among host specificity and important aspects of life history and reproduction for nematodes parasitizing animals. Our results indicate no general trade-off between host specificity and the average pre-patent period (time to first reproduction), female size, egg size, or fecundity of these nematodes. However, female size was positively related to egg size, fecundity, and pre-patent period. Host compatibility may thus not be the primary determinant of specificity in these parasitic nematodes if there are few apparent trade-offs with reproduction, but rather, the encounter opportunities for new host species at the micro-evolutionary level, and other processes at the macro-evolutionary level (i.e. phylogeny). Because host specificity is recognized as a key factor determining the spread of parasitic diseases understanding factors limiting host use are essential to predict future changes in parasite range and occurrence. PMID:23343907

Koprivnikar, J; Randhawa, H S

2013-04-01

249

Host plant use by competing acacia-ants: mutualists monopolize while parasites share hosts.  

PubMed

Protective ant-plant mutualisms that are exploited by non-defending parasitic ants represent prominent model systems for ecology and evolutionary biology. The mutualist Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus is an obligate plant-ant and fully depends on acacias for nesting space and food. The parasite Pseudomyrmex gracilis facultatively nests on acacias and uses host-derived food rewards but also external food sources. Integrative analyses of genetic microsatellite data, cuticular hydrocarbons and behavioral assays showed that an individual acacia might be inhabited by the workers of several P. gracilis queens, whereas one P. ferrugineus colony monopolizes one or more host trees. Despite these differences in social organization, neither of the species exhibited aggressive behavior among conspecific workers sharing a tree regardless of their relatedness. This lack of aggression corresponds to the high similarity of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles among ants living on the same tree. Host sharing by unrelated colonies, or the presence of several queens in a single colony are discussed as strategies by which parasite colonies could achieve the observed social organization. We argue that in ecological terms, the non-aggressive behavior of non-sibling P. gracilis workers--regardless of the route to achieve this social structure--enables this species to efficiently occupy and exploit a host plant. By contrast, single large and long-lived colonies of the mutualist P. ferrugineus monopolize individual host plants and defend them aggressively against invaders from other trees. Our findings highlight the necessity for using several methods in combination to fully understand how differing life history strategies affect social organization in ants. PMID:22662191

Kautz, Stefanie; Ballhorn, Daniel J; Kroiss, Johannes; Pauls, Steffen U; Moreau, Corrie S; Eilmus, Sascha; Strohm, Erhard; Heil, Martin

2012-01-01

250

How parasites can promote the expression of social behaviour in their hosts  

PubMed Central

Recent theory on the role of parasites in the evolution of social behaviour has emphasized the costs of social behaviour to hosts. However, parasites whose primary effect on host fitness is to reduce fecundity can favour the evolutionary origin or maintenance of social behaviour, including eusociality, under certain conditions. If the parasites are not readily transmitted among members of social groups, then other group members will not be selected to reject infected individuals as social partners, nor will adaptive suicide or avoidance of grouping be selectively favoured for infected individuals. Rather, total or partial parasitic castration may promote the expression of helping behaviour by infected individuals. Some parasites may therefore act to increase variance in direct reproductive value within populations or societies, and to promote reproductive division of labour. The necessary conditions of reduced host fecundity and low within-group transmission are met in some insect-parasite systems, and could occur in other host-parasite systems as well.

O'Donnell, S.

1997-01-01

251

The Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Modulating the Host Immune Response during Parasitic Infections  

PubMed Central

Parasites are the cause of major diseases affecting billions of people. As the inflictions caused by these parasites affect mainly developing countries, they are considered as neglected diseases. These parasitic infections are often chronic and lead to significant immunomodulation of the host immune response by the parasite, which could benefit both the parasite and the host and are the result of millions of years of co-evolution. The description of parasite extracellular vesicles (EVs) in protozoa and helminths suggests that they may play an important role in host–parasite communication. In this review, recent studies on parasitic (protozoa and helminths) EVs are presented and their potential use as novel therapeutical approaches is discussed.

Montaner, Sergio; Galiano, Alicia; Trelis, Maria; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; del Portillo, Hernando A.; Bernal, Dolores; Marcilla, Antonio

2014-01-01

252

Non-specific Patterns of Vector, Host, and Avian Malaria Parasite Associations in a Central African Rainforest  

PubMed Central

Malaria parasites use vertebrate hosts for asexual multiplication and Culicidae mosquitoes for sexual and asexual development, yet the literature on avian malaria remains biased towards examining the asexual stages of the life cycle in birds. To fully understand parasite evolution and mechanism of malaria transmission, knowledge of all three components of the vector-host-parasite system is essential. Little is known about avian parasite-vector associations in African rainforests where numerous species of birds are infected with avian haemosporidians of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Here we applied high resolution melt qPCR-based techniques and nested PCR to examine the occurrence and diversity of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of haemosporidian parasites in wild-caught mosquitoes sampled across 12 sites in Cameroon. In all, 3134 mosquitoes representing 27 species were screened. Mosquitoes belonging to four genera (Aedes, Coquillettidia, Culex, and Mansonia) were infected with twenty-two parasite lineages (18 Plasmodium spp. and 4 Haemoproteus spp.). Presence of Plasmodium sporozoites in salivary glands of Coquillettidia aurites further established these mosquitoes as likely vectors. Occurrence of parasite lineages differed significantly among genera, as well as their probability of being infected with malaria across species and sites. Approximately one-third of these lineages were previously detected in other avian host species from the region, indicating that vertebrate host sharing is a common feature and that avian Plasmodium spp. vector breadth does not always accompany vertebrate-host breadth. This study suggests extensive invertebrate host shifts in mosquito-parasite interactions and that avian Plasmodium species are most likely not tightly coevolved with vector species. PMID:21134011

Njabo, Kevin Y; Cornel, Anthony J.; Bonneaud, Camille; Toffelmier, Erin; Sehgal, R.N.M.; Valki?nas, Gediminas; Russell, Andrew F.; Smith, Thomas B.

2010-01-01

253

Inflammation and oxidative stress in vertebrate host-parasite systems  

PubMed Central

Innate, inflammation-based immunity is the first line of vertebrate defence against micro-organisms. Inflammation relies on a number of cellular and molecular effectors that can strike invading pathogens very shortly after the encounter between inflammatory cells and the intruder, but in a non-specific way. Owing to this non-specific response, inflammation can generate substantial costs for the host if the inflammatory response, and the associated oxygen-based damage, get out of control. This imposes strong selection pressure that acts to optimize two key features of the inflammatory response: the timing of activation and resolution (the process of downregulation of the response). In this paper, we review the benefits and costs of inflammation-driven immunity. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of resolution of inflammation as a way of maintaining homeostasis against oxidative stress and to prevent the ‘horror autotoxicus’ of chronic inflammation. Nevertheless, host immune regulation also opens the way to pathogens to subvert host defences. Therefore, quantifying inflammatory costs requires assessing (i) short-term negative effects, (ii) delayed inflammation-driven diseases, and (iii) parasitic strategies to subvert inflammation. PMID:18930878

Sorci, Gabriele; Faivre, Bruno

2008-01-01

254

Born in an alien nest: how do social parasite male offspring escape from host aggression?  

PubMed

Social parasites exploit the colony resources of social insects. Some of them exploit the host colony as a food resource or as a shelter whereas other species also exploit the brood care behavior of their social host. Some of these species have even lost the worker caste and rely completely on the host's worker force to rear their offspring. To avoid host defenses and bypass their recognition code, these social parasites have developed several sophisticated chemical infiltration strategies. These infiltration strategies have been highly studied in several hymenopterans. Once a social parasite has successfully entered a host nest and integrated its social system, its emerging offspring still face the same challenge of avoiding host recognition. However, the strategy used by the offspring to survive within the host nest without being killed is still poorly documented. In cuckoo bumblebees, the parasite males completely lack the morphological and chemical adaptations to social parasitism that the females possess. Moreover, young parasite males exhibit an early production of species-specific cephalic secretions, used as sexual pheromones. Host workers might thus be able to recognize them. Here we used a bumblebee host-social parasite system to test the hypothesis that social parasite male offspring exhibit a chemical defense strategy to escape from host aggression during their intranidal life. Using behavioral assays, we showed that extracts from the heads of young cuckoo bumblebee males contain a repellent odor that prevents parasite males from being attacked by host workers. We also show that social parasitism reduces host worker aggressiveness and helps parasite offspring acceptance. PMID:23028441

Lhomme, Patrick; Ayasse, Manfred; Valterová, Irena; Lecocq, Thomas; Rasmont, Pierre

2012-01-01

255

Born in an Alien Nest : How Do Social Parasite Male Offspring Escape from Host Aggression?  

PubMed Central

Social parasites exploit the colony resources of social insects. Some of them exploit the host colony as a food resource or as a shelter whereas other species also exploit the brood care behavior of their social host. Some of these species have even lost the worker caste and rely completely on the host's worker force to rear their offspring. To avoid host defenses and bypass their recognition code, these social parasites have developed several sophisticated chemical infiltration strategies. These infiltration strategies have been highly studied in several hymenopterans. Once a social parasite has successfully entered a host nest and integrated its social system, its emerging offspring still face the same challenge of avoiding host recognition. However, the strategy used by the offspring to survive within the host nest without being killed is still poorly documented. In cuckoo bumblebees, the parasite males completely lack the morphological and chemical adaptations to social parasitism that the females possess. Moreover, young parasite males exhibit an early production of species-specific cephalic secretions, used as sexual pheromones. Host workers might thus be able to recognize them. Here we used a bumblebee host-social parasite system to test the hypothesis that social parasite male offspring exhibit a chemical defense strategy to escape from host aggression during their intranidal life. Using behavioral assays, we showed that extracts from the heads of young cuckoo bumblebee males contain a repellent odor that prevents parasite males from being attacked by host workers. We also show that social parasitism reduces host worker aggressiveness and helps parasite offspring acceptance. PMID:23028441

Lhomme, Patrick; Ayasse, Manfred; Valterova, Irena; Lecocq, Thomas; Rasmont, Pierre

2012-01-01

256

Impacts of a native parasitic plant on an introduced and a native host species: implications for the control of an invasive weed  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims While invasive species may escape from natural enemies in the new range, the establishment of novel biotic interactions with species native to the invaded range can determine their success. Biological control of plant populations can be achieved by manipulation of a species' enemies in the invaded range. Interactions were therefore investigated between a native parasitic plant and an invasive legume in Mediterranean-type woodlands of South Australia. Methods The effects of the native stem parasite, Cassytha pubescens, on the introduced host, Cytisus scoparius, and a co-occurring native host, Leptospermum myrsinoides, were compared. The hypothesis that the parasitic plant would have a greater impact on the introduced host than the native host was tested. In a field study, photosynthesis, growth and survival of hosts and parasite were examined. Key Results As predicted, Cassytha had greater impacts on the introduced host than the native host. Dead Cytisus were associated with dense Cassytha infections but mortality of Leptospermum was not correlated with parasite infection. Cassytha infection reduced the photosynthetic rates of both hosts. Infected Cytisus showed slower recovery of photosystem II efficiency, lower transpiration rates and reduced photosynthetic biomass in comparison with uninfected plants. Parasite photosynthetic rates and growth rates were higher when growing on the introduced host Cytisus, than on Leptospermum. Conclusions Infection by a native parasitic plant had strong negative effects on the physiology and above-ground biomass allocation of an introduced species and was correlated with increased plant mortality. The greater impact of the parasite on the introduced host may be due to either the greater resources that this host provides or increased resistance to infection by the native host. This disparity of effects between introduced host and native host indicates the potential for Cassytha to be exploited as a control tool. PMID:19001426

Prider, Jane; Watling, Jennifer; Facelli, Jose M.

2009-01-01

257

Effect of temperature and host-parasite ratio on sex differentiation of Romanomermis iyengari (Welch), a mermithid parasite of mosquitoes.  

PubMed

The effect of temperature and host-parasite ratio on the percentage infection and sex differentiation of R. iyengari was studied. Significant differences were observed in the percentage infection due to different host-parasite ratios and temperatures. At 25 degrees and 30 degrees C, the host parasite ratio of 1:3 resulted in 86-92% infection of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. At 20 degrees and 35 degrees C, a higher host-parasite ratio was required to get this level of infection. More number of post-parasites per mosquito larva emerged at 20 degrees (1.5-5.8) and 25 degrees C (1.9-6.3) than at 30 degrees (1.5-3.9) and 35 degrees C (1.6-3.6). More than 50% of the post-parasites were females at 20 degrees and 25 degrees, 30 degrees and 35 degrees C at 1:1-1:10, 1:1-1:4 and 1:1-1:3 host-parasite ratios, respectively. PMID:2401521

Paily, K P; Balaraman, K

1990-05-01

258

Geographic variation in parasitism rates of two sympatric cuckoo hosts in China.  

PubMed

Rates of brood parasitism vary extensively among host species and populations of a single host species. In this study, we documented and compared parasitism rates of two sympatric hosts, the Oriental Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) and the Reed Parrotbill (Paradoxornis heudei), in three populations in China. We found that the Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is the only parasite using both the Oriental Reed Warbler and Reed Parrotbill as hosts, with a parasitism rate of 22.4%-34.3% and 0%-4.6%, respectively. The multiple parasitism rates were positively correlated with local parasitism rates across three geographic populations of Oriental Reed Warbler, which implies that higher pressure of parasitism lead to higher multiple parasitism rate. Furthermore, only one phenotype of cuckoo eggs was found in the nests of these two host species. Our results lead to two conclusions: (1) The Oriental Reed Warbler should be considered the major host of Common Cuckoo in our study sites; and (2) obligate parasitism on Oriental Reed Warbler by Common Cuckoo is specialized but flexible to some extent, i.e., using Reed Parrotbill as a secondary host. Further studies focusing on egg recognition and rejection behaviour of these two host species should be conducted to test our predictions. PMID:24470456

Yang, Can-Chao; Li, Dong-Lai; Wang, Long-Wu; Liang, Guo-Xian; Zhang, Zheng-Wang; Liang, Wei

2014-01-01

259

Co-invaders: The effects of alien parasites on native hosts  

PubMed Central

We define co-introduced parasites as those which have been transported with an alien host to a new locality, outside of their natural range, and co-invading parasites as those which have been co-introduced and then spread to new, native hosts. Of 98 published studies of co-introductions, over 50% of hosts were freshwater fishes and 49% of parasites were helminths. Although we would expect parasites with simple, direct life cycles to be much more likely to be introduced and establish in a new locality, a substantial proportion (36%) of co-introductions were of parasites with an indirect life cycle. Seventy-eight per cent of co-introduced parasites were found in native host species and can therefore be classed as co-invaders. Host switching was equally common among parasites with direct and indirect life cycles. The magnitude of the threat posed to native species by co-invaders will depend, among other things, on parasite virulence. In 16 cases where co-introduced parasites have switched to native hosts and information was available on relative virulence, 14 (85%) were more virulent in native hosts than in the co-introduced alien host. We argue that this does not necessarily support the naďve host theory that co-invading parasites will have greater pathogenic effects in native hosts with which they have no coevolutionary history, but may instead be a consequence of the greater likelihood for parasites with lower virulence in their natural host to be co-introduced. PMID:25180161

Lymbery, Alan J.; Morine, Mikayla; Kanani, Hosna Gholipour; Beatty, Stephen J.; Morgan, David L.

2014-01-01

260

Are parasite intensity and related costs of the milichiid fly Carnus hemapterus related to host sociality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ectoparasites have often been shown to have detrimental effects on their host. Not much is known, however, about determinants\\u000a of infestation, e.g. the question of which factors affect distribution and occurrence of parasites on different host species\\u000a (degree of host specificity) and their infestation rates. In this study we examine possible effects of host determinants on\\u000a parasite intensity of Carnus

H. Hoi; J. Krištofík; A. Darolová; C. Hoi

2010-01-01

261

Strong specificity in the interaction between parasitoids and symbiont-protected hosts.  

PubMed

Coevolution between hosts and parasites may promote the maintenance of genetic variation in both antagonists by negative frequency-dependence if the host-parasite interaction is genotype-specific. Here we tested for specificity in the interaction between parasitoids (Lysiphlebus fabarum) and aphid hosts (Aphis fabae) that are protected by a heritable defensive endosymbiont, the ?-proteobacterium Hamiltonella defensa. Previous studies reported a lack of genotype specificity between unprotected aphids and parasitoids, but suggested that symbiont-conferred resistance might exhibit a higher degree of specificity. Indeed, in addition to ample variation in host resistance as well as parasitoid infectivity, we found a strong aphid clone-by-parasitoid line interaction on the rates of successful parasitism. This genotype specificity appears to be mediated by H. defensa, highlighting the important role that endosymbionts can play in host-parasite coevolution. PMID:22998667

Rouchet, Romain; Vorburger, C

2012-11-01

262

Effects of Rearing Host Species on the Host-Feeding Capacity and Parasitism of the Whitefly Parasitoid Encarsia formosa  

PubMed Central

Parasitoids of the Encarsia genus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) are important biological control agents against whiteflies. Some of the species in this genus not only parasitize their hosts, but also kill them through host feeding. The whitefly parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan, was examined to determine whether the rearing host species affects its subsequent host-feeding capacity and parasitism. E. formosa wasps were reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) ‘Q’, and their subsequent host-feeding capacity and parasitism of T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci were examined. E. formosa reared on T. vaporariorum were significantly larger in body size than those reared on B. tabaci, but these wasps killed a similar number of whitefly nymphs by host feeding when they attacked the same host species on which they were reared. Regardless of the species on which it was reared, E. formosa fed significantly more on the B. tabaci nymphs than on the T. vaporariorum nymphs. The number of whitefly nymphs parasitized by E. formosa differed between the wasps reared on T. vaporariorum and those reared on B. tabaci depending on which whitefly species was offered as a host. In addition, the wasps reared on T. vaporariorum parasitized significantly more on T. vaporariorum than those reared on B. tabaci. The wasps reared on B. tabaci, however, parasitized similar numbers of whiteflies of both host species. The results indicated that the host-feeding capacity of E. formosa was affected more by the host species attacked than by the rearing host species, but the parasitism was affected by the host species attacked and the rearing host species. Generally, E. formosa reared on T. vaporariorum killed more T. vaporariorum nymphs by parasitism and host feeding than those reared on B. tabaci. Additionally, a similar number of B. tabaci nymphs were killed by parasitism and host feeding regardless of the rearing host species. Currently coexistence of B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum on vegetable crops usually occurs in some areas; our results may provide helpful information on using mass-reared parasitoids against mixed whitefly infestations in biological control programs. PMID:25368062

Dai, Peng; Ruan, Changchun; Zang, Liansheng; Wan, Fanghao; Liu, Linzhou

2014-01-01

263

Effects of rearing host species on the host-feeding capacity and parasitism of the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa.  

PubMed

Parasitoids of the Encarsia genus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) are important biological control agents against whiteflies. Some of the species in this genus not only parasitize their hosts, but also kill them through host feeding. The whitefly parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan, was examined to determine whether the rearing host species affects its subsequent host-feeding capacity and parasitism. E. formosa wasps were reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) 'Q', and their subsequent host-feeding capacity and parasitism of T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci were examined. E. formosa reared on T. vaporariorum were significantly larger in body size than those reared on B. tabaci, but these wasps killed a similar number of whitefly nymphs by host feeding when they attacked the same host species on which they were reared. Regardless of the species on which it was reared, E. formosa fed significantly more on the B. tabaci nymphs than on the T. vaporariorum nymphs. The number of whitefly nymphs parasitized by E. formosa differed between the wasps reared on T. vaporariorum and those reared on B. tabaci depending on which whitefly species was offered as a host. In addition, the wasps reared on T. vaporariorum parasitized significantly more on T. vaporariorum than those reared on B. tabaci. The wasps reared on B. tabaci, however, parasitized similar numbers of whiteflies of both host species. The results indicated that the host-feeding capacity of E. formosa was affected more by the host species attacked than by the rearing host species, but the parasitism was affected by the host species attacked and the rearing host species. Generally, E. formosa reared on T. vaporariorum killed more T. vaporariorum nymphs by parasitism and host feeding than those reared on B. tabaci. Additionally, a similar number of B. tabaci nymphs were killed by parasitism and host feeding regardless of the rearing host species. Currently coexistence of B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum on vegetable crops usually occurs in some areas; our results may provide helpful information on using mass-reared parasitoids against mixed whitefly infestations in biological control programs. PMID:25368062

Dai, Peng; Ruan, Changchun; Zang, Liansheng; Wan, Fanghao; Liu, Linzhou

2014-01-01

264

An invasive species reverses the roles in a host-parasite relationship between bitterling fish and unionid mussels  

PubMed Central

The impact of multiple invading species can be magnified owing to mutual facilitation—termed ‘invasional meltdown’—but invasive species can also be adversely affected by their interactions with other invaders. Using a unique reciprocal host–parasite relationship between a bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus) and unionid mussels, we show that an invasive mussel reverses the roles in the relationship. Bitterling lay their eggs into mussel gills, and mussel larvae parasitize fish. Bitterling recently colonized Europe and parasitize all sympatric European mussels, but are unable to use a recently invasive mussel, Anodonta woodiana. The parasitic larvae of A. woodiana successfully develop on R. amarus, whereas larvae of European mussels are rejected by bitterling. This demonstrates that invading species may temporarily benefit from a coevolutionary lag by exploiting evolutionarily naive hosts, but the resulting relaxed selection may facilitate its exploitation by subsequent invading species, leading to unexpected consequences for established interspecific relationships. PMID:22337503

Reichard, Martin; Vrtilek, Milan; Douda, Karel; Smith, Carl

2012-01-01

265

An invasive species reverses the roles in a host-parasite relationship between bitterling fish and unionid mussels.  

PubMed

The impact of multiple invading species can be magnified owing to mutual facilitation--termed 'invasional meltdown'--but invasive species can also be adversely affected by their interactions with other invaders. Using a unique reciprocal host-parasite relationship between a bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus) and unionid mussels, we show that an invasive mussel reverses the roles in the relationship. Bitterling lay their eggs into mussel gills, and mussel larvae parasitize fish. Bitterling recently colonized Europe and parasitize all sympatric European mussels, but are unable to use a recently invasive mussel, Anodonta woodiana. The parasitic larvae of A. woodiana successfully develop on R. amarus, whereas larvae of European mussels are rejected by bitterling. This demonstrates that invading species may temporarily benefit from a coevolutionary lag by exploiting evolutionarily naive hosts, but the resulting relaxed selection may facilitate its exploitation by subsequent invading species, leading to unexpected consequences for established interspecific relationships. PMID:22337503

Reichard, Martin; Vrtílek, Milan; Douda, Karel; Smith, Carl

2012-08-23

266

[Monoxenous and heteroxenous parasites of fish manipulate behavior of their hosts in different ways].  

PubMed

Adaptive host manipulation hypothesis is usually supported by case studies on trophically transmitted heteroxenous endoparasites. Trematodes and cestodes are among efficient manipulators of fish, their common intermediate hosts. In this review paper, new data on modifications of host fish behavior caused by monoxenous ectoparasitic crustaceans are provided together with a review of effects caused by heteroxenous parasites. Differences in modifications of host behavior caused by heteroxenous and monoxenous parasites are discussed. Manipulation by heteroxenous parasites enhances availability of infected fish to predators--definitive hosts of the parasites. Fine-tuned synchronization of modified anti-predator behavior with a certain phase of the trematode Diplostomum spathaceum development in the eyes of fish, their second intermediate host, was shown. Modifications of behavior are habitat specific. When juvenile salmonids are in the open water, parasites impair their cooperative anti-predator behavior; in territorial bottom-dwelling salmonids, individual defense behavior such as sheltering is the main target of manipulation. It was shown that monoxenous ectoparasitic crustaceans Argulus spp. decreased motor activity, aggressiveness and increased shoal cohesiveness of infected fish. Such a behavior facilitates host and mate searching in these parasites, which often change their hosts, especially during reproduction. Reviewed experimental data suggest that heteroxenous parasites manipulate their host mainly through impaired defense behavior, e.g. impairing shoaling in fish. Alternatively, monoxenous parasites facilitate shoaling that is profitable for both parasites and hosts. Coordination of modified host behavior with the parasite life cycle, both temporal and spatial, is the most convincing criterion of the adaptive value of host manipulation. PMID:21786661

Mikheev, V N

2011-01-01

267

Human land use and patterns of parasitism in tropical amphibian hosts  

E-print Network

for intermediate hosts (e.g. snails, mosquitoes) involved in parasite life cycles. Aquatic amphibians (e.g. R change patterns of parasite transmission. Depending on the type alteration and the life histories. Frogs were collected and examined for parasites during the rainy seasons of 2001­2003 from sites

McKenzie, Valerie

268

Phylogenetic relationships among monogenean gill parasites (Dactylogyridea, Ancyrocephalidae) infesting tilapiine hosts (Cichlidae): Systematic and evolutionary implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the systematics of 14 species of monogenean (Ancyrocephalidae) gill parasites from West African tilapiine hosts (Cichlidae) using both morphological and genetic data. With these tools, we were able to: (i) confirm the validity of the previously described morphological parasite species and of the genus Scutogyrus; (ii) propose that some stenoxenous species (i.e., parasite species with more than one

Laurent Pouyaud; Erick Desmarais; Marty Deveney; Antoine Pariselle

2006-01-01

269

Patterns of host specificity and transmission among parasites of wild primates  

E-print Network

Multihost parasites have been implicated in the emergence of new diseases in humans and wildlife, yet little multiple host species, including animals from multiple families or orders. This pattern corresponds to previous studies of parasites found in humans and domesticated animals. Within three parasite groups

Pedersen, Amy B.

270

Pathological and Ecological Host Consequences of Infection by an Introduced Fish Parasite  

PubMed Central

The infection consequences of the introduced cestode fish parasite Bothriocephalus acheilognathi were studied in a cohort of wild, young-of-the-year common carp Cyprinus carpio that lacked co-evolution with the parasite. Within the cohort, parasite prevalence was 42% and parasite burdens were up to 12% body weight. Pathological changes within the intestinal tract of parasitized carp included distension of the gut wall, epithelial compression and degeneration, pressure necrosis and varied inflammatory changes. These were most pronounced in regions containing the largest proportion of mature proglottids. Although the body lengths of parasitized and non-parasitized fish were not significantly different, parasitized fish were of lower body condition and reduced weight compared to non-parasitized conspecifics. Stable isotope analysis (?15N and ?13C) revealed trophic impacts associated with infection, particularly for ?15N where values for parasitized fish were significantly reduced as their parasite burden increased. In a controlled aquarium environment where the fish were fed ad libitum on an identical food source, there was no significant difference in values of ?15N and ?13C between parasitized and non-parasitized fish. The growth consequences remained, however, with parasitized fish growing significantly slower than non-parasitized fish, with their feeding rate (items s?1) also significantly lower. Thus, infection by an introduced parasite had multiple pathological, ecological and trophic impacts on a host with no experience of the parasite. PMID:22022606

Britton, J. Robert; Pegg, Josephine; Williams, Chris F.

2011-01-01

271

Immune modulation by helminth parasites of ruminants: implications for vaccine development and host immune competence  

PubMed Central

Parasitic helminths reside in immunologically-exposed extracellular locations within their hosts, yet they are capable of surviving for extended periods. To enable this survival, these parasites have developed complex and multifaceted mechanisms to subvert or suppress host immunity. This review summarises current knowledge of immune modulation by helminth parasites of ruminants and the parasite-derived molecules involved in driving this modulation. Such immunomodulatory molecules have considerable promise as vaccine targets, as neutralisation of their function is predicted to enhance anti-parasite immunity and, as such, current knowledge in this area is presented herein. Furthermore, we summarise current evidence that, as well as affecting parasite-specific immunity, immune modulation by these parasites may also affect the ability of ruminant hosts to control concurrent diseases or mount effective responses to vaccination. PMID:25292481

McNeilly, Tom N.; Nisbet, Alasdair J.

2014-01-01

272

Similar evolutionary potentials in an obligate ant parasite and its two host species  

PubMed Central

The spatial structure of host–parasite coevolution is shaped by population structure and genetic diversity of the interacting species. We analysed these population genetic parameters in three related ant species: the parasitic slavemaking ant Protomognathus americanus and its two host species Temnothorax longispinosus and T. curvispinosus. We sampled throughout their range, genotyped ants on six to eight microsatellite loci and an MtDNA sequence and found high levels of genetic variation and strong population structure in all three species. Interestingly, the most abundant species and primary host, T. longispinosus, is characterized by less structure, but lower local genetic diversity. Generally, differences between the species were small, and we conclude that they have similar evolutionary potentials. The coevolutionary interaction between this social parasite and its hosts may therefore be less influenced by divergent evolutionary potentials, but rather by varying selection pressures. We employed different methods to quantify and compare genetic diversity and structure between species and genetic markers. We found that Jost D is well suited for these comparisons, as long as mutation rates between markers and species are similar. If this is not the case, for example, when using MtDNA and microsatellites to study sex-specific dispersal, model-based inference should be used instead of descriptive statistics (such as D or GST). Using coalescent-based methods, we indeed found that males disperse much more than females, but this sex bias in dispersal differed between species. The findings of the different approaches with regard to genetic diversity and structure were in good accordance with each other. PMID:21324025

Pennings, P S; Achenbach, A; Foitzik, S

2011-01-01

273

Intestinal distribution and fecundity of two species of Diplostomum parasites in definitive hosts.  

PubMed

This paper investigated the intestinal distribution and fecundity of 2 species of Diplostomum parasites, D. spathaceum and D. pseudospathaceum, in 2 species of definitive hosts, herring gull (Larus argentatus) and common gull (L. canus), using both empirical field data and experimental infections. At the level of individual hosts, the parasite species occupied different parts within the intestine, but the fecundity of the worms, measured as the number of eggs in the uterus, did not differ between the parasite species except in wild common gulls. Interestingly, egg numbers in individual hosts were positively correlated between the parasite species suggesting that some birds provided better resources for the parasite species. At the host population level, fecundity of the worms did not differ between the host species or between adult birds and chicks. Both parasite species were also aggregated to the same host individuals and it is likely that aggregation is transferred to gulls from fish intermediate hosts. Individual differences in suitability and parasite numbers between hosts provide important grounds and implications for epidemiological model-based parasite prevention strategies. PMID:16318675

Karvonen, A; Cheng, G-H; Seppälä, O; Valtonen, E T

2006-03-01

274

Hostile Takeover by Plasmodium: Reorganization of Parasite and Host Cell Membranes during Liver Stage  

E-print Network

Hostile Takeover by Plasmodium: Reorganization of Parasite and Host Cell Membranes during Liver, called merosomes, which are delivered directly into liver sinusoids. However, it was unclear whether by Plasmodium: Reorganization of Parasite and Host Cell Membranes during Liver Stage Egress. PLoS Pathog 7(9): e

Arnold, Jonathan

275

Evidence for gene flow in parasitic nematodes between two host species of shrews  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the genetic structure of populations of the intestinal nematode Longistriata caudabullata (Trichostrongyloidea: Heligmosomidae), a common parasite of short-tailed shrews (genus Blarina , Insectivora: Soricidae). Parasites and hosts were collected from a transect across a contact zone between two species of hosts, Blarina brevicauda and B. hylo- phaga, in central North America. An 800-base pairs (bp) fragment of the

Sara V. Brant; Guillermo Orti

2003-01-01

276

Plant host finding by parasitic plants: a new perspective on plant to plant communication.  

PubMed

Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-documented examples of plant-to-plant communication via volatiles, and the ecological significance of such interactions has been much debated. To date, nearly all studies of volatile-mediated interactions among plant species have focused on the reception of herbivore-induced volatiles by neighboring plants. We recently documented volatile effects in another system, demonstrating that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona uses volatile cues to locate its hosts. This finding may broaden the discussion regarding plant-to-plant communication, and suggests that new classes of volatile-meditated interactions among plant species await discovery. PMID:19704627

Mescher, Mark C; Runyon, Justin B; De Moraes, Consuelo M

2006-11-01

277

Host parasite relationships of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and tapeworms of the genera Cittotaenia and Raillietina  

E-print Network

greater parasite loads than males. It was hypo- thesized that reproductive hormones of the host influenced. the host- parasite relationships of the nematodes. Few studies have been conducted on the relationship between sex and level of cestode... their individual data on the parasites of the v ti ' ' i t d tl, A~I*el r' . Of 700 specimens, trematodes infected 2. 5'/ of the specimens, cestodes 8. 5/ and nemstodes 78/. Dogiel (1966) attributed these differences to the predominantly herbivorous diet...

Gentner, Harry William

2012-06-07

278

Olfactory cues in host nest detection by the social parasite Polistes sulcifer (Hymenoptera, Vespidae).  

PubMed

Sometimes the nests of the paper wasp Polistes dominulus are parasitized by the obligate social parasite Polistes sulcifer. It is not known how, in the spring, this parasite searches for established nests of its host species. This study investigates the capacity to detect the host nest by olfactory cues alone. In laboratory experiments P. sulcifer females were allowed to choose different options hidden from view: host nest and dummy, various portions of the host nest (larvae, pupae and material), nests or immature brood pertaining to different sympatric species (P. dominulus, P. nimpha and P. gallicus). The parasites proved to be capable of perceiving nest odour and of discriminating between different species of Polistes. The odour of the immature host brood, rather than the nest material, elicits the greatest response in the parasites. PMID:24896870

Cervo, R; Bertocci, F; Turillazzi, S

1996-06-01

279

Host cell deformability is linked to transmission in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Gametocyte maturation in Plasmodium falciparum is a critical step in the transmission of malaria. While the majority of parasites proliferate asexually in red blood cells, a small fraction of parasites undergo sexual conversion and mature over two weeks to become competent for transmission to a mosquito vector. Immature gametocytes sequester in deep tissues while mature stages must be able to circulate, pass the spleen and present themselves to the mosquito vector in order to complete transmission. Sequestration of asexual red blood cell stage parasites has been investigated in great detail. These studies have demonstrated that induction of cytoadherence properties through specific receptor-ligand interactions coincides with a significant increase in host cell stiffness. In contrast, the adherence and biophysical properties of gametocyte-infected red blood cells have not been studied systematically. Utilizing a transgenic line for 3D live imaging, in vitro capillary assays and 3D finite element whole cell modeling, we studied the role of cellular deformability in determining the circulatory characteristics of gametocytes. Our analysis shows that the red blood cell deformability of immature gametocytes displays an overall decrease followed by rapid restoration in mature gametocytes. Intriguingly, simulations suggest that along with deformability variations, the morphological changes of the parasite may play an important role in tissue distribution in vivo. Taken together we present a model, which suggests that mature but not immature gametocytes circulate in the peripheral blood for uptake in the mosquito blood meal and transmission to another human host thus ensuring long term survival of the parasite. PMID:22417683

Aingaran, Mythili; Zhang, Rou; Law, Sue KaYee; Peng, Zhangli; Undisz, Andreas; Meyer, Evan; Diez-Silva, Monica; Burke, Thomas A.; Spielmann, Tobias; Lim, Chwee Teck; Suresh, Subra; Dao, Ming; Marti, Matthias

2012-01-01

280

Alternative mechanisms of increased eggshell hardness of avian brood parasites relative to host species  

PubMed Central

Obligate brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in nests of other species and parasite eggs typically have evolved greater structural strength relative to host eggs. Increased mechanical strength of the parasite eggshell is an adaptation that can interfere with puncture ejection behaviours of discriminating hosts. We investigated whether hardness of eggshells is related to differences between physical and chemical traits from three different races of the parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, and their respective hosts. Using tools developed for materials science, we discovered a novel correlate of increased strength of parasite eggs: the common cuckoo's egg exhibits a greater microhardness, especially in the inner region of the shell matrix, relative to its host and sympatric non-host species. We then tested predictions of four potential mechanisms of shell strength: (i) increased relative thickness overall, (ii) greater proportion of the structurally harder shell layers, (iii) higher concentration of inorganic components in the shell matrix, and (iv) elevated deposition of a high density compound, MgCO3, in the shell matrix. We confirmed support only for hypothesis (i). Eggshell characteristics did not differ between parasite eggs sampled from different host nests in distant geographical sites, suggesting an evolutionarily shared microstructural mechanism of stronger parasite eggshells across diverse host-races of brood parasitic cuckoos. PMID:21561966

Igic, Branislav; Braganza, Kim; Hyland, Margaret M.; Silyn-Roberts, Heather; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas; Rutila, Jarkko; Moskat, Csaba; Hauber, Mark E.

2011-01-01

281

Alternative mechanisms of increased eggshell hardness of avian brood parasites relative to host species.  

PubMed

Obligate brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in nests of other species and parasite eggs typically have evolved greater structural strength relative to host eggs. Increased mechanical strength of the parasite eggshell is an adaptation that can interfere with puncture ejection behaviours of discriminating hosts. We investigated whether hardness of eggshells is related to differences between physical and chemical traits from three different races of the parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, and their respective hosts. Using tools developed for materials science, we discovered a novel correlate of increased strength of parasite eggs: the common cuckoo's egg exhibits a greater microhardness, especially in the inner region of the shell matrix, relative to its host and sympatric non-host species. We then tested predictions of four potential mechanisms of shell strength: (i) increased relative thickness overall, (ii) greater proportion of the structurally harder shell layers, (iii) higher concentration of inorganic components in the shell matrix, and (iv) elevated deposition of a high density compound, MgCO(3), in the shell matrix. We confirmed support only for hypothesis (i). Eggshell characteristics did not differ between parasite eggs sampled from different host nests in distant geographical sites, suggesting an evolutionarily shared microstructural mechanism of stronger parasite eggshells across diverse host-races of brood parasitic cuckoos. PMID:21561966

Igic, Branislav; Braganza, Kim; Hyland, Margaret M; Silyn-Roberts, Heather; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas; Rutila, Jarkko; Moskát, Csaba; Hauber, Mark E

2011-11-01

282

Host genotype and age have no effect on rejection of parasitic eggs.  

PubMed

Egg rejection belongs to a widely used host tactic to prevent the costs incurred by avian brood parasitism. However, the genetic basis of this behaviour and the effect of host age on the probability of rejecting the parasitic egg remain largely unknown. Here, we used a set of 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci, including a previously detected candidate locus (Ase64), to link genotypes of female great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), a known rejecter, with their egg rejection responses in two host populations. We also tested whether host female age, as a measure of the experience with own eggs, plays a role in rejection of common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) eggs. We failed to find any consistent association of egg rejection responses with host female genotypes or age. It seems that host decisions on egg rejection show high levels of phenotypic plasticity and are likely to depend on the spatiotemporal variation in the parasitism pressure. Future studies exploring the repeatability of host responses towards parasitic eggs and the role of host individual experience with parasitic eggs would greatly improve our understanding of the variations in host behaviours considering the persistence of brood parasitism in host populations with rejecter phenotypes. PMID:24718778

Procházka, Petr; Konvi?ková-Patzenhauerová, Hana; Požgayová, Milica; Trnka, Alfréd; Jelínek, Václav; Honza, Marcel

2014-05-01

283

Host specificity shapes population structure of pinworm parasites in Caribbean reptiles.  

PubMed

Host specificity is one of the potential factors affecting parasite diversification because gene flow may be facilitated or constrained by the number of host species that a parasite can exploit. We test this hypothesis using a costructure approach, comparing two sympatric pinworm parasites that differ in host specificity - Parapharyngodon cubensis and Spauligodon anolis - on the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix in the Caribbean. Spauligodon anolis specializes on Anolis lizards, whereas P. cubensis parasitizes Anolis lizards as well as many other species of lizards and snakes. We collected lizards from across the Puerto Rican Bank and St. Croix, sampled them for S. anolis and P. cubensis and generated nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data from the parasites. We used these data to show that P. cubensis is comprised of multiple cryptic species that exhibit limited population structure relative to S. anolis, which is consistent with our prediction based on their host specificity. We also provide evidence that the distribution of P. cubensis species is maintained by competitive exclusion, and in contrast to previous theoretical work, the parasites with the greatest number of host species also reach the highest prevalence rates. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that host specificity shapes parasite diversification, and suggest that even moderate differences in host specificity may contribute to substantial differences in diversification. PMID:23848187

Falk, Bryan G; Perkins, Susan L

2013-09-01

284

Relic behaviours, coevolution and the retention versus loss of host defences after episodes of avian brood parasitism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous studies of brood parasitism have stressed that host defences, such as egg recognition, are lost in the absence of parasitism. Such losses could result in coevolutionary cycles in which parasites shift away from well-defended hosts only to switch back to them later at a time when these hosts have lost much or all of their defences and the

Stephen I. Rothstein

2001-01-01

285

Mancae of the parasitic cymothoid isopod, Anilocra apogonae : early life history, host-specificity, and effect on growth and survival of preferred young cardinal fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile parasitic cymothoid isopods (mancae) can injure or kill fishes, yet few studies have investigated their biology.\\u000a While the definitive host of the adult cymothoids is usually a single host from a particular fish species, mancae may use\\u000a so-called optional intermediate hosts before settling on the definitive host. Little, however, is known about these early\\u000a interactions. The cymothoid isopod, Anilocra

R. M. Fogelman; A. S. Grutter

2008-01-01

286

Co-occurrences of parasite clones and altered host phenotype in a snail-trematode system.  

PubMed

The frequent co-occurrence of two or more genotypes of the same parasite species in the same individual hosts has often been predicted to select for higher levels of virulence. Thus, if parasites can adjust their level of host exploitation in response to competition for resources, mixed-clone infections should have more profound impacts on the host. Trematode parasites are known to induce a wide range of modifications in the morphology (size, shell shape or ornamentation) of their snail intermediate host. Still, whether mixed-clone trematode infections have additive effects on the phenotypic alterations of the host remains to be tested. Here, we used the snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum-infected by the trematode Coitocaecum parvum to test for both the general effect of the parasite on host phenotype and possible increased host exploitation in multi-clone infections. Significant differences in size, shell shape and spinosity were found between infected and uninfected snails, and we determined that one quarter of naturally infected snails supported mixed-clone infections of C. parvum. From the parasite perspective, this meant that almost half of the clones identified in this study shared their snail host with at least one other clone. Intra-host competition may be intense, with each clone in a mixed-clone infection experiencing major reductions in volume and number of sporocysts (and consequently multiplication rate and cercarial production) compared with single-clone infections. However, there was no significant difference in the intensity of host phenotype modifications between single and multiple-clone infections. These results demonstrate that competition between parasite genotypes may be strong, and suggest that the frequency of mixed-clone infections in this system may have selected for an increased level of host exploitation in the parasite population, such that a single-clone is associated with a high degree of host phenotypic alteration. PMID:17582419

Lagrue, Clément; McEwan, James; Poulin, Robert; Keeney, Devon B

2007-11-01

287

Cophylogeny of the anther smut fungi and their caryophyllaceous hosts: Prevalence of host shifts and importance of delimiting parasite species for inferring cospeciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Using phylogenetic approaches, the expectation that parallel cladogenesis should occur between parasites and hosts has been validated in some studies, but most others provided evidence for frequent host shifts. Here we examine the evolutionary history of the association between Microbotryum fungi that cause anther smut disease and their Caryophyllaceous hosts. We investigated the congruence between host and parasite phylogenies,

Guislaine Refrégier; Mickaël Le Gac; Florian Jabbour; Alex Widmer; Jacqui A Shykoff; Roxana Yockteng; Michael E Hood; Tatiana Giraud

2008-01-01

288

[Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on alternative hosts, under different temperatures].  

PubMed

The successful use of Trichogramma as biocontrol agent depends on its mass production in laboratory, a fundamental step for any biological control program among other factors. This work investigated the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zuchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), a new recorded Trichogramma species, parasitizing eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) and Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) under the temperatures of 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30 and 33 degree Celsius. Eggs of these hosts were offered to newly emerged females during 24h. This procedure was repeated daily for each female and each temperature up to female death, in order to estimate daily and accumulated parasitism, and female longevity. On both hosts, the daily parasitism decreased as function of the female age. Under all temperatures studied and both hosts the highest rate of parasitism was observed during the first 24h of host exposure, and reached 80% of total parasitism in the 4th and 3rd days when parasitizing A. kuehniella and C. cephalonica, respectively. On both hosts, the highest parasitism rate was observed under temperatures from 21 degree Celsius to 27 degree Celsius. Average longevities of T. pratissolii females deprived of food emerging from A. kuehniella and C. cephalonica lived for 1.0 and 8.9 days when reared at 15 degree Celsius e 33 degree Celsius, respectively. The results indicate that eggs of A. kuehniella and C. cephalonica and temperatures from 21 degree Celsius to 27 degree Celsius were appropriate to rear T. pratissolii. PMID:17420865

Zago, Hugo B; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Barros, Reginaldo; Gondim, Manoel G C; Santos, Hugo J G Dos

2007-01-01

289

Parasitic aphrodisiacs: manipulation of the hosts' behavioral defenses by sexually transmitted parasites.  

PubMed

Animals have a number of behavioral defenses against infection. For example, they typically avoid sick conspecifics, especially during mating. Most animals also alter their behavior after infection and thereby promote recovery (i.e., sickness behavior). For example, sick animals typically reduce the performance of energetically demanding behaviors, such as sexual behavior. Finally, some animals can increase their reproductive output when they face a life-threatening immune challenge (i.e., terminal reproductive investment). All of these behavioral responses probably rely on immune/neural communication signals for their initiation. Unfortunately, this communication channel is prone to manipulation by parasites. In the case of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), these parasites/pathogens must subvert some of these behavioral defenses for successful transmission. There is evidence that STIs suppress systemic signals of immune activation (e.g., pro-inflammatory cytokines). This manipulation is probably important for the suppression of sickness behavior and other behavioral defenses, as well as for the prevention of attack by the host's immune system. For example, the cricket, Gryllus texensis, is infected with an STI, the iridovirus IIV-6/CrIV. The virus attacks the immune system, which suffers a dramatic decline in its ability to make proteins important for immune function. This attack also hampers the ability of the immune system to activate sickness behavior. Infected crickets cannot express sickness behavior, even when challenged with heat-killed bacteria. Understanding how STIs suppress sickness behavior in humans and other animals will significantly advance the field of psychoneuroimmunology and could also provide practical benefits. PMID:24813461

Adamo, Shelley A

2014-07-01

290

How to evade a coevolving brood parasite: egg discrimination versus egg variability as host defences.  

PubMed

Arms races between avian brood parasites and their hosts often result in parasitic mimicry of host eggs, to evade rejection. Once egg mimicry has evolved, host defences could escalate in two ways: (i) hosts could improve their level of egg discrimination; and (ii) negative frequency-dependent selection could generate increased variation in egg appearance (polymorphism) among individuals. Proficiency in one defence might reduce selection on the other, while a combination of the two should enable successful rejection of parasitic eggs. We compared three highly variable host species of the Afrotropical cuckoo finch Anomalospiza imberbis, using egg rejection experiments and modelling of avian colour and pattern vision. We show that each differed in their level of polymorphism, in the visual cues they used to reject foreign eggs, and in their degree of discrimination. The most polymorphic host had the crudest discrimination, whereas the least polymorphic was most discriminating. The third species, not currently parasitized, was intermediate for both defences. A model simulating parasitic laying and host rejection behaviour based on the field experiments showed that the two host strategies result in approximately the same fitness advantage to hosts. Thus, neither strategy is superior, but rather they reflect alternative potential evolutionary trajectories. PMID:21490019

Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stevens, Martin

2011-12-01

291

How to evade a coevolving brood parasite: egg discrimination versus egg variability as host defences  

PubMed Central

Arms races between avian brood parasites and their hosts often result in parasitic mimicry of host eggs, to evade rejection. Once egg mimicry has evolved, host defences could escalate in two ways: (i) hosts could improve their level of egg discrimination; and (ii) negative frequency-dependent selection could generate increased variation in egg appearance (polymorphism) among individuals. Proficiency in one defence might reduce selection on the other, while a combination of the two should enable successful rejection of parasitic eggs. We compared three highly variable host species of the Afrotropical cuckoo finch Anomalospiza imberbis, using egg rejection experiments and modelling of avian colour and pattern vision. We show that each differed in their level of polymorphism, in the visual cues they used to reject foreign eggs, and in their degree of discrimination. The most polymorphic host had the crudest discrimination, whereas the least polymorphic was most discriminating. The third species, not currently parasitized, was intermediate for both defences. A model simulating parasitic laying and host rejection behaviour based on the field experiments showed that the two host strategies result in approximately the same fitness advantage to hosts. Thus, neither strategy is superior, but rather they reflect alternative potential evolutionary trajectories. PMID:21490019

Spottiswoode, Claire N.; Stevens, Martin

2011-01-01

292

A Transcriptomic Analysis of Echinococcus granulosus Larval Stages: Implications for Parasite Biology and Host Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background The cestode Echinococcus granulosus - the agent of cystic echinococcosis, a zoonosis affecting humans and domestic animals worldwide - is an excellent model for the study of host-parasite cross-talk that interfaces with two mammalian hosts. To develop the molecular analysis of these interactions, we carried out an EST survey of E. granulosus larval stages. We report the salient features of this study with a focus on genes reflecting physiological adaptations of different parasite stages. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated ?10,000 ESTs from two sets of full-length enriched libraries (derived from oligo-capped and trans-spliced cDNAs) prepared with three parasite materials: hydatid cyst wall, larval worms (protoscoleces), and pepsin/H+-activated protoscoleces. The ESTs were clustered into 2700 distinct gene products. In the context of the biology of E. granulosus, our analyses reveal: (i) a diverse group of abundant long non-protein coding transcripts showing homology to a middle repetitive element (EgBRep) that could either be active molecular species or represent precursors of small RNAs (like piRNAs); (ii) an up-regulation of fermentative pathways in the tissue of the cyst wall; (iii) highly expressed thiol- and selenol-dependent antioxidant enzyme targets of thioredoxin glutathione reductase, the functional hub of redox metabolism in parasitic flatworms; (iv) candidate apomucins for the external layer of the tissue-dwelling hydatid cyst, a mucin-rich structure that is critical for survival in the intermediate host; (v) a set of tetraspanins, a protein family that appears to have expanded in the cestode lineage; and (vi) a set of platyhelminth-specific gene products that may offer targets for novel pan-platyhelminth drug development. Conclusions/Significance This survey has greatly increased the quality and the quantity of the molecular information on E. granulosus and constitutes a valuable resource for gene prediction on the parasite genome and for further genomic and proteomic analyses focused on cestodes and platyhelminths. PMID:23209850

Parkinson, John; Wasmuth, James D.; Salinas, Gustavo; Bizarro, Cristiano V.; Sanford, Chris; Berriman, Matthew; Ferreira, Henrique B.; Zaha, Arnaldo; Blaxter, Mark L.; Maizels, Rick M.; Fernandez, Cecilia

2012-01-01

293

Using parasites to infer host population history: a new rationale for parasite conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only one of the 5000 extant louse species (Phthiraptera) and no species of flea (Siphonaptera), parasitic helminth (Platyhelminthes), parasitic nematode (Nemata), mite, or tick (Acari) is listed as threatened by the IUCN, despite impassioned pleas for parasite conservation beginning more than a decade ago. Although they should be conserved for their own sake, past arguments, highlighting the intrinsic and utilitarian

Noah Kerness Whiteman; Patricia G. Parker

2005-01-01

294

Do Native Parasitic Plants Cause More Damage to Exotic Invasive Hosts Than Native Non-Invasive Hosts? An Implication for Biocontrol  

PubMed Central

Field studies have shown that native, parasitic plants grow vigorously on invasive plants and can cause more damage to invasive plants than native plants. However, no empirical test has been conducted and the mechanism is still unknown. We conducted a completely randomized greenhouse experiment using 3 congeneric pairs of exotic, invasive and native, non-invasive herbaceous plant species to quantify the damage caused by parasitic plants to hosts and its correlation with the hosts' growth rate and resource use efficiency. The biomass of the parasitic plants on exotic, invasive hosts was significantly higher than on congeneric native, non-invasive hosts. Parasites caused more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to congeneric, native, non-invasive hosts. The damage caused by parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the biomass of parasitic plants. The damage of parasites to hosts was significantly positively correlated with the relative growth rate and the resource use efficiency of its host plants. It may be the mechanism by which parasitic plants grow more vigorously on invasive hosts and cause more damage to exotic, invasive hosts than to native, non-invasive hosts. These results suggest a potential biological control effect of native, parasitic plants on invasive species by reducing the dominance of invasive species in the invaded community. PMID:22493703

Li, Junmin; Jin, Zexin; Song, Wenjing

2012-01-01

295

Host response to cuckoo song is predicted by the future risk of brood parasitism  

PubMed Central

Introduction Risk assessment occurs over different temporal and spatial scales and is selected for when individuals show an adaptive response to a threat. Here, we test if birds respond to the threat of brood parasitism using the acoustical cues of brood parasites in the absence of visual stimuli. We broadcast the playback of song of three brood parasites (Chalcites cuckoo species) and a sympatric non-parasite (striated thornbill, Acanthiza lineata) in the territories of superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) during the peak breeding period and opportunistic breeding period. The three cuckoo species differ in brood parasite prevalence and the probability of detection by the host, which we used to rank the risk of parasitism (high risk, moderate risk, low risk). Results Host birds showed the strongest response to the threat of cuckoo parasitism in accordance with the risk of parasitism. Resident wrens had many alarm calls and close and rapid approach to the playback speaker that was broadcasting song of the high risk brood parasite (Horsfield’s bronze-cuckoo, C. basalis) across the year (peak and opportunistic breeding period), some response to the moderate risk brood parasite (shining bronze-cuckoo, C. lucidus) during the peak breeding period, and the weakest response to the low risk brood parasite (little bronze-cuckoo, C. minutillus). Playback of the familiar control stimulus in wren territories evoked the least response. Conclusion Host response to the threat of cuckoo parasitism was assessed using vocal cues of the cuckoo and was predicted by the risk of future parasitism. PMID:23692969

2013-01-01

296

Visual modeling shows that avian host parents use multiple visual cues in rejecting parasitic eggs.  

PubMed

One of the most striking outcomes of coevolution between species is egg mimicry by brood parasitic birds, resulting from rejection behavior by discriminating host parents. Yet, how exactly does a host detect a parasitic egg? Brood parasitism and egg rejection behavior provide a model system for exploring the relative importance of different visual cues used in a behavioral task. Although hosts are discriminating, we do not know exactly what cues they use, and to answer this it is crucial to account for the receiver's visual perception. Color, luminance ("perceived lightness") and pattern information have never been simultaneously quantified and experimentally tested through a bird's eye. The cuckoo finch Anomalospiza imberbis and its hosts show spectacular polymorphisms in egg appearance, providing a good opportunity for investigating visual discrimination owing to the large range of patterns and colors involved. Here we combine field experiments in Africa with modeling of avian color vision and pattern discrimination to identify the specific visual cues used by hosts in making rejection decisions. We found that disparity between host and foreign eggs in both color and several aspects of pattern (dispersion, principal marking size, and variability in marking size) were important predictors of rejection, especially color. These cues correspond exactly to the principal differences between host and parasitic eggs, showing that hosts use the most reliable available cues in making rejection decisions, and select for parasitic eggs that are increasingly mimetic in a range of visual attributes. PMID:20421497

Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stevens, Martin

2010-05-11

297

Host egg age of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera, Coreidae) and parasitism by Gryon pennsylvanicum (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae).  

PubMed

Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Heteroptera, Coreidae) is native to Western North America and is a serious pest for seed production of conifers. The pest was accidentally introduced into Europe in the 1990s. Since then, seed loss has been recorded in Pinus pinea (L.) forests, with a negative impact on the commercial production of pine nuts. Classical biological control of this pest in P. pinea stands is an attractive proposition. Previous work showed that the egg-parasitoid Gryon pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae) had promising life history traits in laboratory studies using L. occidentalis eggs as host. In the present work, the effect of host egg age on parasitization rate was evaluated in the laboratory, using choice and no-choice tests. Host eggs ranged in age from < 24 h to within a day of hatching. Results showed that parasitization rate, juvenile survival rate, sex ratio, and longevity of female G. pennsylvanicum were not significantly affected by the age of the host eggs. However, egg-parasitoid development time was longer in older host eggs, and females were smaller than those that developed in younger host eggs. Parasitization behaviors (drumming, oviposition, and marking) were not affected by the age of the host. G. pennsylvanicum females tended to parasitize all available host eggs within a cluster before moving to a new cluster, without displaying a preferences for host egg age. The ability to exploit host eggs of any age class improves the prospect of successful classical biological control using this egg-parasitoid. PMID:23786048

Peverieri, Giuseppino Sabbatini; Furlan, Paola; Benassai, Daniele; Caradonna, Sarah; Strong, Ward B; Roversi, Pio Federico

2013-04-01

298

Exploring the Host Parasitism of the Migratory Plant-Parasitic Nematode Ditylenchus destuctor by Expressed Sequence Tags Analysis  

PubMed Central

The potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor, is a very destructive nematode pest on many agriculturally important crops worldwide, but the molecular characterization of its parasitism of plant has been limited. The effectors involved in nematode parasitism of plant for several sedentary endo-parasitic nematodes such as Heterodera glycines, Globodera rostochiensis and Meloidogyne incognita have been identified and extensively studied over the past two decades. Ditylenchus destructor, as a migratory plant parasitic nematode, has different feeding behavior, life cycle and host response. Comparing the transcriptome and parasitome among different types of plant-parasitic nematodes is the way to understand more fully the parasitic mechanism of plant nematodes. We undertook the approach of sequencing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a mixed stage cDNA library of D. destructor. This is the first study of D. destructor ESTs. A total of 9800 ESTs were grouped into 5008 clusters including 3606 singletons and 1402 multi-member contigs, representing a catalog of D. destructor genes. Implementing a bioinformatics' workflow, we found 1391 clusters have no match in the available gene database; 31 clusters only have similarities to genes identified from D. africanus, the most closely related species to D. destructor; 1991 clusters were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO); 1550 clusters were assigned enzyme commission (EC) numbers; and 1211 clusters were mapped to 181 KEGG biochemical pathways. 22 ESTs had similarities to reported nematode effectors. Interestedly, most of the effectors identified in this study are involved in host cell wall degradation or modification, such as 1,4-beta-glucanse, 1,3-beta-glucanse, pectate lyase, chitinases and expansin, or host defense suppression such as calreticulin, annexin and venom allergen-like protein. This result implies that the migratory plant-parasitic nematode D. destructor secrets similar effectors to those of sedentary plant nematodes. Finally we further characterized the two D. destructor expansin proteins. PMID:23922743

Peng, Huan; Gao, Bing-li; Kong, Ling-an; Yu, Qing; Huang, Wen-kun; He, Xu-feng; Long, Hai-bo; Peng, De-liang

2013-01-01

299

Comparative host-parasite population structures: disentangling prospecting and dispersal in the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla.  

PubMed

Although much insight is to be gained through the comparison of the population genetic structures of parasites and hosts, there are, at present, few studies that take advantage of the information on vertebrate life histories available through the consideration of their parasites. Here, we examined the genetic structure of a colonial seabird, the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) using seven polymorphic microsatellite markers to make inferences about population functioning and intercolony dispersal. We sampled kittiwakes from 22 colonies across the species' range and, at the same time, collected individuals of one of its common ectoparasites, the tick Ixodes uriae. Parasites were genotyped at eight microsatellite markers and the population genetic structure of host and parasite were compared. Kittiwake populations are only genetically structured at large spatial scales and show weak patterns of isolation by distance. This may be due to long-distance dispersal events that erase local patterns of population subdivision. However, important additional information is gained by comparing results with those of the parasite. In particular, tick populations are strongly structured at regional scales and show a stepping-stone pattern of gene flow. Due to the parasite's life history, its population structure is directly linked to the frequency and spatial extent of within-breeding season movements of kittiwakes. The comparison of host and parasite gene flow therefore helps us to disentangle the intercolony movements of birds from that of true dispersal events (movement followed by reproduction). In addition, such data can provide essential elements for predicting the outcome of local co-evolutionary interactions. PMID:16029481

McCoy, Karen D; Boulinier, Thierry; Tirard, Claire

2005-08-01

300

The importance of gobies (Gobiidae, Teleostei) as hosts and transmitters of parasites in the SW Baltic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parasite fauna of five goby species (Gobiidae, Teleostei) was investigated in the Baltic Sea during the period 1987 to 1990. 13 parasite species were found in samples from the Lübeck Bight: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Schistocephalus sp. (Cestoda); Cryptocotyle concavum, Cryptocotyle lingua, Podocotyle atomon, Derogenes varicus (Digenea); Hysterothylacium sp. (cf. auctum), Contracaecum sp., Anisakis simplex (Nematoda); Corynosoma sp., Echinorhynchus gadi, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The number of parasite species were: 10 in the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, 8 in the black goby Gobius niger, 7 in the two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens, 6 in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and 5 in the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus. Neoechinorhynchus rutili occurred only in P. minutus, and Corynosoma sp. only in G. niger. The extent to which the gobies were parasitized clearly depended on the respective ways of life and, moreover, on the kind of prey ingested by the hosts. Additionally, the age of the hosts might be important. The highest rate of parasitism, more than 60%, was reached by Hysterothylacium sp. in G. niger and by Cryptocotyle concavum in P. microps. Infestation incidence lay mostly below 40% which means a satellite species status (Holmes, 1991). The number of parasite species was highest in summer; the highest intensities of single parasites occurred in spring ( Podocotyle atomon) or autumn ( Crytocotyle concavum). Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium sp. and Podocotyle infested their juvenile hosts very early, but only Hysterothylacium was accumulated by G. niger during its whole life span, whereas Bothriocephalus persisted also in older gobies in low intensities. The cercariae of Cryptocotyle spp. penetrate actively into their hosts; all the other parasites named were transmitted in larval form by prey organisms which consisted mainly of planktonic and benthic crustaceans. The gobies were final hosts for only 5 parasites; but two species may be transmitted to larger fish, and 6 species to sea birds or mammals. The parasite community of the five gobies may possibly be taken to characterize the ecological quality of the environment of the Lübeck Bight.

Zander, C. D.; Strohbach, U.; Groenewold, S.

1993-02-01

301

Phylogeographic Triangulation: Using Predator-Prey-Parasite Interactions to Infer Population History from Partial Genetic Information  

PubMed Central

Phylogeographic studies, which infer population history and dispersal movements from intra-specific spatial genetic variation, require expensive and time-consuming analyses that are not always feasible, especially in the case of rare or endangered species. On the other hand, comparative phylogeography of species involved in close biotic interactions may show congruent patterns depending on the specificity of the relationship. Consequently, the phylogeography of a parasite that needs two hosts to complete its life cycle should reflect population history traits of both hosts. Population movements evidenced by the parasite’s phylogeography that are not reflected in the phylogeography of one of these hosts may thus be attributed to the other host. Using the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and a parasitic tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis) as an example, we propose comparing the phylogeography of easily available organisms such as game species and their specific heteroxenous parasites to infer population movements of definitive host/predator species, independently of performing genetic analyses on the latter. This may be an interesting approach for indirectly studying the history of species whose phylogeography is difficult to analyse directly. PMID:23209834

Barbosa, A. Marcia; Thode, Guillermo; Real, Raimundo; Feliu, Carlos; Vargas, J. Mario

2012-01-01

302

[Parasites of the introduced Amur sleeper, Perccottus glenii (Osteichthyes): alpha-diversity of parasites and age of the host].  

PubMed

Three age groups of the Amur sleeper have been studied: underyearlings (0+), two-year-olds (1+), and three- and four-year-olds (2+ and 3+). The long-cycle parasites prevalent in all three age groups are the merocercoids of Ophiotaenia europaea, third-instar larvae of Spiroxys contortus, and metacercaria of Isthmiophora sp. and Prohemistomidae gen. sp. Different age groups of the Amur sleeper have different roles in the life cycle of O. europaea. Underyearlings are second intermediate hosts of O. europaea, and Amur sleepers aged 1+ and older are parathenic hosts. The alpha-diversity of long-cycle parasites of the Amur sleeper increases with the age of the host. PMID:22117426

Sokolov, S G; Protasova, E N; Kholin, S K

2011-01-01

303

Ecomorphology and disease: cryptic effects of parasitism on host habitat use, thermoregulation, and predator avoidance.  

PubMed

Parasites can cause dramatic changes in the phenotypes of their hosts, sometimes leading to a higher probability of predation and parasite transmission. Because an organism's morphology directly affects its locomotion, even subtle changes in key morphological traits may affect survival and behavior. However, despite the ubiquity of parasites in natural communities, few studies have incorporated parasites into ecomorphological research. Here, we evaluated the effects of parasite-induced changes in host phenotype on the habitat use, thermal biology, and simulated predator-escape ability of Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) in natural environments. Frogs with parasite-induced limb malformations were more likely to use ground microhabitats relative to vertical refugia and selected less-angled perches closer to the ground in comparison with normal frogs. Although both groups had similar levels of infection, malformed frogs used warmer microhabitats, which resulted in higher body temperatures. Likely as a result of their morphological abnormalities, malformed frogs allowed a simulated predator to approach closer before escaping and escaped shorter distances relative to normal frogs. These data indicate that parasite-induced morphological changes can significantly alter host behavior and habitat use, highlighting the importance of incorporating the ubiquitous, albeit cryptic, role of parasites into ecomorphological research. PMID:21608461

Goodman, Brett A; Johnson, Pieter T J

2011-03-01

304

First study on parasites of Hemibrycon surinamensis (Characidae), a host from the eastern Amazon region.  

PubMed

This study was the first investigation of communities and infracommunities of parasites of Hemibrycon surinamensis. All the fish collected in a tributary of the Amazon river were parasitized by one or more parasite species. The Brillouin diversity index (HB) was 0.46 ± 0.28 and the mean species richness was 3.5 ± 1.2 parasites per host. A total of 14,734 parasites were collected, including Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Piscinoodinium pillulare (Protozoa); Jainus hexops and Tereancistrum sp. (Monogenoidea); Ergasilus turucuyus and Argulus sp. (Crustacea); metacercariae of Derogenidae gen. sp.; metacercariae and adults of Genarchella genarchella (Digenea); and Cucullanus larvae and Contracaecum larvae (Nematoda). The dominant parasite was I. multifiliis, followed by P. pillulare. The parasites showed aggregated dispersion, except for E. turucuyus, which had random dispersion. The condition factor (Kn) indicated that the parasitism levels had not affected host body condition. The high levels of infection observed were due to host behavior, and this was discussed. This was the first report of I. multifiliis, P. pillulare, Argulus sp., E. turucuyus, G. genarchella, J. hexops and Tereancistrum sp. in H. surinamensis, and it expanded the occurrence of E. turucuyus and G. genarchella to the eastern Amazon region. PMID:25271454

Hoshino, Maria Danielle Figueiredo Guimarăes; Hoshino, Erico Melo; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

2014-09-01

305

Social wasp parasites affect the nestmate recognition abilities of their hosts ( Polistes atrimandibularis and P. biglumis , Hymenoptera, Vespidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Queens of the parasitic social wasp, Polistes atrimandibularis, temporarily mimic the odor of their host species, Polistes biglumis, but their offspring have parasite-specific odors. As a consequence, in parasitized colonies individuals with different odors co-inhabit the colony and host workers, who are responsible for colony defense, accept wasps with different odors. In order to verify whether this particular condition

M. C. Lorenzi

2003-01-01

306

Do-or-die life cycles and diverse post-infection resistance mechanisms limit the evolution of parasite host ranges.  

PubMed

In light of the dynamic nature of parasite host ranges and documented potential for rapid host shifts, the observed high host specificity of most parasites remains an ecological paradox. Different variants of host-use trade-offs have become a mainstay of theoretical explanations of the prevalence of host specialism, but empirical evidence for such trade-offs is rare. We propose an alternative theory based on basic features of the parasite life cycle: host selection and subsequent intrahost replication. We introduce a new concept of effective burst size that accounts for the fact that successful host selection does not guarantee intrahost replication. Our theory makes a general prediction that a parasite will expand its host range if its effective burst size is positive. An in silico model of bacteria-phage coevolution verifies our predictions and demonstrates that the tendency for relatively narrow host ranges in parasites can be explained even in the absence of trade-offs. PMID:24495077

Sieber, Michael; Gudelj, Ivana

2014-04-01

307

Competition, virulence, host body mass and the diversification of macro-parasites.  

PubMed

Adaptive speciation has been much debated in recent years, with a strong emphasis on how competition can lead to the diversification of ecological and sexual traits. Surprisingly, little attention has been paid to this evolutionary process to explain intrahost diversification of parasites. We expanded the theory of competitive speciation to look at the effect of key features of the parasite lifestyle, namely fragmentation, aggregation and virulence, on the conditions and rate of sympatric speciation under the standard 'pleiotropic scenario'. The conditions for competitive speciation were found similar to those for non-parasite species, but not the rate of diversification. Adaptive evolution proceeds faster in highly fragmented parasite populations and for weakly aggregated and virulent parasites. Combining these theoretical results with standard empirical allometric relationships, we showed that parasite diversification can be faster in host species of intermediate body mass. The increase in parasite load with body mass, indeed, fuels evolution by increasing mutants production, but because of the deleterious effect of virulence, it simultaneously weakens selection for resource specialization. Those two antagonistic effects lead to optimal parasite burden and host body mass for diversification. Data on the diversity of fishes' gills parasites were found consistent with the existence of such optimum. PMID:24522783

Rascalou, Guilhem; Gourbičre, Sébastien

2014-04-01

308

Evidence of Plasticity in the Reproduction of a Trematode Parasite: The Effect of Host Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasitic trematode Proctoeces lintoni requires 3 hosts (intertidal mussels, keyhole limpets, and clingfish) to complete its life cycle. The densities and size structure of host communities are modified by selective human harvesting. This study examined clutch and egg size of P. lintoni in 3 adjacent sites in rocky intertidal areas of central Chile presenting differences in the levels of

G. Loot; S. Blanchet; M. Aldana; Sergio A. Navarrete

2008-01-01

309

Checklist of the fish parasitic genus Cichlidogyrus (Monogenea), including its cosmopolitan distribution and host species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge of the 85 species in the genus Cichlidogyrus, collected worldwide, including their hosts, localities and authors, is summarised in a table. Although these parasites occur mainly in Africa, representatives have been recorded on cichlids in Mexico. Their distribution and host specificity are commented on.

LE le Roux; A. Avenant-Oldewage

2010-01-01

310

Sex allocation in relation to host races in the brood-parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus).  

PubMed

Sex allocation theory and empirical evidence both suggest that natural selection should favour maternal control of offspring sex ratio in relation to their ability to invest in the offspring. Generalist parasites constitute a particularly interesting group to test this theory as different females commonly utilize different host species showing large variation in provisioning ability. The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is a generalist brood parasite that lays its eggs in the nest of many different passerine birds, but each female tends to specialize on one particular host species giving rise to highly specialized host races. The different host species show large variation in their ability to invest in the parasitic offspring, presenting an opportunity for female cuckoos to bias offspring sex ratio in relation to host species quality. Here, we investigate host-race specific sex allocation controlling for maternal identity in the common cuckoo. We found no evidence of any significant relationship between host race and sex ratio in one sympatric population harbouring three different host races, or in a total of five geographically separated populations. There was also no significant association between host quality, as determined by species-specific female host body mass, and cuckoo sex ratio. Finally, we found no significant relationship between individual cuckoo maternal quality, as determined by her egg volume, and sex ratio within each host race. We conclude that the generalist brood-parasitic common cuckoo show no significant sex-ratio bias in relation to host race and discuss this finding in light of gene flow and host adaptations. PMID:22615833

Fossřy, Frode; Moksnes, Arne; Rřskaft, Eivin; Antonov, Anton; Dyrcz, Andrzej; Moskat, Csaba; Ranke, Peter S; Rutila, Jarkko; Vikan, Johan R; Stokke, Bĺrd G

2012-01-01

311

Sex Allocation in Relation to Host Races in the Brood-Parasitic Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus)  

PubMed Central

Sex allocation theory and empirical evidence both suggest that natural selection should favour maternal control of offspring sex ratio in relation to their ability to invest in the offspring. Generalist parasites constitute a particularly interesting group to test this theory as different females commonly utilize different host species showing large variation in provisioning ability. The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is a generalist brood parasite that lays its eggs in the nest of many different passerine birds, but each female tends to specialize on one particular host species giving rise to highly specialized host races. The different host species show large variation in their ability to invest in the parasitic offspring, presenting an opportunity for female cuckoos to bias offspring sex ratio in relation to host species quality. Here, we investigate host-race specific sex allocation controlling for maternal identity in the common cuckoo. We found no evidence of any significant relationship between host race and sex ratio in one sympatric population harbouring three different host races, or in a total of five geographically separated populations. There was also no significant association between host quality, as determined by species-specific female host body mass, and cuckoo sex ratio. Finally, we found no significant relationship between individual cuckoo maternal quality, as determined by her egg volume, and sex ratio within each host race. We conclude that the generalist brood-parasitic common cuckoo show no significant sex-ratio bias in relation to host race and discuss this finding in light of gene flow and host adaptations. PMID:22615833

Foss?y, Frode; Moksnes, Arne; R?skaft, Eivin; Antonov, Anton; Dyrcz, Andrzej; Moskat, Csaba; Ranke, Peter S.; Rutila, Jarkko; Vikan, Johan R.; Stokke, Bard G.

2012-01-01

312

The Monogenean Parasite Fauna of Cichlids: A Potential Tool for Host Biogeography  

PubMed Central

We discuss geographical distribution and phylogeny of Dactylogyridea (Monogenea) parasitizing Cichlidae to elucidate their hosts' history. Although mesoparasitic Monogenea (Enterogyrus spp.) show typical vicariant distribution, ectoparasitic representatives from different continents are not considered sister taxa, hence their distribution cannot result from vicariance alone. Because of the close host-parasite relationship, this might indicate that present-day cichlid distribution may also reflect dispersal through coastal or brackish waters. Loss of ectoparasites during transoceanic migration, followed by lateral transfer from other fish families might explain extant host-parasite associations. Because of its mesoparasitic nature, hence not subject to salinity variations of the host's environment, Enterogyrus could have survived marine migrations, intolerable for ectoparasites. Host-switches and salinity transitions may be invoked to explain the pattern revealed by a preliminary morphological phylogeny of monogenean genera from Cichlidae and other selected Monogenea genera, rendering the parasite distribution explicable under both vicariance and dispersal. Testable hypotheses are put forward in this parasitological approach to cichlid biogeography. Along with more comprehensive in-depth morphological phylogeny, comparison with molecular data, clarifying dactylogyridean evolution on different continents and from various fish families, and providing temporal information on host-parasite history, are needed to discriminate between the possible scenarios. PMID:21869935

Pariselle, Antoine; Boeger, Walter A.; Snoeks, Jos; Bilong Bilong, Charles F.; Morand, Serge; Vanhove, Maarten P. M.

2011-01-01

313

Competition with a host nestling for parental provisioning imposes recoverable costs on parasitic cuckoo chick's growth.  

PubMed

Chicks of the brood parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) typically monopolize host parental care by evicting all eggs and nestmates from the nest. To assess the benefits of parasitic eviction behaviour throughout the full nestling period, we generated mixed broods of one cuckoo and one great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) to study how hosts divide care between own and parasitic young. We also recorded parental provisioning behaviour at nests of singleton host nestlings or singleton cuckoo chicks. Host parents fed the three types of broods with similar-sized food items. The mass of the cuckoo chicks was significantly reduced in mixed broods relative to singleton cuckoos. Yet, after the host chick fledged from mixed broods, at about 10-12 days, cuckoo chicks in mixed broods grew faster and appeared to have compensated for the growth costs of prior cohabitation by fledging at similar weights and ages compared to singleton cuckoo chicks. These results are contrary to suggestions that chick competition in mixed broods of cuckoos and hosts causes an irrecoverable cost for the developing brood parasite. Flexibility in cuckoos' growth dynamics may provide a general benefit to ecological uncertainty regarding the realized successes, failures, and costs of nestmate eviction strategies of brood parasites. PMID:22521709

Geltsch, Nikoletta; Hauber, Márk E; Anderson, Michael G; Bán, Miklós; Moskát, Csaba

2012-07-01

314

A slowly evolving host moves first in symbiotic interactions.  

PubMed

Symbiotic relationships, both parasitic and mutualistic, are ubiquitous in nature. Understanding how these symbioses evolve, from bacteria and their phages to humans and our gut microflora, is crucial in understanding how life operates. Often, symbioses consist of a slowly evolving host species with each host only interacting with its own subpopulation of symbionts. The Red Queen hypothesis describes coevolutionary relationships as constant arms races with each species rushing to evolve an advantage over the other, suggesting that faster evolution is favored. Here, we use a simple game theoretic model of host-symbiont coevolution that includes population structure to show that if the symbionts evolve much faster than the host, the equilibrium distribution is the same as it would be if it were a sequential game where the host moves first against its symbionts. For the slowly evolving host, this will prove to be advantageous in mutualisms and a handicap in antagonisms. The result follows from rapid symbiont adaptation to its host and is robust to changes in the parameters, even generalizing to continuous and multiplayer games. Our findings provide insight into a wide range of symbiotic phenomena and help to unify the field of coevolutionary theory. PMID:21790584

Damore, James A; Gore, Jeff

2011-08-01

315

Effects of predation on real-time host-parasite coevolutionary dynamics.  

PubMed

The impact of community complexity on pairwise coevolutionary dynamics is theoretically dependent on the extent to which species evolve generalised or specialised adaptations to the multiple species they interact with. Here, we show that the bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens diversifies into defence specialists, when coevolved simultaneously with a virus and a predatory protist, as a result of fitness trade-offs between defences against the two enemies. Strong bacteria-virus pairwise coevolution persisted, despite strong protist-imposed selection. However, the arms race dynamic (escalation of host resistance and parasite infectivity ranges) associated with bacteria-virus coevolution broke down to a greater extent in the presence of the protist, presumably through the elevated genetic and demographic costs of increased bacteria resistance ranges. These findings suggest that strong pairwise coevolution can persist even in complex communities, when conflicting selection leads to evolutionary diversification of different defence strategies. PMID:23013242

Friman, Ville-Petri; Buckling, Angus

2013-01-01

316

Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona Attenuates Host Plant Defenses against Insect Herbivores1  

PubMed Central

Considerable research has examined plant responses to concurrent attack by herbivores and pathogens, but the effects of attack by parasitic plants, another important class of plant-feeding organisms, on plant defenses against other enemies has not been explored. We investigated how attack by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona impacted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) defenses against the chewing insect beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua; BAW). In response to insect feeding, C. pentagona-infested (parasitized) tomato plants produced only one-third of the antiherbivore phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) produced by unparasitized plants. Similarly, parasitized tomato, in contrast to unparasitized plants, failed to emit herbivore-induced volatiles after 3 d of BAW feeding. Although parasitism impaired antiherbivore defenses, BAW growth was slower on parasitized tomato leaves. Vines of C. pentagona did not translocate JA from BAW-infested plants: amounts of JA in parasite vines grown on caterpillar-fed and control plants were similar. Parasitized plants generally contained more salicylic acid (SA), which can inhibit JA in some systems. Parasitized mutant (NahG) tomato plants deficient in SA produced more JA in response to insect feeding than parasitized wild-type plants, further suggesting cross talk between the SA and JA defense signaling pathways. However, JA induction by BAW was still reduced in parasitized compared to unparasitized NahG, implying that other factors must be involved. We found that parasitized plants were capable of producing induced volatiles when experimentally treated with JA, indicating that resource depletion by the parasite does not fully explain the observed attenuation of volatile response to herbivore feeding. Collectively, these findings show that parasitic plants can have important consequences for host plant defense against herbivores. PMID:18165323

Runyon, Justin B.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

2008-01-01

317

Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona attenuates host plant defenses against insect herbivores.  

PubMed

Considerable research has examined plant responses to concurrent attack by herbivores and pathogens, but the effects of attack by parasitic plants, another important class of plant-feeding organisms, on plant defenses against other enemies has not been explored. We investigated how attack by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona impacted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) defenses against the chewing insect beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua; BAW). In response to insect feeding, C. pentagona-infested (parasitized) tomato plants produced only one-third of the antiherbivore phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) produced by unparasitized plants. Similarly, parasitized tomato, in contrast to unparasitized plants, failed to emit herbivore-induced volatiles after 3 d of BAW feeding. Although parasitism impaired antiherbivore defenses, BAW growth was slower on parasitized tomato leaves. Vines of C. pentagona did not translocate JA from BAW-infested plants: amounts of JA in parasite vines grown on caterpillar-fed and control plants were similar. Parasitized plants generally contained more salicylic acid (SA), which can inhibit JA in some systems. Parasitized mutant (NahG) tomato plants deficient in SA produced more JA in response to insect feeding than parasitized wild-type plants, further suggesting cross talk between the SA and JA defense signaling pathways. However, JA induction by BAW was still reduced in parasitized compared to unparasitized NahG, implying that other factors must be involved. We found that parasitized plants were capable of producing induced volatiles when experimentally treated with JA, indicating that resource depletion by the parasite does not fully explain the observed attenuation of volatile response to herbivore feeding. Collectively, these findings show that parasitic plants can have important consequences for host plant defense against herbivores. PMID:18165323

Runyon, Justin B; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

2008-03-01

318

Treponema denticola interactions with host proteins  

PubMed Central

Oral Treponema species, most notably T. denticola, are implicated in the destructive effects of human periodontal disease. Progress in the molecular analysis of interactions between T. denticola and host proteins is reviewed here, with particular emphasis on the characterization of surface-expressed and secreted proteins of T. denticola involved in interactions with host cells, extracellular matrix components, and components of the innate immune system. PMID:22368767

Fenno, J. Christopher

2012-01-01

319

BEGGING BEHAVIOUR AND HOST EXPLOITATION IN PARASITIC COWBIRDS  

E-print Network

to which cowbird nestlings are perceived and treated as host young by the provisioning adults; and (4 with the host young. Thus, cowbirds allow the study of nestling competition and adult allocation decisions, Lewisburg, PA 17837, USA (ddearbor@bucknell.edu) 2 International Institute for Environment and Development

Dearborn, Don

320

Lotka-Volterra dynamics kills the Red Queen: population size fluctuations and associated stochasticity dramatically change host-parasite coevolution  

PubMed Central

Background Host-parasite coevolution is generally believed to follow Red Queen dynamics consisting of ongoing oscillations in the frequencies of interacting host and parasite alleles. This belief is founded on previous theoretical work, which assumes infinite or constant population size. To what extent are such sustained oscillations realistic? Results Here, we use a related mathematical modeling approach to demonstrate that ongoing Red Queen dynamics is unlikely. In fact, they collapse rapidly when two critical pieces of realism are acknowledged: (i) population size fluctuations, caused by the antagonism of the interaction in concordance with the Lotka-Volterra relationship; and (ii) stochasticity, acting in any finite population. Together, these two factors cause fast allele fixation. Fixation is not restricted to common alleles, as expected from drift, but also seen for originally rare alleles under a wide parameter space, potentially facilitating spread of novel variants. Conclusion Our results call for a paradigm shift in our understanding of host-parasite coevolution, strongly suggesting that these are driven by recurrent selective sweeps rather than continuous allele oscillations. PMID:24252104

2013-01-01

321

Phylogenetic relationships among monogenean gill parasites (Dactylogyridea, Ancyrocephalidae) infesting tilapiine hosts (Cichlidae): systematic and evolutionary implications.  

PubMed

We studied the systematics of 14 species of monogenean (Ancyrocephalidae) gill parasites from West African tilapiine hosts (Cichlidae) using both morphological and genetic data. With these tools, we were able to: (i) confirm the validity of the previously described morphological parasite species and of the genus Scutogyrus; (ii) propose that some stenoxenous species (i.e., parasite species with more than one host) may be composed of sister species (e.g., Cichlidogyrus tilapiae); (iii) state that the use of the morphology of the haptoral sclerites is more suitable to infer phylogenetic relationships than the morphology of the genitalia (which seems to be more useful to resolve species-level identifications, presumably because of its faster rate of change). These results imply that: (i) the specificity of these monogenean parasites is greater than initially supposed (what were thought to be stenoxenous species may be assemblages of oďoxenous sister species); (ii) related species groups (i.e., "tilapiae," "halli," and "tiberianus") have to be, as genus Scutogyrus, validated within the 54 ancyrocephalid species described from 18 species of tilapiine hosts in West Africa, (iii) the group "tilapiae," due to its morphology and host range, have to be considered as being the most primitive; (iv) the occurrence of lateral transfers and parallel speciation processes are necessary to describe the repartition of the newly described parasite groups on the three host genera studied (Tilapia, Oreochromis, and Sarotherodon). PMID:16214376

Pouyaud, Laurent; Desmarais, Erick; Deveney, Marty; Pariselle, Antoine

2006-01-01

322

Evidence for gene flow in parasitic nematodes between two host species of shrews.  

PubMed

We describe the genetic structure of populations of the intestinal nematode Longistriata caudabullata (Trichostrongyloidea: Heligmosomidae), a common parasite of short-tailed shrews (genus Blarina, Insectivora: Soricidae). Parasites and hosts were collected from a transect across a contact zone between two species of hosts, Blarina brevicauda and B. hylophaga, in central North America. An 800-base pairs (bp) fragment of the ND4 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene was sequenced for 28 worms and a 783-bp fragment of the mtDNA control region was analysed for 16 shrews. Phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences revealed reciprocal monophyly for the shrew species, concordant with morphological diagnosis, and supported the idea that the transect cuts through a secondary contact zone between well-differentiated B. brevicauda and B. hylophaga. In contrast to this pattern, the parasitic nematode mtDNA phylogeny was not subdivided according to host affiliation. Genealogical discordance between parasite and host phylogenies suggests extensive gene flow among parasites across the host species boundary. PMID:12969487

Brant, Sara V; Ortí, Guillermo

2003-10-01

323

Hijacking of host cellular functions by an intracellular parasite, the microsporidian Anncaliia algerae.  

PubMed

Intracellular pathogens including bacteria, viruses and protozoa hijack host cell functions to access nutrients and to bypass cellular defenses and immune responses. These strategies have been acquired through selective pressure and allowed pathogens to reach an appropriate cellular niche for their survival and growth. To get new insights on how parasites hijack host cellular functions, we developed a SILAC (Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell culture) quantitative proteomics workflow. Our study focused on deciphering the cross-talk in a host-parasite association, involving human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) and the microsporidia Anncaliia algerae, a fungus related parasite with an obligate intracellular lifestyle and a strong host dependency. The host-parasite cross-talk was analyzed at five post-infection times 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours post-infection (hpi) and 8 days post-infection (dpi). A significant up-regulation of four interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and MX1 was observed at 8 dpi suggesting a type 1 interferon (IFN) host response. Quantitative alteration of host proteins involved in biological functions such as signaling (STAT1, Ras) and reduction of the translation activity (EIF3) confirmed a host type 1 IFN response. Interestingly, the SILAC approach also allowed the detection of 148 A. algerae proteins during the kinetics of infection. Among these proteins many are involved in parasite proliferation, and an over-representation of putative secreted effectors proteins was observed. Finally our survey also suggests that A. algerae could use a transposable element as a lure strategy to escape the host innate immune system. PMID:24967735

Panek, Johan; El Alaoui, Hicham; Mone, Anne; Urbach, Serge; Demettre, Edith; Texier, Catherine; Brun, Christine; Zanzoni, Andreas; Peyretaillade, Eric; Parisot, Nicolas; Lerat, Emmanuelle; Peyret, Pierre; Delbac, Frederic; Biron, David G

2014-01-01

324

Hijacking of Host Cellular Functions by an Intracellular Parasite, the Microsporidian Anncaliia algerae  

PubMed Central

Intracellular pathogens including bacteria, viruses and protozoa hijack host cell functions to access nutrients and to bypass cellular defenses and immune responses. These strategies have been acquired through selective pressure and allowed pathogens to reach an appropriate cellular niche for their survival and growth. To get new insights on how parasites hijack host cellular functions, we developed a SILAC (Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell culture) quantitative proteomics workflow. Our study focused on deciphering the cross-talk in a host-parasite association, involving human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) and the microsporidia Anncaliia algerae, a fungus related parasite with an obligate intracellular lifestyle and a strong host dependency. The host-parasite cross-talk was analyzed at five post-infection times 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours post-infection (hpi) and 8 days post-infection (dpi). A significant up-regulation of four interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and MX1 was observed at 8 dpi suggesting a type 1 interferon (IFN) host response. Quantitative alteration of host proteins involved in biological functions such as signaling (STAT1, Ras) and reduction of the translation activity (EIF3) confirmed a host type 1 IFN response. Interestingly, the SILAC approach also allowed the detection of 148 A. algerae proteins during the kinetics of infection. Among these proteins many are involved in parasite proliferation, and an over-representation of putative secreted effectors proteins was observed. Finally our survey also suggests that A. algerae could use a transposable element as a lure strategy to escape the host innate immune system. PMID:24967735

Panek, Johan; El Alaoui, Hicham; Mone, Anne; Urbach, Serge; Demettre, Edith; Texier, Catherine; Brun, Christine; Zanzoni, Andreas; Peyretaillade, Eric; Parisot, Nicolas; Lerat, Emmanuelle; Peyret, Pierre; Delbac, Frederic; Biron, David G.

2014-01-01

325

[Baikal whitefish Coregonus baicalensis Dybowski, 1874 parasite communities and host age].  

PubMed

Data on the taxonomic diversity of Baikal whitefish parasites are summarized in the study. Significant correlations of some parasite species' relative abundance and parasite communities' (infracommunities and component communities) parameters with host age were found during the study of parasite distribution in the host's age groups in the Baikal whitefish population from Chivyrkui Bay of Lake Baikal. Study of morphobiological and genetic features which have arisen due to long-term geographic isolation allowed confirming the initial specific independence of lake whitefishes of Lake Baikal as Coregonus baicalensis Dybowski, 1874, i.e., the Baikal whitefish (Sukhanova et al., 2000). The main habitats of this Baikal endemic are Barguzin and Chivyrkui bays, Selenga shallow, and Little Sea strait (Pronin et al., 2007). Local populations from these habitats were previously considered to be independent stocks (Krogius, 1933). PMID:21268871

Dugarov, Zh N; Pronin, N M

2010-01-01

326

Lessons from parasitic flatworms about evolution and historical biogeography of their vertebrate hosts.  

PubMed

Cophylogenetic studies investigate the evolutionary trends within host-parasite associations. Examination of the different levels of fidelity between host and parasite phylogenies provides a powerful tool to inspect patterns and processes of parasite diversification over host evolution and geological times. Within the phylum Platyhelminthes, the monogeneans are mainly fish parasites. The Polystomatidae, however, are known from the sarcopterygian Australian lungfish and tetrapods such as amphibians, freshwater turtles, and the African hippopotamus. Cophylogenetic and biogeographic vicariance analyses, supplemented by molecular calibrations, showed that the Polystomatidae may track the evolutionary history of the first aquatic tetrapods in the Palaeozoic age. Evolutionary lines of the major polystome lineages would also be intimately related to the evolution of their hosts over hundreds of millions years. Since the Mesozoic, evolution of polystomes would have been shaped mainly by plate tectonics during the break-up of Gondwanaland and subsequent dispersal of ancestral neobatrachian host lineages. Therefore the Polystomatidae could serve as a novel model to improve cophylogenetic tools and to inspect a suite of questions about the evolution of vertebrate hosts. PMID:19281948

Verneau, Olivier; Du Preez, Louis; Badets, Mathieu

2009-01-01

327

CORRELATED EVOLUTION OF HOST AND PARASITE BODY SIZE: TESTS OF HARRISON'S RULE USING BIRDS AND LICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-bodied species of hosts often harbor large-bodied parasites, a pattern known as Harrison's rule. Harrison's rule has been documented for a variety of animal parasites and herbivorous insects, yet the adaptive basis of the body-size correlation is poorly understood. We used phylogenetically independent methods to test for Harrison's rule across a large assemblage of bird lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). The analysis

Kevin P. Johnson; Sarah E. Bush; Dale H. Clayton

2005-01-01

328

[Differences of Cynomorium songaricum seed quality and mutual parasitism in different host plants].  

PubMed

In natural conditions, fully ripe Cynomorium songaricum seeds parasitize in Nitraria tangutorum or N. sphaerocarpa or N. sibirica or Zygophyllum xanthoxylom and Peganum harmala, were used in this study to research the morphological characteristics, embryo rate, seed viability, 1 000-grain weight, purity, water content and the seeds of different host parasitic relationship with each other. The results showed that the morphology, color and surface characteristics of the C. songaricum seeds are very similar in different hosts. According to the seed morphology can not be judged on its host. For the host to N. tangutorum or Peganum harmala or N. sibirica, we should choose the round hole screen less than 0.923 1 mm and larger than 1.066 2 mm to cleaning seeds. For the C. songaricum seeds parasitic in N. sphaerocarpa, the choice of slightly less than 0.926 1 mm and larger than 0.985 3 mm round hole screen to cleaning. For the parasitic seeds in Z. xanthoxylom, less than 0.751 3 mm and slightly larger than 1.035 3 mm round hole screen could be used. Highy significant correlation was found among the morphological indexes in C. songaricum seeds (P < 0.01). Morphological indexes and 1 000-grain weight were significantly correlated (0.01 < P < 0.05), but with the seed viability and the embryo rate were not found significant correlation. Grain weight is not related with the seed viability and the Fully mature C. songaricum seed viability is high and water content is low. The difference of the habitats and the host plants should be considered in the seed quality assessment and classification. The C. songaricum seeds on host plants are not selective, and the C. songaricum seeds from the host plants could be parasitized in other host plants. PMID:24490548

Luo, Guang-Hong; Wang, Jin; Yan, Xia; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Gui-Xi; Wang, Jian-Qiang

2013-10-01

329

Fish host-cestode parasite stable isotope enrichment patterns in marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes from Northern Canada.  

PubMed

Cestode parasites from freshwater (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus), estuarine (brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis) and marine (Greenland cod, Gadus ogac) fish from northern Quebec, Canada, were used to investigate the hypotheses that cestode parasites are (13)C and (15)N enriched relative to host food sources, but (15)N depleted with respect to host muscle tissue as a result of differential enrichment during the assimilation of common nutrient sources. Cestode parasites and fish were generally similarly enriched in (13)C with respect to common food sources and, in the case of Greenland cod, cestode parasites were (13)C enriched relative to host tissue. Cestode parasites were also generally (15)N enriched with respect to mean host dietary signatures, but depleted with respect to host muscle tissue. In the case of Greenland cod cestode parasites, no significant (15)N enrichment relative to host dietary signature was observed. Cestode parasites appear generally to experience smaller (15)N enrichment than hosts as a result of trophic transfer of common dietary sources. Differential (15)N enrichment patterns in parasites and fish may be attributed to differences in parasite and host metabolism, particularly the anaerobic and aerobic natures of their respective metabolisms. Results imply that isotope enrichment paradigms developed for the study of aquatic foodwebs cannot be routinely applied to quantitatively assess the role of parasites in aquatic foodwebs and that reference to host muscle tissue measures will not allow accurate characterization of parasite foodweb position. Appropriate reference to assimilated food sources is required to accurately estimate parasite isotopic enrichment patterns and to determine parasite trophic position relative to the host. PMID:15621744

Power, Michael; Klein, Geoff

2004-12-01

330

Evolutionary concepts in predicting and evaluating the impact of mass chemotherapy schistosomiasis control programmes on parasites and their hosts  

PubMed Central

Summary Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of significant medical and veterinary importance in many regions of the world. Recent shifts in global health policy have led towards the implementation of mass chemotherapeutic control programmes at the national scale in previously ‘neglected’ countries such as those within sub-Saharan Africa. Evolutionary theory has an important role to play in the design, application and interpretation of such programmes. Whilst celebrating the rapid success achieved to date by such programmes, in terms of reduced infection prevalence, intensity and associated human morbidity, evolutionary change in response to drug selection pressure may be predicted under certain circumstances, particularly in terms of the development of potential drug resistance, evolutionary changes in parasite virulence, transmission and host use, and/or competitive interactions with co-infecting pathogens. Theoretical and empirical data gained to date serve to highlight the importance of careful monitoring and evaluation of parasites and their hosts whenever and wherever chemotherapy is applied and where parasite transmission remains.

Webster, Joanne P; Gower, Charlotte M; Norton, Alice J

2008-01-01

331

Persistence of host defence behaviour in the absence of avian brood parasitism  

PubMed Central

The fate of host defensive behaviour in the absence of selection from brood parasitism is critical to long-term host–parasite coevolution. We investigated whether New World Bohemian waxwings Bombycilla garrulus that are allopatric from brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater and common cuckoo Cuculus canorus parasitism have retained egg rejection behaviour. We found that egg rejection was expressed by 100 per cent of Bohemian waxwings. Our phylogeny revealed that Bohemian and Japanese waxwings Bombycilla japonica were sister taxa, and this clade was sister to the cedar waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum. In addition, there was support for a split between Old and New World Bohemian waxwings. Our molecular clock estimates suggest that egg rejection may have been retained for 2.8–3.0 Myr since New World Bohemian waxwings inherited it from their common ancestor with the rejecter cedar waxwings. These results support the ‘single trajectory’ model of host–brood parasite coevolution that once hosts evolve defences, they are retained, forcing parasites to become more specialized over time. PMID:21493623

Peer, Brian D.; Kuehn, Michael J.; Rothstein, Stephen I.; Fleischer, Robert C.

2011-01-01

332

Persistence of host defence behaviour in the absence of avian brood parasitism.  

PubMed

The fate of host defensive behaviour in the absence of selection from brood parasitism is critical to long-term host-parasite coevolution. We investigated whether New World Bohemian waxwings Bombycilla garrulus that are allopatric from brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater and common cuckoo Cuculus canorus parasitism have retained egg rejection behaviour. We found that egg rejection was expressed by 100 per cent of Bohemian waxwings. Our phylogeny revealed that Bohemian and Japanese waxwings Bombycilla japonica were sister taxa, and this clade was sister to the cedar waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum. In addition, there was support for a split between Old and New World Bohemian waxwings. Our molecular clock estimates suggest that egg rejection may have been retained for 2.8-3.0 Myr since New World Bohemian waxwings inherited it from their common ancestor with the rejecter cedar waxwings. These results support the 'single trajectory' model of host-brood parasite coevolution that once hosts evolve defences, they are retained, forcing parasites to become more specialized over time. PMID:21493623

Peer, Brian D; Kuehn, Michael J; Rothstein, Stephen I; Fleischer, Robert C

2011-10-23

333

Parasites as biological tags to assess host population structure: Guidelines, recent genetic advances and comments on a holistic approach?  

PubMed Central

We review the use of parasites as biological tags of marine fishes and cephalopods in host population structure studies. The majority of the work published has focused on marine fish and either single parasite species or more recently, whole parasite assemblages, as biological tags. There is representation of host organisms and parasites from a diverse range of taxonomic groups, although focus has primarily been on host species of commercial importance. In contrast, few studies have used parasites as tags to assess cephalopod population structure, even though records of parasites infecting cephalopods are well-documented. Squid species are the only cephalopod hosts for which parasites as biological tags have been applied, with anisakid nematode larvae and metacestodes being the parasite taxa most frequently used. Following a brief insight into the importance of accurate parasite identification, the population studies that have used parasites as biological tags for marine fishes and cephalopods are reviewed, including comments on the dicyemid mesozoans. The advancement of molecular genetic techniques is discussed in regards to the new ways parasite genetic data can be incorporated into population structure studies, alongside host population genetic analyses, followed by an update on the guidelines for selecting a parasite species as a reliable tag candidate. As multiple techniques and methods can be used to assess the population structure of marine organisms (e.g. artificial tags, phenotypic characters, biometrics, life history, genetics, otolith microchemistry and parasitological data), we conclude by commenting on a holistic approach to allow for a deeper insight into population structuring. PMID:25197624

Catalano, Sarah R.; Whittington, Ian D.; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.

2013-01-01

334

Lower Begging Responsiveness of Host Versus Parasitic Brown-Headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) Nestlings Is Related to Species Identity but Not to Early Social Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of young brood parasites depends critically on their many adaptations to exploit hosts. Parasitic survival is particularly related to competitive superiority for foster parental care whenever host young are not destroyed in parasitized nests. Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) are generalist obligate parasites whose early social environments are unpredictable regarding host species and numbers of estmates. Young avian brood

Mark E. Hauber

2003-01-01

335

Ample genetic variation but no evidence for genotype specificity in an all-parthenogenetic host-parasitoid interaction.  

PubMed

Antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites can result in negative frequency-dependent selection and may thus be an important mechanism maintaining genetic variation in populations. Negative frequency-dependence emerges readily if interactions between hosts and parasites are genotype-specific such that no host genotype is most resistant to all parasite genotypes, and no parasite genotype is most infective on all hosts. Although there is increasing evidence for genotype specificity in interactions between hosts and pathogens or microparasites, the picture is less clear for insect host-parasitoid interactions. Here, we addressed this question in the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) and its most important parasitoid Lysiphlebus fabarum. Because both antagonists are capable of parthenogenetic reproduction, this system allows for powerful tests of genotype x genotype interactions. Our test consisted of exposing multiple host clones to different parthenogenetic lines of parasitoids in all combinations, and this experiment was repeated with animals from four different sites. All aphids were free of endosymbiotic bacteria known to increase resistance to parasitoids. We observed ample genetic variation for host resistance and parasitoid infectivity, but there was no significant host clone x parasitoid line interaction, and this result was consistent across the four sites. Thus, there is no evidence for genotype specificity in the interaction between A. fabae and L. fabarum, suggesting that the observed variation is based on rather general mechanisms of defence and attack. PMID:20074305

Sandrock, C; Gouskov, A; Vorburger, C

2010-03-01

336

Epigenetic modifications underlying symbiont-host interactions.  

PubMed

The development, existence, and functioning of numerous animals and plants depend on their symbiotic interactions with other organisms, mainly microorganisms. In return, the symbionts benefit from safe habitats and nutrient-rich environments provided by their hosts. In these interactions, genetic changes in either of the partners may provide fitness advantages and become subjects to natural selection. Recent findings suggest that epigenetic changes, heritable or within the organism's life time, in either of the partners play significant roles in the establishment of symbiotic relationships. In this review, a variety of epigenetic effects underlying the most common host-symbiont interactions will be examined to determine to what extent these effects are shared in various interactions and how the epigenetic pathways could possibly be manipulated to benefit the interacting symbionts. PMID:25172352

Asgari, Sassan

2014-01-01

337

[Host age and structure of the component communities of parasites in river minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.)].  

PubMed

Species composition and structure of the communities of fish parasites in river minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.) from the Pechora river were investigated in two of the Pechora-Ilychsky Biosphere Nature Reserve, Komi Republic. The component communities of the parasites in river minnow are shown to have a one-year cycle including the states of development, completion, and destruction. Communities in the state of development are characterized by a low variety of species, low values of Shannon index, often high values of domination index, presence of only two groups of parasites in the structure described by variational curved of the conditional biomasses of species, deviation of the conditional biomasses of species from the linear regression, and sum of errors of the regression equations lower a threshold value. The communities consist of young individual parasites and their larval stages. Completed community is characterized by the following properties. There are three groups of parasites, differing in allometric index, in the structure, discerned by the ratio of conditional biomasses of the species included. Conditional biomasses of species in ecologically safe reservoirs lie on the segments of straight lines. Species variety reaches its maximum. Species are presented mainly by mature specimens and larval stages of the parasites using fish as intermediate host. Community in the state of destruction shows low values of domination index and relatively small variety pf species. Such community is consist of one or two groups of species, which are represented by mature, oviparous, and dying individuals. There are larval stages of parasites using fish as intermediate hosts. Dominant species or species groups, as well as values of indexes describing the component communities of parasites, can be different in mature river minnow from different geographical regions. However, the number of groups of parasites, formed by the ratio of conditional biomasses, remains constant, and sum of errors of the regression equations characterizing the communities is always below 0.25. Component communities of parasites in young river minnows differ from the communities in mature fishes by lower variety of species. Lower biomass, and lower number of individual parasites. The communities of parasites in 0+ old fishes are often characterized by lesser number of groups of parasites, classified by the ratio of their biomasses, and presence of two dominate species. It is often impossible to count the sum of errors of the regression equations describing spread in values of biomasses of the species forming the community. PMID:17957956

Dorovskikh, G N; Stepanov, V G

2007-01-01

338

Medicinal parasitic plants on diverse hosts with their usages and barcodes.  

PubMed

Medicinal properties of parasitic plants were investigated by means of ethnobotanical study in some areas of northeastern Thailand. Important traditional usages are: Scurrula atropurpurea nourishes blood, Dendrophthoe pentandra decreases high blood pressure, and Helixanthera parasitica treats liver disease. Their systematics were also determined. The research is based on findings obtained from 100 parasite-host pairs. Of these, eight parasitic species were recorded; they are members of two families, viz. family Loranthaceae, namely D. lanosa, D. pentandra, H. parasitica, Macrosolen brandisianus, M. cochinchinensis and S. atropurpurea, and family Viscaceae, namely Viscum articulatum and V. ovalifolium. In addition, each parasitic species is found on diverse hosts, indicating non-host-parasitic specificity. Species-specific tagging of all species studied was carried out using the rbcL and psbA-trnH chloroplast regions. These tag sequences are submitted to GenBank databases under accession numbers JN687563-JN687578. Genetic distances calculated from nucleotide variations in a couple of species of each genus, Dendrophthoe, Macrosolen, and Viscum, were 0.032, 0.067 and 0.036 in the rbcL region, and 0.269, 0.073 and 0.264 in the psbA-trnH spacer region, respectively. These variations will be used for further identification of incomplete plant parts or other forms such as capsule, powder, dried or chopped pieces. PMID:22864809

Kwanda, Nantiya; Noikotr, Kowit; Sudmoon, Runglawan; Tanee, Tawatchai; Chaveerach, Arunrat

2013-07-01

339

Proteomics and Glycomics Analyses of N-Glycosylated Structures Involved in Toxoplasma gondii-Host Cell Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii recog- nizes, binds, and penetrates virtually any kind of mamma- lian cell using a repertoire of proteins released from late secretory organelles and a unique form of gliding motility (also named glideosome) that critically depends on actin filaments and myosin. How T. gondii glycosylated proteins mediate host-parasite interactions remains elusive. To date, only limited evidence

Sylvain Fauquenoy; Willy Morelle; Agnes Hovasse; Audrey Bednarczyk; Christian Slomianny; Christine Schaeffer; Alain Van Dorsselaer; Stanislas Tomavo

2008-01-01

340

Cross-species translocation of mRNA from host plants into the parasitic plant dodder.  

PubMed

An intriguing new paradigm in plant biology is that systemically mobile mRNAs play a role in coordinating development. In this process, specific mRNAs are loaded into the phloem transport stream for translocation to distant tissues, where they may impact on developmental processes. However, despite its potential significance for plant growth regulation, mRNA trafficking remains poorly understood and challenging to study. Here, we show that phloem-mobile mRNAs can also traffic between widely divergent species from a host to the plant parasite lespedeza dodder (Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and microarray analysis were used to detect specific tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) transcripts in dodder grown on tomato that were not present in control dodder grown on other host species. Foreign transcripts included LeGAI, which has previously been shown to be translocated in the phloem, as well as nine other transcripts not reported to be mobile. Dodders are parasitic plants that obtain resources by drawing from the phloem of a host plant and have joint plasmodesmata with host cortical cells. Although viruses are known to move between dodder and its hosts, translocation of endogenous plant mRNA has not been reported. These results point to a potentially new level of interspecies communication, and raise questions about the ability of parasites to recognize, use, and respond to transcripts acquired from their hosts. PMID:17189329

Roney, Jeannine K; Khatibi, Piyum A; Westwood, James H

2007-02-01

341

Host ploidy, parasitism and immune defence in a coevolutionary snail-trematode system.  

PubMed

We studied the role of host ploidy and parasite exposure on immune defence allocation in a snail-trematode system (Potamopyrgus antipodarum-Microphallus sp.). In the field, haemocyte (the defence cell) concentration was lowest in deep-water habitats where infection is relatively low and highest in shallow-water habitats where infection is common. Because the frequency of asexual triploid snails is positively correlated with depth, we also experimentally studied the role of ploidy by exposing both diploid sexual and triploid asexual snails to Microphallus eggs. We found that triploid snails had lower haemocyte concentrations than did diploids in both parasite-addition and parasite-free treatments. We also found that both triploids and diploids increased their numbers of large granular haemocytes at similar rates after parasite exposure. Because triploid P. antipodarum have been shown to be more resistant to allopatric parasites than diploids, the current results suggest that the increased resistance of triploids is because of intrinsic genetic properties rather than to greater allocation to defence cells. This finding is consistent with recent theory on the advantages of increased ploidy for hosts combating coevolving parasites. PMID:16405575

Osnas, E E; Lively, C M

2006-01-01

342

Analysis of Host-Parasite Incongruence in Papillomavirus Evolution Using Importance Sampling  

PubMed Central

The papillomaviruses (PVs) are a family of viruses infecting several mammalian and nonmammalian species that cause cervical cancer in humans. The evolutionary history of the PVs as it associated with a wide range of host species is not well understood. Incongruities between the phylogenetic trees of various viral genes as well as between these genes and the host phylogenies suggest historical viral recombination as well as violations of strict virus–host cospeciation. The extent of recombination events among PVs is uncertain, however, and there is little evidence to support a theory of PV spread via recent host transfers. We have investigated incongruence between PV genes and hence, the possibility of recombination, using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. We find significant evidence for phylogenetic incongruence among the six PV genes E1, E2, E6, E7, L1, and L2, indicating substantial recombination. Analysis of E1 and L1 phylogenies suggests ancestral recombination events. We also describe a new method for examining alternative host–parasite association mechanisms by applying importance sampling to Bayesian divergence time estimation. This new approach is not restricted by a fixed viral tree topology or knowledge of viral divergence times, multiple parasite taxa per host may be included, and it can distinguish between prior divergence of the virus before host speciation and host transfer of the virus following speciation. Using this method, we find prior divergence of PV lineages associated with the ancestral mammalian host resulting in at least 6 PV lineages prior to speciation of this host. These PV lineages have then followed paths of prior divergence and cospeciation to eventually become associated with the extant host species. Only one significant instance of host transfer is supported, the transfer of the ancestral L1 gene between a Primate and Hystricognathi host based on the divergence times between the ? human type 41 and porcupine PVs. PMID:20093429

Shah, Seena D.; Doorbar, John; Goldstein, Richard A.

2010-01-01

343

Host-Pathogen Interactions 1  

PubMed Central

The biochemical basis for the ability of the pterocarpan phytoalexin glycinol (3,6a,9-trihydroxypterocarpan) to inhibit the growth of bacteria was examined. Glycinol at bacteriostatic concentrations (e.g. 50 micrograms per milliliter) inhibits the ability of Erwinia carotovora to incorporate [3H]leucine, [3H]thymidine, or [3H]uridine into biopolymers. Exposure of Escherichia coli membrane vesicles to glycinol at 20 micrograms per milliliter results in inhibition of respiration-linked transport of [14C]lactose and [14C]glycine into the vesicles when either d-lactate or succinate is supplied as the energy source. The ability of E. coli membrane vesicles to transport [14C]?-methyl glucoside, a vectorial phosphorylation-mediated process, is also inhibited by glycinol at 20 micrograms per milliliter. Furthermore, exposure of membrane vesicles to glycinol (50 micrograms per milliliter) at 20°C results in the leakage of accumulated [14C]?-methyl glucoside-6-phosphate. The effects of the phytoalexins glyceollin, capsidiol, and coumestrol, and daidzein, a compound structurally related to glycinol but without antibiotic activity, upon the E. coli membrane vesicle respiration-linked transport of [14C]glycine and of [14C]?-methyl glucoside was also examined. Glyceollin and coumestrol (50 micrograms per milliliter), but not daidzein, inhibit both membrane-associated transport processes. These data imply that the antimicrobial activity of glycinol, glyceollin, and coumestrol are due to a general interaction with the bacterial membrane. Capsidiol (50 micrograms per milliliter) inhibits d-lactate-dependent transport of [14C]glycine but not vectorial phosphorylation-mediated transport of [14C]?-methyl glucoside. Thus, capsidiol's mechanism of antimicrobial action seems to differ from that of the other phytoalexins examined. PMID:16663042

Weinstein, Lawrence I.; Albersheim, Peter

1983-01-01

344

Stability of within-host–parasite communities in a wild mammal system  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous infection by multiple parasite species is ubiquitous in nature. Interactions among co-infecting parasites may have important consequences for disease severity, transmission and community-level responses to perturbations. However, our current view of parasite interactions in nature comes primarily from observational studies, which may be unreliable at detecting interactions. We performed a perturbation experiment in wild mice, by using an anthelminthic to suppress nematodes, and monitored the consequences for other parasite species. Overall, these parasite communities were remarkably stable to perturbation. Only one non-target parasite species responded to deworming, and this response was temporary: we found strong, but short-lived, increases in the abundance of Eimeria protozoa, which share an infection site with the dominant nematode species, suggesting local, dynamic competition. These results, providing a rare and clear experimental demonstration of interactions between helminths and co-infecting parasites in wild vertebrates, constitute an important step towards understanding the wider consequences of similar drug treatments in humans and animals. PMID:23677343

Knowles, Sarah C. L.; Fenton, Andy; Petchey, Owen L.; Jones, Trevor R.; Barber, Rebecca; Pedersen, Amy B.

2013-01-01

345

Parasitism of Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) by a pupal endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae): effects of parasitization and venom on host hemocytes.  

PubMed

In contrast to the situation with egg-larval and larval endoparasitic wasps, little is known about the effects of pupal endoparasitoids and their secretions on the hemocytes of their insect hosts. This study focuses on the pupal endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum, and its host, the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae. Parasitism by P. puparum, resulted in a significant increase in the total number of host hemocytes up to day five after parasitization. From day one to day four after parasitization, the percentage of plasmatocytes significantly decreased, and the proportion of granular cells increased. Moreover, from 12 h to day three after parasitization, hemocyte mortality in parasitized pupae was noticeably higher. When P. rapae pupae were parasitized by adult females of P. puparum irradiated by gamma-ray (pseudoparasitization), it was clear that the treated wasps could induce similar hemocyte changes. However, such phenomena did not occur in punctured host pupae (mimic-parasitization). After treatment with P. puparum venom, both the percentages of spreading plasmatocytes and encapsulated Sephadex G-25 beads were lessened significantly in vitro. Electron microscopy analysis and visualization of hemocyte F-actin with phalloidin-FITC showed that hemocytes treated with venom had a rounded configuration and neither spread nor extended pseudopods, while there was no marked alteration of hemocyte cytoskeletons after venom treatment. The results suggested that venom of P. puparum could actively suppress the hemocyte immune response of its host, but not by destroying the host hemocyte cytoskeleton. PMID:15081824

Cai, Jun; Ye, Gong-yin; Hu, Cui

2004-04-01

346

OCCURRENCE OF HELMINTH PARASITES IN AVIAN HOSTS FROM SOUTH BASS ISLAND, OHIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necropsy of specimens of 10 species of birds from South Bass Island, Ottawa County, Ohio, yielded 15 species of helminth parasites. New host and geographic records resulting from this study include Brachylaemus euphonae from the Cedar Waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum; Apophallus brevis and Tetrameres crami from the Sora Rail, Porzana Carolina; and Paruterina reynoldsi from the Slate-colored Junco, Junco h. hyemalis.

C. LAWRENCE COOPER

347

Lack of molluscan host diversity and the transmission of an emerging parasitic disease in Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fasciolosis is a re-emerging parasitic disease that affects an increasing number of people in developing countries. The most severe endemic affects the Bolivian Altiplano, where the liver fluke ( Fasciola hepatica ) and its hermaphroditic snail host, Lymnaea truncatula, have been introduced from Europe. To achieve a better understanding of the epidemiological situation and the consequences of the colonization event

C. Meunier; S. Hurtrez-Bousses; P. Durand; M. D. Bargues; S. Mas-Coma; J. P. Pointier; J. Jourdane; F. Renaud

2001-01-01

348

Host preference and specialization in Gnathia sp., a common parasitic isopod of coral reef fishes  

E-print Network

ectoparasites of coral reef fishes) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, was allowed to choose among fishes Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and nearby Queensland coast have been described (Holdich & Harrison, 1980Host preference and specialization in Gnathia sp., a common parasitic isopod of coral reef fishes L

Grutter, Alexandra "Lexa"

349

Host Longevity and Parasite Species Richness in Natalie Cooper1,2,3  

E-print Network

co-evolve, with each lineage exerting selective pressures on the other. Thus, parasites may influence may show a positive association. We tested these two opposing predictions in carnivores, primates effects of sampling effort and body mass. We also tested whether increased host longevity is associated

Nunn, Charles

350

Spatio-temporal dynamics of bumblebee nest parasites (Bombus subgenus Psythirus ssp.) and their hosts  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal dynamics of bumblebee nest parasites (Bombus subgenus Psythirus ssp Summary 1. A 39-year bumblebee data base was used to study the codistribution of six cuckoo bumblebees in the subgenus Psythirus of Bombus (hereafter called Psythirus) and their free-living bumblebee hosts

Antonovics, Janis

351

Transmission ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis: What are the ranges of parasite stability among various host communities in China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A striking feature of the transmission ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis in China is the diversity of hosts that contribute to the parasite cycle. Considering the population dynamics of key reservoir intermediate hosts and the ratio of their preferred habitat in a landscape (ROMPA) is essential to understanding transmission, but the numerous communities in which the parasite cycles and the extent

Patrick Giraudoux; David Pleydell; Francis Raoul; Jean-Pierre Quéré; Qian Wang; Yurong Yang; Dominique A. Vuitton; Jiamen Qiu; Wen Yang; Philip S. Craig

2006-01-01

352

Parasite-induced changes in nitrogen isotope signatures of host tissues.  

PubMed

To estimate isotopic changes caused by trematode parasites within a host, we investigated changes in the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis infected by trematode larvae. We measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes within the foot, gonad, and hepatopancreas of both infected and uninfected snails. There was no significant difference in the delta13C and delta15N values of foot and gonad between infected and uninfected snails; thus, trematode parasite infections may not cause changes in snail diets. However, in the hepatopancreas, delta15N values were significantly higher in infected than in uninfected snails. The 15N enrichment in the hepatopancreas of infected snails is caused by the higher 15N ratio in parasite tissues. Using an isotope-mixing model, we roughly estimated that the parasites in the hepatopancreas represented from 0.8 to 3.4% of the total snail biomass, including the shell. PMID:18372654

Doi, Hideyuki; Yurlova, Natalia I; Vodyanitskaya, Svetlana N; Kikuchi, Eisuke; Shikano, Shuichi; Yadrenkina, Elena N; Zuykova, Elena I

2008-02-01

353

Prediction of HIV1 virus-host protein interactions using virus and host sequence motifs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Host protein-protein interaction networks are altered by invading virus proteins, which create new interactions, and modify or destroy others. The resulting network topology favors excessive amounts of virus production in a stressed host cell network. Short linear peptide motifs common to both virus and host provide the basis for host network modification. METHODS: We focused our host-pathogen study on

Perry Evans; William Dampier; Lyle Ungar; Aydin Tozeren

2009-01-01

354

Thermal biology in insect-parasite interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, several applied studies exploring the use of pathogens for insect biocontrol have demonstrated significant effects of environmental temperature on the outcome of infection. For example, host resistance, host recovery, pathogen virulence and replication can alter considerably with sometimes very small changes in temperature. Moreover, the effectiveness of certain insect parasitoids and the activity of endosymbionts can vary across the

Matthew B. Thomas; Simon Blanford

2003-01-01

355

Cross-species infection trials reveal cryptic parasite varieties and a putative polymorphism shared among host species.  

PubMed

A parasite's host range can have important consequences for ecological and evolutionary processes but can be difficult to infer. Successful infection depends on the outcome of multiple steps and only some steps of the infection process may be critical in determining a parasites host range. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the host range of the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa, a Daphnia parasite, and determined the parasites success in different stages of the infection process. Multiple genotypes of Daphnia pulex, Daphnia longispina and Daphnia magna were tested with four Pasteuria genotypes using infection trials and an assay that determines the ability of the parasite to attach to the hosts esophagus. We find that attachment is not specific to host species but is specific to host genotype. This may suggest that alleles on the locus controlling attachment are shared among different host species that diverged 100 million year. However, in our trials, Pasteuria was never able to reproduce in nonnative host species, suggesting that Pasteuria infecting different host species are different varieties, each with a narrow host range. Our approach highlights the explanatory power of dissecting the steps of the infection process and resolves potentially conflicting reports on parasite host ranges. PMID:24116675

Luijckx, Pepijn; Duneau, David; Andras, Jason P; Ebert, Dieter

2014-02-01

356

Host-plant genotypic diversity and community genetic interactions mediate aphid spatial distribution  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation in plants can influence the community structure of associated species, through both direct and indirect interactions. Herbivorous insects are known to feed on a restricted range of plants, and herbivore preference and performance can vary among host plants within a species due to genetically based traits of the plant (e.g., defensive compounds). In a natural system, we expect to find genetic variation within both plant and herbivore communities and we expect this variation to influence species interactions. Using a three-species plant-aphid model system, we investigated the effect of genetic diversity on genetic interactions among the community members. Our system involved a host plant (Hordeum vulgare) that was shared by an aphid (Sitobion avenae) and a hemi-parasitic plant (Rhinanthus minor). We showed that aphids cluster more tightly in a genetically diverse host-plant community than in a genetic monoculture, with host-plant genetic diversity explaining up to 24% of the variation in aphid distribution. This is driven by differing preferences of the aphids to the different plant genotypes and their resulting performance on these plants. Within the two host-plant diversity levels, aphid spatial distribution was influenced by an interaction among the aphid's own genotype, the genotype of a competing aphid, the origin of the parasitic plant population, and the host-plant genotype. Thus, the overall outcome involves both direct (i.e., host plant to aphid) and indirect (i.e., parasitic plant to aphid) interactions across all these species. These results show that a complex genetic environment influences the distribution of herbivores among host plants. Thus, in genetically diverse systems, interspecific genetic interactions between the host plant and herbivore can influence the population dynamics of the system and could also structure local communities. We suggest that direct and indirect genotypic interactions among species can influence community structure and processes. PMID:24558568

Zytynska, Sharon E; Frantz, Laurent; Hurst, Ben; Johnson, Andrew; Preziosi, Richard F; Rowntree, Jennifer K