Science.gov

Sample records for hot plasma application

  1. Saturn's Hot Plasma Explosions

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation based on data obtained by NASA's Cassini Spacecraft shows how the "explosions" of hot plasma on the night side (orange and white) periodically inflate Saturn's magnetic field (white ...

  2. Kinetic Theory in Hot Plasmas and Neutral Gases Applications to the Computation of the transport coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Bendib, A.

    2008-09-23

    The conference is devoted to the study of systems consisting of a large number of particles by using the kinetic theory. In a first part, we present a general overview of the kinetic theory. In particular, the role of the correlations between particles is shown and discussed through the main models reported in the literature. In a second part, we present three applications to the transport properties in plasmas and neutral gases. The first application is devoted to the transport in hot plasmas perturbed with respect to the global equilibrium. The quasi-static and collisionless distribution function and transport coefficients are established. The influence of relativistic effects is also discussed. The second application deals with strongly inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas. The transport coefficients of Braginskii are calculated numerically in the local and the weakly nonlocal approximations. New nonlocal transport coefficients are emphasized. Finally, we apply the kinetic theory to the neutral gases by calculating the semi-collisional dispersion relation of acoustic waves. In particular, the dispersion and the damping of these waves in rarefied gases are highlighted. The method used to solve the kinetic equations is compared with the conventional method of Chapman-Enskog.

  3. The O VII soft X-ray spectrum and its application to hot plasmas in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, A. H.; Bely-Dubau, F.; Faucher, P.; Acton, L. W.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a revised theory and atomic model for the line intensities emitted by O VII, taking into account all of the processes responsible for the emission. This is used to provide a revision of the density measurements made for solar active regions and during flares, as well as an attempt to understand the spectrum of the Puppis A supernova remnant. In order to explain the strange intensity ratios observed from Puppis A, previous authors have proposed an interpretation based upon a high-temperature thermal plasma in a nonequilibrium ionization state. An alternative model is presented here, based upon the assumed presence of a proportion of fast, nonthermal electrons imbedded in an otherwise thermal plasma at a temperature below 10 to the 6th K. This can adequately explain the observations without the necessity of invoking departures from the ionization balance.

  4. Plasmas are Hot and Fusion is Cool

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Plasmas are Hot and Fusion is Cold. The DOE Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) collaborates to develop fusion as a safe, clean and abundant energy source for the future. This video discusses PPPL's research and development on plasma, the fourth state of matter.

  5. Extended application of Kohn-Sham first-principles molecular dynamics method with plane wave approximation at high energy—From cold materials to hot dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shen; Wang, Hongwei; Kang, Wei; Zhang, Ping; He, X. T.

    2016-04-01

    An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of electronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of mixtures of plasmas composed of heterogeneous ions, high-Z dense plasmas, lowering of ionization potentials, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, and opacities, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.

  6. Microscale Effects from Global Hot Plasma Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Fok, M.-C.; Perez, J. D.; Keady, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    We have used a three-dimensional model of recovery phase storm hot plasmas to explore the signatures of pitch angle distributions (PADS) in global fast atom imagery of the magnetosphere. The model computes mass, energy, and position-dependent PADs based on drift effects, charge exchange losses, and Coulomb drag. The hot plasma PAD strongly influences both the storm current system carried by the hot plasma and its time evolution. In turn, the PAD is strongly influenced by plasma waves through pitch angle diffusion, a microscale effect. We report the first simulated neutral atom images that account for anisotropic PADs within the hot plasma. They exhibit spatial distribution features that correspond directly to the PADs along the lines of sight. We investigate the use of image brightness distributions along tangent-shell field lines to infer equatorial PADS. In tangent-shell regions with minimal spatial gradients, reasonably accurate PADs are inferred from simulated images. They demonstrate the importance of modeling PADs for image inversion and show that comparisons of models with real storm plasma images will reveal the global effects of these microscale processes.

  7. Plasma deposited rider rings for hot displacer

    DOEpatents

    Kroebig, Helmut L.

    1976-01-01

    A hot cylinder for a cryogenic refrigerator having two plasma spray deposited rider rings of a corrosion and abrasion resistant material provided in the rider ring grooves, wherein the rider rings are machined to the desired diameter and width after deposition. The rider rings have gas flow flats machined on their outer surface.

  8. Whistler Solitons in Plasma with Anisotropic Hot Electron Admixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Gallagher, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    The longitudinal and transverse modulation instability of whistler waves in plasma, with a small admixture of hot anisotropic electrons, is discussed. If the hot particles temperature anisotropy is positive, it is found that, in such plasma, longitudinal perturbations can lead to soliton formation for frequencies forbidden in cold plasma. The soliton is enriched by hot particles. The frequency region unstable to transverse modulation in cold plasma in the presence of hot electrons is divided by stable domains. For both cases the role of hot electrons is more significant for whistlers with smaller frequencies.

  9. Emission lines from hot astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, John C.

    The spectral lines which dominate the X-ray emission of hot, optically thin astrophysical plasmas reflect the elemental abundances, temperature distribution, and other physical parameters of the emitting gas. The accuracy and level of detail with which these parameters can be inferred are limited by the measurement uncertainties and uncertainties in atomic rates used to compute the model spectrum. This paper discusses the relative importance and the likely uncertainties in the various atomic rates and the likely uncertainties in the overall ionization balance and spectral line emissivities predicted by the computer codes currently used to fit X-ray spectral data.

  10. The hot plasma spectrometers on Freja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, O.; Eliasson, L.

    1991-11-01

    The hot plasma instrumentation F3H on the Swedish-German Freja satellite due for launch in 1992 will consist of electron and ion spectrometers. The spectrometer Magnetic imaging Two dimensional Electron (MATE) will measure the two dimensional electron distribution in the spin plane in the energy range 0.1 to 120 keV. The ion mass spectrometer Three dimensional Ion Composition Spectrometer (TICS) measures a full three dimensional distribution in the energy range 0.5 to 15000 eV/q with high mass resolution. The instruments use a particle 'imaging' detector technique based on a large diameter microchannel plate with position sensitive anode. The topics to be studied with the Freja hot plasma spectrometers include auroral particle acceleration, heating and acceleration of ionospheric ions, and the dynamics of auroral arc systems. Of special importance to the scientific objectives is the high data rate from the Freja instrumentation, the MATE and TICS spectrometers will be sampled every 10 ms, corresponding to a spatial resolution better than 70 m at ionospheric heights. The design, simulation, and calibration of the spectrometers are discussed.

  11. Flute-interchange stability in a hot electron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Several topics in the kinetic stability theory of flute-interchange modes in a hot electron plasma are discussed. The stability analysis of the hot-electron, curvature-driven flute-interchange mode, previously performed in a slab geometry, is extended to a cylindrical plasma. The cold electron concentration necessary for stability differs substantially from previous criteria. The inclusion of a finite temperature background plasma in the stability analysis results in an ion curvature-driven flute-interchange mode which may be stabilized by either hot-electron diamagnetic effects, hot-electron plasma density, or finite (ion) Larmor radius effects.

  12. Cold ions in the hot plasma sheet of Earth's magnetotail.

    PubMed

    Seki, Kanako; Hirahara, Masafumi; Hoshino, Masahiro; Terasawa, Toshio; Elphic, Richard C; Saito, Yoshifumi; Mukai, Toshifumi; Hayakawa, Hajime; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2003-04-10

    Most visible matter in the Universe exists as plasma. How this plasma is heated, and especially how the initial non-equilibrium plasma distributions relax to thermal equilibrium (as predicted by Maxwell-Boltzman statistics), is a fundamental question in studies of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. Astrophysical plasmas are often so tenuous that binary collisions can be ignored, and it is not clear how thermal equilibrium develops for these 'collisionless' plasmas. One example of a collisionless plasma is the Earth's plasma sheet, where thermalized hot plasma with ion temperatures of about 5 x 10(7) K has been observed. Here we report direct observations of a plasma distribution function during a solar eclipse, revealing cold ions in the Earth's plasma sheet in coexistence with thermalized hot ions. This cold component cannot be detected by plasma sensors on satellites that are positively charged in sunlight, but our observations in the Earth's shadow show that the density of the cold ions is comparable to that of hot ions. This high density is difficult to explain within existing theories, as it requires a mechanism that permits half of the source plasma to remain cold upon entry into the hot turbulent plasma sheet. PMID:12686993

  13. The ion acoustic decay instability, and anomalous laser light absorption for the OMEGA upgrade, large scale hot plasma application to a critical surface diagnostic, and instability at the quarter critical density. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Seka, W.

    1996-11-01

    It is shown that laser light can be anomalously absorbed with a moderate intensity laster (I{lambda}{sup 2}{approx}10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}-{mu}m{sup 2}) in a large scale, laser produced plasma. The heating regime, which is characterized by a relatively weak instability in a large region, is different from the regime studied previously, which is characterized by a strong instability in a narrow region. The two dimensional geometrical effect (lateral heating) has an important consequence on the anomalous electron heating. The characteristics of the IADI, and the anomalous absorption of the laser light were studied in a large scale, hot plasma applicable to OMEGA upgrade plasma. These results are important for the diagnostic application of the IADI.

  14. Are Spicules the Primary Source of Hot Coronal Plasma?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The recent discovery of Type II spicules has generated considerable excitement. It has even been suggested that these ejections can account for a majority of the hot plasma observed in the corona, thus obviating the need for "coronal" heating. If this is the case, however, then there should be observational consequences. We have begun to examine some of these consequences and find reason to question the idea that spicules are the primary source of hot coronal plasma.

  15. Ponderomotive Acceleration of Hot Electrons in Tenuous Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    V. I. Geyko; Fraiman, G. M.; Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-02-01

    The oscillation-center Hamiltonian is derived for a relativistic electron injected with an arbitrary momentum in a linearly polarized laser pulse propagating in tenuous plasma, assuming that the pulse length is smaller than the plasma wavelength. For hot electrons generated at collisions with ions under intense laser drive, multiple regimes of ponderomotive acceleration are identified and the laser dispersion is shown to affect the process at plasma densities down to 1017 cm-3. Assuming a/Υg << 1, which prevents net acceleration of the cold plasma, it is also shown that the normalized energy Υ of hot electrons accelerated from the initial energy Υo < , Γ does not exceed Γ ~ aΥg, where a is the normalized laser field, and Υg is the group velocity Lorentz factor. Yet Υ ~ Γ is attained within a wide range of initial conditions; hence a cutoff in the hot electron distribution is predicted.

  16. Hot spots and dark current in advanced plasma wakefield accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manahan, G. G.; Deng, A.; Karger, O.; Xi, Y.; Knetsch, A.; Litos, M.; Wittig, G.; Heinemann, T.; Smith, J.; Sheng, Z. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Andonian, G.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Hidding, B.

    2016-01-01

    Dark current can spoil witness bunch beam quality and acceleration efficiency in particle beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators. In advanced schemes, hot spots generated by the drive beam or the wakefield can release electrons from higher ionization threshold levels in the plasma media. These electrons may be trapped inside the plasma wake and will then accumulate dark current, which is generally detrimental for a clear and unspoiled plasma acceleration process. Strategies for generating clean and robust, dark current free plasma wake cavities are devised and analyzed, and crucial aspects for experimental realization of such optimized scenarios are discussed.

  17. The ion acoustic decay instability in a large scale, hot plasma relevant to direct drive laser fusion -- Application to a critical surface diagnostic. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Drake, R.P.; Seka, W.; Craxton, R.S.; Estabrook, K.G.

    1996-08-01

    The authors have studied the ion acoustic decay instability in a large ({approximately} 1 mm) scale, hot ({approximately} 1 keV) plasma, which is relevant to a laser fusion reactor target. They have shown that the instability threshold is low. They have developed a novel collective Thomson scattering diagnostic at a 90{degree} scattering angle. The scattering is nonetheless coherent, because of the modest ratio of the frequency of the probe laser to that of the pump laser, such that even for such a large angle, (k{lambda}{sub De}){sup 2} is much less than one. With this system they have measured the electron plasma wave excited by the ion acoustic decay instability near the critical density (n{sub e} {approximately} 0.86 n{sub c}). This allows them to use the frequency of the detected wave to measure the electron temperature in the interaction region, obtaining a result reasonably close to that predicted by the SAGE computer code.

  18. Laser hosing in relativistically hot plasmas.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Mori, W B; Ren, C

    2013-04-12

    Electron response in an intense laser is studied in the regime where the electron temperature is relativistic. Equations for laser envelope and plasma density evolution, both in the electron plasma wave and ion acoustic wave regimes, are rederived from the relativistic fluid equations to include relativistic plasma temperature effect. These equations are used to study short-pulse and long-pulse laser hosing instabilities using a variational method approach. The analysis shows that relativistic electron temperatures reduce the hosing growth rates and shift the fastest-growing modes to longer wavelengths. These results resolve a long-standing discrepancy between previous nonrelativistic theory and simulations or experiments on hosing. PMID:25167277

  19. Flute vortices in a plasma with hot particles

    SciTech Connect

    Andrushchenko, Zh.N.; Pavlenko, V.P.; Cheremnykh, O.K.

    1992-01-01

    Flute perturbations in a plasma with {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} are considered. Steady-state solutions are found which describe localized vortex structures. Two types of vortex solutions are considered: a dipolar vortex and a combination of a dipolar and a monopolar vortex. It is shown that the presence of {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} particles has an effect on the region in which the vortex solutions exist in velocity space, which can give rise to a change in the particle flux leaving the plasma due to eddy convection. It is shown that the perturbed density profile in flute vortices must be nonmonotonic. 10 refs.

  20. Ion distribution in the hot spot of an inertial confinement fusion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xianzhu; Guo, Zehua; Berk, Herb

    2012-10-01

    Maximizing the fusion gain of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for inertial fusion energy (IFE) applications leads to the standard scenario of central hot spot ignition followed by propagating burn wave through the cold/dense assembled fuel. The fact that the hot spot is surrounded by cold but dense fuel layer introduces subtle plasma physics which requires a kinetic description. Here we perform Fokker-Planck calculations and kinetic PIC simulations for an ICF plasma initially in pressure balance but having large temperature gradient over a narrow transition layer. The loss of the fast ion tail from the hot spot, which is important for fusion reactivity, is quantified by Fokker-Planck models. The role of electron energy transport and the ambipolar electric field is investigated via kinetic simulations and the fluid moment models. The net effect on both hot spot ion temperature and the ion tail distribution, and hence the fusion reactivity, is elucidated.

  1. Modeling of two-dimensional effects in hot spot relaxation in laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaie, Ph.; Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Grech, M.

    2008-06-15

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of plasma heating and temperature hot spots relaxation are presented in the domain where the diffusive approximation for heat transport fails. Under relevant conditions for laser plasma interactions, the effects of the nonlocality of heat transport on the plasma response are studied comparing the Spitzer-Haerm model with several frequently used nonlocal models. The importance of using a high-order numerical scheme to correctly model nonlocal effects is discussed. A significant increase of the temperature relaxation time due to nonlocal heat transport is observed, accompanied by enhanced density perturbations. Applications to plasma-induced smoothing of laser beams are considered.

  2. Plasma effects in aligned carbon nanoflake growth by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B. B.; Zheng, K.; Cheng, Q. J.; Ostrikov, K.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanofilms are directly grown on silicon substrates by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition in methane environment. It is shown that the nanofilms are composed of aligned carbon nanoflakes by extensive investigation of experimental results of field emission scanning electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In comparison with the graphene-like films grown without plasmas, the carbon nanoflakes grow in an alignment mode and the growth rate of the films is increased. The effects of the plasma on the growth of the carbon nanofilms are studied. The plasma plays three main effects of (1) promoting the separation of the carbon nanoflakes from the silicon substrate, (2) accelerating the motion of hydrocarbon radicals, and (3) enhancing the deposition of hydrocarbon ions onto the substrate surface. Due to these plasma-specific effects, the carbon nanofilms can be formed from the aligned carbon nanoflakes with a high rate. These results advance our knowledge on the synthesis, properties and applications of graphene-based materials.

  3. Electron Scattering in Hot/Warm Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rozsnyai, B F

    2008-01-18

    Electrical and thermal conductivities are presented for aluminum, iron and copper plasmas at various temperatures, and for gold between 15000 and 30000 Kelvin. The calculations are based on the continuum wave functions computed in the potential of the temperature and density dependent self-consistent 'average atom' (AA) model of the plasma. The cross sections are calculated by using the phase shifts of the continuum electron wave functions and also in the Born approximation. We show the combined effect of the thermal and radiative transport on the effective Rosseland mean opacities at temperatures from 1 to 1000 eV. Comparisons with low temperature experimental data are also presented.

  4. X-ray Spectroscopy of Hot Dense Plasmas: Experimental Limits, Line Shifts and Field Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, Oldrich; Sauvan, Patrick; Dalimier, Elisabeth; Riconda, Caterina; Rosmej, Frank B.; Weber, Stefan; Nicolai, Philippe; Peyrusse, Olivier; Uschmann, Ingo; Hoefer, Sebastian; Kaempfer, Tino; Loetzsch, Robert; Zastrau, Ulf; Foerster, Eckhart; Oks, Eugene

    2008-10-22

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is capable of providing complex information on environmental conditions in hot dense plasmas. Benefiting from application of modern spectroscopic methods, we report experiments aiming at identification of different phenomena occurring in laser-produced plasma. Fine features observed in broadened profiles of the emitted x-ray lines and their satellites are interpreted using theoretical models predicting spectra modification under diverse experimental situations.

  5. The hot plasma environment at jupiter: ulysses results.

    PubMed

    Lanzerotti, L J; Armstrong, T P; Gold, R E; Anderson, K A; Krimigis, S M; Lin, R P; Pick, M; Roelof, E C; Sarris, E T; Simnett, G M; Maclennan, C G; Choo, H T; Tappin, S J

    1992-09-11

    Measurements of the hot plasma environment during the Ulysses flyby of Jupiter have revealed several new discoveries related to this large rotating astrophysical system. The Jovian magnetosphere was found by Ulysses to be very extended, with the day-side magnetopause located at approximately 105 Jupiter radii. The heavy ion (sulfur, oxygen, and sodium) population in the day-side magnetosphere increased sharply at approximately 86 Jupiter radii. This is somewhat more extended than the "inner" magnetosphere boundary region identified by the Voyager hot plasma measurements. In the day-side magnetosphere, the ion fluxes have the anisotropy direction expected for corotation with the planet, with the magnitude of the anisotropy increasing when the spacecraft becomes more immersed in the hot plasma sheet. The relative abundances of sulfur, oxygen, and sodium to helium decreased somewhat with decreasing radial distance from the planet on the day-side, which suggests that the abundances of the Jupiter-derived species are dependent on latitude. In the dusk-side, high-latitude region, intense fluxes of counter-streaming ions and electrons were discovered from the edge of the plasma sheet to the dusk-side magnetopause. These beams of electrons and ions were found to be very tightly aligned with the magnetic field and to be superimposed on a time- and space-variable isotropic hot plasma background. The currents carried by the measured hot plasma particles are typically approximately 1.6 x 10(-4) microamperes per square meter or approximately 8 x 10(5) amperes per squared Jupiter radius throughout the high-latitude magnetosphere volume. It is likely that the intense particle beams discovered at high Jovian latitudes produce auroras in the polar caps of the planet. PMID:17776161

  6. Investigation of plasma flow in vacuum arc with hot cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirov, R.; Vorona, N.; Gavrikov, A.; Lizyakin, G.; Polistchook, V.; Samoylov, I.; Smirnov, V.; Usmanov, R.; Yartsev, I.

    2014-11-01

    One of the crucial problems which appear under development of plasma technology processing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is the design of plasma source. The plasma source must use solid SNF as a raw material. This article is devoted to experimental study of vacuum arc with hot cathode made of gadolinium that may consider as the simple model of SNF. This vacuum discharge was investigated in wide range of parameters. During the experiments arc current and voltage, cathode temperature, and heat flux to the cathode were measured. The data on plasma spectrum and electron temperature were obtained. It was shown that external heating of the cathode allows change significantly the main parameters of plasma. It was established by spectral and probe methods that plasma jet in studied discharge may completely consist of single charged ions.

  7. Experimental study of hot electrons in LECR2M plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhao, H. W.; Ma, X. W.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sun, L. T.; Ma, B. H.; Li, X. X.; Sha, S.; Zhu, Y. H.; Lu, W.; Shang, Y.

    2008-02-15

    In order to investigate the hot electron component in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas, the volume bremsstrahlung spectra in the x-ray photon energy range were measured with a high-purity germanium detector on Lanzhou ECR Ion Source No. 2 Modified (LECR2M). A collimation system similar to Bernhardi's was used to focus at the central part of the plasma. The ion source was operated under various source conditions with argon; sometimes oxygen was added to enhance high charge state ion beam intensities. The spectral temperature of hot electrons T{sub spe} was derived from the measured bremsstrahlung spectra. The evolution of the deduced temperature of hot electrons T{sub spe} with the ion source parameters, such as the rf frequency, power, and the magnetic confinement configuration, was investigated.

  8. Evolution of Molecular Clouds in a Hot Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieser, Wolfgang; Hensler, Gerhard

    We are performing 2D hydrodynamic simulations to examine the evaporation and condensation of molecular clouds in the hot phase of the interstellar medium due to heat conduction. Heat conduction is a process that may not be neglected for clouds which are embedded in a hot gas, High-Velocity-Clouds falling through the hot galactic halo or clouds in a galactic chimney. The evolution of cold and dense clouds with different masses and radii is calculated in the subsonic streaming of a hot rarefied plasma. Our code includes self-gravity, heating and cooling effects and heat conduction by electrons. Simulations with and without heat conduction show significant differences. Heat conduction provides a possibility to stabilize clouds agains hydrodynamic instabilities. Molecular clouds become able to survive significantly longer in a violent stream of hot gas. Additionally, this hot gas condensates onto the cloud's surface and is mixed very efficiently with the cloud material. Therefore, heat conduction is an important process, which has to be considered in order to explain the existence and metallicity of clouds in a stream of hot gas.

  9. Interaction of graphite with a hot, dense deuterium plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Desko, J.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The erosion of ATJ-S graphite caused by a hot, dense deuterium plasma has been investigated experimentally. The plasma was produced in an electromagnetic shock tube. Plasma characteristics were typically: ion temperature approx. = 800 eV (approx. 1 x 10/sup 7/ /sup 0/K), number density approx. = 10/sup 16//cm/sup 3/, and transverse magnetic field approx. = 1 tesla. The energetic ion flux, phi, to the sample surfaces was approx. 10/sup 23/ ions/cm/sup 2/-sec for a single pulse duration of approx. 0.1 usec. Sample surfaces were metallographically prepared and examined with a scanning electron microscope before and after exposure.

  10. Iterative Methods to Solve Linear RF Fields in Hot Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Joseph; Svidzinski, Vladimir; Evstatiev, Evstati; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2014-10-01

    Most magnetic plasma confinement devices use radio frequency (RF) waves for current drive and/or heating. Numerical modeling of RF fields is an important part of performance analysis of such devices and a predictive tool aiding design and development of future devices. Prior attempts at this modeling have mostly used direct solvers to solve the formulated linear equations. Full wave modeling of RF fields in hot plasma with 3D nonuniformities is mostly prohibited, with memory demands of a direct solver placing a significant limitation on spatial resolution. Iterative methods can significantly increase spatial resolution. We explore the feasibility of using iterative methods in 3D full wave modeling. The linear wave equation is formulated using two approaches: for cold plasmas the local cold plasma dielectric tensor is used (resolving resonances by particle collisions), while for hot plasmas the conductivity kernel (which includes a nonlocal dielectric response) is calculated by integrating along test particle orbits. The wave equation is discretized using a finite difference approach. The initial guess is important in iterative methods, and we examine different initial guesses including the solution to the cold plasma wave equation. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.

  11. Ponderomotive acceleration of hot electrons in tenuous plasmas.

    PubMed

    Geyko, V I; Fraiman, G M; Dodin, I Y; Fisch, N J

    2009-09-01

    The oscillation-center Hamiltonian is derived for a relativistic electron injected with an arbitrary momentum in a linearly polarized laser pulse propagating in tenuous plasma, assuming that the pulse length is smaller than the plasma wavelength. For hot electrons generated by collisions with ions under an intense laser drive, multiple regimes of ponderomotive acceleration are identified, and the laser dispersion is shown to affect the process at plasma densities down to 10(17) cm-3. We consider the regime when the cold plasma is not accelerated, requiring a/gammag<1, where a is the laser parameter, proportional to the field amplitude, and gammag is the group-velocity Lorentz factor. In this case, the Lorentz factor gamma of hot electrons does not exceed Gamma [triple bond] alpha gammag after acceleration, assuming its initial value also satisfies gamma0 hot-electron distribution is predicted. PMID:19905227

  12. JINA Workshop Nuclear Physics in Hot Dense Dynamic Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kritcher, A L; Cerjan, C; Landen, O; Libby, S; Chen, M; Wilson, B; Knauer, J; Mcnabb, D; Caggiano, J; Bleauel, D; Weideking, M; Kozhuharov, C; Brandau, C; Stoehlker, T; Meot, V; Gosselin, G; Morel, P; Schneider, D; Bernstein, L A

    2011-03-07

    Measuring NEET and NEEC is relevant for probing stellar cross-sections and testing atomic models in hot plasmas. Using NEEC and NEET we can excite nuclear levels in laboratory plasmas: (1) NIF: Measure effect of excited nuclear levels on (n,{gamma}) cross-sections, 60% and never been measured; (2) Omega, Test cross-sections for creating these excited levels via NEEC and NEET. Will allow us to test models that estimate resonance overlap of atomic states with the nucleus: (1) Average Atom model (AA) (CEA&LLNL), single average wave-function potential; (2) Super Transition Array (STA) model (LLNL), More realistic individual configuration potentials NEET experimental data is scarce and not in a plasma environment, NEEC has not yet been observed.

  13. Hot flow anomaly formation by magnetic deflection. [regions of hot plasma in earth magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onsager, T. G.; Thomsen, M. F.; Winske, D.

    1990-01-01

    Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) are localized plasma structures observed in the solar wind and magnetosheath near the earth's quasi-parallel bow shock. This paper presents one-dimensional hybrid computer simulations illustrating a formation mechanism for HFAs in which the single hot ion population results from a spatial separation of two counterstreaming ion beams. The higher-density cooler regions are dominated by the background (solar wind) ions, and the lower-density hotter internal regions are dominated by the beam ions. The spatial separation of the beam and background is caused by the deflection of the ions in large-amplitude magnetic fields which are generated by ion/ion streaming instabilities.

  14. Investigating Fresh Hot Plasma Injections in Saturn's Inner-Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandegriff, J. D.; Loftus, K.; Rymer, A. M.; Mitchell, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    A decreasing density gradient in Saturn's plasma disk allows for centrifugal interchange instability between the dense, heavy plasma inside 10 Rs and the lighter plasma outside. This instability results in the less dense plasma of the mid-magnetosphere moving inward to the inner-magnetosphere. As flux tubes move inward, their volume decreases, and the contained plasma heats adiabatically. Most studies of interchange have focused on older events that have had time to gradient and curvature drift such that they are easily identified by a characteristic "V" energy dispersion signature in the ion and electron data [e.g. Hill et al., 2005; Chen et al., 2010]. Recently, Kennelly et al. (2013) used radio wave data to identify >300 possible "fresh" injection events. These are characterized in the plasma data by a bite-out at low energies, an enhancement at high energies, and little to no energy dispersion. Our study builds on the Kennelly et al. study to investigate the shape and frequency of injection events in order to better characterize how hot plasma transports into the inner magnetosphere. In most models of centrifugal interchange at Saturn, the time and spatial scales for inward and outward transport are fairly symmetric, but Cassini data suggests that inward injections of plasma move at much greater velocity and in narrower flow channels than their outgoing counterparts. Here we investigate the morphology of Kronian inward injection events to see if our dataset of young injections can inform on whether the inward injections are extended fingers or more like "bubbles", isolated flux tubes. Specifically, we apply minimum variance analysis to Cassini magnetic field data to determine the boundary normals at the spacecraft's entrance and exit points for each event, from which we can statistically analyze the structure's cross section. We will present our initial results on the morphology as well as the distribution of the injections over radial distance, latitude, and

  15. Opacity Measurement and Theoretical Investigation of Hot Silicon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Gang; Yang, Jiamin; Zhang, Jiyan; Hu, Zhimin; Zhao, Yang; Qing, Bo; Yang, Guohong; Wei, Minxi; Yi, Rongqing; Song, Tianming; Li, Hang; Yuan, Zheng; Lv, Min; Meng, Xujun; Xu, Yan; Wu, Zeqing; Yan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We report on opacity measurements of a silicon (Si) plasma at a temperature of (72 ± 5) eV and a density of (6.0 ± 1.2) mg cm-3 in the photon energy range of 1790-1880 eV. A 23 μg cm-2 Si foil tamped by 50 μg cm-2 CH layers on each side was heated to a hot-dense plasma state by X-ray radiation emitted from a D-shaped gold cavity that was irradiated by intense lasers. Absorption lines of 1s - 2p transitions of Si xiii to Si ix ions have been measured using point-projection spectroscopy. The transmission spectrum of the silicon plasma was determined by comparing the light passing through the plasma to the light from the same shot passing by the plasma. The density of the Si plasma was determined experimentally by side-on radiography and the temperature was estimated from the radiation flux data. Radiative hydrodynamic simulations were performed to obtain the temporal evolutions of the density and temperature of the Si plasma. The experimentally obtained transmission spectra of the Si sample plasma have been reproduced using a detailed term account model with the local thermodynamic equilibrium approximation. The energy levels, oscillator strengths and photoionization cross-sections used in the calculation were generated by the flexible atomic code. The experimental transmission spectrum was compared with the theoretical calculation and good agreement was found. The present experimental spectrum and theoretical calculation were also compared with the new opacities available in the Los Alamos OPLIB database.

  16. Relativistic and non-relativistic analysis of whistler-mode waves in a hot anisotropic plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazhin, S. S.; Sumner, A. E.; Temme, N. M.

    1992-02-01

    The dispersion equation for parallel whistler-mode propagation in a hot anisotropic plasma is analysed numerically in both weakly relativistic and nonrelativistic approximations under the assumption that wave growth or damping does not influence the wave refractive index. The results of this analysis are compared with the results of an asymptotic analysis of the same equation, and the range of applicability of the latter results is specified. It is pointed out that relativistic effects lead to a decrease in the range of frequencies for which instability occurs. For a moderately anisotropic plasma (T/T = 2) relativistic effects lead to an increase in the maximum value of the increment of instability.

  17. Composition of the hot plasma near geosynchronous altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. G.; Sharp, R. D.; Shelley, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    Although there were no direct measurements of the composition of the hot (keV) plasma at geosynchronous altitudes, the combination of other observations leads to the conclusion that, at least during geomagnetically disturbed periods, there are significant fluxes of ions heavier than protons in this region. Ion composition measurements below 8000 km altitude show upward streaming fluxes of both O(+) and H(+) ions in the L-region of the geosynchronous orbit. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that at least a portion of the total ion fluxes observed at geosynchronous altitude to be highly peaked near the magnetic field lines are heavier than protons and originate in the ionosphere.

  18. Full Wave Parallel Code for Modeling RF Fields in Hot Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Joseph; Svidzinski, Vladimir; Evstatiev, Evstati; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-11-01

    FAR-TECH, Inc. is developing a suite of full wave RF codes in hot plasmas. It is based on a formulation in configuration space with grid adaptation capability. The conductivity kernel (which includes a nonlocal dielectric response) is calculated by integrating the linearized Vlasov equation along unperturbed test particle orbits. For Tokamak applications a 2-D version of the code is being developed. Progress of this work will be reported. This suite of codes has the following advantages over existing spectral codes: 1) It utilizes the localized nature of plasma dielectric response to the RF field and calculates this response numerically without approximations. 2) It uses an adaptive grid to better resolve resonances in plasma and antenna structures. 3) It uses an efficient sparse matrix solver to solve the formulated linear equations. The linear wave equation is formulated using two approaches: for cold plasmas the local cold plasma dielectric tensor is used (resolving resonances by particle collisions), while for hot plasmas the conductivity kernel is calculated. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.

  19. Hot Plasma Associated with a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, E.; Miralles, M. P.; Raymond, J. C.; Hara, H.

    2013-11-01

    We analyze coordinated observations from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) on board Hinode of an X-ray Plasma Ejection (XPE) that occurred during the coronal mass ejection (CME) event of 2008 April 9. The XPE was trailing the CME core from behind, following the same trajectory, and could be identified both in EIS and XRT observations. Using the EIS spectrometer, we have determined the XPE plasma parameters, measuring the electron density, thermal distribution, and elemental composition. We have found that the XPE composition and electron density were very similar to those of the pre-event active region plasma. The XPE temperature was higher, and its thermal distribution peaked at around 3 MK also, typical flare lines were absent from EIS spectra, indicating that any XPE component with temperatures in excess of 5 MK was likely either faint or absent. We used XRT data to investigate the presence of hotter plasma components in the XPE that could have gone undetected by EIS and found that—if at all present—these components have small emission measure values and their temperature is in the 8-12.5 MK range. The very hot plasma found in earlier XPE observations obtained by Yohkoh seems to be largely absent in this CME, although plasma ionization timescales may lead to non-equilibrium ionization effects that could make bright lines from ions formed in a 10 MK plasma not detectable by EIS. Our results supersede the XPE findings of Landi et al., who studied the same event with older response functions for the XRT Al-poly filter; the differences in the results stress the importance of using accurate filter response functions.

  20. A collisional-radiative average atom model for hot plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rozsnyai, B.F.

    1996-10-17

    A collisional-radiative `average atom` (AA) model is presented for the calculation of opacities of hot plasmas not in the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The electron impact and radiative rate constants are calculated using the dipole oscillator strengths of the average atom. A key element of the model is the photon escape probability which at present is calculated for a semi infinite slab. The Fermi statistics renders the rate equation for the AA level occupancies nonlinear, which requires iterations until the steady state. AA level occupancies are found. Detailed electronic configurations are built into the model after the self-consistent non-LTE AA state is found. The model shows a continuous transition from the non-LTE to the LTE state depending on the optical thickness of the plasma. 22 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Unified Concept of Effective One Component Plasma for Hot Dense Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clérouin, Jean; Arnault, Philippe; Ticknor, Christopher; Kress, Joel D.; Collins, Lee A.

    2016-03-01

    Orbital-free molecular dynamics simulations are used to benchmark two popular models for hot dense plasmas: the one component plasma (OCP) and the Yukawa model. A unified concept emerges where an effective OCP (EOCP) is constructed from the short-range structure of the plasma. An unambiguous ionization and the screening length can be defined and used for a Yukawa system, which reproduces the long-range structure with finite compressibility. Similarly, the dispersion relation of longitudinal waves is consistent with the screened model at vanishing wave number but merges with the OCP at high wave number. Additionally, the EOCP reproduces the overall relaxation time scales of the correlation functions associated with ionic motion. In the hot dense regime, this unified concept of EOCP can be fruitfully applied to deduce properties such as the equation of state, ionic transport coefficients, and the ion feature in x-ray Thomson scattering experiments.

  2. Unified Concept of Effective One Component Plasma for Hot Dense Plasmas.

    PubMed

    Clérouin, Jean; Arnault, Philippe; Ticknor, Christopher; Kress, Joel D; Collins, Lee A

    2016-03-18

    Orbital-free molecular dynamics simulations are used to benchmark two popular models for hot dense plasmas: the one component plasma (OCP) and the Yukawa model. A unified concept emerges where an effective OCP (EOCP) is constructed from the short-range structure of the plasma. An unambiguous ionization and the screening length can be defined and used for a Yukawa system, which reproduces the long-range structure with finite compressibility. Similarly, the dispersion relation of longitudinal waves is consistent with the screened model at vanishing wave number but merges with the OCP at high wave number. Additionally, the EOCP reproduces the overall relaxation time scales of the correlation functions associated with ionic motion. In the hot dense regime, this unified concept of EOCP can be fruitfully applied to deduce properties such as the equation of state, ionic transport coefficients, and the ion feature in x-ray Thomson scattering experiments. PMID:27035306

  3. Unified concept of effective one component plasma for hot dense plasmas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Clerouin, Jean; Arnault, Philippe; Ticknor, Christopher; Kress, Joel D.; Collins, Lee A.

    2016-03-17

    Orbital-free molecular dynamics simulations are used to benchmark two popular models for hot dense plasmas: the one component plasma (OCP) and the Yukawa model. A unified concept emerges where an effective OCP (EOCP) is constructed from the short-range structure of the plasma. An unambiguous ionization and the screening length can be defined and used for a Yukawa system, which reproduces the long-range structure with finite compressibility. Similarly, the dispersion relation of longitudinal waves is consistent with the screened model at vanishing wave number but merges with the OCP at high wave number. Additionally, the EOCP reproduces the overall relaxation timemore » scales of the correlation functions associated with ionic motion. Lastly, in the hot dense regime, this unified concept of EOCP can be fruitfully applied to deduce properties such as the equation of state, ionic transport coefficients, and the ion feature in x-ray Thomson scattering experiments.« less

  4. Specular Reflectivity and Hot-Electron Generation in High-Contrast Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Gregory Elijah

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-intense laser (> 1018 W/cm2) interactions with matter are capable of producing relativistic electrons which have a variety of applications in state-of-the-art scientific and medical research conducted at universities and national laboratories across the world. Control of various aspects of these hot-electron distributions is highly desired to optimize a particular outcome. Hot-electron generation in low-contrast interactions, where significant amounts of under-dense pre-plasma are present, can be plagued by highly non-linear relativistic laser-plasma instabilities and quasi-static magnetic field generation, often resulting in less than desirable and predictable electron source characteristics. High-contrast interactions offer more controlled interactions but often at the cost of overall lower coupling and increased sensitivity to initial target conditions. An experiment studying the differences in hot-electron generation between high and low-contrast pulse interactions with solid density targets was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. To date, these hot-electrons generated in the laboratory are not directly observable at the source of the interaction. Instead, indirect studies are performed using state-of-the-art simulations, constrained by the various experimental measurements. These measurements, more-often-than-not, rely on secondary processes generated by the transport of these electrons through the solid density materials which can susceptible to a variety instabilities and target material/geometry effects. Although often neglected in these types of studies, the specularly reflected light can provide invaluable insight as it is directly influenced by the interaction. In this thesis, I address the use of (personally obtained) experimental specular reflectivity measurements to indirectly study hot-electron generation in the context of high-contrast, relativistic

  5. Be I isoelectronic ions embedded in hot plasma.

    PubMed

    Saha, B; Fritzsche, S

    2006-03-01

    The influence of plasma screening on the 2s(2 1)S0-->2s2p(3)p(0)1 intercombination and the 2s(2 1)S0-->2s2p(1)p(0)1 allowed transitions is investigated theoretically for several ions along the isoelectronic sequence (C III, N IV, O V, Si XI, Fe XXIII, and Mo XXXIX). For the case of a weakly coupled hot plasma, multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock computations have been carried out for these ions by considering a (time averaged) Debye-Hückel potential for both the "electron-nucleus" and "electron-electron" interaction. The plasma screening is found to enlarge the 2s(2 1)S0-->2s2p(3)p(0)1 excitation energy uniformly along the Be I isoelectronic sequence, leading to an increasing blueshift of this intercombination line as the nuclear charge is increased. For the 2s(2 1)S0-->2s2p(1)p(0)1 resonance line, in contrast, the transition energy is either blueshifted or redshifted in dependence of the screening parameter and owing to a cancellation of the plasma screening on the electron-nucleus and electron-electron interaction. This interplay of the (external) plasma screening with the internal interactions in the berylliumlike ions leads, for instance, to a shift of the resonance transition from red to blue in going from O V to Si XI ions. Apart from the screening effects on the transition energies, we also investigate their influence on the oscillator strengths and emission rates along the Be I isoelectronic sequence. PMID:16605666

  6. Applications of nanoimprint lithography/hot embossing: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yifang

    2015-11-01

    This review concentrates on the applications of nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and hot embossing for the fabrications of nanolectronic devices, nanophotonic metamaterials and other nanostructures. Technical challenges and solutions in NIL such as nanofabrication of templates, removal of residual resist, pattern displacement in thermal NIL arising from thermal expansion are first discussed. In the nanofabrication of templates, dry etch in plasma for the formation of multi-step structures and ultra-sharp tip arrays in silicon, nanophotonic chiral structures with high aspect ratio in SiC are demonstrated. A bilayer technique for nondestructive removal of residual resist in thermal NIL is described. This process is successfully applied for the fabrication of T-shape gates and functional high electron mobility transistors. However, pattern displacement intrinsically existing in thermal NIL/hot embossing owing to different thermal expansions in the template and substrate, respectively, limits its further development and scale-up. Low temperature even room temperature NIL (RTNIL) was then proposed on HSQ, trying to eliminate the pattern distortion by avoiding a thermal loop in the imprint. But, considerable pressure needed in RTNIL turned the major attentions to the development of UV-curing NIL in UV-curable monomers at low temperature. A big variety of applications by low-temperature UV-curing NIL in SU-8 are described, including high-aspect-ratio phase gratings, tagging technology by nanobarcode for DNA sequencing, nanofluidic channels, nanophotonic metamaterials and biosensors. Hot embossing, as a parallel technique to NIL, was also developed, and its applications on ferroelectric polymers as well as metals are reviewed. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize that this review is mainly attempted to review the applications of NIL/embossing instead of NIL technique advances.

  7. Plasma heating and hot ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Agren, O.

    2012-06-19

    Possibilities of plasma heating and sloshing ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids are briefly reviewed. Sloshing ions, i.e. energetic ions with a velocity distribution concentrated to a certain pitch-angle, play an important role in plasma confinement and generation of fusion neutrons in mirror machines. Neutral beam injection (NBI) is first discussed as a method to generate sloshing ions. Numerical results of NBI modeling for a stellarator-mirror hybrid are analyzed. The sloshing ions could alternatively be sustained by RF heating. Fast wave heating schemes, i.e. magnetic beach, minority and second harmonic heating, are addressed and their similarities and differences are described. Characteristic features of wave propagation in mirror hybrid devices including both fundamental harmonic minority and second harmonic heating are examined. Minority heating is efficient for a wide range of minority concentration and plasma densities; it allows one to place the antenna aside from the hot ion location. A simple-design strap antenna suitable for this has good performance. However, this scenario is appropriate only for light minority ions. The second harmonic heating can be applied for the heavy ion component. Arrangements are similar for minority and second harmonic heating. The efficiency of second harmonic heating is influenced by a weaker wave damping than for minority heating. Numerical calculations show that in a hybrid reactor scaled mirror machine the deuterium sloshing ions could be heated within the minority heating scheme, while the tritium ions could be sustained by second harmonic heating.

  8. Redistribution function for resonance radiation in a hot dense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bulyshev, A.E.; Demura, A.V.; Lisitsa, V.S.

    1995-07-01

    The redistribution function for resonance radiation in the L{sup {alpha}} spectral line of hydrogenic ions in a dense hot plasma is calculated. The calculation is based on a self-consistent solution of the equations for the populations of the excited ionic sublevels and for the polarizations of the transitions considered. Nonlinear interference effects due to mixing of atomic states in both static and dynamic ionic fields are thereby taken into account. Molecular dynamics methods are used to account for the evolution of the multiparticle ionic field resulting from thermal motion of the ions. We calculate the L{sup {alpha}} line of the hydrogen-like argon ion in a plasma with electron temperature 1 keV and electron density N{sub e}=10{sup 22}-cm{sup {minus}3}. The rescattering function is compared with the approximation provided by complete frequency redistribution. The results demonstrate the limited usefulness of the latter approximation for a plasma consisting of multiply-charged ions. 23 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Whistler-mode Waves in a Hot Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2005-08-01

    1. Basic equations; 2. Propagation in a cold plasma; 3. Parallel propagation (weakly relativistic approximation); 4. Parallel propagation (non-relativistic approximation); 5. Quasi-longitudinal approximation; 6. Quasi-electrostatic approximation; 7. Growth and damping of the waves; 8. Non-linear effects; 9. Application to the Earth's magnetosphere.

  10. Interaction of field-aligned cold plasma flows with an equatorially-trapped hot plasma - Electrostatic shock formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra

    1993-01-01

    Effects of equatorially trapped hot plasma on the highly supersonic cold-plasma flow occurring during early stage plasmaspheric refilling are studied by means of numerical simulations. It is shown that the equatorially trapped hot ions set up a potential barrier for the cold ion beams and facilitate formation of electrostatic shocks by reflecting them from the equatorial region. Simulations with and without the hot plasma show different flow properties; the formation of electrostatic shocks occur only in the former case. The simulation with the hot plasma also reveals that the magnetic trapping in conjunction with the evolution of the electrostatic potential barrier produces ion velocity distribution functions consisting of a cold core and a hot ring in the perpendicular velocity. Such a distribution function provides a source of free energy for equatorial waves. The corresponding electron population is warm and field-aligned.

  11. Low-Energy Hot Plasma and Particles in Saturn's Magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Krimigis, S M; Armstrong, T P; Axford, W I; Bostrom, C O; Gloeckler, G; Keath, E P; Lanzerotti, L J; Carbary, J F; Hamilton, D C; Roelof, E C

    1982-01-29

    The low-energy charged particle instrument on Voyager 2 measured low-energy electrons and ions (energies greater, similar 22 and greater, similar 28 kiloelectron volts, respectively) in Saturn's magnetosphere. The magnetosphere structure and particle population were modified from those observed during the Voyager 1 encounter in November 1980 but in a manner consistent with the same global morphology. Major results include the following. (i) A region containing an extremely hot ( approximately 30 to 50 kiloelectron volts) plasma was identified and extends from the orbit of Tethys outward past the orbit of Rhea. (ii) The low-energy ion mantle found by Voyager 1 to extend approximately 7 Saturn radii inside the dayside magnetosphere was again observed on Voyager 2, but it was considerably hotter ( approximately 30 kiloelectron volts), and there was an indication of a cooler ( < 20 kiloelectron volts) ion mantle on the nightside. (iii) At energies greater, similar 200 kiloelectron volts per nucleon, H(1), H(2), and H(3) (molecular hydrogen), helium, carbon, and oxygen are important constituents in the Saturnian magnetosphere. The presence of both H(2) and H(3) suggests that the Saturnian ionosphere feeds plasma into the magnetosphere, but relative abundances of the energetic helium, carbon, and oxygen ions are consistent with a solar wind origin. (iv) Low-energy ( approximately 22 to approximately 60 kiloelectron volts) electron flux enhancements observed between the L shells of Rhea and Tethys by Voyager 2 on the dayside were absent during the Voyager 1 encounter. (v) Persistent asymmetric pitch-angle distributions of electrons of 60 to 200 kiloelectron volts occur in the outer magnetosphere in conjunction with the hot ion plasma torus. (vi) The spacecraft passed within approximately 1.1 degrees in longitude of the Tethys flux tube outbound and observed it to be empty of energetic ions and electrons; the microsignature of Enceladus inbound was also observed. (vii

  12. SUMMA hot-ion plasma heating research at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Patch, R. W.; Lauver, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    The SUMMA superconducting magnetic mirror facility and the associated hot-ion plasma research were described. SUMMA is characterized by intense magnetic fields and a large-diameter working bore (41 cm diameter) with room-temperature access. The goal of the plasma research program is to produce steady-state plasmas of fusion reactor densities and temperatures (but not confinement times). The program includes electrode development to produce a hot, dense, large-volume, steady-state plasma and diagnostics development to document the plasma properties. SUMMA and its hot-ion plasma are ideally suited to develop advanced plasma diagnostics methods. Two such methods whose requirements are well matched to SUMMA are: (1) heavy ion beam probing to measure plasma space potential; and (2) submillimeter wavelength laser Thomson scattering to measure local ion temperature.

  13. The kappa Distribution as Tool in Investigating Hot Plasmas in the Magnetospheres of Outer Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimigis, S. M.; Carbary, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The first use of a Maxwellian distribution with a high-energy tail (a κ-function) was made by Olbert (1968) and applied by Vasyliunas (1968) in analyzing electron data. The k-function combines aspects of both Maxwellian and power law forms to provide a reasonably complete description of particle density, temperature, pressure and convection velocity, all of which are key parameters of magnetospheric physics. Krimigis et al (1979) used it to describe flowing plasma ions in Jupiter's magnetosphere measured by Voyager 1, and obtained temperatures in the range of 20 to 35 keV. Sarris et al (1981) used the κ-function to describe plasmas in Earth's distant plasma sheet. The κ-function, in various formulations and names (e. g., γ-thermal distribution, Krimigis and Roelof, 1983) has been used routinely to parametrize hot, flowing plasmas in the magnetospheres of the outer planets, with typical kT ~ 10 to 50 keV. Using angular measurements, it has been possible to obtain pitch angle distributions and convective flow directions in sufficient detail for computations of temperatures and densities of hot particle pressures. These 'hot' pressures typically dominate the cold plasma pressures in the high beta (β > 1) magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, but are of less importance in the relatively empty (β < 1) magnetospheres of Uranus and Neptune. Thus, the κ-function represents an effective tool in analyzing plasma behavior in planetary magnetospheres, but it is not applicable in all plasma environments. References Olbert, S., in Physics of the Magnetosphere, (Carovillano, McClay, Radoski, Eds), Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 641-659, 1968 Vasyliunas, V., J. Geophys. Res., 73(9), 2839-2884, 1968 Krimigis, S. M., et al, Science 204, 998-1003, 1979 Sarris, E., et al, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 349-352, 1981 Krimigis, S. M., and E. C. Roelof, Physics of the Jovian Magnetosphere, edited by A. J. Dessler, 106-156, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1983

  14. Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. T.; Burch, J. L.; Gomez, R. G.; De Los Santos, A.; Miller, G. P.; Wilson, P.; Paschalidis, N.; Fuselier, S. A.; Pickens, K.; Hertzberg, E.; Pollock, C. J.; Scherrer, J.; Wood, P. B.; Donald, E. T.; Aaron, D.; Furman, J.; George, D.; Gurnee, R. S.; Hourani, R. S.; Jacques, A.; Johnson, T.; Orr, T.; Pan, K. S.; Persyn, S.; Pope, S.; Roberts, J.; Stokes, M. R.; Trattner, K. J.; Webster, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the science motivation, measurement objectives, performance requirements, detailed design, approach and implementation, and calibration of the four Hot Plasma Composition Analyzers (HPCA) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. The HPCA is based entirely on electrostatic optics combining an electrostatic energy analyzer with a carbon-foil based time-of-flight analyzer. In order to fulfill mission requirements, the HPCA incorporates three unique technologies that give it very wide dynamic range capabilities essential to measuring minor ion species in the presence of extremely high proton fluxes found in the region of magnetopause reconnection. Dynamic range is controlled primarily by a novel radio frequency system analogous to an RF mass spectrometer. The RF, in combination with capabilities for high TOF event processing rates and high current micro-channel plates, ensures the dynamic range and sensitivity needed for accurate measurements of ion fluxes between ˜1 eV and 40 keV that are expected in the region of reconnection events. A third technology enhances mass resolution in the presence of high proton flux.

  15. Holographic screening length in a hot plasma of two sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmaja, A. Nata; Kassim, H. Abu; Yusof, N.

    2015-11-01

    We study the screening length L_{max} of a moving quark-antiquark pair in a hot plasma, which lives in a two sphere, S^2, using the AdS/CFT correspondence in which the corresponding background metric is the four-dimensional Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. The geodesic of both ends of the string at the boundary, interpreted as the quark-antiquark pair, is given by a stationary motion in the equatorial plane by which the separation length L of both ends of the string is parallel to the angular velocity ω . The screening length and total energy H of the quark-antiquark pair are computed numerically and show that the plots are bounded from below by some functions related to the momentum transfer P_c of the drag force configuration. We compare the result by computing the screening length in the reference frame of the moving quark-antiquark pair, in which the background metrics are "Boost-AdS" and Kerr-AdS black holes. Comparing both black holes, we argue that the mass parameters M_{Sch} of the Schwarzschild-AdS black hole and M_{Kerr} of the Kerr-AdS black hole are related at high temperature by M_{Kerr}=M_{Sch}(1-a^2l^2)^{3/2}, where a is the angular momentum parameter and l is the AdS curvature.

  16. Excited-state PAW Potentials: Modelling Hot-Dense Plasmas From First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollebon, Patrick; Vinko, Sam; Ciricosta, Orlando; Wark, Justin

    2015-11-01

    Finite temperature density functional theory has proven to be a successful means of modelling warm and hot dense plasma systems, including the calculation of transport properties, equation of state and ionization potential depression. Such methods take into account the non-negligible influence of quantum mechanics on the electronic structure of these strongly coupled systems. We apply excited state frozen core potentials to model general core-hole states in high density plasma, allowing for the calculation of the electronic structure of a range of ionic configurations. The advantages of using excited-state potentials are explored and we investigate their application towards various response function calculations, with the results shown to be in good agreement with all-electron calculations at finite-temperatures.

  17. Hot, dense, millimeter-scale, high-Z plasmas for laser-plasma interactions studies.

    PubMed

    Failor, B H; Fernandez, J C; Wilde, B H; Osterheld, A L; Cobble, J A; Gobby, P L

    1999-05-01

    We have designed and produced hot, millimeter-scale, high-Z plasmas of interest for National Ignition Facility hohlraum target design. Using a high-Z gas fill produces electron temperatures in the 3.5-6-keV range, the highest temperatures measured to date for high-density (10(21) e/cm(3)) laser-heated plasmas, and much higher than the 3 keV found for low-Z (neopentane) fills. These measurements are in good agreement with the target design calculations, and the L-shell spectroscopic approach used to estimate the electron temperature has certain advantages over traditional K-shell approaches. PMID:11969590

  18. On existence of solitary waves in unmagnetized neutral hot pair plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Bai-Song; Li, Zi-Liang; Lu, Ding; Sang, Hai-Bo

    2013-11-15

    Whether the solitary waves exist in unmagnetized neutral hot pair plasma is considered. It is found that for small electrons and positrons longitudinal momentum the solitary waves do not exist under the quasi-static approximation.

  19. Aerospace applications of pulsed plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikovskiy, Andrey

    2012-10-01

    The use of a thermal equilibrium plasma for combustion control dates back more than a hundred years to the advent of internal combustion (IC) engines and spark ignition systems. The same principles are still applied today to achieve high efficiency in various applications. Recently, the potential use of nonequilibrium plasma for ignition and combustion control has garnered increasing interest due to the possibility of plasma-assisted approaches for ignition and flame stabilization. During the past decade, significant progress has been made toward understanding the mechanisms of plasma chemistry interactions, energy redistribution and the nonequilibrium initiation of combustion. In addition, a wide variety of fuels have been examined using various types of discharge plasmas. Plasma application has been shown to provide additional combustion control, which is necessary for ultra-lean flames, high-speed flows, cold low-pressure conditions of high-altitude gas turbine engine (GTE) relight, detonation initiation in pulsed detonation engines (PDE) and distributed ignition control in homogeneous charge-compression ignition (HCCI) engines, among others. The present paper describes the current understanding of the nonequilibrium excitation of combustible mixtures by electrical discharges and plasma-assisted ignition and combustion. Nonequilibrium plasma demonstrates an ability to control ultra-lean, ultra-fast, low-temperature flames and appears to be an extremely promising technology for a wide range of applications, including aviation GTEs, piston engines, ramjets, scramjets and detonation initiation for pulsed detonation engines. To use nonequilibrium plasma for ignition and combustion in real energetic systems, one must understand the mechanisms of plasma-assisted ignition and combustion and be able to numerically simulate the discharge and combustion processes under various conditions.

  20. Specular reflectivity and hot-electron generation in high-contrast relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Gregory Elijah

    Ultra-intense laser (> 1018 W/cm2) interactions with matter are capable of producing relativistic electrons which have a variety of applications in state-of-the-art scientific and medical research conducted at universities and national laboratories across the world. Control of various aspects of these hot-electron distributions is highly desired to optimize a particular outcome. Hot-electron generation in low-contrast interactions, where significant amounts of under-dense pre-plasma are present, can be plagued by highly non-linear relativistic laser-plasma instabilities and quasi-static magnetic field generation, often resulting in less than desirable and predictable electron source characteristics. High-contrast interactions offer more controlled interactions but often at the cost of overall lower coupling and increased sensitivity to initial target conditions. An experiment studying the differences in hot-electron generation between high and low-contrast pulse interactions with solid density targets was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. To date, these hot-electrons generated in the laboratory are not directly observable at the source of the interaction. Instead, indirect studies are performed using state-of-the-art simulations, constrained by the various experimental measurements. These measurements, more-often-than-not, rely on secondary processes generated by the transport of these electrons through the solid density materials which can susceptible to a variety instabilities and target material/geometry effects. Although often neglected in these types of studies, the specularly reflected light can provide invaluable insight as it is directly influenced by the interaction. In this thesis, I address the use of (personally obtained) experimental specular reflectivity measurements to indirectly study hot-electron generation in the context of high-contrast, relativistic

  1. Characterization of plasma and laser conditions for single hot spot interaction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.S.; Johnson, R.P.; Cobble, J.A.; Fernandez, J.C.; Lindman, E.L.; Rose, H.A.; Estabrook, K.G.

    1998-11-01

    The LANL TRIDENT laser system is being used for fundamental experiments which study the interaction of self-focusing, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a single (diffraction limited) laser hot spot in order to better understand the coupling between these plasma instabilities. The diffraction limited beam mimics a single hot spot found in speckle distributions that are typical of random or kinoform phase plate (RPP or KPP) smoothing. A long scale length, hot plasma ({approximately} 1 mm, {approximately} 0.5 keV) is created by a separate heater beam, and the single hot spot beam is used to drive parametric instabilities. The focal plane distribution and wavefront of the single hot spot beam are characterized, and the intensity of the single hot spot can be varied between 10{sup 14}--10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}. The plasma density, temperature, and flow profiles are measured using gated imaging spectroscopy of collective Thomson scattering. Results of the laser and plasma characterization, and initial results of backscattered SRS, SBS, and beam steering in a flowing plasma are presented.

  2. Plasma Heating to Super-Hot Temperatures (>30 MK) in the August 9, 2011 Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharykin, Ivan; Struminsky, Alexei; Zimovets, Ivan

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the August 9, 2011 solar flare of X-ray class X6.9, the "hottest" flare from 2000 to 2012, with a peak plasma temperature according to GOES data of 33 MK. Our goal is to determine the cause of such an anomalously high plasma temperature and to investigate the energy balance in the flare region with allowance made for the presence of a super-hot plasma (>30 MK). We analyze the RHESSI, GOES, AIA/SDO, and EVE/SDO data and discuss the spatial structure of the flare region and the results of our spectral analysis of its X-ray emission. Our analysis of the RHESSI X-ray spectra is performed in the one-temperature and two-temperature approximations by taking into account the emission of hot (20 MK) and super-hot (45 MK) plasmas. The hard X-ray spectrum in both models is fitted by power laws. The observed peculiarities of the flare are shown to be better explained in terms of the two-temperature model, in which the super-hot plasma is located at the flare loop tops (or in the magnetic cusp region). The formation of the super-hot plasma can be associated with its heating through primary energy release and with the suppression of thermal conduction.

  3. Beam heated linear theta-pinch device for producing hot plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Bohachevsky, Ihor O.

    1981-01-01

    A device for producing hot plasmas comprising a single turn theta-pinch coil, a fast discharge capacitor bank connected to the coil, a fuel element disposed along the center axis of the coil, a predetermined gas disposed within the theta-pinch coil, and a high power photon, electron or ion beam generator concentrically aligned to the theta-pinch coil. Discharge of the capacitor bank generates a cylindrical plasma sheath within the theta-pinch coil which heats the outer layer of the fuel element to form a fuel element plasma layer. The beam deposits energy in either the cylindrical plasma sheath or the fuel element plasma layer to assist the implosion of the fuel element to produce a hot plasma.

  4. Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Black, R.L.

    1980-11-12

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  5. Laser driven terahertz generation in hot plasma with step density profile

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Manoj Jeong, Young Uk; Tripathi, Vipin Kumar

    2015-06-15

    An analytical formalism of terahertz (THz) radiation generation by beating of two lasers in a hot plasma with step density profile is developed. The lasers propagate obliquely to plasma surface normal, and the nonlinearity arises through the ponderomotive force. The THz is emitted in the specular reflection direction, and the yield is enhanced due to coupling with the Langmuir wave when the plasma frequency is close to THz frequency. The power conversion efficiency maximizes at an optimum angle of incidence.

  6. A model of force balance in Jupiter's magnetodisc including hot plasma pressure anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Achilleos, N.; Cowley, S. W. H.

    2015-12-01

    We present an iterative vector potential model of force balance in Jupiter's magnetodisc that includes the effects of hot plasma pressure anisotropy. The fiducial model produces results that are consistent with Galileo magnetic field and plasma data over the whole radial range of the model. The hot plasma pressure gradient and centrifugal forces dominate in the regions inward of ˜20 RJ and outward of ˜50 RJ, respectively, while for realistic values of the pressure anisotropy, the anisotropy current is either the dominant component or at least comparable with the hot plasma pressure gradient current in the region in between. With the inclusion of hot plasma pressure anisotropy, the ˜1.2 and ˜2.7° shifts in the latitudes of the main oval and Ganymede footprint, respectively, associated with variations over the observed range of the hot plasma parameter Kh, which is the product of hot pressure and unit flux tube volume, are comparable to the shifts observed in auroral images. However, the middle magnetosphere is susceptible to the firehose instability, with peak equatorial values of βh∥e-βh⊥e≃1 - 2, for Kh=2.0 - 2.5 × 107 Pa m T-1. For larger values of Kh,βh∥e-βh⊥e exceeds 2 near ˜25 RJ and the model does not converge. This suggests that small-scale plasmoid release or "drizzle" of iogenic plasma may often occur in the middle magnetosphere, thus forming a significant mode of plasma mass loss, alongside plasmoids, at Jupiter.

  7. A theoretical study of hot plasma spheroids in the presence of low-frequency electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadizadeh, Y.; Jazi, B.; Barjesteh, S.

    2016-07-01

    While taking into account thermal motion of electrons, scattering of electromagnetic waves with low frequency from hot plasma spheroids is investigated. In this theoretical research, ions are heavy to respond to electromagnetic fluctuations. The solution of scalar wave equation in spheroidal coordinates for electric potential inside the plasma spheroids are obtained. The variations of resonance frequencies vs. Debye length are studied and consistency between the obtained results in this paper and the results for the well-known plasma objects such as plasma column and spherical plasma have been proved.

  8. Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings for Barrier Applications Against Molten Uranium Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthapadmanabhan, P. V.; Chakravarthy, Y.; Chaturvedi, Vandana; Thiyagarajan, T. K.; Pragatheeswaran, A.

    2015-07-01

    Ceramic coatings are applied on engineering components for protecting them from large thermal load and hot corrosion. Choices of coating material for protection against hot corrosion by uranium are few, because of its high reactivity. Yttrium oxide has a high melting temperature and is inert towards uranium. Therefore, yttrium oxide coatings are effective as a barrier against hot corrosion by uranium and its alloys. This paper gives a summary of the developmental work on plasma-sprayed yttria coatings for corrosion barrier applications against molten uranium. Results show that plasma-sprayed yttria coatings offer a long-term solution to hot corrosion problems.

  9. Hot Plasma and Energetic Particles in Neptune's Magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Krimigis, S M; Armstrong, T P; Axford, W I; Bostrom, C O; Cheng, A F; Gloeckler, G; Hamilton, D C; Keath, E P; Lanzerotti, L J; Mauk, B H; Van Allen, J A

    1989-12-15

    The low-energy charged particle (LECP) instrument on Voyager 2 measured within the magnetosphere of Neptune energetic electrons (22 kiloelectron volts /=0.5 MeV per nucleon) energies, using an array of solid-state detectors in various configurations. The results obtained so far may be summarized as follows: (i) A variety of intensity, spectral, and anisotropy features suggest that the satellite Triton is important in controlling the outer regions of the Neptunian magnetosphere. These features include the absence of higher energy (>/=150 keV) ions or electrons outside 14.4 R(N) (where R(N) = radius of Neptune), a relative peak in the spectral index of low-energy electrons at Triton's radial distance, and a change of the proton spectrum from a power law with gamma >/= 3.8 outside, to a hot Maxwellian (kT [unknown] 55 keV) inside the satellite's orbit. (ii) Intensities decrease sharply at all energies near the time of closest approach, the decreases being most extended in time at the highest energies, reminiscent of a spacecraft's traversal of Earth's polar regions at low altitudes; simultaneously, several spikes of spectrally soft electrons and protons were seen (power input approximately 5 x 10(-4) ergs cm(-2) s(-1)) suggestive of auroral processes at Neptune. (iii) Composition measurements revealed the presence of H, H(2), and He(4), with relative abundances of 1300:1:0.1, suggesting a Neptunian ionospheric source for the trapped particle population. (iv) Plasma pressures at E >/= 28 keV are maximum at the magnetic equator with beta approximately 0.2, suggestive of a relatively empty magnetosphere, similar to that of Uranus. (v) A potential signature of satellite 1989N1 was seen, both inbound and outbound; other possible signatures of the moons and rings are evident in the data but cannot be positively identified in the

  10. Plasma Sterilization Technology for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, S. J.; Olson, R. L.; Leavens, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    The application of plasma gas technology to sterilization and decontamination of spacecraft components is considered. Areas investigated include: effective sterilizing ranges of four separate gases; lethal constituents of a plasma environment; effectiveness of plasma against a diverse group of microorganisms; penetrating efficiency of plasmas for sterilization; and compatibility of spacecraft materials with plasma environments. Results demonstrated that plasma gas, specifically helium plasma, is a highly effective sterilant and is compatible with spacecraft materials.

  11. SUMMA hot-ion plasma heating research at NASA Lewis Research Center. [SUperconducting Magnetic Mirror Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Patch, R. W.; Lauver, M. R.; Englert, G. W.; Snyder, A.

    1975-01-01

    This report describes the SUMMA superconducting magnetic mirror facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center and the hot-ion plasma research conducted therein. SUMMA is characterized by intense magnetic fields (designed for 8.6 T at the mirrors) and a large-diameter working bore (41 cm diameter) with room-temperature access. The goal of the plasma research program is to produce steady-state plasmas of fusion reactor densities and temperatures (but not confinement times). The program includes electrode development to produce a hot, dense, large-volume, steady-state plasma and diagnostics development to document the plasma properties. SUMMA and its hot-ion plasma are ideally suited to develop advanced plasma diagnostics methods. Two such methods whose requirements are well matched to SUMMA are: (1) heavy ion beam probing to measure plasma space potential, and (2) submillimeter wavelength laser Thomson scattering to measure local ion temperature. Two NASA University Grants were established to identify major requirements for developing these two diagnostic techniques in SUMMA.

  12. Ionization and Cooling of a Hot Plasma with Temperature Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholtygin, A. F.; Bratsev, V. F.; Ochkur, V. I.

    2002-01-01

    Cooling functions for a stationary plasma are calculated in a wide temperature range from 5·103 K to 108 K, both for a plasma with the solar abundances of elements and for a plasma with an anomalous chemical composition typical of Wolf—Rayet stars. The HILYS project is described, with the aim of calculating cross sections and rates of excitation by electron collision of atoms and ions with a charge Z 26 and principal electron quantum numbers n 10, needed to calculate the ionization and thermal states of a plasma and the development of methods of calculating the plasma's spectrum in the visible, UV, and x-ray ranges. The results of a calculation of cross sections and effective collision strengths obtained within the framework of the project are given. The influence of temperature fluctuations (T/T 0.16) on the relative ion abundances and the total cooling function is studied. It is shown that the presence of such fluctuations considerably increases the temperature range in which the abundances of ions of a given degree of ionization are not negligible, while the cooling function can differ considerably from that calculated for a one-temperature plasma. The contribution of dielectronic recombination to the total cooling function is investigated, and it proves to be significant only for a plasma with high abundances of heavy elements. The x-ray spectrum of the bright supergiant Pup is analyzed.

  13. New electron beam facility for irradiated plasma facing materials testing in hot cell

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, N.; Kawamura, H.; Akiba, M.

    1995-09-01

    Since plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor for the next step fusion reactors are exposed to high heat loads and high energy neutron flux generated by the plasma, it is urgent to develop of plasma facing components which can resist these. Then, we have established electron beam heat facility ({open_quotes}OHBIS{close_quotes}, Oarai Hot-cell electron Beam Irradiating System) at a hot cell in JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) hot laboratory in order to estimate thermal shock resistivity of plasma facing materials and heat removal capabilities of divertor elements under steady state heating. In this facility, irradiated plasma facing materials (beryllium, carbon based materials and so on) and divertor elements can be treated. This facility consists of an electron beam unit with the maximum beam power of 50kW and the vacuum vessel. The acceleration voltage and the maximum beam current are 30kV (constant) and 1.7A, respectively. The loading time of electron beam is more than 0.1ms. The shape of vacuum vessel is cylindrical, and the mainly dimensions are 500mm in inner diameter, 1000mm in height. The ultimate vacuum of this vessel is 1 x 10{sup -4}Pa. At present, the facility for thermal shock test has been established in a hot cell. And performance estimation on the electron beam is being conducted. Presently, the devices for heat loading tests under steady state will be added to this facility.

  14. Plasmon effects on the entanglement fidelity for elastic collisions in hot quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Young-Dae

    2011-11-15

    The plasmon and screening effects on the entanglement fidelity for the elastic electron-ion collision are investigated in hot quantum plasmas. The partial wave analysis and effective interaction including the plasmon couplings are employed to obtain the entanglement fidelity function in hot quantum plasmas. It is shown that the plasmon effect enhances the entanglement fidelity in quantum plasmas for 0<{beta}({identical_to}({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}{sub p}/k{sub B}T)<0.8 and, however, suppresses the entanglement fidelity for 0.8<{beta}<1, where {omega}{sub p} is the plasmon frequency, k{sub B} is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the plasma temperature. It is also found that the entanglement fidelity decreases with increasing Debye length and collision energy.

  15. Amplification of whistler waves propagating through inhomogeneous, anisotropic, mirror-confined hot-electron plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Guest, G.E.; Miller, R.L.

    1988-12-01

    A fully relativistic local dispersion relation for whistler waves has been solved at closely spaced points along the magnetic field lines of a 2:1 magnetic mirror in which a highly anisotropic, spatially inhomogeneous, hot-electron plasma is confined. The limiting plasma parameters for convective (spatial)= growth have been determined numerically and used to identify plasma conditions leading to maximum amplification of input microwave signals introduced in the form of whistler waves. The maximum gain has been evaluated numerically for a range of values of the hot-electron plasma within which all major stability criteria are satisfied. Very high gains (approx.40 dB) are indicated over the entire range of beta investigated.

  16. Plasma propulsion for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruchtman, Amnon

    2000-04-01

    The various mechanisms for plasma acceleration employed in electric propulsion of space vehicles will be described. Special attention will be given to the Hall thruster. Electric propulsion utilizes electric and magnetic fields to accelerate a propellant to a much higher velocity than chemical propulsion does, and, as a result, the required propellant mass is reduced. Because of limitations on electric power density, electric thrusters will be low thrust engines compared with chemical rockets. The large jet velocity and small thrust of electric thrusters make them most suitable for space applications such as station keeping of GEO communication satellites, low orbit drag compensation, orbit raising and interplanetary missions. The acceleration in the thruster is either thermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic. The arcjet is an electrothermal device in which the propellant is heated by an electric arc and accelerated while passing through a supersonic nozzle to a relatively low velocity. In the Pulsed Plasma Thruster a solid propellant is accelerated by a magnetic field pressure in a way that is similar in principle to pulsed acceleration of plasmas in other, very different devices, such as the railgun or the plasma opening switch. Magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters also employ magnetic field pressure for the acceleration but with a reasonable efficiency at high power only. In an ion thruster ions are extracted from a plasma through a double grid structure. Ion thrusters provide a high jet velocity but the thrust density is low due to space-charge limitations. The Hall thruster, which in recent years has enjoyed impressive progress, employs a quasi-neutral plasma, and therefore is not subject to a space-charge limit on the current. An applied radial magnetic field impedes the mobility of the electrons so that the applied potential drops across a large region inside the plasma. Methods for separately controlling the profiles of the electric and the magnetic fields will

  17. Multi-Material ALE with AMR for Modeling Hot Plasmas and Cold Fragmenting Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alice, Koniges; Nathan, Masters; Aaron, Fisher; David, Eder; Wangyi, Liu; Robert, Anderson; David, Benson; Andrea, Bertozzi

    2015-02-01

    We have developed a new 3D multi-physics multi-material code, ALE-AMR, which combines Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) to connect the continuum to the microstructural regimes. The code is unique in its ability to model hot radiating plasmas and cold fragmenting solids. New numerical techniques were developed for many of the physics packages to work efficiently on a dynamically moving and adapting mesh. We use interface reconstruction based on volume fractions of the material components within mixed zones and reconstruct interfaces as needed. This interface reconstruction model is also used for void coalescence and fragmentation. A flexible strength/failure framework allows for pluggable material models, which may require material history arrays to determine the level of accumulated damage or the evolving yield stress in J2 plasticity models. For some applications laser rays are propagating through a virtual composite mesh consisting of the finest resolution representation of the modeled space. A new 2nd order accurate diffusion solver has been implemented for the thermal conduction and radiation transport packages. One application area is the modeling of laser/target effects including debris/shrapnel generation. Other application areas include warm dense matter, EUV lithography, and material wall interactions for fusion devices.

  18. Production of a large diameter hot-electron plasma by electron cyclotron resonance heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Y.; Sakamoto, K.

    1982-05-01

    A large diameter hot-electron plasma is produced by electron cyclotron resonance heating, using a slotted Lisitano coil as a launcher. It is found from detailed measurements of the plasma parameters that n/sub e/< or approx. =3 x 10/sup 11/ cm/sup -3/ and T/sub e/< or approx. =40 eV, with a diameter roughly-equal14 cm. High-energy tails with temperatures of more than 100 eV are observed.

  19. Production of a large diameter hot-electron plasma by electron cyclotron resonance heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Y.; Sakamoto, K.

    1982-05-01

    A large diameter hot-electron plasma is produced by electron cyclotron resonance heating, using a slotted Lisitano coil as a launcher. It is found from detailed measurements of the plasma parameters that ne≲3×1011 cm-3 and Te≲40 eV, with a diameter ≊14 cm. High-energy tails with temperatures of more than 100 eV are observed.

  20. Ejection of cool plasma into the hot corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, P.; Peter, H.; Bingert, S.

    2011-08-01

    Context. The corona is highly dynamic and shows transient events on various scales in space and time. Most of these features are related to changes in the magnetic field structure or impulsive heating caused by the conversion of magnetic to thermal energy. Aims: We investigate the processes that lead to the formation, ejection and fall of a confined plasma ejection that was observed in a numerical experiment of the solar corona. By quantifying physical parameters such as mass, velocity, and orientation of the plasma ejection relative to the magnetic field, we provide a description of the nature of this particular plasma ejection. Methods: The time-dependent three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) equations are solved in a box extending from the chromosphere, which serves as a reservoir for mass and energy, to the lower corona. The plasma is heated by currents that are induced through field line braiding as a consequence of photospheric motions included in the model. Spectra of optically thin emission lines in the extreme ultraviolet range are synthesized, and magnetic field lines are traced over time. We determine the trajectory of the plasma ejection and identify anomalies in the profiles of the plasma parameters. Results: Following strong heating just above the chromosphere, the pressure rapidly increases, leading to a hydrodynamic explosion above the upper chromosphere in the low transition region. The explosion drives the plasma, which needs to follow the magnetic field lines. The ejection is then moving more or less ballistically along the loop-like field lines and eventually drops down onto the surface of the Sun. The speed of the ejection is in the range of the sound speed, well below the Alfvén velocity. Conclusions: The plasma ejection observed in a numerical experiment of the solar corona is basically a hydrodynamic phenomenon, whereas the rise of the heating rate is of magnetic nature. The granular motions in the photosphere lead (by chance) to a

  1. Physics of hot hadronic matter and quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1990-07-01

    This Introductory talk contains a brief review of the current status of theoretical and experimental activities related to physics of superdense matter. In particular, we discuss latest lattice results on the phase transition, recent progress in chiral symmetry physics based on the theory of interacting instantons, new in the theory of QGP and of hot hadronic matter, mean p{sub t} and collective flow, the shape of p{sub t} distribution, strangeness production, J/{psi} suppression and {phi} enhancement, two puzzles connected with soft pion and soft photon enhancements, and some other ultrasoft'' phenomena. 56 refs., 6 figs.

  2. RHESSI LINE AND CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS OF SUPER-HOT FLARE PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, A.; Lin, R. P.

    2010-12-20

    We use RHESSI high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy observations from {approx}5 to 100 keV to characterize the hot thermal plasma during the 2002 July 23 X4.8 flare. These measurements of the steeply falling thermal X-ray continuum are well fit throughout the flare by two distinct isothermal components: a super-hot (T{sub e} > 30 MK) component that peaks at {approx}44 MK and a lower-altitude hot (T{sub e} {approx}< 25 MK) component whose temperature and emission measure closely track those derived from GOES measurements. The two components appear to be spatially distinct, and their evolution suggests that the super-hot plasma originates in the corona, while the GOES plasma results from chromospheric evaporation. Throughout the flare, the measured fluxes and ratio of the Fe and Fe-Ni excitation line complexes at {approx}6.7 and {approx}8 keV show a close dependence on the super-hot continuum temperature. During the pre-impulsive phase, when the coronal thermal and non-thermal continua overlap both spectrally and spatially, we use this relationship to obtain limits on the thermal and non-thermal emission.

  3. Recent advances in high temperature instrumentation for hot section applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, David R.; Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    Programs to develop research instrumentation for use in turbine engine hot sections are described. These programs were initiated to provide improved measurements capability as support for a multidisciplinary effort to establish technolgy leading to improved hot section durability. Specific measurement systems described here include heat flux sensors, a dynamic gas temperature measuring system, laser anemometry for hot section applications, an optical system for viewing the interior of a combustor during operation, thin film sensors for surface temperature and strain measurements, and high temperature strain measuring systems. The paper describes the state of the development of these sensors and measuring systems and, in some cases, will show examples of measurements made with this instrumentation.The paper covers work done at the NASA Lewis Research Center and at various contract and grant facilities.

  4. Theoretical study of nonlinear waves and shock-like phenomena in hot plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fried, B. D.; Banos, A., Jr.; Kennel, C. F.

    1973-01-01

    Summaries are presented of research in basic plasma physics. Nonlinear waves and shock-like phenomena were studied which are pertinent to space physics applications, and include specific problems of magnetospheric and solar wind plasma physics.

  5. Preferential electron-cyclotron heating of hot electrons and formation of overdense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quon, B. H.; Dandl, R. A.

    1989-10-01

    Three electron-cyclotron-heating techniques, which preferentially couple microwave power to different energy segments of the electron distribution function, have been experimentally investigated in the AMPHED facility [C. Bodeldijk, Special Supplement, Nucl. Fusion 26, 184 (1986)]. Whistler waves launched from the high-field mirror throat are strongly absorbed in a single pass across the resonant interaction layer, producing highly overdense cold background plasma but no relativistic hot particles. On the other hand, ordinary waves launched from the system side wall are only weakly damped, giving rise to local cylindrical cavity modes and preferential coupling to hot electrons in the 100 keV region. Low levels (≤5%) of upper-off-resonance heating power were shown to be most effective for preferential hot-electron plasma formation, with ˜100% of the injected power being absorbed by the energetic electrons.

  6. Hot Plasma Properties and Dynamics in the Magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Carbary, J. F.; Krimigis, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    We compare computations from measurements of hot ions in the nightside magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn using Voyager, Galileo, and Cassini instruments. The 2 magnetospheres have a remarkably similar configuration and convection pattern when scaled to their relative sizes. We find asymmetries in local time on the nightside that suggest magnetopause interaction and reconnective processes affect the global configuration and convection pattern. Both magnetospheres exhibit adiabatic transport and corotation that can be substantially disrupted or enhanced by dynamic events such as injections. We also report on new analysis of dayside hot plasma from the INCA detector on Cassini, and on the adaptation of our hot plasma convection model to data from the CHEMS instrument on the Cassini spacecraft.

  7. Hot Corrosion Resistance and Mechanical Behavior of Atmospheric Plasma Sprayed Conventional and Nanostructured Zirconia Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saremi, Mohsen; Keyvani, Ahmad; Heydarzadeh Sohi, Mahmoud

    Conventional and nanostructured zirconia coatings were deposited on In-738 Ni super alloy by atmospheric plasma spray technique. The hot corrosion resistance of the coatings was measured at 1050°C using an atmospheric electrical furnace and a fused mixture of vanadium pent oxide and sodium sulfate respectively. According to the experimental results nanostructured coatings showed a better hot corrosion resistance than conventional ones. The improved hot corrosion resistance could be explained by the change of structure to a dense and more packed structure in the nanocoating. The evaluation of mechanical properties by nano indentation method showed the hardness (H) and elastic modulus (E) of the YSZ coating increased substantially after hot corrosion.

  8. Bulk viscosity of anisotropically expanding hot QCD plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Vinod

    2011-11-01

    The bulk viscosity, {zeta} and its ratio with the shear viscosity, {zeta}/{eta} have been studied in an anisotropically expanding pure glue plasma in the presence of turbulent color fields. It has been shown that the anisotropy in the momentum distribution function of gluons, which has been determined from a linearized transport equation eventually leads to the bulk viscosity. For the isotropic (equilibrium) state, a recently proposed quasiparticle model of pure SU(3) lattice QCD equation of state has been employed where the interactions are encoded in the effective fugacity. It has been argued that the interactions present in the equation of state, significantly contribute to the bulk viscosity. Its ratio with the shear viscosity is significant even at 1.5T{sub c}. Thus, one needs to take in account the effects of the bulk viscosity while studying the hydrodynamic expansion of quark-gluon plasma in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider.

  9. Hot electron plasma equilibrium and stability in the Constance B mirror experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xing

    1988-04-01

    An experimental study of the equilibrium and macroscopic stability property of an electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) generated plasma in a minimum-B mirror is presented. The Constance B mirror is a single cell quadrupole magnetic mirror in which high beta (..beta.. less than or equal to 0.3) hot electron plasmas (T/sub e/approx. =400 keV) are created with up to 4 kW of ECRH power. The plasma equilibrium profile is hollow and resembles the baseball seam geometry of the magnet which provides the confining magnetic field. This configuration coincides with the drift orbit of deeply trapped particles. The on-axis hollowness of the hot electron density profile is 50 /+-/ 10%, and the pressure profile is at least as hollow as, if not more than, the hot electron density profile. The hollow plasma equilibrium is macroscopically stable and generated in all the experimental conditions in which the machine has been operated. The hollowness of the plasma pressure profile is not limited by the marginal stability condition. Small macroscopic plasma fluctuations in the range of the hot electron curvature drift frequency sometimes occur but their growth rate is small (..omega../sub i//..omega../sub r/ less than or equal to 10/sup -2/) and saturate at very low level (deltaB//bar B/ less than or equal to 10/sup -3/). Particle drift reversal is predicted to occur for the model pressure profile which best fits the experimental data under the typical operating conditions. No strong instability is observed when the plasma is near the drift reversal parameter regime, despite a theoretical prediction of instability under such conditions. The experiment shows that the cold electron population has no stabilizing effect to the hot electrons, which disagrees with current hot electron stability theories and results of previous maximum-B experiments. A theoretical analysis using MHD theory shows that the compressibility can stabilize a plasma with a hollowness of 20--30% in the

  10. Hot ion plasma production in HIP-1 using water-cooled hollow cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Lauver, M. R.; Patch, R. W.; Layman, R. W.; Snyder, A.

    1975-01-01

    The paper reports on hot-ion plasma experiments conducted in a magnetic mirror facility. A steady-state E x B plasma was formed by applying a strong radially inward dc electric field near the mirror throats. Most of the results were for hydrogen, but deuterium and helium plasmas were also studied. Three water-cooled hollow cathodes were operated in the hot-ion plasma mode with the following results: (1) thermally emitting cathodes were not required to achieve the hot-ion mode; (2) steady-state operation (several minutes) was attained; (3) input powers greater than 40 kW were achieved; (4) cathode outside diameters were increased from 1.2 cm (uncooled) to 4.4 cm (water-cooled); (5) steady-state hydrogen plasmas with ion temperatures from 185 to 770 eV and electron temperatures from 5 to 21 eV were produced. Scaling relations were empirically obtained for discharge current, ion temperature, electron temperature, and relative ion density as a function of hydrogen gas feed rate, magnetic field, and cathode voltage.

  11. Super-hot (T > 30 MK) thermal plasma in solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, Amir

    2010-05-01

    The Sun offers a convenient nearby laboratory to study the physical processes of particle acceleration and impulsive energy release in magnetized plasmas that occur throughout the universe, from planetary magnetospheres to black hole accretion disks. Solar flares are the most powerful explosions in the solar system, releasing up to 1032-1033 ergs over only 100-1,000 seconds. These events can accelerate electrons up to hundreds of MeV and can heat plasma to tens of MK, exceeding ∼40 MK in the most intense flares. The accelerated electrons and the hot plasma each contain tens of percent of the total flare energy, indicating an intimate link between particle acceleration, plasma heating, and flare energy release. X-ray emission is the most direct signature of these processes; accelerated electrons emit hard X-ray bremsstrahlung as they collide with the ambient atmosphere, while hot plasma emits soft X-rays from both bremsstrahlung and excitation lines of highly-ionized atoms. The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observes this emission from ∼3 keV to ∼17 MeV with unprecedented spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution, providing the most precise measurements of the X-ray flare spectrum and enabling the most accurate characterization of the X-ray-emitting hot and accelerated electron populations. RHESSI observations show that "super-hot" temperatures exceeding ∼30 MK are common in large flares but are achieved almost exclusively by X-class events and appear to be strictly associated with coronal magnetic field strengths exceeding ∼170 Gauss; these results suggest a direct link between the magnetic field and heating of super-hot plasma, and that super-hot flares may require a minimum threshold of field strength and overall flare intensity. Imaging and spectroscopic observations of the 2002 July 23 X4.8 event show that the superhot plasma is both spectrally and spatially distinct from the usual ∼10-20 MK plasma observed in nearly

  12. Plasma surface interaction in hot filament cathode arc discharge used to nitride steel substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiya, R. P.; Singh, O.; Aggarwal, V.; Malik, H. K.; Kumari, Nisha

    2012-10-01

    Plasma-assisted nitriding process is a well developed technique for increasing the surface hardness. The process is energy efficient, environment friendly and versatile to treat samples of various shapes and sizes. Though the use of this process in industry is established, there are several scientific questions in the basic understanding of the migration of ions, electrons and radicals and plasma surface interaction. We have studied these processes in an experimental system developed with hot cathode arc discharge plasma. A mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen is utilized for plasma generation. Negatively biased steel substrate is nitrided in this plasma. The hot cathode arc discharge plasma source is utilized to independently monitor and optimise the plasma and the work piece parameters. Substrate bias and temperature, which are the important parameters for achieving the desirable surface hardness, are regulated. Hardness depth profile and nitrogen content in the hardened sample are also measured. Transport and diffusion of ions, electrons, radicals and neutrals are considered to explain the results.

  13. Closed bioregenerative life support systems: Applicability to hot deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Musaev, Ibrahim; Polyakov, Sergey V.

    2010-09-01

    Water scarcity in hot deserts, which cover about one-fifth of the Earth's land area, along with rapid expansion of hot deserts into arable lands is one of the key global environmental problems. As hot deserts are extreme habitats characterized by the availability of solar energy with a nearly complete absence of organic life and water, space technology achievements in designing closed ecological systems may be applicable to the design of sustainable settlements in the deserts. This review discusses the key space technology findings for closed biogenerative life support systems (CBLSS), which can simultaneously produce food, water, nutrients, fertilizers, process wastes, and revitalize air, that can be applied to hot deserts. Among them are the closed cycle of water and the acceleration of the cycling times of carbon, biogenic compounds, and nutrients by adjusting the levels of light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, and air velocity over plant canopies. Enhanced growth of algae and duckweed at higher levels of carbon dioxide and light intensity can be important to provide complete water recycling and augment biomass production. The production of fertilizers and nutrients can be enhanced by applying the subsurface flow wetland technology and hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacteria for treating liquid and solid wastes. The mathematical models, optimization techniques, and non-invasive measuring techniques developed for CBLSS make it possible to monitor and optimize the performance of such closed ecological systems. The results of long-duration experiments performed in BIOS-3, Biosphere 2, Laboratory Biosphere, and other ground-based closed test facilities suggest that closed water cycle can be achieved in hot-desert bioregenerative systems using the pathways of evapotranspiration, condensation, and biological wastewater treatment technologies. We suggest that the state of the art in the CBLSS design along with the possibility of using direct sunlight for

  14. Lorentz Mapping of Magnetic Fields in Hot Dense Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Petrasso, R. D.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Rygg, J. R.; Frenje, J. A.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Froula, D. H.; Landen, O. L.; Patel, P. K.; Ross, J. S.; Town, R. P. J.

    2009-08-21

    Unique detection of electromagnetic fields and identification of field type and strength as a function of position were used to determine the nature of self-generated fields in a novel experiment with laser-generated plasma bubbles on two sides of a plastic foil. Field-induced deflections of monoenergetic 15-MeV probe protons passing through the two bubbles, measured quantitatively with proton radiography, were combined with Lorentz mapping to provide separate measurements of magnetic and electric fields. The result was absolute identification and measurement of a toroidal magnetic field around each bubble and determination that any electric field component parallel to the foil was below measurement uncertainties.

  15. Spectrally Resolved Intensities of Ultra-Dense Hot Aluminum Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, J. M.; Rodriguez, R.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J. G.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.; Sauvan, P.; Angelo, P.; Dalimier, E.; Schott, R.; Mancini, R.

    2008-10-22

    We present a first study of spectroscopic determination of electron temperature and density spatial profiles of aluminum K-shell line emission spectra from laser-shocked aluminum experiments performed at LULI. The radiation emitted by the aluminum plasma was dispersed with an ultra-high resolution spectrograph ({lambda}/{delta}{lambda}{approx_equal}6000). From the recorded films one can extract a set of time-integrated emission lineouts associated with the corresponding spatial region of the plasma. The observed spectra include the Ly{alpha}, He{beta}, He{gamma}, Ly{beta} and Ly{gamma} line emissions and their associated He- and Li-like satellites thus covering a photon energy range from 1700 eV to 2400 eV approximately. The data analysis rely on the ABAKO/RAPCAL computational package, which has been recently developed at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and takes into account non-equilibrium collisional-radiative atomic kinetics, Stark broadened line shapes and radiation transport calculations.

  16. Spectrally Resolved Intensities of Ultra-Dense Hot Aluminum Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, J. M.; Rodríguez, R.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J. G.; Martel, P.; Mínguez, E.; Sauvan, P.; Angelo, P.; Schott, R.; Dalimier, E.; Mancini, R.

    2008-10-01

    We present a first study of spectroscopic determination of electron temperature and density spatial profiles of aluminum K-shell line emission spectra from laser-shocked aluminum experiments performed at LULI. The radiation emitted by the aluminum plasma was dispersed with an ultra-high resolution spectrograph (λ/Δλ≈6000). From the recorded films one can extract a set of time-integrated emission lineouts associated with the corresponding spatial region of the plasma. The observed spectra include the Lyα, Heβ, Heγ, Lyβ and Lyγ line emissions and their associated He- and Li-like satellites thus covering a photon energy range from 1700 eV to 2400 eV approximately. The data analysis rely on the ABAKO/RAPCAL computational package, which has been recently developed at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and takes into account non-equilibrium collisional-radiative atomic kinetics, Stark broadened line shapes and radiation transport calculations.

  17. Magnetized thermal conduction fronts. [between hot and cold astrophysical plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balbus, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of planar thermal conduction fronts in the presence of a dynamically weak, but otherwise self-consistent, magnetic field is considered. The field is assumed to be connected and untangled. In the diffusion limit for the thermal conductivity, these fronts exhibit self-similar behavior, even in the presence of a field. The role of the field is restricted to channeling the heat flux along its lines of force, and it enters into the problem as a dimensionless angle variable. 'Combing' (or opening) of insulating field lines by the evaporative flow is explicitly demonstrated. Unless the field is nearly perpendicular to the front normal in the hot gas, insulating effects are not profound. Self-similarity breaks down if the front becomes saturated, and under certain conditions magnetized saturated conduction fronts cannot propagate: the solution characteristics of the wave equation form caustics. The physical resolution is the advent of two-fluid (nonlocal) heating. Such Coulomb-heated fronts are expected to be relatively rare in typical astrophysical systems. The large-scale effects of a magnetic field on cloud evaporation in the interstellar medium are briefly discussed, and it is suggested that these fields preclude the presence of time-independent evaporative solutions. Thermal interfaces may then continue to evolve until radiative cooling halts their development; large tracts of warm 10,000 K gas may result.

  18. Hot deformation behaviour of alloys for applications at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voyzelle, Benoit

    The present study investigated the deformation behaviour, microstructure evolution and fracture behaviour under hot working conditions of alloys designed for elevated-temperature applications. For this purpose, iron-aluminum and titanium-aluminum alloys were selected and their compositions are: Fe-8.5wt%Al-5.5Cr-2.0Mo-0.2Zr-0.03C, Fe-16.5Al-5.5Cr-1.0Nb-0.05C and Ti-33.3Al-2.8Mn-4.8Nb. These alloys were tested in the as-cast condition and in the form of hot-rolled + annealed plate for the iron-aluminum alloys and in the HIP'ed condition for the titanium-aluminum alloy. Isothermal compression tests were carried out with a Gleeble 2000 over a range of temperatures from 800 to 1250°C and constant strain rates from 10-3 to 10 s-1. In general, the flow curves are marked by a peak stress and softening which decline as temperature rises, and a flow stress which diminishes with rise in temperature and decrease in strain rate. The flow behaviour at peak stress (sigmap) and 0.5 true strain of these materials was described well by the Zener-Hollomon parameter Z=3˙exp /RTQHW , where Z=K3sinha sn . A numerical curve-fitting method was used to yield values of the following parameters: (i) stress exponent, n and (ii) activation energy, QHW . The dynamic material modeling approach was performed to extract from hot compression data: (i) the strain rate sensitivity parameter, m, (ii) the efficiency of power dissipation, eta, and (iii) the instability parameter, xi. The microstructure evolution and fracture behaviour were assessed using optical and electron microscopy. The deformation processes occuring were determined by correlation of the sigma-epsilon curves, m and microstructural observations. The resulting deformation map indicates that at lower temperatures and higher strain rates, the dominant restoration occurs by dynamic recovery, while at lower strain rates and higher temperatures dynamic recrystallization is the operative mode. At the highest temperatures, dynamic

  19. The magnetosphere of uranus: hot plasma and radiation environment.

    PubMed

    Krimigis, S M; Armstrong, T P; Axford, W I; Cheng, A F; Gloeckler, G; Hamilton, D C; Keath, E P; Lanzerotti, L J; Mauk, B H

    1986-07-01

    The low-energy charged-particle (LECP) instrument on Voyager 2 measured lowenergy electrons and ions near and within the magnetosphere of Uranus. Initial analysis of the LECP measurements has revealed the following. (i) The magnetospheric particle population consists principally of protons and electrons having energies to at least 4 and 1.2 megaelectron volts, respectively, with electron intensities substantially excceding proton intensities at a given energy. (ii) The intensity profile for both particle species shows evidence that the particles were swept by planetry satellites out to at least the orbit of Titania. (iii) The ion and electron spectra may be described by a Maxwellian core at low energies (less than about 200 kiloelectron volts) and a power law at high energies (greater than about 590 kiloelectron volts; exponentmicro, 3 to 10) except inside the orbit of Miranda, where power-law spectra (micro approximately 1.1 and 3.1 for electrons and protons, respectively) are observed. (iv) At ion energies between 0.6 and 1 megaelectron volt per nucleon, the composition is dominated by protons with a minor fraction (about 10(-3)) of molecular hydrogen; the lower limit for the ratio of hydrogen to helium is greater than 10(4). (v) The proton population is sufficiently intense that fluences greater than 10(16) per square centimeter can accumulate in 10(4) to 10(') years; such fluences are sufficient to polymerize carbon monoxide and methane ice surfaces. The overall morphology of Uranus' magnetosphere resembles that of Jupiter, as evidenced by the fact that the spacecraft crossed the plasma sheet through the dawn magnetosheath twice per planetary rotation period (17.3 hours). Uranus' magnetosphere differs from that of Jupiter and of Saturn in that the plasma 1 is at most 0.1 rather than 1. Therefore, little distortion ofthe field is expected from particle loading at distances less than about 15 Uranus radii. PMID:17812897

  20. Experimental study of the hot electron plasma equilibrium in a minimum-B magnetic mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Lane, B.G.; Smatlak, D.L.; Post, R.S.; Hokin, S.A.

    1989-03-01

    The Constance B mirror (in Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1984 (IAEA, Vienna, 1985), Vol. II, p. 285) is a single cell quadrupole magnetic mirror in which high-beta (typically 0.3), hot electron plasmas (T/sub e/approx. =400 keV) are created with up to 4 kW of fundamental electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). Details of the plasma equilibrium profile are quantitatively determined by fitting model plasma pressure profiles to the data from four complementary measurements: diamagnetic loops and magnetic probes, x-ray pinhole cameras, visible light TV cameras, and thermocouple probes. The experimental analysis shows that the equilibrium pressure profile of an ECRH generated plasma in a baseball magnetic mirror is hollow and the plasma is concentrated along a baseball-seam-shaped curve. The hollowness of the hot electron density profile is 50% +- 10%. The baseball-seam-shaped equilibrium profile coincides with the drift orbit of deeply trapped electrons in the quadrupole mirror field. Particle drift reversal is predicted to occur for the model pressure profile that best fits the experimental data under the typical operating conditions.

  1. Hot ion plasma production in HIP-1 using water-cooled hollow cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Lauver, M. R.; Patch, R. W.; Layman, R. W.; Snyder, A.

    1975-01-01

    A steady-state ExB plasma was formed by applying a strong radially inward dc electric field near the mirror throats. Most of the results were for hydrogen, but deuterium and helium plasmas were also studied. Three water-cooled hollow cathodes were operated in the hot-ion plasma mode with the following results: (1) thermally emitting cathodes were not required to achieve the hot-ion mode; (2) steady-state operation (several minutes) was attained; (3) input powers greater than 40 kW were achieved; (4) cathode outside diameters were increased from 1.2 cm (uncooled) to 4.4 cm (water-cooled); (5) steady-state hydrogen plasma with ion temperatures from 185 to 770 eV and electron temperatures from 5 to 21 eV were produced. Scaling relations were empirically obtained for discharge current, ion temperature, electron temperature, and relative ion density as a function of hydrogen gas feed rate, magnetic field, and cathode voltage. Neutrons were produced from deuterium plasma, but it was not established whether thay came from the plasma volume or from the electrode surfaces.

  2. MHD stability of a hot-ion-mode plasma in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Inutake, M.; Hattori, K.; Furukawa, S.

    1995-04-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror is extensively studied in ICRF-heated, hot ion plasmas. Stability boundary for a flute interchange mode is predicted to depend on a pressure-weighted curvature integrated along the magnetic field line. It is found that the upper limit of the central-cell beta {beta}{sub C} increases linearly with the anchor-cell beta {beta}{sub A}. The critical beta ratio {beta}{sub C}/{beta}{sub A} above which the plasma cannot be sustained strongly depends on the pressure anisotropy P{sub PRP}/P{sub PLL} of hot ions. Stronger anisotropy greatly expands the stable region up to a higher critical beta ratio, owing to the reduction of the pressure weighting in the bad curvature region of the central cell. On both sides of the quadrupole anchor cells, there are flux-tube-recircularizing transition regions where the normal curvature is highly bad. Then the density and ion temperature of the cold plasma in the transition region are measured. Theoretical prediction on the flute stability boundary calculated by using the measured axial pressure profile of the hot-ion and the cold-plasma pressure can explain well the experimental results. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Hot-Wire CVD Amorphous Si Materials for Solar Cell Application

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films and their application to solar cells fabricated using the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) or (CAT)-CVD will be reviewed. This review will focus on the comparison to the standard plasma enhance (PE) CVD in the terms of deposition technique, film properties, and solar cell performance. The advantages of using HWCVD for a-Si:H solar cell research as well as the criteria for industry's adaptation of this technique for mass production will be addressed.

  4. The evolution of interstellar clouds in a streaming hot plasma including heat conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieser, W.; Hensler, G.

    2007-09-01

    Context: The interstellar medium contains warm clouds that are embedded in a hot dilute gas produced by supernovae. Because both gas phases are in contact, an interface forms where mass and energy are exchanged. Whether heat conduction leads to evaporation of these clouds or whether condensation dominates has been analytically derived. Both phases behave differently dynamically so that their relative motion has to be taken into account. Aims: Real clouds in static conditions that experience saturated heat conduction are stabilized against evaporation if self-gravity and cooling play a role. Here, we investigte to what extent heat conduction can hamper the dynamical disruption of clouds embedded in a streaming hot plasma. Methods: To examine the evolution of giant molecular clouds in the stream of a hot plasma we performed two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations that take full account of self-gravity, heating and cooling effects and heat conduction by electrons. We use the thermal conductivity of a fully ionized hydrogen plasma proposed by Spitzer and a saturated heat flux according to Cowie & McKee in regions where the mean free path of the electrons is large compared to the temperature scaleheight. Results: Significant structural and evolutionary differences occur between simulations with and without heat conduction. Dense clouds in pure dynamical models experience dynamical destruction by Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. In static models heat conduction leads to evaporation of such clouds. Heat conduction acting on clouds in a gas stream smooths out steep temperature and density gradients at the edge of the cloud because the conduction timescale is shorter than the cooling timescale. This diminishes the velocity gradient between the streaming plasma and the cloud, so that the timescale for the onset of KH instabilities increases, and the surface of the cloud becomes less susceptible to KH instabilities. The stabilisation effect of heat conduction against KH

  5. Oblique firehose instability in hot collisionless plasmas - interplay between protons and electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneva, Yana; Lazar, Marian; Vinas, Adolfo; Poedts, Stefaan

    2016-04-01

    We solve the linearized kinetic Vlasov-Maxwell dispersion relation for oblique wave propagation in a homogeneous highly anisotropic hot electron-proton plasma. We assume bi-Maxwellian velocity distributions for both species, charge neutrality and current conservation, and consider no differential streaming between the ions and the electrons. We calculate the growth rate of the parallel and oblique proton firehose instabilities for various angles of wave propagation and varios electron plasma properties. We study the transition from stable to unstable scales with increasing electron temperature and temperature anisotropies. We find that for highly anisotropic hot plasma both the oscillatory parallel and the aperiodic oblique proton firehose branches may easily couple to the parallel and oblique electron firehose branches. In other words our work demonstrates the interplay between the proton and electron firehose instabilities, whose scales become fully mixed in hot collisionless plasma when the protons and the electrons are simultaneously anisotropic. In the case of parallel wave propagation both left and right-hand polarized waves are simultaneously excited. As we increase the angle of propagation the electron firehose starts to dominate with excitation of large-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations over a large range of wave-numbers, starting at the protons scales and extending up to the smaller electron scales. Whereas the maximum growth rate of the parallel proton firehose branch remains always at the proton scales, the maximum growth rate for the oblique proton firehose extends down to the electron scales. The observed electron-proton scale mixing can have significant implications for the observed plasma properties and instability thresholds in hot colissionless solar wind streams.

  6. Response to "Comment on ' A New Derivation of the Plasma Susceptibility Tensor for a Hot Magnetized Plasma Without Infinite Sums of Products of Bessel Functions'

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Hong; Phillips, Cynthia K.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2008-02-20

    We welcome the Comment by Lerche et al on our recent paper titled "A new derivation of the plasma susceptibility tensor for a hot magnetized plasma without infinite sums of products of Bessel functions." The Comment brings up additional historical facts about previous research on the infinite sums of products of Bessel functions appearing in the plasma susceptibility.

  7. Waves in space plasmas - The mirror trapping of hot auroral electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Coroniti, F. V.; Kennel, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is given of the problem of precipitation of auroral electrons by electrostatic Bernstein waves. Since the magnetospheric loss cone is small, only moderately small intense levels of wave turbulence are required to remove any large anisotropy sources of free energy and to maintain a weakly anisotropic electron distribution on strong diffusion precipitation. The electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves are nonconvectively unstable for weak loss cone anisotropies and over a large range of parameters for both the hot and cold distributions. Since the instability is nonconvective, weak wave growth can be maintained independent of the flux level of the hot electrons, i.e., the instability does not have the stably trapped flux limit imposed by convective amplification. Recent plasma numerical simulations show that the nonlinear evolution of this instability involves both the pitch angle diffusion of the hot electrons and the heating of the cold electrons.

  8. The diffuse extreme-ultraviolet background - Constraints on hot coronal plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paresce, F.; Stern, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Apollo-Soyuz data and data reported by Cash et al. (1976) have been reanalyzed in terms of both isothermal models and temperature distribution models. In the latter case, a power-law form is assumed for the relation between emission measure and temperature. A new upper limit on diffuse flux in the 20-73 eV band derived from Apollo-Soyuz observations made in the earth's shadow has been incorporated in the calculation. In the considered investigation the results of the new analysis are presented and the implications for the physical properties of the hot component of the interstellar medium are discussed. The analysis of the Berkeley extreme ultraviolet (EUV) diffuse background measurements using either isothermal or power law temperature distribution models for the emitting plasma indicates excellent qualitative agreement with hard X-ray data that suggest the sun to be immersed in a hot plasma that pervades most of space out to approximately 100 pc.

  9. Collisional radiative model for heavy atoms in hot non-local-thermodynamical-equilibrium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Klapisch, M.

    1997-07-01

    A collisional radiative model for calculating non-local-thermodynamical-equilibrium (non-LTE) spectra of heavy atoms in hot plasmas has been developed, taking into account the numerous excited and autoionizing states. This model uses superconfigurations as effective levels with an iterative procedure which converges to the detailed configuration spectrum. The non-LTE opacities and emissivities may serve as a reliable benchmark for simpler on-line models in hydrodynamic code simulations. The model is tested against detailed configuration calculations of selenium and is applied to non-LTE optically thin plasma of lutetium.

  10. Theoretical analysis of spectral lines of one- and two-electron ions in hot plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rozsnyai, B.F.; Einwohner, T.

    1982-07-28

    We discuss the line shapes for the 1s-2p, 1s-3p and (ls)/sup 2/ - 1s2p, (1s)/sup 2/ - 1s3p absorption lines in hot plasmas. In our model calculations the perturbing ions are considered quasi-static and widths due to collisions with electrons are calculated in the impact approximation. The collective effect of the plasma electrons is accounted for by a self-consistent model or by a simple Debye-Hueckel screening. These models in general predict different line shapes. We present calculations for the HeII, SiXIV and SiXIII ions.

  11. High frequency operation of a hot filament cathode for a magnetized plasma ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Y.; Miyamoto, N.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.

    2012-02-15

    A tungsten filament cathode has been operated with an ac heating current to excite a plasma in a linear magnetic field. Both the discharge current and the ion saturation current in plasma near the extraction hole of the ion source exhibited fluctuations. The discharge current fluctuated with the amplitude less than 2% of the average, and the frequency two times the frequency of the heating current. Fluctuation amplitude of the ion saturation current was about 10% of the average, while the frequency was the same as that of the heating current. The ac operation has prolonged the lifetime of a hot filament cathode by about 50%.

  12. Practical applications of plasma surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.D.

    1993-12-01

    Radio frequency activated gas plasma is an environmentally conscious manufacturing process which provides surface treatments for improved product quality. Plasma processing offers significant potential for reducing the use of solvents and other wet processing chemicals now used in surface treatments such as cleaning, activation for bonding, and moisture removal. Plasma treatments are generally accomplished without creating hazardous waste streams to dispose of. Plasma process development and application is ongoing at Allied Signal Inc., Kansas City Division.

  13. Superconducting hot-electron bolometer: from the discovery of hot-electron phenomena to practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurakov, A.; Lobanov, Y.; Goltsman, G.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of hot-electron phenomena in a thin superconducting film in the last century was followed by numerous experimental studies of its appearance in different materials aiming for a better understanding of the phenomena and consequent implementation of terahertz detection systems for practical applications. In contrast to the competitors such as superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junctions and Schottky diodes, the hot electron bolometer (HEB) did not demonstrate any frequency limitation of the detection mechanism. The latter, in conjunction with a decent performance, rapidly made the HEB mixer the most attractive candidate for heterodyne observations at frequencies above 1 THz. The successful operation of practical instruments (the Heinrich Hertz Telescope, the Receiver Lab Telescope, APEX, SOFIA, Hershel) ensures the importance of the HEB technology despite the lack of rigorous theoretical routine for predicting the performance. In this review, we provide a summary of experimental and theoretical studies devoted to understanding the HEB physics, and an overview of various fabrication routes and materials.

  14. 40 CFR 420.70 - Applicability; description of the hot forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming Subcategory § 420.70 Applicability; description of the hot forming subcategory. The provisions of this...

  15. 40 CFR 420.70 - Applicability; description of the hot forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming Subcategory § 420.70 Applicability; description of the hot forming subcategory. The provisions of this...

  16. 40 CFR 420.70 - Applicability; description of the hot forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming Subcategory § 420.70 Applicability; description of the hot forming subcategory. The provisions of this...

  17. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 420.70 - Applicability; description of the hot forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming Subcategory § 420.70 Applicability; description of the hot forming subcategory. The provisions of this...

  19. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  3. 40 CFR 420.70 - Applicability; description of the hot forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming Subcategory § 420.70 Applicability; description of the hot forming subcategory. The provisions of this...

  4. Industrial Applications of Low Temperature Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bardsley, J N

    2001-03-15

    The use of low temperature plasmas in industry is illustrated by the discussion of four applications, to lighting, displays, semiconductor manufacturing and pollution control. The type of plasma required for each application is described and typical materials are identified. The need to understand radical formation, ionization and metastable excitation within the discharge and the importance of surface reactions are stressed.

  5. Plasma chemistry and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozumi, K.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between discharge phenomena and plasma chemistry, as well as the equipment and mechanisms of plasma chemical reactions are described. Various areas in which plasma chemistry is applied are surveyed, such as: manufacturing of semiconductor integrated circuits; synthetic fibers; high polymer materials for medical uses; optical lenses; and membrane filters (reverse penetration films).

  6. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  7. EBIT spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions relevant to hot plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Ding Xiaobin; Dong Chenzhong; Hara, Hirohisa; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Koike, Fumihiro; Nakano, Tomohide; Ohashi, Hayato; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Norimasa

    2013-07-11

    We present spectra of highly charged iron, gadolinium, and tungsten ions obtained with electron beam ion traps. Spectroscopic studies of these ions are important to diagnose and control hot plasmas in several areas. For iron ions, the electron density dependence of the line intensity ratio in extreme ultraviolet spectra is investigated for testing the model calculation used in solar corona diagnostics. Soft x-ray spectra of gadolinium are studied to obtain atomic data required in light source development for future lithography. Tungsten is considered to be the main impurity in the ITER plasma, and thus visible and soft x-ray spectra of tungsten have been observed to explore the emission lines useful for the spectroscopic diagnostics of the ITER plasma.

  8. "Hot" Non-flaring Plasmas in Active Region Cores Heated by Single Nanoflares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Will Thomas; Cargill, Peter; Bradshaw, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    We use hydrodynamic modeling tools, including a two-fluid development of the EBTEL code, to investigate the properties expected of "hot" (i.e. between 106.7 and 107.2 K) non-flaring plasmas due to nanoflare heating in active regions. Here we focus on single nanoflares and show that while simple models predict an emission measure distribution extending well above 10 MK that is consistent with cooling by thermal conduction, many other effects are likely to limit the existence and detectability of such plasmas. These include: differential heating between electrons and ions, ionization non-equilibrium and, for short nanoflares, the time taken for the coronal density to increase. The most useful temperature range to look for this plasma, often called the "smoking gun" of nanoflare heating, lies between 1 MK and 10 MK. Signatures of the actual heating may be detectable in some instances.

  9. The diverse applications of plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mukul; Dubey, Shivani; Darwhekar, Gajanan; Jain, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences.

  10. The diverse applications of plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Mukul Darwhekar, Gajanan; Dubey, Shivani; Jain, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-07-31

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences.

  11. Experimental observation of the hot-electron equilibrium in a minimum-B mirror plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Smatlak, D.L.; Chen, X.; Lane, B.G.; Hokin, S.A.; Post, R.S.

    1987-05-04

    Measurements of the hot-electron (T = 450 keV, n = 2 x 10/sup 11/ cm/sup -3/) equilibrium in the Constance B minimum-B magnetic mirror show that the pressure profile is peaked off the axis and is shaped like the seam on a baseball. This curve is the drift surface of the deeply trapped electrons and the location of the strongest microwave heating. The configuration is stable and decays quiescently on the hot-electron collisional time scale (1--2 s) after the microwave power is turned off. According to 1D pressure-weighted ..integral.. dl/B analysis this plasma configuration is expected to be unstable.

  12. Neutrino emissivity from e sup minus e+ annihilation in a strong magnetic field: Hot, nondegenerate plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminker, A.D.; Gnedin, O.Y.; Yakovlev, D.G. ); Amsterdamski, P.; Haensel, P. )

    1992-11-15

    The neutrino emissivity from {ital e}{sup {minus}}{ital e+} pair annihilation is calculated for a hot, nondegenerate plasma, {ital T}{much gt}{ital T}{sub {ital F}} ({ital T}{sub {ital F}} is the electron degeneracy temperature), in a magnetic field {bold B} of arbitrary strength. The results are fitted by an analytic expression. A not-very-strong magnetic field, {ital b}={ital B}/{ital B}{sub {ital c}}{much lt}1 ({ital B}{sub {ital c}}=4.41{times}10{sup 13} G), enhances the emissivity of a nonrelativistic plasma, {ital t}={ital T}/{ital T}{sub {ital c}}{approx lt}{ital b} ({ital T}{sub {ital c}}=6{times}10{sup 9} K), and does not affect the emissivity at higher {ital T}. Stronger fields, {ital b}{much gt}1, influence the pair annihilation if {ital t}{approx lt} {radical}{ital b} . At {ital t}{approx gt}{ital b}{sup 1/4} they suppress the process, and at {ital t}{much lt}{ital b}{sup 1/4} they enhance it. As a rule the pair annihilation dominates over other neutrino production mechanisms in a hot plasma of neutron-star envelopes.

  13. Discovery of an Io-correlated energy source for Io's hot plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandel, B. R.; Broadfoot, A. L.

    1982-04-01

    Energy flowing into Io's hot plasma torus from a local-time correlated source and from an Io-related source are discussed, and a correlation of the brightness of the ansae of the torus with the apparent orbital phase of Io is reported. It is shown that the energy flows cause an azimuthal modulation of the brightness of the torus that is correlated with the position of Io, and the plasma downstream from Io is shown to be brighter in S III 685-A emission, which indicates a higher electron temperature. Differences in electron temperature inferred from spectral analyses account for all observed differences in brightness, implying that no change in the composition or density of the hot plasma occurs. The mechanism regulating the Io-related source is clearly distinct from the mechanism driving the local time source, although both draw on the same pool of energy, and the combination of the two sources is easily capable of supplying all the energy radiated by the torus.

  14. Numerical simulations of evaporation and condensation processes of giant molecular clouds in a hot plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieser, Wolfgang; Hensler, Gerhard

    We are performing 2D hydrodynamic simulations to examine the evaporation and condensation processes of giant molecular clouds in the hot phase of the interstellar medium (ISM). The evolution of cold and dense clouds (T=1000K, n_H=3{cm}^{-3}, M=6\\cdot10^4 {M}_{\\odot}) is calculated in the subsonic streaming of a hot rarefied plasma (T=5\\cdot10^6K, n_H=6\\cdot10^{-4}{cm}^{-3}). Our code includes self-gravity, heating and cooling effects and heat conduction by electrons. We are using the thermal conductivity of a fully ionized hydrogen plasma (\\propto {T}^{5/2}, Spitzer, 1962, Physics of Fully Ionized Gases) and a saturated heat flux (Cowie & McKee, 1977, ApJ 211, 135) in regions where the mean free path of the electrons is long compared to the temperature scale height. Significant differences occur between simulations with and without heat conduction. In the simulations without heat conduction, the cloud edge is stired up by Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instabilities after only a few dynamical times. It is not possible to incorporate a significant amount of hot gas in the cloud core before the cloud is destroyed by instabilities. The simulations including heat conduction show an evolution that proceeds not as violent as the case without heat conduction. The edge of the cloud remains nearly unsusceptible to K-H instabilities. In this scenario it is possible to mix the formerly hot streaming gas very effectively with the cloud material.

  15. A parametric study of the linear growth of magnetospheric EMIC waves in a hot plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Cao, Xing; Gu, Xudong; Ni, Binbin; Zhou, Chen; Shi, Run; Zhao, Zhengyu

    2016-06-01

    Since electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the terrestrial magnetosphere play a crucial role in the dynamic losses of relativistic electrons and energetic protons and in the ion heating, it is important to pursue a comprehensive understanding of the EMIC wave dispersion relation under realistic circumstances, which can shed significant light on the generation, amplification, and propagation of magnetospheric EMIC waves. The full kinetic linear dispersion relation is implemented in the present study to evaluate the linear growth of EMIC waves in a multi-ion (H+, He+, and O+) magnetospheric plasma that also consists of hot ring current protons. Introduction of anisotropic hot protons strongly modifies the EMIC wave dispersion surface and can result in the simultaneous growth of H+-, He+-, and O+-band EMIC emissions. Our parametric analysis demonstrates that an increase in the hot proton concentration can produce the generation of H+- and He+-band EMIC waves with higher possibility. While the excitation of H+-band emissions requires relatively larger temperature anisotropy of hot protons, He+-band emissions are more likely to be triggered in the plasmasphere or plasmaspheric plume where the background plasma is denser. In addition, the generation of He+-band waves is more sensitive to the variation of proton temperature than H+-band waves. Increase of cold heavy ion (He+ and O+) density increases the H+ cutoff frequency and therefore widens the frequency coverage of the stop band above the He+ gyrofrequency, leading to a significant damping of H+-band EMIC waves. In contrast, O+-band EMIC waves characteristically exhibit the temporal growth much weaker than the other two bands, regardless of all considered variables, suggesting that O+-band emissions occur at a rate much lower than H+- and He+-band emissions, which is consistent with the observations.

  16. Modeling the hot-dense plasma of the solar interior in and out of thermal equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsiao-Hsuan

    The developments in helioseismology ensure a wealth of studies in solar physics. In particular, with the high precision of the observations of helioseismology, a high-quality solar model is mandated, since even the tiny deviations between a model and the real Sun can be detected. One crucial ingredient of any solar model is the thermodynamics of hot-dense plasmas, in particular the equation of state. This has motivated efforts to develop sophisticated theoretical equations of state (EOS). It is important to realize that for the conditions of solar-interior plasmas, there are no terrestrial laboratory experiments; the only observational constraints come from helioseismology. Among the most successful EOS is so called OPAL EOS, which is part of the Opacity Project at Livermore. It is based on an activity expansion of the quantum plasma, and realized in the so-called "physical picture". One of its main competitor is the so called MHD EOS, which is part of the international Opacity Project (OP), a non-classified multi-country consortium. The approach of MHD is via the so-called "chemical picture". Since OPAL is the most accurate equation of state so far, there has been a call for a public-domain version of it. However, the OPAL code remains proprietary, and its "emulation" makes sense. An additional reason for such a project is that the results form OPAL can only be accessed via tables generated by the OPAL team. Their users do not have the flexibility to change the chemical composition from their end. The earlier MHD-based OPAL emulator worked well with its modifications of the MHD equation of state, which is the Planck-Larkin partition function and its corresponding scattering terms. With this modification, MHD can serve as a OPAL emulator with all the flexibility and accessibility. However, to build a really user-friendly OPAL emulator one should consider CEFF-based OPAL emulator. CEFF itself is already widely used practical EOS which can be easily implemented

  17. Hot gas stream application in micro-bonding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrijasevic, Daniela; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Smetana, Walter; Boehm, Stefan; Brenner, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept for bonding micro-parts with dimensions in the range of 50 μm to 300 μm. Two different kinds of adhesives - polyurethane adhesive foil and hot melt glue - were applied to a basic substrate by different techniques. The focused and concentrated hot gas stream softened glue which had been applied in a solid state. Micro-parts were then embossed in the softened glue, or covered and shielded by it. In this way, a rigid and compact bond was obtained after cooling. For the positioning of micro-parts (optical fibers), it has been necessary to manufacture adequate V-grooves. Finite element analyses using the ANSYS TM program package were performed in order to evaluate parameters which govern the heat transfer to the adhesive and substrate respectively. Experimental results are in good agreement with results obtained by the numerical simulations. The advantages of this new approach are small system size, low capital costs, simple usage, applicability to many material combinations, easy integration into existing production lines, etc.

  18. Resonant scattering of radiation belt electrons and ring current protons by EMIC waves in a hot plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X.; Ni, B.; Xiang, Z.; Zou, Z.; Gu, X.; Fu, S.; Zhou, C.; Zhao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The full kinetic linear dispersion relation in a warm, multi-ion plasma with hot ring current protons is used to calculate the linear growth rate of parallel propagating electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. Significant wave growth at relatively small wave numbers occurs for both H+-band and He+-band EMIC waves at the magnetic equator. We find that the growth of H+-band and He+-band EMIC waves remains strong when they propagate to higher latitudes (< 30 degrees). The full hot plasma dispersion relation and cold plasma dispersion relation are used individually to quantify the quasi-linear bounce-averaged pitch angle diffusion rates for radiation belt electrons and ring current protons due to H+-band and He+-band EMIC waves. The results demonstrate considerable differences in the rates of pitch angle scattering caused by He+-band EMIC waves between the use of hot and cold plasma dispersion relation. He+-band EMIC waves can also resonate with lower energies particles (electrons and protons) when the impact of hot plasma is included. In contrast, much smaller differences are seen in the resonant scattering rates for H+-band EMIC waves. Our study strongly suggests that the effect of hot plasmas should be carefully taken into account to approach improved understanding of the exact role that EMIC waves plays in driving the dynamical evolution of radiation belt electrons and ring current protons.

  19. Parabolic lithium mirror for a laser-driven hot plasma producing device

    DOEpatents

    Baird, James K.

    1979-06-19

    A hot plasma producing device is provided, wherein pellets, singly injected, of frozen fuel are each ignited with a plurality of pulsed laser beams. Ignition takes place within a void area in liquid lithium contained within a pressure vessel. The void in the liquid lithium is created by rotating the pressure vessel such that the free liquid surface of molten lithium therein forms a paraboloid of revolution. The paraboloid functions as a laser mirror with a reflectivity greater than 90%. A hot plasma is produced when each of the frozen deuterium-tritium pellets sequentially arrive at the paraboloid focus, at which time each pellet is illuminated by the plurality of pulsed lasers whose rays pass through circular annuli across the top of the paraboloid. The beams from the lasers are respectively directed by associated mirrors, or by means of a single conical mirror in another embodiment, and by the mirror-like paraboloid formed by the rotating liquid lithium onto the fuel pellet such that the optical flux reaching the pellet can be made to be uniform over 96% of the pellet surface area. The very hot plasma produced by the action of the lasers on the respective singly injected fuel pellets in turn produces a copious quantity of neutrons and X-rays such that the device has utility as a neutron source or as an x-ray source. In addition, the neutrons produced in the device may be utilized to produce tritium in a lithium blanket and is thus a mechanism for producing tritium.

  20. Energy loss of tens keV charged particles traveling in the hot dense carbon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, ZhenGuo; Wang, ZhiGang; He, Bin; Li, DaFang; Zhang, Ping

    2016-08-01

    The energy loss of charged particles, including electrons, protons, and α-particles with tens keV initial energy E 0, traveling in the hot dense carbon (C) plasma for densities from 2.281 to 22.81 g/cm3 and temperatures from 400 to 1500 eV is systematically and quantitatively studied by using the dimensional continuation method. The behaviors of different charged particles are readily distinguishable from each other. Firstly, because an ion is thousands times heavier than an electron, the penetration distance of the electron is much longer than that of proton and α-particle traveling in the plasma. Secondly, most energy of electron projectile with E 0 < 100 keV deposits into the electron species of C plasma, while for the cases of proton and α-particle with E 0 < 100 keV, about more than half energy transfers into the ion species of C plasma. A simple decreasing law of the penetration distance as a function of the plasma density is fitted, and different behaviors of each projectile particle can be clearly found from the fitted data. We believe that with the advanced progress of the present experimental technology, the findings shown here could be confirmed in ion-stopping experiments in the near future.

  1. Physical processes taking place in dense plasma focus devices at the interaction of hot plasma and fast ion streams with materials under test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribkov, V. A.

    2015-06-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) device represents a source of powerful streams of penetrating radiations (hot plasma, fast electron and ion beams, x-rays and neutrons) of ns-scale pulse durations. Power flux densities of the radiation types may reach in certain cases the values up to 1013 W cm  -  2. They are widely used at present time in more than 30 labs in the world in the field of radiation material science. Areas of their implementations are testing of the materials perspective for use in modern fusion reactors (FR) of both types, modification of surface layers with an aim of improvements their properties, production of some nanostructures on their surface, and so on. To use a DPF correctly in these applications it is important to understand the mechanisms of generation of the above-mentioned radiations, their dynamics inside and outside of the pinch and processes of interaction of these streams with targets. In this paper, the most important issues on the above matter we discuss in relation to the cumulative hot plasma stream and the beam of fast ions with illustration of experimental results obtained at four DPF devices ranged in the limits of bank energies from 1 kJ to 1 MJ. Among them mechanisms of a jet formation, a current abruption phenomenon, a super-Alfven ion beam propagation inside and outside of DPF plasma, generation of secondary plasma and formation of shock waves in plasma and inside a solid-state target, etc. Nanosecond time-resolved techniques (electric probes, laser interferometry, frame self-luminescent imaging, x-ray/neutron probes, etc) give an opportunity to investigate the above-mentioned events and to observe the process of interaction of the radiation types with targets. After irradiation, we analyzed the specimens by contemporary instrumentation: optical and scanning electron microscopy, local x-ray spectral and structure analysis, atomic force microscopy, the portable x-ray diffractometer that combines x-ray single

  2. Strong higher-order resonant contributions to x-ray line polarization in hot plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Chintan; Amaro, Pedro; Steinbrügge, Rene; Beilmann, Christian; Bernitt, Sven; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey; Crespo López-Urrutia, José R.; Tashenov, Stanislav

    2016-06-01

    We studied angular distributions of x rays emitted in resonant recombination of highly charged iron and krypton ions, resolving dielectronic, trielectronic, and quadruelectronic channels. A tunable electron beam drove these processes, inducing x rays registered by two detectors mounted along and perpendicular to the beam axis. The measured emission asymmetries comprehensively benchmarked full-order atomic calculations. We conclude that accurate polarization diagnostics of hot plasmas can only be obtained under the premise of inclusion of higher-order processes that were neglected in earlier work.

  3. Strong higher-order resonant contributions to x-ray line polarization in hot plasmas.

    PubMed

    Shah, Chintan; Amaro, Pedro; Steinbrügge, Rene; Beilmann, Christian; Bernitt, Sven; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey; Crespo López-Urrutia, José R; Tashenov, Stanislav

    2016-06-01

    We studied angular distributions of x rays emitted in resonant recombination of highly charged iron and krypton ions, resolving dielectronic, trielectronic, and quadruelectronic channels. A tunable electron beam drove these processes, inducing x rays registered by two detectors mounted along and perpendicular to the beam axis. The measured emission asymmetries comprehensively benchmarked full-order atomic calculations. We conclude that accurate polarization diagnostics of hot plasmas can only be obtained under the premise of inclusion of higher-order processes that were neglected in earlier work. PMID:27415199

  4. A Detection of the Same Hot Plasma in the Corona: During a CME and Later at Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2004-01-01

    We show direct evidence for the same very hot plasma being detected remotely from SOHO in the corona and subsequently, at Ulysses in the solar wind. This is, to our knowledge, the first time that such an unambiguous identification has been made in the case of hot plasma. This detection complements studies correlating other plasma and field properties observed to the properties measured at the source in the corona. This observation takes advantage of a SOHO-Sun-Ulysses quadrature, during which the Sun-Ulysses included angle is $90^\\circ$ and it is possible to observe with Ulysses instruments the same plasma that has previously been remotely observed with SOHO instruments in the corona on the limb of the Sun. The identification builds on an existing base of separate SOHO and interplanetary detections of hot plasma. SOHO/UVCS has found evidence for very hot coronal plasma in current sheets in the aftermath of CMEs in the [Fe XVIII] $\\lambda$ \\AA\\ line, implying a temperature on the order of $6\\times 10(exp 6)$ K. This temperature is unusually high even for active regions, but is compatible with the high temperature predicted in current sheets. In the solar wind, ACE data from early 1998 to middle 2000 revealed high frozen-in Fe charge state in many cases to be present in interplanetary plasma.

  5. Planar and cylindrical magnetosonic solitary and shock waves in dissipative, hot electron-positron-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jehan, Nusrat; Mirza, Arshad M.; Salahuddin, M.

    2011-05-15

    Planar and cylindrical magnetosonic solitary and shock structures are studied in a hot and dissipative plasma consisting of electrons, positrons, and ions. By employing the reductive perturbative method, a modified Korteweg-de Vries Burgers (mKdVB) equation is derived in the limit of low frequency and long wavelength by taking into account viscous dissipation of the three species. The effects of variation of various plasma parameters on the profiles of planar and cylindrical solitary and shock structures are discussed. In the limit, when certain terms of the mKdVB equation are small enough to be treated as perturbation, analytical solutions are obtained and compared with the corresponding numerical ones.

  6. Recent developments in atomic physics for the simulation of hot plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapisch, M.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Colombant, D.

    2001-05-01

    Simulations of plasmas in which atoms are not completely stripped require atomic data, like average charge, ionization energies, and radiative properties (emissivity, opacity). These depend on populations of energy levels. The basic framework for obtaining the latter is the collisional radiative model (CRM), which bridges the gap between the low-density Corona Equilibrium (CE) and Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE). However, for nearly all but the simplest ions, the number of relevant bound states and cross sections is prohibitive. In this review we summarize some recent methods for handling complex ions: By focusing on an exact evaluation of relevant information and ignoring unobservable features, unresolved transition arrays (UTA) are obtained. The supertransition arrays (STA) model combines many UTAs in LTE. The STA code was recently extended to a non-LTE CRM called SCROLL. Using these models could improve radiation simulation in hot plasmas, even for simple spectra.

  7. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low beta compact toroid injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Hsu, Scott; Li, Hui

    2009-01-01

    We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low {beta} compact toroid (CT) injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into CT fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). A regime is identified in terms of CT injection speed and CT-to-background magnetic field ratio that appears promising for precise core fueling. Shock-dominated regimes, which are probably unfavorable for tokamak fueling, are also identified. The CT penetration depth is proportional to the CT injection speed and density. The entire CT evolution can be divided into three stages: (1) initial penetration, (2) compression in the direction of propagation and reconnection, and (3) coming to rest and spreading in the direction perpendicular to injection. Tilting of the CT is not observed due to the fast transit time of the CT across the background plasma.

  8. On the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for soft fermionic excitations in a hot QCD plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, Yu. A.; Markova, M. A.

    2010-09-01

    We discuss two ways of deriving the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) for soft fermion excitations in a hot non-Abelian plasma being in a thermal equilibrium. The first of them is based on the extended (pseudo)classical model in describing a quark-gluon plasma suggested in [Yu.A. Markov, M.A. Markova, Nucl. Phys. B 784 (2007) 443], while the second one rests on the standard technique of calculation of the FDT for thermodynamically equilibrium systems. We show that full accounting all subtleties that are common to the fermion system under consideration, results in perfect coincidence of thus obtained FDTs. This provides a rather strong argument for the validity of the pseudoclassical model suggested.

  9. Probing hot and dense laser-induced plasmas with ultrafast XUV pulses.

    PubMed

    Dobosz, S; Doumy, G; Stabile, H; D'Oliveira, P; Monot, P; Réau, F; Hüller, S; Martin, Ph

    2005-07-01

    In this Letter, we demonstrate the instantaneous creation of a hot solid-density plasma generated by focusing an intense femtosecond, high temporal contrast laser on an ultrathin foil (100 nm) in the 10(18) W/cm2 intensity range. The use of high-order harmonics generated in a gas jet, providing a probe beam of sufficiently short wavelengths to penetrate such a medium, enables the study of the dynamics of this plasma on the 100 fs time scale. The comparison of the transmission of two successive harmonics permits us to determine the electronic density and the temperature with accuracies better than 15%, never achieved up to this date in the regime of laser pulses at relativistic intensity. PMID:16090690

  10. Modeling atmospheric pressure plasmas for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, David

    2007-10-01

    The use of cold, atmospheric pressure plasmas for biomedical treatments is an exciting new application in gaseous electronics. Investigations to date include various tissue treatments and surgery, bacterial destruction, and the promotion of wound healing, among others. In this talk, I will present results from modeling the `plasma needle,' an atmospheric pressure plasma configuration that has been explored by several groups around the world. The biomedical efficacy of the plasma needle has been demonstrated but the mechanisms of cell and tissue modification or bacterial destruction are only just being established. One motivation for developing models is to help interpret experiments and evaluate postulated mechanisms. The model reveals important elements of the plasma needle sustaining mechanisms and operating modes. However, the extraordinary complexity of plasma-tissue interactions represents a long-term challenge for this burgeoning field.

  11. Antimicrobial Applications of Ambient--Air Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovich, Matthew John

    The emerging field of plasma biotechology studies the applications of the plasma phase of matter to biological systems. "Ambient-condition" plasmas created at or near room temperature and atmospheric pressure are especially promising for biomedical applications because of their convenience, safety to patients, and compatibility with existing medical technology. Plasmas can be created from many different gases; plasma made from air contains a number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, or RONS, involved in various biological processes, including immune activity, signaling, and gene expression. Therefore, ambient-condition air plasma is of particular interest for biological applications. To understand and predict the effects of treating biological systems with ambient-air plasma, it is necessary to characterize and measure the chemical species that these plasmas produce. Understanding both gaseous chemistry and the chemistry in plasma-treated aqueous solution is important because many biological systems exist in aqueous media. Existing literature about ambient-air plasma hypothesizes the critical role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; a major aim of this dissertation is to better quantify RONS by produced ambient-air plasma and understand how RONS chemistry changes in response to different plasma processing conditions. Measurements imply that both gaseous and aqueous chemistry are highly sensitive to operating conditions. In particular, chemical species in air treated by plasma exist in either a low-power ozone-dominated mode or a high-power nitrogen oxide-dominated mode, with an unstable transition region at intermediate discharge power and treatment time. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, or NOx) are mutually exclusive in this system and that the transition region corresponds to the transition from ozone- to nitrogen oxides-mode. Aqueous chemistry agrees well with to air plasma chemistry, and a similar transition in liquid-phase composition

  12. X-RAY DIAGNOSTICS OF THERMAL CONDITIONS OF THE HOT PLASMAS IN THE CENTAURUS CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, I.; Makishima, K.; Kitaguchi, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Okuyama, S.; Kawaharada, M.; Matsushita, K.; Ota, N.; Fukazawa, Y.; Ikebe, Y.; Kokubun, M.; Tamura, T.

    2009-08-10

    X-ray data of the Centaurus cluster, obtained with XMM-Newton for 45 ks, were analyzed. Deprojected EPIC spectra from concentric thin-shell regions were reproduced equally well by a single-phase plasma emission model, or by a two-phase model developed by ASCA, both incorporating cool (1.7-2.0 keV) and hot ({approx} 4 keV) plasma temperatures. However, EPIC spectra with higher statistics, accumulated over three-dimensional thick-shell regions, were reproduced better by the two-phase model than by the singe-phase one. Therefore, hot and cool plasma phases are inferred to co-exist in the cluster core region within {approx} 70 kpc. The iron and silicon abundances of the plasma were reconfirmed to increase significantly toward the center, while that of oxygen was consistent with being radially constant. The implied nonsolar abundance ratios explain away the previously reported excess X-ray absorption from the central region. Although an additional cool ({approx} 0.7 keV) emission was detected within {approx} 20 kpc of the center, the RGS data gave tight upper limits on any emission with temperatures below {approx} 0.5 keV. These results are compiled into a magnetosphere model, which interprets the cool phase as confined within closed magnetic loops anchored to the cD galaxy. When combined with the so-called Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana mechanism which applies to solar coronae, this model can potentially explain basic properties of the cool phase, including its temperature and thermal stability.

  13. Large area cold plasma applicator for decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konesky, G. A.

    2008-04-01

    Cold plasma applicators have been used in the Medical community for several years for uses ranging from hemostasis ("stop bleeding") to tumor removal. An added benefit of this technology is enhanced wound healing by the destruction of infectious microbial agents without damaging healthy tissue. The beam is typically one millimeter to less than a centimeter in diameter. This technology has been adapted and expanded to large area applicators of potentially a square meter or more. Decontamination applications include both biological and chemical agents, and assisting in the removal of radiological agents, with minimal or no damage to the contaminated substrate material. Linear and planar multiemitter array plasma applicator design and operation is discussed.

  14. Standing electromagnetic solitons in hot ultra-relativistic electron-positron plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Heidari, E.; Aslaninejad, M.; Eshraghi, H.; Rajaee, L.

    2014-03-15

    Using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model, we investigate standing relativistic bright solitons in hot electron-positron plasmas. The positron dynamics is taken into account. A set of nonlinear coupled differential equations describing the evolution of electromagnetic waves in fully relativistic two-fluid plasma is derived analytically and solved numerically. As a necessary condition for the existence of standing solitons the system should be relativistic. For the case of ultra-relativistic plasma, we investigate non-drifting bright solitary waves. Detailed discussions of the acceptable solutions are presented. New single hump non-trivial symmetric solutions for the scalar potential were found, and single and multi-nodal symmetric and anti-symmetric solutions for the vector potential are presented. It is shown that for a fixed value of the fluid velocity excited modes with more zeros in the profile of the vector potential show a higher magnitude for the scalar potential. An increase in the plasma fluid velocity also increases the magnitude of the scalar potential. Furthermore, the Hamiltonian and the first integral of the system are given.

  15. Neutron monitoring and electrode calorimetry experiments in the HIP-1 Hot Ion Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Layman, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for two diagnostic procedures on HIP-1: neutron diagnostics to determine where neutrons originated within the plasma discharge chamber and electrode calorimetry to measure the steady-state power absorbed by the two anodes and cathodes. Results are also reported for a hot-ion plasma formed with a continuous-cathode rod, one that spans the full length of the test section, in place of the two hollow cathodes. The outboard neutron source strength increased relative to that at the midplane when (1) the cathode tips were moved farther outboard, (2) the anode diameters were increased, and (3) one of the anodes was removed. The distribution of neutron sources within the plasma discharge chamber was insensitive to the division of current between the two cathodes. For the continuous cathode, increasing the discharge current increased the midplane neutron source strength relative to the outboard source strength. Each cathode absorbed from 12 to 15 percent of the input power regardless of the division of current between the cathodes. The anodes absorbed from 20 to 40 percent of the input power. The division of power absorption between the anodes varied with plasma operating conditions and electrode placement.

  16. Coupled hydrodynamic model for laser-plasma interaction and hot electron generation.

    PubMed

    Colaïtis, A; Duchateau, G; Ribeyre, X; Maheut, Y; Boutoux, G; Antonelli, L; Nicolaï, Ph; Batani, D; Tikhonchuk, V

    2015-10-01

    We present a formulation of the model of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) at hydrodynamical scales that couples the plasma dynamics with linear and nonlinear LPI processes, including the creation and propagation of high-energy electrons excited by parametric instabilities and collective effects. This formulation accounts for laser beam refraction and diffraction, energy absorption due to collisional and resonant processes, and hot electron generation due to the stimulated Raman scattering, two-plasmon decay, and resonant absorption processes. Hot electron (HE) transport and absorption are described within the multigroup angular scattering approximation, adapted for transversally Gaussian electron beams. This multiscale inline LPI-HE model is used to interpret several shock ignition experiments, highlighting the importance of target preheating by HEs and the shortcomings of standard geometrical optics when modeling the propagation and absorption of intense laser pulses. It is found that HEs from parametric instabilities significantly increase the shock pressure and velocity in the target, while decreasing its strength and the overall ablation pressure. PMID:26565161

  17. Coupled hydrodynamic model for laser-plasma interaction and hot electron generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaïtis, A.; Duchateau, G.; Ribeyre, X.; Maheut, Y.; Boutoux, G.; Antonelli, L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Batani, D.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a formulation of the model of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) at hydrodynamical scales that couples the plasma dynamics with linear and nonlinear LPI processes, including the creation and propagation of high-energy electrons excited by parametric instabilities and collective effects. This formulation accounts for laser beam refraction and diffraction, energy absorption due to collisional and resonant processes, and hot electron generation due to the stimulated Raman scattering, two-plasmon decay, and resonant absorption processes. Hot electron (HE) transport and absorption are described within the multigroup angular scattering approximation, adapted for transversally Gaussian electron beams. This multiscale inline LPI-HE model is used to interpret several shock ignition experiments, highlighting the importance of target preheating by HEs and the shortcomings of standard geometrical optics when modeling the propagation and absorption of intense laser pulses. It is found that HEs from parametric instabilities significantly increase the shock pressure and velocity in the target, while decreasing its strength and the overall ablation pressure.

  18. Hot-electron plasma formation and confinement in the tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Ress, D.B.

    1988-06-01

    The tandem mirror experiment-upgrade (TMX-U) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the first experiment to investigate the thermal-barrier tandem-mirror concept. One attractive feature of the tandem magnetic mirror as a commercial power reactor is that the fusion reactions occur in an easily accessible center-cell. On the other hand, complicated end-cells are necessary to provide magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and improved particle confinement of the center-cell plasma. In these end-cells, enhanced confinement is achieved with a particular axial potential profile that is formed with electron-cyclotron range-of-frequency heating (ECRF heating, ECRH). By modifying the loss rates of electrons at spatially distinct locations within the end-cells, the ECRH can tailor the plasma potential profile in the desired fashion. Specifically, the thermal-barrier concept requires generation of a population of energetic electrons near the midplane of each end-cell. To be effective, the transverse (to the magnetic field) spatial structure of the hot-electron plasma must be fairly uniform. In this dissertation we characterize the spatial structure of the ECRH-generated plasma, and determine how the structure builds up in time. Furthermore, the plasma should efficiently absorb the ECRF power, and a large fraction of the electrons must be well confined near the end-cell midplane. Therefore, we also examine in detail the ECRH power balance, determining how the ECRF power is absorbed by the plasma, and the processes through which that power is confined and lost. 43 refs., 69 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Penumbral Imaging of micrometer size plasma hot spots at shock stagnation in Gbar EOS experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Benjamin; Kritcher, A. L.; Benedetti, L. R.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenn, S.; Hawreliak, J.; Izumi, N.; Kraus, D.; Landen, O. L.; Lepape, S.; Ma, T.; Perez, F.; Swift, D.; Doeppner, T.

    2014-10-01

    We have developed an experimental platform for absolute equation of state (EOS) measurements up to Gbar pressures on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). We use a symmetry-tuned hohlraum drive to launch a spherical shock wave into a solid CH sphere. Streaked Radiography is the primary diagnostic to measure the density change at the shock front as the pressure increases towards smaller radii. At shock stagnation in the center of the capsule, we observe short and bright x-ray self emission from high density (50 g/cm3) plasma at 1 keV. Here, we present results obtained with penumbral imaging, carried out to characterize the size of the hot spot emission. A detailed understanding of this size and emission strength allows for benchmarking radiation-hydro simulations in a regime that is not accessible to radiography. The application of penumbral imaging extends existing NIF diagnostic capabilities to higher spatial resolution (currently 10 μm to 1 μm) and higher sensitivity. At peak emission we find the hot spot radius to be as small as 5.8 +/ -1 μm, corresponding to a convergence ratio of 200. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Hot-melt extrusion technology and pharmaceutical application.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Matthew; Williams, Marcia A; Jones, David S; Andrews, Gavin P

    2012-06-01

    The use of hot-melt extrusion (HME) within the pharmaceutical industry is steadily increasing, due to its proven ability to efficiently manufacture novel products. The process has been utilized readily in the plastics industry for over a century and has been used to manufacture medical devices for several decades. The development of novel drugs with poor solubility and bioavailability brought the application of HME into the realm of drug-delivery systems. This has specifically been shown in the development of drug-delivery systems of both solid dosage forms and transdermal patches. HME involves the application of heat, pressure and agitation through an extrusion channel to mix materials together, and subsequently forcing them out through a die. Twin-screw extruders are most popular in solid dosage form development as it imparts both dispersive and distributive mixing. It blends materials while also imparting high shear to break-up particles and disperse them. HME extrusion has been shown to molecularly disperse poorly soluble drugs in a polymer carrier, increasing dissolution rates and bioavailability. The most common difficulty encountered in producing such dispersions is stabilization of amorphous drugs, which prevents them from recrystallization during storage. Pharmaceutical industrial suppliers, of both materials and equipment, have increased their development of equipment and chemicals for specific use with HME. Clearly, HME has been identified as an important and significant process to further enhance drug solubility and solid-dispersion production. PMID:22838073

  1. Plasma Sources for Medical Applications - A Comparison of Spot Like Plasmas and Large Area Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-09-01

    Plasma applications in life science are currently emerging worldwide. Whereas today's commercially available plasma surgical technologies such as argon plasma coagulation (APC) or ablation are mainly based on lethal plasma effects on living systems, the newly emerging therapeutic applications will be based on selective, at least partially non-lethal, possibly stimulating plasma effects on living cells and tissue. Promising results could be obtained by different research groups worldwide revealing a huge potential for the application of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma in fields such as tissue engineering, healing of chronic wounds, treatment of skin diseases, tumor treatment based on specific induction of apoptotic processes, inhibition of biofilm formation and direct action on biofilms or treatment of dental diseases. The development of suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapies requires an in-depth knowledge of their physics, chemistry and parameters. Therefore much basic research still needs to be conducted to minimize risk and to provide a scientific fundament for new plasma-based medical therapies. It is essential to perform a comprehensive assessment of physical and biological experiments to clarify minimum standards for plasma sources for applications in life science and for comparison of different sources. One result is the DIN-SPEC 91315, which is now open for further improvements. This contribution intends to give an overview on the status of commercial cold plasma sources as well as cold plasma sources still under development for medical use. It will discuss needs, prospects and approaches for the characterization of plasmas from different points of view. Regarding the manageability in everyday medical life, atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) and dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) are of special interest. A comprehensive risk-benefit assessment including the state of the art of commercial sources for medical use

  2. Aerial ULV application of permethrin against adult mosquitoes in an extreme hot-arid zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial ULV insecticide application is an established strategy for adult mosquito control in tropical, hot-humid, or temperate environments. However, not enough is known regarding the efficacy of aerial applications in hot-arid environments similar to those encountered by US military personnel, where...

  3. Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed MCrAlY-Cr2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Huang, Chuanbing; Lan, Hao; Du, Lingzhong; Zhang, Weigang

    2016-08-01

    The oxidation and hot corrosion behavior of two atmospheric plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY-Cr2O3 and CoNiCrAlY-Cr2O3 coatings, which are primarily designed for wear applications at high temperature, were investigated in this study. The two coatings were exposed to air and molten salt (75%Na2SO4-25%NaCl) environment at 800 °C under cyclic conditions. Oxidation and hot corrosion kinetic curves were obtained by thermogravimetric technique. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry were employed to characterize the coatings' microstructure, surface oxides, and composition. The results showed that both coatings provided the necessary oxidation resistance with oxidation rates of about 1.03 × 10-2 and 1.36 × 10-2 mg/cm2 h, respectively. The excellent oxidation behavior of these two coatings is attributed to formation of protective (Ni,Co)Cr2O4 spinel on the surface, while as-deposited Cr2O3 in the coatings also acted as a barrier to diffusion of oxidative and corrosive substances. The greater presence of Co in the CoNiCrAlY-Cr2O3 coating restrained internal diffusion of sulfur and slowed down the coating's degradation. Thus, the CoNiCrAlY-Cr2O3 coating was found to be more protective than the NiCoCrAlY-Cr2O3 coating under hot corrosion condition.

  4. Application of Dusty Plasmas for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavasar, Hemang; Ahuja, Smariti

    plasmas, dust particles are actually grown in the discharge from the reactive gases used to form the plasmas. Perhaps the most intriguing aspect of dusty plasmas is that the particles can be directly imaged and their dynamic behavior recorded as digital images. This is accomplished by laser light scattering from the particles. Since the particle mass is relatively high, their dynamical timescales are much longer than that of the ions or electrons. Dusty plasmas has a broad range of applications including interplanetary space dust, comets, planetary rings, dusty surfaces in space, and aerosols in the atmosphere.

  5. Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) Material Applications for Thruster Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra; Holmes, Richard; Hickman, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A variety of vacuum plasma spray (VPS) material systems have been successfully applied to injector and thrust chamber components. VPS offers a versatile fabrication process with relatively low costs to produce near net shape parts. The materials available with VPS increase operating margins and improve component life by providing superior thermal and oxidation protection in specific engine environments. Functional gradient materials (FGM) formed with VPS allow thrust chamber liners to be fabricated with GRCop-84 (an alloy of copper, chrome, and niobium) and a protective layer of NiCrAlY on the hot wall. A variety of thrust chamber liner designs have been fabricated to demonstrate the versatility of the process. Hot-fire test results have confirmed the improved durability and high temperature performance of the material systems for thrust chamber liners. Similar FGM s have been applied to provide superior thermal protection on injector faceplates with NiCrAlY and zirconia coatings. The durability of the applied materials has been demonstrated with hot-fire cycle testing on injector faceplates in high temperature environments. The material systems can benefit the components used in booster and main engine propulsion systems. More recent VPS efforts are focused on producing rhenium based material systems for high temperature applications to benefit in-space engines like reaction control system (RCS) thrusters.

  6. Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) Material Applications for Thruster Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra; Holmes, Richard; Hickman, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A variety of vacuum plasma spray (VPS) material systems have been successfully applied to injector and thrust chamber components. VPS offers a versatile fabrication process with relatively low costs to produce near net shape parts. The materials available with VPS increase operating margins and improve component life by providing superior thermal and oxidation protection in specific engine environments. Functional gradient materials (FGM) formed with VPS allow thrust chamber liners to be fabricated with GRCop-84 (an alloy of copper, chrome, and niobium) and a protective layer of NiCrAlY on the hot wall. A variety of thrust chamber liner designs have been fabricated to demonstrate the versatility of the process. Hot-fire test results have confined the improved durability and high temperature performance of the material systems for thrust chamber liners. Similar FGM s have been applied to provide superior thermal protection on injector faceplates with NiCrAlY and zirconia coatings. The durability of the applied materials has been demonstrated with hot-fire cycle testing on injector faceplates in high temperature environments. The material systems can benefit the components used in booster and main engine propulsion systems. More recent VPS efforts are focused on producing rhenium based material systems for high temperature applications to benefit in-space engines like reaction control system (RCS) thrusters.

  7. Polarization effect on the relativistic nonlinear dynamics of an intense laser beam propagating in a hot magnetoactive plasma.

    PubMed

    Sepehri Javan, N; Adli, F

    2013-10-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of an intense circularly polarized laser beam interacting with a hot magnetized plasma is investigated. Using a relativistic fluid model, a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived based on a quasineutral approximation, which is valid for hot plasma. Using a three-dimensional model, spatial-temporal development of the laser pulse is investigated. The occurrence of some nonlinear phenomena such as self-focusing, self-modulation, light trapping, and filamentation of the laser pulse is discussed. Also the effect of polarization and external magnetic field on the nonlinear evolution of these phenomena is studied. PMID:24229288

  8. High-impedance wire grid method to study spatiotemporal behavior of hot electron clump generated in a plasma.

    PubMed

    Terasaka, K; Yoshimura, S; Kato, Y; Furuta, K; Aramaki, M; Morisaki, T; Tanaka, M Y

    2014-11-01

    High-impedance Wire Grid (HIWG) detector has been developed to study spatiotemporal behavior of a hot electron clump generated in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. By measuring the floating potentials of the wire electrodes, and generating structure matrix made of geometrical means of the floating potentials, the HIWG detector reconstructs the spatial distribution of high-temperature electron clump at an arbitrary instant of time. Time slices of the spike event in floating potential revealed the growth and decay process of a hot spot occurs in an ECR plasma. PMID:25430112

  9. High-impedance wire grid method to study spatiotemporal behavior of hot electron clump generated in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Terasaka, K. Kato, Y.; Tanaka, M. Y.; Yoshimura, S.; Morisaki, T.; Furuta, K.; Aramaki, M.

    2014-11-15

    High-impedance Wire Grid (HIWG) detector has been developed to study spatiotemporal behavior of a hot electron clump generated in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. By measuring the floating potentials of the wire electrodes, and generating structure matrix made of geometrical means of the floating potentials, the HIWG detector reconstructs the spatial distribution of high-temperature electron clump at an arbitrary instant of time. Time slices of the spike event in floating potential revealed the growth and decay process of a hot spot occurs in an ECR plasma.

  10. Detailed diagnostics for a hot bromine plasma by the open M-shell opacity

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Fengtao; Yuan Jianmin

    2005-07-01

    The experimental transmission spectrum of a hot bromine plasma [J. E. Bailey et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 81, 31 (2003)] has been simulated by using a detailed level accounting model (DLA). With assumption of the local thermodynamic equilibrium, the major absorption lines of the experimental spectrum are well reproduced by the present DLA calculation, and the details of the absorption line shapes are used to determine the temperature of the plasma. In contrast to the results of two former statistical models, where the temperature was determined via a global fitting to the experimental data, the present DLA diagnoses the plasma temperature by the line ratios of different charge states in the 2p{yields}3d transition groups resulting in a temperature of 37 eV. It is shown that a change of 1 eV in temperature could cause perceptible changes in the simulated spectrum. It is also shown that the 2p{sub 1/2}{yields}3d{sub 3/2} absorptions have been overestimated by the statistical models.

  11. On the Io-type plasma source in Hot Jupiters systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislyakova, K. G.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Funk, B.; Lammer, H.; Erkaev, N. V.; Boudiada, M.

    2015-10-01

    We discuss the possibility of the existence of Io-type plasma source in the exoplanetary systems from the stability point of view. We point out that close-in exoplanets possibly have no or only very small moons because of the small Hill radii defined by their proximity to the host stars. For close-in Hot Jupiters, the Hill radius is of the order of only several planetary radii. Some exoplanets, e.g. WASP-12b, are so inflated, that they are believed to fill their Roche lobes with the expanded atmosphere only. For stability reasons, the orbits of the moons have to be within the Hill sphere of their planets, this makes the very existence of the Earth- and even Io-size moons in such systems questionable, and, thus, probably also the Io-type plasma source. However, one can not exclude plasma producing exomoons orbiting in or near the Lagrange points L4 and L5. We discuss also the outgassing rates of such an exomoon in comparison to Io.

  12. Exercise in a hot environment influences plasma anti-inflammatory and antioxidant status in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Antoni; Mestre-Alfaro, Antonia; Banquells, Montserrat; Riera, Joan; Drobnic, Franchek; Camps, Jordi; Joven, Jorge; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Exercise in thermally stressful environmental conditions can enhance oxidative stress. We sought to measure the plasma antioxidant defenses and cytokine response together with oxidative damage post-exercise in a temperate versus a hot environment. The plasma concentrations of vasoactive endothelin-1 and vascular angiogenic growth factor were also evaluated. Male athletes (n=9) volunteered to participate. The athletes randomly performed two bouts of treadmill exercise of 45min at 75-80% of maximal oxygen uptake in a climatic-controlled chamber under two different conditions: temperate environment (10-12°C, 40-55% humidity) and hot, humid environment (30-32°C, 75-78% humidity). Venous blood samples were obtained immediately pre- and post-bout and on recovery after 2h. Serum glucose, malondialdehyde and lactate concentrations were significantly increased post-exercise in hot but maintained in the temperate environment; these post-exercise values were significantly higher after exercise in hot than in temperate. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration, plasma phosphocreatine kinase and catalase activities, creatinine and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and interleukin-6 significantly increased post-exercise in hot but maintained in temperate environment. The post-exercise circulating values of antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase-1 and endothelin were significantly higher in the hot than in temperate environment. Exercise in a hot and humid environment resulted in mild hyperthermia with elevated perceived exertion and thermal stress. Hyperthermic environment induced hyperglycemia, lactatecidemia and more cellular and oxidative damage than exercise in a temperate environment but also induced a post-exercise antioxidant and anti-inflammatory response in plasma. These results suggest that environmental temperature needs to be taken into account when evaluating exercise-related oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:25526659

  13. X-ray emitting hot plasma in solar active regions observed by the SphinX spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miceli, M.; Reale, F.; Gburek, S.; Terzo, S.; Barbera, M.; Collura, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Podgorski, P.; Gryciuk, M.

    2012-08-01

    Aims: The detection of very hot plasma in the quiescent corona is important for diagnosing heating mechanisms. The presence and the amount of such hot plasma is currently debated. The SphinX instrument on-board the CORONAS-PHOTON mission is sensitive to X-ray emission of energies well above 1 keV and provides the opportunity to detect the hot plasma component. Methods: We analysed the X-ray spectra of the solar corona collected by the SphinX spectrometer in May 2009 (when two active regions were present). We modelled the spectrum extracted from the whole Sun over a time window of 17 days in the 1.34-7 keV energy band by adopting the latest release of the APED database. Results: The SphinX broadband spectrum cannot be modelled by a single isothermal component of optically thin plasma and two components are necessary. In particular, the high statistical significance of the count rates and the accurate calibration of the spectrometer allowed us to detect a very hot component at ~7 million K with an emission measure of ~2.7 × 1044 cm-3. The X-ray emission from the hot plasma dominates the solar X-ray spectrum above 4 keV. We checked that this hot component is invariably present in both the high and low emission regimes, i.e. even excluding resolvable microflares. We also present and discuss the possibility of a non-thermal origin (which would be compatible with a weak contribution from thick-target bremsstrahlung) for this hard emission component. Conclusions: Our results support the nanoflare scenario and might confirm that a minor flaring activity is ever-present in the quiescent corona, as also inferred for the coronae of other stars.

  14. Reflectometric measurement of plasma imaging and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mase, A.; Ito, N.; Oda, M.; Komada, Y.; Nagae, D.; Zhang, D.; Kogi, Y.; Tobimatsu, S.; Maruyama, T.; Shimazu, H.; Sakata, E.; Sakai, F.; Kuwahara, D.; Yoshinaga, T.; Tokuzawa, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G.; Lee, W.; Padhi, S.; Kim, K. W.

    2012-01-01

    Progress in microwave and millimeter-wave technologies has made possible advanced diagnostics for application to various fields, such as, plasma diagnostics, radio astronomy, alien substance detection, airborne and spaceborne imaging radars called as synthetic aperture radars, living body measurements. Transmission, reflection, scattering, and radiation processes of electromagnetic waves are utilized as diagnostic tools. In this report we focus on the reflectometric measurements and applications to biological signals (vital signal detection and breast cancer detection) as well as plasma diagnostics, specifically by use of imaging technique and ultra-wideband radar technique.

  15. Statistical uncertainties in temperature diagnostics for hot coronal plasma using the ASCA SIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; O'Dell, S. L.; Sulkanen, M. E.; Tennant, A. F., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Statistical uncertainties in determining the temperatures of hot (0.5-10 keV) coronal plasmas are investigated. The statistical presicion of various spectral temperature diagnostics is established by analyzing synthetic ASCA solid-state imaging spectrometer (SIS) CCD spectra. The diagnostics considered are the ratio of hydrogen-like to helium-like line complexes of Z greater than or = 14 elements, line-free portions of the continuum, and the entire spectrum. While fits to the entire spectrum yield the highest statistical precision, it is argued that fits to the line-free continuum are less susceptible to atomic data uncertainties but lead to a modest increase in statistical uncertainty over full spectral fits. Temperatures deduced from line ratios can have similar accuracy, but only over a narrow range of temperatures. Convenient estimates of statistical accuracies for the various temperature diagnostics are provided which may be used in planning ASCA SIS observations.

  16. Vacuum application of thermal barrier plasma coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. R.; Mckechnie, T. N.

    1988-01-01

    Coatings are presently applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbine blades for protection against the harsh environment realized in the engine during lift off-to-orbit. High performance nickel, chromium, aluminum, and yttrium (NiCrAlY) alloy coatings, which are applied by atmospheric plasma spraying, crack and spall off because of the severe thermal shock experienced during start-up and shut-down of the engine. Ceramic coatings of yttria stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-Y2O3) were applied initially as a thermal barrier over coating to the NiCrAlY but were removed because of even greater spalling. Utilizing a vacuum plasma spraying process, bond coatings of NiCrAlY were applied in a low pressure atmosphere of argon/helium, producing significantly improved coating-to-blade bonding. The improved coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles, cycling between 1700 and -423 F. The current atmospheric plasma NiCrAlY coatings spalled during 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2-Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the vacuum plasma process. The improved thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles without spalling. Hot firing in an SSME turbine engine is scheduled for the blades. Tooling was installed in preparation for vacuum plasma spray coating other SSME hardware, e.g., the titanium main fuel valve housing (MFVH) and the fuel turbopump nozzle/stator.

  17. The effects of ionization potential depression on the spectra emitted by hot dense aluminium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Thomas R.; Vinko, Sam M.; Ciricosta, Orlando; Chung, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Richard W.; Wark, Justin S.

    2013-06-01

    Recent experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Free-Electron-Laser (FEL) have demonstrated that the standard model used for simulating ionization potential depression (IPD) in a plasma (the Stewart-Pyatt (SP) model, J.C. Stewart and K.D. Pyatt Jr., Astrophysical Journal 144 (1966) 1203) considerably underestimates the degree of IPD in a solid density aluminium plasma at temperatures up to 200 eV. In contrast, good agreement with the experimental data was found by use of a modified Ecker-Kröll (mEK) model (G. Ecker and W. Kröll, Physics of Fluids 6 (1963) 62-69). We present here detailed simulations, using the FLYCHK code, of the predicted spectra from hot dense, hydrogenic and helium-like aluminium plasmas ranging in densities from 0.1 to 4 times solid density, and at temperatures up to 1000 eV. Importantly, we find that the greater IPDs predicted by the mEK model result in the loss of the n = 3 states for the hydrogenic ions for all densities above ≈0.8 times solid density, and for the helium-like ions above ≈0.65 solid density. Therefore, we posit that if the mEK model holds at these higher temperatures, the temperature of solid density highly-charged aluminium plasmas cannot be determined by using spectral features associated with the n = 3 principal quantum number, and propose a re-evaluation of previous experimental data where high densities have been inferred from the spectra, and the SP model has been used.

  18. Dense Hypervelocity Plasma Jets for Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Thio, Y. C. Francis

    2005-10-01

    High velocity dense plasma jets are being developed for a variety of fusion applications, including refueling, disruption mitigation, High Energy Density Plasmas, magnetized target/magneto-inertial fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, and others. The technical goal is to accelerate plasma blobs of density >10^17 cm-3 and total mass >100 micrograms to velocities >200 km/s. The approach utilizes symmetrical injection of very high density plasma into a coaxial EM accelerator having a tailored cross-section that prevents formation of the blow-by instability. AFRL MACH2 modeling identified 2 electrode configurations that produce the desired plasma jet parameters. The injected plasma is generated by up to 64 radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of an angled annular injection section. Initial experimental results are presented in which 8 capillaries are fired in parallel with jitter of ˜100 ns. Current focus is on higher voltage operation to reduce jitter to a few 10's of ns, and development of a suite of optical and spectroscopic plasma diagnostics.

  19. Radio Frequency Plasma Applications for Space Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Baity, F.W., Jr.; Barber, G.C.; Carter, M.D.; Chang-Diaz, F.R.; Goulding, R.H.; Ilin, A.V.; Jaeger, E.F.; Sparks, D.O.; Squire, J.P.

    1999-09-13

    Recent developments in solid-state radio frequency (RF) power technologies allow for the practical consideration of RF heated plasmas for space propulsion. These technologies permit the use of any electrical power source, de-couple the power and propellant sources, and allow for the effcient use of both the propellant mass and power. Effcient use of the propellant is obtained by expelling the rocket exhaust at the highest possible velocity, which can be orders of magnitude higher than those achieved in chemical rockets. Handling the hot plasma exhaust requires the use of magnetic nozzles, and the basic physics of ion detachment from the magnetic eld is discussed. The plasma can be generated by RF using helicon waves to heat electrons. Further direct heating of the ions helps to reduce the line radiation losses, and the magnetic geometry is tailored to allow ion cyclotron resonance heating. RF eld and ion trajectory calculations are presented to give a reasonably self-consistent picture of the ion acceleration process.

  20. On the origin of super-hot electrons from intense laser interactions with solid targets having moderate scale length preformed plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Krygier, A. G.; Schumacher, D. W.; Freeman, R. R.

    2014-02-15

    We use particle-in-cell modeling to identify the acceleration mechanism responsible for the observed generation of super-hot electrons in ultra-intense laser-plasma interactions with solid targets with pre-formed plasma. We identify several features of direct laser acceleration that drive the generation of super-hot electrons. We find that, in this regime, electrons that become super-hot are primarily injected by a looping mechanism that we call loop-injected direct acceleration.

  1. 3D Plasma Equilibrium and Stability with Hot Particle Anisotropic Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W. A.; Graves, J. P.; Hirshman, S. P.; Merkel, P.; Kisslinger, J.; Wobig, H. F. G.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Narushima, Y.

    2008-11-01

    The anisotropic pressure free-boundary three-dimsnsional (3D) equilibrium code ANI-MEC with nested magnetic flux surfaces has been developed as an extension of the VMEC2000 code. The preconditioning algorithm included is exploited to allow the computation of equilibrium states with radial force balance error improvements exceeding 4 orders of magnitude compared with the non-conditioned results. Large off-axis energetic particle deposition has been applied in a 2-field period quasiaxisymmetric stellarator reactor at <{beta}>{approx_equal}4.5% to test the limitations of the code. The hot particle pressures are roughly uniform around the flux surfaces when p{sub parallel}>p{sub perpendicular}. The fast particle perpendicular pressures localise in the region of deposition for p{sub perpendicular}>p{sub parallel}, while the energetic particle parallel pressures concentrate on the low-field side. Two anisotropic pressure models for global fluid stability implemented in the TERPSICHORE code have been applied to the LHD Heliotron for a sequence of equilibria with fixed <{beta}{sub dia}>{approx_equal}5%(<{beta}{sub th}>{approx_equal}3.5%) varying the fast particle temperature ratio T{sub parallel}/T{sub perpendicular}. Global magnetohydrodynamic modes are quasi-stable according to the model with rigid hot particle layers, while they become stabilised according to the fully interacting energetic particle model with increasing T{sub parallel}/T{sub perpendicular}. As T{sub parallel}/T{sub perpendicular} approaches 3, however, the n = 1 mode family becomes unstable. A transition from a nearly stable quasi-external ballooning-interchange structure to a weakly unstable internal kink mode takes place. The investigation of beam-driven fusion in a Heliotron system is broached. A background plasma with cold ions and warm electrons at <{beta}{sub ith}>{approx_equal}1% is examined with fixed T{sub parallel}/T{sub perpendicular} = 10 in which the hot particle contribution to <{beta

  2. Current new applications of laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, A.A.; Forslund, D.W.; McKinstrie, C.J.; Wark, J.S.; Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Hamil, R.A.; Kindel, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes several new applications of laser-produced plasmas that have arisen in the last few years. Most of the applications have been an outgrowth of the active research in laser/matter interaction inspired by the pursuit of laser fusion. Unusual characteristics of high-intensity laser/matter interaction, such as intense x-ray and particle emission, were noticed early in the field and are now being employed in a significant variety of applications outside the fusion filed. Applications range from biology to materials science to pulsed-power control and particle accelerators. 92 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspectsof the technology were examined. A...

  4. Sources of hot electrons in laser-plasma interaction with emphasis on Raman and turbulence absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Estabrook, K.; Kruer, W.L.; Phillion, D.W.; Turner, R.E.; Campbell, E.M.

    1982-04-06

    Heating targets with high power lasers results in a sizable fraction of the absorbed energy going into electrons of temperature much greater than thermal which can pre-heat the pellet core and accelerate fast ion blowoff which results in poor momentum transfer and hence poor compression efficiency. The present emphasis is to build lasers of higher frequency, ..omega../sub 0/, which at the same W/cm/sup 2/ results in more absorption into cooler electrons. Two physical reasons are that the laser can propagate to a higher electron density, n, infinity..omega../sub 0//sup 2/ resulting in more collisional inverse bremsstrahlung absorption proportional to n, and because the hot temperatures from some plasma absorption processes increase as the oscillatory velocity of an electron in the laser electric field v/sub 0//c = eE/(m/sub e/..omega../sub 0/). The heated electron temperatures from other plasma processes (Raman for example approx.(m/sub e//2)v/sup 2//sub phase/ and the higher laser frequency helps by increasing the competing collisional absorption and decreasing the Raman gain.

  5. Plasmas as Antennas - Theory, Experiment and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Gerard

    1999-11-01

    A variety of antennas are employed in telecommunications and radar systems. Some applications pose special problems. Large structures are easily detected by hostile radar. The performance of multi-element HF-VHF arrays is complicated by mutual coupling between large radiating elements. High speed data communications and radar can be limited by signal decay and ringing. A novel solution is an antenna made of plasma that can be made to disappear on microsecond time scales. Recent experiments at the Australian National University (G.G. Borg et. al. App. Phys. Letts. Vol. 74, 3272-3274 [1999]), have shown that highly efficient (25 - 50radiating elements for the range 3 - 300 MHz can be formed using low power (10 - 50 W average) plasma surface waves launched at one end of a tube containing a suitable gas. Only a single capacitive coupler is needed to launch the waves - there is no electrical connection to the other end of the tube. The regimes of wave propagation correlate with expectations from plasma surface wave theory. Actual communications experiments have shown that these plasma antennas can have surprisingly low noise provided they are excited by the rf surface waves and not by a low frequency or DC ohmic current. Applications to HF-VHF communications and radar are being developed. These include both single ruggedised plasma elements and multi-element arrays.

  6. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: Investigating the characteristics of x radiation from a hot plasma by means of glass-capillary converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantsyrev, V. P.; Petrukhin, O. G.; Shlyaptseva, A. S.; Mingaleev, A. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Romanov, V. M.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya

    1993-12-01

    We have investigated the structure of the radiating region of an x-pinch plasma source by means of a new physical apparatus: a glass-capillary converter. We show that this converter unambiguously reproduces an image of the structure of the dense, hot x-pinch plasma in the soft-x-ray region of the spectrum. In comparison with standard pinhole cameras, this device lowers the intensity of hard x-radiation by two orders of magnitude and increases the image contrast. A new method is proposed for investigating the time evolution of the spatial distribution of the soft x-rays intensity of plasma sources.

  7. Hot-filament discharge plasma in argon gas at 140 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Shannon; Robertson, Scott

    2009-11-01

    A hot-filament discharge plasma has been created in a double-walled vacuum chamber with the inner wall cooled by liquid nitrogen vapor. The inner brass chamber (16 cm dia. x 30 cm) is wound with copper tubing for cooling. This chamber has two tungsten filaments 10 cm in length oriented axially about 2.5 cm from the wall. Plasma measurements are made using a Pt wire probe. At 300 K, 0.6 mTorr argon in the outer chamber, and 2 mA emission, the electron density is 1 x10^8 cm-3 and the electron temperature is 0.054 eV. At 140 K, the density is 1.6 x10^8 cm-3 and their temperature is 0.11 eV confirming that the electrons are not cooled by elastic collisions with the gas. The floating potential of the probe is -2.4 V at 300 K and -0.6 V at 140 K as a consequence of the ion current to the probe being about doubled at the lower temperature. The higher ion current may be a consequence of charge-exchange collisions producing cold ions that are more easily captured by the probe. These collisions decrease the ion losses to the wall by slowing ions accelerated by the plasma potential. Electron losses are reduced because of the requirement of quasineutrality, thus reduced evaporative cooling of electrons may be the cause of the increased electron temperature in 140 K gas.

  8. Qualitative structures of electron-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma with q-nonextensive hot electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Asit; Chatterjee, Prasanta

    2015-11-01

    The qualitative structures of electron-acoustic waves are investigated in an unmagnetized plasma containing cold electron fluid, q-nonextensive hot electrons and stationary ions. Applying the phase plane analysis, we present all phase portraits of the dynamical system and corresponding solitary- and periodic-wave solutions. Considering an external periodic perturbation, we study the chaotic structure of the perturbed dynamical system. The non-extensive parameter ( q), the ratio between hot electron and cold electron number density at equilibrium ( α) and speed of the traveling wave ( v) play crucial roles for electron-acoustic solitary, periodic and chaotic structures. The results may have relevance in laboratory plasmas as well as space plasma environments.

  9. Novel applications of plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Arzu Ceren

    The current study investigates the effectiveness of two different dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator configurations, a 3-D annular geometry for use in micro thrusters and internal duct aerodynamics and a jet vectoring actuator that acts as a vortex generator and flow control device. The first configuration consists of a closed circumferential arrangement which yields a body force when a voltage difference is applied across the inner and outer electrodes separated by a dielectric. The primary flow is driven by this zero-net mass flux jet at the wall that then entrains fluid in the core of the duct. PIV experiments in both quiescent flow and freestream are conducted on tubes of different diameters while varying parameters such as the modulation frequency, duty cycle and tunnel speed. The values of the induced velocities increase with the forcing frequency and duty cycle although there is a peak value for the forcing frequency after which the velocity and thrust decrease for each thruster. The velocities and thrust increase as the inner diameter of the tubes are increased while the velocity profiles show a great difference with the (l/di) ratio; recirculation occurs after going below a critical value. Experiments in the wind tunnel illustrate that the jet exit characteristics significantly change upon actuation in freestream flow but the effect tends to diminish with increasing inner diameters and tunnel speeds. Using staged arrays of these thrusters result in higher velocities while operating at both in phase and out of phase. The jet vectoring configuration consists of a single embedded electrode separated from two exposed electrodes on either side by the dielectric. The embedded electrode is grounded while the exposed electrodes are driven with a high frequency high voltage input signal. PIV measurements of the actuator in a freestream show that vectoring the jet yields stronger vortices than a linear configuration and increasing the difference between

  10. Properties of Hot Pressed Titanium Alloy Powders for Cryogenic Applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, G. I.; Kazaroff, J. M.

    1970-01-01

    Evaluation of strength and toughness of hot-pressed titanium alloy powders at room and at cryogenic temperatures. The purpose was to determine how the mechanical properties of solid bodies formed from powder would compare with wrought specimens of the same size and with the same chemical analysis. It was found that of five titanium powder-making processes investigated, only the Rotating Electrode Process (REP) was capable of producing ELI-grade titanium alloy powder. Blocks hot-pressed from spherical REP powders had tensile properties equivalent to or better than those obtained from wrought bar.

  11. A PHYSICAL LINK BETWEEN JET FORMATION AND HOT PLASMA IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Qingwen; Wang Dingxiong; Cao Xinwu; Ho, Luis C. E-mail: dxwang@hust.edu.cn E-mail: lho@obs.carnegiescience.edu

    2013-06-10

    Recent observations suggest that in black hole X-ray binaries jet/outflow formation is related to the hot plasma in the vicinity of the black hole, either in the form of an advection-dominated accretion flow at low accretion rates or in a disk corona at high accretion rates. We test the viability of this scenario for supermassive black holes using two samples of active galactic nuclei distinguished by the presence (radio-strong) and absence (radio-weak) of well-collimated, relativistic jets. Each is centered on a narrow range of black hole mass but spans a very broad range of Eddington ratios, effectively simulating in a statistical manner the behavior of a single black hole evolving across a wide spread in accretion states. Unlike the relationship between the radio and optical luminosity, which shows an abrupt break between high- and low-luminosity sources at an Eddington ratio of {approx}1%, the radio emission-a measure of the jet power-varies continuously with the hard X-ray (2-10 keV) luminosity, roughly as L{sub R} {proportional_to} L{sub X}{sup 0.6-0.75}. This relation, which holds for both radio-weak and radio-strong active galaxies, is similar to the one seen in X-ray binaries. Jet/outflow formation appears to be closely linked to the conditions that give rise to the hot, optically thin coronal emission associated with accretion flows, both in the regime of low and high accretion rates.

  12. EVIDENCE OF HOT HIGH VELOCITY PHOTOIONIZED PLASMA FALLING ON ACTIVELY ACCRETING T TAURI STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez de Castro, Ana Ines

    2013-10-01

    The He II (1640 Å) line and the resonance doublet of N V (UV1) provide a good diagnostic tool to constrain the excitation mechanism of hot (T{sub e} > 40,000 K) atmospheric/magnetospheric plasmas in T Tauri stars (TTSs). Making use of the data available in the Hubble Space Telescope archive, this work shows that there are at least two distinct physical components contributing to the radiation in these tracers: the accretion flow sliding on the magnetosphere and the atmosphere. The N V profiles in most sources are symmetric and at rest with respect to the star. The velocity dispersion of the profile increases from non-accreting (σ = 40 km s{sup –1}) to accreting (σ = 120 km s{sup –1}) TTSs, suggesting that the macroturbulence field in the line formation region decreases as the stars approach the main sequence. Evidence of the N V line being formed in a hot solar-like wind has been found in RW Aur, HN Tau, and AA Tau. The He II profile has a strong narrow component that dominates the line flux; the dispersion of this component ranges from 20 to 60 km s{sup –1}. Current data suggest that both accretion shocks and atmospheric emission might contribute to the line flux. In some sources, the He II line shows a broad and redward-shifted emission component often accompanied by semiforbidden O III] emission that has a critical electron density of ∼3.4 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup 3}. In spite of their different origins (inferred from the kinematics of the line formation region), N V and He II fluxes are strongly correlated, with only the possible exception of some of the heaviest accretors.

  13. Diagnostics and biomedical applications of radiofrequency plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazović, Saša

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we present spatial profiles of ion and atomic oxygen concentrations in a large scale cylindrical 13.56 MHz capacitively coupled plasma low pressure reactor suitable for indirect biomedical applications (like treatment of textile to increase antibacterial properties) and direct (treatment of seeds of rare and protected species). Such reactor can easily be used for the sterilization of medical instruments by removing bacteria, spores, prions and fungi as well. We also discuss electrical properties of the system based on the signals obtained by the derivative probes and show the light emission profiles close to the sample platform. In the case of seeds treatment, the desired effect is to plasma etch the outer shell of the seed which will lead to the easier nutrition and therefore increase of the germination. In the case of textile treatment the functionalization is done by bounding atomic oxygen to the surface. It appears that antibacterial properties of the textile are increased by incorporating nanoparticles to the fibres which can successfully be done after the plasma treatment. From these two examples it is obvious that the balance of ion and atomic oxygen concentrations as well as proper choice of ion energy and power delivered to the plasma direct the nature of the plasma treatment.

  14. Furfuryl methacrylate plasma polymers for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Hanieh Safizadeh; Rogers, Nicholas; Michelmore, Andrew; Whittle, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Furfuryl methacrylate (FMA) is a promising precursor for producing polymers for biomedical and cell therapy applications. Herein, FMA plasma polymer coatings were prepared with different powers, deposition times, and flow rates. The plasma polymer coatings were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The results from AFM and SEM show the early growth of the coatings and the existence of particle aggregates on the surfaces. XPS results indicated no measureable chemical differences between the deposited films produced under different power and flow rate conditions. ToF-SIMS analysis demonstrated differing amounts of C5H5O (81 m/z) and C10H9O2 (161 m/z) species in the coatings which are related to the furan ring structure. Through judicious choice of plasma polymerization parameters, the quantity of the particle aggregates was reduced, and the fabricated plasma polymer coatings were chemically uniform and smooth. Primary human fibroblasts were cultured on FMA plasma polymer surfaces to determine the effect of surface chemical composition and the presence of particle aggregates on cell culture. Particle aggregates were shown to inhibit fibroblast attachment and proliferation. PMID:27609095

  15. Self-organized bursts of coherent stimulated Raman scattering and hot electron transport in speckled laser plasma media.

    PubMed

    Yin, L; Albright, B J; Rose, H A; Bowers, K J; Bergen, B; Kirkwood, R K

    2012-06-15

    Nonlinear electron trapping physics governs the onset and saturation of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in laser beams with many speckles. Hot electrons from intense speckles, produced during SRS daughter electron-plasma-wave bowing and filamentation, seed and enhance the growth of SRS in neighboring speckles by reducing Landau damping. Trapping-induced nonlinearity and speckle interaction through transport of hot electrons and back- and sidescattered SRS waves enable the system of speckles to self-organize and exhibit coherent, sub-ps SRS bursts with more than 100% instantaneous reflectivity, consistent with a SRS transverse coherence width much larger than a speckle width. PMID:23004283

  16. Self-Organized Bursts of Coherent Stimulated Raman Scattering and Hot Electron Transport in Speckled Laser Plasma Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Rose, H. A.; Bowers, K. J.; Bergen, B.; Kirkwood, R. K.

    2012-06-01

    Nonlinear electron trapping physics governs the onset and saturation of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in laser beams with many speckles. Hot electrons from intense speckles, produced during SRS daughter electron-plasma-wave bowing and filamentation, seed and enhance the growth of SRS in neighboring speckles by reducing Landau damping. Trapping-induced nonlinearity and speckle interaction through transport of hot electrons and back- and sidescattered SRS waves enable the system of speckles to self-organize and exhibit coherent, sub-ps SRS bursts with more than 100% instantaneous reflectivity, consistent with a SRS transverse coherence width much larger than a speckle width.

  17. Boron nitride phosphide thin films grown on quartz substrate by hot-filament and plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. W.; Xu, S. Y.; Han, G. R.

    2004-10-01

    Boron nitride phosphide films are, for the first time, grown on transparent quartz substrate by hot filament and radio-frequency plasma co-assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. XPS, XRD, SEM, and UV measurements are performed to study the chemical composition, crystallization, microstructure, and optical absorption, respectively. A centipede-like microstructure and undulating ground morphology on the film surface are observed, and their growth mechanism is speculated upon. The chemical composition is determined as BN1-xPx, whose characteristic XRD peak is preliminarily identified. The optical band gap can be modulated between 5.52 eV and 3.74 eV, simply by adjusting the phosphorus content in BN1-xPx through modifying the PH3 flux during the film-deposition process. The merits of the BN1-xPx film, such as high ultraviolet photoelectric sensitivity with negligible sensitivity in the visible region, modifiable wide optical band gap, and good adhesion on transparent substrate, suggest potential applications for ultraviolet photo-electronics.

  18. The applications of optical computerized tomography (OCT) in cold and hot complex flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun-Yun; Chen, Li-zhu; Gu, Fang

    2014-11-01

    Optical computerized tomography (OCT), as a branch of computerized tomography (CT) techniques, has been widely used to display and diagnose a variety of complex flow fields, due to its characteristics of real-time, stable, non-contact and can supply 3-D distributions. In practical applications, we found some different phenomenon when they are adopted in clod and hot complex flow fields. In this paper, the cold and hot flow field's OCT diagnosis is analyzed and compared. The results show that 1) OCT can directly reflect the spatial distribution of the measured flow field's refractive index, for both the cold and the hot complex flow fields; 2) OCT can reflect the boundary or structure of the cold flow fields, but could not well done for the hot flow fields. The involved results will help us to make better use of OCT methods to diagnose various cold or hot complex flow fields.

  19. A novel technique for the numerical simulation of hot collision-free plasma; Vlasov hybrid simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, D. )

    1993-09-01

    This paper reports a simple novel technique for the numerical simulation of hot collision-free plasmas. The method is termed Vlasov hybrid simulation (VHS). A time varying phase space simulation box and grid are defined, and the phase fluid within the box is filled with simulation particles. The distribution function F (or [sigma]F) is defined on the phase trajectory of each particle. At each timestep F (or [sigma]F) is interpolated from the simulation particles onto the phase space grid. Particles are followed continuously until exiting from the phase box and are not constantly recreated at phase space grid points. The algorithm is very efficient, stable, and has low noise levels. Distribution function fine structure is tolerated and the formalism does not require diffusion of the distribution function. The VHS method is particularly valuable when the flux of phase fluid across the phase box boundary is significant. In this case VHS codes have a dynamic population of particles-giving great efficiency gains over PIC codes with fixed particle populations. The VHS method has been applied to the numerical simulation of triggered VLF emissions in the magnetosphere and gives results in close agreement with observations. 27 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Development of a Co-Axial Hot Cathode for Magnetized Ion Source Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, N.; Hamamoto, N.; Imakita, S.; Mendenilla, A. G.; Wada, M.

    2008-11-03

    Directly heated high temperature cathodes of refractory metals such as tungsten run electric current of more than several tens of amperes. The electric current makes magnetic field around the cathode wire, and the magnetic field causes inhomogeneous emission of electrons from the cathode. To solve this problem we have designed the cathode having a co-axial heater current flow structure, and mounted it in a Bernas-type ion source. A plasma produced by co-axial hot cathode showed a clearer column along the external magnetic field and less displacement in the direction perpendicular to the field than that produced by a hair-pin filament. Stable discharge current as high as 5000 mA was obtained for Ar and BF{sub 3} gases with the co-axial cathode. Boron and phosphorus ion beams were extracted from the source on an actual ion implanter. The ion beam currents were 1.5 times as large as those obtained with a hair-pin filament.

  1. UNIVERSALITY AND INTERMITTENCY IN RELATIVISTIC TURBULENT FLOWS OF A HOT PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Radice, David; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2013-03-20

    With the aim of determining the statistical properties of relativistic turbulence and unveiling novel and non-classical features, we present the results of direct numerical simulations of driven turbulence in an ultrarelativistic hot plasma using high-order numerical schemes. We study the statistical properties of flows with average Mach numbers ranging from {approx}0.4 to {approx}1.7 and with average Lorentz factors up to {approx}1.7. We find that flow quantities, such as the energy density or the local Lorentz factor, show large spatial variance even in the subsonic case as compressibility is enhanced by relativistic effects. The velocity field is highly intermittent, but its power spectrum is found to be in good agreement with the predictions of the classical theory of Kolmogorov. Overall, our results indicate that relativistic effects are able to significantly enhance the intermittency of the flow and affect the high-order statistics of the velocity field, while leaving unchanged the low-order statistics, which instead appear to be universal and in good agreement with the classical Kolmogorov theory. To the best of our knowledge, these are the most accurate simulations of driven relativistic turbulence to date.

  2. Excitation of atomic nuclei in hot plasma through resonance inverse electron bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalya, E. V.; Akhrameev, E. V.; Arutyunyan, R. V.; Bol'shov, L. A.; Kondratenko, P. S.

    2014-09-01

    A process of nucleus excitation by photons under the mechanism of the inverse electron bridge (IEB) is examined provided the energies of atomic and nuclear transitions coincide. It is shown that in this case, the excitation of nuclei with EL[ML] transition with the energy ωN≲10keV is strengthened relative to the process of photoabsorption by nucleus by a factor of 1/(ωNr0)2(L +2) [e4/(ωNr0)2(L+2)], where r0 is a typical size of domain in the ion shell for accumulation of electronic integrals. In the Rb84 nuclei the IEB cross section for the 3.4 keV M1 transition 6-(463.59 keV) ↔5-(463.59keV ) can exceed even a photoexcitation cross section for the 3.4keVE1 transition with the reduced probability in the Weisskopf model BW .u.(E1)=1. This result can be important for understanding the mechanisms of atomic nucleus excitation in hot plasma. In particular, the considered process is capable to provide the existence of so called gamma luminescence wave or a nuclear isomer "burning" wave—an analog of self-maintaining process of triggered depopulation of nuclear isomer.

  3. Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy moving towards practical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.

    1994-03-01

    The thermal energy present in hot rock at depth is a vast resource which has so far been tapped only in those unusual locations where natural fluids exist to transport that energy to the surface. For the past twenty years work has been underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to develop the technology to access and recovery the heat present in rock which is hot but contains no natural mobile fluid. The world`s first plant capable of sustained production of geothermal energy from HDR was completed in 1991. This facility combined an artificial geothermal reservoir of sufficient size and high enough temperature to deliver large amounts of useful energy with a surface plant built to power industry standards and capable of sustained, routine operation. During the past two years, extended testing at Fenton Hill has demonstrated that energy can be extracted from HDR on a continuous basis. Thermal energy was produced continuously at a rate of about 4 MW in two test phases lasting 112 and 55 days, respectively, and intermittently for a period of 7 1/2 months between the continuous test segments. Temperature measurements at the surface and at depth indicated no decline in the average discharge temperature of water from the reservoir over the span of the test. In fact, tracer testing indicated that access of the circulating water to the hot reservoir rock improved as the test proceeded.

  4. Modeling hot spring chemistries with applications to martian silica formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, G.M.; Catling, D.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Kargel, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Many recent studies have implicated hydrothermal systems as the origin of martian minerals across a wide range of martian sites. Particular support for hydrothermal systems include silica (SiO2) deposits, in some cases >90% silica, in the Gusev Crater region, especially in the Columbia Hills and at Home Plate. We have developed a model called CHEMCHAU that can be used up to 100??C to simulate hot springs associated with hydrothermal systems. The model was partially derived from FREZCHEM, which is a colder temperature model parameterized for broad ranges of temperature (<-70 to 25??C), pressure (1-1000 bars), and chemical composition. We demonstrate the validity of Pitzer parameters, volumetric parameters, and equilibrium constants in the CHEMCHAU model for the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-ClO4-SO4-OH-HCO3-CO3-CO2-O2-CH4-Si-H2O system up to 100??C and apply the model to hot springs and silica deposits.A theoretical simulation of silica and calcite equilibrium shows how calcite is least soluble with high pH and high temperatures, while silica behaves oppositely. Such influences imply that differences in temperature and pH on Mars could lead to very distinct mineral assemblages. Using measured solution chemistries of Yellowstone hot springs and Icelandic hot springs, we simulate salts formed during the evaporation of two low pH cases (high and low temperatures) and a high temperature, alkaline (high pH) sodic water. Simulation of an acid-sulfate case leads to precipitation of Fe and Al minerals along with silica. Consistency with martian mineral assemblages suggests that hot, acidic sulfate solutions are plausibility progenitors of minerals in the past on Mars. In the alkaline pH (8.45) simulation, formation of silica at high temperatures (355K) led to precipitation of anhydrous minerals (CaSO4, Na2SO4) that was also the case for the high temperature (353K) low pH case where anhydrous minerals (NaCl, CaSO4) also precipitated. Thus we predict that secondary minerals associated with

  5. Onset of stimulated Raman scattering of a laser in a plasma in the presence of hot drifting electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, D. N. Yadav, Pinki; Avinash, K.; Jang, D. G.; Suk, H.; Hur, M. S.

    2015-05-15

    Stimulated Raman scattering of a laser in plasmas with energetic drifting electrons was investigated by analyzing the growth of interacting waves during the Raman scattering process. The Langmuir wave and scattered electromagnetic sideband wave grow initially and are dampened after attaining a maximum level that indicates a periodic exchange of energy between the pump wave and the daughter waves. The presence of energetic drifting electrons in the laser-produced plasma influences the stimulated Raman scattering process. The plasma wave generated by Raman scattering may be influenced by the energetic electrons, which enhance the growth rate of the instability. Our results show that the presence of energetic (hot) drifting electrons in a plasma has an important effect on the evolution of the interacting waves. This phenomenon is modeled via two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the propagation and interaction of the laser under Raman instability.

  6. Effect of excess superthermal hot electrons on finite amplitude ion-acoustic solitons and supersolitons in a magnetized auroral plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Rufai, O. R.; Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V. Lakhina, G. S.

    2015-10-15

    The effect of excess superthermal electrons is investigated on finite amplitude nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in a magnetized auroral plasma. The plasma model consists of a cold ion fluid, Boltzmann distribution of cool electrons, and kappa distributed hot electron species. The model predicts the evolution of negative potential solitons and supersolitons at subsonic Mach numbers region, whereas, in the case of Cairn's nonthermal distribution model for the hot electron species studied earlier, they can exist both in the subsonic and supersonic Mach number regimes. For the dayside auroral parameters, the model generates the super-acoustic electric field amplitude, speed, width, and pulse duration of about 18 mV/m, 25.4 km/s, 663 m, and 26 ms, respectively, which is in the range of the Viking spacecraft measurements.

  7. Effect of excess superthermal hot electrons on finite amplitude ion-acoustic solitons and supersolitons in a magnetized auroral plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufai, O. R.; Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of excess superthermal electrons is investigated on finite amplitude nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in a magnetized auroral plasma. The plasma model consists of a cold ion fluid, Boltzmann distribution of cool electrons, and kappa distributed hot electron species. The model predicts the evolution of negative potential solitons and supersolitons at subsonic Mach numbers region, whereas, in the case of Cairn's nonthermal distribution model for the hot electron species studied earlier, they can exist both in the subsonic and supersonic Mach number regimes. For the dayside auroral parameters, the model generates the super-acoustic electric field amplitude, speed, width, and pulse duration of about 18 mV/m, 25.4 km/s, 663 m, and 26 ms, respectively, which is in the range of the Viking spacecraft measurements.

  8. Consolidation of carbon nanofiber/copper composites by hot-pressing and spark plasma sintering: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Barcena, Jorge; Martinez, Vladimir; Martinez, Ramon; Maudes, Jon; Sarries, Jose-Ignacio; Carol, Iñaki; Gonzalez, Javier-Jesus; Coleto, Javier

    2009-03-01

    Vapour grown carbon nanofibers have been incorporated into a copper matrix at 20 and 40 volume fractions. The manufacturing route involves the dispersion of the carbon nanofibers and their subsequent coating by electroless plating with copper. The consolidation of the composite powders was performed by two different techniques: hot-pressing and spark plasma sintering. A comparative study of the two processes is reported, in terms of microstructure, dispersion and porosity. The consolidation by hot-pressing (at 900 degrees C, 30 MPa) led to poreless composites (relative density > 96%) and to a homogeneous microstructure. On the other hand, spark plasma sintering (at 400 degrees C, 75 MPa) led to lower densification (relative density < 96%) and heterogeneous microstructure. PMID:19435042

  9. Ion acoustic solitons and supersolitons in a magnetized plasma with nonthermal hot electrons and Boltzmann cool electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Rufai, O. R. Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V. Lakhina, G. S.

    2014-08-15

    Arbitrary amplitude, ion acoustic solitons, and supersolitons are studied in a magnetized plasma with two distinct groups of electrons at different temperatures. The plasma consists of a cold ion fluid, cool Boltzmann electrons, and nonthermal energetic hot electrons. Using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique, the effect of nonthermal hot electrons on soliton structures with other plasma parameters is studied. Our numerical computation shows that negative potential ion-acoustic solitons and double layers can exist both in the subsonic and supersonic Mach number regimes, unlike the case of an unmagnetized plasma where they can only exist in the supersonic Mach number regime. For the first time, it is reported here that in addition to solitions and double layers, the ion-acoustic supersoliton solutions are also obtained for certain range of parameters in a magnetized three-component plasma model. The results show good agreement with Viking satellite observations of the solitary structures with density depletions in the auroral region of the Earth's magnetosphere.

  10. Dressed electrostatic solitary excitations in three component pair-plasmas: Application in isothermal pair-plasma with stationary ions

    SciTech Connect

    Esfandyari-Kalejahi, A.; Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.; Haddadpour-Khiaban, B.

    2009-10-15

    In this work electrostatic solitary waves in a three component pair-plasma consisting of hot isothermal electrons (or negative fullerene ions), positrons (or positive fullerene ions), and stationary positive ions (say, dust particulates) are studied. Using reductive perturbation method, plasma fluid equations are reduced to a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. Considering the higher-order nonlinearity, a linear inhomogeneous equation is derived, and the stationary solutions of these coupled equations are achieved by applying the renormalization procedure of Kodama-Taniuti. It is observed that in the linear approximation and applying Fourier analysis, two electrostatic modes, namely, upper or optical and lower or acoustic modes, are present. However, the application of reductive perturbation technique confirms that only acoustic-electrostatic mode can propagate in such plasma as KdV soliton, the amplitude and width of which are studied regarding to plasma parameters {sigma} (positron-to-electron temperature ratio) and {delta} (stationary cold ions-to-electron density ratio). It is also observed that the higher-order nonlinearity leads to deformation of the soliton structure from bell-shaped to W-shaped depending on the variation in values of the plasma parameters {sigma} and {delta}. It is revealed that KdV-type solitary waves cannot propagate in three component pair-plasma when the pair-species temperature is equal.

  11. Search for Hot Plasmas in the Outer Atmospheres of K Giants - Repeat of GTO1177 for HOPR#132 and 144

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    We will measure the amount of plasma hotter than 10,000 K (or establish small upper limits) in the outer atmospheres of K giant stars thought to have little hot material. A second goal is to derive models of the hot plasma in the transition regions of early K giants with very low heating rates due to slow rotation and very weak magnetic field generation. We will measure emission lines of C III, Si III, C IV, Si IV, and N V in deep specta. Upper limits to the strength of these emission lines will place stringent constraints on possible nonradiative heating processes. Observations of weak intersystem lines will provide estimates of the electron density needed for atmospheric modeling. We will attempt to determine whether the hot plasma (and the required heating) are global or isolated to small regions on the star due to magnetic fields or stochastic heating processes. Echelle resolution Mg II and O I emission profiles will be used for stellar wind modeling. G140L exposures are returned to the proposal to detect weak high temperature lines. THIS IS AN AMMENDED VERSION OF GTO 1177 WHICH FAILED IN CYCLE 2.

  12. The hot blow forming of AZ31 Mg sheet: Formability assessment and application development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Jon T.; Krajewski, Paul E.; Verma, Ravi

    2008-11-01

    The hot blow forming of magnesium sheet offers significant opportunity for forming complex, lightweight parts for automotive applications. This paper characterizes the elevated-temperature formability of AZ31 magnesium sheet materials and the effect of processing conditions on the performance of these materials. In addition, magnesium sheet application development at General Motors Corporation is reviewed.

  13. X-ray spectroscopy of warm and hot electron components in the CAPRICE source plasma at EIS testbench at GSI

    SciTech Connect

    Mascali, D. Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Neri, L.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Maimone, F.; Maeder, J.; Tinschert, K.; Spaedtke, K. P.; Rossbach, J.; Lang, R.; Romano, F. P.; Musumarra, A.; Altana, C.; Caliri, C.

    2014-02-15

    An experimental campaign aiming to detect X radiation emitted by the plasma of the CAPRICE source – operating at GSI, Darmstadt – has been carried out. Two different detectors (a SDD – Silicon Drift Detector and a HpGe – hyper-pure Germanium detector) have been used to characterize the warm (2–30 keV) and hot (30–500 keV) electrons in the plasma, collecting the emission intensity and the energy spectra for different pumping wave frequencies and then correlating them with the CSD of the extracted beam measured by means of a bending magnet. A plasma emissivity model has been used to extract the plasma density along the cone of sight of the SDD and HpGe detectors, which have been placed beyond specific collimators developed on purpose. Results show that the tuning of the pumping frequency considerably modifies the plasma density especially in the warm electron population domain, which is the component responsible for ionization processes: a strong variation of the plasma density near axis region has been detected. Potential correlations with the charge state distribution in the plasma are explored.

  14. Clinical applications of plasma based electrosurgical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woloszko, Jean; Endler, Ashley; Ryan, Thomas P.; Stalder, Kenneth R.

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 18 years, several electrosurgical systems generating a low temperature plasma in an aqueous conductive solution have been commercialized for various clinical applications and have been used in over 10 million patients to date. The most popular utilizations are in arthroscopic surgery, otorhinolaryngology surgery, spine and neurosurgery, urology and wound care. These devices can be configured to bring saline to the tip and to have concomitant aspiration to remove by-products and excess fluid. By tuning the electrode geometry, waveform and fluid dynamic at the tip of the devices, tissue resection and thermal effects can be adjusted individually. This allows one to design products that can operate as precise tissue dissectors for treatment of articular cartilage or debridement of chronic wounds, as well as global tissue debulking devices providing sufficient concomitant hemostasis for applications like tonsillectomies. Effects of these plasma based electrosurgical devices on cellular biology, healing response and nociceptive receptors has also been studied in various models. This talk will include a review of the clinical applications, with product descriptions, results and introductory review of some of the research on the biological effects of these devices.

  15. Optimization of microstructure development: Application to hot metal extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, E.A.; Venugopal, S.; Frazier, W.G.; Medeiros, S.; Mullins, W.M.; Chaudhary, A.; Malas, J.C.; Srinivasan, R.

    1996-12-01

    A new process design method for controlling microstructure development during hot metal deformation processes is presented. This approach is based on modern control theory and involves state-space models for describing the material behavior and the mechanics of the process. The challenge of effectively controlling the values and distribution of important microstructural features can now be systematically formulated and solved in terms of an optimal control problem. This method has been applied to the optimization of grain size and certain process parameters such as die geometry profile and ram velocity during extrusion of plain carbon steel. Various case studies have been investigated, and experimental results show good agreement with those predicted in the design stage.

  16. Optimization of microstructure development: application to hot metal extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, E. A.; Venugopal, S.; Frazier, W. G.; Medeiros, S.; Mulhns, W. M.; Chaudhary, A.; Irwin, R. D.; Srinivasan, R.; Malas, J. C.

    1996-12-01

    A new process design method for controlling microstructure development during hot metal deformation processes is presented. This approach is based on modern control theory and involves state- space models for describing the material behavior and the mechanics of the process. The challenge of effectively controlling the values and distribution of important microstructural features can now be systematically formulated and solved in terms of an optimal control problem. This method has been applied to the optimization of grain size and certain process parameters such as die geometry profile and ram velocity during extrusion of plain carbon steel. Various case studies have been investigated, and experimental results show good agreement with those predicted in the design stage.

  17. Determination of hot-spot susceptibility of multistring photovoltaic modules in a central-station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Weaver, R. W.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Spencer, R.; Arnett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Part of the effort of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA) includes a program to improve module and array reliability. A collaborative activity with industry dealing with the problem of hot-spot heating due to the shadowing of photovoltaic cells in modules and arrays containing several paralleled cell strings is described. The use of multiparallel strings in large central-station arrays introduces the likelihood of unequal current sharing and increased heating levels. Test results that relate power dissipated, current imbalance, cross-strapping frequency, and shadow configuration to hot-spot heating levels are presented. Recommendations for circuit design configurations appropriate to central-station applications that reduce the risk of hot-spot problems are offered. Guidelines are provided for developing hot-spot tests for arrays when current imbalance is a threat.

  18. Study of nonlinear electron-acoustic solitary and shock waves in a dissipative, nonplanar space plasma with superthermal hot electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jiu-Ning He, Yong-Lin; Luo, Jun-Hua; Nan, Ya-Gong; Han, Zhen-Hai; Dong, Guang-Xing; Duan, Wen-Shan; Li, Jun-Xiu

    2014-01-15

    With the consideration of the superthermal electron distribution, we present a theoretical investigation about the nonlinear propagation of electron-acoustic solitary and shock waves in a dissipative, nonplanar non-Maxwellian plasma comprised of cold electrons, superthermal hot electrons, and stationary ions. The reductive perturbation technique is used to obtain a modified Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation for nonlinear waves in this plasma. We discuss the effects of various plasma parameters on the time evolution of nonplanar solitary waves, the profile of shock waves, and the nonlinear structure induced by the collision between planar solitary waves. It is found that these parameters have significant effects on the properties of nonlinear waves and collision-induced nonlinear structure.

  19. On some necessary conditions for p-11B ignition in the hot spots of a plasma focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vita, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Recently, it has been predicted that hydrogen-boron (p-11B) nuclear fusion may attain ignition in the hot spots observed in a plasma focus (PF) pinch, due to their huge values of particle density, magnetic field and (reportedly) ion temperature. Accordingly, large magnetic fields should raise electronic Landau levels, thus reducing collisional exchange of energy from ion to electrons and Bremsstrahlung losses. Moreover, large particle densities, together with ion viscous heating, should allow fulfilment of Lawson criterion and provide effective screening of cyclotron radiation. We invoke both well-known, empirical scaling laws of PF physics, Connor-Taylor scaling laws, Poynting balance of electromagnetic energy and the balance of generalised helicity. We show that the evolution of PF hot spots is a succession of relaxed states, described by the double Beltrami solutions of Hall-MHD equations of motion. We obtain some necessary conditions for ignition, which are violated in most realistic conditions. Large electromagnetic fields in the hot spot accelerate electrons at supersonic velocities and trigger turbulence, which raises electric resistivity and Joule heating, thus spoiling further compression. Ignition is only possible if a significant fraction of the Bremsstrahlung-radiated power is reflected back into the plasma. Injection of angular momentum decreases the required reflection coefficient.

  20. Controlling the dynamics of a femtosecond laser-driven shock in hot dense plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Amitava; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Chatterjee, Gourab; Lad, Amit D.; Brijesh, P.; Kumar, G. Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    We present the dependence of the dynamics of a plasma super-critical layer on the laser intensity contrast in the regime of intense femtosecond laser-solid interaction. Time-resolved pump-probe diagnostics reveal the interplay of inward shock strength and laser contrast of a femtosecond laser at an intensity of 1018 W cm-2. The measurements show that the pulse with 2 orders of magnitude higher intensity contrast than that with a usual lower contrast one (~10-5) launches the shock-like disturbance (into the target) having 10 times more speed. This observation is further supplemented by employing an external prepulse (for manipulating the preplasma scale length) which helps to control the inward motion of the critical surface. This opens up the possibility of controlling the inward moving shock disturbance and leads to medical, science and engineering applications.

  1. Neutral atom analyzers for diagnosing hot plasmas: A review of research at the ioffe physicotechnical institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislyakov, A. I.; Petrov, M. P.

    2009-07-01

    Research on neutral particle diagnostics of thermonuclear plasmas that has been carried out in recent years at the Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg, Russia) is reviewed. Work on the creation and improvement of neutral atom analyzers was done in two directions: for potential applications (in particular, on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which is now under construction at Cadarache in France) and for investigation of the ion plasma component in various devices (in particular, in the largest tokamaks, such as JET, TFTR, and JT-60). Neutral atom analyzers are the main tool for studying the behavior of hydrogen ions and isotopes in magnetic confinement systems. They make it possible to determine energy spectra, to perform the isotope analysis of atom fluxes from the plasma, to measure the absolute intensity of the fluxes, and to record how these parameters vary with time. A comparative description of the analyzers developed in recent years at the Ioffe Institute is given. These are ACORD-12/24 analyzers for recording 0.2-100-keV hydrogen and deuterium atoms with a tunable range of simultaneously measured energies, CNPA compact analyzers for a fixed energy gain in the ranges 80-1000 eV and 0.8-100 keV, an ISEP analyzer for simultaneously recording the atoms of all the three hydrogen isotopes (H, D, and T) in the energy range 5-700 keV, and GEMMA analyzers for recording atom fluxes of hydrogen and helium isotopes in the range 0.1-4 MeV. The scintillating detectors of the ISEP and GEMMA analyzers have a lowered sensitivity to neutrons and thus can operate without additional shielding in neutron fields of up to 109 n/(cm2 s). These two types of analyzers, intended to operate under deuterium-tritium plasma conditions, are prototypes of atom analyzers created at the Ioffe Institute for use in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. With these analyzers, a number of new results have been

  2. Cold plasma: overview of plasma technologies and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma is a novel nonthermal food processing technology. It is based on energetic, reactive gases which inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry and fruits and vegetables. The primary modes of action are due to UV light and reactive chemical products of the cold plasma ionization pro...

  3. Critical density solitary waves structures in a hot magnetized dusty plasma with vortexlike ion distribution in phase space

    SciTech Connect

    El-Labany, S.K.; El-Shamy, E.F.

    2005-04-15

    The nonlinear properties of solitary waves structures in a hot magnetized dusty plasma consisting of isothermal hot electrons, nonisothermal ions, and high negatively charged massive dust grains are reported. A modified Korteweg-de Vries (modified KdV) equation, which admits a solitary waves solution, for small but finite amplitude, is derived using a reductive perturbation theory. A nonisothermal ion distribution provides the possibility of existence of rarefactive solitary waves. On the other hand, the dynamics of solitary waves at a critical ion density is governed by KdV equation. The modification in the amplitude and width of the solitary waves structures due to the inclusion of obliqueness and external magnetic field are also investigated.

  4. Extended Heat Deposition in Hot Jupiters: Application to Ohmic Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Sari, Re'em

    2016-03-01

    The observed radii of many giant exoplanets in close orbits exceed theoretical predictions. One suggested origin for this discrepancy is heat deposited deep inside the atmospheres of these “hot Jupiters”. Here, we study extended power sources that distribute heat from the photosphere to the deep interior of the planet. Our analytical treatment is a generalization of a previous analysis of localized “point sources”. We model the deposition profile as a power law in the optical depth and find that planetary cooling and contraction halt when the internal luminosity (i.e., cooling rate) of the planet drops below the heat deposited in the planet’s convective region. A slowdown in the evolutionary cooling prior to equilibrium is possible only for sources that do not extend to the planet’s center. We estimate the ohmic dissipation resulting from the interaction between the atmospheric winds and the planet’s magnetic field, and apply our analytical model to ohmically heated planets. Our model can account for the observed radii of most inflated planets, which have equilibrium temperatures of ≈1500-2500 K and are inflated to a radius of ≈ 1.6{R}J. However, some extremely inflated planets remain unexplained by our model. We also argue that ohmically inflated planets have already reached their equilibrium phase, and no longer contract. Following Wu & Lithwick, who argued that ohmic heating could only suspend and not reverse contraction, we calculate the time it takes ohmic heating to re-inflate a cold planet to its equilibrium configuration. We find that while it is possible to re-inflate a cold planet, the re-inflation timescales are longer by a factor of ≈ 30 than the cooling time.

  5. Sports medicine applications of platelet rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Allan; Harmon, Kimberly; Woodall, James; Vieira, Amy

    2012-06-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is a powerful new biologic tool in sports medicine. PRP is a fraction of autologous whole blood containing and increased number of platelets and a wide variety of cytokines such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-B1), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) among many others. Worldwide interest in this biologic technology has recently risen sharply. Basic science and preclinical data support the use of PRP for a variety of sports related injuries and disorders. The published, peer reviewed, human data on PRP is limited. Although the scientific evaluation of clinical efficacy is in the early stages, elite and recreational athletes already use PRP in the treatment of sports related injuries. Many questions remain to be answered regarding the use of PRP including optimal formulation, including of leukocytes, dosage and rehabilitation protocols. In this review, a classification for platelet rich plasma is proposed and the in-vitro, preclinical and human investigations of PRP applications in sports medicine will be reviewed as well as a discussion of rehabilitation after a PRP procedure. The regulation of PRP by the World Anti-Doping Agency will also be discussed. PRP is a promising technology in sports medicine; however, it will require more vigorous study in order to better understand how to apply it most effectively. PMID:21740373

  6. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: TOXIC TREATMENTS, IN-SITU STEAM/HOT-AIR STRIPPING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Toxic Treatments (USA), Inc., (TTUSA) in situ steam/hot-air stripping technology and its applicability as an on-site treatment technique for hazardous waste site soil cleanup of volatile and semivolatile contaminants. Both ...

  7. 40 CFR 420.120 - Applicability; description of the hot coating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limitations for zinc set out below are not applicable to hot coating operations with wastewater treatment... on a case-by-case basis based upon the existing performance of the wastewater treatment facility. The permitting authority shall evaluate representative effluent data from the wastewater treatment...

  8. 40 CFR 420.120 - Applicability; description of the hot coating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limitations for zinc set out below are not applicable to hot coating operations with wastewater treatment... on a case-by-case basis based upon the existing performance of the wastewater treatment facility. The permitting authority shall evaluate representative effluent data from the wastewater treatment...

  9. 40 CFR 420.120 - Applicability; description of the hot coating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limitations for zinc set out below are not applicable to hot coating operations with wastewater treatment... on a case-by-case basis based upon the existing performance of the wastewater treatment facility. The permitting authority shall evaluate representative effluent data from the wastewater treatment...

  10. Hot coronal plasma phenomena disclosed, classified and studied in the SPIRIT experiment on CORONAS-F mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urnov, Alexander; Kuzin, Sergey; Bogachev, Sergey; Goryaev, Farid; Dennis, Brian; Reva, Anton; Shestov, Sergey; Soloviev, Alexander; Zhitnik, Igor

    The advent of XUV full-Sun monochromatic imaging spectroscopy in the SPIRIT experiment on CORONAS-F (2001-2005) helped to reveal highly dynamic 4 -20 MK coronal plasma structures characterized by various sizes from 6" through 0.3 solar radius and lifetimes from several minutes to several days. Due to the high dynamic range (more than four orders of magnitude) of the X-Ray detector, the monochromatic images in the Mg XII ion line at 8.42 ˚ allowed the A whole Sun light curves of the GOES 1-8˚ channel to be decomposed over the temporal flux A profiles of individual X-Ray sources. Thus, the GOES background emission was shown to be the result of a superposition of a series of low intensity "elemental bursts" each lasting for 10-20 min and recurring at different locations on the solar disk. A new phenomenon of small size, short-lived X-ray "hot spots" (hot X-ray bright points, HXBP) has been disclosed in addition to the previously reported giant post-eruptive sources ("spiders"). The classification has been proposed of hot plasma phenomena by their spatial and temporal properties being the "markers" of energy storage and release sites for all observable X-ray sources. It was also shown that these sources are characterized by complex topology rather than by the strength of the magnetic field since they associated only with active region loop systems comprising of more than two spots. Diagnostic techniques developed on the basis of monochromatic and broad band data simultaneously measured on CORONAS-F, GOES, and RHESSI were used to obtain space-time dynamics of the temperature and density content for hot coronal plasma structures in the range logT=6.0 -7.2. A theoretical description of the spider phenomena based on long-duration recurrently flaring giant magneto-plasma formations, is given using the Chandrasekhar-Prendergast model of a spherical magnetic vortex, generalized to account for density perturbations. This model presents a sequence of magnetic toroidal

  11. Pulse-discharge plasmas for plasma-accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, C. E.; Joshi, C.; Lopes, N. C.

    2012-12-21

    For particle-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators, a long and fully-ionized plasma is desirable. We describe an experiment at UCLA to develop a prototype of such plasma using a pulsed-current discharge. Scaling of the plasma density with glass-tube diameter and with discharge-circuit parameters is currently underway. We have found that 4 Torr of Argon can be fully ionized to a density of about 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} when the current density in the 1 inch diameter, 1.2 meter-long tube is around 2 kA/cm{sup 2}, at least at one point along the discharge. The homogeneity of the plasma density in the longitudinal direction is crucial to prevent slippage of the driven plasma structures with the particles. Equally important are the transverse gradients since any dipole asymmetry in the transverse direction can lead to 'steering' of the particle beam. The longitudinal and transverse gradients may be a function of time into the discharge, the shape of the electrodes, the tube size, and the fractional ionization for a given fill pressure. These issues are currently under investigation.

  12. Measurement of a density profile of a hot-electron plasma in RT-1 with three-chord interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, H.; Yano, Y.; Yoshida, Z.; Nishiura, M.; Morikawa, J.; Kawazura, Y.; Nogami, T.; Yamasaki, M.

    2015-02-01

    The electron density profile of a plasma in a magnetospheric dipole field configuration was measured with a multi-chord interferometry including a relativistic correction. In order to improve the accuracy of density reconstruction, a 75 GHz interferometer was installed at a vertical chord of the Ring Trap 1 (RT-1) device in addition to previously installed ones at tangential and another vertical chords. The density profile was calculated by using the data of three-chord interferometry including relativistic effects for a plasma consisting of hot and cold electrons generated by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH). The results clearly showed the effects of density peaking and magnetic mirror trapping in a strongly inhomogeneous dipole magnetic field.

  13. Measurement of a density profile of a hot-electron plasma in RT-1 with three-chord interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, H.; Yano, Y.; Yoshida, Z.; Nishiura, M.; Morikawa, J.; Kawazura, Y.; Nogami, T.; Yamasaki, M.

    2015-02-15

    The electron density profile of a plasma in a magnetospheric dipole field configuration was measured with a multi-chord interferometry including a relativistic correction. In order to improve the accuracy of density reconstruction, a 75 GHz interferometer was installed at a vertical chord of the Ring Trap 1 (RT-1) device in addition to previously installed ones at tangential and another vertical chords. The density profile was calculated by using the data of three-chord interferometry including relativistic effects for a plasma consisting of hot and cold electrons generated by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH). The results clearly showed the effects of density peaking and magnetic mirror trapping in a strongly inhomogeneous dipole magnetic field.

  14. Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma: Sources and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napartovich, A. P.

    2008-07-01

    Non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure is an inherently unstable object. Nature of discharge plasma instabilities and conditions for observation of uniform non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure in different environments will be discussed. Various discharge techniques have been developed, which could support uniform non-thermal plasma with parameters varied in a wide range. Time limitation by plasma instabilities can be overcome by shortening pulse length or by restriction of plasma plug residence time with a fast gas flow. Discharge instabilities leading to formation of filaments or sparks are provoked by a positive feedback between the electric field and plasma density, while the counteracting process is plasma and thermal diffusion. With gas pressure growth the size of plasma fluctuation, which could be stabilized by diffusion, diminishes. As a result, to have long lived uniform plasma one should miniaturize discharge. There exist a number of active methods to organize negative feedback between the electric field and plasma density in order to suppress or, at least, delay the instability. Among them are ballast resistors in combination with electrode sectioning, reactive ballast, electronic feedback, and dielectric barrier across the electric current. The last methods are relevant for ac discharges. In the lecture an overview will be given of different discharge techniques scalable in pressure up to one atmosphere. The interest in this topic is dictated by a potential economic benefit from numerous non-thermal plasma technologies. The spectrum of non-thermal plasma applications is continuously broadening. An incomplete list of known applications includes: plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition, etching, polymerization, gas-phase synthesis, protective coating deposition, toxic and harmful gas decomposition, destruction of warfare agents, electromagnetic wave shielding, polymer surface modifications, gas laser excitation, odor control, plasma assisted

  15. A Survey of Plasmas and Their Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, Timothy E.; Grabbe, C. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    Plasmas are everywhere and relevant to everyone. We bath in a sea of photons, quanta of electromagnetic radiation, whose sources (natural and artificial) are dominantly plasma-based (stars, fluorescent lights, arc lamps.. .). Plasma surface modification and materials processing contribute increasingly to a wide array of modern artifacts; e.g., tiny plasma discharge elements constitute the pixel arrays of plasma televisions and plasma processing provides roughly one-third of the steps to produce semiconductors, essential elements of our networking and computing infrastructure. Finally, plasmas are central to many cutting edge technologies with high potential (compact high-energy particle accelerators; plasma-enhanced waste processors; high tolerance surface preparation and multifuel preprocessors for transportation systems; fusion for energy production).

  16. Exact kinetic theory for the instability of an electron beam in a hot magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeev, I. V.; Annenkov, V. V.

    2013-09-15

    Efficiency of collective beam-plasma interaction strongly depends on the growth rates of dominant instabilities excited in the system. Nevertheless, exact calculations of the full unstable spectrum in the framework of relativistic kinetic theory for arbitrary magnetic fields and particle distributions were unknown until now. In this paper, we give an example of such a calculation answering the question whether the finite thermal spreads of plasma electrons are able to suppress the fastest growing modes in the beam-plasma system. It is shown that nonrelativistic temperatures of Maxwellian plasmas can stabilize only the oblique instabilities of relativistic beam. On the contrary, non-Maxwellian tails typically found in laboratory beam-plasma experiments are able to substantially reduce the growth rate of the dominant longitudinal modes affecting the efficiency of turbulent plasma heating.

  17. APPARATUS FOR MINIMIZING ENERGY LOSSES FROM MAGNETICALLY CONFINED VOLUMES OF HOT PLASMA

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1961-10-01

    An apparatus is described for controlling electron temperature in plasma confined in a Pyrotron magnetic containment field. Basically the device comprises means for directing low temperature electrons to the plasma in controlled quantities to maintain a predetermined optimum equilibrium electron temperature whereat minimum losses of plasma ions due to ambipolar effects and energy damping of the ions due to dynamical friction with the electrons occur. (AEC)

  18. Denitrification 'hot spots' in soil following surface residue application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, Marianne; Morley, Nicholas J.; Hallett, Paul D.; Watson, Christine; Baggs, Elizabeth M.

    2015-04-01

    The availability of organic C is an important driver for the production and reduction of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) during denitrification. Denitrification as a response to plant residue amendments to soil surfaces has been extensively researched. However, the nature of hotspot sites of N2O production and reduction within the soil profile, especially in relation to the location of applied residues, is unknown. In a laboratory experiment we investigated the relationship between denitrifier N2O surface fluxes and N2O production and reduction sites. Probes which equilibrate with the soil gas phase by diffusion were developed to quantify denitrification products and product ratios at 1-2 cm, 4.5-5.5 cm or 8-9 cm from the surface. 13C labelled barley straw was incorporated at rates of 0, 2 and 4 t ha-1 into the top 3 cm of soil and subsequently amended with 14NH415NO3. In a three week experiment the soil gas phase at the three depths was analysed for 15N-N2O, 15N-N2, 13C-CO2 and O2 concentrations. Additionally, cores were destructively sampled for mineral 15N as well as microbial C and dissolved C in the respective depths. 15N-N2O and CO2 surface fluxes peaked one day after N application, with residue application resulting in significantly higher 15N-N2O emission rates compared to the non-amended control. The timing of the 15N-N2O surface flux on day 1 was related to maximum 15N-N2O concentrations of 36.6 μg 15N L-1 within the pore space at 5 cm depth. Three days after fertilizer application 15N-N2O pore space concentrations had significantly increased to 193 μg 15N L-1 at 9 cm depth indicating denitrifier activity at greater depth. Denitrification below the soil surface could be explained by increased microbial activity, oxygen depletion with increasing depth and progressive downwards diffusion of fertilizer NO3-. However, C availability appeared to only affect denitrification in the surface layer in which the residue was incorporated. Our results provide

  19. Thermal Fatigue Testing of Plasma Transfer Arc Stellite Coatings on Hot Work Tool Steels under Steel Thixoforming Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birol, Yucel; Kayihan, Agca B.

    2011-11-01

    The thermal fatigue performance of Stellite 12 coating deposited on X32CrMoV33 hot work tool steel via the plasma transfer arc (PTA) process was investigated under steel thixoforming conditions. Stellite 12 coating has made a favorable impact on the thermal fatigue performance of the X32CrMoV33 hot work tool steel. The latter survived steel thixoforming conditions lasting much longer, for a total of 5000 cycles, when coated with a PTA Stellite 12 layer. This marked improvement is attributed to the higher resistance to oxidation and to temper softening of the Stellite 12 alloy. The Cr-rich oxides, which form during thermal cycling, provide adequate protection to high-temperature oxidation. In contrast to hot work tool steel, Stellite 12 alloy enjoys hardening upon thermal exposure under steel thixoforming conditions. This increase in the strength of the coating is produced by the formation of carbides and contributes to the superior thermal fatigue resistance of the Stellite 12 alloy. When the crack finally initiates, it propagates via the fracture of hard interdendritic carbides. The transformation of M7C3 to M23C6, which is more voluminous than M7C3, promotes crack propagation.

  20. Thermal Shock and Ablation Behavior of Tungsten Nozzle Produced by Plasma Spray Forming and Hot Isostatic Pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. M.; Xiong, X.; Zhao, Z. W.; Xie, L.; Min, X. B.; Yan, J. H.; Xia, G. M.; Zheng, F.

    2015-08-01

    Tungsten nozzle was produced by plasma spray forming (PSF, relative density of 86 ± 2%) followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing, 97 ± 2%) at 2000 °C and 180 MPa for 180 min. Scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffractometer, Archimedes method, Vickers hardness, and tensile tests have been employed to study microstructure, phase composition, density, micro-hardness, and mechanical properties of the parts. Resistance of thermal shock and ablation behavior of W nozzle were investigated by hot-firing test on solid rocket motor (SRM). Comparing with PSF nozzle, less damage was observed for HIPed sample after SRM test. Linear ablation rate of nozzle made by PSF was (0.120 ± 0.048) mm/s, while that after HIPing reduced to (0.0075 ± 0.0025) mm/s. Three types of ablation mechanisms including mechanical erosion, thermophysical erosion, and thermochemical ablation took place during hot-firing test. The order of degree of ablation was nozzle throat > convergence > dilation inside W nozzle.

  1. Propagation of a beam of hot electrons through solar wind plasma with generalized (r,q) distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalilpour, H.

    2016-08-01

    The background plasma is assumed to have generalized (r, q) distribution for the electrons in the solar wind. The propagation of a beam of hot electrons through solar wind plasma with generalized (r,q) distribution and the generation of Langmuir waves are simulated using quasilinear equations. It is shown that spectral indices r and q affect the quasilinear dynamics of the beam and Langmuir waves. The damping of beam generated waves increases in (r,q) distributed plasma. As indices r and q increase the system shows quasilinear behavior which is more similar to the Maxwellian distribution function. The value of average velocity of the beam increases in a plasma with (r, q) distribution function and as the values of r and q increase, the average velocity of the beam decreases. It is also shown that the gas-dynamical parameters of the beam are functions of spectral indices r and q. The upper boundary of the plateau, and local velocity spread are increasing functions while the lower boundary and height of plateau are decreasing functions of r and q. The local velocity shows smooth behavior with respect to spectral indices r and q, and for all indices at given time and position has approximately same values.

  2. Applicability of moire deflection tomography for diagnosing arc plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yunyun; Song Yang; He Anzhi; Li Zhenhua

    2009-01-20

    The argon arc plasma whose central temperature, 1.90x10{sup 4} K, is used as a practical example for an experiment to research the applicability of moire deflection tomography in arc plasma flow-field diagnosis. The experimental result indicates that moire deflection of the measured argon arc plasma is very small, even smaller than that of a common flame with the maximal temperature of nearly 1.80x10{sup 3} K. The refractive-index gradient in moire deflection tomography mainly contributes to the temperature gradient in essence when the probe wavelength and pressure are certain in plasma diagnosis. The applicable temperature ranges of moire deflection tomography in the argon arc plasma diagnosis are given with the probe wavelength 532 nm at 1 atm in certain measuring error requirements. In a word, the applicable temperature range of moire deflection tomography for arc plasma diagnosis is intimately related to the probe wavelength and the practical measuring requirements.

  3. Ionization Potential Depression in Hot Dense Plasmas Through a Pure Classical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calisti, A.; Ferri, S.; Talin, B.

    2015-05-01

    The ionization potential of an ion embedded in a plasma, lowered due to the whole of the charged particles (ions and electrons) interacting with this ion, is the so-called plasma effect. A numerical plasma model based on classical molecular dynamics has been developed recently. It is capable to describe a neutral plasma at equilibrium involving ions of various charge states of the same atom together with electrons. This code is used here to investigate the ionization potential depression (IPD). The study of the IPD is illustrated and discussed for aluminum plasmas at mid and solid density and electron temperatures varying from 50eV to 190eV. The method relies on a sampling of the total potential energy of the electron located at an ion being ionized. The potential energy of such electron results from all of the interacting charged particles interacting with it.

  4. Potential applications of an electron cyclotron resonance multicusp plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.; Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Haselton, H.H.; Roberto, J.B.; Stirling, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasmatron has been developed by feeding a multicusp bucket arc chamber with a compact ECR plasma source. This novel source produced large (about 25-cm-diam), uniform (to within {plus minus}10%), dense (>10{sup 11}-cm{sup -3}) plasmas of argon, helium, hydrogen, and oxygen. It has been operated to produce an oxygen plasma for etching 12.7-cm (5-in.) positive photoresist-coated silicon wafers with uniformity within {plus minus}8%. Results and potential applications of this new ECR plasma source for plasma processing of thin films are discussed. 21 refs., 10 figs.

  5. An Exact Calculation of Electron-Ion Energy Splitting in a Hot Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, Robert L

    2012-09-10

    In this brief report, I summarize the rather involved recent work of Brown, Preston, and Singleton (BPS). In Refs. [2] and [3], BPS calculate the energy partition into ions and electrons as a charged particle traverses a non-equilibrium two-temperature plasma. These results are exact to leading and next-to-leading order in the plasma coupling g, and are therefore extremely accurate in a weakly coupled plasma. The new BPS calculations are compared with the more standard work of Fraley et al. [12]. The results differ substantially at higher temperature when T{sub I} {ne} T{sub e}.

  6. Plasma Science and Applications at the Intel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Lee

    2006-10-01

    The Coalition for Plasma Science (CPS) has established a plasma prize at the annual Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF). The 2006 prize was awarded for a project that investigated the correlation of GPS errors with various measures of near-earth plasma activity. The CPS is a broadly-based group of institutions and individuals whose goal is to increase the understanding of plasmas for non-technical audiences. In addition to the ISEF plasma award, CPS activities include maintaining a website, http://www.plasmacoalition.org; developing educational literature; organizing educational luncheon presentations for Members of Congress and their staffs; and responding to questions about plasmas. In addition, the CPS has begun as effort to examine the plasma content of state education standards with the goal of promoting the adoption of standards with appropriate plasma conten; e.g. are there three or four states of matter. The success of this and other activities depend on the voluntary labor of CPS members and associates. Please send an e-mail to the CPS at CPS@plasmacoalition.org for information if you would like to become involved in spreading the good word about plasmas.

  7. Global magnetosphere-like 3D structure formation in kinetics by hot magnetized plasma flow characterized by shape of the particle distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubchenko, Vladimir

    The task was to provide an analytical elementary magnetosphere-like model in kinetics for verification of the 3D EM PIC codes created for space/aerospace and HED plasmas applications. Kinetic approach versus cold MHD approach takes into account different behavior in the EM fields of resonant and non resonant particles in the velocity phase space, which appears via shape characteristics of the particle velocity distribution function (PVDF) and via the spatial dispersion effect forming the collisionless dissipation in the EM fields. The external flow is a hot collisionless plasma characterized by the particle velocity distribution function (PVDF) with different shapes: Maxwellian, kappa, etc. The flow is in a “hot regime”: it can be supersonic but its velocity remains less the thermal velocity of the electrons. The “internal” part of the magnetosphere formed by trapped particles is the prescribed 3D stationary magnetization considered as a spherical “quasiparticle” with internal magnetodipole and toroidal moments represented as a broadband EM driver. We obtain after the linearization of Vlasov/Maxwell equations a self-consistent 3D large scale kinetic solution of the classic problem. Namely, we: model the “outer” part of the magnetosphere formed by external hot plasma flow of the flyby particles. Solution of the Vlasov equation expressed via a tensor of dielectric permittivity of nonmagnetized and magnetized flowing plasma. Here, we obtain the direct kinetic dissipative effect of the magnetotail formation and the opposite diamagnetic effect of the magnetosphere “dipolization”. We get MHD wave cone in flow magnetized by external guiding magnetic (GM) field. Magnetosphere in our consideration is a 3D dissipative “wave” package structure of the skinned EM fields formed by the “waves” excited at frequency bands where we obtain negative values and singularities (resonances) of squared EM refractive index of the cold plasma. The hot regime

  8. Stimulated-Raman-scatter behavior in a relativistically hot plasma slab and an electromagnetic low-order pseudocavity

    SciTech Connect

    Ghizzo, A.; Reveille, T.; Bertrand, P.; Albrecht-Marc, M.; Johnston, T. W.

    2006-10-15

    Particle simulations on a flat-topped somewhat underdense (typically n{sub 0}/n{sub c}=0.6) plasma slab by Nikolic et al. [Phys. Rev. E 66, 036404 (2002)] were seen to give transient stimulated scattering behavior with frequency shift [{omega}{sub 0}-{omega}{sub s}({approx_equal}{omega}{sub p})] considerably less than the plasma frequency {omega}{sub p}. This has been linked to the electron acoustic wave (EAW) and the scattering was thus seen as another example of stimulated electron acoustic scattering inferred by Montgomery et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 155001 (2001)] from experiments on low-density plasmas. Montgomery et al. had noted the difficulty of how one could have a very narrow observed scattering from a wave whose damping was at least initially very high. Our Vlasov-Maxwell simulations for such somewhat underdense (n{sub 0}/n{sub c}{>=}0.25) plasmas show that the simulation resonance was in fact determined by the beating of the pump with a new 'radiating pseudocavity' electromagnetic mode for the slab at a frequency close to {omega}{sub p} with relatively low loss. This allows the initial narrow-band excitation of the kinetic electrostatic electron nonlinear (KEEN) waves (the nonlinear 'cousins' of EAWs) at a well-defined frequency ({omega}{sub K}{approx_equal}{omega}{sub 0}-{omega}{sub p}<{omega}{sub p}) which is not necessarily the value given by the EAW dispersion relation. (The KEEN wave characteristics have been discussed by Afeyan et al. [33rd AAAC (2003), no. 238, IFSA 2003].) The consideration of such a mechanism is relevant to moderately underdense hot plasmas.

  9. SEMILLAC II: A new model for spectral behavior of hot plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Yechiel; Mandelbaum, Pinchas; Henis, Zohar

    2014-09-01

    Radiative properties of plasmas are of fundamental importance in many physical fields such as laser plasma interactions and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we present a new model developed to be used with radiation-hydrodynamic codes. This requires a fast calculation of the opacities and emissivities for a wide range of plasma conditions. This model is based on a limited set of detailed MCDF calculations, extended to a wider set of atomic configurations using simple algebraic relations. The model uses similar principles to those used in the SEMILLAC population dynamics code [1]. The model can be used in local thermal equilibrium and non local thermal equilibrium conditions. Results are presented for emission and absorption spectra as well as for average radiative properties.

  10. Atmospheric-pressure plasma sources for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, G. Y.; Park, S. J.; Choi, M. Y.; Koo, I. G.; Byun, J. H.; Hong, J. W.; Sim, J. Y.; Collins, G. J.; Lee, J. K.

    2012-08-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasmas (APPs) have attracted great interest and have been widely applied in biomedical applications, as due to their non-thermal and reactive properties, they interact with living tissues, cells and bacteria. Various types of plasma sources generated at atmospheric pressure have been developed to achieve better performance in specific applications. This article presents an overview of the general characteristics of APPs and a brief summary of their biomedical applications, and reviews a wide range of these sources developed for biomedical applications. The plasma sources are classified according to their power sources and cover a wide frequency spectrum from dc to microwaves. The configurations and characteristics of plasma sources are outlined and their biomedical applications are presented.

  11. Detailed model for hot-dense aluminum plasmas generated by an x-ray free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciricosta, O.; Vinko, S. M.; Chung, H.-K.; Jackson, C.; Lee, R. W.; Preston, T. R.; Rackstraw, D. S.; Wark, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The possibility of creating hot-dense plasma samples by isochoric heating of solid targets with high-intensity femtosecond X-ray lasers has opened up new opportunities in the experimental study of such systems. A study of the X-ray spectra emitted from solid density plasmas has provided significant insight into the X-ray absorption mechanisms, subsequent target heating, and the conditions of temperature, electron density, and ionization stages produced (Vinko et al., Nature 482, 59-62 (2012)). Furthermore, detailed analysis of the spectra has provided new information on the degree of ionization potential depression in these strongly coupled plasmas (Ciricosta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 065002 (2012)). Excellent agreement between experimental and simulated spectra has been obtained, but a full outline of the procedure by which this has been achieved has yet to be documented. We present here the details and approximations concerning the modelling of the experiment described in the above referenced work. We show that it is crucial to take into account the spatial and temporal gradients in simulating the overall emission spectra, and discuss how aspects of the model used affect the interpretation of the data in terms of charge-resolved measurements of the ionization potential depression.

  12. Effect of anode-cathode geometry on performance of the HIP-1 hot ion plasma. [magnetic mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauver, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    Hot-ion hydrogen plasma experiments were conducted in the NASA Lewis HIP-1 magnetic mirror facility to determine how the ion temperature was influenced by the axial position of the cathode tips relative to the anodes. A steady-state EXB plasma was formed by applying a strong radially inward dc electric field near the throats of the magnetic mirrors. The dc electric field was created between hollow cathode rods inside hollow anode cylinders, both concentric with the magnetic axis. The highest ion temperatures, 900 eV, were attained when the tip of each cathode was in the same plane as the end of its anode. These temperatures were reached with 22 kV applied to the electrodes in a field of 1.1 tesla. Scaling relations were empirically determined for ion temperature and the product of ion density and neutral particle density as a function of cathode voltage, discharge current, and electrode positions. Plasma discharge current vs voltage (I-V) characteristics were determined.

  13. Preface to Special Topic: Plasmas for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael; Robert, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Intense research effort over last few decades in low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasma application in bioengineering led to the foundation of a new scientific field, plasma medicine. Cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) produce various chemically reactive species including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It has been found that these reactive species play an important role in the interaction of CAP with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells triggering various signaling pathways in cells.

  14. Preface to Special Topic: Plasmas for Medical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Keidar, Michael; Robert, Eric

    2015-12-15

    Intense research effort over last few decades in low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasma application in bioengineering led to the foundation of a new scientific field, plasma medicine. Cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) produce various chemically reactive species including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It has been found that these reactive species play an important role in the interaction of CAP with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells triggering various signaling pathways in cells.

  15. Multielement geochemistry of solid materials in geothermal systems and its applications. Part 1. Hot-water system at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bamford, R.W.; Christensen, O.D.; Capuano, R.M.

    1980-02-01

    Geochemical studies of the geothermal system at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah, have led to development of chemical criteria for recognition of major features of the system and to a three-dimensional model for chemical zoning in the system. Based on this improved level of understanding several new or modified geochemical exploration and assessment techniques have been defined and are probably broadly applicable to evaluation of hot-water geothermal systems. The main purpose of this work was the development or adaptation of solids geochemical exploration techniques for use in the geothermal environment. (MHR)

  16. Compact Plasma Accelerator for Micropropulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2001-01-01

    There is a need for a low power, light-weight (compact), high specific impulse electric propulsion device to satisfy mission requirements for microsatellite (1 to 20 kg) class missions. Satisfying these requirements entails addressing the general problem of generating a sufficiently dense plasma within a relatively small volume and then accelerating it. In the work presented here, the feasibility of utilizing a magnetic cusp to generate a dense plasma over small length scales of order 1 mm is investigated. This approach could potentially mitigate scaling issues associated with conventional ion thruster plasma containment schemes. Plume and discharge characteristics were documented using a Faraday probe and a retarding potential analyzer.

  17. X-ray line polarization spectroscopy to study hot electron transport in ultra-short laser produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inubushi, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Ochiai, M.; Fujioka, S.; Johzaki, T.; Mima, K.; Kawamura, T.; Nakazaki, S.; Kai, T.; Sakabe, S.; Izawa, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Observation is reported of the polarization of the helium-like Cl Heα line (1s2 1S0 1s2p 1P1), at 2.79 keV emitted from a triple-layer target irradiated with a 130 fs laser pulse. The polarization degree is determined as a function of overcoat thickness of the target. It is found that the emission from a layer closer to the target surface is polarized parallel to the surface direction whereas emission from a deeper region in perpendicular to the surface. The experimental result is analyzed using a two-dimensional (2D) Maxwellian distribution function for hot electrons. Beam-like distribution was found in the depth of plasma.

  18. Extreme-ultraviolet calibration of thin-film Zr filters for the cosmic hot interstellar plasma spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Richelieu; Pelizzo, Maria G; Hurwitz, Mark

    2002-08-01

    The design and calibration of thin-film Zr transmission filters for the Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) spaceborne astronomical telescope is presented. The transmission of a 1,000-A-thick Zr filter is measured for wavelengths from 45 to 1,304 A as well as its variability with respect to expected space-flight enviromental extremes of temperature, vibration, and atomic O bombardment. For the CHIPS spectral band of 90-260 A, the transmission of the Zr fiter is deemed useful between 90 and 200 A and is stable with respect to expected temperature and vibrational changes. The maximum atomic O bombardment decreases the filter transmission between 90 and 130 A by approximately 20% and does not appreciably affect the rest of the CHIPS bandpass. These results make Zr an acceptable filter candidate for CHIPS. PMID:12153103

  19. Calculation of optical properties for hot plasmas using a screened hydrogenic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiano, J. G.; Rodríguez, R.; Florido, R.; Mendoza, M. A.; Gil, J. M.; Martel, P.; Mínguez, E.

    2006-06-01

    In work a hydrogenic versions of the code ATOM3R-OP is presented. This flexible code has been developed to obtain optical properties for plasmas in a wide range of densities and temperatures named and the Hydrogenic versions is intended to couple with hydrodynamic codes. The code is structured in three modules devoted to the calculation of the atomic magnitudes, the ionic abundances and the optical properties, respectively, which are briefly described. Finally, bound-bound opacities and emissivities of Carbon plasma computed with this model are compared with more sophisticated self-consistent codes.

  20. Development, diagnostic and applications of radio-frequency plasma reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puac, N.

    2008-07-01

    In many areas of the industry, plasma processing of materials is a vital technology. Nonequilibrium plasmas proved to be able to produce chemically reactive species at a low gas temperature while maintaining highly uniform reaction rates over relatively large areas (Makabe and Petrovic 2006). At the same time nonequilibrium plasmas provide means for good and precise control of the properties of active particles that determine the surface modification. Plasma needle is one of the atmospheric pressure sources that can be used for treatment of the living matter which is highly sensitive when it comes to low pressure or high temperatures (above 40 C). Dependent on plasma conditions, several refined cell responses are induced in mammalian cells (Sladek et al. 2005). It appears that plasma treatment may find many biomedical applications. However, there are few data in the literature about plasma effects on plant cells and tissues. So far, only the effect of low pressure plasmas on seeds was investigated. It was shown that short duration pretreatments by non equilibrium low temperature air plasma were stimulative in light induced germination of Paulownia tomentosa seeds (Puac et al. 2005). As membranes of plants have different properties to those of animals and as they show a wide range of properties we have tried to survey some of the effects of typical plasma which is envisaged to be used in biotechnological applications on plant cells. In this paper we will make a comparison between two configurations of plasma needle that we have used in treatment of biological samples (Puac et al. 2006). Difference between these two configurations is in the additional copper ring that we have placed around glass tube at the tip of the needle. We will show some of the electrical characteristics of the plasma needle (with and without additional copper ring) and, also, plasma emission intensity obtained by using fast ICCD camera.

  1. Target surface area effects on hot electron dynamics from high intensity laser–plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulick, C.; Raymond, A.; McKelvey, A.; Chvykov, V.; Maksimchuk, A.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Willingale, L.; Yanovsky, V.; Krushelnick, K.

    2016-06-01

    Reduced surface area targets were studied using an ultra-high intensity femtosecond laser in order to determine the effect of electron sheath field confinement on electron dynamics. X-ray emission due to energetic electrons was imaged using a {K}α imaging crystal. Electrons were observed to travel along the surface of wire targets, and were slowed mainly by the induced fields. Targets with reduced surface areas were correlated with increased hot electron densities and proton energies. Hybrid Vlasov–Fokker–Planck simulations demonstrated increased electric sheath field strength in reduced surface area targets.

  2. Environmental impact of plasma application to textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radetic, M.; Jovancic, P.; Puac, N.; Petrovic, Z. Lj

    2007-05-01

    Plasma technology is currently implemented in a wide range of industrial processes due to high efficiency, low environmental impact and simplicity. Low-temperature plasma treatment can be an alternative to traditional wet processes in textile preparation and finishing, causing modification of the fibre surface, which is mainly responsible for the material end-use properties i.e. wettability, dyeability, printability, shrinking, pilling etc. Appropriate choice of gas and control of plasma operation conditions provide a variety of effects on textiles (improvement of dyeability, printability and colour fastness, improvement of adhesion properties of coated fabrics, increase in hydrophobicity and water resistance, etc.). However, in spite of extraordinary efficiency, multifunctionality and simplicity, low-temperature plasma treatments still cannot replace all wet finishing processes, though they can be viable pretreatments that offer plenty of environmental and economical benefits.

  3. The average ion model. Computation of the absorption and emission coefficients in hot plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Jean-Claude; Geindre, Jean-Paul

    1988-06-01

    A program was developed to evaluate the emission and absorption plasma coefficient variations as a function of the density, temperature and the atomic number of the specimen. The treatment is simplified because of the reduced number of characteristic frequencies which are necessary for the hydrodynamic code. The approach is less efficient when applied to high Z atoms.

  4. A calculational approach to electron impact excitation of ions in hot solar plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temkin, A.

    1974-01-01

    The cross section requirements are presented for studying UV and X-ray emission spectra associated with active and flare-produced plasmas in the sun's corona. The general approach to the calculation of the distorted wave approximation problem is also given.

  5. Oscillation phenomena of a plasma produced by an AC driven hot cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yuki; Miyamoto, Naoki; Kasuya, Toshiro; Wada, Motoi

    2012-11-06

    Amplitude of oscillating discharge current has been measured for Bernas-type ion source equipped with an alternating current heated hot tungsten filament cathode. Measurements have been made by changing the filament diameter from 0.2 mm to 0.7 mm, and by changing the DC discharge current from 0.1 A to 1.5 A. The fluctuation amplitude of the discharge current was found decreased as the diameter of the filament was enlarged. The fluctuation amplitude took the minimum value at a frequency from several hundred Hz to 1 kHz depending upon the filament diameter and DC discharge current. For example, the relative oscillation amplitude was the smallest at 1 kHz for 0.7 mm diameter filament. Increase in discharge current had reduced the minimum oscillation amplitude, and increased the frequency at which the oscillating amplitude took the minimum. Fundamental mechanisms relevant to these characteristics of oscillation amplitude of discharge current from an AC driven hot cathode filament are discussed.

  6. Plasma Cleaning and Its Applications for Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isabell, Thomas C.; Fischione, Paul E.; O'Keefe, Catherine; Guruz, Murat U.; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    1999-03-01

    The effectiveness of applying a high-frequency, low-energy, reactive gas plasma for the removal of hydrocarbon contamination from specimens and components for electron microscopy has been investigated with a variety of analytical techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of specimens that have been plasma cleaned shows an elimination of the carbonaceous contamination from the specimen. With extended cleaning times the removal of existing carbon contamination debris due to previously conducted microanalysis is shown. Following plasma cleaning, specimens may be examined in the electron microscope for several hours without exhibiting evidence of recontamination. The effectiveness of plasma cleaning is not limited to applications for TEM specimens. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) specimens that have been plasma cleaned likewise show an elimination of carbonaceous contamination. Furthermore, other electron microscopy parts and accessories, such as aperture strips, specimen clamping rings, and Wehnelts, among others, can benefit from plasma cleaning.

  7. Plasma mass filtering techniques: applications and requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2013-10-01

    Plasma mass filters differ from conventional chemical filtering techniques in that elements are dissociated, and can therefore be processed without regard to chemical form. In addition, plasma filters can be in principle operated at larger velocities compared to their gaseous and/or liquid counterparts, so that larger throughputs are possible. On the other hand, one has to pay the price of ionization, which sets a lower limit for the processing cost. Plasma mass filtering techniques are consequently foreseen as a promising solution for separation processes which are simultaneously chemically challenging and of high added value. Such separation processes can be, for example, found within the context of nuclear waste remediation, or nuclear spent fuel reprocessing. However, although plasma separation techniques appear globally attractive for these distinct needs, the plasma parameters required to fulfill a particular separation process are expected to depend strongly on the process's attributes (volume, composition, mass difference), which may vary significantly. Such operating parameters' variations are shown to be well accommodated by a particular configuration, called the Magnetic Centrifugal Mass Filter. Work supported by US DOE under contract Nos DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FG02-06ER54851.

  8. Hypervelocity Dust Injection for Plasma Diagnostic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticos, Catalin

    2005-10-01

    Hypervelocity micron-size dust grain injection was proposed for high-temperature magnetized plasma diagnosis. Multiple dust grains are launched simultaneously into high temperature plasmas at several km/s or more. The hypervelocity dust grains are ablated by the electron and ion fluxes. Fast imaging of the resulting luminous plumes attached to each grain is expected to yield local magnetic field vectors. Combination of multiple local magnetic field vectors reproduces 2D or even 3D maps of the internal magnetic field topology. Key features of HDI are: (1) a high spatial resolution, due to a relatively small transverse size of the elongated tail, and (2) a small perturbation level, as the dust grains introduce negligible number of particles compared to the plasma particle inventory. The latter advantage, however, could be seriously compromised if the gas load from the accelerator has an unobstructed access to the diagnosed plasma. Construction of a HDI diagnostic for National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), which includes a coaxial plasma gun for dust grain acceleration, is underway. Hydrogen and deuterium gas discharges inside accelerator are created by a ˜ 1 mF capacitor bank pre-charged up to 10 kV. The diagnostic apparatus also comprises a dust dispenser for pre-loading the accelerator with dust grains, and an imaging system that has a high spatial and temporal resolution.

  9. Strength degradation of SiC fiber during manufacture of titanium matrix composites by plasma spraying and hot pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, K. H.; Grant, P. S.

    2001-12-01

    Titanium matrix composites (TMCs) reinforced with Sigma 1140+ SiC fiber have been manufactured by a combination of low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS spray/wind) and simultaneous fiber winding, followed by vacuum hot pressing (VHP). Fiber damage during TMC manufacture has been evaluated by measuring fiber tensile strength after fiber extraction from the TMCs at various processing stages, followed by fitting of these data to a Weibull distribution function. The LPPS spray/wind processing caused a decrease in mean fiber strength and Weibull modulus in comparison with as-received fibers. A number of fiber surface flaws, primarily in the outer C layer of the fiber, formed as a result of mechanical impact of poorly melted particles from the plasma spray. Coarse feedstock powders promoted an increase in the population of fiber surface flaws, leading to significant reduction in fiber strength. The VHP consolidation promoted further development of fiber surface flaws by fiber bending and stress localization because of nonuniform matrix shrinkage, resulting in further degradation in fiber strength. In the extreme case of fibers touching, the stress concentration on the fibers was sufficient to cause fiber cracking. Fractographic studies revealed that low strength fibers failed by surface flaw induced failure and contained a large fracture mirror zone. Compared with the more widely investigated foil-fiber-foil route to manufacture TMCs, LPPS/VHP resulted in less degradation in fiber strength for Sigma 1140+ fiber. Preliminary results for Textron SCS-6 fiber indicated a much greater tolerance to LPPS/VHP damage.

  10. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes on diamond-like carbon by the hot filament plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Chang; Park, Yong Seob; Hong, Byungyou

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted considerable attention as possible routes to device miniaturization due to their excellent mechanical, thermal, and electronic properties. These properties show great potential for devices such as field emission displays, transistors, and sensors. The growth of CNTs can be explained by interaction between small carbon patches and the metal catalyst. The metals such as nickel, cobalt, gold, iron, platinum, and palladium are used as the catalysts for the CNT growth. In this study, diamond-like carbon (DLC) was used for CNT growth as a nonmetallic catalyst layer. DLC films were deposited by a radio frequency (RF) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) method with a mixture of methane and hydrogen gases. CNTs were synthesized by a hot filament plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HF-PECVD) method with ammonia (NH3) as a pretreatment gas and acetylene (C2H2) as a carbon source gas. The grown CNTs and the pretreated DLC films were observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) measurement, and the structure of the grown CNTs was analyzed by high resolution transmission scanning electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Also, using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurement, we confirmed that only the carbon component remained on the substrate. PMID:19318258

  11. Ion kinetic instabilities and turbulence of a parallel shearing flow of a plasma with hot ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhaylenko, Volodymyr St.; Mykhaylenko, Volodymyr; Lee, Hae June

    2015-11-01

    The results of the analytical and numerical investigations of the shear flow driven ion kinetic instabilities, excited due to the inverse ion Landau damping in the parallel shearing flow of plasmas with comparable ion and electron temperatures, that is the case relevant to a tokamak and space plasma, are presented. The levels of turbulence and the turbulent heating rates of ions and ion turbulent viscosity, resulted from the development of the electrostatic ion-temperature gradient and electromagnetic drift-Alfven turbulence, are determined and their consequences are discussed. This work was funded by National R&D Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea.Grants NRF-2014M1A7A1A03029878, NRF-2013R1A1A2005758.

  12. Eddy intrustion of hot plasma into the polar cap and formation of polar-cap arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Gorney, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Under the simple postulate that multiple large scale detachable magnetospheric convection eddies can exist in the vicinity of the convection reversal boundary and in the polar cap, by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability or otherwise, it is shown that a number of seemingly disconnected plasma and electric field observations in the polar cap can be organized into a theory of magnetosheath and plasmasheet plasma intrusion into the polar cap. Current theory of inverted V structures then predicts existence of similar, but weaker, structures at the eddy convection reversal boundaries in the polar cap. A possible consequence is that the polar cap auroras are natural offshoots from discrete oval arcs and evidently are formed by similar processes. The two arc systems can occassionally produce an optical image in the form of the theta aurora.

  13. Applications of plasma core reactors to terrestrial energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, T. S.; Biancardi, F. R.; Rodgers, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma core reactors offer several new options for future energy needs in addition to space power and propulsion applications. Power extraction from plasma core reactors with gaseous nuclear fuel allows operation at temperatures higher than conventional reactors. Highly efficient thermodynamic cycles and applications employing direct coupling of radiant energy are possible. Conceptual configurations of plasma core reactors for terrestrial applications are described. Closed-cycle gas turbines, MHD systems, photo- and thermo-chemical hydrogen production processes, and laser systems using plasma core reactors as prime energy sources are considered. Cycle efficiencies in the range of 50 to 65 percent are calculated for closed-cycle gas turbine and MHD electrical generators. Reactor advantages include continuous fuel reprocessing which limits inventory of radioactive by-products and thorium-U-233 breeder configurations with about 5-year doubling times.-

  14. Physics and medical applications of cold atmospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were applied in a quest to understand physics of cold plasmas. In particular it was established that the streamer head charge is about 108 electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 107 V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 1019 m3. We have demonstrated the efficacy of cold plasma in a pre-clinical model of various cancer types (lung, bladder, breast, head, neck, brain and skin). Both in-vitro andin-vivo studies revealed that cold plasmas selectively kill cancer cells. We showed that: (a) cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in vitro without damaging normal cells. (b) Significantly reduced tumor size in vivo. Cold plasma treatment led to tumor ablation with neighbouring tumors unaffected. These experiments were performed on more than 10 mice with the same outcome. We found that tumors of about 5mm in diameter were ablated after 2 min of single time plasma treatment. The two best known cold plasma effects, plasma-induced apoptosis and the decrease of cell migration velocity can have important implications in cancer treatment by localizing the affected area of the tissue and by decreasing metastasic development. In addition, cold plasma treatment has affected the cell cycle of cancer cells. In particular, cold plasmainduces a 2-fold increase in cells at the G2/M-checkpoint in both papilloma and carcinoma cells at ~24 hours after treatment, while normal epithelial cells (WTK) did not show significant differences. It was shown that reactive oxygen species metabolism and oxidative stress responsive genes are deregulated. We investigated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with cold plasma treatment as a potential mechanism for the tumor ablation observed.

  15. Multichannel reconfigurable measurement system for hot plasma diagnostics based on GEM-2D detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojenski, A. J.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K. T.; Byszuk, A.; Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Jablonski, S.; Juszczyk, B.; Zienkiewicz, P.

    2015-12-01

    In the future magnetically confined fusion research reactors (e.g. ITER tokamak), precise determination of the level of the soft X-ray radiation of plasma with temperature above 30 keV (around 350 mln K) will be very important in plasma parameters optimization. This paper presents the first version of a designed spectrography measurement system. The system is already installed at JET tokamak. Based on the experience gained from the project, the new generation of hardware for spectrography measurements, was designed and also described in the paper. The GEM detector readout structure was changed to 2D in order to perform measurements of i.e. laser generated plasma. The hardware structure of the system was redesigned in order to provide large number of high speed input channels. Finally, this paper also covers the issue of new control software, necessary to set-up a complete system of certain complexity and perform data acquisition. The main goal of the project was to develop a new version of the system, which includes upgraded structure and data transmission infrastructure (i.e. handling large number of measurement channels, high sampling rate).

  16. Acoustic solitary waves in dusty and/or multi-ion plasmas with cold, adiabatic, and hot constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.; Kourakis, Ioannis

    2008-11-15

    Large nonlinear acoustic waves are discussed in a four-component plasma, made up of two superhot isothermal species, and two species with lower thermal velocities, being, respectively, adiabatic and cold. First a model is considered in which the isothermal species are electrons and ions, while the cooler species are positive and/or negative dust. Using a Sagdeev pseudopotential formalism, large dust-acoustic structures have been studied in a systematic way, to delimit the compositional parameter space in which they can be found, without restrictions on the charges and masses of the dust species and their charge signs. Solitary waves can only occur for nonlinear structure velocities smaller than the adiabatic dust thermal velocity, leading to a novel dust-acoustic-like mode based on the interplay between the two dust species. If the cold and adiabatic dust are oppositely charged, only solitary waves exist, having the polarity of the cold dust, their parameter range being limited by infinite compression of the cold dust. However, when the charges of the cold and adiabatic species have the same sign, solitary structures are limited for increasing Mach numbers successively by infinite cold dust compression, by encountering the adiabatic dust sonic point, and by the occurrence of double layers. The latter have, for smaller Mach numbers, the same polarity as the charged dust, but switch at the high Mach number end to the opposite polarity. Typical Sagdeev pseudopotentials and solitary wave profiles have been presented. Finally, the analysis has nowhere used the assumption that the dust would be much more massive than the ions and hence, one or both dust species can easily be replaced by positive and/or negative ions and the conclusions will apply to that plasma model equally well. This would cover a number of different scenarios, such as, for example, very hot electrons and ions, together with a mix of adiabatic ions and dust (of either polarity) or a very hot electron

  17. Investigation of micro-structure and micro-hardness properties of 304L stainless steel treated in a hot cathode arc discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, Hitendra K.; Singh, Omveer; Dahiya, Raj P.

    2015-08-28

    We have established a hot cathode arc discharge plasma system, where different stainless steel samples can be treated by monitoring the plasma parameters and nitriding parameters independently. In the present work, a mixture of 70% N{sub 2} and 30% H{sub 2} gases was fed into the plasma chamber and the treatment time and substrate temperature were optimized for treating 304L Stainless Steel samples. Various physical techniques such as x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and micro-vickers hardness tester were employed to determine the structural, surface composition and surface hardness of the treated samples.

  18. X-ray Spectral Measurements and Collisional Radiative Modeling of Hot, High-Z Plasmas at the Omega Laser

    SciTech Connect

    May, M J; Schneider, M B; Hansen, S B; Chung, H; Hinkel, D E; Baldis, H A; Constantin, C

    2008-02-20

    M-Band and L-Band Gold spectra between 3 to 5 keV and 8 to 13 keV, respectively, have been recorded by a photometrically calibrated crystal spectrometer. The spectra were emitted from the plasma in the laser deposition region of a 'hot hohlraum'. This is a reduced-scale hohlraum heated with {approx} 9 kJ of 351 nm light in a 1 ns square pulse at the Omega laser. The space- and time-integrated spectra included L-Band line emission from Co-like to Ne-like gold. The three L-Band line features were identified to be the 3s {yields} 2p, 3d{sub 5/2} {yields} 2p{sub 3/2} and 3d{sub 3/2} {yields} 2p{sub 1/2} transitions at {approx}9 keV, {approx}10 keV and {approx}13 keV, respectively. M-Band 5f {yields} 3d, 4d {yields} 3p, and 4p {yields} 3s transition features from Fe-like to P-like gold were also recorded between 3 to 5 keV. Modeling from the radiation-hydrodynamics code LASNEX, the collisional-radiative codes FLYCHK and SCRAM, and the atomic structure code FAC were used to model the plasma and generate simulated spectra for comparison with the recorded spectra. Through these comparisons, we have determined the average electron temperature of the emitting plasma to be {approx} 6.5 keV. The electron temperatures predicted by LASNEX appear to be too large by a factor of about 1.5.

  19. X-ray Spectral Measurements and Collisional Radiative Modeling of Hot, Gold Plasmas at the Omega Laser

    SciTech Connect

    May, M J; Schneider, M B; Hansen, S B; Chung, H; Hinkel, D E; Baldis, H A; Constantin, C

    2008-07-02

    M-Band and L-Band Gold spectra between 3 to 5 keV and 8 to 13 keV, respectively, have been recorded by a photometrically calibrated crystal spectrometer. The spectra were emitted from the plasma in the laser deposition region of a 'hot hohlraum'. This is a reduced-scale hohlraum heated with {approx} 9 kJ of 351 nm light in a 1 ns square pulse at the OMEGA laser. The space- and time-integrated spectra included L-Band line emission from Co-like to Ne-like gold. The three L-Band line features were identified to be the 3s {yields} 2p, 3d{sub 5/2} {yields} 2p{sub 3/2} and 3d{sub 3/2} {yields} 2p{sub 1/2} transitions at {approx}9 keV, {approx}10 keV and {approx}13 keV, respectively. M-Band 5f {yields} 3d, 4d {yields} 3p, and 4p {yields} 3s transition features from Fe-like to P-like gold were also recorded between 3 to 5 keV. Modeling from the radiation-hydrodynamics code LASNEX, the collisional-radiative codes FLYCHK and SCRAM, and the atomic structure code FAC were used to model the plasma and generate simulated spectra for comparison with the recorded spectra. Through these comparisons, we have determined the average electron temperature of the emitting plasma to be between 6.0 and 6.5 keV. The electron temperatures predicted by LASNEX appear to be too large by a factor of about 1.5.

  20. Hot Workability of CuZr-Based Shape Memory Alloys for Potential High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-07-01

    The research on high-temperature shape memory alloys has been growing because of the interest of several potential industrial fields, such as automotive, aerospace, mechanical, and control systems. One suitable candidate is given by the CuZr system, because of its relative low price in comparison with others, like the NiTi-based one. In this context, the goal of this work is the study of hot workability of some CuZr-based shape memory alloys. In particular, this study addresses on the effect of hot rolling process on the metallurgical and calorimetric properties of the CuZr system. The addition of some alloying elements (Cr, Co, Ni, and Ti) is taken into account and their effect is also put in comparison with each other. The alloys were produced by means of an arc melting furnace in inert atmosphere under the shape of cigars. Due to the high reactivity of these alloys at high temperature, the cigars were sealed in a stainless steel can before the processing and two different procedures of hot rolling were tested. The characterization of the rolled alloys is performed using discrete scanning calorimetry in terms of evolution of the martensitic transformation and scanning electron microscopy for the microstructural investigations. Additionally, preliminary tests of laser interaction has been also proposed on the alloy more interesting for potential applications, characterized by high transformation temperatures and its good thermal stability.

  1. Plasma Functionalized Nanocarbon Materials and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongfeng

    2015-09-01

    The plasma treatment method is important for modifying carbon nanomaterials since it has the advantage of being nonpolluting. It has the possibility of scaling up to produce large quantities necessary for commercial use. The liquid-related plasma is especially advantageous in avoiding use of toxic stabilizers and reducing agents during the nanoparticle formation process. In this work, both gas phase and liquid phase plasmas are used to modify nanocarbon materials including graphene and carbon nanotubes. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles functionalized nanocarbon materials including carbon nanotubes and graphene has been realized by an environmentally-friendly gas-liquid interfacial method. Furthermore, the new catalysts based on hybrid of nanocarbon materials and metal nanoparticles have been proved to be stable and high catalytic performance in organic molecule transformation reactions. In addition, the modification of few-layer graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition via the nitrogen plasma ion irradiation has been performed, and the modified graphene sheets as counter electrodes in bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells exhibit high performance.

  2. Plasma quench technology for natural gas conversion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, B.A.; Kong, P.C.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental demonstration of a process for direct conversion of methane to acetylene in a thermal plasma. The process utilizes a thermal plasma to dissociate methane and form an equilibrium mixture of acetylene followed by a supersonic expansion of the hot gas to preserve the produced acetylene in high yield. The high translational velocities and rapid cooling result in an overpopulation of atomic hydrogen which persists throughout the expansion process. The presence of atomic hydrogen shifts the equilibrium composition by inhibiting complete pyrolysis of methane and acetylene to solid carbon. This process has the potential to reduce the cost of producing acetylene from natural gas. Acetylene and hydrogen produced by this process could be used directly as industrial gases, building blocks for synthesis of industrial chemicals, or oligomerized to long chain liquid hydrocarbons for use as fuels. This process produces hydrogen and ultrafine carbon black in addition to acetylene.

  3. The Jupiter hot plasma torus - Observed electron temperature and energy flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The detection of the optical emission /O I/ 6300 A (8 + or - 4 R) and /S III/ 6312 A (48 + or - 5 R) is reported. It is noted that these emissions are indicators of the ion source morphology and the plasma physical state and that the S III emitters have a kinetic temperature of approximately 10 to the 6th K. When combined with observations of UV lines from the same species, the optical measurements separately imply effective electron temperatures for radiative processes that are mutually consistent (approximately 50,000 K).

  4. Perpendicularly propagating electromagnetic modes in a strongly magnetized hot plasma with non-Maxwellian distribution function

    SciTech Connect

    Zaheer, S.; Murtaza, G.; Shah, H.A.

    2006-06-15

    Electromagnetic modes (ordinary and extraordinary) for strongly magnetized plasma are studied and their damping factors {gamma}{sub or} and {gamma}{sub ex} are calculated using non-Maxwellian velocity distribution function. It is observed that for moderate values of the spectral indices r and q [used in (r, q) distribution functions], both the damping decrements show substantial change. As the value of the spectral index r increases for a fixed value of q, the damping increases for the O mode but decreases for the X mode. In the limiting case of r=0, q{yields}{infinity}, the damping factors reduce to the standard Maxwellian values.

  5. Application of Superconducting Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers for Terahertz-Band Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maezawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a next-generation heterodyne mixer detector - a hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixer employing a superconducting microbridge - has gradually opened up terahertz-band astronomy. The surrounding state-of-the-art technologies including fabrication processes, 4 K cryostats, cryogenic low-noise amplifiers, local oscillator sources, micromachining techniques, and spectrometers, as well as the HEB mixers, have played a valuable role in the development of super-low-noise heterodyne spectroscopy systems for the terahertz band. The current developmental status of terahertz-band HEB mixer receivers and their applications for spectroscopy and astronomy with ground-based, airborne, and satellite telescopes are presented.

  6. Experiences of the Application of Hot Gas Filtration to Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, B.T.

    2002-09-18

    Hot Gas Filtration (HGF) is defined as the dry scrubbing of gaseous process effluent above 250 degrees. The potential applications for this technology can be found in Atmospheric Pollution Control (APC) and In-Line Equipment Protection (ILETP). In recent years novel rigid refractory filter media have emerged with several advantages over conventional fabric bag filters and other particulate arrestment systems e.g. electrostatic precipitators. A study has been made of the effect of a wide range of operational conditions, including gas volume and velocity, temperature, particle size distribution, and organic/moisture content, in real process situations on filter elements performance and life expectancy.

  7. Development and Ground-Test Validation of Fiber Optic Sensor Attachment Techniques for Hot Structures Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazza, Anthony; Hudson, Larry D.; Richards, W. Lance

    2005-01-01

    Fiber Optic Strain Measurements: a) Successfully attached silica fiber optic sensors to both metallics and composites; b) Accomplished valid EFPI strain measurements to 1850 F; c) Successfully attached EFPI sensors to large scale hot-structures; and d) Attached and thermally validated FBG bond and epsilon(sub app). Future Development a) Improve characterization of sensors on C-C and C-SiC substrates; b) Apply application to other composites such as SiC-SiC; c) Assist development of interferometer based Sapphire sensor currently being conducted under a Phase II SBIR; and d) Complete combined thermal/mechanical testing of FBG on composite substrates in controlled laboratory environment.

  8. Probing of Interactions between the Hot Plasmas and Galaxies in Clusters over a Cosmological Timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, L.; Makishima, K.

    2014-07-01

    After reionization the Universe can no longer be considered as neutral fluids, but must be treated as ionized media which are ubiquitously threaded by magnetic fields. It remains still unexplored how the magneto-plasma nature of matter affects the formation and evolution of galaxies and galaxy clusters, and how the galaxies and cluster plasmas interact each other. We consider a unique scenario, "galaxies moving through the cluster will interact strongly with the ICM, transfer their free energies to the ICM, and will gradually fall to the cluster center". To verify this scenario, the key is to compare the spatial extents of galaxy and ICM at different redshifts. In Gu et al. 2013, ApJ 767 157, we studied the expected galaxy infall using a sample of 34 massive clusters with redshift range of 0.1 to 0.9. We have detected, for the first time, a significant evolution spanning 6 Gyr; while the galaxy component was as spatially extended as the ICM at z˜0.9, towards the lower redshifts, it has indeed become more centrally-concentrated relative to ICM/DM. Recently we confirm this discovery by a new complete sample of 316 clusters. This reveals the presence of strong ICM drag on galaxies over cosmological timescale.

  9. Building a Dispersion Relation Solver for Hot Plasmas with Arbitrary Non-relativistic Parallel Velocity Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X.; Waters, T.; Gary, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Collisionless space plasmas often deviate from Maxwellian-like velocity distributions. To study kinetic waves and instabilities in such plasmas, the dispersion relation, which depends on the velocity distribution, needs to be solved numerically. Most current dispersion solvers (e.g. WHAMP) take advantage of mathematical properties of the Gaussian (or generalized Lorentzian) function, and assume that the velocity distributions can be modeled by a combination of several drift-Maxwellian (or drift-Lorentzian) components. In this study we are developing a kinetic dispersion solver that admits nearly arbitrary non-relativistic parallel velocity distributions. A key part of any dispersion solver is the evaluation of a Hilbert transform of the velocity distribution function and its derivative along Landau contours. Our new solver builds upon a recent method to compute the Hilbert transform accurately and efficiently using the fast Fourier transform, while simultaneously treating the singularities arising from resonances analytically. We have benchmarked our new solver against other codes dealing with Maxwellian distributions. As an example usage of our code, we will show results for several instabilities that occur for electron velocity distributions observed in the solar wind.

  10. Hot electrons downstream of the termination shock and the incompressibility of the heliosheath plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahr, Hans-Jörg; Verscharen, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    We consider a fast magnetosonic multifluid representation of the solar wind termination shock and assume that the shock transition occurs in two steps: First the upstream plasma is subjected to a strong electric field decelerating the supersonic ion flow and accelerating the electrons to high velocities. In this part the electric forces strongly dominate over Lorentz forces, i.e. the de-magnetization region. By means of the Vlasow theorem we obtain the distribution function and the bulk velocity of the electrons. We can show that the shocked electrons experience a strong energy gain in form of overshoot kinetic energies. In the second part of the shock, convected magnetic fields lead to Lorentz forces that compete with electric forces and take care of winding up the electrons into a shell distribution which stores about 3/4 of the upstream ion kinetic energy. Due to this the electron fluid represents the dominating pressure in the heliosheath plasma which thus, as we show, behaves incompressible under such conditions.

  11. Femtosecond laser ablation of carbon: From spallation to formation of hot critical plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, S. I.; Ionin, A. A.; Makarov, S. V.; Mel'nik, N. N.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.

    2012-07-01

    Strong ablative shock waves were generated on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface by intense IR femtosecond laser pulses in a broad fluence range and their basic parameters (pressure, velocity) were acquired by means of a non-contact broadband ultrasonic technique. At moderate laser fluences (F ≥ 0.3 J/cm2), ultrafast formation of a dense, strongly-heated (supercritical) carbon phase is expected, which expands on a fluence-dependent picosecond timescale in the form of a point-like three-dimensional explosion, driving a multi-GPa shock wave both in ambient air and the graphite target. At higher laser fluences (F > 5 J/cm2), critical electron-ion plasma is formed instantaneously during the exciting femtosecond laser pulse, with its strong plasma absorption initiating a TPa-level shock wave (the maximum shock wave pressure ≈ 3 TPa is more than twice the previous maximum for carbon). Because of the ablative removal of the laser-heated surface carbon layer, the following time-integrated structural studies indicate the formation of a mixture of diamond and graphite nanocrystallites or, in other words, glassy carbon only in the redeposition products.

  12. Spectroscopy of Z-pinch plasmas: how atomic and plasma physics merge and unfold new applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, Alla

    2012-06-01

    Recent advances in theoretical and experimental work on plasma spectroscopy of Z-pinches are presented. We have shown that the University-scale Z-pinch generators are able to produce plasmas within a broad range of temperatures, densities, opacity, and radiative properties depending on the type, geometry, size, and mass of wire array loads and wire material. The full x-ray and EUV diagnostic set for detailed spatial and temporal monitoring of such a plasma together with relativistic atomic and non-LTE kinetic codes create a very useful and productive environment for the study of atomic and plasma spectroscopy features and development of their applications. A variety of examples of K-shell low-Z (such as Mg and Al), L-shell mid-Z (such as Ni, Cu, and Ag), and M- and L-shell high-Z (W) will be considered and their specific features and applications to fusion and astrophysics will be highlighted.

  13. Dust accelerators and their applications in high-temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Ticos, Catakin M

    2010-01-01

    The perennial presence of dust in high-temperature plasma and fusion devices has been firmly established. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular in the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and potentially interfere with fusion energy production. Much effort has been devoted to gening rid of the dust nuisance. We have recognized a number of dust-accelerators applications in magnetic fusion, including in plasma diagnostics, in studying dust-plasma interactions, and more recently in edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. With the applications in mind, we will compare various acceleration methods, including electrostatic, gas-drag, and plasma-drag acceleration. We will also describe laboratory experiments and results on dust acceleration.

  14. Dust Accelerators And Their Applications In High-Temperature Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticoş, Cǎtǎlin M.; Wang, Zhehui

    2011-06-01

    The perennial presence of dust in high-temperature plasma and fusion devices has been firmly established. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular in the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and potentially interfere with fusion energy production. Although much effort has been devoted to getting rid of the dust nuisance, there are instances where a controlled use of dust can be beneficial. We have recognized a number of dust-accelerators applications in magnetic fusion, including in plasma diagnostics, in studying dust-plasma interactions, and more recently in edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. With the applications in mind, we will compare various acceleration methods, including electrostatic, gas-drag, and plasma-drag acceleration. We will also describe laboratory experiments and results on dust acceleration.

  15. Industrial applications of low-temperature plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.F.

    1995-06-01

    The application of plasma physics to the manufacturing and processing of materials may be the new frontier of our discipline. Already partially ionized discharges are used in industry, and the performance of plasmas has a large commercial and technological impact. However, the science of low-temperature plasmas is not as well developed as that of high-temperature, collisionless plasmas. In this paper several major areas of application are described and examples of forefront problems in each are given. The underlying thesis is that gas discharges have evolved beyond a black art, and that intellectually challenging problems with elegant solutions can be found. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  16. Applications of digital processing for noise removal from plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.J.; Candy, J.V.; Casper, T.A.

    1985-11-11

    The use of digital signal techniques for removal of noise components present in plasma diagnostic signals is discussed, particularly with reference to diamagnetic loop signals. These signals contain noise due to power supply ripple in addition to plasma characteristics. The application of noise canceling techniques, such as adaptive noise canceling and model-based estimation, will be discussed. The use of computer codes such as SIG is described. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Heliosheath ENA images by Cassini/INCA and in-situ hot plasma ion measurements by Voyagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimigis, Stamatios; Roelof, Edmond; Mitchell, Donald; Decker, Robert; Dialynas, Konstantinos

    2016-07-01

    The advent of Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imaging, (the result of charge-exchange with energetic ions), has revealed the global nature of the heliosheath (HS) at both high ( > 5 keV, Cassini from 10 AU) and low (< 6 keV, IBEX from 1 AU) energies. Voyager 1 (V1) entered the HS in December 2004 at 94 AU and crossed the heliopause (HP) in August 2012 at 121.6 AU, while Voyager 2 (V2) has been in the HS since August 2007. Thus the properties of the HS along the V1, V2 trajectories are now well-established. Portions of the global HS have been imaged by the Cassini/ INCA (Ion and Neutral CAmera) since 2003 with a full image available since 2009, when IBEX global imaging observations also became available. The presence of the two Voyagers measuring ions locally in the HS contemporaneously with INCA global imaging through ENA in overlapping energy bands provides a powerful tool for examining the spatial, temporal, and spectral evolution of the source hot plasma ions and the global variability of the neutral component. Some of the key findings from the Voyagers and INCA measurements are as follows: (a) The HS contains a hot plasma population that carries a substantial part (30-50%) of the total pressure at E > 5 keV, the rest residing below that range, resulting in a beta (particle/magnetic pressure) always > 1, typically > 10. (b) The width of the HS in the direction of V1 is ˜~ 30 AU, but is thought to be larger (40-70 AU) in the southern ecliptic where V2 currently travels. (c) The ENA intensities at E > 5 keV exhibit a correlation with the solar cycle (SC) over the period 2003 to 2014, with minimum intensities in the anti-nose direction observed ˜~ 1.5 yrs after solar minimum followed by a recovery thereafter, and (d) The in situ ion measurements at V2 within the HS also show a similar SC dependence. The totality of the observations, together with the near-contemporaneous variability in intensities of ions in situ in the HS and ENA in the inner heliosphere suggests

  18. Weakly Ionized Plasmas in Hypersonics: Fundamental Kinetics and Flight Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Macheret, Sergey

    2005-05-16

    The paper reviews some of the recent studies of applications of weakly ionized plasmas to supersonic/hypersonic flight. Plasmas can be used simply as means of delivering energy (heating) to the flow, and also for electromagnetic flow control and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation. Plasma and MHD control can be especially effective in transient off-design flight regimes. In cold air flow, nonequilibrium plasmas must be created, and the ionization power budget determines design, performance envelope, and the very practicality of plasma/MHD devices. The minimum power budget is provided by electron beams and repetitive high-voltage nanosecond pulses, and the paper describes theoretical and computational modeling of plasmas created by the beams and repetitive pulses. The models include coupled equations for non-local and unsteady electron energy distribution function (modeled in forward-back approximation), plasma kinetics, and electric field. Recent experimental studies at Princeton University have successfully demonstrated stable diffuse plasmas sustained by repetitive nanosecond pulses in supersonic air flow, and for the first time have demonstrated the existence of MHD effects in such plasmas. Cold-air hypersonic MHD devices are shown to permit optimization of scramjet inlets at Mach numbers higher than the design value, while operating in self-powered regime. Plasma energy addition upstream of the inlet throat can increase the thrust by capturing more air (Virtual Cowl), or it can reduce the flow Mach number and thus eliminate the need for an isolator duct. In the latter two cases, the power that needs to be supplied to the plasma would be generated by an MHD generator downstream of the combustor, thus forming the 'reverse energy bypass' scheme. MHD power generation on board reentry vehicles is also discussed.

  19. Weakly Ionized Plasmas in Hypersonics: Fundamental Kinetics and Flight Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macheret, Sergey

    2005-05-01

    The paper reviews some of the recent studies of applications of weakly ionized plasmas to supersonic/hypersonic flight. Plasmas can be used simply as means of delivering energy (heating) to the flow, and also for electromagnetic flow control and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation. Plasma and MHD control can be especially effective in transient off-design flight regimes. In cold air flow, nonequilibrium plasmas must be created, and the ionization power budget determines design, performance envelope, and the very practicality of plasma/MHD devices. The minimum power budget is provided by electron beams and repetitive high-voltage nanosecond pulses, and the paper describes theoretical and computational modeling of plasmas created by the beams and repetitive pulses. The models include coupled equations for non-local and unsteady electron energy distribution function (modeled in forward-back approximation), plasma kinetics, and electric field. Recent experimental studies at Princeton University have successfully demonstrated stable diffuse plasmas sustained by repetitive nanosecond pulses in supersonic air flow, and for the first time have demonstrated the existence of MHD effects in such plasmas. Cold-air hypersonic MHD devices are shown to permit optimization of scramjet inlets at Mach numbers higher than the design value, while operating in self-powered regime. Plasma energy addition upstream of the inlet throat can increase the thrust by capturing more air (Virtual Cowl), or it can reduce the flow Mach number and thus eliminate the need for an isolator duct. In the latter two cases, the power that needs to be supplied to the plasma would be generated by an MHD generator downstream of the combustor, thus forming the "reverse energy bypass" scheme. MHD power generation on board reentry vehicles is also discussed.

  20. Hot-wire chemical vapour deposition at low substrate temperatures for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, R.

    2010-09-01

    The need for large quantities of rapidly and cheaply produced electronic devices has increased rapidly over the past decades. The transistors and diodes that are used to build these devices are predominantly made of crystalline silicon. Since crystalline silicon is very expensive to produce on a large scale and cannot be directly deposited on plastic substrates, much research is being done on thin film amorphous or nanocrystalline semiconductors and insulators. Hot-wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD) is a novel, low cost, and convenient way to deposit these materials. The process can be controlled in such a way that specific chemical reactions take place and unwanted side reactions are minimized. It can easily be scaled up to produce large-area thin film electronics. Conventionally, plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is used to deposit semiconductors and inorganic dielectrics. Recently, HWCVD has been explored for fast deposition of such materials. An adaptation of HWCVD, initiated chemical vapour deposition (iCVD), offers the unique possibility of producing organic materials and polymers in a vacuum reactor, without the use of solvents. This technique was originally proposed at the Massachusetts institute of technology (MIT) by Prof. Karen Gleason. The iCVD process involves the creation of radicals by dissociation of a peroxide (a molecule with a ~O-O~ bond) by a heated wire in a vacuum reactor. This radical initiates a polymerization reaction of a vinyl (a molecule with a double carbon-carbon bond, ~C=C~) monomer at a substrate held at room temperature. This thesis describes a dedicated iCVD reactor for polymer deposition, installed at Utrecht University, along with a reactor with a cooled substrate holder in an existing HWCVD multi-chamber setup for low-temperature silicon nitride (SiNx) depositions. The most important features of these reactors are described and the characterization techniques are explained. This thesis contains four new

  1. Plasma discharge characteristics in compact SF6 radio-frequency plasma source for plasma etching application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motomura, Taisei; Takahashi, Kazunori; Kasashima, Yuji; Uesugi, Fumihiko; Ando, Akira

    2015-09-01

    In order to create a compact plasma etching reactor, plasma discharge characteristics in compact SF6 radio-frequency (RF) plasma source which has a chamber diameter of 40 mm have been studied. Convergent magnetic field configuration produced by a solenoid coil and a permanent magnet located behind substrate is employed for efficient plasma transport downstream of plasma source. A discharge characteristics with the changes in relative emission intensity of fluorine atom of FI at 703.7 nm in compact SF6 plasma source are discussed: the dependence of relative emission intensity on the magnetic field strength, the RF input power, and the mass flow rate of the SF6 gas. The relative emission intensity was significantly increased when the RF input power is ~150 W. We present the fundamental etching performance (especially etching rate) of compact plasma source, and then the etching rate of 0.1-1.0 μm/min was obtained under the condition of a RF input power of 50-200 W, a mass flow rate of SF6 of 5.5 sccm and a bias RF power of 20 W. The results of test etching will be shown in presentation.

  2. Plasma Upflows and Microwave Emission in Hot Supra-arcade Structure Associated with an M1.6 Limb Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Shibasaki, K.; Bain, H.-M.; Cho, K.-S.

    2014-04-01

    We have investigated a supra-arcade structure associated with an M1.6 flare, which occurred on the south-east limb on 2010 November 4. It is observed in EUV with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, microwaves at 17 and 34 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), and soft X-rays of 8-20 keV with RHESSI. Interestingly, we found exceptional properties of the supra-arcade thermal plasma from the AIA 131 Å and the NoRH: (1) plasma upflows along large coronal loops and (2) enhancing microwave emission. RHESSI detected two soft X-ray sources, a broad one in the middle of the supra-arcade structure and a bright one just above the flare-arcade. We estimated the number density and thermal energy for these two source regions during the decay phase of the flare. In the supra-arcade source, we found that there were increases of the thermal energy and the density at the early and last stages, respectively. On the contrary, the density and thermal energy of the source on the top of the flare-arcade decreases throughout. The observed upflows imply that there is continuous energy supply into the supra-arcade structure from below during the decay phase of the flare. It is hard to explain by the standard flare model in which the energy release site is located high in the corona. Thus, we suggest that a potential candidate of the energy source for the hot supra-arcade structure is the flare-arcade, which has exhibited a predominant emission throughout.

  3. Plasma upflows and microwave emission in hot supra-arcade structure associated with AN M1.6 limb flare

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Shibasaki, K.; Cho, K.-S.

    2014-04-20

    We have investigated a supra-arcade structure associated with an M1.6 flare, which occurred on the south-east limb on 2010 November 4. It is observed in EUV with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, microwaves at 17 and 34 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), and soft X-rays of 8-20 keV with RHESSI. Interestingly, we found exceptional properties of the supra-arcade thermal plasma from the AIA 131 Å and the NoRH: (1) plasma upflows along large coronal loops and (2) enhancing microwave emission. RHESSI detected two soft X-ray sources, a broad one in the middle of the supra-arcade structure and a bright one just above the flare-arcade. We estimated the number density and thermal energy for these two source regions during the decay phase of the flare. In the supra-arcade source, we found that there were increases of the thermal energy and the density at the early and last stages, respectively. On the contrary, the density and thermal energy of the source on the top of the flare-arcade decreases throughout. The observed upflows imply that there is continuous energy supply into the supra-arcade structure from below during the decay phase of the flare. It is hard to explain by the standard flare model in which the energy release site is located high in the corona. Thus, we suggest that a potential candidate of the energy source for the hot supra-arcade structure is the flare-arcade, which has exhibited a predominant emission throughout.

  4. Formation of Imploding Plasma Liners for HEDP and MIF Application

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Brockington, Samuel; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Mike; Wu, Linchun; Elton, Ray

    2014-11-11

    Plasma jets with high density and velocity have a number of important applications in fusion energy and elsewhere, including plasma refueling, disruption mitigation in tokamaks, magnetized target fusion, injection of momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, plasma thrusters, and high energy density plasmas (HEDP). In Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF), for example, an imploding material liner is used to compress a magnetized plasma to fusion conditions and to confine the resulting burning plasma inertially to obtain the necessary energy gain. The imploding shell may be solid, liquid, gaseous, or a combination of these states. The presence of the magnetic field in the target plasma suppresses thermal transport to the plasma shell, thus lowering the imploding power needed to compress the target to fusion conditions. This allows the required imploding momentum flux to be generated electromagnetically using off-the-shelf pulsed power technology. Practical schemes for standoff delivery of the imploding momentum flux are required and are open topics for research. One approach for accomplishing this, called plasma jet driven magneto-inertial fusion (PJMIF), uses a spherical array of pulsed plasma guns to create a spherically imploding shell of very high velocity, high momentum flux plasma. This approach requires development of plasma jet accelerators capable of achieving velocities of 50-200 km/s with very precise timing and density profiles, and with high total mass and density. Low-Z plasma jets would require the higher velocities, whereas very dense high-Z plasma shells could achieve the goal at velocities of only 50-100 km/s. In this report, we describe our work to develop the pulsed plasma gun technology needed for an experimental scientific exploration of the PJMIF concept, and also for the other applications mentioned earlier. The initial goal of a few hundred of hydrogen at 200 km/s was eventually replaced with accelerating 8000 μg of argon or xenon to 50 km

  5. Recent developments in modeling of hot rolling processes: Part II - Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, Gerhard; Bambach, Markus; Seuren, Simon; Henke, Thomas; Lohmar, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    This publication gives a short overview of current developments in modeling and simulation of hot rolling processes of metals at the Institute of Metal Forming of RWTH Aachen University. It is based on the fundamentals treated in Part I also contained in this conference issue. It features applications in the field of fast on-line models, where a fast multi-stage rolling model and an analytical approach for predicting the through-thickness shear distribution are presented. In addition, a new concept for sensitivity analysis by automatic differentiation is introduced and discussed. Finally, applications of rolling simulations in the field of integrated computational materials engineering are presented with a focus on TWIP and linepipe steels as well as aluminum.

  6. Topics in high voltage pulsed power plasma devices and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao

    Pulsed power technology is one of the tools that is used by scientists and engineers nowadays to produce gas plasmas. The transient ultra high power is able to provide a huge pulse of energy which is sometimes greater than the ionization energy of the gas, and therefore separates the ions and electrons to form the plasma. Sometimes, the pulsed power components themselves are plasma devices. For example, the gas type switches can "turn on" the circuit by creating the plasma channel between the switch electrodes. Mini Back Lighted Thyratron, or as we call it, mini-BLT, is one of these gas type plasma switches. The development of the reduced size and weight "mini-BLT" is presented in this dissertation. Based on the operation characteristics testing of the mini-BLT, suggestions of optimizing the design of the switch are proposed. All the factors such as the geometry of the hollow electrodes and switch housing, the gas condition, the optical triggering source, etc. are necessary to consider when we design and operate the mini-BLT. By reducing the diameter of the cylindrical gas path between the electrodes in the BLT, a novel high density plasma source is developed, producing the plasma in the "squeezed" capillary. The pulsed power generator, of course, is inevitably used to provide the ionization energy for hydrogen gas sealed in the capillary. Plasma diagnostics are necessarily analyzed and presented in detail to properly complete and understand the capillary plasma. This high density plasma source (1019 cm-3) has the potential applications in the plasma wakefield accelerator. The resonant oscillation behavior of the particles in plasmas allows for dynamically generated accelerating electric fields that have orders of magnitude larger than those available in the conventional RF accelerators. Finally, the solid state switches are introduced as a comparison to the gas type switch. Pulsed power circuit topologies such as the Marx Bank, magnetic pulse compression and diode

  7. Of the nature of a hot, ``strongly-'' magnetized plasma state -in thermal equilibrium- in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdichevsky, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The main outcome of this study of constitutive properties of the medium is the estimation of its magnetic permeability, two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the vacuum, i.e., a highly diamagnetic material. (This diamagnetic property is consistent with the superconductivity assumption in magnetohydrodynamics theory, baseline of any macroscopic-scale description of the interplanetary medium.) We propose that a 3-D amorphous Langmuir lattice state is a good representation of the properties of this class of self-organized magnetized matter in solar transients, coronal mass ejections, containing extremely dilute matter strongly dominated by a magnetic field. We further conjecture that the presented state of magnetized matter could be an adequate representation of the `local insterstellar medium region,' in which the solar-system as a whole moves, based on current observations by the spacecraft Voyager 1. The presented interpretation benefits from the observation of many strongly magnetized structures ejected by the Sun, in their march through the interplanetary space evolving consistently with a simple 3-D magnetohydrodynamic model representation. Understanding of the magnetized matter state is gained by means of a case study from 3s in-situ magnetic field and plasma observations in space, which will be outlined in the presentation. (These are SWE and MFI instruments data in spacecraft Wind.)

  8. Hot Collionsal Plasma Emissions in the Ultra-compact Binary Pulsar 4U 1626-67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Norbert S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Marshall, Herman

    2016-07-01

    4U 1626-67 is an ultra-compact binary pulsar with a pulse period of 7.7 sec and an orbital period of 40 min. Its X-ray spectrum varies distinctively before and after torque reversal episodes. 4U 1626-67 is a peculiar ultra-compact binary in that it not only truncates its accretion disk at the magnetospheric radius, but also emits Ne and O Doppler X-ray lines, The nature of these lines have remained quite mysterious but we can now show that these lines originate from a coronal type plasma with temperatures up to 10 Million degrees located at the magnetospheric radius. The disk line fits constrain the source distance to about 5 kpc. We also observe consistent variations in the disk lines before and after torque reversal. The observed disk lines constrain the angle of inclination to 38 degrees, which is is significantly larger than previously assumed. We discuss these findings in the context of accreting X-ray binaries and binary pulsar properties.

  9. Laser-Induced Underwater Plasma And Its Spectroscopic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lazic, Violeta

    2008-09-23

    Applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for analysis of immersed solid and soft materials, and for liquid impurities are described. A method for improving the LIBS signal underwater and for obtaining quantitative analyses in presence of strong shot-to-shot variations of the plasma properties is proposed. Dynamic of the gas bubble formed by the laser pulse is also discussed, together with its importance in Double-Pulse (DP) laser excitation. Results of the studies relative to an application of multi-pulse sequence and its effects on the plasma and gas bubble formation are also presented.

  10. Transferring vertically aligned carbon nanotubes onto a polymeric substrate using a hot embossing technique for microfluidic applications

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, A.; Roy, S. S.; McLaughlin, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the hot embossing method for transferring vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into microfluidic channels, fabricated on poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA). Patterned and unpatterned CNTs were synthesized by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on silicon to work as a stamp. For hot embossing, 115°C and 1 kN force for 2 min were found to be the most suitable parameters for the complete transfer of aligned CNTs on the PMMA microchannel. Raman and SEM studies were used to analyse the microstructure of CNTs before and after hot embossing. The PMMA microparticles with dimensions (approx. 10 µm in diameter) similar to red blood cells were successfully filtered using laminar flow through these microfluidic channels. Finally, a microfluidic-based point-of-care device for blood filtration and detection of bio-molecules is drawn schematically. PMID:20147316

  11. Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Burning Plasma Diagnostic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Soukhanovskii, V A

    2008-06-18

    Ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS, 200-750 nm) atomic spectroscopy of neutral and ion fuel species (H, D, T, Li) and impurities (e.g. He, Be, C, W) is a key element of plasma control and diagnosis on ITER and future magnetically confined burning plasma experiments (BPX). Spectroscopic diagnostic implementation and performance issues that arise in the BPX harsh nuclear environment in the UV-VIS range, e.g., degradation of first mirror reflectivity under charge-exchange atom bombardment (erosion) and impurity deposition, permanent and dynamic loss of window and optical fiber transmission under intense neutron and {gamma}-ray fluxes, are either absent or not as severe in the near-infrared (NIR, 750-2000 nm) range. An initial survey of NIR diagnostic applications has been undertaken on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. It is demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy can address machine protection and plasma control diagnostic tasks, as well as plasma performance evaluation and physics studies. Emission intensity estimates demonstrate that NIR measurements are possible in the BPX plasma operating parameter range. Complications in the NIR range due to parasitic background emissions are expected to occur at very high plasma densities, low impurity densities, and at high plasma facing component temperatures.

  12. Platelet-rich plasma: applications in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Conde Montero, E; Fernández Santos, M E; Suárez Fernández, R

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the use of platelet-rich plasma has increased notably in a range of diseases and settings. Uses of these products now go beyond skin rejuvenation therapy in patients with facial ageing. Good outcomes for other dermatological indications such as skin ulcers and, more recently, alopecia have been reported in case series and controlled studies. However, these indications are not currently included in the labeling given that stronger scientific evidence is required to support their real benefits. With the increased use of these products, dermatologists need to become familiar with the underlying biological principles and able to critically assess the quality and outcomes of the studies of these products in different skin diseases. PMID:24795093

  13. Hot topics and application trends of the anammox biotechnology: a review by bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuotao; Liu, Sitong

    2014-01-01

    Anammox has been extensively identified as a novel and sustained biotechnology for wastewater treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the hot topics and application trends of anammox biotechnology by bibliometric analysis. The results show that "Water science and technology" and "Environmental science ecology" are the prevalent journal and category in this field. Many researches about "process" and "inhibition" have been carried out to conquer common challenges of anammox biotechnology in its actual engineering application. "Fluorescence in situ hybridization" continues to be the leading rRNA microbiological analysis method after its first application. Most importantly, "Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON)", "Sequencing batch reactors (SBR) for anammox operation", "black water treatment" and "anammox biofilm" are identified as the prevalent process type, reactor type, wastewater type and bacterial aggregation form in anammox research currently, which forecasts the further engineering application direction of anammox biotechnology. The study will be useful for the researchers to acquaint the current state and the application trends in anammox biotechnology field. PMID:24855588

  14. Numerical Simulations of Plasma Based Flow Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Jacob, J. D.; Ashpis, D. E.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to simulate flow control applications using plasma actuators. The effects of the plasma actuators on the external flow are incorporated into Navier Stokes computations as a body force vector. In order to compute this body force vector, the model solves two additional equations: one for the electric field due to the applied AC voltage at the electrodes and the other for the charge density representing the ionized air. The model is calibrated against an experiment having plasma-driven flow in a quiescent environment and is then applied to simulate a low pressure turbine flow with large flow separation. The effects of the plasma actuator on control of flow separation are demonstrated numerically.

  15. Clinical application of plasma thermograms. Utility, practical approaches and considerations

    PubMed Central

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Mekmaysy, Chongkham S.; DeLeeuw, Lynn; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of blood plasma are part of an emerging area of the clinical application of DSC to biofluid analysis. DSC analysis of plasma from healthy individuals and patients with various diseases has revealed changes in the thermal profiles of the major plasma proteins associated with the clinical status of the patient. The sensitivity of DSC to the concentration of proteins, their interactions with other proteins or ligands, or their covalent modifications underlies the potential utility of DSC analysis. A growing body of literature has demonstrated the versatility and performance of clinical DSC analysis across a range of biofluids and in a number of disease settings. The principles, practice and challenges of DSC analysis of plasma are described in this article. PMID:25448297

  16. Variable dual-frequency electrostatic wave launcher for plasma applications.

    PubMed

    Jorns, Benjamin; Sorenson, Robert; Choueiri, Edgar

    2011-12-01

    A variable tuning system is presented for launching two electrostatic waves concurrently in a magnetized plasma. The purpose of this system is to satisfy the wave launching requirements for plasma applications where maximal power must be coupled into two carefully tuned electrostatic waves while minimizing erosion to the launching antenna. Two parallel LC traps with fixed inductors and variable capacitors are used to provide an impedance match between a two-wave source and a loop antenna placed outside the plasma. Equivalent circuit analysis is then employed to derive an analytical expression for the normalized, average magnetic flux density produced by the antenna in this system as a function of capacitance and frequency. It is found with this metric that the wave launcher can couple to electrostatic modes at two variable frequencies concurrently while attenuating noise from the source signal at undesired frequencies. An example based on an experiment for plasma heating with two electrostatic waves is used to demonstrate a procedure for tailoring the wave launcher to accommodate the frequency range and flux densities of a specific two-wave application. This example is also used to illustrate a method based on averaging over wave frequencies for evaluating the overall efficacy of the system. The wave launcher is shown to be particularly effective for the illustrative example--generating magnetic flux densities in excess of 50% of the ideal case at two variable frequencies concurrently--with a high adaptability to a number of plasma dynamics and heating applications. PMID:22225213

  17. A proposed technique for creation and detection of hot electron ionization and gain effects in a laser-produced tin plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apruzese, J. P.; Davis, J.

    1984-07-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that suprathermal electrons, while deleterious to laser fusion, may have significant and beneficial effects in plasma ionization and promoting population inversions in neon-like ions. This report considers experimental demonstration of these effects. Using linearly focused and aligned beams, a series of shots with planar in tin targets (Z=50) is proposed. At irradiances of approx. = 1-4 X 10 to the 14th power W 1/cm, both the energies and numbers of hot electrons produced by a 1.05 micron laser beam should be appropriate for substantial enhancement of gain in the 3s-3p transition of neon-like tin at 118.2A. If possible a quiescent plasma should be prepared with a 0.35 micron beam, which would be followed by a 1.05 micron pulse to create a burst of hot electrons at 4-5 keV to pump the upper leasing state.

  18. Application of atmospheric pressure plasma in polymer and composite adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hang

    An atmospheric pressure helium and oxygen plasma was used to investigate surface activation and bonding in polymer composites. This device was operated by passing 1.0-3.0 vol% of oxygen in helium through a pair of parallel plate metal electrodes powered by 13.56 or 27.12 MHz radio frequency power. The gases were partially ionized between the capacitors where plasma was generated. The reactive species in the plasma were carried downstream by the gas flow to treat the substrate surface. The temperature of the plasm gas reaching the surface of the substrate did not exceed 150 °C, which makes it suitable for polymer processing. The reactive species in the plasma downstream includes ~ 1016-1017 cm-3 atomic oxygen, ~ 1015 cm-3 ozone molecule, and ~ 10 16 cm-3 metastable oxygen molecule (O2 1Deltag). The substrates were treated at 2-5 mm distance from the exit of the plasma. Surface properties of the substrates were characterized using water contact angle (WCA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Subsequently, the plasma treated samples were bonded adhesively or fabricated into composites. The increase in mechanical strength was correlated to changes in the material composition and structure after plasma treatment. The work presented hereafter establishes atmospheric pressure plasma as an effective method to activate and to clean the surfaces of polymers and composites for bonding. This application can be further expanded to the activation of carbon fibers for better fiber-resin interactions during the fabrication of composites. Treating electronic grade FR-4 and polyimide with the He/O2 plasma for a few seconds changed the substrate surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, which allowed complete wetting of the surface by epoxy in underfill applications. Characterization of the surface by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows formation of oxygenated functional groups, including hydroxyl, carbonyl, and

  19. Hot-Melt Extrusion: from Theory to Application in Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Hemlata; Tiwari, Roshan V; Repka, Michael A

    2016-02-01

    Hot-melt extrusion (HME) is a promising technology for the production of new chemical entities in the developmental pipeline and for improving products already on the market. In drug discovery and development, industry estimates that more than 50% of active pharmaceutical ingredients currently used belong to the biopharmaceutical classification system II (BCS class II), which are characterized as poorly water-soluble compounds and result in formulations with low bioavailability. Therefore, there is a critical need for the pharmaceutical industry to develop formulations that will enhance the solubility and ultimately the bioavailability of these compounds. HME technology also offers an opportunity to earn intellectual property, which is evident from an increasing number of patents and publications that have included it as a novel pharmaceutical formulation technology over the past decades. This review had a threefold objective. First, it sought to provide an overview of HME principles and present detailed engineered extrusion equipment designs. Second, it included a number of published reports on the application of HME techniques that covered the fields of solid dispersions, microencapsulation, taste masking, targeted drug delivery systems, sustained release, films, nanotechnology, floating drug delivery systems, implants, and continuous manufacturing using the wet granulation process. Lastly, this review discussed the importance of using the quality by design approach in drug development, evaluated the process analytical technology used in pharmaceutical HME monitoring and control, discussed techniques used in HME, and emphasized the potential for monitoring and controlling hot-melt technology. PMID:26159653

  20. Dust grains in a hot gas. I - Basic physics. II - Astrophysical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. R.; Silk, J.

    1974-01-01

    The interaction of graphite grains with a hot gas is investigated. Detailed computations, based on experimental data and simple theoretical models are presented of the energy transfer by gas particle collisions and of the sputtering rates and grain lifetimes, as functions of gas temperature and grain radius. The electric charge on the grains is calculated, and the effect of electric forces on mechanical stability is discussed. The rate at which the gas cools by this mechanism is evaluated. The results of the work on gas-grain cooling and sputtering rates are applied to various astrophysical environments where dust and hot gas may coexist. The effect is studied of swept-up interstellar grains on the evolution of young supernova remnants, and the infrared luminosity is computed as a function of the age of the remnant. An interpretation is proposed of far-infrared sources embedded in compact H II regions or dense clouds, in terms of the supernova phenomenon, with specific application to eta Carinae. The question of the existence of dust in intergalactic matter in galaxy clusters is also reexamined.

  1. On the limits of applicability of drift-diffusion based hot carrier degradation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jech, Markus; Sharma, Prateek; Tyaginov, Stanislav; Rudolf, Florian; Grasser, Tibor

    2016-04-01

    We study the limits of the applicability of a drift-diffusion (DD) based model for hot-carrier degradation (HCD). In this approach the rigorous but computationally expensive solution of the Boltzmann transport equation is replaced by an analytic expression for the carrier energy distribution function. On the one hand, we already showed that the simplified version of our HCD model is quite successful for LDMOS devices. On the other hand, hot carrier degradation models based on the drift-diffusion and energy transport schemes were shown to fail for planar MOSFETs with gate lengths of 0.5-2.0 µm. To investigate the limits of validity of the DD-based HCD model, we use planar nMOSFETs of an identical topology but with different gate lengths of 2.0, 1.5, and 1.0 µm. We show that, although the model is able to adequately represent the linear and saturation drain current changes in the 2.0 µm transistor, it starts to fail for gate lengths shorter than 1.5 µm and becomes completely inadequate for the 1.0 µm device.

  2. Application of tomographic particle image velocimetry to complex (dusty) plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Jeremiah

    2011-11-29

    Over the past decade, particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques have been used to obtain detailed measurements of the thermal and transport properties of weakly-coupled dusty plasmas. This paper reports on the application of an extension of these techniques, tomographic PIV (tom-PIV), which provides an instantaneous volumetric measurement of the particle transport.

  3. Vacuum plasma spray applications on liquid fuel rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckechnie, T. N.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Bryant, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The vacuum plasma spray process (VPS) has been developed by NASA and Rocketdyne for a variety of applications on liquid fuel rocket engines, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine. These applications encompass thermal barrier coatings which are thermal shock resistant for turbopump blades and nozzles; bond coatings for cryogenic titanium components; wear resistant coatings and materials; high conductivity copper, NaRloy-Z, combustion chamber liners, and structural nickel base material, Inconel 718, for nozzle and combustion chamber support jackets.

  4. Vacuum plasma spray applications on liquid fuel rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKechnie, T. N.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Bryant, M. A.

    1992-07-01

    The vacuum plasma spray process (VPS) has been developed by NASA and Rocketdyne for a variety of applications on liquid fuel rocket engines, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine. These applications encompass thermal barrier coatings which are thermal shock resistant for turbopump blades and nozzles; bond coatings for cryogenic titanium components; wear resistant coatings and materials; high conductivity copper, NaRloy-Z, combustion chamber liners, and structural nickel base material, Inconel 718, for nozzle and combustion chamber support jackets.

  5. Polymeric formulations for drug release prepared by hot melt extrusion: application and characterization.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Milica; Frijlink, Henderik W; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2015-07-01

    Over the past few decades hot melt extrusion (HME) has emerged as a powerful processing technology for the production of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms in which an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is dispersed into polymer matrices. It has been shown that formulations using HME can provide time-controlled, sustained and targeted drug delivery, and improved bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. In this review, the basic principles of the HME process are described together with an overview of some of the most common biodegradable and nonbiodegradable polymers used for the preparation of different formulations using this method. Further, the applications of HME in drug delivery and analytical techniques employed to characterize HME products are addressed. PMID:25660507

  6. Application of hot melt extrusion for poorly water-soluble drugs: limitations, advances and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming; Guo, Zhefei; Li, Yongcheng; Pang, Huishi; Lin, Ling; Liu, Xu; Pan, Xin; Wu, Chuanbin

    2014-01-01

    Hot melt extrusion (HME) is a powerful technology to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by producing amorphous solid dispersions. Although the number of articles and patents about HME increased dramatically in the past twenty years, there are very few commercial products by far. The three main obstacles limiting the commercial application of HME are summarized as thermal degradation of heat-sensitive drugs at high process temperature, recrystallization of amorphous drugs during storage and dissolving process, and difficulty to obtain products with reproducible physicochemical properties. Many efforts have been taken in recent years to understand the basic mechanism underlying these obstacles and then to overcome them. This article reviewed and summarized the limitations, recent advances, and future prospects of HME. PMID:23651401

  7. Plasma assisted deposition of metal fluorides for 193nm applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Martin; Sode, Maik; Gaebler, Dieter; Kaiser, Norbert; Tuennermann, Andreas

    2008-10-01

    The ArF lithography technology requires a minimization of optical losses due to scattering and absorption. Consequently it is necessary to optimize the coating process of metal fluorides. The properties of metal fluoride thin films are mainly affected by the deposition methods, their parameters, and the vacuum conditions. Until now the best results were achieved by metal boat evaporation with high substrate temperature and without plasma assistance. In fact, it was demonstrated that the plasma assisted deposition process results in optical thin films with high packing density but the losses due to absorption were extremely high for deep and vacuum ultraviolet applications. This paper will demonstrate that most of the common metal fluorides can be deposited by electron beam evaporation with plasma assistance. In comparison to other deposition methods, the prepared thin films show low absorption in the VUV spectral range, high packing density, and less water content. The densification of the thin films was performed by a Leybold LION plasma source. As working gas, a variable mixture of fluorine and argon gas was chosen. To understand the deposition process and the interaction of the plasma with the deposition material, various characterization methods like plasma emission spectroscopy and ion current measurements were implemented.

  8. Laser production and heating of plasma for MHD application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments have been made on the production and heating of plasmas by the absorption of laser radiation. These experiments were performed to ascertain the feasibility of using laser-produced or laser-heated plasmas as the input for a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. Such a system would have a broad application as a laser-to-electricity energy converter for space power transmission. Experiments with a 100-J-pulsed CO2 laser were conducted to investigate the breakdown of argon gas by a high-intensity laser beam, the parameters (electron density and temperature) of the plasma produced, and the formation and propagation of laser-supported detonation (LSD) waves. Experiments were also carried out using a 1-J-pulsed CO2 laser to heat the plasma produced in a shock tube. The shock-tube hydrogen plasma reached electron densities of approximately 10 to the 17th/cu cm and electron temperatures of approximately 1 eV. Absorption of the CO2 laser beam by the plasma was measured, and up to approximately 100 percent absorption was observed. Measurements with a small MHD generator showed that the energy extraction efficiency could be very large with values up to 56 percent being measured.

  9. A Thermal Analysis of a Hot-Wire Probe for Icing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Rigby, David L.; Venkataraman, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a steady-state thermal model of a hot-wire instrument applicable to atmospheric measurement of water content in clouds. In this application, the power required to maintain the wire at a given temperature is used to deduce the water content of the cloud. The model considers electrical resistive heating, axial conduction, convection to the flow, radiation to the surroundings, as well as energy loss due to the heating, melting, and evaporation of impinging liquid and or ice. All of these parameters can be varied axially along the wire. The model further introduces a parameter called the evaporation potential which locally gauges the maximum fraction of incoming water that evaporates. The primary outputs of the model are the steady-state power required to maintain a spatially-average constant temperature as well as the variation of that temperature and other parameters along the wire. The model is used to understand the sensitivity of the hot-wire performance to various flow and boundary conditions including a detailed comparison of dry air and wet (i.e. cloud-on) conditions. The steady-state power values are compared to experimental results from a Science Engineering Associates (SEA) Multi-Element probe, a commonly used water-content measurement instrument. The model results show good agreement with experiment for both dry and cloud-on conditions with liquid water content. For ice, the experimental measurements under read the actual water content due to incomplete evaporation and splashing. Model results, which account for incomplete evaporation, are still higher than experimental results where the discrepancy is attributed to splashing mass-loss which is not accounted in the model.

  10. Current and Perspective Applications of Dense Plasma Focus Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Gribkov, V. A.

    2008-04-07

    Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices' applications, which are intended to support the main-stream large-scale nuclear fusion programs (NFP) from one side (both in fundamental problems of Dense Magnetized Plasma physics and in its engineering issues) as well as elaborated for an immediate use in a number of fields from the other one, are described. In the first direction such problems as self-generated magnetic fields, implosion stability of plasma shells having a high aspect ratio, etc. are important for the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs (e.g. as NIF), whereas different problems of current disruption phenomenon, plasma turbulence, mechanisms of generation of fast particles and neutrons in magnetized plasmas are of great interest for the large devices of the Magnetic Plasma Confinement--MPC (e.g. as ITER). In a sphere of the engineering problems of NFP it is shown that in particular the radiation material sciences have DPF as a very efficient tool for radiation tests of prospect materials and for improvement of their characteristics. In the field of broad-band current applications some results obtained in the fields of radiation material sciences, radiobiology, nuclear medicine, express Neutron Activation Analysis (including a single-shot interrogation of hidden illegal objects), dynamic non-destructive quality control, X-Ray microlithography and micromachining, and micro-radiography are presented. As the examples of the potential future applications it is proposed to use DPF as a powerful high-flux neutron source to generate very powerful pulses of neutrons in the nanosecond (ns) range of its duration for innovative experiments in nuclear physics, for the goals of radiation treatment of malignant tumors, for neutron tests of materials of the first wall, blankets and NFP device's constructions (with fluences up to 1 dpa per a year term), and ns pulses of fast electrons, neutrons and hard X-Rays for brachytherapy.

  11. Hot bubbles of planetary nebulae with hydrogen-deficient winds. I. Heat conduction in a chemically stratified plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandin, C.; Steffen, M.; Schönberner, D.; Rühling, U.

    2016-02-01

    Heat conduction has been found a plausible solution to explain discrepancies between expected and measured temperatures in hot bubbles of planetary nebulae (PNe). While the heat conduction process depends on the chemical composition, to date it has been exclusively studied for pure hydrogen plasmas in PNe. A smaller population of PNe show hydrogen-deficient and helium- and carbon-enriched surfaces surrounded by bubbles of the same composition; considerable differences are expected in physical properties of these objects in comparison to the pure hydrogen case. The aim of this study is to explore how a chemistry-dependent formulation of the heat conduction affects physical properties and how it affects the X-ray emission from PN bubbles of hydrogen-deficient stars. We extend the description of heat conduction in our radiation hydrodynamics code to work with any chemical composition. We then compare the bubble-formation process with a representative PN model using both the new and the old descriptions. We also compare differences in the resulting X-ray temperature and luminosity observables of the two descriptions. The improved equations show that the heat conduction in our representative model of a hydrogen-deficient PN is nearly as efficient with the chemistry-dependent description; a lower value on the diffusion coefficient is compensated by a slightly steeper temperature gradient. The bubble becomes somewhat hotter with the improved equations, but differences are otherwise minute. The observable properties of the bubble in terms of the X-ray temperature and luminosity are seemingly unaffected.

  12. THE EFFECT OF HOT CORONAL ELECTRONS ON EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRAL LINES OF He II EMITTED BY SOLAR TRANSITION REGION PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, U.; Ralchenko, Yu.; Doschek, G. A.

    2010-01-01

    The cause of the lower intensities of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) He II lines emitted by coronal hole (CH) plasmas compared with quiet Sun (QS) plasmas has been the subject of many studies dating back over half a century. In this paper, we study the effect of small amounts of 'hot' electrons at coronal temperatures (T{sub e} = 1.4 x 10{sup 6} K) on the intensities of EUV He II lines, as well as on the intensities of EUV lines of C III, C IV, O III, and O IV emitted by 1.5 x 10{sup 4} K-1.5 x 10{sup 5} K (4.2 <= log T{sub e} <= 5.2) plasmas in the QS. We show that although the influence of a fraction as small as 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} of hot electrons on the intensities of the C and O lines is noticeable, the effect on the intensities of the He lines is much larger, to the extent that it could explain the excess brightness of He II lines emitted by QS regions relative to CH plasmas.

  13. Applications of "Hot" and "Cold" Bis(thiosemicarbazonato) Metal Complexes in Multimodal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cortezon-Tamarit, Fernando; Sarpaki, Sophia; Calatayud, David G; Mirabello, Vincenzo; Pascu, Sofia I

    2016-06-01

    The applications of coordination chemistry to molecular imaging has become a matter of intense research over the past 10 years. In particular, the applications of bis(thiosemicarbazonato) metal complexes in molecular imaging have mainly been focused on compounds with aliphatic backbones due to the in vivo imaging success of hypoxic tumors with PET (positron emission tomography) using (64) CuATSM [copper (diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone))]. This compound entered clinical trials in the US and the UK during the first decade of the 21(st) century for imaging hypoxia in head and neck tumors. The replacement of the ligand backbone to aromatic groups, coupled with the exocyclic N's functionalization during the synthesis of bis(thiosemicarbazones) opens the possibility to use the corresponding metal complexes as multimodal imaging agents of use, both in vitro for optical detection, and in vivo when radiolabeled with several different metallic species. The greater kinetic stability of acenaphthenequinone bis(thiosemicarbazonato) metal complexes, with respect to that of the corresponding aliphatic ATSM complexes, allows the stabilization of a number of imaging probes, with special interest in "cold" and "hot" Cu(II) and Ga(III) derivatives for PET applications and (111) In(III) derivatives for SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) applications, whilst Zn(II) derivatives display optical imaging properties in cells, with enhanced fluorescence emission and lifetime with respect to the free ligands. Preliminary studies have shown that gallium-based acenaphthenequinone bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complexes are also hypoxia selective in vitro, thus increasing the interest in them as new generation imaging agents for in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:27149900

  14. Low voltage drop plasma switch for inverter and modulator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, D. M.; Poeschel, R. L.; Schumacher, R. W.

    1993-08-01

    A low forward voltage drop plasma switch has been developed for high-efficiency inverter and modulator applications. The switch, called the HOLLOTRON, is based on a grid-controlled, thermionic hollow-cathode discharge. A low forward voltage drop (10-20 V) is achieved by operating the hollow-cathode discharge in a static gas pressure of xenon. The dense plasma generated in the Ba-oxide dispenser hollow cathode is spread over a relatively large control grid area by a diverging magnetic field superimposed on the discharge. Interruption of the discharge current at high current densities (≳4 A/cm2) over the grid area is achieved by biasing the control grid sufficiently negative with respect to the plasma. The HOLLOTRON switch has demonstrated voltage stand-off of up to 20 kV, switching times of ≤0.3 μs, and pulse repetition frequencies of 20 kHz at 50% duty.

  15. Parametric dependence of ion temperature and electron density in the SUMMA hot-ion plasma using laser light scattering and emission spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, A.; Patch, R. W.; Lauver, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    Hot-ion plasma experiments were conducted in the NASA Lewis SUMMA facility. A steady-state modified Penning discharge was formed by applying a radially inward dc electric field of several kilovolts near the magnetic mirror maxima. Results are reported for a hydrogen plasma covering a wide range in midplane magnetic flux densities from 0.5 to 3.37 T. Input power greater than 45 kW was obtained with water-cooled cathodes. Steady-state plasmas with ion kinetic temperatures from 18 to 830 eV were produced and measured spectroscopically. These ion temperatures were correlated with current, voltage, and magnetic flux density as the independent variables. Electron density measurements were made using an unusually sensitive Thomson scattering apparatus. The measured electron densities range from 2.1 x 10 to the 11th to 6.8 x 10 to the 12th per cu cm.

  16. Hot-melt extrusion of polyvinyl alcohol for oral immediate release applications.

    PubMed

    De Jaeghere, W; De Beer, T; Van Bocxlaer, J; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2015-08-15

    The primary purpose of this study was to process partially hydrolyzed PVOH grades (degree of hydroxylation (DH): 33-88%) via HME and to evaluate them as carrier for oral immediate release dosage forms in order to improve the release rate of poorly water soluble drugs (i.e., HCT and CEL) via the formulation of solid dispersions. PVOH grades (DH >70%) were able to solubilize HCT and CEL up to 15%, but required higher extrusion temperature, due to the crystalline nature of PVOH. The highest drug release rate was observed from hot-melt extruded PVOH samples with a high DH. While drug release from extrudates consisting of PVOH with a low DH was affected by ionic strength, there was no influence of pH and ionic strength on HCT release from PVOH samples with a higher DH. However, PVOH (DH >70%) required higher extrusion temperatures, which could hamper its application for thermosensitive drugs. Therefore, the secondary purpose was to investigate the effect of sorbitol, a water-soluble plasticizer, on the thermal properties of hot-melt extruded PVOH (DH >70%). The melting of PVOH/sorbitol mixture was required to establish molecular interactions between PVOH and sorbitol. These molecular interactions were reflected in the HME behavior: whereas an extrusion temperature of 180 °C was necessary to process physical mixtures of PVOH (DH >70%) and sorbitol, only 140 °C was necessary during re-extrusion (after quench cooling and cryomilling) of the PVOH/sorbitol mixture. In addition, the in vitro and in vivo dug release of plasticized PVOH was examined; whereas the CEL/PVO/sorbitol system was able to maintain supersaturation during in vitro dissolution (0.1N HCl) compared to Celebrex(®), the in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC0-24h, Cmax and Tmax) were highly comparable. PMID:26160667

  17. Transfer of microstructure pattern of CNTs onto flexible substrate using hot press technique for sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Prabhash; Harsh

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successfully transfer of microstructure patterned CNTs on PET substrate. • Demonstrate as resistor-based NH{sub 3} gas sensor in the sub-ppm range. • Excellent photodetector having instantaneous response and recovery characteristics. • An effective technique to grow and produce flexible electronic device. - Abstract: In this work, we report the successful and efficient transfer process of two- dimensional (2-D) vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by hot pressing method with an aim to develop flexible sensor devices. Carbon nanotubes are synthesized by cold wall thermal chemical vapor deposition using patterned SiO{sub 2} substrate under low pressure. The height of the pattern of CNTs is controlled by reaction time. The entire growth and transfer process is carried out within 30 min. Strong adhesion between the nanotube and polyethylene terephthalate substrate was observed in the post-transferred case. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies are used to analyze the microstructure of carbon nanotube film before and after hot pressing. This technique shows great potential for the fabrication of flexible sensing devices. We report for the first time, the application of patterned microstructure developed by this technique in the development of gas sensor and optoelectronic device. Surface resistive mode is used for detection of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas in the sub-ppm range. An impressive photoconducting response is also observed in the visible wavelength. The reproducibility of the sample was checked and the results indicate the possibility of use of carbon nanotube as gas sensor, photodetector, CCDs etc.

  18. Applications of plasma sources for nitric oxide medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilets, Victor; Shekhter, Anatoly; Pekshev, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has important roles in the function of many tissues and organs. Wound healing processes are always accompanying by the increase of nitric oxide concentration in wound tissue. These facts suggest a possible therapeutic use of various NO donors for the acceleration of the wound healing and treatment of other diseases. Our previous studies indicated that gaseous NO flow produced by air-plasma generators acts beneficially on the wound healing. This beneficial effect could be caused by the mechanism involving peroxynitrite as an intermediate. As a result of mobilization of various antioxidant reactions more endogenous NO molecules become available as signaling molecules. to regulate the metabolic processes in wound tissue. In this paper different air plasma sources generated therapeutic concentrations of NO are discussed. The concentration of NO and other therapeutically important gas products are estimated by thermodynamic simulation. Synergy effects of NO with other plasma components are discussed as a factor enhancing therapeutic results. Some new medical application of plasma devices are presented. Advanced Plasma Therapies Inc.

  19. Application of Plasma Waveguides to High Energy Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Milchberg, Howard M

    2013-03-30

    The eventual success of laser-plasma based acceleration schemes for high-energy particle physics will require the focusing and stable guiding of short intense laser pulses in reproducible plasma channels. For this goal to be realized, many scientific issues need to be addressed. These issues include an understanding of the basic physics of, and an exploration of various schemes for, plasma channel formation. In addition, the coupling of intense laser pulses to these channels and the stable propagation of pulses in the channels require study. Finally, new theoretical and computational tools need to be developed to aid in the design and analysis of experiments and future accelerators. Here we propose a 3-year renewal of our combined theoretical and experimental program on the applications of plasma waveguides to high-energy accelerators. During the past grant period we have made a number of significant advances in the science of laser-plasma based acceleration. We pioneered the development of clustered gases as a new highly efficient medium for plasma channel formation. Our contributions here include theoretical and experimental studies of the physics of cluster ionization, heating, explosion, and channel formation. We have demonstrated for the first time the generation of and guiding in a corrugated plasma waveguide. The fine structure demonstrated in these guides is only possible with cluster jet heating by lasers. The corrugated guide is a slow wave structure operable at arbitrarily high laser intensities, allowing direct laser acceleration, a process we have explored in detail with simulations. The development of these guides opens the possibility of direct laser acceleration, a true miniature analogue of the SLAC RF-based accelerator. Our theoretical studies during this period have also contributed to the further development of the simulation codes, Wake and QuickPIC, which can be used for both laser driven and beam driven plasma based acceleration schemes. We

  20. Plasma-polymerized methyl methacrylate via intense and highly energetic atmospheric pressure micro-plasma for bio-medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Choon-Sang; Ballato, John; Kim, Sung-O.; Clemson University Team

    2013-09-01

    Poly (methyl methacrylate), PMMA, has been widely used as a biocompatible material in bone cement, dental fillings, and many other bio-related applications. Vacuum plasmas and radio frequency (RF) atmospheric plasmas are the most common methods for depositing plasma-derived thin films and nanoparticles. However, the necessary equipment is difficult to operate and maintain as well as being large and expensive. Here, we report the use of a novel intense and highly energetic atmospheric pressure plasma jet array using direct plasma jet-to-jet coupling effects to deposit high quality plasma-polymerized MMA (PPMMA) for bio-medical applications. The newly proposed atmospheric pressure micro-plasma jet array device can generate the intense plasma mode with a strong plasma emission and high plasma particle energy. PPMMA was successfully deposited on a variety of substrates and characterized by SEM, AFM, and FT-IR. The micro-plasma jet is obtained at a sinusoidal voltage with a peak value of 30 kV and frequency of 35 kHz. Argon gas was employed as the discharge gas for plasma generation and its flow rate was in the range of 2230 sccm, Methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer was vaporized by means of a glass bubbler which was supplied by argon gas with flow rates in the range of 268 sccm from room temperature to 400°C. The deposited PPMMA thin films were flexible, transparent, thin, and strong on metal substrates.

  1. Chemical and Thermoelectric Properties of Hot Pressed and Spark Plasma Sintered Type-I Clathrate Ba8Cu4.8Si41.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X.; Populoh, S.; Weidenkaff, A.; Rogl, P.; Paschen, S.

    2016-03-01

    Nanostructuring has been considered as an effective way to reduce the thermal conductivity and enhance the thermoelectric performance in different material systems. Here, we present the chemical and thermoelectric properties of the nanostructured bulk type-I clathrate Ba8Cu4.8Si41.2. The samples were prepared by consolidating ball-milled nanopowders either by hot pressing or by spark plasma sintering. Fine powders and high sintering temperatures are needed to reach a high bulk density and high thermoelectric performance in the sintered samples. The highest ZT of 0.3 at 870 K is achieved in the most dense sample sintered at 800°C by hot pressing. Further improvement is expected if smaller grain sizes could be stabilized.

  2. Review of the phenomenon of dips in spectral lines emitted from plasmas and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oks, E.; Dalimier, E.; Faenov, A.; Renner, O.

    2014-11-01

    The review covers theoretical and experimental studies of two kinds of dips (local depressions) in spectral line profiles emitted by plasmas: Langmuir-wave-caused dips (L-dips) and charge-exchange-caused dips (X-dips). Positions of L-dips (relative to the unperturbed wavelength of a spectral line) scale with the electron density Ne roughly as Ne1/2, while positions of X-dips are almost independent of Ne. L-dips and X-dips phenomena are interesting and important both fundamentally and practically. The fundamental interest is due to a rich physics behind each of these phenomena. As for important practical applications, they are as follows. Observation of L-dips constitutes a very accurate method to measure the electron density in plasmas - the method that does not require the knowledge of the electron temperature. L-dips also allow measuring the amplitude of the electric field of Langmuir waves - the only one spectroscopic method available for this purpose. In the most recent laser plasma experiments, L-dips were found to be a spectroscopic signature of the two-plasmon decay instability. This instability causes hot-electron generation and is a critical part in laser-driven inertial confinement fusion program. As for observations of X-dips, they serve to determine rates of charge exchange between multicharged ions. This is an important reference data virtually inaccessible by other experimental methods. The rates of charge exchange are essential for magnetic fusion in tokamaks, for population inversion in the soft x-ray and VUV ranges, for ion storage devices, as well as for astrophysics (e.g., for the solar plasma and for determining the physical state of planetary nebulae).

  3. Applications of quantum cascade lasers in plasma diagnostics: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röpcke, J.; Davies, P. B.; Lang, N.; Rousseau, A.; Welzel, S.

    2012-10-01

    Over the past few years mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy based on quantum cascade lasers operating over the region from 3 to 12 µm and called quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy or QCLAS has progressed considerably as a powerful diagnostic technique for in situ studies of the fundamental physics and chemistry of molecular plasmas. The increasing interest in processing plasmas containing hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, nitrogen oxides and organo-silicon compounds has led to further applications of QCLAS because most of these compounds and their decomposition products are infrared active. QCLAS provides a means of determining the absolute concentrations of the ground states of stable and transient molecular species at time resolutions below a microsecond, which is of particular importance for the investigation of reaction kinetics and dynamics. Information about gas temperature and population densities can also be derived from QCLAS measurements. Since plasmas with molecular feed gases are used in many applications such as thin film deposition, semiconductor processing, surface activation and cleaning, and materials and waste treatment, this has stimulated the adaptation of QCLAS techniques to industrial requirements including the development of new diagnostic equipment. The recent availability of external cavity (EC) QCLs offers a further new option for multi-component detection. The aim of this paper is fourfold: (i) to briefly review spectroscopic issues arising from applying pulsed QCLs, (ii) to report on recent achievements in our understanding of molecular phenomena in plasmas and at surfaces, (iii) to describe the current status of industrial process monitoring in the mid-infrared and (iv) to discuss the potential of advanced instrumentation based on EC-QCLs for plasma diagnostics.

  4. Electron temperature in transient plasmas from quasi-steady ratio of isoelectronic lines: application to picosecond and subpicosecond plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjoribanks, R. S.; Budnik, F. W.; Chen, H.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    1996-02-01

    We have extended the technique of plasma temperature measurement by ratio of isoelectronic lines, recently developed with nanosecond laser plasmas, to the diagnosis of picosecond and subpicosecond plasmas. We have found a major benefit-particularly for short-pulse laser plasmas-that even where level populations are far from steady-state values, the ratio of isoelectronic lines may be nearly steady state, which considerably simplifies interpretation. We describe theoretical and experimental investigations for plasmas created from solid targets by 100-fs-10-ps high-intensity laser pulses and report the experimental application of the technique to lambda =1.05 - mu m laser pulses at 1016 W cm -2 .

  5. Scalable graphene production: perspectives and challenges of plasma applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchenko, Igor; Ostrikov, Kostya (Ken); Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo; Keidar, Michael; B. K. Teo, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    Graphene, a newly discovered and extensively investigated material, has many unique and extraordinary properties which promise major technological advances in fields ranging from electronics to mechanical engineering and food production. Unfortunately, complex techniques and high production costs hinder commonplace applications. Scaling of existing graphene production techniques to the industrial level without compromising its properties is a current challenge. This article focuses on the perspectives and challenges of scalability, equipment, and technological perspectives of the plasma-based techniques which offer many unique possibilities for the synthesis of graphene and graphene-containing products. The plasma-based processes are amenable for scaling and could also be useful to enhance the controllability of the conventional chemical vapour deposition method and some other techniques, and to ensure a good quality of the produced graphene. We examine the unique features of the plasma-enhanced graphene production approaches, including the techniques based on inductively-coupled and arc discharges, in the context of their potential scaling to mass production following the generic scaling approaches applicable to the existing processes and systems. This work analyses a large amount of the recent literature on graphene production by various techniques and summarizes the results in a tabular form to provide a simple and convenient comparison of several available techniques. Our analysis reveals a significant potential of scalability for plasma-based technologies, based on the scaling-related process characteristics. Among other processes, a greater yield of 1 g × h-1 m-2 was reached for the arc discharge technology, whereas the other plasma-based techniques show process yields comparable to the neutral-gas based methods. Selected plasma-based techniques show lower energy consumption than in thermal CVD processes, and the ability to produce graphene flakes of various

  6. Scalable graphene production: perspectives and challenges of plasma applications.

    PubMed

    Levchenko, Igor; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken; Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo; Keidar, Michael; B K Teo, Kenneth

    2016-05-19

    Graphene, a newly discovered and extensively investigated material, has many unique and extraordinary properties which promise major technological advances in fields ranging from electronics to mechanical engineering and food production. Unfortunately, complex techniques and high production costs hinder commonplace applications. Scaling of existing graphene production techniques to the industrial level without compromising its properties is a current challenge. This article focuses on the perspectives and challenges of scalability, equipment, and technological perspectives of the plasma-based techniques which offer many unique possibilities for the synthesis of graphene and graphene-containing products. The plasma-based processes are amenable for scaling and could also be useful to enhance the controllability of the conventional chemical vapour deposition method and some other techniques, and to ensure a good quality of the produced graphene. We examine the unique features of the plasma-enhanced graphene production approaches, including the techniques based on inductively-coupled and arc discharges, in the context of their potential scaling to mass production following the generic scaling approaches applicable to the existing processes and systems. This work analyses a large amount of the recent literature on graphene production by various techniques and summarizes the results in a tabular form to provide a simple and convenient comparison of several available techniques. Our analysis reveals a significant potential of scalability for plasma-based technologies, based on the scaling-related process characteristics. Among other processes, a greater yield of 1 g × h(-1) m(-2) was reached for the arc discharge technology, whereas the other plasma-based techniques show process yields comparable to the neutral-gas based methods. Selected plasma-based techniques show lower energy consumption than in thermal CVD processes, and the ability to produce graphene flakes of

  7. A solar powered handheld plasma source for microbial decontamination applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Y.; Lynch, M. J.; Modic, M.; Whalley, R. D.; Walsh, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    A fully portable atmospheric pressure air plasma system is reported to be suitable for the microbial decontamination of both surfaces and liquids. The device operates in quiescent air, and includes an integrated battery which is charged from a solar cell and weighs less than 750 g, making it highly amenable for a wide variety of applications beyond the laboratory. Using particle imaging velocimetry to visualise air flows around the device, the geometric configuration of the plasma generating electrodes was enhanced to induce a gas flow on the order of 0.5 m s‑1 directed towards a sample placed downstream, thus improving the transport of plasma generated reactive species to the sample. The microbial decontamination efficiency of the system was assessed using potable water samples inoculated with common waterborne organisms Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The reduction in the number of microorganisms was found to be in the range of 2–8 log and was strongly dependent on the plasma generation conditions.

  8. Biomedical Applications of the Cold Atmospheric Plasma: Cell Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volotskova, Olga

    Current breakthrough research on cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) demonstrates that CAP has great potential in various areas, including medicine and biology, thus providing a new tool for living tissue treatment. Depending on the configuration the cold plasma sources can be used in the following areas: wound healing, skin diseases, hospital hygiene, sterilization, antifungal treatments, dental care, cosmetics targeted cell/tissue removal, and cancer treatments. This dissertation is focused on the studies of biomedical applications of cold atmospheric plasma jet based on helium flow and resultant cell responses to the cold plasma treatment. The studies were carried out on extra-cellular and intra-cellular levels in vitro. The main practical applications are wound healing and alternative to existing cancer therapy methods, areas of great interest and significant challenges. The CAP jet was built in the Micropropulsion and Nanotechnology Laboratory of Dr. Michael Keidar, as a part of multidisciplinary collaboration with the GW Medical School (Dr. M.A. Stepp) concerned with plasma medicine and bioengineering studies. Normal and cancer cells have two fundamental behavioral properties, proliferation and motility, which can be evaluated through cell migration rates and cell cycle progression. Various microscopic, spectroscopic and flow cytometry techniques were used to characterize cell responses to the cold plasma treatment. It was found that CAP effect on the cells is localized within the area of the treatment (of around ˜ 5mm in diameter). The migration rates of the normal skin cells can be reduced up to ˜ 40%. However, depending on the cell type the required treatment time is different, thus differential treatment of various cells presented in tissue is possible. The CAP effect on the migration was explained through the changes of the cell surface proteins/integrins. It was also found that normal and cancer cells respond differently to the CAP treatment under the same

  9. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    LOCKREM LL; OWENS JW; SEIDEL CM

    2009-03-26

    This report describes the installation, testing and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste samples in a hot cell environment. The 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method.

  10. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    SEIDEL CM; JAIN J; OWENS JW

    2009-02-23

    This report describes the installation, testing, and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste (HLW) samples in a hot cell environment. The work was completed by the Analytical Process Development (APD) group in accordance with Task Order 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S Laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method.

  11. A doubly curved elliptical crystal spectrometer for the study of localized x-ray absorption in hot plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Adam D.; Hoyt, Cad L.; Pikuz, Sergei A.; Shelkovenko, Tania; Hammer, David A.

    2014-10-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plasmas over a wide range of both temperature and density. However, such a measurement is often limited to probing plasmas with temperatures well below that of the x-ray source in order to avoid object plasma emission lines from obscuring important features of the absorption spectrum. This has excluded many plasmas from being investigated by this technique. We have developed an x-ray spectrometer that provides the ability to record absorption spectra from higher temperature plasmas than the usual approach allows without the risk of data contamination by line radiation emitted by the plasma under study. This is accomplished using a doubly curved mica crystal which is bent both elliptically and cylindrically. We present here the foundational work in the design and development of this spectrometer along with initial results obtained with an aluminum x-pinch as the object plasma.

  12. A doubly curved elliptical crystal spectrometer for the study of localized x-ray absorption in hot plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, Adam D. Hoyt, Cad L.; Pikuz, Sergei A.; Shelkovenko, Tania; Hammer, David A.

    2014-10-15

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plasmas over a wide range of both temperature and density. However, such a measurement is often limited to probing plasmas with temperatures well below that of the x-ray source in order to avoid object plasma emission lines from obscuring important features of the absorption spectrum. This has excluded many plasmas from being investigated by this technique. We have developed an x-ray spectrometer that provides the ability to record absorption spectra from higher temperature plasmas than the usual approach allows without the risk of data contamination by line radiation emitted by the plasma under study. This is accomplished using a doubly curved mica crystal which is bent both elliptically and cylindrically. We present here the foundational work in the design and development of this spectrometer along with initial results obtained with an aluminum x-pinch as the object plasma.

  13. Plasma Tunable LC Resonator for High-Power Electromagnetic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semnani, Abbas; Macheret, Sergey; Peroulis, Dimitrios

    2015-09-01

    High-power tunable filters are in high demand in transmitters found in radars and many communication systems such as satellite and broadcasting stations. Limited power handling renders most semiconductor technologies inherently suboptimal options for these systems. Therefore, mechanically-tunable cavity-based filters are often employed in such cases, resulting in bulky, slow, and heavy systems. In this work, we study the application of plasma as an alternative frequency tuning mechanism for high-power applications even in environmentally and/or mechanically harsh conditions. For a given gas type and pressure, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity of a plasma can be varied by changing the electron density, which, depending on the discharge regime, can be implemented by changing the discharge current, voltage, or the magnitude of an auxiliary electric field. In this work, a simple LC resonator tuned to several hundred MHz was fabricated and tested. The tunable capacitor of the resonator was implemented by a commercially available gas discharge tube (GDT), a mm-scale plasma device with gas pressure of 100s of mTorr. Measurement results reveal a continuous tuning range of more than 50% when the applied discharge current is increased from zero to 90 mA.

  14. The expansion of a plasma into a vacuum - Basic phenomena and processes and applications to space plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Samir, U.

    1983-01-01

    In this review attention is called to basic phenomena and physical processes involved in the expansion of a plasma into a vacuum, or the expansion of a plasma into a more tenuous plasma, in particular the fact that upon the expansion, ions are accelerated and reach energies well above their thermal energy. Also, in the process of the expansion a rarefaction wave propagates into the ambient plasma, an ion front moves into the expansion volume, and discontinuities in plasma parameters occur. The physical processes which cause the above phenomena are discussed, and their possible application is suggested for the case of the distribution of ions and electrons (hence plasma potential and electric fields) in the wake region behind artificial and natural obstacles moving supersonically in a rarefied space plasma. To illustrate this, some in situ results are reexamined. Directions for future work in this area via the utilization of the Space Shuttle and laboratory work are also mentioned.

  15. Secular chaos and its application to Mercury, hot Jupiters, and the organization of planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Lithwick, Yoram; Wu, Yanqin

    2014-09-01

    In the inner solar system, the planets' orbits evolve chaotically, driven primarily by secular chaos. Mercury has a particularly chaotic orbit and is in danger of being lost within a few billion years. Just as secular chaos is reorganizing the solar system today, so it has likely helped organize it in the past. We suggest that extrasolar planetary systems are also organized to a large extent by secular chaos. A hot Jupiter could be the end state of a secularly chaotic planetary system reminiscent of the solar system. However, in the case of the hot Jupiter, the innermost planet was Jupiter (rather than Mercury) sized, and its chaotic evolution was terminated when it was tidally captured by its star. In this contribution, we review our recent work elucidating the physics of secular chaos and applying it to Mercury and to hot Jupiters. We also present results comparing the inclinations of hot Jupiters thus produced with observations. PMID:24367108

  16. Secular chaos and its application to Mercury, hot Jupiters, and the organization of planetary systems

    PubMed Central

    Lithwick, Yoram; Wu, Yanqin

    2014-01-01

    In the inner solar system, the planets’ orbits evolve chaotically, driven primarily by secular chaos. Mercury has a particularly chaotic orbit and is in danger of being lost within a few billion years. Just as secular chaos is reorganizing the solar system today, so it has likely helped organize it in the past. We suggest that extrasolar planetary systems are also organized to a large extent by secular chaos. A hot Jupiter could be the end state of a secularly chaotic planetary system reminiscent of the solar system. However, in the case of the hot Jupiter, the innermost planet was Jupiter (rather than Mercury) sized, and its chaotic evolution was terminated when it was tidally captured by its star. In this contribution, we review our recent work elucidating the physics of secular chaos and applying it to Mercury and to hot Jupiters. We also present results comparing the inclinations of hot Jupiters thus produced with observations. PMID:24367108

  17. Coblation technology: plasma-mediated ablation for otolaryngology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woloszko, Jean; Gilbride, Charles

    2000-05-01

    Coblation is a unique method of delivering radio frequency energy to soft tissue for applications in Otolaryngology (ENT). Using radio frequency in a bipolar mode with a conductive solution, such as saline, Coblation energizes the ions in the saline to form a small plasma field. The plasma has enough energy to break the tissue's molecular bonds, creating an ablative path. The thermal effect of this process is approximately 45 - 85 degrees Celsius, significantly lower than traditional radio-frequency techniques. Coblation has been used for Otolaryngological applications such as Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), tonsillectomy, turbinate reduction, palate reduction, base of tongue reduction and various Head and Neck cancer procedures. The decreased thermal effect of Coblation anecdotally has led to less pain and faster recovery for cases where tissue is excised. In cases where Coblation is applied submucosally to reduce tissue volume (inferior turbinate, soft palate), the immediate volume reduction may lead to immediate clinical benefits for the patient. Coblation is currently being tested in various clinical studies to document the benefits for otolaryngological applications.

  18. Plasma Synthesis of Nanoparticles for Nanocomposite Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C. Kong; Alex W. Kawczak

    2008-09-01

    The nanocomposite energy applications for plasma reactor produced nanoparticles are reviewed. Nanoparticles are commonly defined as particles less than 100 nm in diameter. Due to this small size, nanoparticles have a high surface-to-volume ratio. This increases the surface energy compared to the bulk material. The high surface-to-volume ratio and size effects (quantum effects) give nanoparticles distinctive chemical, electronic, optical, magnetic and mechanical properties from those of the bulk material. Nanoparticles synthesis can be grouped into 3 broad approaches. The first one is wet phase synthesis (sol-gel processing), the second is mechanical attrition, and the third is gas-phase synthesis (aerosol). The properties of the final product may differ significantly depending on the fabrication route. Currently, there are no economical large-scale production processes for nanoparticles. This hinders the widespread applications of nanomaterials in products. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is engaging in research and development of advanced modular hybrid plasma reactors for low cost production of nanoparticles that is predicted to accelerate application research and enable the formation of technology innovation alliances that will result in the commercial production of nanocomposites for alternative energy production devices such as fuel cells, photovoltaics and electrochemical double layer capacitors.

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Introduction to Plasma Physics: With Space and Laboratory Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, P. K.

    2005-07-01

    A new textbook on plasma physics must be very welcome, as this will encourage the teaching of courses on the subject. This book is written by two experts in their fields, and is aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate courses. There are of course many other plasma physics textbooks available. The niche which this particular book fills is really defined by its subtitle: that is, `with space and laboratory applications'. This differs from most other books which tend to emphasise either space or fusion applications (but not both) or to concentrate only on general theory. Essentially, the emphasis here is on fundamental plasma physics theory, but applications are given from time to time. For example, after developing Alfvén wave theory, observations of Alfvén waves in the solar wind and in the Jovian magnetosphere are presented; whilst ion acoustic cylcotron waves are illustrated by data from a laboratory Q machine. It is fair to say that examples from space seem to predominate. Nevertheless, the approach of including a broad range of applications is very good from an educational point of view, and this should help to train a generation of students with a grasp of fundamental plasma physics who can work in a variety of research fields. The subject coverage of the book is fairly conventional and there are no great surprises. It begins, inevitably, with a discussion of plasma parameters (Debye length etc) and of single particle motions. Both kinetic theory and magnetohydrodynamics are introduced. Waves are quite extensively discussed in several chapters, including both cold and hot plasmas, magnetised and unmagnetised. Nonlinear effects—a large subject!—are briefly discussed. A final chapter deals with collisions in fully ionised plasmas. The choice of contents of a textbook is always something of a matter of personal choice. It is easy to complain about what has been left out, and everyone has their own favourite topics. With that caveat, I would question

  20. Rheological (visco-elastic behaviour) analysis of cyclic olefin copolymers with application to hot embossing for microfabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, R. K.; Chen, X.; Yue, C. Y.; Lam, Y. C.

    2011-08-01

    Transparent, amorphous cyclic olefin copolymers (COCs) have been frequently used for the fabrication of microfluidic devices using a hot embossing technique for numerous applications. In hot embossing, the polymer is deformed near its glass transition temperature (Tg), i.e. between Tg and Tg + 60 °C where the viscoelastic properties of the material are dominant. The proper characterization of the viscoelastic properties is of interest as this can lead to a better understanding of polymer flow behaviour during microfabrication. Furthermore, the ability to model its rheological behaviour will enable the prediction of the optimal hot embossing processing parameters. We performed small amplitude oscillatory shear experiments on four grades of COCs, TOPAS-8007, TOPAS-5013, TOPAS-6015 and TOPAS-6017, in order to characterize their flow behaviour. The experiments were conducted within the frequency range from 0.01 to 500 Hz at between Tg + 20 and Tg + 60 °C. The flow properties could be represented using a generalized Maxwell viscoelastic constitutive model with Williams-Landel-Ferry-type temperature dependence. Good fit of the experimental data was obtained over a wide range of temperatures. The model could be coupled with ABAQUS finite element software to predict the optimal conditions for fabricating a capillary electrophoresis micro-chip on a TOPAS-5013 substrate by hot embossing.

  1. Plasma process optimization for N-type doping applications

    SciTech Connect

    Raj, Deven; Persing, Harold; Salimian, Siamak; Lacey, Kerry; Qin Shu; Hu, Jeff Y.; McTeer, Allen

    2012-11-06

    Plasma doping (PLAD) has been adopted across the implant technology space and into high volume production for both conventional DRAM and NAND doping applications. PLAD has established itself as an alternative to traditional ion implantation by beamline implantation. The push for high doping concentration, shallow doping depth, and conformal doping capability expand the need for a PLAD solution to meet such requirements. The unique doping profile and doping characteristics at high dose rates allow for PLAD to deliver a high throughput, differentiated solution to meet the demand of evolving transistor technology. In the PLAD process, ions are accelerated to the wafer as with a negative wafer bias applied to the wafer. Competing mechanisms, such as deposition, sputtering, and etching inherent in plasma doping require unique control and process optimization. In this work, we look at the distinctive process tool control and characterization features which enable an optimized doping process using n-type (PH{sub 3} or AsH{sub 3}) chemistries. The data in this paper will draw the relationship between process optimization through plasma chemistry study to the wafer level result.

  2. Plasma Assisted Combustion: Fundamental Studies and Engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefkowitz, Joseph K.

    Successful and efficient ignition in short residence time environments or ultra-lean mixtures is a key technological challenge for the evolution of advanced combustion devices in terms of both performance and efficiency. To meet this challenge, interest in plasma assisted combustion (PAC) has expanded over the past 20 years. However, understanding of the underlying physical processes of ignition by plasma discharge remains elementary. In order to shed light on the key processes involved, two main thrusts of research were undertaken in this dissertation. First, demonstration of the applicability of plasma discharges in engines and engine-like environments was carried out using a microwave discharge and a nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharge in an internal combustion engine and a pulsed detonation engine, respectively. Major conclusions include the extension of lean ignition limits for both engines, significant reduction of ignition time for mixtures with large minimum ignition energy, and the discovery of the inter-pulse coupling effect of nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) discharges at high frequency. In order to understand the kinetic processes that led to these improvements, the second thrust of research directly explored the chemical kinetic processes of plasma discharges with hydrocarbon fuels. For this purpose, a low pressure flow reactor with a NRP dielectric barrier discharge cell was assembled. The discharge cell was fitted with a Herriott type multipass mirror arrangement, which allowed quantitative laser absorption spectroscopy to be performed in situ during the plasma discharge. Experiments on methane and ethylene mixtures with oxygen, argon, and helium revealed the importance of low temperature oxidation pathways in PAC. In particular, oxygen addition reactions were shown to be of primary importance in the oxidation of these small hydrocarbons in the temperature range of 300-600 K. Kinetic modeling tools, including both a coupled plasma and

  3. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Electrospin Hybrid Process for Protective Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitchuli Gangadharan, Narendiran

    2011-12-01

    Chemical and biological (C-B) warfare agents like sarin, sulfur mustard, anthrax are usually dispersed into atmosphere in the form of micro aerosols. They are considered to be dangerous weapon of mass destruction next to nuclear weapons. The airtight protective clothing materials currently available are able to stop the diffusion of threat agents but not good enough to detoxify them, which endangers the wearers. Extensive research efforts are being made to prepare advanced protective clothing materials that not only prevent the diffusion of C-B agents, but also detoxify them into harmless products thus ensuring the safety and comfort of the wearer. Electrospun nanofiber mats are considered to have effective filtration characteristics to stop the diffusion of submicron level particulates without sacrificing air permeability characteristics and could be used in protective application as barrier material. In addition, functional nanofibers could be potentially developed to detoxify the C-B warfare threats into harmless products. In this research, electrospun nanofibers were deposited on fabric surface to improve barrier efficiency without sacrificing comfort-related properties of the fabrics. Multi-functional nanofibers were fabricated through an electrospinning-electrospraying hybrid process and their ability to detoxify simulants of C-B agents was evaluated. Nanofibers were also deposited onto plasma-pretreated woven fabric substrate through a newly developed plasma-electrospinning hybrid process, to improve the adhesive properties of nanofibers on the fabric surface. The nanofiber adhesion and durability properties were evaluated by peel test, flex and abrasion resistance tests. In this research work, following tasks have been carried out: i) Controlled deposition of nanofiber mat onto woven fabric substrate Electrospun Nylon 6 fiber mats were deposited onto woven 50/50 Nylon/Cotton fabric with the motive of making them into protective material against submicron

  4. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Electrospin Hybrid Process for Protective Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitchuli Gangadharan, Narendiran

    2011-12-01

    Chemical and biological (C-B) warfare agents like sarin, sulfur mustard, anthrax are usually dispersed into atmosphere in the form of micro aerosols. They are considered to be dangerous weapon of mass destruction next to nuclear weapons. The airtight protective clothing materials currently available are able to stop the diffusion of threat agents but not good enough to detoxify them, which endangers the wearers. Extensive research efforts are being made to prepare advanced protective clothing materials that not only prevent the diffusion of C-B agents, but also detoxify them into harmless products thus ensuring the safety and comfort of the wearer. Electrospun nanofiber mats are considered to have effective filtration characteristics to stop the diffusion of submicron level particulates without sacrificing air permeability characteristics and could be used in protective application as barrier material. In addition, functional nanofibers could be potentially developed to detoxify the C-B warfare threats into harmless products. In this research, electrospun nanofibers were deposited on fabric surface to improve barrier efficiency without sacrificing comfort-related properties of the fabrics. Multi-functional nanofibers were fabricated through an electrospinning-electrospraying hybrid process and their ability to detoxify simulants of C-B agents was evaluated. Nanofibers were also deposited onto plasma-pretreated woven fabric substrate through a newly developed plasma-electrospinning hybrid process, to improve the adhesive properties of nanofibers on the fabric surface. The nanofiber adhesion and durability properties were evaluated by peel test, flex and abrasion resistance tests. In this research work, following tasks have been carried out: i) Controlled deposition of nanofiber mat onto woven fabric substrate Electrospun Nylon 6 fiber mats were deposited onto woven 50/50 Nylon/Cotton fabric with the motive of making them into protective material against submicron

  5. Numerical modeling of arc plasma generator for chemical laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagar, Vidya; Ravikant, Chhaya; Singhal, Gaurav; Mittal, Alok P.

    2012-05-01

    The results of the numerical modeling of arc discharge phenomenon relevant to hydrogen fluoride/deuterium fluoride (HF/DF) laser applications are given. The overall mechanics of arc discharge phenomena on the basis of numerical modeling employing the commercial code COMSOL is discussed. The equations for a 2D axisymmetric, weakly compressible, laminar flow with heat transfer and the coupled hydrodynamic and electromagnetic equations are solved using the SIMPLE algorithm. The variations in the material properties, temperature, and velocity due to the generated arc are studied. A comparison of the results obtained with those from the studies available in the literature validates the computational data. Since each designed plasma arc tunnel is unique in itself and specific in application, this would enable one to alter arc discharge parameters to optimize a specific laser.

  6. Dust Particle Growth and Application in Low Temperature Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Boufendi, L.

    2008-09-23

    Dust particle nucleation and growth has been widely studied these last fifteen years in different chemistries and experimental conditions. This phenomenon is correlated with various electrical changes at electrodes, including self-bias voltage and amplitudes of the various harmonics of current and voltage [1]. Some of these changes, such as the appearance of more resistive plasma impedance, are correctly attributed to loss of electrons in the bulk plasma to form negative molecular ions (e.g. SiH{sub 3}{sup -}) and more precisely charged nanoparticles. These changes were studied and correlated to the different phases on the dust particle formation. It is well known now that, in silane argon gas mixture discharges, in the first step of this particle formation we have formation of nanometer sized crystallites. These small entities accumulate and when their number density reaches a critical value, about 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 12} cm{sup -1}, they start to aggregate to form bigger particles. The different phases are well defined and determined thanks to the time evolution of the different electrical parameter changes. The purpose of this contribution is to compare different chemistries to highlight similarities and/or differences in order to establish possible universal dust particle growth mechanisms. The chemistries we studied concern SiH{sub 4}-Ar, CH{sub 4}, CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2} and Sn(CH{sub 3}){sub 4}[2]. We also refer to works performed in other laboratories in different discharge configurations [3]. Different applications have already developed or are foreseen for these nanoparticles. The first application concerns the inclusion of nanosized dust crystallites in an amorphous matrix in order to modify the optoelectronic and mechanical properties [4-5]. At the present time a very active research programs are devoted towards single electron devises where nanometer sized crystallites play a role of quantum dots. These nanoparticles can be produced in low pressure cold

  7. Plasma-etched nanostructures for optical applications (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Ulrike; Rickelt, Friedrich; Munzert, Peter; Kaiser, Norbert

    2015-08-01

    A basic requirement for many optical applications is the reduction of Fresnel-reflections. Besides of interference coatings, nanostructures with sub-wavelength size as known from the eye of the night-flying moth can provide antireflective (AR) properties. The basic principle is to mix a material with air on a sub-wavelength scale to decrease the effective refractive index. To realize AR nanostructures on polymers, the self-organized formation of stochastically arranged antireflective structures using a low-pressure plasma etching process was studied. An advanced procedure involves the use of additional deposition of a thin oxide layer prior etching. A broad range of different structure morphologies exhibiting antireflective properties can be generated on almost all types of polymeric materials. For applications on glass, organic films are used as a transfer medium. Organic layers as thin film materials were evaluated to identify compounds suitable for forming nanostructures by plasma etching. The vapor deposition and etching of organic layers on glass offers a new possibility to achieve antireflective properties in a broad spectral range and for a wide range of light incidence.

  8. Quantitative Determination of Density of Ground State Atomic Oxygen from Both TALIF and Emission Spectroscopy in Hot Air Plasma Generated by Microwave Resonant Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, F.; Yousfi, M.; Merbahi, N.; Wattieaux, G.; Piquemal, A.

    2016-03-01

    Two experimental techniques have been used to quantify the atomic oxygen density in the case of hot air plasma generated by a microwave (MW) resonant cavity. The latter operates at a frequency of 2.45 GHz inside a cell of gas conditioning at a pressure of 600 mbar, an injected air flow of 12 L/min and an input MW power of 1 kW. The first technique is based on the standard two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) using xenon for calibration but applied for the first time in the present post discharge hot air plasma column having a temperature of about 4500 K near the axis of the nozzle. The second diagnostic technique is an actinometry method based on optical emission spectroscopy (OES). In this case, we compared the spectra intensities of a specific atomic oxygen line (844 nm) and the closest wavelength xenon line (823 nm). The two lines need to be collected under absolutely the same spectroscopic parameters. The xenon emission is due to the addition of a small proportion of xenon (1% Xe) of this chemically inert gas inside the air while a further small quantity of H2 (2%) is also added in the mixture in order to collect OH(A-X) and NH(A-X) spectra without noise. The latter molecular spectra are required to estimate gas and excitation temperatures. Optical emission spectroscopy measurements, at for instance the position z=12 mm on the axis plasma column that leads to a gas measured temperature equal to 3500 K, an excitation temperature of about 9500 K and an atomic oxygen density 2.09×1017±0.2×1017 cm-3. This is in very good agreement with the TALIF measurement, which is equal to 2.0×1017 cm-3.

  9. Application of induction coil measurements to the study of superalloy hot corrosion and oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The assessment of the degree of hot corrosion attack on nickel based alloys is a difficult task, especially when the definition specifies that it must be in terms of metal consumed and even more difficult if the measurement must be nondestructive. The inductance of a solenoid coil responds to changes in volume of fill and composition of metal cores, therefore, it may be used for nondestructive measurement of hot corrosion. The hot corrosion of U700 was studied at 900 C in a Mach 0.3 flame doped with 0.85 wppm of sodium. The change of inductance was found to define the known corrosion behavior and to suggest its use as a tool with predictive capabilities. Sufficient sensitivity exists to detect oxidation of this alloy at 900 C.

  10. Hot emission model for mobile sources: application to the metropolitan region of the city of Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Corvalán, Roberto M; Osses, Mauricio; Urrutia, Cristian M

    2002-02-01

    Depending on the final application, several methodologies for traffic emission estimation have been developed. Emission estimation based on total miles traveled or other average factors is a sufficient approach only for extended areas such as national or worldwide areas. For road emission control and strategies design, microscale analysis based on real-world emission estimations is often required. This involves actual driving behavior and emission factors of the local vehicle fleet under study. This paper reports on a microscale model for hot road emissions and its application to the metropolitan region of the city of Santiago, Chile. The methodology considers the street-by-street hot emission estimation with its temporal and spatial distribution. The input data come from experimental emission factors based on local driving patterns and traffic surveys of traffic flows for different vehicle categories. The methodology developed is able to estimate hourly hot road CO, total unburned hydrocarbons (THCs), particulate matter (PM), and NO(x) emissions for predefined day types and vehicle categories. PMID:15143791

  11. Investigation on critical breakdown electric field of hot carbon dioxide for gas circuit breaker applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Rong, Mingzhe; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Murphy, Anthony B.; Zhang, Hantian

    2015-02-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas is widely used in high-voltage circuit breakers, but due to its high global warming potential, substitutes are being sought. CO2 has been investigated as a candidate based on its arc interruption performance. The hot gas in the circuit breaker after current zero, with a complicated species composition caused by the dissociation and many other reactions, will lead to the electrical breakdown, which is one of the major concerns in assessing the arc interruption performance. Despite this, little research has been reported on the dielectric strength of hot CO2. In this paper, the dielectric properties of hot CO2 related to the dielectric recovery phase of the circuit breaker were investigated in the temperature range from 300 to 4000 K and in the pressure range from 0.01 to 1.0 MPa. Under the assumptions of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and local chemical equilibrium (LCE), the equilibrium compositions of hot CO2 were obtained based on Gibbs free energy minimization. The cross sections for interactions between electrons and the species are presented. The critical reduced electric field strength of CO2 was determined by balancing electron generation and loss. These were evaluated using the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) derived from the two-term Boltzmann transport equation. The result indicates that unlike SF6 or air, in hot CO2 the reduced critical electric field strength does not change monotonically with increasing heavy-particle temperature from 300 to 4000 K. CO2 has a superior dielectric strength to pure SF6 above 2500 K at 0.5 MPa, which means it has the potential to improve the interruption performance of the circuit breakers, while reducing the global warming effect. Good agreement was found with published experimental results and calculations for CO2 at room temperature, and with previous calculations for hot CO2.

  12. COMPOSITIONAL DIVERSITY IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF HOT NEPTUNES, WITH APPLICATION TO GJ 436b

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, J. I.; Line, M. R.; Visscher, C.; Richardson, M. R.; Nettelmann, N.; Fortney, J. J.; Barman, T. S.; Stevenson, K. B.; Madhusudhan, N.

    2013-11-01

    Neptune-sized extrasolar planets that orbit relatively close to their host stars—often called {sup h}ot Neptunes{sup —}are common within the known population of exoplanets and planetary candidates. Similar to our own Uranus and Neptune, inefficient accretion of nebular gas is expected produce hot Neptunes whose masses are dominated by elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. At high atmospheric metallicities of 10-10,000 times solar, hot Neptunes will exhibit an interesting continuum of atmospheric compositions, ranging from more Neptune-like, H{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres to more Venus-like, CO{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres. We explore the predicted equilibrium and disequilibrium chemistry of generic hot Neptunes and find that the atmospheric composition varies strongly as a function of temperature and bulk atmospheric properties such as metallicity and the C/O ratio. Relatively exotic H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, and even O{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres are possible for hot Neptunes. We apply our models to the case of GJ 436b, where we find that a CO-rich, CH{sub 4}-poor atmosphere can be a natural consequence of a very high atmospheric metallicity. From comparisons of our results with Spitzer eclipse data for GJ 436b, we conclude that although the spectral fit from the high-metallicity forward models is not quite as good as the best fit obtained from pure retrieval methods, the atmospheric composition predicted by these forward models is more physically and chemically plausible in terms of the relative abundance of major constituents. High-metallicity atmospheres (orders of magnitude in excess of solar) should therefore be considered as a possibility for GJ 436b and other hot Neptunes.

  13. Applicability of Related Data, Algorithms, and Models to the Simulation of Ground-Coupled Residential Hot Water Piping in California

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, J.L.; Lutz, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Residential water heating is an important consideration in California?s building energy efficiency standard. Explicit treatment of ground-coupled hot water piping is one of several planned improvements to the standard. The properties of water, piping, insulation, backfill materials, concrete slabs, and soil, their interactions, and their variations with temperature and over time are important considerations in the required supporting analysis. Heat transfer algorithms and models devised for generalized, hot water distribution system, ground-source heat pump and ground heat exchanger, nuclear waste repository, buried oil pipeline, and underground electricity transmission cable applications can be adapted to the simulation of under-slab water piping. A numerical model that permits detailed examination of and broad variations in many inputs while employing a technique to conserve computer run time is recommended.

  14. Study of Acceleration, Transport and Dephasing of Hot Electrons in Solid Density Plasmas Irradiated with Ultra Intense Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, B. I.; Osterholz, J.; Bernstein, A. C.; Dyer, G. M.; Ditmire, T.

    2008-04-01

    We have characterized the transport of hot electrons in solid targets by coherent transition radiation (CTR). CTR was observed from the rear side of aluminum foils irradiated with the THOR laser (800 nm, 40 fs, 600 mJ, 2 x 10^19 W/cm^2) at the University of Texas at Austin. In the experiment, two distinct beams of hot electrons are emitted simultaneously from the target rear side. This observation shows that two different mechanisms, namely resonance absorption and j x B heating, accelerate the electrons at the target front side. These two distinct beams propagate through aluminum foils with different spatial and temporal characteristics and electron temperatures. The interpretation is confirmed by calculations of the electron acceleration and transport inside the target.

  15. The collisional relaxation of electrons in hot flaring plasma and inferring the properties of solar flare accelerated electrons from X-ray observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffrey, N. L. S.; Kontar, E. P.; Emslie, A. G.; Bian, N. H.

    2015-09-01

    X-ray observations are a direct diagnostic of fast electrons produced in solar flares, energized during the energy release process and directed towards the Sun. Since the properties of accelerated electrons can be substantially changed during their transport and interaction with the background plasma, a model must ultimately be applied to X-ray observations in order to understand the mechanism responsible for their acceleration. A cold thick target model is ubiquitously used for this task, since it provides a simple analytic relationship between the accelerated electron spectrum and the emitting electron spectrum in the X-ray source, with the latter quantity readily obtained from X-ray observations. However, such a model is inappropriate for the majority of solar flares in which the electrons propagate in a hot megaKelvin plasma, because it does not take into account the physics of thermalization of fast electrons. The use of a more realistic model, properly accounting for the properties of the background plasma, and the collisional diffusion and thermalization of electrons, can alleviate or even remove many of the traditional problems associated with the cold thick target model and the deduction of the accelerated electron spectrum from X-ray spectroscopy, such as the number problem and the need to impose an ad hoc low energy cut-off.

  16. Two-Phase Modeling of Hot Tearing in Aluminum Alloys: Applications of a Semicoupled Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathier, V.; Vernède, S.; Jarry, P.; Rappaz, M.

    2009-04-01

    Hot tearing formation in both a classical tensile test and during direct chill (DC) casting of aluminum alloys has been modeled using a semicoupled, two-phase approach. Following a thermal calculation, the deformation of the mushy solid is computed using a compressive rheological model that neglects the pressure of the intergranular liquid. The nonzero expansion/compression of the solid and the solidification shrinkage are then introduced as source terms for the calculation of the pressure drop and pore formation in the liquid phase. A comparison between the simulation results and experimental data permits a detailed understanding of the specific conditions under which hot tears form under given conditions. It is shown that the failure modes can be quite different for these two experiments and that, as a consequence, the appropriate hot tearing criterion may differ. It is foreseen that a fully predictive theoretical tool could be obtained by coupling such a model with a granular approach. These two techniques do, indeed, permit coverage of the range of the length scales and the physical phenomena involved in hot tearing.

  17. Analysis of a High-Tc Hot-Electron Superconducting Mixer for Terahertz Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; Gaidis, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    The prospects of a YBa2Cu3O7(delta)(YBCO) hot-electron bolometer (HEB) mixer for a THz heterodyne receiver is discussed. The modeled device is a submicron bridge made from a 10 nm thick film on a high thermal conductance substrate.

  18. Dynamical properties of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets and their applications to plasma processing in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitano, Katsuhisa; Satoshi, Ikawa; Furusho, Hitoshi; Nagasaki, Yukio; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2007-11-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets are discussed with the emphasis on their physics and applications. Plume-like plasmas, which may be called plasma jets, have been generated in a discharge system consisting of a dielectric/metal tube (through which He gas flows at the atmospheric pressure) and a single electrode attached to the tube, to which low-frequency, high-voltage pulses (˜10kV, ˜10kHz) are applied. With visible light images taken by a high-speed ICCD camera, it has been confirmed that the plasma jet consists of a series of small ``plasma bullets'' that are emitted intermittently from the powered electrode in sync with the positive voltage pulses. The observed ``plasma bullet'' may be interpreted as a fast moving ionization front. The plasma jets are energetic enough to generate highly reactive charge-neutral radicals but their gas temperatures remain low. Therefore the plasma jets are ideal for processing of liquid based materials at low temperatures and some examples of process applications, such as reduction of cations, polymerization of liquid monomers, and sterilization, will be also presented.

  19. Plasma RF Switching Elements for Cell Phone Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linardakis, Peter; Borg, Gerard G.; Harris, Jeffrey H.

    2002-10-01

    The functionality of modern multi-band, multi-system cell phones is provided by a large number of RF switches. Future phones will require an even greater number of these switches to implement hardware such as agile antennas. The ever increasing need for higher performance and lower power consumption have brought the RF PIN diode to the edge of its capabilities in these applications. RF micro-electromechanical (MEMS) switches can easily provide the required low insertion loss, low inter-modulation and low power consumption combination, but their reliability limits are not yet satisfactory to industry. In conjunction with Motorola Personal Communications Sector (PCS), PRL is undertaking a project to examine the possibility of using plasma in a completely novel type of RF switch. A basic concept of variable ``plasma capacitors'' constructed from DC commercial fluorescent tubes has been analyzed up to 1.3 GHz. The four different configurations tested show some consistent behavior and a definite impedance change between the on and off states. A simple model reliant on RF sheath theory also shows some agreement.

  20. Microwave plasma treated carbon nanotubes and their electrochemical biosensing application.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhaoyang; Xu, Yinyu; Zhang, Xiaolei; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2007-06-15

    A convenient microwave plasma treatment method with ammonia precursor was proposed to enhance the solubility of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The SEM, XRD and FTIR spectra clearly demonstrated that the carbon skeleton structure of the resultant ammonia plasma-treated CNTs (ammonia PT-CNTs) was not destroyed and amine groups of different forms were successfully coupled to CNTs in the MWP treatment process. The ammonia PT-CNTs have excellent solubility in water and are insoluble in nonpolar tetrahydrofuran, and the cyclic voltammograms suggest that the enhanced wetting properties clearly favor faster electron transfer kinetics on the ammonia PT-CNT electrodes. By choosing glucose oxidase as a model enzyme, the application of the ammonia PT-CNTs in construction of biosensors was further investigated. Due to the biocompatibility and electron transfer capability of the ammonia PT-CNTs, the resultant GOD biosensor displayed a good sensing performance. The biosensor has a fast response of less than 10s, and the response current linearly increases with the glucose concentration in the range of 1.2x10(-4) to 7.5x10(-3)M with a detection limit of 1.0x10(-5)M. PMID:19071766

  1. Biomedical Applications of Low Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas to Cancerous Cell Treatment and Tooth Bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Koo; Kim, Myoung Soo; Byun, June Ho; Kim, Kyong Tai; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Park, Gan Young

    2011-08-01

    Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas have attracted great interests and they have been widely applied to biomedical applications to interact with living tissues, cells, and bacteria due to their non-thermal property. This paper reviews the biomedical applications of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas to cancerous cell treatment and tooth bleaching. Gold nanoparticles conjugated with cancer-specific antibodies have been introduced to cancerous cells to enhance selective killing of cells, and the mechanism of cell apoptosis induced by plasma has been investigated. Tooth exposed to helium plasma jet with hydrogen peroxide has become brighter and the productions of hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide have been enhanced by plasma exposure.

  2. Analysis on electromagnetic characteristics and military application of non-magnetized discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Jiachun; Miao, Lei; Li, Zhigang

    2015-11-01

    Firstly, the dispersion equation of a plane electromagnetic wave in homogeneous and non-magnetized discharge plasma was established. According to the different frequency of electromagnetic wave and plasma parameters, the characteristics were discussed when the plasma interacted with electromagnetic waves. Then the gas discharge approach was put forward according to characteristics of plasma generated by different methods and their advantages and disadvantages. The possibility of using non-magnetized discharge plasma for the military purpose was analyzed. In the end, the principle and characteristics of the application of the non-magnetized discharge plasma were studied in the fields of stealth and protection against strong electromagnetic pulse.

  3. Robust regression with CUDA and its application to plasma reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Diogo R.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Fernandes, Horácio

    2015-11-01

    In many applications, especially those involving scientific instrumentation data with a large experimental error, it is often necessary to carry out linear regression in the presence of severe outliers which may adversely affect the results. Robust regression methods do exist, but they are much more computationally intensive, making it difficult to apply them in real-time scenarios. In this work, we resort to graphics processing unit (GPU)-based computing to carry out robust regression in a time-sensitive application. We illustrate the results and the performance gains obtained by parallelizing one of the most common robust regression methods, namely, least median of squares. Although the method has a complexity of O(n3logn), with GPU computing, it is possible to accelerate it to the point that it becomes usable within the required time frame. In our experiments, the input data come from a plasma diagnostic system installed at Joint European Torus, the largest fusion experiment in Europe, but the approach can be easily transferred to other applications.

  4. Robust regression with CUDA and its application to plasma reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Diogo R; Carvalho, Pedro J; Fernandes, Horácio

    2015-11-01

    In many applications, especially those involving scientific instrumentation data with a large experimental error, it is often necessary to carry out linear regression in the presence of severe outliers which may adversely affect the results. Robust regression methods do exist, but they are much more computationally intensive, making it difficult to apply them in real-time scenarios. In this work, we resort to graphics processing unit (GPU)-based computing to carry out robust regression in a time-sensitive application. We illustrate the results and the performance gains obtained by parallelizing one of the most common robust regression methods, namely, least median of squares. Although the method has a complexity of O(n(3)logn), with GPU computing, it is possible to accelerate it to the point that it becomes usable within the required time frame. In our experiments, the input data come from a plasma diagnostic system installed at Joint European Torus, the largest fusion experiment in Europe, but the approach can be easily transferred to other applications. PMID:26628135

  5. Application of Platelet Rich Plasma in Sports Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ficek, Krzysztof; Kamiński, Tomasz; Wach, Ewa; Cholewiński, Jerzy; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    Any new method of treatment is associated with high expectations for its success, particularly if the therapy is based not only on the premise of achieving a symptomatic effect, but also improving functional quality and repairing structurally damaged tissues. Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) application was shown to be a successful catalyst in the healing process for a wide variety of conditions in animal and human models. However, its use has been controversial due to many types of the PRP definition, optimal concentration, and modalities of implementation. In the qualification of patients for PRP treatment, not only should medical indications be considered, but also the role of participation in therapy with a physiotherapist supervising physical parameters and techniques used during recovery time. Further study is required in order to define optimal handling procedures of PRP injection. Long-term follow up will reveal if the promise of this substance can be realized and implemented to maximize its potential as a therapeutic remedy. PMID:23487362

  6. Study on effects of substrate temperature on growth and structure of alignment carbon nanotubes in plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Chun; Wang, Tingzhi

    2006-11-01

    Alignment carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) were synthesized on silicon substrate coated with Ni catalyst film and Ta buffer layer by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition using CH 4, NH 3, and H 2 as the reaction gas, and they were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the diameter of the bamboo-structured ACNTs is increased from 62 to 177 nm when the substrate temperature was changed from 626 to 756 °C. Their growth rate is enhanced by the substrate temperature in a range of 626-683 °C and it is reversely reduced with the substrate temperature after the substrate temperature is over 683 °C. Beginning with wetting phenomenon, the effects of the substrate temperature on the structure and growth rate of the ACNTs are analyzed.

  7. Comparative Study of Solid-Phase Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon Deposited by Hot-Wire CVD, Plasma-Enhanced CVD, and Electron-Beam Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Stradins, P.; Kunz, O.; Young, D. L.; Yan, Y.; Jones, K. M.; Xu, Y.; Reedy, R. C.; Branz, H. M.; Aberle, A. G.; Wang, Q.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-phase crystallization (SPC) rates are compared in amorphous silicon films prepared by three different methods: hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD), plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and electron-beam physical vapor deposition (e-beam). Random SPC proceeds approximately 5 and 13 times slower in PECVD and e-beam films, respectively, as compared to HWCVD films. Doping accelerates random SPC in e-beam films but has little effect on the SPC rate of HWCVD films. In contrast, the crystalline growth front in solid-phase epitaxy experiments propagates at similar speed in HWCVD, PECVD, and e-beam amorphous Si films. This strongly suggests that the observed large differences in random SPC rates originate from different nucleation rates in these materials while the grain growth rates are relatively similar. The larger grain sizes observed for films that exhibit slower random SPC support this suggestion.

  8. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    SciTech Connect

    Topala, I. E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp; Nagatsu, M. E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2015-02-02

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  9. Micro-column plasma emission liquid chromatograph. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Gay, D.D.

    1982-08-12

    In a direct current plasma emission spectrometer for use in combination with a microcolumn liquid chromatograph, an improved plasma source unit is claimed. The plasma source unit includes a quartz capillary tube having an inlet means, outlet off gas means and a pair of spaced electrodes defining a plasma region in the tube. The inlet means is connected to and adapted to receive eluant of the liquid chromatograph along with a stream of plasma-forming gas. There is an opening through the wall of the capillary tube penetrating into the plasma region. A soft glass capillary light pipe is disposed at the opening, is connected to the spectrometer, and is adapted to transmit light passing from the plasma region to the spectrometer. There is also a source of electromotive force connected to the electrodes sufficient to initiate and sustain a plasma in the plasma region of the tube.

  10. COMMERCIAL APPLICATION OF PLASMA MASS SEPARATION IN THE ARCHIMEDES FILTER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlfeld, C.E.; Gilleland, J.G.; Wagoner, J.D.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the commercial application of an innovative plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter to a pre-treatment plant that can be integrated into the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford and Savannah River Sites to significantly enhance the treatment of radioactive high-level waste. The output of the Archimedes Filter is completely compatible with existing waste immobilization processes such as vitrification and requires no new waste form to be developed. A full-geometric-scale Demonstration Filter Unit (DEMO) has been constructed and is undergoing initial testing at the Archimedes Technology Group Development Facilities in San Diego. Some of the technology and engineering development is being performed by other organizations in collaboration with Archimedes. The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing the plasma calcination technology and all of the associated systems for AFP feed preparation. Two Russian institutes are involved in the development of the ICP torch and injector system. The Remote System Group (UT-Battelle) at ORNL is developing the remote maintenance system for the filter units. Conceptual design of the Archimedes Filter Plant (AFP) is being developed concurrently with the DEMO testing program. The AFP mission is to significantly reduce the cost and accelerate the rate of vitrification of high-level waste by separating low activity waste from the sludge removed from underground storage tanks. Mass separation is accomplished by vaporizing the sludge feed and injecting it into a partially ionized, neutral plasma. In a single pass, heavy ions are deposited near the center of the filter and light mass ions are transported by the plasma to the ends of the cylindrically-shaped vacuum vessel. Responding to the DOE programs for cost reduction and cleanup acceleration, the AFP Project is planned on an expeditious schedule that executes all phases of the project with private sector funding. The initial AFP

  11. Using penumbral imaging to measure micrometer size plasma hot spots in Gbar equation of state experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, B.; Kritcher, A. L.; Benedetti, L. R.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenn, S.; Hawreliak, J.; Izumi, N.; Kraus, D.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; Pérez, F.; Swift, D.; Döppner, T.

    2014-11-01

    We have developed an experimental platform for absolute equation of state measurements up to Gbar pressures on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) within the Fundamental Science Program. We use a symmetry-tuned hohlraum drive to launch a spherical shock wave into a solid CH sphere. Streaked radiography is the primary diagnostic to measure the density change at the shock front as the pressure increases towards smaller radii. At shock stagnation in the center of the capsule, we observe a short and bright x-ray self emission from high density (˜50 g/cm3) plasma at ˜1 keV. Here, we present results obtained with penumbral imaging which has been carried out to characterize the size of the hot spot emission. This allows extending existing NIF diagnostic capabilities for spatial resolution (currently ˜10 μm) at higher sensitivity. At peak emission we find the hot spot radius to be as small as 5.8 +/- 1 μm, corresponding to a convergence ratio of 200.

  12. Using penumbral imaging to measure micrometer size plasma hot spots in Gbar equation of state experiments on the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, B; Kritcher, A L; Benedetti, L R; Falcone, R W; Glenn, S; Hawreliak, J; Izumi, N; Kraus, D; Landen, O L; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; Pérez, F; Swift, D; Döppner, T

    2014-11-01

    We have developed an experimental platform for absolute equation of state measurements up to Gbar pressures on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) within the Fundamental Science Program. We use a symmetry-tuned hohlraum drive to launch a spherical shock wave into a solid CH sphere. Streaked radiography is the primary diagnostic to measure the density change at the shock front as the pressure increases towards smaller radii. At shock stagnation in the center of the capsule, we observe a short and bright x-ray self emission from high density (∼50 g/cm(3)) plasma at ∼1 keV. Here, we present results obtained with penumbral imaging which has been carried out to characterize the size of the hot spot emission. This allows extending existing NIF diagnostic capabilities for spatial resolution (currently ∼10 μm) at higher sensitivity. At peak emission we find the hot spot radius to be as small as 5.8 +/- 1 μm, corresponding to a convergence ratio of 200. PMID:25430190

  13. Using penumbral imaging to measure micrometer size plasma hot spots in Gbar equation of state experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmann, B. Kritcher, A. L.; Benedetti, L. R.; Glenn, S.; Hawreliak, J.; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; Pérez, F.; Swift, D.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Kraus, D.

    2014-11-15

    We have developed an experimental platform for absolute equation of state measurements up to Gbar pressures on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) within the Fundamental Science Program. We use a symmetry-tuned hohlraum drive to launch a spherical shock wave into a solid CH sphere. Streaked radiography is the primary diagnostic to measure the density change at the shock front as the pressure increases towards smaller radii. At shock stagnation in the center of the capsule, we observe a short and bright x-ray self emission from high density (∼50 g/cm{sup 3}) plasma at ∼1 keV. Here, we present results obtained with penumbral imaging which has been carried out to characterize the size of the hot spot emission. This allows extending existing NIF diagnostic capabilities for spatial resolution (currently ∼10 μm) at higher sensitivity. At peak emission we find the hot spot radius to be as small as 5.8 +/− 1 μm, corresponding to a convergence ratio of 200.

  14. Characteristics and potential applications of an ORNL microwave ECR multicusp plasma ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    A new microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasma ion source that has two ECR plasma production regions and uses multicusp plasma confinement has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This source has been operated to produce uniform and dense plasma over large areas of 300 to 400 cm{sup 2} and could be scaled up to produce uniform plasma over 700 cm{sup 2} or larger. The plasma source has been operated with continuous argon gas feed and pulsed microwave power. The working gases used were argon, helium, hydrogen, and oxygen. The discharge initiation phenomena and plasma properties have been investigated and studied as functions of the discharge parameters. The discharge characteristics and a hypothetical discharge mechanism for this plasma source are described and discussed. Potential applications, including plasma and ion-beam sources for manufacturing advanced microelectronics, for space electric propulsion, and for fusion research, are discussed. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Application of multi-scale feature extraction to surface defect classification of hot-rolled steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ke; Ai, Yong-hao; Wu, Xiu-yong

    2013-01-01

    Feature extraction is essential to the classification of surface defect images. The defects of hot-rolled steels distribute in different directions. Therefore, the methods of multi-scale geometric analysis (MGA) were employed to decompose the image into several directional subbands at several scales. Then, the statistical features of each subband were calculated to produce a high-dimensional feature vector, which was reduced to a lower-dimensional vector by graph embedding algorithms. Finally, support vector machine (SVM) was used for defect classification. The multi-scale feature extraction method was implemented via curvelet transform and kernel locality preserving projections (KLPP). Experiment results show that the proposed method is effective for classifying the surface defects of hot-rolled steels and the total classification rate is up to 97.33%.

  16. On-board hydrogen generation for transport applications: the HotSpot™ methanol processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Neil; Ellis, Suzanne R.; Frost, Jonathan C.; Golunski, Stanislaw E.; van Keulen, Arjan N. J.; Lindewald, Nicklas G.; Reinkingh, Jessica G.

    In the absence of a hydrogen infrastructure, development of effective on-board fuel processors is likely to be critical to the commercialisation of fuel-cell cars. The HotSpot™ reactor converts methanol, water and air in a single compact catalyst bed into a reformate containing mainly CO2 and hydrogen (and unreacted nitrogen). The process occurs by a combination of exothermic partial oxidation and endothermic steam reforming of methanol, to produce 750 l of hydrogen per hour from a 245-cm3 reactor. The relative contribution of each reaction can be tuned to match the system requirements at a given time. Scale-up is achieved by the parallel combination of the required number of individual HotSpot reactors, which are fed from a central manifold. Using this modular design, the start-up and transient characteristics of a large fuel-processor are identical to that of a single reactor. When vaporised liquid feed and air are introduced into cold reactors, 100% output is achieved in 50 s; subsequent changes in throughput result in instantaneous changes in output. Surplus energy within the fuel-cell powertrain can be directed to the manifold, where it can be used to vaporise the liquid feeds and so promote steam reforming, resulting in high system efficiency. The small amount of CO that is produced by the HotSpot reactions is attenuated to <10 ppm by a catalytic clean-up unit. The HotSpot concept and CO clean-up strategy are not limited to the processing of methanol, but are being applied to other organic fuels.

  17. Nanoscale femtosecond imaging of transient hot solid density plasmas with elemental and charge state sensitivity using resonant coherent diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Chung, H.-K.; Gutt, C.; Huang, L. G.; Zacharias, M.; Schramm, U.; Cowan, T. E.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we propose to exploit the low energy bandwidth, small wavelength, and penetration power of ultrashort pulses from XFELs for resonant Small Angle Scattering (SAXS) on plasma structures in laser excited plasmas. Small angle scattering allows to detect nanoscale density fluctuations in forward scattering direction. Typically, the SAXS signal from laser excited plasmas is expected to be dominated by the free electron distribution. We propose that the ionic scattering signal becomes visible when the X-ray energy is in resonance with an electron transition between two bound states (resonant coherent X-ray diffraction). In this case, the scattering cross-section dramatically increases so that the signal of X-ray scattering from ions silhouettes against the free electron scattering background which allows to measure the opacity and derived quantities with high spatial and temporal resolution, being fundamentally limited only by the X-ray wavelength and timing. Deriving quantities such as ion spatial distribution, charge state distribution, and plasma temperature with such high spatial and temporal resolution will make a vast number of processes in shortpulse laser-solid interaction accessible for direct experimental observation, e.g., hole-boring and shock propagation, filamentation and instability dynamics, electron transport, heating, and ultrafast ionization dynamics.

  18. Development and commercialization of hot gas filters for power generation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Newby, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Westinghouse is conducting a broad development program under US Department of Energy (DOE) and corporate program initiatives to commercialize hot gas filtration (HGF) for power generation. Coal and biomass gasification combined cycles (GCC), and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are advanced power generation cycles that will use HGF to achieve maximum performance. Westinghouse, in conjunction with DOE are participating in several pilot and demonstration test programs in which hot gas filter systems are integrated and operated in coal derived gas streams. This paper reports on HGF testing conducted over the past year in the following pilot plant facilities: At the PFBC Hot Gas Clean Slipstream facility installed at the Tidd 70-MWe bubbling-PFBC Clean Coal Demonstration Plant; at the Ahlstrom 10 Mwt Circulating-PFBC facility located in Karhula, Finland; at the Advanced-PFBC subpilot facility located at the Foster Wheeler Development Corporation Livingston, NJ site; at the Biomass subpilot gasification facility located at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). Test results include operating experience on both conventional and advanced candle filter elements.

  19. Application of a hot-melt granulation process to enhance fenofibrate solid dose manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Rakesh Singh; Amankwaa, Edward; Kumar, Sandeep; Hu, Tom; Chan, Mohamed; Sanghvi, Pradeep

    2016-07-01

    Evaluation of hot-melt granulation of fenofibrate and croscarmellose sodium and its cooling time for the molten mass in a ratio of 55:45 was conducted to assess the manufacturing process capability to produce an acceptable granulation which flows well on Korsch PH300 tablet compression machine. The formation of the drug-polymer eutectic mixture was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The physical properties of the hot-melt was determined by examining the milled blocks after solidification and milling after cooling periods of 10, 20 and 30 d. The milled material was assessed for the effect of hold time of the blend on the solid dose compression characteristics. The impact of cooling on the processing of the blocks was assessed after 10, 20 and 30 d of cooling. The study suggests that after the hot-melt formed the fenofibrate crystallized independently and a solid solution with croscarmellose sodium was not formed. The age of the blocks determined the hardness of the crystals, changing the processing nature of the granules with respect to compression and powder flow characteristics. The blocks processed after 20 d and beyond produced granules with a characteristic suitable for holding the blend for 14 d in the bin with no impact on flow properties and compressibility of the blend. There was no chipping, capping, sticking or picking observed and a higher compression speed was achieved. PMID:26552938

  20. Experimentally determined rock-fluid interactions applicable to a natural hot dry rock geothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, R.W.; Holley, C.E. Jr.; Tester, J.W.; Blatz, L.A.; Grigsby, C.O.

    1980-02-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is pursuing laboratory and field experiments in the development of the Hot Dry Rock concept of geothermal energy. The field program consists of experiments in a hydraulically fractured region of low permeability in which hot rock is intercepted by two wellbores. These experiments are designed to test reservoir engineering parameters such as: heat extraction rates, water loss rates, flow characteristics including impedance and buoyancy, seismic activity and fluid chemistry. Laboratory experiments have been designed to provide information on the mineral reactivity which may be encountered in the field program. Two experimental circulation systems have been built to study the rates of dissolution and alteration in dynamic flow. Solubility studies have been done in agitated systems. To date, pure minerals, samples of the granodiorite from the actual reservoir and Tijeras Canyon granite have been reacted with distilled water and various solutions of NaCl, NaOH, and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. The results of these experimental systems are compared to observations made in field experiments done in a hot dry rock reservoir at a depth of approximately 3 km with initial rock temperatures of 150 to 200/sup 0/C.

  1. Development of plasma needle to be used for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, B.; Jain, J.; Inestrosa-Izurieta, M. J.; Avaria, G.; Moreno, J.; Pavez, C.; Marcelain, K.; Armisen, R.; Soto, L.

    2016-05-01

    Plasma needle is a novel design of a plasma source at atmospheric pressure to achieve a non-thermal plasma jet. The advantage of the plasma needle is that it can be operated in open air, outside a vessel. The plasma that is generated with the plasma needle is small (about one millimetre) and non-thermal, the temperature of the neutral particles and ions is in about room temperature and suitably can interact with living biological cell without damaging the cell. In this work, we report the development of a plasma needle, which is operated by a dc power source and produced a stable plasma jet on water surface. Argon gas is used to operate the plasma needle. The preliminary electrical diagnostics of the plasma needle shows that the discharge is filamentary in nature. For diagnostic of the plasma jet produced by the developed plasma needle, the produced plasma jet is directed to water surface and characterization are carried out by means of electrical discharge characteristics and optical emission spectroscopy. In this work, preliminary results of the diagnostic will be presented.

  2. PIC Simulations of Ultra Intense Laser Pulses Propagating Through Overdense Plasma for Fast-Ignitor and Radiography Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasinski, Barbara F.

    1998-11-01

    Particle-in-Cell codes are uniquely suited to model the interaction of ultra intense laser beams with overdense plasmas. We describe our Zohar simulations whose parameters are guided by present high intensity experiments to explore both fast-ignitorfootnote M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D Perry, and R. J. Mason, Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626 (1994). and radiographyfootnote S. P. Hatchett, S. Wilks, B. F. Lasinski, and M. Perry, presented at the 28^th Anomalous Absorption Conference, June 14-18, 1998. applications. The ρ r of the simulated plasma slabs and the time scale of the ZOHAR modeling are roughly comparable to present short pulse experiments with thin CH foils and high laser intensity. Complex low frequency magnetic field structures, narrow channel formation, beam deflection, and harmonic generation are all evident in these simulations. Absorption fractions are high and we verify the predicted scaling for T_hot.footnote S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, M. Tabak, and A. B. Langdon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1383 (1992). Our recent work has emphasized our particle tracking diagnostics which allow us to explore the nature of the currents that produce and interact with these static magnetic fields which are larger than 10^9 G for simulations at 10^21 W/cm^2 in a 50nc plasma. Particle orbits at various stages of channel formation provide a more complete understanding of the hot electron generation as the short pulse, high intensity laser penetrates overdense plasma. We identify particles which constitute the current in the narrow channel. The forward going electrons are partially confined in the channel by the low frequency magnetic field. In contrast, the return current particles on the outside of the channel are defocused by the high magnetic field and move away from the channel. Electrons continuously move in toward the channel and replenish the return current. Results on the spectra and angular distribution of the

  3. An evaluation of lead concentrations in imported hot sauces.

    PubMed

    Berger Ritchie, Jennifer A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued several warnings and recalls for food products that exceed FDA standards for lead. Products containing chili peppers and salt were often suspected as sources of lead contamination, and included items such as candy that are routinely investigated. However, products such as hot sauces that contain similar ingredients have not been the focus of evaluations. This study quantified lead concentrations in imported hot sauces, evaluated product compliance to existing United States standards, and calculated potential dietary lead exposure for children using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model. Finally, recommendations for reducing the risk of lead exposure from hot sauces are provided. Twenty-five (25) bottles of imported hot sauces manufactured in Mexico and South America were purchased in Clark County, Nevada. All hot sauces were analyzed for lead concentrations, pH, and leaded packaging. Hot sauces were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and packaging was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence technology. Four brands of hot sauces (16%) exceeded 0.1 ppm lead, the current FDA action level for lead in candy. Hot sauces with lead concentrations >0.1 ppm lead contained salt and were manufactured in Mexico. Subsequent analysis of additional lots of hot sauces exceeding 0.1 ppm lead revealed inconsistent lead concentrations between and within manufacturer lots. The lead concentrations of the plastic hot sauce lids ranged from below the limit of detection to 2,028 ppm lead. There was no association between lead concentrations in hot sauces and pepper type. These results indicate the need for more rigorous screening protocols for products imported from Mexico, the establishment of an applicable standard for hot sauce, and resources to allow for the enforcement of existing food safety policies. The data reported herein represent the first known investigation of lead

  4. Applications of the ArbiTER edge plasma eigenvalue code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baver, D. A.; Myra, J. R.; Umansky, M. V.

    2013-10-01

    ArbiTER is a flexible eigenvalue code designed for plasma physics applications. This code uses an equation and topology parser to determine how a particular set of linearized model equations is spatially discretized. The resulting matrix form is then solved using the SLEPc eigensolver package. The equation and topology parsers permit a wide variety of capabilities, including variable numbers of dimensions, both finite difference and finite element methods, and irregular boundary conditions. Recent upgrades also permit parallel operation and the solution of source-driven problems. Two applications of this code will be presented, both as demonstrations of capability and as benchmark cases. One of these is the calculation of resistive ballooning modes with fully kinetic electrons. This will demonstrate the capacity for solving kinetic problems. The other is the use of extended spatial domains for ballooning stability analysis. This will demonstrate the utility of extra dimensions in calculations with fluid models. Work supported by the U.S. DOE grant DE-SC0006562.

  5. Monochromatic plasma x-ray generator and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Sagae, Michiaki; Takahashi, Kei; Ichimaru, Toshio; Aiba, Wataru; Kumagai, Shigehito; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Ido, Hideaki; Sakamaki, Kimio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu

    1998-07-01

    The constructions of a plasma flash x-ray generator having a cold-cathode radiation tube and its application to soft radiography are described. The x-ray generator employs a high- voltage power supply, a low-impedance coaxial transmission line with a gap switch, a high-voltage condenser with a capacity of 0.2 (mu) F, a turbo-molecular pump, a thyristor pulser as a trigger device, and a flash x-ray tube. The high- voltage main condenser is charged up to 60 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The x-ray tube is a demountable triode which is connected to the turbo molecular pump with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. This tube consists of a rod-shaped carbon cathode, a trigger electrode made from a copper wire, a stainless-steel vacuum chamber, insulators, a polyethylene terephthalate x-ray window, and two anode electrodes (targets) of molybdenum and silver. The space between the anode and cathode electrodes had a constant value of approximately 20 mm, and the trigger electrode is set in the center of the cathode electrode. As the electron flows from the cathode electrode are roughly converged to the target by the electric field in the tube, the plasma x-ray source which consists of metal ions and electrons is produced by the target evaporating. Because the bremsstrahlung spectra are absorbed by the monochromatic filter, K-series characteristic x-rays are obtained. Both the tube voltage and current displayed damped oscillations, and their peak values increased according to increases in the charging voltage. In the present work, the peak tube voltage was almost equivalent to the initial charging voltage of the main condenser, and the peak current had a value of about 25 kA with a charging voltage of 60 kV. When the charging voltage was increased, the intensities of the K-series characteristic x-rays increased. Next, the intensities

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in Dynamic Plasmas with Solar Applications: Effect of Thermal Conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghafri, Khalil

    2013-08-01

    In the present thesis we examine the effect of the cooling background coronal plasma on damping coronal oscillations. The background plasma is assumed to be cooling because of thermal conduction. Moreover, the cooling of the background temperature is assumed to have an exponential profile with characteristic cooling times typical for solar coronal loops. We have investigated the propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves in a homogeneous magnetised plasma embedded in a hot coronal loop. The background plasma is assumed to be cooling due to thermal conduction in a weakly stratified atmosphere. The influence of cooling of the background plasma on the properties of magneto-acoustic waves is examined. The background temperature is found to decrease exponentially with time by solving the background plasma equations. On the other hand, we have considered the influence of a cooling background plasma on the longitudinal standing (slow) magneto-acoustic waves generated in a loop of hot corona. The cooling of the background plasma is dominated by a physically unspecified thermodynamic source. A dominance of the cooling in the absence of any dissipative mechanisms is found to amplify the oscillation amplitude. Thermal conduction, which is presumed to be a weak, is only present in the perturbations, causing a damping for the hot-loop oscillations. The previous study is expanded on investigating the effect of strong thermal conduction on the hot coronal oscillations. The competition between the cooling of plasma and the damping of oscillations can be captured from the behaviour of MHD waves. The hot-loop oscillations undergo strong damping due to thermal conduction, although the cooling coronal plasma exerts resistive role on the damping method by decreasing the rate of decaying for cool coronal oscillations. Contrary to cool loops, the amplitude of very hot loops that undergoes a high amount of cooling experiences faster damping than others. However, the damping of the standing

  7. Nonlinear dynamics of soft fermion excitations in hot QCD plasma I: Soft-quark soft-gluon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, Yu. A.; Markova, M. A.

    2006-05-01

    Within the framework of the hard thermal loop effective theory we derive a system of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations taking into account the simplest processes of nonlinear interaction of soft fermionic and bosonic QCD plasma excitations: elastic scattering of soft-(anti)quark excitations off soft-gluon and soft-quark excitations, pair production of soft quark-antiquark excitations, annihilation into two soft-gluon excitations. The matrix elements of these processes to leading order in the coupling constant g are obtained. The iterative method of calculation of the matrix elements for the higher processes of soft-mode interactions is proposed. The most general expression for the emitted radiant power induced by the effective currents and effective sources in a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) taking into account an existence of fermion sector of plasma excitations is defined. The explicit form of the linearized Boltzmann equation accounting for scattering of color(less) plasminos off color(less) plasmons is written out.

  8. Nonlinear theory of ionic sound waves in a hot quantum-degenerate electron-positron-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, A. E. Sazonkin, M. A.

    2010-11-15

    A collisionless nonmagnetized e-p-i plasma consisting of quantum-degenerate gases of ions, electrons, and positrons at nonzero temperatures is considered. The dispersion equation for isothermal ionic sound waves is derived and analyzed, and an exact expression is obtained for the linear velocity of ionic sound. Analysis of the dispersion equation has made it possible to determine the ranges of parameters in which nonlinear solutions in the form of solitons should be sought. A nonlinear theory of isothermal ionic sound waves is developed and used for obtaining and analyzing the exact solution to the system of initial equations. Analysis has been carried out by the method of the Bernoulli pseudopotential. The ranges of phase velocities of periodic ionic sound waves and soliton velocities are determined. It is shown that in the plasma under investigation, these ranges do not overlap and that the soliton velocity cannot be lower than the linear velocity of ionic sound. The profiles of physical quantities in a periodic wave and in a soliton are constructed, as well as the dependences of the velocity of sound and the critical velocity on the ionic concentration in the plasma. It is shown that these velocities increase with the ion concentration.

  9. Constraining hot plasma in a non-flaring solar active region with FOXSI hard X-ray observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Glesener, Lindsay; Christe, Steven; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Brooks, David H.; Williams, David R.; Shimojo, Masumi; Sako, Nobuharu; Krucker, Säm

    2014-12-01

    We present new constraints on the high-temperature emission measure of a non-flaring solar active region using observations from the recently flown Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket payload. FOXSI has performed the first focused hard X-ray (HXR) observation of the Sun in its first successful flight on 2012 November 2. Focusing optics, combined with small strip detectors, enable high-sensitivity observations with respect to previous indirect imagers. This capability, along with the sensitivity of the HXR regime to high-temperature emission, offers the potential to better characterize high-temperature plasma in the corona as predicted by nanoflare heating models. We present a joint analysis of the differential emission measure (DEM) of active region 11602 using coordinated observations by FOXSI, Hinode/XRT, and Hinode/EIS. The Hinode-derived DEM predicts significant emission measure between 1 MK and 3 MK, with a peak in the DEM predicted at 2.0-2.5 MK. The combined XRT and EIS DEM also shows emission from a smaller population of plasma above 8 MK. This is contradicted by FOXSI observations that significantly constrain emission above 8 MK. This suggests that the Hinode DEM analysis has larger uncertainties at higher temperatures and that > 8 MK plasma above an emission measure of 3 × 1044 cm-3 is excluded in this active region.

  10. Potential applications of a new microwave ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) multicusp plasma ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    A new microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasma ion source using two ECR plasma production regions and multicusp plasma confinement has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This source has been operated to produce uniform and dense plasmas over large areas of 300 to 400 cm{sup 2}. The plasma source has been operated with continuous argon gas feed and pulsed microwave power. The discharge initiation phenomena and plasma properties have been investigated and studied as functions of discharge parameters. Together with the discharge characteristics observed, a hypothetical discharge mechanism for this plasma source is reported and discussed. Potential applications, including plasma and ion-beam processing for manufacturing advanced microelectronics and for space electric propulsion, are discussed. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Development of Metallic Filters for Hot Gas Cleanup in Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.E.; Gleeson, B.; Terpstra, R.L.

    2002-09-19

    Alternative alloys derived from the wide array of aerospace superalloys will be developed for hot gas filtration to improve on both ceramic filters and ''first-generation'' iron aluminide metallic filter materials. New high performance metallic filters should offer the benefits of non-brittle mechanical behavior at all temperatures, including ambient temperature, and improved resistance to thermal fatigue compared to ceramic filter elements, thus improving filter reliability. A new powder processing approach also will be established that results in lightweight metallic filters with high permeability and weldability for enhanced capability for filter system manufacturing.

  12. Environmental assessment of the proposed nonelectric application of geothermal resources at Desert Hot Springs, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an environmental analysis performed in evaluating various proposed geothermal demonstration projects at Desert Hot Springs. These are categorized in two ways: (1) indirect, or (2) direct uses. Among the former are greenhouses, industrial complexes, and car washes. The latter include aquaculture, a cascaded agribusiness system, and a mobile home park. Major categories of environmental impact covered are: (1) site, (2) construction of projects, and (3) the use of the geothermal source. Attention is also given to the disposal of the geothermal fluid after use. Finally, it is concluded that there are no major problems forseen for each project, and future objectives are discussed.

  13. PLASMA-2013: International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas (Warsaw, Poland, 2-6 September 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, Marek J.

    2014-05-01

    The PLASMA-2013 International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas was held in Warsaw (Poland) from 2 to 6 September 2013. The conference was organized by the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, under the auspices of the Polish Physical Society. The scope of the PLASMA conferences, which have been organized every two years since 1993, covers almost all issues of plasma physics and fusion research as well as selected problems of plasma technology. The PLASMA-2013 conference topics included: •Elementary processes and general plasma physics. •Plasmas in tokamaks and stellarators (magnetic confinement fusion). •Plasmas generated by laser beams and inertial confinement fusion. •Plasmas produced by Z-pinch and plasma-focus discharges. •Low-temperature plasma physics. •Space plasmas and laboratory astrophysics. •Plasma diagnostic methods and applications of plasmas. This conference was designed not only for plasma researchers and engineers, but also for students from all over the world, in particular for those from Central and Eastern Europe. Almost 140 participants had the opportunity to hear 9 general lectures, 11 topical talks and 26 oral presentations, as well as to see and discuss around 120 posters. From about 140 contributions, after the preparation of about 100 papers and the peer review process, only 74 papers have been accepted for publication in this topical issue. Acknowledgments Acting on behalf of the International Scientific Committee I would like to express our thanks to all the invited speakers and all the participants of the PLASMA-2013 conference for their numerous contributions. In particular, I wish to thank all of the authors of papers submitted for publication in this topical issue of Physica Scripta . Particular thanks are due to all of the reviewers for their valuable reports and comments, which helped to improve the quality of many of the papers. International Scientific Committee Marek J Sadowski, NCBJ

  14. Characterization of Wet Air Plasma Jet Powered by Sinusoidal High Voltage and Nanosecond Pulses for Plasma Agricultural Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Shimada, Keisuke; Konishi, Hideaki; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-09-01

    Not only for the plasma sterilization but also for many of plasma life-science applications, atmospheric pressure plasma devices that allowed us to control its state and reactive species production are deserved to resolve the roles of the chemical species. Influence of the hydroxyl radical and ozone on germination of conidia of a strawberry pathogen is presented. Water addition to air plasma jet significantly improves germination suppression performance, while measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reduced. Although the results show a negative correlation between ROS and the germination suppression, this infers the importance of chemical composition generated by plasma. For further control of the plasma product, a plasma jet powered by sinusoidal high voltage and nanosecond pulses is developed and characterized with the voltage-charge Lissajous. Control of breakdown phase and discharge power by pulse-imposed phase is presented. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) Grant Number 15K17480 and Exploratory Research Grant Number 23644199.

  15. Application of mixtures of polymeric carriers for dissolution enhancement of fenofibrate using hot-melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Kalivoda, Adela; Fischbach, Matthias; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2012-06-15

    Hot-melt extrusion was applied to improve dissolution behavior of poorly soluble model drug fenofibrate. Blends of polymers were used as carrier: copovidone (COP), polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol copolymer (PVCL-PVAc-PEG) and hypromellose 2910/5 (HPMC). The ratio of fenofibrate to COP remained constantly 1+3 (weighted parts) with varying amounts of PVCL-PVAc-PEG and HPMC. Solid state of fenofibrate was characterized by X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry. Dissolution performance was compared to marketed formulations Lipidil and Lipidil-Ter. Stability studies were conducted at 25°C/60%rH. The dissolution rate from extrudates was significantly increased when compared to pure fenofibrate powder or physical mixture of the components. A supersaturation of 7.6-12.1 was reached with the pelletized extrudates. All extrudates were superior to marketed formulations. No recrystallization was observed after 26 weeks of storage for fenofibrate-COP extrudates 1+3 (weighted parts) with or without polymeric additives. Even so, both degree and duration of supersaturation decreased with increasing storage periods with the exception of fenofibrate-HPMC extrudates. Of particular interest is the finding that by adding polymers with differing release characteristics to the drug-carrier mixture, the dissolution performance of hot-melt extruded solid dosage forms can be readily adapted to meet specific requirements. PMID:22440149

  16. Effect of bias application to plasma density in weakly magnetized inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyuk; Lee, Woohyun; Park, Wanjae; Whang, Ki-Woong

    2013-07-15

    Independent control of the ion flux and energy can be achieved in a dual frequency inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system. Typically, the plasma density is controlled by the high-frequency antenna radio-frequency (RF) power and the ion energy is controlled by the low-frequency bias RF power. Increasing the bias power has been known to cause a decrease in the plasma density in capacitively coupled discharge systems as well as in ICP systems. However, an applied axial magnetic field was found to sustain or increase the plasma density as bias power is increased. Measurements show higher electron temperatures but lower plasma densities are obtained in ordinary ICP systems than in magnetized ICP systems under the same neutral gas pressure and RF power levels. Explanations for the difference in the behavior of plasma density with increasing bias power are given in terms of the difference in the heating mechanism in ordinary unmagnetized and magnetized ICP systems.

  17. Rapid labeling of lipoproteins in plasma with radioactive cholesterol. Application for measurement of plasma cholesterol esterification

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, F.T.; Nishida, T. )

    1990-02-01

    In order to efficiently and rapidly label lipoproteins in plasma with ({sup 3}H)cholesterol, micelles consisting of lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) and ({sup 3}H)cholesterol (molar ratio, 50:1) were prepared. When trace amounts of these micelles were injected into plasma, ({sup 3}H)cholesterol rapidly equilibrated among the plasma lipoproteins, as compared to ({sup 3}H)cholesterol from an albumin-stabilized emulsion. The distributions of both ({sup 3}H)cholesterol and unlabeled free cholesterol in plasma lipoproteins were similar in labeled plasma samples. This method of labeling can be used for the measurement of cholesterol esterification, or lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, in small amounts (20-40 microliters) of plasma samples.

  18. Ultra-Hot Plasma in Active Regions Observed by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P.; Feldman, U.

    2008-05-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode spacecraft obtains high resolution spectra of the solar atmosphere in two wavelength ranges: 170 - 210 and 250 — 290 Angstroms. These wavelength regions contain a wealth of emission lines covering temperature regions from the chromosphere/transition region (e.g., He II, Si VII) up to soft X-ray flare temperatures (Fe XXIII, Fe XXIV). EIS can obtain line profiles and intensities for the spectral lines in these wavelength regions. Of particular interest for understanding coronal heating is a line of Ca XVII, formed near a temperature of 6 MK. This line is blended with lines of Fe XI and O V. However, by using unblended lines of these ions, the Ca XVII line can be deconvolved from the blended emission. EIS has obtained many raster observations of active regions by stepping the slit in small increments across the active region, producing monochromatic images of the active region. The Ca XVII blend has been included in many of these rasters. In this paper we discuss the appearance and frequency of 6 MK plasma in active regions in the absence of strong flaring activity. This temperature region is not well-observed by normal incidence imaging spectrometers and therefore the EIS data shed light on higher temperature areas of active regions than normally available from imaging instruments alone. We discuss how to deconvolve the blend and show examples of 6 MK plasma emission in several active regions.

  19. Application of nonlinear methods to the study of ionospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshov, A. A.; Mogilevsky, M. M.; Kozelov, B. V.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the processes taking place in the auroral region of Earth's ionosphere are reflected in a variety of dynamic forms of the aurora borealis. In order to study these processes it is necessary to consider temporary and spatial variations of the characteristics of ionospheric plasma. Most traditional methods of classical physics are applicable mainly for stationary or quasi-stationary phenomena, but dynamic regimes, transients, fluctuations, selfsimilar scaling could be considered using the methods of nonlinear dynamics. Special interest is the development of the methods for describing the spatial structure and the temporal dynamics of auroral ionosphere based on the ideas of percolation theory and fractal geometry. The fractal characteristics (the Hausdorff fractal dimension and the index of connectivity) of Hall and Pedersen conductivities are used to the description of fractal patterns in the ionosphere. To obtain the self-consistent estimates of the parameters the Hausdorff fractal dimension and the index of connectivity in the auroral zone, an additional relation describing universal behavior of the fractal geometry of percolation at the critical threshold is applied. Also, it is shown that Tsallis statistics can be used to study auroral ionosphere

  20. Investigations of Remote Plasma Irregularites by Radio Sounding: Applications of the Radio Plasma Imager on IMAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Shing F.; Benson, Robert F.; Carpenter, Donald L.; Reinsch, Bodo W.; Gallagher, Dennis L.

    1999-01-01

    The Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) mission operates like a radar by transmitting and receiving coherent electromagnetic pulses. Long-range echoes of electromagnetic sounder waves are reflected at remote plasma cutoffs. Thus, analyses of RPI observations will yield the plasma parameters and distances to the remote reflection points. These analyses assume that the reflecting plasma surfaces are cold and are sufficiently smooth that they effectively behave as plane mirrors to the incoming sounder waves, i.e., that geometric optics can be used. The RPI will employ pulse compression and spectral integration techniques, perfected in ground-based ionospheric digital sounders, in order to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio in long-range magnetospheric sounding. When plasma irregularities exist in the remote magnetospheric plasmas that are being probed by the sounder waves, echo signatures may become complicated. Ionospheric sounding experience indicates that while topside sounding echo strengths can actually be enhanced by the presence of irregularities, ground-based sounding indicates that coherent detection techniques can still be employed. In this paper we investigate the plasma conditions that will allow coherent signals to be detected by the RPI and the signatures to be expected, such as scattering and plasma resonances, in the presence of multi-scale irregularities, may possibly have on RPI signals. Sounding of irregular plasma structures in the plasmasphere, plasmapause and magnetopause are also discussed.

  1. Application of mixed models to assess exposures monitored by construction workers during hot processes.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, S M; Weaver, M; Taylor, D; Kupper, L; Susi, P

    1999-10-01

    Particulate exposures were assessed among construction workers engaged in hot processes in four jobs (boilermakers, ironworkers, pipefitters and welder-fitters) at nine sites in the U.S. After being trained by occupational hygienists, the workers obtained shift-long personal samples at each site for total particulates (TP). Selected samples were also assayed for manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr). Workers provided information about process- and task-related covariates that were present on the days of monitoring. Data were investigated with mixed-model regression analyses that designated the jobs and covariates as fixed effects and the worker and error terms as random effects. Results indicated that the within-worker variance components, but not the between-worker variance components, could be pooled among jobs. Mean air levels for a given agent varied by roughly six to 100 fold among the jobs, with boilermakers and ironworkers experiencing much higher levels of TP and Mn than pipefitters and welder-fitters. Limited data also suggested that welder-fitters were exposed to greater levels of Ni and Cr than pipefitters. Sufficient sample sizes were available to evaluate the effects of covariates upon exposures to TP and Mn. As expected, processes involving more than 50% hot work led to substantially higher levels of TP and Mn than those involving shorter durations of hot work. Local-exhaust or mechanical ventilation reduced exposure to TP (but not Mn) by as much as 44%, and shielded or manual arc welding increased exposure to Mn (but not TP) by about 80%. Parameters estimated with these mixed models were used to calculate probabilities that workers were exposed at levels above U.S. occupational exposure limits (OELs). Regarding TP and Mn, these calculations suggested that 26-95% of exposures to boilermakers and pipefitters and 2-13% of exposures to pipefitters and welder-fitters exceeded the current Threshold Limit Values. Among welder-fitters, limited data

  2. Investigations of microwave plasmas - Applications in electrothermal thruster systems

    SciTech Connect

    Haraburda, S.S.; Hawley, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental studies which have been conducted to develop understanding of plasma processes used for spacecraft propulsion are reviewed. The techniques discussed are calorimetry and volume measurements using the TM 011 and TM 012 modes in the microwave cavity system. The use of plasmas in electrical propulsion and microwave induction is reviewed. Plasma containment, microwave power production, energy distribution, and the pressure and flow dependence of the energy distribution are addressed. The plasma dimensions and their dependence on pressure, flow, and power are considered. 10 refs.

  3. Applications of numerical codes to space plasma problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northrop, T. G.; Birmingham, T. J.; Jones, F. C.; Wu, C. S.

    1975-01-01

    Solar wind, earth's bowshock, and magnetospheric convection and substorms were investigated. Topics discussed include computational physics, multifluid codes, ionospheric irregularities, and modeling laser plasmas.

  4. Low Temperature Atmospheric Argon Plasma: Diagnostics and Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolaeva, Svetlana; Petrov, Oleg; Zigangirova, Nailya; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Sysolyatina, Elena; Antipov, Sergei; Alyapyshev, Maxim; Kolkova, Natalia; Mukhachev, Andrei; Naroditsky, Boris; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Grigoriev, Anatoly; Morfill, Gregor; Fortov, Vladimir; Gintsburg, Alexander

    This study was devoted to diagnostic of low temperature plasma produced by microwave generator and investigation of its bactericidal effect against bacteria in biofilms and within eukaryotic cells. The profile of gas temperature near the torch outlet was measured. The spectrum in a wide range of wavelengths was derived by the method of optical emission spec-troscopy. Probe measurements of the floating potential of plasma were car-ried out. The estimation and adaptation of parameters of plasma flow (tem-perature, velocity, ion number density) according to medico-technical requirements were produced. The model of immersed surface-associated biofilms formed by Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia, and Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, was used to assess bactericidal effects of plasma treatment. Reduction in the concentration of live bacteria in biofilms treated with plasma for 5 min was demonstrated by measuring Live/Dead fluorescent labeling and using direct plating. The intracellular infection model with the pathogenic bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, was used to study the efficacy of microwave argon plasma against intracellular parasites. A 2 min plasma treatment of mouse cells infected with C. trachomatis reduced infectious bacteria by a factor of 2×106. Plasma treatment diminished the number of viable host cells by about 20%. When the samples were covered with MgF2 glass to obstruct active particles and UV alone was applied, the bactericidal effect was re-duced by 5×104 fold compared to the whole plasma.

  5. Plasma technologies application for building materials surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Volokitin, O. G.; Shehovtzov, V. V.; Luchkin, A. G.; Kashapov, N. F.

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature arc plasma was used to process building surface materials, such as silicate brick, sand lime brick, concrete and wood. It was shown that building surface materials modification with low temperature plasma positively affects frost resistance, water permeability and chemical resistance with high adhesion strength. Short time plasma processing is rather economical than traditional processing thermic methods. Plasma processing makes wood surface uniquely waterproof and gives high operational properties, dimensional and geometrical stability. It also increases compression resistance and decreases inner tensions level in material.

  6. An Ultrasensitive Hot-Electron Bolometer for Low-Background SMM Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olayaa, David; Wei, Jian; Pereverzev, Sergei; Karasik, Boris S.; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; McGrath, William R.; Sergeev, Andrei V.; Gershenson, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a hot-electron superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) that is capable of counting THz photons and operates at T = 0.3K. The main driver for this work is moderate resolution spectroscopy (R approx. 1000) on the future space telescopes with cryogenically cooled (approx. 4 K) mirrors. The detectors for these telescopes must be background-limited with a noise equivalent power (NEP) approx. 10(exp -19)-10(exp -20) W/Hz(sup 1/2) over the range v = 0.3-10 THz. Above about 1 THz, the background photon arrival rate is expected to be approx. 10-100/s), and photon counting detectors may be preferable to an integrating type. We fabricated superconducting Ti nanosensors with a volume of approx. 3x10(exp -3) cubic microns on planar substrate and have measured the thermal conductance G to the thermal bath. A very low G = 4x10(exp -14) W/K, measured at 0.3 K, is due to the weak electron-phonon coupling in the material and the thermal isolation provided by superconducting Nb contacts. This low G corresponds to NEP(0.3K) = 3x10(exp -19) W/Hz(sup 1/2). This Hot-Electron Direct Detector (HEDD) is expected to have a sufficient energy resolution for detecting individual photons with v > 0.3 THz at 0.3 K. With the sensor time constant of a few microseconds, the dynamic range is approx. 50 dB.

  7. Microfabricated plastic chips by hot embossing methods and their applications for DNA separation and detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwo-Bin; Chen, Shu-Hui; Huang, Guan-Ruey; Lin, Yen-Heng; Sung, Wang-Chou

    2000-08-01

    Design and fabrication of microfluidic devices on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates using novel microfabrication methods are described. The image of microfluidic devices is transferred from quartz master templates possessing inverse image of the devices to plastic plates by using hot embossing method. The micro channels on master templates are formed by the combination of metal etch mask and wet chemical etching. The micromachined quartz templates can be used repeatedly to fabricate cheap and disposable plastic devices. The reproducibility of the hot embossing method is evaluated after using 10 channels on different plastics. The relative standard deviation of the plastic channel profile from ones on quartz templates is less than 1%. In this study, the PMMA chips have been demonstrated as a micro capillary electrophoresis ((mu) -CE) device for DNA separation and detection. The capability of the fabricated chip for electrophoretic injection and separation is characterized via the analysis of DNA fragments (phi) X174. Results indicate that all of the 11 DNA fragments of the size marker could be identified in less than 3 minutes with relative standard deviations less than 0.4% and 8% for migration time and peak area, respectively. Moreover, with the use of near IR dye, fluorescence signals of the higher molecular weight fragments ($GTR 603 bp in length) could be detected at total DNA concentrations as low as 0.1 (mu) g/mL. In addition to DNA fragments (phi) X174, DNA sizing of hepatitis C viral (HCV) amplicon is also achieved using microchip electrophoresis fabricated on PMMA substrate.

  8. Si3N4-TiN nanocomposite by nitration of TiSi2 and consolidation by hot pressing and spark plasma sintering.

    PubMed

    Borodianska, Hanna; Krushinskaya, Larisa; Makarenko, Galina; Sakka, Yoshio; Uvarova, Irina; Vasylkiv, Oleg

    2009-11-01

    Homogeneous nanostructured Si3N4-TiN composite powder was obtained by nitration of a TiSi2 powder precursor in a nitrogen flow. Mechanoactivation of titanium disilicide increases the nitration rate and reduces the temperature of formation of the Si3N4 and TiN. The properties of hot pressing (HP) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) of the nanostructured Si3N4-TiN composite with Y2O3 and Al2O3 additives have been studied. In the case of the HP-prepared composite the processing conditions are sufficient to form a stable, equilibrated grain boundary framework. The SPS consolidation is extremely rapid, low-temperature process and the sintering temperature was 300-400 degrees C lower than that of the hot pressing temperature. As a result the grain boundary framework was underdeveloped. Post-sintering anneal of the SPS-prepared samples caused significant improvement of their mechanical properties. The SPS and HP-derived Si3N4-40 mass% TiN-6 mass% Y2O3-2 mass% Al2O3 nano-composite of 98.4% and 98.9% of relative density demonstrate the Vickers hardness values of 13.2 and 13.7 GPa, respectively. The grains of Si3N4 and TiN were much finer in the case of the SPS-derived ceramic composite. However, the better development of the grain boundary framework in the case of the higher temperature HP treatment in comparison to the SPS significantly reduced the advantage of nanocrystallinity. In both cases the fracture toughness was comparable even after the improvement of grain boundary framework during the SPS consolidation. The K(1c), of 7.83 MPax m(1/2) of the sample prepared according to the best SPS regime is also comparable to K(1c) of 8.30 MPa x m(1/2) of much coarser hot pressed ceramic with very similar relative density. PMID:19908538

  9. Tracking Plasma Vorticity in the Low-Latitude Boundary Layer with the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer (HPCA) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Analyzing vorticity in the low-latitude boundary layer's plasma dynamics has the potential to reveal structures that constrain possible mechanisms of populating Earth's magnetosphere with solar wind ion species during periods of relatively calm geomagnetic conditions. Using HPCA measurements taken in the boundary layer on the duskside magnetopause, we search for signatures of vorticity in each ion species. The HPCA Radio Frequency (RF) filtering provides a unique method to suppress the overwhelming H+ signal and enables measurement of heavier ion species. By cross-correlating HPCA observations with other instruments of the MMS suite and with solar wind conditions from other heliospheric fleet spacecraft, we build on previous in-situ vorticity studies of the low-latitude boundary layer.

  10. Advances in the medical research and clinical applications on the plasma DNA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Wu, Zhanhe

    2014-01-01

    Plasma DNA has had a strong impact and influence on basic medical research and clinical practice since the discovery of low levels of plasma DNA in healthy individuals under different physiological conditions. Although the source of circulating DNA still requires further investigation, a wide range of research has also proven the value of qualitative and quantitative measurements of plasma DNA in many disease conditions. The use of plasma DNA has a biomarker is advantageous due to accessibility, reliability, reproducibility, sensitivity, specific and relatively low cost. Recently, the detection of circulating (plasma) DNA quantitative changes have been using in the studies on the tumor gene mutations and to monitor disease progressing and to predict the disease prognosis. Such technique also has been using other many different fields, particularly in prenatal diagnosis, for which plasma DNA testing is preferable due to non-invasiveness. This article reviews the research progression and clinical applications of plasma DNA in the last several years. PMID:26835332

  11. Fundamentals and applications of a plasma-processing system based on electron-beam ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, D.; Walton, S. G.; Fernsler, R. F.

    2007-05-15

    Plasmas generated from moderate energy (2-5 keV) electron beams (e-beam) have unique, attractive characteristics that are ideal for materials processing applications. These plasmas possess low electron temperatures (<0.5 eV), variable plasma densities (10{sup 9}-10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}) with an improved control of plasma species generation, and perhaps most importantly, a direct scalability to processing areas exceeding one square meter. These characteristics are due to the plasma ionization being driven by the e-beam instead of an external electromagnetic field as used in conventional processing plasma sources. Theoretical and experimental system details are discussed in terms of plasma operating conditions applied to three different surface modification approaches: metal nitriding, negative ion etching, and polymer surface energy tailoring.

  12. Helium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet: Diagnostics and Application for Burned Wounds Healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topala, Ionut; Nastuta, Andrei

    A new field of plasma applications developed in the last years, entitled plasma medicine, has focused the attention of many peoples from plasma ­community on biology and medicine. Subjects that involve plasma physics and technology (e.g. living tissue treatment or wound healing, cancer cell apoptosis, blood coagulation, sterilization and decontamination) are nowadays in study in many laboratories. In this paper we present results on optical and electrical diagnosis of a helium ­atmospheric pressure plasma jet designed for medical use. This type of plasma jet was used for improvement of the wound healing process. We observed a more rapid macroscopic healing of the plasma treated wounds in comparison with the control group.

  13. Unified first wall-blanket structure for plasma device applications

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1987-01-01

    A plasma device for use in controlling nuclear reactions within the plasma including a first wall and blanket formed in a one-piece structure composed of a solid solution containing copper and lithium and melting above about 500.degree. C.

  14. Unified first wall - blanket structure for plasma device applications

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.

    A plasma device is described for use in controlling nuclear reactions within the plasma including a first wall and blanket formed in a one-piece structure composed of a solid solution containing copper and lithium and melting above about 500/sup 0/C.

  15. Hot hollow cathode gun assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, J.D.

    1983-11-22

    A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  16. Application of a non-thermal plasma to combustion enhancement.

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, L. A.; Kim, Y.; Stange, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    As a primary objective, researchers in Los Alamos National Laboratory's P-24 Plasma Physics group are aiming to minimize U.S. energy dependency on foreign resources through experiments incorporating a plasma assisted combustion unit. Under this broad category, researchers seek to increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in IC-engines, gas-turbine engines, and burner units. To date, the existing lean burn operations, consisting of higher air to fuel ratio, have successfully operated in a regime where reduced NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} emissions are expected and have also shown increased combustion efficiency (less unburned hydrocarbon) for propane. By incorporating a lean burn operation assisted by a non-thermal plasma (NTP) reactor, the fracturing of hydrocarbons can occur with increased power (combustion, efficiency, and stability). Non-thermal plasma units produce energetic electrons, but avoid the high gas and ion temperatures involved in thermal plasmas. One non-thermal plasma method, known as silent discharge, allows free radicals to act in propagating combustion reactions, as well as intermediaries in hydrocarbon fracturing. Using non-thermal plasma units, researchers have developed a fuel activation/conversion system capable of decreasing pollutants while increasing fuel efficiency, providing a path toward future U.S. energy independence.

  17. Renormalized theory of ion temperature gradient instability of the magnetic-field-aligned plasma shear flow with hot ions

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailenko, V. V. Mikhailenko, V. S.; Lee, Hae June

    2015-10-15

    The developed kinetic theory for the stability of a magnetic-field-aligned (parallel) shear flow with inhomogeneous ion temperature [Mikhailenko et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 072117 (2014)] predicted that a kinetic instability arises from the coupled reinforcing action of the flow velocity shear and ion temperature gradient in the cases where comparable ion and electron temperatures exist. In the present paper, the nonlinear theory was developed for the instability caused by the combined effects of ion-temperature-gradient and shear-flow (ITG–SF). The level of the electrostatic turbulence is determined for the saturation state of the instability on the basis of the nonlinear dispersion equation, which accounts for a nonlinear scattering of ions by the developed turbulence in a sheared flow. The renormalized quasilinear equation for the ion distribution function, which accounts for the turbulent scattering of ions by ITG–SF driven turbulence, was derived and employed for the estimation of the turbulent ion viscosity, the anomalous ion thermal conductivity, and anomalous ion heating rate at the saturation state of the instability.

  18. Dynamics of the outer radiation belts in relation to polar substorms and hot plasma injections at geostationary altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauvaud, J. A.; Winckler, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Geostationary satellite and ground measurements of dynamic variations of the outer radiation belts and their relations with the development of auroral structures during magnetospheric substorms are analyzed. A comparison of measurements of the H or X geomagnetic field components made by seven auroral stations with ATS-6 low-energy and high-energy particle measurements during the multiple-onset substorm of Aug. 16, 1974 is presented which demonstrates that while the decrease in energetic particle fluxed ends only at the time of a strong substorm onset, rapid motions of the outer radiation belts may occur during the flux decrease. All-sky photographs of auroral phenomena taken at Fort Yukon and College, Alaska are then compared with ATS-1 energetic particle flux measurements in order to demonstrate the relation between flux decreases and increases and distinct substorm phases. Results support the hypothesis of a magnetospheric substorm precursor which appears to be an instability growing at the inner boundary of the plasma layer and approaching the earth, and underline the importance of current and magnetic field variations in charged particle dynamics.

  19. Plasma-Spraying Ceramics Onto Smooth Metallic Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Brindley, William J.; Rouge, Carl J.; Leissler, George

    1992-01-01

    In fabrication process, plasma-sprayed ceramic coats bonded strongly to smooth metallic surfaces. Principal use of such coats in protecting metal parts in hot-gas paths of advanced gas turbine engines. Process consists of application of initial thin layer of ceramic on smooth surface by low-pressure-plasma spraying followed by application of layer of conventional, low-thermal-conductivity atmospheric-pressure plasma-sprayed ceramic.

  20. LASER PLASMA AND LASER APPLICATIONS: Plasma transparency in laser absorption waves in metal capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, V. N.; Kozolupenko, A. P.; Sebrant, A. Yu

    1988-12-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the plasma transparency to heating radiation in capillaries when absorption waves propagated in these capillaries as a result of interaction with a CO2 laser pulse of 5-μs duration. When the length of the capillary was in excess of 20 mm, total absorption of the radiation by the plasma was observed at air pressures of 1-100 kPa. When the capillary length was 12 mm, a partial recovery of the transparency took place. A comparison was made with the dynamics and recovery of the plasma transparency when breakdown of air took place near the free surface.

  1. Accutech pneumatic fracturing extraction and hot gas injection, phase 1. Applications analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Skovronek, H.S.

    1993-03-01

    The report summarizes and analyzes the SITE demonstration of Accutech's Pneumatic Fracturing Extraction (PFE) process at an industrial park in NJ. Based on the results of 4-hr tests before and after fracturing, extracted air flow rate increased an average 600% and trichloroethene (TCE) mass removal rate increased about 675%, primarily due to the increased air flow. The radius for effective vapor extraction also is enlarged by fracturing; extracted air flow rates increased 700% to 1,400% in wells at a 10 ft radius and 200% to 1,100% in wells 20 ft from the fracture well. With passive air inlets, the extracted air flow rate increased about 19,500%, and TCE mass removal rate increased 2,300%. The estimated cost for full-scale remediation of the site with PFE was $307/kg ($140/lb) of TCE removed based on the SITE demonstration experience and information provided by the developer. Major contributing factors were: Labor (29%); Capital Equipment (22); and Emissions Collection/disposal (19%). Numerous assumptions were used in arriving at this cost. Results of two Hot Gas Injection (HGI) tests were inconclusive.

  2. Mechanical and piezoresistive properties of thin silicon films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and hot-wire chemical vapor deposition at low substrate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar, J.; Gualdino, A.; Lemke, B.; Paul, O.; Chu, V.; Conde, J. P.

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports on the mechanical and piezoresistance characterization of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin films deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) and radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using substrate temperatures between 100 and 250 °C. The microtensile technique is used to determine film properties such as Young's modulus, fracture strength and Weibull parameters, and linear and quadratic piezoresistance coefficients obtained at large applied stresses. The 95%-confidence interval for the elastic constant of the films characterized, 85.9 ± 0.3 GPa, does not depend significantly on the deposition method or on film structure. In contrast, mean fracture strength values range between 256 ± 8 MPa and 600 ± 32 MPa: nanocrystalline layers are slightly stronger than their amorphous counterparts and a pronounced increase in strength is observed for films deposited using HWCVD when compared to those grown by PECVD. Extracted Weibull moduli are below 10. In terms of piezoresistance, n-doped radio-frequency nanocrystalline silicon films deposited at 250 °C present longitudinal piezoresistive coefficients as large as -(2.57 ± 0.03) × 10-10 Pa-1 with marginally nonlinear response. Such values approach those of crystalline silicon and of polysilicon layers deposited at much higher temperatures.

  3. Development of a two-stage light gas gun to accelerate hydrogen pellets to high speeds for plasma fueling applications

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Fehling, D.T.; Sparks, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a two-stage light gas gun to accelerate hydrogen isotope pellets to high speeds is under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. High velocities (>2 km/s) are desirable for plasma fueling applications, since the faster pellets can penetrate more deeply into large, hot plasmas and deposit atoms of fuel directly in a larger fraction of the plasma volume. In the initial configuration of the two-stage device, a 2.2-l volume (/<=/55-bar) provides the gas to accelerate a 25.4-mm-diam piston in a 1-m-long pump tube; a burst disk or a fast valve initiates the acceleration process in the first stage. As the piston travels the length of the pump tube, the downstream gas (initially at <1 bar) is compressed (to pressures up to 2600 bar) and thus is driven to high temperature (approx.5000 K). This provides the driving force for acceleration of a 4-mm pellet in a 1-m-long gun barrel. In preliminary tests using helium as the driver in both stages, 35-mg plastic pellets have been accelerated to speeds as high as 3.8 km/s. Projectiles composed of hydrogen ice will have a mass in the range from 5 to 20 mg (/rho/ approx. 0.087, 0.20, and 0.32 g/cm/sup 3/ for frozen hydrogen isotopes). However, the use of sabots to encase and protect the cryogenic pellets from the high peak pressures will probably be required to realize speeds of approx.3 km/s or greater. The experimental plan includes acceleration of hydrogen isotopes as soon as the gun geometry and operating parameters are optimized; theoretical models are being used to aid in this process. The hardware is being designed to accommodate repetitive operation, which is the objective of this research and is required for future applications. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. The incomplete plasma dispersion function: Properties and application to waves in bounded plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Baalrud, S. D.

    2013-01-15

    The incomplete plasma dispersion function is a generalization of the plasma dispersion function in which the defining integral spans a semi-infinite, rather than infinite, domain. It is useful for describing the linear dielectric response and wave dispersion in non-Maxwellian plasmas when the distribution functions can be approximated as Maxwellian over finite, or semi-infinite, intervals in velocity phase-space. A ubiquitous example is the depleted Maxwellian electron distribution found near boundary sheaths or double layers, where the passing interval can be modeled as Maxwellian with a lower temperature than the trapped interval. The depleted Maxwellian is used as an example to demonstrate the utility of using the incomplete plasma dispersion function for calculating modifications to wave dispersion relations.

  5. Plasma application for detoxification of Jatropha phorbol esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongmany, S.; Matsuura, H.; Furuta, M.; Okuda, S.; Imamura, K.; Maeda, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma generated by helium gas at high voltage and input power of about 50 W was first applied to detoxification of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters (J. PEs) as well as standard phorbol ester (4β-12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, TPA) in water and methanol. Plasma irradiation on the solution sample was conducted for 15 min. In aqueous solution, only 16% of TPA was degraded and complete degradation of J. PEs was observed. On the contrary, complete degradation of both TPA and J. PEs in methanol was achieved by the same plasma irradiation condition. Hydroxyl radical (•OH) generated by plasma irradiation of the solution is expected as the main radical inducing the degradation of PEs.

  6. Gas plasma sterilization--application of space-age technology.

    PubMed

    Crow, S; Smith, J H

    1995-08-01

    Gas plasma sterilization is new to the healthcare field. The first such sterilizer has been manufactured by Advanced Sterilization Products (J&J, Irvine, CA). The system uses hydrogen peroxide as the substrate gas and radio frequency emissions to generate plasma. This system is a low-temperature, quick-acting process with no toxic residues. It appears that this sterilizer system holds promise in the healthcare field and could help to reduce the use of ethylene oxide. PMID:7594394

  7. High temperature UF6 RF plasma experiments applicable to uranium plasma core reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was conducted using a 1.2 MW RF induction heater facility to aid in developing the technology necessary for designing a self critical fissioning uranium plasma core reactor. Pure, high temperature uranium hexafluoride (UF6) was injected into an argon fluid mechanically confined, steady state, RF heated plasma while employing different exhaust systems and diagnostic techniques to simulate and investigate some potential characteristics of uranium plasma core nuclear reactors. The development of techniques and equipment for fluid mechanical confinement of RF heated uranium plasmas with a high density of uranium vapor within the plasma, while simultaneously minimizing deposition of uranium and uranium compounds on the test chamber peripheral wall, endwall surfaces, and primary exhaust ducts, is discussed. The material tests and handling techniques suitable for use with high temperature, high pressure, gaseous UF6 are described and the development of complementary diagnostic instrumentation and measurement techniques to characterize the uranium plasma, effluent exhaust gases, and residue deposited on the test chamber and exhaust system components is reported.

  8. Modeling of High Kinetic Energy Plasma Jets for Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.

    2006-10-01

    We used semi-analytical models for high velocity (>200 km/s) and density (>10^17 cm-3) plasma jets to describe the acceleration in coaxial electrodes geometry, the collision, and plasma liner implosion, assuming that jets have merged into a spherical or cylindrical shell. The results are compared with experimental data and are being used for guiding LSP and MACH2 codes simulation and for optimization. The simplest model which uses the adiabatic invariant for oscillator revealed the basic relation between the velocity and the parameters of the plasma accelerator. Plasma slug model was extended for including friction and mass addition by electrode erosion. A simple model of blow-by instability by using the canting angle of the plasma current was formulated. As plasma jets collision at high interfacial Mach number generates shock fronts, we analyzed their possible consequences on the merging process and liner formation. The structure of the spherical shell liner during adiabatic implosion and the effect of the shock wave generated at void closure on the confinement time were also investigated.

  9. Applications of web produced by hot air assisted melt differential electrospinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubakir, Mahmoud M.; Li, Haoyi; Wu, Weifeng; Li, Xiaohu; Ma, Shuai; Yang, Weimin

    2014-08-01

    Melt electrospinning, a technique that has gained increasing attention since it easily can generate continuous ultrafine fibers directly from polymer melts without the use of any solvent. Therefore, it is considered as a safe, cost effective, and environmental friendly technique. However, with all those great advantages, the technique still suffers some drawbacks such as: large fiber diameter and low throughput. The hot air assisted melt differential electrospinning (MDES) is a new technique invented by our research team that can solve or eliminate those drawbacks. The most important features of our used apparatus are: Needleless nozzle that could generate multiple Taylor cones around the bottom edge of the nozzle, which can result in a high throughput. The stretching force acting on the jets can be further strengthened by an air current provided by an air pressure gun. Interference between the high voltage supply and temperature sensors could be prevented through the grounding of the nozzle. The ultrafine pp webs produced using the same apparatus was in the micro/nano scale with a diameter of 600nm-6um and a smooth surface. Porosity of the webs ranges from 86.5%-99.4% when different collecting devices are used. The resultant ultrafine webs were applied in three areas: oil sorption, water treatment, and hydrophilic PP membrane. The results were very promising as for oil the sorption capacity was 129.0g/g; for water treatment, the rejection rate for 3um particles was 95%. And for the hydrophilic PP membrane, the water sorption capacity was 12.3 g/g.

  10. Clinical and Biological Principles of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Application in Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gay-Mimbrera, Jesús; García, Maria Carmen; Isla-Tejera, Beatriz; Rodero-Serrano, Antonio; García-Nieto, Antonio Vélez; Ruano, Juan

    2016-06-01

    Plasma-based electrosurgical devices have long been employed for tissue coagulation, cutting, desiccation, and cauterizing. Despite their clinical benefits, these technologies involve tissue heating and their effects are primarily heat-mediated. Recently, there have been significant developments in cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) science and engineering. New sources of CAP with well-controlled temperatures below 40 °C have been designed, permitting safe plasma application on animal and human bodies. In the last decade, a new innovative field, often referred to as plasma medicine, which combines plasma physics, life science, and clinical medicine has emerged. This field aims to exploit effects of mild plasma by controlling the interactions between plasma components (and other secondary species that can be formed from these components) with specific structural elements and functionalities of living cells. Recent studies showed that CAP can exert beneficial effects when applied selectively in certain pathologies with minimal toxicity to normal tissues. The rapid increase in new investigations and development of various devices for CAP application suggest early adoption of cold plasma as a new tool in the biomedical field. This review explores the latest major achievements in the field, focusing on the biological effects, mechanisms of action, and clinical evidence of CAP applications in areas such as skin disinfection, tissue regeneration, chronic wounds, and cancer treatment. This information may serve as a foundation for the design of future clinical trials to assess the efficacy and safety of CAP as an adjuvant therapy for skin cancer. PMID:27142848

  11. Dense Plasma Focus: physics and applications (radiation material science, single-shot disclosure of hidden illegal objects, radiation biology and medicine, etc.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribkov, V. A.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.; Chernyshova, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Pimenov, V. N.; Demina, E. V.; Niemela, J.; Crespo, M.-L.; Cicuttin, A.; Tomaszewski, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Pytel, K.; Zawadka, A.; Giannini, G.; Longo, F.; Talab, A.; Ul'yanenko, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents some outcomes obtained during the year of 2013 of the activity in the frame of the International Atomic Energy Agency Co-ordinated research project "Investigations of Materials under High Repetition and Intense Fusion-Relevant Pulses". The main results are related to the effects created at the interaction of powerful pulses of different types of radiation (soft and hard X-rays, hot plasma and fast ion streams, neutrons, etc. generated in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) facilities) with various materials including those that are counted as perspective ones for their use in future thermonuclear reactors. Besides we discuss phenomena observed at the irradiation of biological test objects. We examine possible applications of nanosecond powerful pulses of neutrons to the aims of nuclear medicine and for disclosure of hidden illegal objects. Special attention is devoted to discussions of a possibility to create extremely large and enormously diminutive DPF devices and probabilities of their use in energetics, medicine and modern electronics.

  12. THz Plasma Diagnostics: an evolution from FIR and Millimeter waves historical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombarda, F.; Doria, A.; Galatola Teka, G.; Giovenale, E.; Zerbini, M.

    2016-08-01

    Extremely broadband (100 GHz–30 THz) single cycle THz pulses are routinely generated with femtosecond laser for Time Domain Spectroscopy applications (TDS). The wide frequency range has an unquestionable diagnostic potential for Tokamak plasmas and not surprisingly THz TDS finds a natural field of application in this area, which is an evolution of the FIR and millimeter waves diagnostics, where ENEA Frascati holds historical expertise. By illuminating the plasma with a THz beam, phase, intensity and polarization of both reflected and transmitted beams can be detected, devising a single diagnostic instrument capable of measuring multiple plasma parameters. We will describe and discuss the laboratory work now in progress to realise a tailored THz-TDS spectrometer with design parameters optimised for the requirements of Tokamak plasmas and the tests of optical fibers and quasioptical couplers to optimise access to plasma. ENEA Frascati and the Photonics group of Physics Dept. of Oxford University are collaborating on this subject [1].

  13. Dust dynamics and diagnostic applications in quasi-neutral plasmas and magnetic fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhehui; Ticos, Catalin M.; Si, Jiahe; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Lapenta, Gianni; Wurden, Glen

    2007-11-01

    Little is known about dust dynamics in highly ionized quasi-neutral plasmas with ca. 1.0 e+20 per cubic meter density and ion temperature at a few eV and above, including in magnetic fusion. For example, dust motion in fusion, better known as UFO's, has been observed since 1980's but not explained. Solid understanding of dust dynamics is also important to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) because of concerns about safety and dust contamination of fusion core. Compared with well studied strongly-coupled dusty plasma regime, new physics may arise in the higher density quasi-neutral plasma regime because of at least four orders of magnitude higher density and two orders of magnitude hotter ion temperature. Our recent laboratory experiments showed that plasma-flow drag force dominates over other forces in a quasi-neutral flowing plasma. In contrast, delicate balance among different forces in dusty plasma has led to many unique phenomena, in particular, the formation of dust crystal. Based on our experiments, we argue that 1) dust crystal will not form in the highly ionized plasmas with flows; 2) the UFO's are moving dust dragged by plasma flows; 3) dust can be used to measure plasma flow. Two diagnostic applications using dust for laboratory quasi-neutral plasmas and magnetic fusion will also be presented.

  14. Study of Pulsed vs. RF Plasma Properties for Surface Processing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ricky; Hopkins, Matthew; Barnat, Edward; Miller, Paul

    2015-09-01

    The ability to manipulate the plasma parameters (density, E/N) was previously demonstrated using a double-pulsed column discharge. Experiments extending this to large-surface plasmas of interest to the plasma processing community were conducted. Differences between an audio-frequency pulsed plasma and a radio-frequency (rf) discharge, both prevalent in plasma processing applications, were studied. Optical emission spectroscopy shows higher-intensity emission in the UV/visible range for the pulsed plasma comparing to the rf plasma at comparable powers. Data suggest that the electron energy is higher for the pulsed plasma leading to higher ionization, resulting in increased ion density and ion flux. Diode laser absorption measurements of the concentration of the 1S5 metastable and 1S4 resonance states of argon (correlated with the plasma E/N) provide comparisons between the excitation/ionization states of the two plasmas. Preliminary modeling efforts suggest that the low-frequency polarity switch causes a much more abrupt potential variation to support interesting transport phenomena, generating a ``wave'' of higher temperature electrons leading to more ionization, as well as ``sheath capture'' of a higher density bolus of ions that are then accelerated during polarity switch.

  15. Application of Atmospheric-Pressure Microwave Line Plasma for Low Temperature Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Haruka; Nakano, Suguru; Itoh, Hitoshi; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru; Toyoda, Hirotaka

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure (AP) plasmas have been given much attention because of its high cost benefit and a variety of possibilities for industrial applications. In various kinds of plasma production technique, pulsed-microwave discharge plasma using slot antenna is attractive due to its ability of high-density and stable plasma production. In this plasma source, however, size of the plasma has been limited up to a few cm in length due to standing wave inside a waveguide. To solve this, we have proposed a newly-developed AP microwave plasma source that utilizes not standing wave but travelling wave. By using this plasma source, spatially-uniform AP line plasma with 40 cm in length was realized by pure helium discharge in 60 cm slot and with nitrogen gas additive of 1%. Furthermore, gas temperature as low as 400 K was realized in this device. In this study, as an example of low temperature processes, hydrophilic treatment of PET films was performed. Processing speed increased with pulse frequency and a water contact angle of ~20° was easily obtained within 5 s with no thermal damage to the substrate. To evaluate treatment-uniformity of long line length, PET films were treated by 90 cm slot-antenna plasma and uniform treatment performance was confirmed.

  16. Effects of plasma on polyethylene fiber surface for prosthodontic application.

    PubMed

    Spyrides, Silvana Marques Miranda; Prado, Maíra do; Araujo, Joyce Rodrigues de; Simão, Renata Antoun; Bastian, Fernando Luis

    2015-12-01

    Plasma technology has the potential to improve the adherence of fibers to polymeric matrices, and there are prospects for its application in dentistry to reinforce the dental particulate composite. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of oxygen or argon plasma treatment on polyethylene fibers. Material and Methods Connect, Construct, InFibra, and InFibra treated with oxygen or argon plasma were topographically evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemically by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For bending analysis, one indirect composite (Signum) was reinforced with polyethylene fiber (Connect, Construct, or InFibra). The InFibra fiber was subjected to three different treatments: (1) single application of silane, (2) oxygen or argon plasma for 1 or 3 min, (3) oxygen or argon plasma and subsequent application of silane. The samples (25x2x2 mm), 6 unreinforced and 60 reinforced with fibers, were subjected to three-point loading tests to obtain their flexural strength and deflection. The results were statistically analyzed with ANOVA and the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparison tests. Results SEM analysis showed that oxygen and argon plasma treatments promote roughness on the polyethylene fiber surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that both plasmas were effective in incorporating oxygenated functional groups. Argon or oxygen plasma treatment affected the flexural strength and deflection of a fiber reinforced composite. The application of silane does not promote an increase in the flexural strength of the reinforced composites. Conclusions Oxygen and argon plasma treatments were effective in incorporating oxygenated functional groups and surface roughness. The highest strength values were obtained in the group reinforced with polyethylene fibers treated with oxygen plasma for 3 min. PMID:26814463

  17. Effects of plasma on polyethylene fiber surface for prosthodontic application

    PubMed Central

    SPYRIDES, Silvana Marques Miranda; do PRADO, Maíra; de ARAUJO, Joyce Rodrigues; SIMÃO, Renata Antoun; BASTIAN, Fernando Luis

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plasma technology has the potential to improve the adherence of fibers to polymeric matrices, and there are prospects for its application in dentistry to reinforce the dental particulate composite. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of oxygen or argon plasma treatment on polyethylene fibers. Material and Methods Connect, Construct, InFibra, and InFibra treated with oxygen or argon plasma were topographically evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemically by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For bending analysis, one indirect composite (Signum) was reinforced with polyethylene fiber (Connect, Construct, or InFibra). The InFibra fiber was subjected to three different treatments: (1) single application of silane, (2) oxygen or argon plasma for 1 or 3 min, (3) oxygen or argon plasma and subsequent application of silane. The samples (25x2x2 mm), 6 unreinforced and 60 reinforced with fibers, were subjected to three-point loading tests to obtain their flexural strength and deflection. The results were statistically analyzed with ANOVA and the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparison tests. Results SEM analysis showed that oxygen and argon plasma treatments promote roughness on the polyethylene fiber surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that both plasmas were effective in incorporating oxygenated functional groups. Argon or oxygen plasma treatment affected the flexural strength and deflection of a fiber reinforced composite. The application of silane does not promote an increase in the flexural strength of the reinforced composites. Conclusions Oxygen and argon plasma treatments were effective in incorporating oxygenated functional groups and surface roughness. The highest strength values were obtained in the group reinforced with polyethylene fibers treated with oxygen plasma for 3 min. PMID:26814463

  18. Hot Plasma Environment Model (HPEM): A empirical model for describing time-dependent processes of the jovian energetic electron environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Fraenz, M.; Kollmann, P.; Truscott, P.; Futaana, Y.

    2015-10-01

    HPEM is a model designed in order to provide time-series of energetic electron differential or integral energy-flux spectra for Jupiter's magnetosphere which can be used as input for internal charging studies of the JUICE spacecraft. The model describes the electron distribution function between 150 keV keV up to ~50 MeV. It is designed to be applicable between the orbit of Europa (9.5 Rj) up to 30 Rj, which is near Callisto's orbit, and in a latitude range of 40 degrees from the planetary equatorial plane, but it can be extended to larger distances and latitudes. The model is constructed with a goal to describe the time variability that a spacecraft can encounter in Jupiter's energetic electron environment. This variability can have two components: the first comes from the motion of the spacecraft within a spatially-varying jovian magnetosphere. For this purpose an average radiation belt model for the differential electron energy-flux spectra was constructed based on Galileo EPD/LEMMS observations, dependent on L, magnetospheric local time and equatorial pitch angle. The second component includes an empirical description of magnetospheric transients that result from dynamics in the magnetosphere. For this purpose, the probability for a given spectrum to deviate from the average one (at a given location) has been modeled with log-normal distributions and such probabilities are obtained with a Monte-Carlo approach. Temporal changes in the electron spectra are constrained by the L- or time gradients observed with Galileo's EPD/LEMMS detector so as to prevent extreme and unrealistic changes between sequential spectra of the model's output. The model is able to reproduce both the statistical scatter of energetic electron fluxes observed with Galileo/EPD, as well as the lifetimes/time scales and the occurence probability of extreme flux enhancements (temporal radiation belts) that Galileo encountered. An application to the JUICE mission is also shown.

  19. The response of SiC fibres to vacuum plasma spraying and vacuum hot pressing during the fabrication of titanium matrix composites

    PubMed

    Baker; Grant; Jenkins

    1999-11-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) and vacuum hot pressing (VHP) have been used to fabricate Ti-6Al-4V matrix composite material reinforced longitudinally with DERA Sigma C coated SiC 1140+ fibres. VPS of Ti-6Al-4V onto Sigma 1140+ SiC fibres caused no fibre/matrix interfacial reaction. During VHP a fibre/matrix reaction occurred, producing a mixture of fine (< 50 nm) TiCx (x hot isostatic pressing process led to a slightly thicker reaction layer. The TiCx reaction product acted as a diffusion barrier, inhibiting further reaction more effectively than in experiments on earlier SiC fibres having a C coating. Surface damage was shown to be a factor in lowering 1140+ SiC fibre failure stress. Surface damage to 1140+ fibres resulted from both VPS and VHP, the former causing a slight reduction in mean ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and a large reduction in the bend strain to failure Weibull modulus. This damage was caused by both fibre winding and by deposition of metal during VPS, giving rise to coating flaws, and is not in itself considered to be a major problem. Surface damage increased after VHP, reducing the mean UTS and tensile Weibull modulus, and the mean bend strain to failure. This damage arose from bending and flattening of the rough monotapes, and from the fibre/matrix reaction caused by thermal exposure. The level of damage to 1140+ SiC fibre from VHP was reduced by modification of the process path. Increasing the VHP temperature and lowering the pressure ramp rate reduced fibre damage sufficiently to enable a macroscopic composite UTS of 95% of the theoretical maximum to be achieved

  20. Energetic particle physics with applications in fusion and space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1997-05-01

    Energetic particle physics is the study of the effects of energetic particles on collective electromagnetic (EM) instabilities and energetic particle transport in plasmas. Anomalously large energetic particle transport is often caused by low frequency MHD instabilities, which are driven by these energetic particles in the presence of a much denser background of thermal particles. The theory of collective energetic particle phenomena studies complex wave-particle interactions in which particle kinetic physics involving small spatial and fast temporal scales can strongly affect the MHD structure and long-time behavior of plasmas. The difficulty of modeling kinetic-MHD multiscale coupling processes stems from the disparate scales which are traditionally analyzed separately: the macroscale MHD phenomena are studied using the fluid MHD framework, while microscale kinetic phenomena are best described by complicated kinetic theories. The authors have developed a kinetic-MHD model that properly incorporates major particle kinetic effects into the MHD fluid description. For tokamak plasmas a nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code, the NOVA-K code, has been successfully developed and applied to study problems such as the excitation of fishbone and Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and the sawtooth stabilization by energetic ions in tokamaks. In space plasmas the authors have employed the kinetic-MHD model to study the energetic particle effects on the ballooning-mirror instability which explains the multisatellite observation of the stability and field-aligned structure of compressional Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma.

  1. Deposition from Ultra-Low Volume Application of Public Health Insecticides in a Hot Desert Environment.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Michael L; Hoel, David F; Farooq, Muhammad; Walker, Todd W

    2015-06-01

    Three insecticides commonly used for mosquito and sand fly control were applied 30 min to 3 h after sunset during June and July 2010, at Camp Buehring, Kuwait, to determine the relative quantity of pesticides to height and distance traveled in a hot desert environment. A BVA dilution oil was used for the control. Oil-based adulticides were sprayed using a truck-mounted Curtis DynaFog Maxi-Pro 4 ultra-low volume (ULV) sprayer. Malathion (Fyfanon ULV, 96% active ingredient [AI]), resmethrin (Scourge 4+12, 4% AI), pyrethrins (ULD BP-300, 3% AI), and BVA Spray 13 (100% refined petroleum distillate) were mixed with Uvitex optical brightener fluorescent dye and applied at 2 speeds on evenings when wind speed was less than 16.1 km/h (10 mph). Collection targets using biodegradable cotton ribbons (1 m×2.5 cm) were later read with a fluorometer to quantify the amount of insecticide deposited on targets set at heights of 15.2, 76.2, and 152.4 cm (6, 30, and 60 in.) and distances of 1.5, 6.1, 15.2, 30.5, 61.0, and 91.4 m (5, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 300 ft). Mean insecticide deposition across all distances was 31% on 76.2-cm targets and 49% on 152.4-cm targets, while 15.2-cm targets typically collected <20% of test spray. Mean ground temperatures were typically within 5°C of air temperatures at 152.4 cm and within 1 to 5°C of air at 15.2 cm or 76.2 cm. Collectively, mean insecticide deposition was 80% at or above 76.2 cm for all insecticides. This finding may explain in part why control of low-flying phlebotomine sand flies with ULV insecticides has been met with less than optimal success by US military forces deployed in the Middle East. PMID:26181691

  2. 40 CFR 420.120 - Applicability; description of the hot coating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... BAT limitations specified in 40 CFR 420.122 and 420.123 may be used as the basis for calculating total mass limitations for zinc pursuant to 40 CFR 420.03. ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  3. Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Anthony B

    2014-01-01

    The combined diffusion coefficient method is widely used to treat the mixing and demixing of different plasma gases and vapours in thermal plasmas, such as welding arcs and plasma jets. It greatly simplifies the treatment of diffusion for many gas mixtures without sacrificing accuracy. Here, three subjects that are important in the implementation of the combined diffusion coefficient method are considered. First, it is shown that different expressions for the combined diffusion coefficients, arising from different definitions for the stoichiometric coefficients that assign the electrons to the two gases, are equivalent. Second, an approach is presented for calculating certain partial differential terms in the combined temperature and pressure diffusion coefficients that can cause difficulties. Finally, a method for applying the combined diffusion coefficients in computational models, which typically require diffusion to be expressed in terms of mass fraction gradients, is given. PMID:24603457

  4. Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Anthony B.

    2014-01-01

    The combined diffusion coefficient method is widely used to treat the mixing and demixing of different plasma gases and vapours in thermal plasmas, such as welding arcs and plasma jets. It greatly simplifies the treatment of diffusion for many gas mixtures without sacrificing accuracy. Here, three subjects that are important in the implementation of the combined diffusion coefficient method are considered. First, it is shown that different expressions for the combined diffusion coefficients, arising from different definitions for the stoichiometric coefficients that assign the electrons to the two gases, are equivalent. Second, an approach is presented for calculating certain partial differential terms in the combined temperature and pressure diffusion coefficients that can cause difficulties. Finally, a method for applying the combined diffusion coefficients in computational models, which typically require diffusion to be expressed in terms of mass fraction gradients, is given. PMID:24603457

  5. Plasma-generated reactive oxygen species for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, J. S.; Hammer, M. U.; Winter, J.; Tresp, H.; Duennbier, M.; Iseni, S.; Martin, V.; Puech, V.; Weltmann, K. D.; Reuter, S.

    2012-10-01

    To get a better insight into the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on cellular components, fundamental studies are essential to determine the nature and concentration of plasma-generated ROS, and the chemistry induced in biological liquids by those ROS. In this context, we have measured the absolute density of the main ROS created in three different atmospheric pressure plasma sources: two geometrically distinct RF-driven microplasma jets (μ-APPJ [1] and kinpen [2]), and an array of microcathode sustained discharges [3]. Optical diagnostics of the plasma volumes and effluent regions have been performed: UV absorption for O3 and IR emission for O2(a^1δ) [4]. High concentrations of both ROS have been obtained (10^14--10^17cm-3). The effect of different parameters, such as gas flows and mixtures and power coupled to the plasmas, has been studied. For plasma biomedicine, the determination of the reactive species present in plasma-treated liquids is of great importance. In this work, we focused on the measurement of the concentration of H2O2 and NOX radicals, generated in physiological solutions like NaCl and PBS.[4pt] [1] N. Knake et al., J. Phys. D: App. Phys. 41, 194006 (2008)[0pt] [2] K.D. Weltmann et al., Pure Appl. Chem. 82, 1223 (2010)[0pt] [3] J.S. Sousa et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 141502 (2010)[0pt] [4] J.S. Sousa et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011502 (2008)

  6. Damage-controlled high power lasers and plasma mirror application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Nishikino, Masaharu; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Itakura, Ryoji; Sugiyama, Akira; Kando, Masaki; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Bulanov, Sergei V.; Kondo, Kimonori; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2015-07-01

    Following three different types of high power lasers at Kansai Photon Science Institute are overviewed and controlling the laser damages in these laser systems are described: (1) PW-class Ti:sapphire laser for high field science, (2) zig-zag slab Nd:glass laser for x-ray laser pumping, and (3) high-repetition Yb:YAG thin-slab laser for THz generation. Also reported is the use of plasma mirror for characterization of short-wavelength ultrashort laser pulses. This new method will be useful to study evolution of plasma formation which leads to laser damages.

  7. Theory and application of maximum magnetic energy in toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.K.

    1992-02-01

    The magnetic energy in an inductively driven steady-state toroidal plasma is a maximum for a given rate of dissipation of energy (Poynting flux). A purely resistive steady state of the piecewise force-free configuration, however, cannot exist, as the periodic removal of the excess poloidal flux and pressure, due to heating, ruptures the static equilibrium of the partitioning rational surfaces intermittently. The rupture necessitates a plasma with a negative q{prime}/q (as in reverse field pinches and spheromaks) to have the same {alpha} in all its force-free regions and with a positive q{prime}/q (as in tokamaks) to have centrally peaked {alpha}'s.

  8. Theory and application of maximum magnetic energy in toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.K.

    1992-02-01

    The magnetic energy in an inductively driven steady-state toroidal plasma is a maximum for a given rate of dissipation of energy (Poynting flux). A purely resistive steady state of the piecewise force-free configuration, however, cannot exist, as the periodic removal of the excess poloidal flux and pressure, due to heating, ruptures the static equilibrium of the partitioning rational surfaces intermittently. The rupture necessitates a plasma with a negative q{prime}/q (as in reverse field pinches and spheromaks) to have the same {alpha} in all its force-free regions and with a positive q{prime}/q (as in tokamaks) to have centrally peaked {alpha}`s.

  9. Cold atmospheric pressure air plasma jet for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, J. F.; Mohamed, A.-A. H.; Price, R. O.; Swanson, R. J.; Bowman, A.; Chiavarini, R. L.; Stacey, M.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    2008-06-01

    By flowing atmospheric pressure air through a direct current powered microhollow cathode discharge, we were able to generate a 2cm long plasma jet. With increasing flow rate, the flow becomes turbulent and temperatures of the jet are reduced to values close to room temperature. Utilizing the jet, yeast grown on agar can be eradicated with a treatment of only a few seconds. Conversely, animal studies show no skin damage even with exposures ten times longer than needed for pathogen extermination. This cold plasma jet provides an effective mode of treatment for yeast infections of the skin.

  10. Impact of melt segregation on chemical composition with application to deep crustal hot zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, J.; Jackson, M.; Sparks, R. S.; Blundy, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    Models of heat transfer during the emplacement of mantle-derived basaltic sills in the mid- to lower crust demonstrate that large volumes of evolved melt may be generated in deep crustal hot zones (DCHZ). These models consider only the thermal evolution of a DCHZ, yet melt must also segregate from along the grain boundaries where it initially resides to form a magma which leaves the DCHZ. However, models which include melt migration describe phase change using simple melt fraction-temperature relations, which do not capture the impact of melt segregation on the chemical evolution of melt and residual solid. We present a model of melting and buoyancy-driven melt segregation in which phase change is described using a phase diagram and the chemical evolution of the melt and residual solid is properly captured. Melt migration is assumed to occur along grain boundaries so local thermodynamic equilibrium is maintained. We begin by using a simple binary phase diagram and model a 1-D column with several different initial compositions and thermal boundary conditions. We investigate this simple case because it could be closely replicated in the laboratory, and allows aspects of the physics which hitherto have been poorly understood to be clearly observed and explained. It is trivial to extend our model to more complex systems. For an initially homogenous column, in which the fraction of component A is less than the eutectic composition, we find that the melt fraction at the base decreases and the bulk composition becomes enriched in component A, while the melt fraction at the top increases and the bulk composition tends towards the eutectic composition. Melt segregation provides a mechanism for accumulating melt of (or close to) the eutectic composition, but at much higher melt fractions than predicted by purely thermal models; for example, static melting to 10% may yield the eutectic composition, but melt segregation allows that composition to accumulate to 100%. For a

  11. Application of non-equilibrium plasmas in treatment of wool fibers and seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Zoran

    2003-10-01

    While large effort is under way to achieve stable, large area, non-equilibrium plasma reactors operating at atmospheric pressure we should still consider application of low pressure reactors, which provide well defined, easily controlled reactive plasmas. Therefore, the application of low pressure rf plasmas for the treatment of wool and seed was investigated. The studies were aimed at establishing optimal procedure to achieve better wettability, dyeability and printability of wool. Plasma treatment led to a modification of wool fiber topography and formation of new polar functional groups inducing the increase of wool hydrophylicity. Plasma activation of fiber surface was also used to achieve better binding of biopolymer chitosan to wool in order to increase the content of favorable functional groups and thus improving sorption properties of recycled wool fibers for heavy metal ions and acid dyes. In another study, the increase of germination percentage of seeds induced by plasmas was investigated. We have selected dry (unimbibed) Empress tree seeds (Paulownia tomentosa Steud.). Empress tree seed has been studied extensively and its mechanism of germination is well documented. Germination of these seeds is triggered by light in a limited range of wavelengths. Interaction between activated plasma particles and seed, inside the plasma reactor, leads to changes in its surface topography, modifies the surface layer and increases the active surface area. Consequently, some bioactive nitrogeneous compounds could be bound to the activated surface layer causing the increment of germination percentage.

  12. Risk assessment of the application of a plasma jet in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, Juergen; Richter, Heike; Alborova, Alena; Humme, Daniel; Patzelt, Alexa; Kramer, Axel; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Hartmann, Bernd; Ottomann, Christian; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Hinz, Peter; Hübner, Georg; Lademann, Olaf

    2009-09-01

    Regardless of the fact that several highly efficient antiseptics are commercially available, the antiseptic treatment of chronic wounds remains a problem. In the past, electrical plasma discharges have been frequently used in biometrical science for disinfection and sterilization of material surfaces. Plasma systems usually have a temperature of several hundred degrees. Recently, it was reported that ``cold'' plasma can be applied onto living tissue. In in vitro studies on cell culture, it could be demonstrated that this new plasma possesses excellent antiseptic properties. We perform a risk assessment concerning the in vivo application of a ``cold'' plasma jet on patients and volunteers. Two potential risk factors, UV radiation and temperature, are evaluated. We show that the UV radiation of the plasma in the used system is an order of magnitude lower than the minimal erythema dose, necessary to produce sunburn on the skin in vivo. Additionally, thermal damage of the tissue by the plasma can be excluded. The results of the risk assessment stimulate the in vivo application of the investigated plasma jet in the treatment of chronic wounds.

  13. Characterization of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and its applications for disinfection and cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Sarani, Abdollah; Gonzales, Xavier F

    2013-01-01

    In this work an atmospheric pressure non-thermal resistive barrier (RB) plasma jet was constructed, characterized and was applied for biomedical applications. The RB plasma source can operate in both DC (battery) as well as in standard 60/50 Hz low frequency AC excitation, and it functions effectively in both direct and indirect plasma exposure configurations. The characteristics of the RB plasma jet such as electrical properties, plasma gas temperature and nitric oxides concentration were determined using voltage-current characterization, optical emission spectroscopy and gas analyzer diagnostic techniques. Plasma discharge power of 26.33 W was calculated from voltage-current characterization. An optical emission spectroscopy was applied and the gas temperature which is equivalent to the nitrogen rotational (Trot) temperatures was measured. The concentrations of the reactive oxygen species at different spatial distances from the tip of the plasma jet were measured and the ppm concentration of NO is at the preferred level for a wide range of standard biomedical treatment applications. The ppm values of nitric oxides after the cooling unit are observed to be of the same order of magnitude as compared to plasma jet. The portable RB plasma source was tested to be very effective for decontamination and disinfection of a wide range of foodborne and opportunistic nosocomial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus and the preliminary results are presented. The effects of indirect exposure of the portable RBP source on monocytic leukemia cancer cells (THP-1) were also tested and the results demonstrate that a preference for apoptosis in plasma treated THP-1 cells under particular plasma parameters and dosage levels. PMID:23400199

  14. PLASIMO model of micro-plasma jet for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailova, Diana; Sobota, Ana; Graef, Wouter; van Dijk, Jan; Hagelaar, Gerjan

    2014-10-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure micro-plasma jets are widely studied for use in biotechnology, including treatment of human tissue. The setup under study consists of capillary powered electrode through which helium gas flows and a grounded ring electrode placed a distance of few mm in front of the capillary. The discharge is excited by sinusoidal voltage with amplitude of 2 kV and 30 KHz repetition rate. The plume emanating from the jet, or the plasma bullets, propagates through a Pyrex tube and the gas phase channel of helium into the surrounding air.aim of this work is to get insight into the plasma constituents that can affect directly or indirectly living tissue. This includes radicals (OH, NO, O,), ions and electrons, UV radiation, electrical fields. PLASIMO modelling toolkit is used to simulate the capillary plasma-jet in order to quantify the delivery of fluxes and fields to the treated tissue. Verification is made by comparing results obtained with the PLASIMO and MAGMA codes (developed at LAPLACE, Toulouse) for the same input specifications. Both models are validated by comparison with experimental observations at various operating parameters.

  15. Application of an impedance matching transformer to a plasma focus.

    PubMed

    Bures, B L; James, C; Krishnan, M; Adler, R

    2011-10-01

    A plasma focus was constructed using an impedance matching transformer to improve power transfer between the pulse power and the dynamic plasma load. The system relied on two switches and twelve transformer cores to produce a 100 kA pulse in short circuit on the secondary at 27 kV on the primary with 110 J stored. With the two transformer systems in parallel, the Thevenin equivalent circuit parameters on the secondary side of the driver are: C = 10.9 μF, V(0) = 4.5 kV, L = 17 nH, and R = 5 mΩ. An equivalent direct drive circuit would require a large number of switches in parallel, to achieve the same Thevenin equivalent. The benefits of this approach are replacement of consumable switches with non-consumable transformer cores, reduction of the driver inductance and resistance as viewed by the dynamic load, and reduction of the stored energy to produce a given peak current. The system is designed to operate at 100 Hz, so minimizing the stored energy results in less load on the thermal management system. When operated at 1 Hz, the neutron yield from the transformer matched plasma focus was similar to the neutron yield from a conventional (directly driven) plasma focus at the same peak current. PMID:22047293

  16. Application of coherent lidar to ion measurements in plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Bennett, C.A.; Simpson, M.L.

    1997-03-01

    A coherent lidar system has been constructed for the measurement of alpha particles in a burning plasma. The lidar system consists of a pulsed CO{sub 2} laser transmitter and a heterodyne receiver. The receiver local oscillator is a cw, sequence-band CO{sub 2} laser operating with a 63.23 GHz offset from the transmitter.

  17. Microstructural Characteristics of Plasma Nitrided Layer on Hot-Rolled 304 Stainless Steel with a Small Amount of α-Ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaolei; Yu, Zhiwei; Cui, Liying; Niu, Xinjun; Cai, Tao

    2016-02-01

    The hot-rolled 304 stainless steel with γ-austenite and approximately 5 pct α-ferrite elongated along the rolling direction was plasma-nitrided at a low temperature of 693 K (420 °C). X-ray diffraction results revealed that the nitrided layer was mainly composed of the supersaturated solid solution of nitrogen in austenite ( γ N). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that the microstructure of the γ N phase exhibited "fracture factor contrast" reflective of the occurrence of fine pre-precipitations in γ N by the continuous precipitation. The occurrence of a diffuse scattering effect on the electron diffraction spots of γ N indicated that the pre-precipitation took place in γ N in the form of strongly bonded Cr-N clusters or pairs due to a strong attractive interaction of nitrogen with chromium. Scanning electron microscopy and TEM observations indicated that the discontinuous precipitation initiated from the γ/ α interfaces and grew from the austenite boundaries into austenite grains to form a lamellar structure consisting of CrN and ferrite. The orientation relationship between CrN and ferrite corresponded to a Baker-Nutting relationship: (100)CrN//(100) α ; [011]CrN//[001] α . A zigzag boundary line following the banded structure of alternating γ-austenite and elongated α-ferrite was presented between the nitrided layer and the substrate to form a continuous varying layer thickness, which resulted from the difference in diffusivities of nitrogen in α-ferrite and γ-austenite, along the γ/ α interfaces and through the lattice. Microstructural features similar to the γ N were also revealed in the ferrite of the nitrided layer by TEM. It was not excluded that a supersaturated solid solution of nitrogen in ferrite ( α N) formed in the nitrided layer.

  18. Arsenic species determination in human scalp hair by pressurized hot water extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Morado Piñeiro, Andrés; Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2013-02-15

    Analytical methods for the determination of total arsenic and arsenic species (mainly As(III) and As(V)) in human scalp hair have been developed. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ICP-MS have been used for total arsenic and arsenic species determination, respectively. The proposed methods include a "green", fast, high efficient and automated species leaching procedure by pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE). The operating parameters for PHWE including modifier concentration, extraction temperature, static time, extraction steps, pressure, mean particle size, diatomaceous earth (DE) mass/sample mass ratio and flush volume were studied using design of experiments (Plackett-Burman design PBD). Optimum condition implies a modifier concentration (acetic acid) of 150 mM and powdered hair samples fully mixed with diatomaceous earth (DE) as a dispersing agent at a DE mass/sample mass ratio of 5. The extraction has been carried out at 100°C and at an extraction pressure of 1500 psi for 5 min in four extraction step. Under optimised conditions, limits of quantification of 7.0, 6.3 and 50.3 ng g(-1) for total As, As(III) and As(V), respectively were achieved. Repeatability of the overall procedure (4.4, 7.2 and 2.1% for total As, As(III) and As(V), respectively) was achieved. The analysis of GBW-07601 (human hair) certified reference material was used for validation. The optimised method has been finally applied to several human scalp hair samples. PMID:23598040

  19. Cold Atmospheric Plasma for Medicine: State of Research and Clinical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Woedtke, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Basic research in plasma medicine has made excellent progress and resulted in the fundamental insights that biological effects of cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) are significantly caused by changes of the liquid environment of cells, and are dominated by redox-active species. First CAP sources are CE-certified as medical devices. Main focus of plasma application is on wound healing and treatment of infective skin diseases. Clinical applications in this field confirm the supportive effect of cold plasma treatment in acceleration of healing of chronic wounds above all in cases where conventional treatment fails. Cancer treatment is another actual and emerging field of CAP application. The ability of CAP to kill cancer cells by induction of apoptosis has been proved in vitro. First clinical applications of CAP in palliative care of cancer are realized. In collaboration with Hans-Robert Metelmann, University Medicine Greifswald; Helmut Uhlemann, Klinikum Altenburger Land GmbH Altenburg; Anke Schmidt and Kai Masur, Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald); Renate Schönebeck, Neoplas Tools GmbH Greifswald; and Klaus-Dieter Weltmann, Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald).

  20. Application of advanced plasma technology to energy materials and environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Akira

    2015-04-01

    Advanced plasma system has been proposed for various energy materials and for its application to environmental problems. The gas tunnel type plasma device developed by the author exhibits high energy density and also high efficiency. Regarding the application to thermal processing, one example is the plasma spraying of ceramics such as Al2O3 and ZrO2 as thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). The performances of these ceramic coatings are superior to conventional ones, namely, the properties such as the mechanical and chemical properties, thermal behavior and high temperature oxidation resistance of the alumina/zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been clarified and discussed. The ZrO2 composite coating has a possibility for the development of high functionally graded TBC. The results showed that the alumina/zirconia composite system exhibited an improvement of mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. Another application of gas tunnel type plasma to a functional material is the surface modification of metals. TiN films were formed in a short time of 5 s on Ti and its alloy. Also, thick TiN coatings were easily obtained by gas tunnel type plasma reactive spraying on any metals. Regarding the application to the environmental problems, the decomposition of CO2 gas is also introduced by applying the gas tunnel type plasma system.

  1. The Application of Thermal Plasma to Extraction Metallurgy and Related Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akashi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Various applications of thermal plasma to extraction metallurgy and related fields are surveyed, chiefly on the basis of documents published during the past two or three years. Applications to melting and smelting, to thermal decomposition, to reduction, to manufacturing of inorganic compounds, and to other fields are considered.

  2. Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology Advancements for Plasma Diagnostics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangyu

    To realize fusion plant, the very first step is to understand the fundamental physics of materials under fusion conditions, i.e. to understand fusion plasmas. Our research group, Plasma Diagnostics Group, focuses on developing advanced tools for physicists to extract as much information as possible from fusion plasmas at millions degrees. The Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostics is a very useful tool invented in this group to study fusion plasma electron temperature and it fluctuations. This dissertation presents millimeter wave imaging technology advances recently developed in this group to improve the ECEI system. New technologies made it more powerful to image and visualize magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) activities and micro-turbulence in fusion plasmas. Topics of particular emphasis start from development of miniaturized elliptical substrate lens array. This novel substrate lens array replaces the previous generation substrate lens, hyper-hemispherical substrate lens, in terms of geometry. From the optical performance perspective, this substitution not only significantly simplifies the optical system with improved optical coupling, but also enhances the RF/LO coupling efficiency. By the benefit of the mini lens focusing properties, a wideband dual-dipole antenna array is carefully designed and developed. The new antenna array is optimized simultaneously for receiving both RF and LO, with sharp radiation patterns, low side-lobe levels, and less crosstalk between adjacent antennas. In addition, a high frequency antenna is also developed, which extends the frequency limit from 145 GHz to 220 GHz. This type of antenna will be used on high field operation tokamaks with toroidal fields in excess of 3 Tesla. Another important technology advance is so-called extended bandwidth double down-conversion electronics. This new electronics extends the instantaneous IF coverage from 2 to 9.2 GHz to 2 to 16.4 GHz. From the plasma point of view, it means that the

  3. A macroscopic plasma Lagrangian and its application to wave interactions and resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Y. K. M.

    1974-01-01

    The derivation of a macroscopic plasma Lagrangian is considered, along with its application to the description of nonlinear three-wave interaction in a homogeneous plasma and linear resonance oscillations in a inhomogeneous plasma. One approach to obtain the Lagrangian is via the inverse problem of the calculus of variations for arbitrary first and second order quasilinear partial differential systems. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the given equations to be Euler-Lagrange equations of a Lagrangian are obtained. These conditions are then used to determine the transformations that convert some classes of non-Euler-Lagrange equations to Euler-Lagrange equation form. The Lagrangians for a linear resistive transmission line and a linear warm collisional plasma are derived as examples. Using energy considerations, the correct macroscopic plasma Lagrangian is shown to differ from the velocity-integrated low Lagrangian by a macroscopic potential energy that equals twice the particle thermal kinetic energy plus the energy lost by heat conduction.

  4. Application of Langmuir Probe Method to the Atmospheric Pressure Discharge Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, Hiroto; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Ken

    2008-12-31

    The heat balance model in the probe tip applied to atmospheric pressure plasma is constructed. Considering the natural convective heat loss, the limitation of plasma density for probe application to such a plasma is estimated. The rough limit is about n{sub e} = 10{sup 18} m{sup -3}. Four kind of materials (Cu, SUS, W, Al) are used for probe tips, and are tested in DC atmospheric pressure discharge. Heat conductivity is found to be a more important property than melting point in design of probes in high pressure discharge. DC atmospheric pressure discharge plasma parameters are obtained with our test probes. Obtained density is the order of 10{sup 17} m{sup -3} and does not contradict with the above density limitation. Change of space potential in air/Ar plasma is also confirmed.

  5. Bounded multi-scale plasma simulation: Application to sheath problems

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.E. ); Friedman, A.; Ray. S.L. ); Birdsall, C.K. )

    1993-08-01

    In our previous paper we introduced the multi-scale method, a self-consistent plasma simulation technique that allowed particles to have independent timesteps. Here we apply the method to one-dimensional electrostatic bounded plasma problems and demonstrate a significant reduction in computing time. We describe a technique to allow for variable grid spacing and develop consistent boundary conditions for the direct implicit method. Also discussed are criteria for specifying timestep size as a function of position in phase space. Next, an analytically solvable sheath problem is presented, and a comparison to simulation results in made. Finally, we show results for an ion acoustic shock front propagating toward a conducting wall. 20 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Application of electron beam plasma for biopolymers modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilieva, T. M.

    2012-06-01

    The effects of the Electron Beam Plasma treatment on natural polysaccharide chitosan were studied experimentally. Low molecular water-soluble products of chitosan and chitooligosaccharides were obtained by treating the original polymers in the Electron Beam Plasma of oxygen and water vapor. The molecular mass of the products varied from 18 kDa to monomeric fragments. The degradation of the original polymers was due to the action of active oxygen particles (atomic and singlet oxygen) and the particles of the water plasmolysis (hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxides). The 95% yield of low molecular weight chitosans was attained by optimizing the treatment conditions. The studies of the antimicrobial activity of low molecular products showed that they strongly inhibit the multiplication of colon bacillus, aurococcus and yeast-like fungi. The EBP-stimulated degradation of polysaccharides and proteins were found to result from breaking β-1,4 glycosidic bounds and peptide bonds, respectively.

  7. Contribution to arc plasma modeling for welding TIG application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borel, Damien; Delalondre, Clarisse; Carpreau, Jean-Michel; Chéron, B. G.; Boubert, J.-P.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we present a numerical model that simulates transferred energy by a welding thermal plasma to the weld pool. This energy transfer allows materials melting. The originality of our model is to include the modeling of transition zones and the vaporization of the anode. The cathodic and anodic areas are taken into account in the model by means of heat balance at the gas-solid interfaces. We report the heating and cooling effects they induce on the solid (cathode, anode) and plasma. Code_Saturne® the CFD software developed at EDF R&D is used for this work Comparisons between simulations and measurements of temperature and electron density confirm the model assumptions for TIG welding.

  8. [The Clinical Application Status and Development Trends of Hydrogen Peroxide Low Temperature Plasma Sterilizers].

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Min; Zheng, Yunxin; Chen, Ying; Hou, Bin; Xu, Zitian

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen peroxide low temperature plasma sterilization technology solved the problems of thermo-sensitive materials' disinfection and sterilization based on its development and unique characteristics. This paper introduced the researches of clinical application quality control, and showed the hydrogen peroxide low temperature plasma sterilizers were being widely used in hospitals and highly recognized. According to the clinical data and the literatures of the domestic equipment in preliminary application, it could be concluded that the technology maturity of domestic hydrogen peroxide low temperature plasma sterilizers was in a high level. The advantages of using domestic hydrogen peroxide low temperature plasma sterilizers to do disinfection and sterilization included lower cost, safer, faster and non-toxic, etc. Also the management system should be improved and the clinical staff should master the technical essentials, obey the procedures strictly, verify periodically and offer full monitoring to upgrade the quality of sterilization. PMID:27197500

  9. The Perspectives of Laboratory Dusty Plasmas for the Applications in Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacevic, E.; Berndt, J.; Boufendi, Laifa; Mutschke, Harald; Stefanovic, I.; Winter, J.; Pendleton, Yvonne J.

    2008-09-07

    It is very well known fact that dust and dusty plasmas are ubiquitous in the space: from interstellar media, to cometary dust, planetary rings and so on. The phenomena concerning the dust in space, seems to have an immense number of facets. The help for the identification of some of the phenomena, or tracing the new ones, has coming during last few decades more and more from the physics of dusty plasmas. We present an overview on the development in the application of laboratory dusty plasmas seizing from the production of interstellar analogs, investigations connected with the field of the interplanetary dust and planet-formation, charging phenomena and their future possibilities of the dusty plasma applications in this field.

  10. Advanced modeling techniques in application to plasma pulse treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashchenko, A. F.; Pashchenko, F. F.

    2016-06-01

    Different approaches considered for simulation of plasma pulse treatment process. The assumption of a significant non-linearity of processes in the treatment of oil wells has been confirmed. Method of functional transformations and fuzzy logic methods suggested for construction of a mathematical model. It is shown, that models, based on fuzzy logic are able to provide a satisfactory accuracy of simulation and prediction of non-linear processes observed.

  11. Topical applications of resonance internal conversion in laser produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2007-04-01

    Physical aspects of resonance effects arising in plasma due to interactions of nuclei with the electrons are considered. Among them are resonance conversion (TEEN) and the reverse process of NEET. These processes are of great importance for pumping the excited nuclear states (isomers) and for accelerating their decay. Experiment is discussed on studying the unique 3.5-eV 229m Th nuclide.

  12. Surfatron Plasma Source Working at Frequency 2.45 GHz for Technological Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stranak, V.; Tichy, M.; Blazek, J.; Adamek, P.; Navratil, Z.; Slavicek, P.; Spatenka, P.

    2006-01-15

    Plasma as an active medium is widely exploited in technological applications. We have developed a microwave plasma source which might be suitable for future technological application. Plasma is generated by commercial (Sairem) surfatron working at frequency 2.45 GHz. The surfatron is fed by microwave power in the range from several watts up to 300 watts. Plasma is created from working gas mixture; typical flow rate is kept constant at 600 sccm. Technical Ar is used as carrier gas, O2 or N2 as reactive gases. We present complex diagnostics of the plasma created by this plasma source: by means of Langmuir probe measurements and by optical emission spectroscopy. Single probe method was used for determination of basic plasma parameters (plasma potential Vpl, mean electron energy Em, electron density ne, electron temperature) at low pressures. For determination of electron temperature at higher pressures when ion-neutral collision processes in the probe sheath had to be taken into account the double probe method was used. The discharge plasma was investigated and the results are discussed in cw as well as in computer-controlled impulse regime (time-resolved measurements). The pulse regime of plasma source is one of the ways how to increase an instantaneous input power and at the same time prevent treated materials (especially thermal sensitive materials, e.g. plastics) against thermal damage. Rotational and vibrational temperatures as well as consistence of discharge and axial intensity development of particular spectral lines were revealed on base of optical emission spectroscopy in cw regime.

  13. Hot Views on Cold Crystals: The Application of Thermal Imaging in Cryocrystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, Eddie

    2003-01-01

    We have used thermal imaging techniques to visualize the cryocooling processes of macromolecular crystals. Cryocooling is a common technique used for structural data collection to reduce radiation damage in intense X-ray beams and decrease the thermal motion of the atoms. From the thermal images it was clear that during cryocooling a cold wave progresses through a crystal starting at the face closest to the origin of the cold stream and ending at the point furthest away. As an extension to this work, we used thermal imaging to study small crystals, held in a cryo-loop, in the presence of vitrified mother liquor. The different infrared transmission and reflectance properties of the crystal in comparison to the mother liquor surrounding it are thought to be the parameter that produces the contrast that makes the crystal visible. An application of this technology may be the determination of the exact location of small crystals in a cryo-loop for automated structural genomics studies. Data from initial tests in support of application development was recorded for lysozyme crystals and for bFGF/dna complex crystals, which were cryocooled and imaged in large loops, both with visible light and with infrared radiation. The crystals were clearly distinguished from the vitrified solution in the infrared spectrum, while in the case of the bFGF/dna complex the illumination had to be carefully manipulated to make the crystal visible in the visible spectrum. These results suggest that the thermal imaging may be more sensitive than visual imaging for automated location of small crystals. However, further work on small crystals robotically mounted at SSRL did not clearly visualize those crystals. The depth of field of the camera proved to be limiting and a different cooling geometry was used, compared to the previous, successful experiments. Analysis to exploit multiple images to improve depth of field and experimental work to understand cooling geometry effects is ongoing. These

  14. Hot Views on Cold Crystals: The Application of Thermal Imaging in Cryo-crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, E. H.; vanderWoerd, M. J.; Deacon, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the past we have used thermal imaging techniques to visualize the cryocooling processes of macromolecular crystals. From these images it was clear that a cold wave progresses through a crystal starting at the face closest to the origin of the cold stream and ending at the point furthest away. During these studies we used large volume crystals, which were clearly distinguished from the loop holding them. These large crystals, originally grown for neutron diffraction studies, were chosen deliberately to enhance the imaging. As an extension to this work, we present used thermal imaging to study small crystals, held in a cryo-loop, in the presence of vitrified mother liquor. The different infrared transmission and reflectance properties of the crystal in comparison to the mother liquor surrounding it are thought to be the parameter that produces the contrast that makes the crystal visible. An application of this technology may be the determination of the exact location of small crystals in a cryo-loop. Data from initial tests in support of application development was recorded for lysozyme crystals and for bFGF/dna complex crystals, which were cryo-cooled and imaged in large loops, both with visible light and with infrared radiation. The crystals were clearly distinguished from the vitrified solution in the infrared spectrum, while in the case of the bFGF/dna complex the illumination had to be carefully manipulated to make the crystal visible in the visible spectrum. These results suggest that the thermal imaging may be more sensitive than visual imaging for automated location of small crystals. However, further work on small crystals robotically mounted at SSRL did not clearly visualize those crystals. The depth of field of the camera proved to be limiting and a different cooling geometry was used, compared to the previous, successful experiments. Analysis to exploit multiple images to improve depth of field and experimental work to understand cooling geometry

  15. Hot Views on Cold Crystals: The Application of Thermal Imaging in Cryocrystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, Eddie H.

    2003-01-01

    In the past we have used thermal imaging techniques to visualize the cryocooling processes of macromolecular crystals. From these images it was clear that a cold wave progresses through a crystal starting at the face closest to the origin of the cold stream and ending at the point furthest away. During these studies we used large volume crystals, which were clearly distinguished from the loop holding them. These large crystals, originally grown for neutron diffraction studies, were chosen deliberately to enhance the imaging. As an extension to this work, we used thermal imaging to study small crystals, held in a cryo- loop, in the presence of vitrified mother liquor. The different infrared transmission and reflectance properties of the crystal in comparison to the mother liquor surrounding it are thought to be the parameter that produces the contrast that makes the crystal visible. An application of this technology may be the determination of the exact location of small crystals in a cryo-loop. Data from initial tests in support of application development was recorded for lysozyme crystals and for bFGF/dna complex crystals, which were cryo-cooled and imaged in large loops, both with visible light and with infrared radiation. The crystals were clearly distinguished from the vitrified solution in the infrared spectrum, while in the case of the bFGF/dna complex the illumination had to be carefully manipulated to make the crystal visible in the visible spectrum. These results suggest that the thermal imaging may be more sensitive than visual imaging for automated location of small crystals. However, further work on small crystals robotically mounted at SSRL did not clearly visualize those crystals. The depth of field of the camera proved to be limiting and a different cooling geometry was used, compared to the previous, successful experiments. Analysis to exploit multiple images to improve depth of field and experimental work to understand cooling geometry effects is

  16. Nonthermal Argon Plasma Generator and Some Potential Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunoiu, M.; Jugunaru, I.; Bica, I.; Balasoiu, M.

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory - made nonthermal plasma generator is presented. It has a diameter of 0.020 m and length of 0.155 m and contains two electrodes. The first electrode is a 2% Th-W alloy, 0.002 m in diameter bar, centred inside the generator's body by means of a four channel teflon piece; the other three channels, 0.003 m in diameter, are used for Ar supply. The second electrode is a nozzle of 0.002 m - 0.008 m diameter and 0.005m length. A ~500 kV/m electric field is generated between the two electrodes by a high frequency source (13.56 MHz ±5%), equipped with a OT-1000 (Tungsram) power triode. For Ar flows ranging from 0.00008 m3/s to 0.00056 m3/s, a plasma jet of length not exceeding 0.015 m and temperature below 315 K is obtained. Anthurium andraeanumis sample , blood matrix, human hair and textile fibers may be introduced in the plasma jet. For time periods of 30 s and 60 s, various effects like, cell detexturization, fast blood coagulation or textile fiber or hair cleaning and smoothing are obtained. These effects are presented and discussed in the paper.

  17. Plasma treatments of wool fiber surface for microfluidic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, So-Hyoun; Hwang, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Jin Su; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Yun, Sang H.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We used atmospheric plasma for tuning the wettability of wool fibers. • The wicking rates of the wool fibers increased with increasing treatment time. • The increasing of wettability results in removement of fatty acid on the wool surface. - Abstract: Recent progress in health diagnostics has led to the development of simple and inexpensive systems. Thread-based microfluidic devices allow for portable and inexpensive field-based technologies enabling medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food safety analysis. However, controlling the flow rate of wool thread, which is a very important part of thread-based microfluidic devices, is quite difficult. For this reason, we focused on thread-based microfluidics in the study. We developed a method of changing the wettability of hydrophobic thread, including wool thread. Thus, using natural wool thread as a channel, we demonstrate herein that the manipulation of the liquid flow, such as micro selecting and micro mixing, can be achieved by applying plasma treatment to wool thread. In addition to enabling the flow control of the treated wool channels consisting of all natural substances, this procedure will also be beneficial for biological sensing devices. We found that wools treated with various gases have different flow rates. We used an atmospheric plasma with O{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and Ar gases.

  18. Study of electron current extraction from a radio frequency plasma cathode designed as a neutralizer for ion source applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanbakhsh, Sina; Satir, Mert; Celik, Murat

    2016-02-01

    Plasma cathodes are insert free devices that are developed to be employed as electron sources in electric propulsion and ion source applications as practical alternatives to more commonly used hollow cathodes. Inductively coupled plasma cathodes, or Radio Frequency (RF) plasma cathodes, are introduced in recent years. Because of its compact geometry, and simple and efficient plasma generation, RF plasma source is considered to be suitable for plasma cathode applications. In this study, numerous RF plasma cathodes have been designed and manufactured. Experimental measurements have been conducted to study the effects of geometric and operational parameters. Experimental results of this study show that the plasma generation and electron extraction characteristics of the RF plasma cathode device strongly depend on the geometric parameters such as chamber diameter, chamber length, orifice diameter, orifice length, as well as the operational parameters such as RF power and gas mass flow rate.

  19. Study of electron current extraction from a radio frequency plasma cathode designed as a neutralizer for ion source applications.

    PubMed

    Jahanbakhsh, Sina; Satir, Mert; Celik, Murat

    2016-02-01

    Plasma cathodes are insert free devices that are developed to be employed as electron sources in electric propulsion and ion source applications as practical alternatives to more commonly used hollow cathodes. Inductively coupled plasma cathodes, or Radio Frequency (RF) plasma cathodes, are introduced in recent years. Because of its compact geometry, and simple and efficient plasma generation, RF plasma source is considered to be suitable for plasma cathode applications. In this study, numerous RF plasma cathodes have been designed and manufactured. Experimental measurements have been conducted to study the effects of geometric and operational parameters. Experimental results of this study show that the plasma generation and electron extraction characteristics of the RF plasma cathode device strongly depend on the geometric parameters such as chamber diameter, chamber length, orifice diameter, orifice length, as well as the operational parameters such as RF power and gas mass flow rate. PMID:26932094

  20. Realization And Study Of Rough, Hot Selective Surfaces By Electroless And Electrolytic Ways: Application To Some Nickel Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Marie; Papini, Francois

    1982-04-01

    Authors are relating some works carried out in the "Departement d'Heliophysique" and concerned with hot absorbing selective surfaces, rough surfaced, realized either by electrolytic way or chemical way, the common principal element of both being constituted by nickel. Then, electrochemical deposits are obtained directly by only one mode, that is the way for nickel-copper layers. Under chemical process, the operation includes two stages, deposition followed by chemical etching. Every samples are characterized by measuring optothermal properties (monochromatic absorptivity in the wavelength band 0.25 μm - 2.5 μm, total directional emissivity as a function of temperature) and using physico-chemical analysis via various methods : X-Rays,electron microscopy, Auger spectroscopy, Energy Disper-sive X-Rays analysis. The aim of such a study is double : - to make out interesting properties for some of these deposits (for example : a = 0.95, = 0.20) in the view of thermal conversion of solar energy in the mean temperature range (100°C < T < 200°C), - to study roughness influence upon the evolution of optical properties. In what concerns the first point, as foreseen application requiring sufficiently stable materials, the samples have been tested under temperature levels up to 200°C during a few thousands of hours, so that one can have some ideas upon ageing phenomena.