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Sample records for hot spot mobile

  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory hot spot mobile laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, B

    1999-08-27

    Gross alpha/beta/tritium liquid The Hot Spot Mobile Laboratory is an asset used to analyze samples (some high hazard) from the field. Field laboratories allow the quick turnaround of samples needed to establish weapon condition and hazard assessment for the protection of responders and the public. The Hot Spot Lab is configured to fly anywhere in the world and is staffed by expert scientists and technicians from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory who perform similar functions in their routine jobs. The Hot Spot Team carries sample control kits to provide responding field teams with the procedures, tools, and equipment for sample collection and field measurements. High-hazard samples brought back from the field are prepared for analysis in HEPA-filtered gloveboxes staffed by technicians from LLNL's Plutonium Facility. The samples are passed on to the Mobile Laboratory which carries a variety of radiological and chemical analytical equipment in portable configuration for use in the field. Equipment and personnel can also deploy special assets to local hospitals or the field for detection of plutonium in a lung or wound. Quick assessment of personnel contamination is essential for time-critical medical intervention. In addition to pulling the trailer, the Hot Spot Truck also stores some of the equipment, consumables, and a PTO generator. The Hot Spot Laboratory has the capability to be self-sufficient for several weeks when deployed to determine Pu uptake.

  2. The Earth's Hot Spots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Gregory E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Hot spots are isolated areas of geologic activity where volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and upwelling currents occur far from plate boundaries. These mantle plumes are relatively stable and crustal plates drift over them. The nature and location of hot spots (with particular attention to the Hawaiian Islands and Iceland) are discussed. (DH)

  3. Reactor hot spot analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    The principle methods for performing reactor hot spot analysis are reviewed and examined for potential use in the Applied Physics Division. The semistatistical horizontal method is recommended for future work and is now available as an option in the SE2-ANL core thermal hydraulic code. The semistatistical horizontal method is applied to a small LMR to illustrate the calculation of cladding midwall and fuel centerline hot spot temperatures. The example includes a listing of uncertainties, estimates for their magnitudes, computation of hot spot subfactor values and calculation of two sigma temperatures. A review of the uncertainties that affect liquid metal fast reactors is also presented. It was found that hot spot subfactor magnitudes are strongly dependent on the reactor design and therefore reactor specific details must be carefully studied. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  4. DIESEL TRUCK IDLING EMISSIONS - MOBILE SOURCE AIR TOXICS MEASURED AT A HOT SPOT

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Storey, John Morse; Miller, Terry L.; Fu, Joshua S.; Hromis, Boris

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) are of growing concern due to recent studies linking health risk to residency near heavily traveled roadways. Few research studies on MSAT emissions have been performed due to several factors; those factors include: the difficulty of measuring MSATs due to their semi-volatile nature, lower relative concentration in comparison to NOx and other criteria emissions, and fewer regulations on MSATs. In this paper, measurements of MSATs at a "hot spot" of poor air quality created by a high population of idling heavy-duty trucks are presented. The study area was the Watt Road-Interstate-40/75 interchange just west of Knoxville, TN where approximately 20,000 heavy-duty trucks travel along the interstate each day and hundreds of heavy-duty trucks idle at three large truck stops near the interchange. The air quality in the local area surrounding the interchange is affected negatively by the high number of mobile sources as well as geographic and meteorological conditions; the interchange lies in a valley between two ridges which slows long range transport of pollutants especially in winter months when temperature inversion occurs frequently. Ambient air quality was measured during summer and winter months of two separate years at three sites: a site in one of the truckstops, a site near the interstate roadway, and a site on top of one of the surrounding ridges chosen as a background site for comparison. Results of criteria pollutants measured at these sites are reported in a companion paper by Miller et. al.; the results presented here include measurements of MSATs such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and other species obtained via collection on di-nitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) filters. Also, preliminary measurements of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons are presented. The results indicate that emissions from idling heavy-duty trucks are a primary contributor of MSATs to local air quality near areas of high static truck traffic; furthermore

  5. Hot Spot Cosmic Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    length of more than 3 million light-years, or no less than one-and-a-half times the distance from the Milky Way to the Andromeda galaxy, this structure is indeed gigantic. The region where the jets collide with the intergalactic medium are known as " hot spots ". Superposing the intensity contours of the radio emission from the southern "hot spot" on a near-infrared J-band (wavelength 1.25 µm) VLT ISAAC image ("b") shows three distinct emitting areas; they are even better visible on the I-band (0.9 µm) FORS1 image ("c"). This emission is obviously associated with the shock front visible on the radio image. This is one of the first times it has been possible to obtain an optical/near-IR image of synchrotron emission from such an intergalactic shock and, thanks to the sensitivity and image sharpness of the VLT, the most detailed view of its kind so far . The central area (with the strongest emission) is where the plasma jet from the galaxy centre hits the intergalactic medium. The light from the two other "knots", some 10 - 15,000 light-years away from the central "hot spot", is also interpreted as synchrotron emission. However, in view of the large distance, the astronomers are convinced that it must be caused by electrons accelerated in secondary processes at those sites . The new images thus confirm that electrons are being continuously accelerated in these "knots" - hence called "cosmic accelerators" - far from the galaxy and the main jets, and in nearly empty space. The exact physical circumstances of this effect are not well known and will be the subject of further investigations. The present VLT-images of the "hot spots" near 3C 445 may not have the same public appeal as some of those beautiful images that have been produced by the same instruments during the past years. But they are not less valuable - their unusual importance is of a different kind, as they now herald the advent of fundamentally new insights into the mysteries of this class of remote and active

  6. Saturn's Hot Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This is the sharpest image of Saturn's temperature emissions taken from the ground; it is a mosaic of 35 individual exposures made at the W.M. Keck I Observatory, Mauna Kea, Hawaii on Feb. 4, 2004.

    The images to create this mosaic were taken with infrared radiation. The mosaic was taken at a wavelength near 17.65 microns and is sensitive to temperatures in Saturn's upper troposphere. The prominent hot spot at the bottom of the image is right at Saturn's south pole. The warming of the southern hemisphere was expected, as Saturn was just past southern summer solstice, but the abrupt changes in temperature with latitude were not expected. The tropospheric temperature increases toward the pole abruptly near 70 degrees latitude from 88 to 89 Kelvin (-301 to -299 degrees Fahrenheit) and then to 91 Kelvin (-296 degrees Fahrenheit) right at the pole.

    Ring particles are not at a uniform temperature everywhere in their orbit around Saturn. The ring particles are orbiting clockwise in this image. Particles are coldest just after having cooled down in Saturn's shadow (lower left). As they orbit Saturn, the particles increase in temperature up to a maximum (lower right) just before passing behind Saturn again in shadow.

    A small section of the ring image is missing because of incomplete mosaic coverage during the observing sequence.

  7. Hot Spot at Yellowstone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dress, Abby

    2005-01-01

    Within this huge national park (over two million acres spread across Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho) are steaming geysers, hot springs, bubbling mudpots, and fumaroles, or steam vents. Drives on the main roads of Yellowstone take tourists through the major hot attractions, which also include Norris Geyser Basin, Upper and Lower Geyser Basin, West…

  8. Numerical simulations of hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Michael L.

    Numerical simulations of hot spots and their associated jets are examined with emphasis on their dynamical variability. Attention is given to two-dimensional simulations, which incorporate dynamically passive and important magnetic fields in the ideal MHD limit. Distributions of total and polarized radio brightness have been derived for comparison with observations. The move toward three-dimensional simulations is documented, and hydrodynamical models for multiple hot spots are discussed. It is suggested that useful insights can be obtained from two-dimensional slab jet simulation, which relax the axisymmetric constraints while allowing high numerical resolution. In particular the dentist-drill model of Scheuer (1982) for working-surface variability is substantiated, and it is shown to result from self-excited jet instabilities near the working surface.

  9. Mobile Launch Platform Vehicle Assembly Building Area (SWMU 056) Hot Spot 3 Bioremediation Interim Measures Work Plan, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney L. Morrison; Daprato, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    This Interim Measures Work Plan (IMWP) presents an approach and design for the remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) groundwater impacts using bioremediation (biostimulation and bioaugmentation) in Hot Spot 3, which is defined by the area where CVOC (trichloroethene [TCE], cis-1,2-dichloroethene [cDCE], and vinyl chloride [VC]) concentrations are greater than 10 times their respective Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Natural Attenuation Default Concentration (NADC) [10xNADC] near the western Mobile Launch Platform (MLP) structure. The IM treatment area is the Hot Spot 3 area, which is approximately 0.07 acres and extends from approximately 6 to 22 and 41 to 55 feet below land surface (ft BLS). Within Hot Spot 3, a source zone (SZ; area with TCE concentrations greater than 1% solubility [11,000 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L)]) was delineated and is approximately 0.02 acres and extends from approximately 6 to 16 and 41 to 50 ft BLS.

  10. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  11. Observations of IO hot-spots at coastal sites with the combination of a mobile CE- and LP- DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhler, D.; Horbanski, M.; Schmitt, S.; Anthofer, M.; Tschritter, J.; Platt, U.

    2012-04-01

    Reactive iodine species are emitted by seaweed in the intertidal zone of coastal sites during low tide. Beside their oxidation to iodine oxide (IO) and reduction of ozone, they act as precursors for particle formation and therefore have a potential impact on climate. A correlation between iodine oxide and particle formation could be observed in several field studies. However, modelling studies suggest that the so far observed mixing ratios of iodine oxide are too low to explain the observed particle formation. This may be caused by the so far applied measurement techniques which either average over a long measurement path of several km (LP-DOAS) or by immobile in-situ techniques (LIF or BB-CEAS) located typically few 10-100m of the intertidal area. Thus both techniques could not observe local "hot-spots", locations with locally elevated IO levels above the background with small spatial extend (e.g. above a source). We present a new developed Cavity Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE- DOAS) instrument for the direct identification of IO down to 1ppt. This technique gives the possibility to achieve long absorption light paths in a compact setup (<2.0m) and thus apply the DOAS principle to in-situ measurements. The resonator of the cavity is formed by two high reflective mirrors in the spectral window from 430-460nm. To avoid any interference of reactive iodine compounds with tubes, walls or filters, the resonator is open similar to a LP-DOAS setup. A blue LED is used as light source. The total instrument setup is relatively light (25kg) and can easily be located at different locations. Hence it is possible to setup this instrument directly over the macro algae in the intertidal area during low tide to investigate the IO spatial distribution and "hot-spots". As IO concentrations vary strongly due to different meteorological parameters, the CE-DOAS measurements are combined with LP-DOAS in the same area. Thus the combination allows deriving a

  12. Hot spot and trench volcano separations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Schubert, G.

    1974-01-01

    It is suggested that the distribution of separations between trench volcanos located along subduction zones reflects the depth of partial melting, and that the separation distribution for hot spot volcanoes near spreading centers provides a measure of the depth of mantle convection cells. It is further proposed that the lateral dimensions of mantle convection cells are also represented by the hot-spot separations (rather than by ridge-trench distances) and that a break in the distribution of hot spot separations at 3000 km is evidence for both whole mantle convection and a deep thermal plume origin of hot spots.

  13. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  14. HotSpot Software Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) describes the software configuration management procedures used to ensure that the HotSpot dispersion model meets the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot for consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendations 1 and 3 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  15. HotSpot Software Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Test Plan (STP) describes the procedures used to verify and validate that the HotSpot Health Physics Codes meet the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot conducting consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendation 2 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  16. Ultrasonic hammer produces hot spots in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Sizhu; Chen, Ming-Wei; Dlott, Dana D.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2015-04-01

    Mechanical action can produce dramatic physical and mechanochemical effects when the energy is spatially or temporally concentrated. An important example of such phenomena in solids is the mechanical initiation of explosions, which has long been speculated to result from ‘hot spot’ generation at localized microstructures in the energetic material. Direct experimental evidence of such hot spots, however, is exceptionally limited; mechanisms for their generation are poorly understood and methods to control their locations remain elusive. Here we report the generation of intense, localized microscale hot spots in solid composites during mild ultrasonic irradiation, directly visualized by a thermal imaging microscope. These ultrasonic hot spots, with heating rates reaching ~22,000 K s-1, nucleate exclusively at interfacial delamination sites in composite solids. Introducing specific delamination sites by surface modification of embedded components provides precise and reliable control of hot spot locations and permits microcontrol of the initiation of reactions in energetic materials including fuel/oxidizer explosives.

  17. HotSpot Health Physics Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-04-18

    The HotSpot Health Physics Codes were created to provide emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating insidents involving redioactive material. The software is also used for safety-analysis of facilities handling nuclear material. HotSpot provides a fast and usually conservative means for estimation the radiation effects associated with the short-term (less than 24 hours) atmospheric release of radioactive materials.

  18. HotSpot Health Physics Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-03-02

    The HotSpot Health Physics Codes were created to provide emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating incidents involving radioactive material. The software is also used for safety-analysis of facilities handling nuclear material. HotSpot provides a fast and usually conservative means for estimation the radiation effects associated with the short-term (less than 24 hours) atmospheric release of radioactive materials.

  19. The hot spot of vegetation canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myneni, Ranga B.; Kanemasu, Edward T.

    1988-01-01

    A conventional radiometer is used to identify the hot spot (the peak in reflected radiation in the retrosolar direction) of vegetation. A multiwavelength-band radiometer collected radiances on fully grown dense wheat and maize canopies on several clear sunny days. It is noted that the hot spot is difficult to detect in the near IR wavelengths because the shadows are much darker. In general, the retrosolar brightness is found to be higher for smaller sun polar angles than for larger angles.

  20. Rocket engine hot-spot detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collamore, F. N.

    1985-04-01

    On high performance devices such as rocket engines it is desirable to know if local hot spots or areas of reduced cooling margin exist. The objective of this program is to design, fabricate and test an electronic hot spot detector capable of sensing local hot spot on the exterior circumference of a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber in order to avoid hardware damage. The electronic hot spot sensor consists of an array of 120 thermocouple elements which are bonded in a flexible belt of polyimide film. The design temperature range is from +30 F to +400 F continuously with an intermittent temperature of 500 F maximum. The thermocouple belt consists of 120 equally spaced copper-Constantan thermocouple junctions which is wrapped around the OMS liquid rocket engine combustion chamber, to monitor temperatures of individual cooling channels. Each thermocouple is located over a cooling channel near the injector end of the combustion chamber. The thermocouple array sensor is held in place by a spring loaded clamp band. Analyses show that in the event of a blocked cooling channel the surface temperature of the chamber over the blocked channel will rise from a normal operating temperature of approx. 300 F to approx. 600 F. The hot spot detector will respond quickly to this change with a response time constant less than 0.05 seconds. The hot spot sensor assembly is fabricated with a laminated construction of layers of Kapton film and an outer protective layer of fiberglass reinforced silicone rubber.

  1. Concentrator hot-spot testing, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a study to determine the hot-spot susceptibility of concentrator cells, to provide a hot-spot qualification test for concentrator modules, and to provide guidelines for reducing hot-spot susceptibility are presented. Hot-spot heating occurs in a photovoltaic module when the short-circuit current of a cell is lower than the string operating current forcing the cell into reverse bias with a concurrent power dissipation. Although the basis for the concentrator module hot-spot qualification test is the test developed for flat-plate modules, issues, such as providing cell illumination, introduce additional complexities into the testing procedure. The same general guidelines apply for protecting concentrator modules from hot-spot stressing as apply to flat-plate modules. Therefore, recommendations are made on the number of bypass diodes required per given number of series cells per module or source circuit. In addition, a new method for determining the cell temperature in the laboratory or in the field is discussed.

  2. Not so hot "hot spots" in the oceanic mantle.

    PubMed

    Bonath, E

    1990-10-01

    Excess volcanism and crustal swelling associated with hot spots are generally attributed to thermal plumes upwelling from the mantle. This concept has been tested in the portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 34 degrees and 45 degrees (Azores hot spot). Peridotite and basalt data indicate that the upper mantle in the hot spot has undergone a high degree of melting relative to the mantle elsewhere in the North Atlantic. However, application of various geothermometers suggests that the temperature of equilibration of peridotites in the mantle was lower, or at least not higher, in the hot spot than elsewhere. The presence of H(2)O-rich metasomatized mantle domains, inferred from peridotite and basalt data, would lower the melting temperature of the hot spot mantle and thereby reconcile its high degree ofmelting with the lack of a mantle temperature anomaly. Thus, some so-called hot spots might be melting anomalies unrelated to abnormally high mantle temperature or thermal plumes. PMID:17808242

  3. Statistical Hot Spot Model for Explosive Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols III, A L

    2004-05-10

    The Non-local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Statistical Hot Spot Model (NLTE SHS), a new model for explosive detonation, is described. In this model, the formation, ignition, propagation, and extinction of hot spots is explicitly modeled. The equation of state of the explosive mixture is treated with a nonlocal equilibrium thermodynamic assumption. A methodology for developing the parameters for the model is discussed, and applied to the detonation velocity diameter effect. Examination of these results indicates where future improvements to the model can be made.

  4. Statistical Hot Spot Model for Explosive Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, III, A L

    2005-07-14

    The Non-local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Statistical Hot Spot Model (NLTE SHS), a new model for explosive detonation, is described. In this model, the formation, ignition, propagation, and extinction of hot spots is explicitly modeled. The equation of state of the explosive mixture is treated with a non-local equilibrium thermodynamic assumption. A methodology for developing the parameters for the model is discussed, and applied to the detonation velocity diameter effect. Examination of these results indicates where future improvements to the model can be made.

  5. Hot-spot tectonics on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis is that extensional tectonics and low-angle detachment faults probably occur on Io in association with the hot spots. These processes may occur on a much shorter timescale on Ion than on Earth, so that Io could be a natural laboratory for the study of thermotectonics. Furthermore, studies of heat and detachment in crustal extension on Earth and the other terresrial planets (especially Venus and Mars) may provide analogs to processes on Io. The geology of Io is dominated by volcanism and hot spots, most likely the result of tidal heating. Hot spots cover 1 to 2% of Io's surface, radiating at temperatures typically from 200 to 400 K, and occasionally up to 700K. Heat loss from the largest hot spots on Io, such as Loki Patera, is about 300 times the heat loss from Yellowstone, so a tremendous quantity of energy is available for volcanic and tectonic work. Active volcanism on Io results in a resurfacing rate as high as 10 cm per year, yet many structural features are apparent on the surface. Therefore, the tectonics must be highly active.

  6. Two New Hot Spots on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on Galileo obtained this image of half of Io's disk in darkness on September 19, 1997. This image, at 5 microns, shows several hot spots on Io, which are volcanic regions of enhanced thermal emission. The area shown is part of the leading hemisphere of Io.

    Two new hot spots are shown and indicated in the image (New, and Shamshu). Neither of these hot spots were seen by NIMS or the Solid State Imaging Experiment, (SSI) prior to this observation, becoming only recently active. Several other previously known hot spots are labelled in the image. Galileo was at a distance of 342,000 km from Io when this observation was made.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  7. Factors Influencing Phosphorous Cycling in Biogeochemical 'Hot Spots'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Buda, A. R.; Carrick, H. J.; Regan, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of the phosphorus (P) cycle has led to subsequent soil and water quality issues. For example, P build up in soils due to historic fertilizer application may become biologically available and exacerbate eutrophication and anoxia in nearby water bodies. In the humid Northeastern United States, storm runoff transports P and also stimulates biogeochemical processes, these locations are termed biogeochemical 'hot spots'. Many studies have looked at nitrogen and carbon cycling in biogeochemical hot spots but few have focused on P. We hypothesize the periodic wetting and drying of biogeochemical hot spots promotes a combination of abiotic and biotic processes that influence the mobility of P. To test this hypothesis, we took monthly soil samples (5 cm deep) from May to October in forest, pasture, and cropped land near Ithaca, NY. In-situ measurements taken with each sample included volumetric soil moisture and soil temperature. We also analyzed samples for 'runoff generated' phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate (from 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction), Fe(II), percent organic matter, pH, as well as oxalate extractable and total P, Al, and Fe. We used linear mixed effects models to test how runoff generated phosphate concentrations vary with soil moisture and whether other environmental factors strengthen/weaken this relationship. The knowledge gained from this study will improve our understanding of P cycling in biogeochemical hot spots and can be used to improve the effectiveness of agricultural management practices in the Northeastern United States.

  8. Amorphous-silicon module hot-spot testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    Hot spot heating occurs when cell short-circuit current is lower than string operating current. Amorphous cell hot spot are tested to develop the techniques required for performing reverse bias testing of amorphous cells. Also, to quantify the response of amorphous cells to reverse biasing. Guidelines are developed from testing for reducing hot spot susceptibility of amorphous modules and to develop a qualification test for hot spot testing of amorphous modules. It is concluded that amorphous cells undergo hot spot heating similarly to crystalline cells. Comparison of results obtained with submodules versus actual modules indicate heating levels lower in actual modules. Module design must address hot spot testing and hot spot qualification test conducted on modules showed no instabilities and minor cell erosion.

  9. Photovoltaic module hot spot durability design and test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnett, J. C.; Gonzalez, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    As part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Low-Cost Solar Array Project, the susceptibility of fat-plate modules to hot-spot problems is investigated. Hot-spot problems arise in modules when the cells become back-biased and operate in the negative-voltage quadrant, as a result of short-circuit current mismatch, cell cracking or shadowing. The details of a qualification test for determining the capability of modules of surviving field hot-spot problems and typical results of this test are presented. In addition, recommended circuit-design techniques for improving the module and array reliability with respect to hot-spot problems are presented.

  10. KFC Server: interactive forecasting of protein interaction hot spots.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Steven J; LeGault, Laura; Mitchell, Julie C

    2008-07-01

    The KFC Server is a web-based implementation of the KFC (Knowledge-based FADE and Contacts) model-a machine learning approach for the prediction of binding hot spots, or the subset of residues that account for most of a protein interface's; binding free energy. The server facilitates the automated analysis of a user submitted protein-protein or protein-DNA interface and the visualization of its hot spot predictions. For each residue in the interface, the KFC Server characterizes its local structural environment, compares that environment to the environments of experimentally determined hot spots and predicts if the interface residue is a hot spot. After the computational analysis, the user can visualize the results using an interactive job viewer able to quickly highlight predicted hot spots and surrounding structural features within the protein structure. The KFC Server is accessible at http://kfc.mitchell-lab.org. PMID:18539611

  11. An approach for addressing hard-to-detect hot spots.

    PubMed

    Abelquist, Eric W; King, David A; Miller, Laurence F; Viars, James A

    2013-05-01

    The Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) survey approach is comprised of systematic random sampling coupled with radiation scanning to assess acceptability of potential hot spots. Hot spot identification for some radionuclides may not be possible due to the very weak gamma or x-ray radiation they emit-these hard-to-detect nuclides are unlikely to be identified by field scans. Similarly, scanning technology is not yet available for chemical contamination. For both hard-to-detect nuclides and chemical contamination, hot spots are only identified via volumetric sampling. The remedial investigation and cleanup of sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act typically includes the collection of samples over relatively large exposure units, and concentration limits are applied assuming the contamination is more or less uniformly distributed. However, data collected from contaminated sites demonstrate contamination is often highly localized. These highly localized areas, or hot spots, will only be identified if sample densities are high or if the environmental characterization program happens to sample directly from the hot spot footprint. This paper describes a Bayesian approach for addressing hard-to-detect nuclides and chemical hot spots. The approach begins using available data (e.g., as collected using the standard approach) to predict the probability that an unacceptable hot spot is present somewhere in the exposure unit. This Bayesian approach may even be coupled with the graded sampling approach to optimize hot spot characterization. Once the investigator concludes that the presence of hot spots is likely, then the surveyor should use the data quality objectives process to generate an appropriate sample campaign that optimizes the identification of risk-relevant hot spots. PMID:23528274

  12. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  13. ''Hot spots'': Subnanometer femtosecond energy localization

    SciTech Connect

    Karo, A.M.; Hardy, J.R.

    1986-12-01

    In a condensed energetic material an understanding of the dynamics and microscopic mechanisms underlying energy transfer between a shock front and various defects is of prime importance for a realistic description of ''hot spot'' formation and explosives initiation. A wide variety of simulations using the well-established technique of computer molecular dynamics has enabled us to obtain a general and very useful microscopic description of the processes beneath the macroscopic behavior of shocked systems. The calculation of the influence of heterogeneities such as point and line defects, voids, and grain boundaries is made possible by computer codes that can handle totally heterogeneous dynamical systems and track the dynamics of energy concentration and partitioning among the molecular bonds in the defect and the nearby region. One and two-dimensional calculations will be discussed in which the spatial and temporal dependence of the energy flux in a general lattice-defect system is calculated quantitatively as a function of shock strength, initial temperature, and initial parameters defining the lattice and defect.

  14. Hot spot-ridge crest convergence in the northeast Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Karsten, J.L.; Delaney, J.R. )

    1989-01-10

    Evolution of the Juan de Fuca Ridge during the past 7 m.y. has been reconstructed taking into account both the propagating rift history and migration of the spreading center in the 'absolute' (fixed hot spot) reference frame. Northwestward migration of the spreading center (at a rate of 30 km/m.y.) has resulted in progressive encroachment of the ridge axis on the Cobb Hot Spot and westward jumping of the central third of the ridge axis more recently than 0.5 Ma. Seamounts in the Cobb-Eickelberg chain are predicted to display systematic variations in morphology and petrology, and a reduction in the age contrast between the edifice and underlying crust, as a result of the ridge axis approach. Relative seamount volumes also indicate that magmatic output of the hot spot varied during this interval, with a reduction in activity between 2.5 and 4.5 Ma, compared with relatively more robust activity before and after this period. Spatial relationships determined in this reconstruction allow hypotheses relating hot spot activity and rift propagation to be evaluated. In most cases, rift propagation has been directed away from the hot spot during the time period considered. Individual propagators show some reduction in propagation rate as separation between the propagating rift tip and hot spot increases, but cross comparison of multiple propagators does not uniformly display the same relationship. No obvious correlation exists between propagation rate and increasing proximity of the hot spot to the ridge axis or increasing hot spot output. Taken together, these observations do not offer compelling support for the concept of hot spot driven rift propagation. However, short-term reversals in propagation direction at the Cobb Offset coincide with activity of the Heckle melting anomaly, suggesting that local propagation effects may be related to excess magma supply at the ridge axis.

  15. Hot-spot durability testing of amorphous cells and modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Charles; Jetter, Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a study to determine the hot-spot susceptibility of amorphous-silicon (a-Si) cells and modules, and to provide guidelines for reducing that susceptibility. Amorphous-Si cells are shown to have hot-spot susceptibility levels similar to crystalline-silicon (C-Si) cells. This premise leads to the fact that the same general guidelines must apply to protecting a-Si cells from hot-spot stressing that apply to C-Si cells. Recommendations are made on ways of reducing a-Si module hot-spot susceptibility including the traditional method of using bypass diodes and a new method unique to thin-film cells, limiting the string current by limiting cell area.

  16. On the burn topology of hot-spot-initiated reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Larry G; Zimmermann, Bjorn; Nichols, Albert L

    2009-01-01

    We determine the reaction progress function for an ideal hot spot model problem. The considered problem has an exact analytic solution that can derived from a reduction of Nichols statistical hot spot model. We perform numerical calculations to verify the analytic solution and to illustrate the error realized in real, finite systems. We show how the baseline problem, which does not distinguish between the reactant and product densities, can be scaled to handle general cases for which the two densities differ.

  17. A measurement concept for hot-spot BRDFs from space

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    Several concepts for canopy hot-spot measurements from space have been investigated. The most promising involves active illumination and bistatic detection that would allow hot-spot angular distribution (BRDF) measurements from space in a search-light mode. The concept includes a pointable illumination source, such as a laser operating at an atmospheric window wavelength, coupled with a number of high spatial-resolution detectors that are clustered around the illumination source in space, receiving photons nearly coaxial with the reto-reflection direction. Microwave control and command among the satellite cluster would allow orienting the direction of the laser beam as well as the focusing detectors simultaneously so that the coupled system can function like a search light with almost unlimited pointing capabilities. The concept is called the Hot-Spot Search-Light (HSSL) satellite. A nominal satellite altitude of 600 km will allow hot-spot BRDF measurements out to about 18 degrees phase angle. The distributed are taking radiometric measurements of the intensity wings of the hot-spot angular distribution without the need for complex imaging detectors. The system can be operated at night for increased signal-to-noise ratio. This way the hot-spot angular signatures can be quantified and parameterized in sufficient detail to extract the biophysical information content of plant architectures.

  18. Modelling propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partom, Yehuda

    2015-06-01

    It is widely accepted that shock initiation and detonation of heterogeneous explosives come about by a two-step process known as ignition and growth. In the first step a shock sweeping an explosive cell (control volume) creates hot spots that become ignition sites. In the second step deflagration waves (or burn waves) propagate out of those hot spots and transform the reactant in the cell into reaction products. The macroscopic (or average) reaction rate of the reactant in a cell depends on the speed of those deflagration waves and on the average distance between neighbouring hot spots. Here we simulate the propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots on the mesoscale in axial symmetry using a 2D hydrocode, to which we add heat conduction and bulk reaction. The propagation speed of the deflagration wave depends on both pressure and temperature, where pressure dependence is dominant at low shock level, and temperature dependence is dominant at a higher shock level. From the simulation we obtain deflagration (or burn) fronts emanating out of the hot spots. For intermediate shock levels the deflagration waves consume the explosive between hot spots. For higher shock levels the deflagration waves strengthen to become detonation waves on the mesoscale. From the simulation results we extract average deflagration wave speeds and show how they depend on reaction rate and on other material parameters.

  19. ``Hot spots'' growth on single nanowire controlled by electric charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Shaobo; Liu, Xuehua; He, Ting; Tian, Lei; Wang, Wenhui; Sun, Rui; He, Weina; Zhang, Xuetong; Zhang, Jinping; Ni, Weihai; Zhou, Xiaochun

    2016-06-01

    ``Hot spots'' - a kind of highly active site, which are usually composed of some unique units, such as defects, interfaces, catalyst particles or special structures - can determine the performance of nanomaterials. In this paper, we study a model system, i.e. ``hot spots'' on a single Ag nanowire in the galvanic replacement reaction (GRR), by dark-field microscopy. The research reveals that electric charge can be released by the formation reaction of AgCl, and consequently the electrochemical potential on Ag nanowire drops. The electric charge could induce the reduction of Ag+ to form the ``hot spots'' on the nanowire during the GRR. The appearance probability of ``hot spots'' is almost even along the Ag nanowire, while it is slightly lower near the two ends. The spatial distance between adjacent ``hot spots'' is also controlled by the charge, and obeys a model based on Boltzmann distribution. In addition, the distance distribution here has an advantage in electron transfer and energy saving. Therefore, it's necessary to consider the functions of electric charge during the synthesis or application of nanomaterials.``Hot spots'' - a kind of highly active site, which are usually composed of some unique units, such as defects, interfaces, catalyst particles or special structures - can determine the performance of nanomaterials. In this paper, we study a model system, i.e. ``hot spots'' on a single Ag nanowire in the galvanic replacement reaction (GRR), by dark-field microscopy. The research reveals that electric charge can be released by the formation reaction of AgCl, and consequently the electrochemical potential on Ag nanowire drops. The electric charge could induce the reduction of Ag+ to form the ``hot spots'' on the nanowire during the GRR. The appearance probability of ``hot spots'' is almost even along the Ag nanowire, while it is slightly lower near the two ends. The spatial distance between adjacent ``hot spots'' is also controlled by the charge, and obeys a

  20. Hot Spot Detection System Using Landsat 8/OLI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Nakamura, R.; Oda, A.; Iijima, A.; Kouyama, T.; Iwata, T.

    2015-12-01

    We developed a simple algorithm and a Web-based visualizing system to detect hot spots using Landsat 8 OLI multispectral data as one of the applications of the real-time processing of Landsat 8 data. An empirical equation and radiometric and reflective thresholds were derived to detect hot spots using the OLI data at band 5 (0.865 μm) and band 7 (2.200 μm) based on the increase in spectral radiance at shortwave infrared (SWIR) region due to the emission from objects with high surface temperature. We surveyed typical patterns of surface spectra using the ASTER spectral library to delineate a threshold to distinguish hot spots from background surfaces. To adjust the empirical coefficients of our detection algorithm, we visually inspected the detected hot spots using 6593 Landsat 8 scenes, which cover eastern part of East Asia, taken from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014, displayed on a dedicated Web GIS system. Eventually we determined threshold equations which can theoretically detect hot spots at temperatures above 230 °C over isothermal pixels and hot spots as small as 1 m2 at temperatures of 1000 °C as the lowest temperature and the smallest subpixel coverage, respectively, for daytime scenes. The algorithm detected hot spots including wildfires, volcanos, open burnings and factories. 30-m spatial resolution of Landsat 8 enabled to detect wild fires and open burnings accompanied by clearer shapes of fire front lines than MODIS and VIIRS fire products. Although the 16-day revisit cycle of Landsat 8 is too long to effectively find unexpected wildfire or outbreak of eruption, the revisit cycle is enough to monitor temporally stable heat sources, such as continually erupting volcanos and factories. False detection was found over building rooftops, which have relatively smooth surfaces at longer wavelengths, when specular reflection occurred at the satellite overpass.

  1. Biodiversity hot spot on a hot spot: novel extremophile diversity in Hawaiian fumaroles

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Kate; Cornell, Jennifer; Bizzoco, Richard W; Kelley, Scott T

    2015-01-01

    Fumaroles (steam vents) are the most common, yet least understood, microbial habitat in terrestrial geothermal settings. Long believed too extreme for life, recent advances in sample collection and DNA extraction methods have found that fumarole deposits and subsurface waters harbor a considerable diversity of viable microbes. In this study, we applied culture-independent molecular methods to explore fumarole deposit microbial assemblages in 15 different fumaroles in four geographic locations on the Big Island of Hawai'i. Just over half of the vents yielded sufficient high-quality DNA for the construction of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence clone libraries. The bacterial clone libraries contained sequences belonging to 11 recognized bacterial divisions and seven other division-level phylogenetic groups. Archaeal sequences were less numerous, but similarly diverse. The taxonomic composition among fumarole deposits was highly heterogeneous. Phylogenetic analysis found cloned fumarole sequences were related to microbes identified from a broad array of globally distributed ecotypes, including hot springs, terrestrial soils, and industrial waste sites. Our results suggest that fumarole deposits function as an “extremophile collector” and may be a hot spot of novel extremophile biodiversity. PMID:25565172

  2. Integrating Sustainable Hunting in Biodiversity Protection in Central Africa: Hot Spots, Weak Spots, and Strong Spots

    PubMed Central

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  3. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  4. Hot spot conditions achieved in DT implosions on the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, P. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Dittrich, T. R.; Doeppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kritcher, A. L.; Lindl, J. D.; Ma, T.; Macphee, A. G.; Pak, A. E.; Park, H. S.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Spears, B.; Springer, P. T.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S.

    2014-10-01

    We describe a 1D model that uses experimentally measured data to derive the thermodynamic conditions at stagnation of the hot spot, dense fuel, and ablator, in deuterium-tritium (DT) layered implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Neutron measurements--spectrally, spatially and temporally resolved--are used to infer the hot spot burn-averaged pressure, density, areal density, ion temperature, volume, and internal energy. X-ray spectral measurements are used to infer electron temperature, radiative energy loss, and the presence of ablator mix in the hot spot. In addition, we can calculate the fraction of alpha-particle energy trapped in the hot spot and, hence, estimate the degree of self-heating. Recent DT layered implosions using the high-foot design [Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014)] have achieved areal densities and temperatures in the hot spot whereby a significant fraction of the internal energy at stagnation can be attributed to alpha-particle self-heating. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. "Hot spots" growth on single nanowire controlled by electric charge.

    PubMed

    Xi, Shaobo; Liu, Xuehua; He, Ting; Tian, Lei; Wang, Wenhui; Sun, Rui; He, Weina; Zhang, Xuetong; Zhang, Jinping; Ni, Weihai; Zhou, Xiaochun

    2016-06-01

    "Hot spots" - a kind of highly active site, which are usually composed of some unique units, such as defects, interfaces, catalyst particles or special structures - can determine the performance of nanomaterials. In this paper, we study a model system, i.e. "hot spots" on a single Ag nanowire in the galvanic replacement reaction (GRR), by dark-field microscopy. The research reveals that electric charge can be released by the formation reaction of AgCl, and consequently the electrochemical potential on Ag nanowire drops. The electric charge could induce the reduction of Ag(+) to form the "hot spots" on the nanowire during the GRR. The appearance probability of "hot spots" is almost even along the Ag nanowire, while it is slightly lower near the two ends. The spatial distance between adjacent "hot spots" is also controlled by the charge, and obeys a model based on Boltzmann distribution. In addition, the distance distribution here has an advantage in electron transfer and energy saving. Therefore, it's necessary to consider the functions of electric charge during the synthesis or application of nanomaterials. PMID:27240743

  6. Hot SPOT Generation in Energetic Materials by Applying Weak Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Wei; You, Sizhu; Suslick, Kenneth S.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2013-06-01

    Hot spot generation in energetic materials is an important process to initiate the exothermic chemical reaction, but the details of the fundamental science behind this process is still less-known. Although the response of energetic materials to low velocity impact have been heavily studied with high speed imaging, the response to the IR and acoustic is still not known. A high-speed thermal imaging microscopy apparatus was constructed to observe hot spot generation by weak energies (˜30 THz optical frequency or 20 kHz acoustic frequency), to develop the fundamental science needed to understand energy concentration mechanisms leading to hot spot generation. Inhomogeneous crystals with defects and polymer binders were used in the experiments, with weak energies it is possible to detect the hot spot generation without destruction and deflagration-to-detonation transitions. We have successfully recorded the hot spot grown in the 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) crystal and polymer-bonded sugar simulant by applying Far-IR radiation (˜30 THz) and acoustic sonication (20 kHz) respectively, and proceeded preliminary analysis to investigate the mechanism.

  7. Thermal Infrared Hot Spot and Dependence on Canopy Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James A.; Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We perform theoretical calculations of the canopy thermal infrared (TIR) hot spot using a first principles 3-D model described earlier. Various theoretical canopies of varying leaf size and for differing canopy height are used to illustrate the magnitude of the TIR effect. Our results are similar to predicted behavior in the reflective hot spot as a function of canopy geometry and comparable to TIR measurements from the literature and our own simple ground experiments. We apply the MODTRAN atmospheric code to estimate the at-sensor variation in brightness temperature with view direction in the solar principal plane. For simple homogeneous canopies, we predict canopy thermal infrared hot spot variations of 2 degrees C at the surface with respect to nadir viewing. Dependence on leaf size is weak as long as the ratio of leaf size to canopy height is maintained. However, the angular width of the hot spot increases as the ratio of leaf diameter to canopy height increases. Atmospheric effects minimize but do not eliminate the TIR hot spot at satellite altitudes.

  8. Kilauea volcano: the degassing of a hot spot

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, T.M.

    1986-03-01

    Hot spots such as Kilauea volcano can degas by a one-stage eruptive process or a two-stage process involving eruptive and noneruptive degassing. One stage degassing occurs during sustained summit eruptions and causes a direct environmental impact. Although generally less efficient than the one-stage degassing process, two stage degassing can cause 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater impact in just a few hours during flank eruptions. Hot spot volcanos with resupplied crustal magma chambers may be capable of maintaining an equivalent impact from CO/sub 2/ and S outgassing during both eruptive and noneruptive periods. On average, a hot spot volcano such as Kilauea is a minor polluter compared to man.

  9. The Measurement of Hot-Spots in Granulated Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proud, W. G.

    2002-07-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is one of the components of the most widely used explosive in the world namely, ammonium nitrate: fuel oil mixtures (ANFO). By itself, it is an oxygen positive explosive with a large critical diameter. Hot-spots are produced in explosives by various means including gas space collapse, localised shear or friction. If these hot-spots reach critical conditions of size, temperature and duration reaction can grow. This deflagration stage may eventually transition to detonation. This paper describes high-speed image-intensified photography study in which the number and growth of hot spots in granular AN are monitored for a range of different impact pressures. The results can be used in detonation codes to provide a more accurate and realistic description of the initiation process.

  10. The Measurement of Hot-spots in Granulated Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proud, William; Field, John

    2001-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is one of the components of the most widely used explosive in the world ammonium nitrate: fuel oil mixtures (ANFO). By itself, it is an oxygen negative explosive with a large critical diameter. Hot-spots are produced in explosives by various means including gas space collapse, localised shear or friction. If these hot-spots reach critical conditions of size, temperature and duration size reaction can grow. This deflagration stage may eventually transition to detonation. This paper describes a system and presents results where high-speed image intensified photography is used to monitor the number and growth of hot spots in granular AN under a range of different impact pressures. The results can be used in detonation codes to provide a more accurate and realistic description of the initiation process.

  11. Plasmonic electromagnetic hot spots temporally addressed by photoinduced molecular displacement.

    SciTech Connect

    Juan, M. L.; Plain, J.; Bachelot, R.; Vial, A.; Royer, P.; Gray, S. K.; Montgomery, J. M.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Univ. de Technologie de Troyes

    2009-04-23

    We report the observation of temporally varying electromagnetic hot spots in plasmonic nanostructures. Changes in the field amplitude, position, and spatial features are induced by embedding plasmonic silver nanorods in the photoresponsive azo-polymer. This polymer undergoes cis?trans isomerization and wormlike transport within resonant optical fields, producing a time-varying local dielectric environment that alters the locations where electromagnetic hot spots are produced. Finite-difference time-domain and Monte Carlo simulations that model the induced field and corresponding material response are presented to aid in the interpretation of the experimental results. Evidence for propagating plasmons induced at the ends of the rods is also presented.

  12. Simulations of Electron Transport in Laser Hot Spots

    SciTech Connect

    S. Brunner; E. Valeo

    2001-08-30

    Simulations of electron transport are carried out by solving the Fokker-Planck equation in the diffusive approximation. The system of a single laser hot spot, with open boundary conditions, is systematically studied by performing a scan over a wide range of the two relevant parameters: (1) Ratio of the stopping length over the width of the hot spot. (2) Relative importance of the heating through inverse Bremsstrahlung compared to the thermalization through self-collisions. As for uniform illumination [J.P. Matte et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30 (1988) 1665], the bulk of the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) present a super-Gaussian dependence. However, as a result of spatial transport, the tails are observed to be well represented by a Maxwellian. A similar dependence of the distributions is also found for multiple hot spot systems. For its relevance with respect to stimulated Raman scattering, the linear Landau damping of the electron plasma wave is estimated for such VD Fs. Finally, the nonlinear Fokker-Planck simulations of the single laser hot spot system are also compared to the results obtained with the linear non-local hydrodynamic approach [A.V. Brantov et al., Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 2742], thus providing a quantitative limit to the latter method: The hydrodynamic approach presents more than 10% inaccuracy in the presence of temperature variations of the order delta T/T greater than or equal to 1%, and similar levels of deformation of the Gaussian shape of the Maxwellian background.

  13. Friction stir spot welding of hot-stamped boron steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanski, Yuri; Santella, M. L.; Grant, Glenn J.

    2007-11-01

    Hot-stamped, boron steel was successfully joined via friction stir spot welding using polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tooling. The resulting microstructure, microhardness and mechanical properties are reported, including a brief look into failure mechanisms. Relationships between the unique mechanical mixing, phase transformations and failure initiation sites associated with joining martensitic steels are characterized.

  14. POTENTIAL AIR TOXICS HOT SPOTS IN TRUCK TERMINALS AND CABS

    EPA Science Inventory

    All three types of testing sites — upwind and downwind traffic — met the established definition for a hot spot by having periods with concentrations of pollutants that exceeded the EPA’s screening values. Most frequently, the pollutants with concentrations...

  15. Variability of Jupiter's Five-Micron Hot Spot Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Orton, G. S.; Wakefield, L.; Rogers, J. H.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Boydstun, K.

    2012-01-01

    Global upheavals on Jupiter involve changes in the albedo of entire axisymmetric regions, lasting several years, with the last two occurring in 1989 and 2006. Against this backdrop of planetary-scale changes, discrete features such as the Great Red Spot (GRS), and other vortices exhibit changes on shorter spatial- and time-scales. We track the variability of the discrete equatorial 5-micron hot spots, semi-evenly spaced in longitude and confined to a narrow latitude band centered at 6.5degN (southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt, NEB), abundant in Voyager images. Tantalizingly similar patterns were observed in the visible (bright plumes and blue-gray regions), where reflectivity in the red is anti-correlated with 5-microns thermal radiance. Ortiz et al. (1998, GRL, 103) characterized the latitude and drift rates of the hot spots, including the descent of the Galileo probe at the southern edge of a 5-micron hot spot, as the superposition of equatorial Rossby waves, with phase speeds between 99 - 103m/s, relative to System III. We note that the high 5-micron radiances correlate well but not perfectly with high 8.57-micron radiances. Because the latter are modulated primarily by changes in the upper ammonia (NH3) ice cloud opacity, this correlation implies that changes in the ammonia ice cloud field may be responsible for the variability seen in the 5-m maps. During the NEB fade (2011 - early 2012), however, these otherwise ubiquitous features were absent, an atmospheric state not seen in decades. The ongoing NEB revival indicates nascent 5-m hot spots as early as April 2012, with corresponding visible dark spots. Their continuing growth through July 2012 indicates the possit.le re-establishment of Rossby waves. The South Equatorial Belt (SEB) and NEB revivals began similarly with an instability that developed into a major outbreak, and many similarities in the observed propagation of clear regions.

  16. Venusian "hot spots": physical phenomenon and its quantification.

    PubMed

    Goncharov, V P; Gryanik, V M; Pavlov, V I

    2002-12-01

    An overall picture of the Venusian hot spots phenomenon is considered in the framework of the simplest conceptual models that admit the solutions in the form of steadily rotating "hot" vortices. Model assumptions take into account only those features of the middle atmosphere in the polar region of Venus that are supported by observational data and are essential for understanding the physical mechanism initiating similar vortices. The problem is analyzed in the framework of both the pointlike and petal-like models of cyclostrophic vortices. Interpretation of these models as an upper and lower bound of a complete theory allows one to find the region of existence of the regimes responsible for the Venusian hot spots and also to establish and assess numerically conditions under which such vortices can be formed. The emphasis is on a comparison of the theoretically established results with the observational data. PMID:12513399

  17. Structural hot spots for the solubility of globular proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Ashok; Siekierska, Aleksandra; Beerten, Jacinte; Brams, Marijke; Van Durme, Joost; De Baets, Greet; Van der Kant, Rob; Gallardo, Rodrigo; Ramakers, Meine; Langenberg, Tobias; Wilkinson, Hannah; De Smet, Frederik; Ulens, Chris; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Natural selection shapes protein solubility to physiological requirements and recombinant applications that require higher protein concentrations are often problematic. This raises the question whether the solubility of natural protein sequences can be improved. We here show an anti-correlation between the number of aggregation prone regions (APRs) in a protein sequence and its solubility, suggesting that mutational suppression of APRs provides a simple strategy to increase protein solubility. We show that mutations at specific positions within a protein structure can act as APR suppressors without affecting protein stability. These hot spots for protein solubility are both structure and sequence dependent but can be computationally predicted. We demonstrate this by reducing the aggregation of human α-galactosidase and protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis through mutation. Our results indicate that many proteins possess hot spots allowing to adapt protein solubility independently of structure and function. PMID:26905391

  18. Structural hot spots for the solubility of globular proteins.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Ashok; Siekierska, Aleksandra; Beerten, Jacinte; Brams, Marijke; Van Durme, Joost; De Baets, Greet; Van der Kant, Rob; Gallardo, Rodrigo; Ramakers, Meine; Langenberg, Tobias; Wilkinson, Hannah; De Smet, Frederik; Ulens, Chris; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Natural selection shapes protein solubility to physiological requirements and recombinant applications that require higher protein concentrations are often problematic. This raises the question whether the solubility of natural protein sequences can be improved. We here show an anti-correlation between the number of aggregation prone regions (APRs) in a protein sequence and its solubility, suggesting that mutational suppression of APRs provides a simple strategy to increase protein solubility. We show that mutations at specific positions within a protein structure can act as APR suppressors without affecting protein stability. These hot spots for protein solubility are both structure and sequence dependent but can be computationally predicted. We demonstrate this by reducing the aggregation of human α-galactosidase and protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis through mutation. Our results indicate that many proteins possess hot spots allowing to adapt protein solubility independently of structure and function. PMID:26905391

  19. Hot spot management through design based metrology: measurement and filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taehyeong; Yang, Hyunjo; Kim, Jungchan; Jung, Areum; Yoo, Gyun; Yim, Donggyu; Park, Sungki; Ishikawa, Akio; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Vikram, Abhishek

    2009-12-01

    Recently several Design Based Metrologies (DBMs) are introduced and being in use for wafer verification. The major applications of DBM are OPC accuracy improvement, DFM feed-back through Process Window Qualification (PWQ) and advanced process control. In general, however, the amount of output data from DBM is normally so large that it is very hard to handle the data for valuable feed-back. In case of PWQ, more than thousands of hot spots are detected on a single chip at the edge of process window. So, it takes much time and labor to review and analyze all the hot spots detected at PWQ. Design-related systematic defects, however, will be found repeatedly and if they can be classified into groups, it would be possible to save a lot of time for the analysis. We have demonstrated an EDA tool which can handle the large amount of output data from DBM by classifying pattern defects into groups. It can classify millions of patterns into less than thousands of pattern groups. It has been evaluated on the analysis of PWQ of metal layer in NAND Flash memory device and random contact hole patterns in a DRAM device. Also, verification was tuned to specific needs of the designer as well as defect analysis engineers by use of EDA tool's 'Pattern Matching Function'. The verification result was well within the required specification of the designer as well as the analysis engineer. The procedures of Hot Spot Management through Design Based Metrology are presented in detail.

  20. A pulsating auroral X-ray hot spot on Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, G R; Waite, J H; Grodent, D; Lewis, W S; Crary, F J; Elsner, R F; Weisskopf, M C; Majeed, T; Jahn, J-M; Bhardwaj, A; Clarke, J T; Young, D T; Dougherty, M K; Espinosa, S A; Cravens, T E

    2002-02-28

    Jupiter's X-ray aurora has been thought to be excited by energetic sulphur and oxygen ions precipitating from the inner magnetosphere into the planet's polar regions. Here we report high-spatial-resolution observations that demonstrate that most of Jupiter's northern auroral X-rays come from a 'hot spot' located significantly poleward of the latitudes connected to the inner magnetosphere. The hot spot seems to be fixed in magnetic latitude and longitude and occurs in a region where anomalous infrared and ultraviolet emissions have also been observed. We infer from the data that the particles that excite the aurora originate in the outer magnetosphere. The hot spot X-rays pulsate with an approximately 45-min period, a period similar to that reported for high-latitude radio and energetic electron bursts observed by near-Jupiter spacecraft. These results invalidate the idea that jovian auroral X-ray emissions are mainly excited by steady precipitation of energetic heavy ions from the inner magnetosphere. Instead, the X-rays seem to result from currently unexplained processes in the outer magnetosphere that produce highly localized and highly variable emissions over an extremely wide range of wavelengths. PMID:11875561

  1. Distinguishing black holes and wormholes with orbiting hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo

    2014-07-01

    The supermassive black hole candidates at the center of every normal galaxy might be wormholes created in the early Universe and connecting either two different regions of our Universe or two different universes in a multiverse model. Indeed, the origin of these supermassive objects is not well understood; topological nontrivial structures like wormholes are allowed both in general relativity and in alternative theories of gravity, and current observations cannot rule out such a possibility. In a few years, the VLTI instrument GRAVITY will have the capability to image blobs of plasma orbiting near the innermost stable circular orbit of SgrA*, the supermassive black hole candidate in the Milky Way. The secondary image of a hot spot orbiting around a wormhole is substantially different from that of a hot spot around a black hole, because the photon capture sphere of the wormhole is much smaller. The radius of the photon capture sphere is independent of the hot spot model, and therefore its possible detection, which is observationally challenging but not out of reach, can unambiguously test if the center of our Galaxy harbors a wormhole rather than a black hole.

  2. Real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.; Flynn, Luke P.; Dean, Ken; Pilger, Eric; Wooster, Martin; Okubo, Chris; Mouginis-Mark, Peter; Garbeil, Harold; Thornber, Carl; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Rothery, Dave; Wright, Robert

    Direct satellite data reception at high temporal frequencies and automated processing enable near-real-time, near-continuous thermal monitoring of volcanoes. We review what has been achieved in terms of turning this capability into real-time tools of use to volcano monitoring agencies. Current capabilities focus on 2 instruments: the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager. Collection of lO AVHRR images per day covering Alaska, the Aleutians, and Kamchatka allows routine, on-reception analysis of volcanic hot spots across this region. Data collected between 1996 and 1998 detected 302 hot spots due to lava flows, lava domes, pyroclastic flows, fumaroles, and geothermally heated lakes at 12 different volcanoes. Information was used for hazard mitigation by the Alaskan Volcano Observatory. GOES provides data for North and South American volcanoes every 15-30 minutes. Automated processing allows eruption information and alerts to be posted on the Internet within 15-60 minutes of reception. We use June 1998 to demonstrate the frequency of data acquisition. During this month 2879 GOES images were collected from which 14,832 sub-images of 6 active volcanoes were processed. Although 82% (12,200) of these sub-images were cloud covered, hot spots were still evident on 11% (1634) of the sub-images. Analysis of GOES data for 1998 identified hot spots due to (1) lava flows at Kilauea and Cerro Azul, (2) dome extrusion and explosive activity at Lascar, Popocatepetl, Colima and Pacaya, and (3) dome cooling and collapse at Soufriere Hills. We were also able to suggest that reports of lava flow activity at Cerro Negro were false. This information was supplied to, and used by, various agencies whose task it is to monitor these volcanoes. Global thermal monitoring will become a reality with the launch of the Earth Observing System's moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS). An automated thermal

  3. Hot Spot in Eclipsing Dwarf Nova IY Ursae Majoris during Quiescence and Normal Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bąkowska, K.; Olech, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the analysis of hot spot brightness in light curves of the eclipsing dwarf nova IY UMa during its normal outburst in March 2013 and in quiescence in April 2012 and in October 2015. Examination of four reconstructed light curves of the hot spot eclipses showed directly that the brightness of the hot spot changed significantly only during the outburst. The brightness of the hot spot, before and after the outburst, was on the same level. Thus, based on the behavior of the hot spot, IY UMa during its normal outburst follows the disk-instability model.

  4. Analyses on the effect of hot spot density on material consumption rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, G. A., Iv; Vitello, P.; Nichols, A. L., Iii; Tarver, C.; Willey, T.; Friedman, G.; Oppelstrup, T.

    2014-05-01

    There is an observed effect of an explosive's constituent grain size and density on its performance. At the mesoscale, it is the outward burning of hot spots that controls observed performance. While statistical hot spot models can integrate the mesoscale behaviour to macroscale simulations, it is unknown what the density of created hot spots is as a function of grain size and porosity. Simulating mesoscale hot spot distributions and varying hot spot density, we discuss the resultant performance as influenced by inter-pore distance and pore distribution.

  5. Variation in the Deep Gas Composition in Hot Spots on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjoraker, Gordon; de Pater, Imke; Wong, Michael H.; Adamkovics, Mate; Hewagama, Tilak; Hesman, Brigette

    2015-11-01

    We used CSHELL on NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility and NIRSPEC on the Keck telescope in the last two years to spectrally resolve line profiles of CH3D, NH3, PH3, and H2O in 5-micron Hot Spots on Jupiter. The profile of the CH3D lines at 4.66 microns is very broad in both NEB and SEB Hot Spots due to collisions with up to 8 bars of H2, where unit optical depth occurs due to collision-induced H2 opacity. The extreme width of these CH3D features implies that the Hot Spots that we observed do not have significant cloud opacity for P > 2 bars. We retrieved NH3, PH3, and gaseous H2O within Hot Spots in both the NEB and SEB. We had dry nights on Mauna Kea and a sufficient Doppler shift to detect H2O. We will compare line wings to derive H2O profiles in the 2 to 6-bar region. NEB Hot Spots are depleted in NH3 with respect to adjacent regions. Interestingly, SEB Hot Spots exhibit stronger NH3 absorption than NEB Hot Spots. In addition, SEB Hot Spots have very similar 5-micron spectra as neighboring longitudes in the SEB, implying similar deep gas composition. The dynamical origin of SEB Hot Spots is much less studied than that of NEB Hot Spots, so our observations of gas composition in both regions may constrain mechanisms for forming Hot Spots.

  6. Inhibition of turbulence in inertial-confinement-fusion hot spots by viscous dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, C. R.; Clark, D. S.; Cook, A. W.; Busby, L. E.; Robey, H. F.

    2014-05-01

    Achieving ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires the formation of a high-temperature (>10 keV) central hot spot. Turbulence has been suggested as a mechanism for degrading the hot-spot conditions by altering transport properties, introducing colder, mixed material, or reducing the conversion of radially directed kinetic energy to hot-spot heating. We show, however, that the hot spot is very viscous, and the assumption of turbulent conditions in the hot spot is incorrect. This work presents the first high-resolution, three-dimensional simulations of National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosion experiments using detailed knowledge of implosion dynamics and instability seeds and including an accurate model of physical viscosity. We find that when viscous effects are neglected, the hot spot can exhibit a turbulent kinetic energy cascade. Viscous effects, however, are significant and strongly damp small-scale velocity structures, with a hot-spot Reynolds number in the range of only 10--100.

  7. Ridges and Hot Spots: Reconciling Isotopes and Major Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarede, F.; Lee, C.; Agranier, A.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2008-12-01

    Meyzen et al. (2007) combined the radiogenic isotope data of several hundred MORB samples along a single mid-ocean ridge profile extending from the northernmost Atlantic to the Indian over to the Pacific Ocean covering >400 degrees. A remarkable finding was that the total reduced variance on Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb data, hereafter referred to as "isotopic variance", showed conspicuous maxima and that a harmonic analysis of this variance showed a periodic spacing of the maxima with a mean value of ~35° (actually a doublet, which is a consequence of modulation by a hemispheric contrast). The strong but unexpected hint was that hot spots are nearly periodically spaced along the ridge systems. To explore whether the isotopic variations in the mantle are controlled by physical properties of the mantle source, such as its thermal state and major element composition, we estimated the apparent temperatures and pressures of equilibration using newly calibrated thermometers and barometers of Lee et al. (submitted) based on the most recent compilation of experimental data. We calculated T-P couples for over 3000 MORB samples after correcting for olivine fractionation. Peaks appear for pressure and even stronger for temperature at the precise same localities along the ridges where the presence of hot spots has been inferred. Periodograms of temperature estimates were calculated which produced a spectrum similar to that of the isotopic variance with the same conspicuous doublet and the same mean spacing of ~35° with a total power >40%. Pressure estimates show similar features with a lesser signal/noise ratio but we suspect that these features may largely reflect the rather strong correlation between errors on Tand P. These results, based on two independent data sets, leave little doubt about deep mantle upwellings with high potential temperatures underpinning mid-ocean ridges. However, the regular spacing of hot spots along mid-ocean ridges remains an unsolved conundrum. Meyzen etal

  8. PEBBED ANALYSIS OF HOT SPOTS IN PEBBLE-BED REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Hans D. Gougar; William K. Terry; Frederik Reitsma; Wessel Joubert

    2005-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory’s PEBBED code and simple probability considerations are used to estimate the likelihood and consequences of the accumulation of highly reactive pebbles in the region of peak power in a pebble-bed reactor. The PEBBED code is briefly described, and the logic of the probability calculations is presented in detail. The results of the calculations appear to show that hot-spot formation produces only moderate increases in peak accident temperatures, and no increases at all in normal operating temperatures.

  9. GEOMETRICAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE HOT SPOT IN BETA LYRAE

    SciTech Connect

    Lomax, Jamie R.; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Elias II, Nicholas M.; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Holenstein, Bruce D. E-mail: Jennifer.Hoffman@du.edu E-mail: fabienne.a.bastien@vanderbilt.edu

    2012-05-01

    We present results from six years of recalibrated and new spectropolarimetric data taken with the University of Wisconsin's Half-Wave Spectropolarimeter and six years of new data taken with the photoelastic modulating polarimeter at the Flower and Cook Observatory of beta Lyrae. Combining these data with polarimetric data from the literature allows us to characterize the intrinsic BVRI polarized light curves. A repeatable discrepancy of 0.245 days (approximately 6 hr) between the secondary minima in the total light curve and the polarization curve in the V band, with similar behavior in the other bands, may represent the first direct evidence for an accretion hot spot on the disk edge.

  10. Hot spots and dark current in advanced plasma wakefield accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manahan, G. G.; Deng, A.; Karger, O.; Xi, Y.; Knetsch, A.; Litos, M.; Wittig, G.; Heinemann, T.; Smith, J.; Sheng, Z. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Andonian, G.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Hidding, B.

    2016-01-01

    Dark current can spoil witness bunch beam quality and acceleration efficiency in particle beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators. In advanced schemes, hot spots generated by the drive beam or the wakefield can release electrons from higher ionization threshold levels in the plasma media. These electrons may be trapped inside the plasma wake and will then accumulate dark current, which is generally detrimental for a clear and unspoiled plasma acceleration process. Strategies for generating clean and robust, dark current free plasma wake cavities are devised and analyzed, and crucial aspects for experimental realization of such optimized scenarios are discussed.

  11. Omar field discovery confirms Syria as exploration hot spot

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-20

    Syria is proving to be one of the Mediterranean's exploration hot spots. The discovery of Omar field by a Shell-led exploration group earlier this year confirmed Syria as a prime exploration prospect. For years Syria produced small volumes of heavy, high-sulfur crude mainly for refining and use in the domestic market and found it difficult to attract foreign explorers. Industry sources say there is now no shortage of outside industry interest in taking new exploration concessions. Over the last 6 months much of the available prospective acreage has been taken up as industry interest in Syria reached nee heights.

  12. Current-induced forces and hot spots in biased nanojunctions.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jing-Tao; Christensen, Rasmus B; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Hedegård, Per; Brandbyge, Mads

    2015-03-01

    We investigate theoretically the interplay of current-induced forces (CIFs), Joule heating, and heat transport inside a current-carrying nanoconductor. We find that the CIFs, due to the electron-phonon coherence, can control the spatial heat dissipation in the conductor. This yields a significant asymmetric concentration of excess heating (hot spot) even for a symmetric conductor. When coupled to the electrode phonons, CIFs drive different phonon heat flux into the two electrodes. First-principles calculations on realistic biased nanojunctions illustrate the importance of the effect. PMID:25793838

  13. Geometrical Constraints on the Hot Spot in Beta Lyrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, Jamie R.; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Elias, Nicholas M., II; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Holenstein, Bruce D.

    2012-05-01

    We present results from six years of recalibrated and new spectropolarimetric data taken with the University of Wisconsin's Half-Wave Spectropolarimeter and six years of new data taken with the photoelastic modulating polarimeter at the Flower and Cook Observatory of beta Lyrae. Combining these data with polarimetric data from the literature allows us to characterize the intrinsic BVRI polarized light curves. A repeatable discrepancy of 0.245 days (approximately 6 hr) between the secondary minima in the total light curve and the polarization curve in the V band, with similar behavior in the other bands, may represent the first direct evidence for an accretion hot spot on the disk edge.

  14. Hot spot-derived shock initiation phenomena in heterogeneous nitromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Dattelbaum, Dana M; Sheffield, Stephen A; Stahl, David B; Dattelbaum, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    The addition of solid silica particles to gelled nitromethane offers a tractable model system for interrogating the role of impedance mismatches as one type of hot spot 'seed' on the initiation behaviors of explosive formulations. Gas gun-driven plate impact experiments are used to produce well-defined shock inputs into nitromethane-silica mixtures containing size-selected silica beads at 6 wt%. The Pop-plots or relationships between shock input pressure and rundistance (or time)-to-detonation for mixtures containing small (1-4 {micro}m) and large (40 {micro}m) beads are presented. Overall, the addition of beads was found to influence the shock sensitivity of the mixtures, with the smaller beads being more sensitizing than the larger beads, lowering the shock initiation threshold for the same run distance to detonation compared with neat nitromethane. In addition, the use of embedded electromagnetic gauges provides detailed information pertaining to the mechanism of the build-up to detonation and associated reactive flow. Of note, an initiation mechanism characteristic of homogeneous liquid explosives, such as nitromethane, was observed in the nitromethane-40 {micro}m diameter silica samples at high shock input pressures, indicating that the influence of hot spots on the initiation process was minimal under these conditions.

  15. Detecting traffic hot spots using vehicle tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhimin; Lin, Zhiyong; Zhou, Cheng; Huang, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    Vehicle tracking data for thousands of urban vehicles and the availability of digital map provide urban planners unprecedented opportunities for better understanding urban transportation. In this paper, we aim to detect traffic hot spots on urban road networks using vehicle tracking data. Our approach first proposes an integrated map-matching algorithm based on the road buffer and vehicle driving direction, to find out which road segment the vehicle is travelling on. Then, we estimate travel speed by calculating the average the speed of every vehicle on a certain road segment, which indicates traffic status, and create the spatial weights matrices based on the connectivity of road segments, which expresses the spatial dependence between each road segment. Finally, the measure of global and local spatial autocorrelation is used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the traffic condition and reveal the traffic hot spots on the road networks. Experiments based on the taxi tracking data and urban road network data from Wuhan have been performed to validate the detection effectiveness.

  16. Hot spot temperature measurements in DT layered implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Pravesh; Ma, T.; Macphee, A.; Callahan, D.; Chen, H.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D.; Edgell, D.; Hurricane, O.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S.; Jarrott, L.; Kritcher, A.; Springer, P.

    2015-11-01

    The temperature of the burning DT hot spot in an ICF implosion is a crucial parameter in understanding the thermodynamic conditions of the fuel at stagnation and and the performance of the implosion in terms of alpha-particle self-heating and energy balance. The continuum radiation spectrum emitted from the hot spot provides an accurate measure of the emissivity-weighted electron temperature. Absolute measurements of the emitted radiation are made with several independent instruments including spatially-resolved broadband imagers, and space- and time-integrated monochromatic detectors. We present estimates of the electron temperature in DT layered implosions derived from the radiation spectrum most consistent with the available measurements. The emissivity-weighted electron temperatures are compared to the neutron-averaged apparent ion temperatures inferred from neutron time-of-flight detectors. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. AY Ceti - A flaring, spotted star with a hot companion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, T.; Fekel, F. C., Jr.; Gibson, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    AY Ceti is a late-type single-line spectroscopic binary, a bright X-ray source (L/x/ equal to about 1.5 x 10 to the 31st ergs/s), and a spotted star, as evidenced by its prominent photometric wave. In this paper, observations made with the IUE satellite and the VLA radio interferometer are reported. The 1200-2000 A UV spectrum of AY Cet shows a hot stellar continuum and a very broad Ly-alpha absorption line from a previously unobserved white dwarf secondary. The UV spectrum can be matched to the energy distribution of a (T/eff/ = 18,000 K, log g = 8) model atmosphere. Superposed on this hot continuum are high-excitation emission lines typical of chromospheres and transition regions of active late-type stars, e.g., the spotted RS CVn binaries. It is concluded that the bright lines and soft X-ray emission of AY Cet arise from the cool primary star, rather than from mass transfer and accretion onto the secondary as has recently been proposed for the similar system 56 Peg. Two strong radio flares on AY Cet were observed. The second was rapidly variable and left-hand circularly polarized at levels up to pi(c) = 86 + or - 5 percent at 20 cm wavelength. The most likely emission mechanism is an electron-cyclotron maser.

  18. Evidence of Hot Spot Activity on BH Virginis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Fuyuan; Tao, Xia; Tian, Yongpo

    2007-10-01

    Photoelectric light curves of BH Vir in the UBVRI bands observed by Arévalo et al. in 1986 were analyzed by using the latest version of the Wilson-Devinney program and to investigate the photometric parameters and spot activity. Satisfactory fits were obtained by assuming a hot spot only on the secondary star. The results show that the temperature of the spotted region relative to the photosphere, Ts / Tph, is 1.13 ± 0.027. The active region tends to occur at low latitude (near 81°). The results also show that the mass ratio obtained from the photoelectric light curves is q = m2 / m1 = 0.971. It is close to the spectroscopic value of 0.968 obtained by Zhai et al. (1990). The photosphere temperature of the primary is T1 = 5969 ± 11 K. After checking of the activity pattern from 1953 to 1991, the activity cycle is estimated to be about 10 yr.

  19. Hot spots and active longitudes: Organization of solar activity as a probe of the interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Taeil; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Scherrer, Phil H.

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate how solar activity is organized in longitude, major solar flares, large sunspot groups, and large scale photospheric magnetic field strengths were analyzed. The results of these analyses are reported. The following results are discussed: hot spots, initially recognized as areas of high concentration of major flares, are the preferred locations for the emergence of big sunspot groups; double hot spots appear in pairs that rotate at the same rate separated by about 180 deg in longitude, whereas, single hot spots have no such companions; the northern and southern hemispheres behave differently in organizing solar activity in longitude; the lifetime of hot spots range from one to several solar cycles; a hot spot is not always active throughout its lifetime, but goes through dormant periods; and hot spots with different rotational periods coexist in the same hemisphere during the same solar cycle.

  20. Hot spots in energetic materials generated by infrared and ultrasound, detected by thermal imaging microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Wei; You, Sizhu; Suslick, Kenneth S; Dlott, Dana D

    2014-02-01

    We have observed and characterized hot spot formation and hot-spot ignition of energetic materials (EM), where hot spots were created by ultrasonic or long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) exposure, and were detected by high-speed thermal microscopy. The microscope had 15-20 μm spatial resolution and 8.3 ms temporal resolution. LWIR was generated by a CO2 laser (tunable near 10.6 μm or 28.3 THz) and ultrasound by a 20 kHz acoustic horn. Both methods of energy input created spatially homogeneous energy fields, allowing hot spots to develop spontaneously due to the microstructure of the sample materials. We observed formation of hot spots which grew and caused the EM to ignite. The EM studied here consisted of composite solids with 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine crystals and polymer binders. EM simulants based on sucrose crystals in binders were also examined. The mechanisms of hot spot generation were different with LWIR and ultrasound. With LWIR, hot spots were most efficiently generated within the EM crystals at LWIR wavelengths having longer absorption depths of ∼25 μm, suggesting that hot spot generation mechanisms involved localized absorbing defects within the crystals, LWIR focusing in the crystals or LWIR interference in the crystals. With ultrasound, hot spots were primarily generated in regions of the polymer binder immediately adjacent to crystal surfaces, rather than inside the EM crystals. PMID:24593369

  1. ALE3D Statistical Hot Spot Model Results for LX-17

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A L III; Tarver, C M; McGuire, E M

    2003-07-11

    The Statistical Hot Spot shock initiation and detonation reactive flow model for solid explosives in the ALE3D hydrodynamic computer code provides physically realistic descriptions of: hot spot formation; ignition (or failure to ignite); growth of reaction (or failure to grow) into surrounding particles; coalescence of reacting hot spots; transition to detonation; and self-sustaining detonation. The model has already successfully modeled several processes in HMX-based explosives, such as shock desensitization, that can not predicted by other reactive flow models. In this paper, the Statistical Hot Spot model is applied to experimental embedded gauge data on the insensitive triaminotrintrobenzene (TATB) based explosive LX-17.

  2. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Harrier, Danielle

    2015-08-12

    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  3. Hot spot formation in electron-doped PCCO nanobridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, S.; Arpaia, R.; Gaudet, J.; Matte, D.; Baghdadi, R.; Löfwander, T.; Golubev, D.; Fournier, P.; Bauch, T.; Lombardi, F.

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated the transport properties of optimally doped Pr2 -xCexCuO4 -δ (PCCO) nanobridges with width down to 100 nm. The critical current density of the nanobridges approaches the Ginzburg-Landau theoretical limit, which demonstrates nanostructures with properties close to the as-grown films. The current voltage characteristics are hysteretic with a sharp voltage switch, of the order of a few millivolts, that we interpret with the occurrence of a hot spot formation. The values of the retrapping current and the voltage switch obtained by modeling the heat transport in the nanobridges are very close to the experimental ones. This feature, together with the extremely short recombination times, make PCCO nanostructures attractive candidates for ultrafast single photon detectors.

  4. Imaging dissipation and hot spots in carbon nanotube network transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, David; Pop, Eric

    2011-02-01

    We use infrared thermometry of carbon nanotube network (CNN) transistors and find the formation of distinct hot spots during operation. However, the average CNN temperature at breakdown is significantly lower than expected from the breakdown of individual nanotubes, suggesting extremely high regions of power dissipation at the CNN junctions. Statistical analysis and comparison with a thermal model allow the estimate of an upper limit for the average tube-tube junction thermal resistance, ˜4.4×1011 K/W (thermal conductance of ˜2.27 pW/K). These results indicate that nanotube junctions have a much greater impact on CNN transport, dissipation, and reliability than extrinsic factors such as low substrate thermal conductivity.

  5. Multifrequency multi-qubit entanglement based on plasmonic hot spots

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jun; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical method to study strong coupling between an ensemble of quantum emitters (QEs) and surface plasmons excited by the nanoparticle cluster has been presented by using a rigorous first-principles electromagnetic Green’s tensor technique. We have demonstrated that multi-qubit entanglements for two-level QEs can be produced at different coupling resonance frequencies, when they locate in the hot spots of the metallic nanoparticle cluster. The duration of quantum beats for such an entanglement can reach two orders longer than that for the entanglement in a photonic cavity. The phenomenon originates from collective coupling resonance excitation of the cluster. At the frequency of single scattering resonance, the entanglement cannot be produced although the single QE spontaneous decay rate is very big. PMID:26350051

  6. A feature-based approach to modeling protein-protein interaction hot spots.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyu-il; Kim, Dongsup; Lee, Doheon

    2009-05-01

    Identifying features that effectively represent the energetic contribution of an individual interface residue to the interactions between proteins remains problematic. Here, we present several new features and show that they are more effective than conventional features. By combining the proposed features with conventional features, we develop a predictive model for interaction hot spots. Initially, 54 multifaceted features, composed of different levels of information including structure, sequence and molecular interaction information, are quantified. Then, to identify the best subset of features for predicting hot spots, feature selection is performed using a decision tree. Based on the selected features, a predictive model for hot spots is created using support vector machine (SVM) and tested on an independent test set. Our model shows better overall predictive accuracy than previous methods such as the alanine scanning methods Robetta and FOLDEF, and the knowledge-based method KFC. Subsequent analysis yields several findings about hot spots. As expected, hot spots have a larger relative surface area burial and are more hydrophobic than other residues. Unexpectedly, however, residue conservation displays a rather complicated tendency depending on the types of protein complexes, indicating that this feature is not good for identifying hot spots. Of the selected features, the weighted atomic packing density, relative surface area burial and weighted hydrophobicity are the top 3, with the weighted atomic packing density proving to be the most effective feature for predicting hot spots. Notably, we find that hot spots are closely related to pi-related interactions, especially pi . . . pi interactions. PMID:19273533

  7. Dynamic programming-based hot spot identification approach for pedestrian crashes.

    PubMed

    Medury, Aditya; Grembek, Offer

    2016-08-01

    Network screening techniques are widely used by state agencies to identify locations with high collision concentration, also referred to as hot spots. However, most of the research in this regard has focused on identifying highway segments that are of concern to automobile collisions. In comparison, pedestrian hot spot detection has typically focused on analyzing pedestrian crashes in specific locations, such as at/near intersections, mid-blocks, and/or other crossings, as opposed to long stretches of roadway. In this context, the efficiency of the some of the widely used network screening methods has not been tested. Hence, in order to address this issue, a dynamic programming-based hot spot identification approach is proposed which provides efficient hot spot definitions for pedestrian crashes. The proposed approach is compared with the sliding window method and an intersection buffer-based approach. The results reveal that the dynamic programming method generates more hot spots with a higher number of crashes, while providing small hot spot segment lengths. In comparison, the sliding window method is shown to suffer from shortcomings due to a first-come-first-serve approach vis-à-vis hot spot identification and a fixed hot spot window length assumption. PMID:27209154

  8. Hot Spots on Io: Correlation of Infrared Emission and Visible Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.; Soderblom, L.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.

    1985-01-01

    The Voyager 1 infrared spectrometer (IRIS) data and two recently compiled data sets (Voyager imaging mosaics and measurements of Io's thermal emission from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility) are correlated. These data were used to refine the correlation between dark spot optical properties (albedo and color) and thermal emission, to examine this correspondence on a satellite-wide scale, and to identify additional hot spots not included in the IRIS inventory. The results suggest the hot spots are liquid sulfur lava lakes, for the following reasons: (1) the melting point of sulfur is 390 K, and the model hot spot temperatures range from approximately 200 to 450 K; (2) the albedos and color of the dark spots, measured from the global mosaics, are consistent with laboratory measurements for liquid sulfur; (3) high resolution images of the dark features show morphologies suggestive of lava lakes; and (4) this hypothesis provides a simple and direct explanation for why dark spots are hot on Io.

  9. Hot Spots on Io: Initial Results From Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes-Gautier, Rosaly; Davies, A. G.; Carlson, R.; Smythe, W.; Kamp, L.; Soderblom, L.; Leader, F. E.; Mehlman, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on Galileo has monitored the volcanic activity on Io since June 28, 1996. This paper presents preliminary analysis of NIMS thermal data for the first four orbits of the Galileo mission. NIMS has detected 18 new hot spots and 12 others which were previously known to be active. The distribution of the hot spots on Io's surface may not be random, as hot spots surround the two bright, SO2-rich regions of Bosphorus Regio and Colchis Regio. Most hot spots scan to be persistently active from orbit to orbit and 10 of those detected were active in 1979 during the Voyager encounters. We report the distribution of hot spot temperatures and find that they are consistent with silicate volcanism.

  10. Hot spots on Io: Initial results from Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes-Gautier, R.; Davies, A.G.; Carlson, R.; Smythe, W.; Kamp, L.; Soderblom, L.; Leader, F.E.; Mehlman, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on Galileo has monitored the volcanic activity on Io since June 28, 1996. This paper presents preliminary analysis of NIMS thermal data for the first four orbits of the Galileo mission. NIMS has detected 18 new hot spots and 12 others which were previously known to be active. The distribution of the hot spots on Io's surface may not be random, as hot spots surround the two bright, SO2-rich regions of Bosphorus Regio and Colchis Regio. Most hot spots seem to be persistently active from orbit to orbit and 10 of those detected were active in 1979 during the Voyager encounters. We report the distribution of hot spot temperatures and find that they are consistent with silicate volcanism. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Experimental Study of Ignition by Hot Spot in Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serruys, Max

    1938-01-01

    In order to carry out the contemplated study, it was first necessary to provide hot spots in the combustion chamber, which could be measured and whose temperature could be changed. It seemed difficult to realize both conditions working solely on the temperature of the cooling water in a way so as to produce hot spots on the cylinder wall capable of provoking autoignition. Moreover, in the majority of practical cases, autoignition is produced by the spark plug, one of the least cooled parts in the engine. The first procedure therefore did not resemble that which most generally occurs in actual engine operation. All of these considerations caused us to reproduce similar hot spots at the spark plugs. The hot spots produced were of two kinds and designated with the name of thermo-electric spark plug and of metallic hot spot.

  12. Hot-Electron Intraband Luminescence from Single Hot Spots in Noble-Metal Nanoparticle Films.

    PubMed

    Haug, Tobias; Klemm, Philippe; Bange, Sebastian; Lupton, John M

    2015-08-01

    Disordered noble-metal nanoparticle films exhibit highly localized and stable nonlinear light emission from subdiffraction regions upon illumination by near-infrared femtosecond pulses. Such hot spot emission spans a continuum in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. Strong plasmonic enhancement of light-matter interaction and the resulting complexity of experimental observations have prevented the development of a universal understanding of the origin of light emission. Here, we study the dependence of emission spectra on excitation irradiance and provide the most direct evidence yet that the continuum emission observed from both silver and gold nanoparticle aggregate surfaces is caused by recombination of hot electrons within the conduction band. The electron gas in the emitting particles, which is effectively decoupled from the lattice temperature for the duration of emission, reaches temperatures of several thousand Kelvin and acts as a subdiffraction incandescent light source on subpicosecond time scales. PMID:26296132

  13. Hot-Electron Intraband Luminescence from Single Hot Spots in Noble-Metal Nanoparticle Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, Tobias; Klemm, Philippe; Bange, Sebastian; Lupton, John M.

    2015-08-01

    Disordered noble-metal nanoparticle films exhibit highly localized and stable nonlinear light emission from subdiffraction regions upon illumination by near-infrared femtosecond pulses. Such hot spot emission spans a continuum in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. Strong plasmonic enhancement of light-matter interaction and the resulting complexity of experimental observations have prevented the development of a universal understanding of the origin of light emission. Here, we study the dependence of emission spectra on excitation irradiance and provide the most direct evidence yet that the continuum emission observed from both silver and gold nanoparticle aggregate surfaces is caused by recombination of hot electrons within the conduction band. The electron gas in the emitting particles, which is effectively decoupled from the lattice temperature for the duration of emission, reaches temperatures of several thousand Kelvin and acts as a subdiffraction incandescent light source on subpicosecond time scales.

  14. Methodology and software to detect viral integration site hot-spots

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Modern gene therapy methods have limited control over where a therapeutic viral vector inserts into the host genome. Vector integration can activate local gene expression, which can cause cancer if the vector inserts near an oncogene. Viral integration hot-spots or 'common insertion sites' (CIS) are scrutinized to evaluate and predict patient safety. CIS are typically defined by a minimum density of insertions (such as 2-4 within a 30-100 kb region), which unfortunately depends on the total number of observed VIS. This is problematic for comparing hot-spot distributions across data sets and patients, where the VIS numbers may vary. Results We develop two new methods for defining hot-spots that are relatively independent of data set size. Both methods operate on distributions of VIS across consecutive 1 Mb 'bins' of the genome. The first method 'z-threshold' tallies the number of VIS per bin, converts these counts to z-scores, and applies a threshold to define high density bins. The second method 'BCP' applies a Bayesian change-point model to the z-scores to define hot-spots. The novel hot-spot methods are compared with a conventional CIS method using simulated data sets and data sets from five published human studies, including the X-linked ALD (adrenoleukodystrophy), CGD (chronic granulomatous disease) and SCID-X1 (X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency) trials. The BCP analysis of the human X-linked ALD data for two patients separately (774 and 1627 VIS) and combined (2401 VIS) resulted in 5-6 hot-spots covering 0.17-0.251% of the genome and containing 5.56-7.74% of the total VIS. In comparison, the CIS analysis resulted in 12-110 hot-spots covering 0.018-0.246% of the genome and containing 5.81-22.7% of the VIS, corresponding to a greater number of hot-spots as the data set size increased. Our hot-spot methods enable one to evaluate the extent of VIS clustering, and formally compare data sets in terms of hot-spot overlap. Finally, we show that the

  15. Hot/Cold Spots in Italian Macroseismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchan, G.; Kronrod, T.; Panza, G. F.

    2011-03-01

    Site effect is usually associated with local geological conditions, which increase or decrease the level of shaking compared with standard attenuation relations. We made an attempt to see in the macroseismic data of Italy some other effects, namely, hot/cold spots in the terminology of O lsen (in Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 90, 6B, 577-594, 2000), which are related to local fault geometry rather than to soil conditions. We give a list of towns and villages liable to amplify (+) or to reduce (-) the level of shaking in comparison with the nearby settlements. Relief and soil conditions cannot always account for the anomalous sites. Further, there are sites where both (+) and (-) effects are observed depending on the earthquake. The opposite effects can be generated by events from the same seismotectonic zone and along the same direction to the site. Anomalous sites may group themselves into clusters of different scales. All isolated anomalous patterns presented in this paper can be used in hazard analysis, in particular, for the modeling and testing of seismic effects.

  16. Mutation hot spots in the canine herpesvirus thymidine kinase gene.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shinya; Matsumoto, Yasunobu; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Otsuka, Haruki

    2005-08-01

    The guanine and cytosine content (GC-content) of alpha-herpesvirus genes are highly variable despite similar genome structures. It is known that drug resistant HSV, which has the genome with a high GC-content (approximately 70%), commonly includes frameshift mutations in homopolymer stretches of guanine (G) and cytosine (C) within the thymidine kinase (TK) gene. However, whether such mutation hotspots exist in the TK gene of canine herpesvirus (CHV) which has a low GC-content was unknown. In this study, we investigated mutations in the TK gene of CHV. CHV was passaged in the presence of iodo-deoxyuridine (IDU), and IDU-resistant clones were isolated. In all IDU-resistant virus clones, mutations in the TK gene were observed. The majority of these mutations were frameshift mutations of an adenine (A) insertion or deletion within either of 2 stretches of eight A's in the TK gene. It was demonstrated that CHV TK mutations frequently occur at a limited number of hot spots within long homopolymer nucleotide stretches. PMID:15965615

  17. Concentration of Strontium-90 at Selected Hot Spots in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Steinhauser, Georg; Schauer, Viktoria; Shozugawa, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    This study is dedicated to the environmental monitoring of radionuclides released in the course of the Fukushima nuclear accident. The activity concentrations of β− -emitting 90Sr and β−/γ-emitting 134Cs and 137Cs from several hot spots in Japan were determined in soil and vegetation samples. The 90Sr contamination levels of the samples were relatively low and did not exceed the Bq⋅g−1 range. They were up four orders of magnitude lower than the respective 137Cs levels. This study, therefore, experimentally confirms previous predictions indicating a low release of 90Sr from the Fukushima reactors, due to its low volatility. The radiocesium contamination could be clearly attributed to the Fukushima nuclear accident via its activity ratio fingerprint (134Cs/137Cs). Although the correlation between 90Sr and 137Cs is relatively weak, the data set suggests an intrinsic coexistence of both radionuclides in the contaminations caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident. This observation is of great importance not only for remediation campaigns but also for the current food monitoring campaigns, which currently rely on the assumption that the activity concentrations of β−-emitting 90Sr (which is relatively laborious to determine) is not higher than 10% of the level of γ-emitting 137Cs (which can be measured quickly). This assumption could be confirmed for the samples investigated herein. PMID:23505440

  18. On the difficulty to delimit disease risk hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charras-Garrido, M.; Azizi, L.; Forbes, F.; Doyle, S.; Peyrard, N.; Abrial, D.

    2013-06-01

    Representing the health state of a region is a helpful tool to highlight spatial heterogeneity and localize high risk areas. For ease of interpretation and to determine where to apply control procedures, we need to clearly identify and delineate homogeneous regions in terms of disease risk, and in particular disease risk hot spots. However, even if practical purposes require the delineation of different risk classes, such a classification does not correspond to a reality and is thus difficult to estimate. Working with grouped data, a first natural choice is to apply disease mapping models. We apply a usual disease mapping model, producing continuous estimations of the risks that requires a post-processing classification step to obtain clearly delimited risk zones. We also apply a risk partition model that build a classification of the risk levels in a one step procedure. Working with point data, we will focus on the scan statistic clustering method. We illustrate our article with a real example concerning the bovin spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) an animal disease whose zones at risk are well known by the epidemiologists. We show that in this difficult case of a rare disease and a very heterogeneous population, the different methods provide risk zones that are globally coherent. But, related to the dichotomy between the need and the reality, the exact delimitation of the risk zones, as well as the corresponding estimated risks are quite different.

  19. Inhibition of turbulence in inertial-confinement-fusion hot spots by viscous dissipation.

    PubMed

    Weber, C R; Clark, D S; Cook, A W; Busby, L E; Robey, H F

    2014-05-01

    Achieving ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires the formation of a high-temperature (>10 keV) central hot spot. Turbulence has been suggested as a mechanism for degrading the hot-spot conditions by altering transport properties, introducing colder, mixed material, or reducing the conversion of radially directed kinetic energy to hot-spot heating. We show, however, that the hot spot is very viscous, and the assumption of turbulent conditions in the hot spot is incorrect. This work presents the first high-resolution, three-dimensional simulations of National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosion experiments using detailed knowledge of implosion dynamics and instability seeds and including an accurate model of physical viscosity. We find that when viscous effects are neglected, the hot spot can exhibit a turbulent kinetic energy cascade. Viscous effects, however, are significant and strongly damp small-scale velocity structures, with a hot-spot Reynolds number in the range of only 10-100. PMID:25353903

  20. The evolutionary turnover of recombination hot spots contributes to speciation in mice.

    PubMed

    Smagulova, Fatima; Brick, Kevin; Pu, Yongmei; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel; Petukhova, Galina V

    2016-02-01

    Meiotic recombination is required for the segregation of homologous chromosomes and is essential for fertility. In most mammals, the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination are directed to a subset of genomic loci (hot spots) by sequence-specific binding of the PRDM9 protein. Rapid evolution of the DNA-binding specificity of PRDM9 and gradual erosion of PRDM9-binding sites by gene conversion will alter the recombination landscape over time. To better understand the evolutionary turnover of recombination hot spots and its consequences, we mapped DSB hot spots in four major subspecies of Mus musculus with different Prdm9 alleles and in their F1 hybrids. We found that hot spot erosion governs the preferential usage of some Prdm9 alleles over others in hybrid mice and increases sequence diversity specifically at hot spots that become active in the hybrids. As crossovers are disfavored at such hot spots, we propose that sequence divergence generated by hot spot turnover may create an impediment for recombination in hybrids, potentially leading to reduced fertility and, eventually, speciation. PMID:26833728

  1. The evolutionary turnover of recombination hot spots contributes to speciation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Smagulova, Fatima; Brick, Kevin; Pu, Yongmei; Camerini-Otero, R. Daniel; Petukhova, Galina V.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is required for the segregation of homologous chromosomes and is essential for fertility. In most mammals, the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination are directed to a subset of genomic loci (hot spots) by sequence-specific binding of the PRDM9 protein. Rapid evolution of the DNA-binding specificity of PRDM9 and gradual erosion of PRDM9-binding sites by gene conversion will alter the recombination landscape over time. To better understand the evolutionary turnover of recombination hot spots and its consequences, we mapped DSB hot spots in four major subspecies of Mus musculus with different Prdm9 alleles and in their F1 hybrids. We found that hot spot erosion governs the preferential usage of some Prdm9 alleles over others in hybrid mice and increases sequence diversity specifically at hot spots that become active in the hybrids. As crossovers are disfavored at such hot spots, we propose that sequence divergence generated by hot spot turnover may create an impediment for recombination in hybrids, potentially leading to reduced fertility and, eventually, speciation. PMID:26833728

  2. Transport implications of hydrodynamic mix on hot-spot performance in inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xianzhu

    2014-10-01

    In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. We quantify this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation using contrasting 1-D and 2-D hydrodynamic simulations, and identify its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed. In the presence of magnetic fields, the thermal conduction is reduced which reduces the effect of ablative stabilization on mix mitigation while also reducing the amount of cold fuel being ablated into the hot-spot. A characterization of the transport enhanced mix characteristics with and without magnetic fields is performed to identify a regime where fusion-performance degradation is reduced by mix mitigation, through which the amount of cold fuel being ablated into the hot-spot is minimized.

  3. Hot spot generation in energetic materials created by long-wavelength infrared radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ming-Wei; You, Sizhu; Suslick, Kenneth S.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2014-02-10

    Hot spots produced by long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) radiation in an energetic material, crystalline RDX (1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine), were studied by thermal-imaging microscopy. The LWIR source was a CO{sub 2} laser operating in the 28-30 THz range. Hot spot generation was studied using relatively low intensity (∼100 W cm{sup −2}), long-duration (450 ms) LWIR pulses. The hot spots could be produced repeatedly in individual RDX crystals, to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of hot spot generation by LWIR, since the peak hot-spot temperatures were kept to ∼30 K above ambient. Hot spots were generated preferentially beneath RDX crystal planes making oblique angles with the LWIR beam. Surprisingly, hot spots were more prominent when the LWIR wavelength was tuned to be weakly absorbed (absorption depth ∼30 μm) than when the LWIR wavelength was strongly absorbed (absorption depth ∼5 μm). This unexpected effect was explained using a model that accounts for LWIR refraction and RDX thermal conduction. The weakly absorbed LWIR is slightly focused underneath the oblique crystal planes, and it penetrates the RDX crystals more deeply, increasing the likelihood of irradiating RDX defect inclusions that are able to strongly absorb or internally focus the LWIR beam.

  4. Hot spot detection for breast cancer in Ki-67 stained slides: image dependent filtering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, M. Khalid Khan; Downs-Kelly, Erinn; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2014-03-01

    We present a new method to detect hot spots from breast cancer slides stained for Ki67 expression. It is common practice to use centroid of a nucleus as a surrogate representation of a cell. This often requires the detection of individual nuclei. Once all the nuclei are detected, the hot spots are detected by clustering the centroids. For large size images, nuclei detection is computationally demanding. Instead of detecting the individual nuclei and treating hot spot detection as a clustering problem, we considered hot spot detection as an image filtering problem where positively stained pixels are used to detect hot spots in breast cancer images. The method first segments the Ki-67 positive pixels using the visually meaningful segmentation (VMS) method that we developed earlier. Then, it automatically generates an image dependent filter to generate a density map from the segmented image. The smoothness of the density image simplifies the detection of local maxima. The number of local maxima directly corresponds to the number of hot spots in the breast cancer image. The method was tested on 23 different regions of interest images extracted from 10 different breast cancer slides stained with Ki67. To determine the intra-reader variability, each image was annotated twice for hot spots by a boardcertified pathologist with a two-week interval in between her two readings. A computer-generated hot spot region was considered a true-positive if it agrees with either one of the two annotation sets provided by the pathologist. While the intra-reader variability was 57%, our proposed method can correctly detect hot spots with 81% precision.

  5. Uranium Bioreduction Rates across Scales: Biogeochemical Hot Moments and Hot Spots during a Biostimulation Experiment at Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Chen; Wu, Hongfei; Li, Li; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2014-09-02

    We aim to understand the scale-dependent evolution of uranium bioreduction during a field experiment at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and to immobilize aqueous U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Bicarbonate was coinjected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI). We used reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic and geochemical data and to quantify rates at the grid block (0.25 m) and experimental field scale (tens of meters). Although local rates varied by orders of magnitude in conjunction with biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, field-scale rates were dominated by those orders of magnitude higher rates at a few selected hot spots where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maxima in the vicinity of the injection wells. At particular locations, the hot moments with maximum rates negatively corresponded to their distance from the injection wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced local rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 39.4%, its effect at the field scale was limited to a maximum of 10.0%. We propose a rate-versus-measurement-length relationship (log R' = -0.63

  6. Studies of Hot Spots in Imploding Wire Arrays at 1 MA on COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuz, Sergey A.; Shelkovenko, Tatiana A.; McBride, Ryan D.; Hammer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We present recent results from hot spot investigations in imploding Al wire array z-pinches on the COBRA generator at Cornell University using x-ray diagnostics. Measurements of the temporal and spatial distribution of hot spots in stagnating plasmas by an x-ray streak-camera are included. Experiments show that hot spots have nanosecond lifetime and appear randomly along the array axis after plasma stagnation in secondary pinches in 8 mm diameter and during plasma stagnation in the arrays with 4 mm diameter.

  7. Studies of Hot Spots in Imploding Wire Arrays at 1 MA on COBRA

    SciTech Connect

    Pikuz, Sergey A.; Shelkovenko, Tatiana A.; McBride, Ryan D.; Hammer, David A.

    2009-01-21

    We present recent results from hot spot investigations in imploding Al wire array z-pinches on the COBRA generator at Cornell University using x-ray diagnostics. Measurements of the temporal and spatial distribution of hot spots in stagnating plasmas by an x-ray streak-camera are included. Experiments show that hot spots have nanosecond lifetime and appear randomly along the array axis after plasma stagnation in secondary pinches in 8 mm diameter and during plasma stagnation in the arrays with 4 mm diameter.

  8. Calculation of TIR Canopy Hot Spot and Implications for Earth Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. A.; Ballard, J. R., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Using a 3-D model for thermal infrared exitance and the Lowtran 7 atmospheric radiative transfer model, we compute the variation in brightness temperature with view direction and, in particular, the canopy thermal hot spot. We then perform a sensitivity analysis of surface energy balance components for a nominal case using a simple SVAT model given the uncertainty in canopy temperature arising from the thermal hot spot effect. Canopy thermal hot spot variations of two degrees C lead to differences of plus or minus 24% in the midday available energy.

  9. New 40Ar/39Ar age progression for the Louisville hot spot trail and implications for inter-hot spot motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Gowen, Molly D.; Colwell, Lauren E.; Gee, Jeffrey S.; Lonsdale, Peter F.; Mahoney, John J.; Duncan, Robert A.

    2011-12-01

    In this study we present 42 new 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating age determinations that contribute to an updated age progression for the Louisville seamount trail. Louisville is the South Pacific counterpart to the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount trail, both trails representing intraplate volcanism over the same time interval (˜80 Ma to present) and being examples of primary hot spot lineaments. Our data provide evidence for an age-progressive trend from 71 to 21 Ma. Assuming fixed hot spots, this makes possible a direct comparison to the Hawaiian-Emperor age progression and the most recent absolute plate motion (APM) model (WK08G) of Wessel and Kroenke (2008). We observe that for the Louisville seamount trail the measured ages are systematically older relative to both the WK08G model predictions and Hawaiian seamount ages, with offsets ranging up to 6 Myr. Taking into account the uncertainty about the duration of eruption and magmatic succession at individual Louisville volcanoes, these age offsets should be considered minimum estimates, as our sampling probably tended to recover the youngest lava flows. These large deviations point to either a contribution of inter-hot spot motion between the Louisville and Hawaiian hot spots or to a more easterly location of the Louisville hot spot than the one inferred in the WK08G model. Both scenarios are investigated in this paper, whereby the more eastern hot spot location (52.0°S, 134.5°W versus 52.4°S, 137.2°W) reduces the average age offset, but still results in a relatively large maximum offset of 3.7 Myr. When comparing the new ages to the APM models (S04P, S04G) by Steinberger et al. (2004) that attempt to compensate for the motion of hot spots in the Pacific (Hawaii) or globally (Hawaii, Louisville, Reunion and Walvis), the measured and predicted ages are more in agreement, showing only a maximum offset of 2.3 Myr with respect to the S04G model. At face value these more advanced APM models, which consider both plate and

  10. Ring of nine Gamma Ray Burst overlap with the hot spot of my hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2016-03-01

    During 2004 to 2014, a symmetry axis and a cold spot (a structure of one billion light years across) of CMB were observed, and I supposed there is a hot spot, and there is a symmetry between the cold spot and the hot spot of CMB. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2430415 http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2014.MAR.Y33.9 In 2015, a Ring of Nine Gamma Ray Burst (a structure of FIVE BILLION light years across) which is a part of structure of double helix and overlap with the hot spot was observed. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3185193 The Ring of Nine Gamma Ray Burst could be explained by the hot spot. There is a balance systemic model with structure of double helix of the flat universe between cold spot and hot spot-a balance between stellar matter and dark massenergy (include dark matter and dark energy). The model can explain of the Hubble's redshift. There is a larger dark hole instead of the huge black hole of the center of the Milky Way galaxy, and a dark hole builds up a balance system with sun. This model should explain of the seasonal Extinctions. http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2015.APR.H14.8

  11. Magnetised accretion discs in Kerr spacetimes. II. Hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Federico; Ranea-Sandoval, Ignacio F.; Johannsen, Tim

    2016-03-01

    Context. Quasi-periodic variability has been observed in a number of X-ray binaries that harbor black hole candidates. In general relativity, black holes are uniquely described by the Kerr metric and, according to the cosmic censorship conjecture, curvature singularities always have to be clothed by an event horizon. Aims: In this paper, we study the observed light curves that arise from orbiting hotspots in thin accretion discs around Kerr black holes and naked singularities, and the effect introduced by the presence of an external magnetic field. Methods: We employ a ray-tracing algorithm to calculate the light curves and power spectra of these hot spots as seen by a distant observer for uniform and dipolar magnetic field configurations, assuming a weak coupling between the magnetic field and the disc matter. Results: We show that the presence of an external dipolar magnetic field leads to potentially observable modifications of these light curves for both Kerr black holes and naked singularities, while an external uniform magnetic field has practically no effect. In particular, we demonstrate that the emission from a hotspot, which is orbiting near the innermost stable circular orbit of a naked singularity in a dipolar magnetic field, can be significantly harder than the emission of the same hotspot in the absence of this type of magnetic field. Conclusions: The comparison of our model with observational data may allow us to study the geometry of magnetic fields around compact objects and to test the cosmic censorship conjecture in conjunction with other observables, such as thermal continuum spectra and iron line profiles.

  12. Hot spot assisted blinking suppression of CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Liu; Tong, Xuan; Zhang, Xu; Ren, Naifei; Jiang, Bo; Lu, Haifei

    2016-05-01

    This work compares the blinking of CdSe QDs on glass, single silver nanowire, and double aligned nanowires. The corresponding on-time fractions of these three cases are 50%, 70% and 85% respectively, which indicates that aligned double nanowires shows more efficient suppression than that of single nanowire. This phenomenon is attributed to the higher concentration of hot electron from hot spot between nanowires. Occupation of the non-radiative recombination centers by hot electrons from silver nanowires can be explained for the suppressed blinking behavior. The result has provided a novel pathway of suppressing the blinking behavior of QDs through plasmonic hot spot.

  13. Fireball ejection from a molten hot spot to air by localized microwaves.

    PubMed

    Dikhtyar, Vladimir; Jerby, Eli

    2006-02-01

    A phenomenon of fireball ejection from hot spots in solid materials (silicon, germanium, glass, ceramics, basalt, etc.) to the atmosphere is presented. The hot spot is created in the substrate material by the microwave-drill mechanism [Jerby, Science 298, 587 (2002)10.1126/science.1077062]. The vaporized drop evolved from the hot spot is blown up, and forms a stable fireball buoyant in the air. The experimental observations of fireball ejection from silicate hot spots are referred to the Abrahamson-Dinniss theory [Nature (London) 403, 519 (2000)10.1038/35000525] suggesting a mechanism for ball-lightning initiation in nature. The fireballs observed in our experiments tend to absorb the available microwave power entirely, similarly to the plasmon resonance effect in submicron wavelengths [Nie and Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997)10.1126/science.275.5303.1102]. PMID:16486835

  14. Process window limiting hot spot monitoring for high-volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochemsen, Marinus; Anunciado, Roy; Timoshkov, Vadim; Hunsche, Stefan; Zhou, Xinjian; Jones, Chris; Callan, Neal

    2016-03-01

    As process window margins for cutting edge DUV lithography continue to shrink, the impact of systematic patterning defects on final yield increases. Finding process window limiting hot spot patterns and monitoring them in high volume manufacturing (HVM) is increasingly challenging with conventional methods, as the size of critical defects can be below the resolution of traditional HVM inspection tools. We utilize a previously presented computational method of finding hot spot patterns by full chip simulation and use this to guide high resolution review tools by predicting the state of the hot spots on all fields of production wafers. In experiments with a 10nm node Metal LELELE vehicle we show a 60% capture rate of after-etch defects down to 3nm in size, at specific hot spot locations. By using the lithographic focus and dose correction knobs we can reduce the number of patterning defects for this test case by ~60%.

  15. Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets.

    PubMed

    Regan, S P; Epstein, R; Hammel, B A; Suter, L J; Scott, H A; Barrios, M A; Bradley, D K; Callahan, D A; Cerjan, C; Collins, G W; Dixit, S N; Döppner, T; Edwards, M J; Farley, D R; Fournier, K B; Glenn, S; Glenzer, S H; Golovkin, I E; Haan, S W; Hamza, A; Hicks, D G; Izumi, N; Jones, O S; Kilkenny, J D; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; Ma, T; MacFarlane, J J; MacKinnon, A J; Mancini, R C; McCrory, R L; Meezan, N B; Meyerhofer, D D; Nikroo, A; Park, H-S; Ralph, J; Remington, B A; Sangster, T C; Smalyuk, V A; Springer, P T; Town, R P J

    2013-07-26

    Mixing of plastic ablator material, doped with Cu and Ge dopants, deep into the hot spot of ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion implosions by hydrodynamic instabilities is diagnosed with x-ray spectroscopy on the National Ignition Facility. The amount of hot-spot mix mass is determined from the absolute brightness of the emergent Cu and Ge K-shell emission. The Cu and Ge dopants placed at different radial locations in the plastic ablator show the ablation-front hydrodynamic instability is primarily responsible for hot-spot mix. Low neutron yields and hot-spot mix mass between 34(-13,+50)  ng and 4000(-2970,+17 160)  ng are observed. PMID:23931375

  16. Calculation of the fast ion tail distribution for a spherically symmetric hot spot

    SciTech Connect

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z.; Berk, H. L.

    2014-10-15

    The fast ion tail for a spherically symmetric hot spot is computed via the solution of a simplified Fokker-Planck collision operator. Emphasis is placed on describing the energy scaling of the fast ion distribution function in the hot spot as well as the surrounding cold plasma throughout a broad range of collisionalities and temperatures. It is found that while the fast ion tail inside the hot spot is significantly depleted, leading to a reduction of the fusion yield in this region, a surplus of fast ions is observed in the neighboring cold plasma region. The presence of this surplus of fast ions in the neighboring cold region is shown to result in a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

  17. Strong superchiral field in hot spots and its interaction with chiral molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yineng

    We have found that strong superchiral fields created by surface plasmon resonance exist in hot spots of nonchiral plasmonic structure, which showed a chiral density greater than that of circularly polarized light by hundreds of times. We have demonstrated a direct correlation between the chirality of the local field and the circular dichroism (CD) response at the plasmon resonance bands induced by chiral molecules in the hot spots. Our results reveal that the wavelength-dependent superchiral fields in the hot spots can play a crucial role in the determination of the plasmonic CD effect. This finding is in contrast to the currently accepted physical model in which the electromagnetic field intensity in hot spots is a key factor to determine the peak intensity of the plasmonic CD spectrum. Some related experimental phenomena have been explained by using our theoretical analysis. The work was supported by the China National Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 11504306).

  18. [Assessment of solitary hot spots of bone scintigraphy in patients with extraskeletal malignancies].

    PubMed

    Tomoda, Y; Ishino, Y; Nakata, H

    2001-11-01

    Bone scintigraphy is widely used to detect bone metastasis owing to its high sensitivity, but solitary focus of increased uptake often causes diagnostic problem because of its low specificity. The purpose of this study was to assess the significance of solitary hot spot detected in patients with extraskeletal malignancies. We reviewed 1,167 consecutive bone scintigraphies of patients with history of lung, breast or prostatic cancer. There was 185 bone scans showing solitary hot spot (lung; 121, breast; 36, prostate; 28). Of the solitary hot spots, 30 (24.8%) in lung cancer, 8 (22.2%) in breast cancer, and 4 (14.3%) in prostatic cancer were a result of metastatic disease. There was no significant difference in the frequency of bone metastasis according to the site of primary tumor. It was relatively higher in the location of pelvis, scapula and thoracic spine. Clinical symptoms, particularly local bone pain, were helpful to diagnose the solitary hot spot. PMID:11806083

  19. Calculation of the fast ion tail distribution for a spherically symmetric hot spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z.; Berk, H. L.

    2014-10-01

    The fast ion tail for a spherically symmetric hot spot is computed via the solution of a simplified Fokker-Planck collision operator. Emphasis is placed on describing the energy scaling of the fast ion distribution function in the hot spot as well as the surrounding cold plasma throughout a broad range of collisionalities and temperatures. It is found that while the fast ion tail inside the hot spot is significantly depleted, leading to a reduction of the fusion yield in this region, a surplus of fast ions is observed in the neighboring cold plasma region. The presence of this surplus of fast ions in the neighboring cold region is shown to result in a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

  20. Ion distribution in the hot spot of an inertial confinement fusion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xianzhu; Guo, Zehua; Berk, Herb

    2012-10-01

    Maximizing the fusion gain of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for inertial fusion energy (IFE) applications leads to the standard scenario of central hot spot ignition followed by propagating burn wave through the cold/dense assembled fuel. The fact that the hot spot is surrounded by cold but dense fuel layer introduces subtle plasma physics which requires a kinetic description. Here we perform Fokker-Planck calculations and kinetic PIC simulations for an ICF plasma initially in pressure balance but having large temperature gradient over a narrow transition layer. The loss of the fast ion tail from the hot spot, which is important for fusion reactivity, is quantified by Fokker-Planck models. The role of electron energy transport and the ambipolar electric field is investigated via kinetic simulations and the fluid moment models. The net effect on both hot spot ion temperature and the ion tail distribution, and hence the fusion reactivity, is elucidated.

  1. Characterizing Hot-Spot Dynamics of Direct-Drive Cryogenic Implosions on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. S.; McKenty, P. W.; Shvydky, A.; Knauer, J. P.; Collins, T. J. B.; Delettrez, J. A.; Keller, D.; Marinak, M. M.

    2015-11-01

    In direct-drive inertial confinement fusion, nonuniformities in laser drive, capsule manufacture, and target positioning lead to non-radial hydrodynamic flow in the hot spot at stagnation. Characterizing such flow in the hot spot requires simulating the entire capsule in three dimensions to remove symmetry boundary conditions, which artificially constrain hot-spot flow. This paper will present results from 3-D simulations of cryogenic implosions on OMEGA using HYDRA. Low-mode asymmetries and their contributions to residual hot-spot kinetic energy will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and performed under the auspices of LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Determination of hot-spot susceptibility of multistring photovoltaic modules in a central-station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Weaver, R. W.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Spencer, R.; Arnett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Part of the effort of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA) includes a program to improve module and array reliability. A collaborative activity with industry dealing with the problem of hot-spot heating due to the shadowing of photovoltaic cells in modules and arrays containing several paralleled cell strings is described. The use of multiparallel strings in large central-station arrays introduces the likelihood of unequal current sharing and increased heating levels. Test results that relate power dissipated, current imbalance, cross-strapping frequency, and shadow configuration to hot-spot heating levels are presented. Recommendations for circuit design configurations appropriate to central-station applications that reduce the risk of hot-spot problems are offered. Guidelines are provided for developing hot-spot tests for arrays when current imbalance is a threat.

  3. Hot spot formation and stagnation properties in simulations of direct-drive NIF implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Andrew J.; Obenschain, Stephen P.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate different proposed methods of increasing the hot spot energy and radius in inertial confinement fusion implosions. In particular, shock mistiming (preferentially heating the inner edge of the target's fuel) and increasing the initial vapor gas density are investigated as possible control mechanisms. We find that only the latter is effective in substantially increasing the hot spot energy and dimensions while achieving ignition. In all cases an increase in the hot spot energy is accompanied by a decrease in the hot spot energy density (pressure) and both the yield and the gain of the target drop substantially. 2D simulations of increased vapor density targets predict an increase in the robustness of the target with respect to surface perturbations but are accompanied by significant yield degradation.

  4. Controlling surface-plasmon-polaritons launching with hot spot cylindrical waves in a metallic slit structure.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wenjie; Sun, Chengwei; Gong, Qihuang; Chen, Jianjun

    2016-09-23

    Plasmonic nanostructures, which are used to generate surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), always involve sharp corners where the charges can accumulate. This can result in strong localized electromagnetic fields at the metallic corners, forming the hot spots. The influence of the hot spots on the propagating SPPs are investigated theoretically and experimentally in a metallic slit structure. It is found that the electromagnetic fields radiated from the hot spots, termed as the hot spot cylindrical wave (HSCW), can greatly manipulate the SPP launching in the slit structure. The physical mechanism behind the manipulation of the SPP launching with the HSCW is explicated by a semi-analytic model. By using the HSCW, unidirectional SPP launching is experimentally realized in an ultra-small metallic step-slit structure. The HSCW bridges the localized surface plasmons and the propagating surface plasmons in an integrated platform and thus may pave a new route to the design of plasmonic devices and circuits. PMID:27533591

  5. Analysis of microstructure-dependent shock dissipation and hot-spot formation in granular metalized explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthy, Sunada; Gonthier, Keith A.

    2016-07-01

    Variations in the microstructure of granular explosives (i.e., particle packing density, size, shape, and composition) can affect their shock sensitivity by altering thermomechanical fields at the particle-scale during pore collapse within shocks. If the deformation rate is fast, hot-spots can form, ignite, and interact, resulting in burn at the macro-scale. In this study, a two-dimensional finite and discrete element technique is used to simulate and examine shock-induced dissipation and hot-spot formation within low density explosives (68%-84% theoretical maximum density (TMD)) consisting of large ensembles of HMX (C4H8N8O8) and aluminum (Al) particles (size ˜ 60 -360 μm). Emphasis is placed on identifying how the inclusion of Al influences effective shock dissipation and hot-spot fields relative to equivalent ensembles of neat/pure HMX for shocks that are sufficiently strong to eliminate porosity. Spatially distributed hot-spot fields are characterized by their number density and area fraction enabling their dynamics to be described in terms of nucleation, growth, and agglomeration-dominated phases with increasing shock strength. For fixed shock particle speed, predictions indicate that decreasing packing density enhances shock dissipation and hot-spot formation, and that the inclusion of Al increases dissipation relative to neat HMX by pressure enhanced compaction resulting in fewer but larger HMX hot-spots. Ensembles having bimodal particle sizes are shown to significantly affect hot-spot dynamics by altering the spatial distribution of hot-spots behind shocks.

  6. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2011-05-01

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

  7. Hot Spots and Hot Times: Wildlife Road Mortality in a Regional Conservation Corridor.

    PubMed

    Garrah, Evelyn; Danby, Ryan K; Eberhardt, Ewen; Cunnington, Glenn M; Mitchell, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Strategies to reduce wildlife road mortality have become a significant component of many conservation efforts. However, their success depends on knowledge of the temporal and spatial patterns of mortality. We studied these patterns along the 1000 Islands Parkway in Ontario, Canada, a 37 km road that runs adjacent to the St. Lawrence River and bisects the Algonquin-to-Adirondacks international conservation corridor. Characteristics of all vertebrate road kill were recorded during 209 bicycle surveys conducted from 2008 to 2011. We estimate that over 16,700 vertebrates are killed on the road from April to October each year; most are amphibians, but high numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles were also found, including six reptiles considered at-risk in Canada. Regression tree analysis was used to assess the importance of seasonality, weather, and traffic on road kill magnitude. All taxa except mammals exhibited distinct temporal peaks corresponding to phases in annual life cycles. Variations in weather and traffic were only important outside these peak times. Getis-Ord analysis was used to identify spatial clusters of mortality. Hot spots were found in all years for all taxa, but locations varied annually. A significant spatial association was found between multiyear hot spots and wetlands. The results underscore the notion that multi-species conservation efforts must account for differences in the seasonality of road mortality among species and that multiple years of data are necessary to identify locations where the greatest conservation good can be achieved. This information can be used to inform mitigation strategies with implications for conservation at regional scales. PMID:26108412

  8. Hot Spots and Hot Times: Wildlife Road Mortality in a Regional Conservation Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrah, Evelyn; Danby, Ryan K.; Eberhardt, Ewen; Cunnington, Glenn M.; Mitchell, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Strategies to reduce wildlife road mortality have become a significant component of many conservation efforts. However, their success depends on knowledge of the temporal and spatial patterns of mortality. We studied these patterns along the 1000 Islands Parkway in Ontario, Canada, a 37 km road that runs adjacent to the St. Lawrence River and bisects the Algonquin-to-Adirondacks international conservation corridor. Characteristics of all vertebrate road kill were recorded during 209 bicycle surveys conducted from 2008 to 2011. We estimate that over 16,700 vertebrates are killed on the road from April to October each year; most are amphibians, but high numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles were also found, including six reptiles considered at-risk in Canada. Regression tree analysis was used to assess the importance of seasonality, weather, and traffic on road kill magnitude. All taxa except mammals exhibited distinct temporal peaks corresponding to phases in annual life cycles. Variations in weather and traffic were only important outside these peak times. Getis-Ord analysis was used to identify spatial clusters of mortality. Hot spots were found in all years for all taxa, but locations varied annually. A significant spatial association was found between multiyear hot spots and wetlands. The results underscore the notion that multi-species conservation efforts must account for differences in the seasonality of road mortality among species and that multiple years of data are necessary to identify locations where the greatest conservation good can be achieved. This information can be used to inform mitigation strategies with implications for conservation at regional scales.

  9. An automated decision-tree approach to predicting protein interaction hot spots.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Steven J; Page, David; Mitchell, Julie C

    2007-09-01

    Protein-protein interactions can be altered by mutating one or more "hot spots," the subset of residues that account for most of the interface's binding free energy. The identification of hot spots requires a significant experimental effort, highlighting the practical value of hot spot predictions. We present two knowledge-based models that improve the ability to predict hot spots: K-FADE uses shape specificity features calculated by the Fast Atomic Density Evaluation (FADE) program, and K-CON uses biochemical contact features. The combined K-FADE/CON (KFC) model displays better overall predictive accuracy than computational alanine scanning (Robetta-Ala). In addition, because these methods predict different subsets of known hot spots, a large and significant increase in accuracy is achieved by combining KFC and Robetta-Ala. The KFC analysis is applied to the calmodulin (CaM)/smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) interface, and to the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)/BMP receptor-type I (BMPR-IA) interface. The results indicate a strong correlation between KFC hot spot predictions and mutations that significantly reduce the binding affinity of the interface. PMID:17554779

  10. Acoustic timescale characterization of hot spot ignition in thermally stratified mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinbacher, Fynn; Regele, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Thermal stratification and the formation of hot spots in reactive mixtures are of key interest to characterize the autoignition behavior of charges in internal combustion engines. Critical gradient conditions and local maximum sizes of a finite hot spot centers can be used to describe such a hot spot. In previous work, one- and two-dimensional hot spots consisting of a linear temperature gradient and constant plateau have been characterized on an acoustic timescale. In the present work, random one-dimensional temperature fields, derived from Fourier superposition for temperature fluctuations with a temperature spectrum similar to Passot-Pouquet kinetic energy spectrum, are analyzed. The linear gradient constant plateau model is compared to a more realistic hot spot temperature profile. Hot spots in the one-dimensional temperature fields are modeled with linear gradients and constant plateaus in order to be characterized with acoustic time scale analysis. Probability distributions for different excitation-to-acoustic timescale ratios are calculated for a range of engine conditions.

  11. Exotic plant species invade hot spots of native plant diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Binkley, D.; Chong, G.W.; Kalkhan, M.A.; Schell, L.D.; Bull, K.A.; Otsuki, Y.; Newman, G.; Bashkin, M.; Yowhan, S.

    1999-01-01

    Some theories and experimental studies suggest that areas of low plant species richness may be invaded more easily than areas of high plant species richness. We gathered nested-scale vegetation data on plant species richness, foliar cover, and frequency from 200 1-m2 subplots (20 1000-m2 modified-Whittaker plots) in the Colorado Rockies (USA), and 160 1-m2 subplots (16 1000-m2 plots) in the Central Grasslands in Colorado, Wyoming, South Dakota, and Minnesota (USA) to test the generality of this paradigm. At the 1-m2 scale, the paradigm was supported in four prairie types in the Central Grasslands, where exotic species richness declined with increasing plant species richness and cover. At the 1-m2 scale, five forest and meadow vegetation types in the Colorado Rockies contradicted the paradigm; exotic species richness increased with native-plant species richness and foliar cover. At the 1000-m2 plot scale (among vegetation types), 83% of the variance in exotic species richness in the Central Grasslands was explained by the total percentage of nitrogen in the soil and the cover of native plant species. In the Colorado Rockies, 69% of the variance in exotic species richness in 1000-m2 plots was explained by the number of native plant species and the total percentage of soil carbon. At landscape and biome scales, exotic species primarily invaded areas of high species richness in the four Central Grasslands sites and in the five Colorado Rockies vegetation types. For the nine vegetation types in both biomes, exotic species cover was positively correlated with mean foliar cover, mean soil percentage N, and the total number of exotic species. These patterns of invasibility depend on spatial scale, biome and vegetation type, spatial autocorrelation effects, availability of resources, and species-specific responses to grazing and other disturbances. We conclude that: (1) sites high in herbaceous foliar cover and soil fertility, and hot spots of plant diversity (and

  12. On the generation of pre-trap hot spot tracks: history of La Réunion hot spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, I.; Davaille, A. B.; Kurita, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recent observations made on La Réunion hot spot (Mahoney et al. EPSL 2002) documented the existence of a Réunion hotspot track before the Deccan traps. Based on the location, ages, and geochemical signatures of marine volcanic rocks preserved in the South Tethian suture zone of Pakistan, they suggested that the Réunion hotspot was active off northwestern Greater India well before the emplacement, far to the South, of the Deccan flood basalts. However, in the classical "Plume's head and tail" framework, the Deccan traps, emplaced 65-66 Myr ago, would represent the signature of the plume head reaching the lithosphere. A pre-trap track, i.e. a pre-head event, remains therefore to be explained. We show here that it could be generated by the filtering effect of the 660-km depth endothermic phase transition, which is expected to delay upwelling plumes and modify their morphology. We investigated experimentally the interaction of thermal starting plumes with a density boundary by using simultaneous visualizations of temperature, composition and velocity fields. In a tank initially stratified with two viscous fluids with different densities and viscosities, a thermal starting plume was generated by using a circular plate heater at the bottom of the tank. Its interaction mode with the inner interface depends on the local buoyancy number (BL: the ratio of the stabilizing chemical buoyancy to the plume thermal buoyancy at the interface), the Rayleigh number (Ra), the viscosity contrast between the chemical layers (γ), and the local viscosity ratio of the ambient material to the plume head (γp). For BL < 0.6, the "Pass-through mode" develops, whereby a large volume of the lower material rises through the upper layer and reaches the top surface, since the plume head has a large thermal buoyancy compared to the stabilizing density contrast between the two layers. When BL > 0.6, the "Rebirth mode" occurs, where the thermal plume ponds and spreads under the chemical boundary

  13. SU-E-T-393: Investigation of Hot Spots in Tomotherapy 3D Conformal Breast Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Q; Siebers, J; Khandelwal, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the root-cause of hotspots inherent to Tomotherapy static beam 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) for breast treatment. ASTRO (ref here) recommends that IMRT be avoided for breast treatments. Despite Tomotherapy's inherent IMRT-like optimization and delivery, our experience at a Tomotherapy-only site has been that Tomotherapy 3DCRT fail to produce a clinically acceptable plan for 79% of our breast patients. Hot-spots have been one of the major obstacles. Methods: Eight lumpectomy patients were planned according to RTOG-1005 specification. Two or four tangential beams were used for 3DCRT breast planning. To spare the contralateral breast and ipsilateral lung, part of the PTV was not covered by the primary beam, yielding adjacent hot-spots. We hypothesize that the planning system creates hotspots adjacent to the cold spots to yield scatter radiation dose compensation in the blocked region. Various phantom and patient setup were used to test the hypothesis. Results: Hot spots outside of PTV in the range of 135% - 174% were observed for patient plan. It is confirmed that the PTV partial block causes the adjacent hot spot. The root cause is the optimizer quadratic objective function over- weighs improving the cold spot. The IMRT flexibility offered by Tomotherapy is counter-productive in static-beam 3DCRT breast treatment. For phantom case, as the Modulation-Factor increases from 1.1 to 5, the hot spot increases from 110% to 300%. Limiting the 3DCRT intensity modulation is shown to produce clinically acceptable plan. Conclusion: Most of the hot spots in Tomotherapy 3DCRT breast plan originate from the planning-system optimizer attempting to cover PTV cold spots rather than from the beam energy. Altering the objective function could improve clinical acceptability of static beam Tomotherapy 3DCRT.

  14. Accounting for "hot spots" and "hot moments" in soil carbon models for water-limited ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Frances; Caylor, Kelly

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in water-limited ecosystems are complicated by the stochastic nature of rainfall and patchy structure of vegetation, which can lead to "hot spots" and "hot moments" of high biological activity. Non-linear models that use spatial and temporal averages of forcing variables are unable to account for these phenomena and are likely to produce biased results. In this study we present a model of SOC abundance that accounts for spatial heterogeneity at the plant scale and temporal variability in soil moisture content at the daily scale. We approximated an existing simulation-based model of SOC dynamics as a stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative noise that can be solved numerically for steady-state sizes of three SOC pools. We coupled this to a model of water balance and SOC input rate at a point for a given cover type, defined by the number of shrub and perennial grass root systems and canopies overlapping the point. Using a probabilistic description of vegetation structure based on a two dimensional Poisson process, we derived analytical expressions for the distribution of cover types across a landscape and produced weighted averages of SOC stocks. An application of the model to a shortgrass steppe ecosystem in Colorado, USA, replicated empirical data on spatial patterns and average abundance of SOC, whereas a version of the model using spatially averaged forcing variables overestimated SOC stocks by 12%. The model also successfully replicated data from paired desert grassland sites in New Mexico, USA, that had and had not been affected by woody plant encroachment, indicating that the model could be a useful tool for understanding and predicting the effect of woody plant encroachment on regional carbon budgets. We performed a theoretical analysis of a simplified version of the model to estimate the bias introduced by using spatial averages of forcing variables to model SOC stocks across a range of climatic conditions

  15. Prediction of hot spots in protein interfaces using a random forest model with hybrid features.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Chen, Luonan

    2012-03-01

    Prediction of hot spots in protein interfaces provides crucial information for the research on protein-protein interaction and drug design. Existing machine learning methods generally judge whether a given residue is likely to be a hot spot by extracting features only from the target residue. However, hot spots usually form a small cluster of residues which are tightly packed together at the center of protein interface. With this in mind, we present a novel method to extract hybrid features which incorporate a wide range of information of the target residue and its spatially neighboring residues, i.e. the nearest contact residue in the other face (mirror-contact residue) and the nearest contact residue in the same face (intra-contact residue). We provide a novel random forest (RF) model to effectively integrate these hybrid features for predicting hot spots in protein interfaces. Our method can achieve accuracy (ACC) of 82.4% and Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.482 in Alanine Scanning Energetics Database, and ACC of 77.6% and MCC of 0.429 in Binding Interface Database. In a comparison study, performance of our RF model exceeds other existing methods, such as Robetta, FOLDEF, KFC, KFC2, MINERVA and HotPoint. Of our hybrid features, three physicochemical features of target residues (mass, polarizability and isoelectric point), the relative side-chain accessible surface area and the average depth index of mirror-contact residues are found to be the main discriminative features in hot spots prediction. We also confirm that hot spots tend to form large contact surface areas between two interacting proteins. Source data and code are available at: http://www.aporc.org/doc/wiki/HotSpot. PMID:22258275

  16. The Median Isn't the Message: Elucidating Nutrient Hot spots and Hot Moments in a Sierra Nevada Forest Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, S. C.; Meadows, M. W.; Johnson, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    Most biogeochemical studies in forests have concentrated on nutrient pools and transformations occurring at relatively large spatial scales (i.e., stand or small catchment), over monthly or annual time scales. Many of these studies have also focused on the average or medial values observed across the spatial or temporal scale studied, discounting outliers. However, extremely high values found consistently (hot spot) or infrequently (hot moment) at a given soil microsite may be critical for nutrient acquisition by organisms and nutrient retention by terrestrial ecosystems. We have been evaluating soil nutrient hot-spot and hot-moment phenomena vertically (to a 60-cm depth) and horizontally (2-m sampling interval within a 6 m x 6 m grid) in two areas within a mixed-conifer, Sierran forest experiencing a Mediterranean-type climate. Nutrient fluxes in space and time were measured using ion exchange resin capsules placed at various depths and collected at two times (first significant precipitation in fall and post-snowmelt in spring) per year. Our previous work over a single year showed that fluxes of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in mineral soil were substantially greater in the spring (post-snowmelt) than in the fall, suggesting that soil water was a major factor in controlling these nutrient fluxes. The opposite pattern was found for NH4+ and Na+, where greater fluxes occurred following the first precipitation event in fall. Here, we report new data over two additional years at these same sites that allow us to better delineate between nutrient hot spots and hot moments. Overall, our results suggest that microbial-mediated nutrients (e.g., NH4+, NO3-, and PO43-) occur frequently as both hot spots and hot moments within soil, while those that are more abiotically controlled (e.g., Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+) occur predominately as hot spots. Further elucidation of the mechanisms responsible for nutrient hot spot-hot moment phenomena within soil should be invaluable for improving the

  17. Characterization of plasma and laser conditions for single hot spot interaction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.S.; Johnson, R.P.; Cobble, J.A.; Fernandez, J.C.; Lindman, E.L.; Rose, H.A.; Estabrook, K.G.

    1998-11-01

    The LANL TRIDENT laser system is being used for fundamental experiments which study the interaction of self-focusing, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a single (diffraction limited) laser hot spot in order to better understand the coupling between these plasma instabilities. The diffraction limited beam mimics a single hot spot found in speckle distributions that are typical of random or kinoform phase plate (RPP or KPP) smoothing. A long scale length, hot plasma ({approximately} 1 mm, {approximately} 0.5 keV) is created by a separate heater beam, and the single hot spot beam is used to drive parametric instabilities. The focal plane distribution and wavefront of the single hot spot beam are characterized, and the intensity of the single hot spot can be varied between 10{sup 14}--10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}. The plasma density, temperature, and flow profiles are measured using gated imaging spectroscopy of collective Thomson scattering. Results of the laser and plasma characterization, and initial results of backscattered SRS, SBS, and beam steering in a flowing plasma are presented.

  18. What controls the distribution and tectono-magmatic features of oceanic hot spot volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acocella, Valerio; Vezzoli, Luigina

    2016-04-01

    Hot spot oceanic volcanoes worldwide show significant deviations from the classic Hawaiian reference model; these mainly concern the distribution of edifices and overall tectono-magmatic features, as the development of the volcanic rift zones and extent of flank instability. Here we try to explain these deviations investigating and comparing the best-known hot spot oceanic volcanoes. At a general scale, these volcanoes show an age-distance progression ranging from focused to scattered. This is here explained as due to several independent factors, as the thermal or mechanical weakening of the plate (due to the lithosphere thickness or regional structures, respectively), or the plume structure. At a more detailed scale, hot spot volcanoes show recurrent features, including mafic shield edifices with summit caldera and volcanic rift zones, often at the head of an unstable flank. However, despite this recurrence, a widespread tectono-magmatic variability is often found. Here we show how this variability depends upon the magma supply and age of the oceanic crust (influencing the thickness of the overlying pelagic sediments). Well-developed rift zones and larger collapses are found on hot spot volcanoes with higher supply rate and older crust, as Hawaii and Canary Islands. Poorly-developed rift zones and limited collapses occur on hot spot volcanoes with lower supply rate and younger crust, as Easter Island and Ascension. Transitional features are observed at hot spots with intermediate productivity (Cape Verde, Reunion, Society Islands and, to a minor extent, the Azores), whereas the scarcity or absence of pelagic sediments may explain the lack of collapses and developed rift zones in the productive Galapagos hot spot.

  19. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-09-15

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ∼34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid” (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry.

  20. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-09-01

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ˜34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the "fast formed liquid" (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry.

  1. Hydrologic indicators of hot spots and hot moments of mercury methylation along river corridors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Michael; Harrison, Lee; Donovan, Patrick; Blum, Joel; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of metals and other contaminants river-floodplain corridors is controlled by microbial activity is often affected by dynamic redox conditions. Riverine flooding thus has the potential to affect speciation of redox-sensitive metals such as mercury (Hg). Therefore, flow history over a period of decades potentially holds information on past production of bioavailable Hg. We investigate this process within a Northern California river system that has a legacy of industrial-scale 19th century hydraulic gold mining. In the first known application of this methodology, we combine hydraulic modeling, measurements of Hg species in sediment and biota, and first-order calculations to assess the role of river floodplains in producing monomethylmercury (MMHg), which accumulates in local and migratory biota. We identify areas that represent 'hot spots' (frequently inundated areas of floodplains) and 'hot moments' (floodplain areas inundated for consecutive long periods). We show that the probability of MMHg production in each sector of the river system is dependent on the spatial patterns of overbank flow and drainage, which affect its long-term redox history. MMHg bioaccumulation within the aquatic food web may pose a major risk to humans and waterfowl that eat migratory salmonids, which are being encouraged to come up these rivers to spawn, and there appears to be no end to MMHg production under a regime of increasingly common large floods with extended duration. These findings identify river floodplains as periodic, temporary, yet important, loci of biogeochemical transformation in which contaminants may undergo change during limited periods of the historical hydrologic record. We suggest that inundation is the primary driver of MMHg production in river corridors and that the entire flow history must be analyzed in terms of magnitude and frequency of inundation in order to accurately assess biogeochemical risks, rather than merely highlighting the

  2. NASA Spots "Hot Towers" in Intensifying Tropical Storm Frank

    NASA Video Gallery

    "Hot towers" (orange) were visible in this animated flyby of data from the Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM satellite. On July 21, the GPM Core satellite measured rainfall rates of o...

  3. Oceanographic characteristics of biological hot spots in the North Pacific: A remote sensing perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, Daniel M.; Bograd, Steven J.; Foley, David G.; Schwing, Franklin B.

    2006-02-01

    Biological hot spots in the ocean are likely created by physical processes and have distinct oceanographic signatures. Marine predators, including large pelagic fish, marine mammals, seabirds, and fishing vessels, recognize that prey organisms congregate at ocean fronts, eddies, and other physical features. Here we use remote sensing observations from multiple satellite platforms to characterize physical oceanographic processes in four regions of the North Pacific Ocean that are recognized as biological hot spots. We use data from the central North Pacific, the northeastern tropical Pacific, the California Current System, and the Galápagos Islands to identify and quantify dynamic features in terms of spatial scale, degree of persistence or recurrence, forcing mechanism, and biological impact. The dominant timescales of these processes vary from interannual (Rossby wave interactions in the central North Pacific) to annual (spring-summer intensification of alongshore winds in the California Current System; winter wind outflow events through mountain gaps into the northeastern tropical Pacific), to intraseasonal (high-frequency equatorial waves at the Galápagos). Satellite oceanographic monitoring, combined with data from large-scale electronic tagging experiments, can be used to conduct a census of biological hot spots, to understand behavioral changes and species interactions within hot spots, and to differentiate the preferred pelagic habitats of different species. The identification and monitoring of biological hot spots could constitute an effective approach to marine conservation and resource management.

  4. A novel approach for hot-spot removal for sub-100nm manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Melody; Anderson, Melissa; Lai, Weinong; Wu, Clive; Tsao, Becky; Chu, Chih-wei; Lin, Char; Chou, Jacky; Tsai, Sidney

    2006-10-01

    Recent advances in lithography simulation have made full-chip lithography rule checking (LRC) practical and even mandatory for many fabs, especially those operating with half-pitches under 100nm. These LRCs routinely identify marginal or even fatal manufacturability problems (hot-spots), especially when simulated through process corners. Until recently, when hot-spots were identified, the only options were to reject the tapeout for additional layout modifications, re-run OPC with a different recipe, or use a DRC-tool to do "blind" cut-and-paste repairs under the assumption that making fatal errors non-fatal is sufficient to make them "good." Using a commercial LRC tool, we will inspect OPC data on a production design to identify a typical volume of real and potential hot-spots. Next, using Halo-Fix from Aprio Technologies, we will apply local repairs, choosing rule-based or model-based repair strategies as appropriate for each type of hot-spot. Using this method, "intelligent" changes in the hot-spot areas can be made which accurately account for lithography interactions and process variations, in order to optimize for manufacturing robustness. To verify that the repairs are acceptable, LRCs will be performed and the results analyzed.

  5. Analysis of recombinational hot spots associated with the p haplotype fo the mouse MHC

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, D.; Khambata, S.; Wydner, K.S.; Passmore, H.C.

    1994-09-01

    Most of the recombination events detected within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of the mouse fall into areas of limited physical size that have been designated recombinational hot spots. One of these hot spots, associated with the Ea gene, appears to be active only in the presence of the p haplotype of the MHC. To study the regulation of the Ea recombinational hot spot and its haplotype specificity, a high-resolution comparative map fo the MHC and adjacent regions was completed in four different backcrosses carrying the p haplotype. This mapping study utilized a total of 29 PCR-based molecular markers, including 7 newly developed markers spanning the region between Pim1 and D17Mit11 on Chromosome 17. The analysis of a total of 1093 backcross animals: (1) revealed that the presence of the p haplotype of the MHC is not sufficient to induce recombination at the Ea hot spot in a dominant manner, and (2) resulted in the definition of a new intra-MHC recombinational hot spot between the Tnfb and the H2-D genes.

  6. Ignition conditions relaxation for central hot-spot ignition with an ion-electron non-equilibrium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhengfeng; Liu, Jie; Liu, Bin; Yu, Chengxin; He, X. T.

    2016-01-01

    Fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility have demonstrated >5 keV hot spot with ρRh lower than 0.3 g/cm2 [Döppner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 055001 (2015)]. We present an ion-electron non-equilibrium model, in which the hot-spot ion temperature is higher than its electron temperature so that the hot-spot nuclear reactions are enhanced while energy leaks are considerably reduced. Theoretical analysis shows that the ignition region would be significantly enlarged in the hot-spot ρR-T space as compared with the commonly used equilibrium model. Simulations show that shocks could be utilized to create and maintain non-equilibrium conditions within the hot spot, and the hot-spot ρR requirement is remarkably reduced for achieving self-heating.

  7. Multiphysics Simulations of Hot-Spot Initiation in Shocked Insensitive High-Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, Fady; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.

    2010-11-01

    Solid plastic-bonded high-explosive materials consist of crystals with micron-sized pores embedded. Under mechanical or thermal insults, these voids increase the ease of shock initiation by generating high-temperature regions during their collapse that might lead to ignition. Understanding the mechanisms of hot-spot initiation has significant research interest due to safety, reliability and development of new insensitive munitions. Multi-dimensional high-resolution meso-scale simulations are performed using the multiphysics software, ALE3D, to understand the hot-spot initiation. The Cheetah code is coupled to ALE3D, creating multi-dimensional sparse tables for the HE properties. The reaction rates were obtained from MD Quantum computations. Our current predictions showcase several interesting features regarding hot spot dynamics including the formation of a "secondary" jet. We will discuss the results obtained with hydro-thermo-chemical processes leading to ignition growth for various pore sizes and different shock pressures.

  8. Lessons from Hot Spot Analysis for Fragment-Based Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Hall, David R; Kozakov, Dima; Whitty, Adrian; Vajda, Sandor

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of binding energy hot spots at protein surfaces can provide crucial insights into the prospects for successful application of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), and whether a fragment hit can be advanced into a high-affinity, drug-like ligand. The key factor is the strength of the top ranking hot spot, and how well a given fragment complements it. We show that published data are sufficient to provide a sophisticated and quantitative understanding of how hot spots derive from a protein 3D structure, and how their strength, number, and spatial arrangement govern the potential for a surface site to bind to fragment-sized and larger ligands. This improved understanding provides important guidance for the effective application of FBDD in drug discovery. PMID:26538314

  9. Testing a class of non-Kerr metrics with hot spots orbiting SgrA*

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Dan; Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo E-mail: zilongli@fudan.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    SgrA*, the supermassive black hole candidate at the Galactic Center, exhibits flares in the X-ray, NIR, and sub-mm bands that may be interpreted within a hot spot model. Light curves and images of hot spots orbiting a black hole are affected by a number of special and general relativistic effects, and they can be potentially used to check whether the object is a Kerr black hole of general relativity. However, in a previous study we have shown that the relativistic features are usually subdominant with respect to the background noise and the model-dependent properties of the hot spot, and eventually it is at most possible to estimate the frequency of the innermost stable circular orbit. In this case, tests of the Kerr metric are only possible in combination with other measurements. In the present work, we consider a class of non-Kerr spacetimes in which the hot spot orbit may be outside the equatorial plane. These metrics are difficult to constrain from the study of accretion disks and indeed current X-ray observations of stellar-mass and supermassive black hole candidates cannot put interesting bounds. Here we show that near future observations of SgrA* may do it. If the hot spot is sufficiently close to the massive object, the image affected by Doppler blueshift is brighter than the other one and this provides a specific observational signature in the hot spot's centroid track. We conclude that accurate astrometric observations of SgrA* with an instrument like GRAVITY should be able to test this class of metrics, except in the more unlikely case of a small viewing angle.

  10. Hot-Spot Mix in Ignition-Scale Implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, S. P.

    2011-10-01

    Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume.The ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraum x-ray drive. Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode (50 < λ < 200) ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and DT cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic-shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a mass-equivalent CH layer, was examined. The amount of hot-spot mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code, is typically below the 100-ng allowance for hot-spot mix.1 Predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results. The measured dependence of hot-spot mix on the implosion velocity and on the high-mode ablator-surface perturbations will be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302. In collaboration with the National Ignition Campaign Mix Working Group. S. W. Haan et. al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011>).

  11. A 3-D Model of Hot-Spot Formation in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Igumenshchev, I. V.

    2015-11-01

    A 3-D model describing the formation of a hot-spot in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions is presented. The model includes thermal conduction and mass ablation effects in a 3-D distorted hot spot using an approach developed by Sanz. Evolution of the nonuniformity growth is calculated based on a sharp boundary model. The results of the model will be compared against 2-D DRACO and 3-D hydrodynamic code calculations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  12. Excess ellipticity of hot and cold spots in the WMAP data?

    SciTech Connect

    Berntsen, Eirik; Hansen, Frode K. E-mail: frodekh@astro.uio.no

    2013-12-10

    We investigate claims of excess ellipticity of hot and cold spots in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. Using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) data from 7 yr of observations by the WMAP satellite, we find, contrary to previous claims of a 10σ detection of excess ellipticity in the 3 yr data, that the ellipticity of hot and cold spots is perfectly consistent with simulated CMB maps based on the concordance cosmology. We further test for excess obliquity and excess skewness/kurtosis of ellipticity and obliquity and find the WMAP7 data consistent with Gaussian simulated maps.

  13. Hot spot analysis in integrated circuit substrates by laser mirage effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perpiñà, X.; Jordà, X.; Vellvehi, M.; Altet, J.

    2011-04-01

    This work shows an analytical and experimental technique for characterizing radial heat flow present in integrated circuits (ICs) when power is dissipated by integrated devices. The analytical model comes from the resolution of the Fermat equation for the trajectory of rays and supposing a spherical heat source dissipating a time-periodic power. An application example is presented; hence demonstrating how hot spots and heat transfer phenomena in the IC substrate can be characterized. The developed method may become a practical alternative to usual off-chip techniques for inspecting hot spots in ICs and to experimentally characterize heat flow in the semiconductor substrate.

  14. Elucidation of the dynamics for hot-spot initiation at nonuniform interfaces of highly shocked materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Qi; Zybin, Sergey V.; Goddard, William A., III; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres; Blanco, Mario; Luo, Sheng-Nian

    2011-12-01

    The fundamental processes in shock-induced instabilities of materials remain obscure, particularly for detonation of energetic materials. We simulated these processes at the atomic scale on a realistic model of a polymer-bonded explosive (3,695,375 atoms/cell) and observed that a hot spot forms at the nonuniform interface, arising from shear relaxation that results in shear along the interface that leads to a large temperature increase that persists long after the shock front has passed the interface. For energetic materials this temperature increase is coupled to chemical reactions that lead to detonation. We show that decreasing the density of the binder eliminates the hot spot.

  15. Sewage treatment plant serves as a hot-spot reservoir of integrons and gene cassettes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liping; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Zhao, Fuzheng; Wu, Bing; Cheng, Shupei; Yang, Liuyan

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the occurrence and abundance of class 1 integrons and related antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in a sewage treatment plant (STP) of China. Totally, 189 bacterial strains were isolated from influent, activated sludge and effluent, and 40 isolates contained the integons with a complete structure. The intl1-carrying isolates were found to harbor two types of gene cassettes: dfr17-aadA5 and aadA2, conferring resistances to trimethoprim and streptomycin, which were further confirmed by antimicrobial susceptibility analysis. Many other gene cassettes were carried on integron, including qnrVC1, catB-8-blaoxa-10-aadA1-aac(6'), aadB-aacA29b, aadA2, aac(6')-1b, aadA6 and aadA12, which were detected using DNA cloning. Quantitative real time PCR showed that over 99% of the integrons was eliminated in activated sludge process, but average copy number of integrons in given bacterial cells was increased by 56% in treated sewage. Besides integrons, other mobile gene elements (MGEs) were present in the STP with high abundance. MGEs and the associated ARGs may be wide-spread in STPs, which constitute a potential hot spot for selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria and horizontal transfer of ARGs. PMID:24620610

  16. Radio lobes and X-ray hot spots of the extraordinary microquasar in NGC 7793

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Roberto; Pakull, Manfred; Broderick, Jess; Corbel, Stephane; Motch, Christian

    2010-07-01

    We have studied the newly-discovered microquasar in NGC 7793 in radio, optical and X-ray bands. This system comprises a large (250×120 pc) line-emitting optical nebula, detected in Ha and HeII λ4686. The optical nebula coincides with a synchrotron-emitting radio cocoon, with a radio luminosity about 3 times that of Cas A. The central BH appears as a hard X-ray source with a point-like, blue optical counterpart. Two prominent radio lobes are located at the extremities of the cocoon. Just ahead of the radio hot spots, we found two X-ray hot spots, which we interpret as a signature of the bow shock into the interstellar medium. The X-ray hot spots, radio hot spots, X-ray core and major axis of the cocoon are well aligned, proving that the system is powered by a jet. From both the X-ray and optical data, we estimate a jet power ~a few×1040 erg s-1, active over a timescale ~105 yrs. This extraordinary system is a long-sought analog of the Galactic microquasar SS433 and may represent a new class of non-nuclear BHs dominated by mechanical power even at very high accretion rates.

  17. A Statistical Hot Spot Reactive Flow Model for Shock Initiation and Detonation of Solid High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A L; Tarver, C M

    2002-07-01

    A statistical hot spot reactive flow model for shock initiation and detonation of solid high explosives developed in the ALE3D hydrodynamic computer code is presented. This model is intended to evolve into a physically correct description of the physical and chemical mechanisms that control the onset of shock initiation via hotspot formation, the growth (01 failure to grow) of these hotspots into the surrounding explosive particles, the rapid transition to detonation, and self-sustaining detonation. Mesoscale modeling of the shock compression and temperature dependent chemical decomposition of individual explosive particles are currently yielding accurate predictions of hot spot formation and the subsequent growth (or failure) of these hotspot reactions in the surrounding grains. For two- and three-dimensional simulations of larger scale explosive charges, a statistical hotspot model that averages over thousands of individual hotspot dimensions and temperatures and then allows exothermic chemical reactions to grow (or fail to grow) due to thermal conduction is required. This paper outlines a first approach to constructing a probabilistic hot spot formulation based on the number density of potential hotspot sites. These hotspots can then either ignite or die out if they do not exceed certain ignition criteria, which are based on physical properties of the explosive particles. The growing hot spots spread at burn velocities given by experimentally determined deflagration velocity versus pressure relationships. The mathematics and assumptions involved in formulating the model and practical examples of its usefulness are given.

  18. Intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single photon detector in the modified hot spot model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Yu

    2014-12-01

    We theoretically study the dependence of the intrinsic detection efficiency (IDE) of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector on the applied current, I, and magnetic field, H. We find that the current, at which the resistive state appears in the superconducting film, depends on the position of the hot spot (a region with suppressed superconductivity around the place where the photon has been absorbed) with respect to the edges of the film. This circumstance leads to inevitable smooth dependence IDE(I) when IDE ˜ 0.05-1, even for a homogenous straight superconducting film and in the absence of fluctuations. For IDE ≲ 0.05, a much sharper current dependence comes from the fluctuation-assisted vortex entry to the hot spot, which is located near the edge of the film. We find that a weak magnetic field strongly affects IDE when the photon detection is connected with fluctuation-assisted vortex entry to the hot spot (IDE \\ll 1), and it weakly affects IDE when the photon detection is connected with the current-induced vortex nucleation in the film with the hot spot (IDE ˜ 0.05-1).

  19. Narrow-bandwidth high-order harmonics driven by long-duration hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Maxim; Kfir, Ofer; Fleischer, Avner; Kaplan, Alex; Carmon, Tal; Schwefel, Harald G. L.; Bartal, Guy; Cohen, Oren

    2012-06-01

    We predict and investigate the emission of high-order harmonics by atoms that cross intense laser hot spots that last for a nanosecond or longer. An atom that moves through a nanometer-scale hot spot at characteristic thermal velocity can emit high-order harmonics in a similar fashion to an atom that is irradiated by a short-duration (picosecond-scale) laser pulse. We analyze the collective emission from a thermal gas and from a jet of atoms. In both cases, the line shape of a high-order harmonic exhibits a narrow spike with spectral width that is determined by the bandwidth of the driving laser. Finally, we discuss a scheme for producing long-duration laser hot spots with intensity in the range of the intensity threshold for high-harmonic generation. In the proposed scheme, the hot spot is produced by a long laser pulse that is consecutively coupled to a high-quality micro-resonator and a metallic nano-antenna. This system may be used for generating ultra-narrow bandwidth extreme-ultraviolet radiation through frequency up-conversion of a low-cost compact pump laser.

  20. Piezo-Electric Hypothesis for Hot Spot Formation Leading to Detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. S.; Cawkwell, M. J.; Ramos, K. J.

    2015-06-01

    The impact to detonation sequence has been a long standing mystery in high explosives (HE). It is widely recognized that detonation begins in spatially-localized ``hot spots'' where chemistry initiates, but the physical mechanisms leading to hot spot formation are unknown. Here we revisit an old hypothesis, first suggested by Maycock and Grabenstein, that piezo-electric effects may be the cause of hot spot formation since most solid HE materials are observed to be highly piezo-electric. In this scenario, shock-induced pressure leads to electric fields of 100's MV/m, sufficient for dielectric breakdown and breaking chemical bonds, rather than via thermal effects. Extrapolation of statically measured piezo-electric coefficients for several HE materials suggests that shock pressures > 100-kbar might lead to field strengths > 100 - 1000 MV/m, but no definitive experimental proof has been obtained to support this. Here we discuss possible experiments to test this hypothesis by measuring the electric field in dynamic HE experiments correlated with hot spot formation. Work performed under the auspices of DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  1. Peripheral Hot Spots for Local Ca2+ Release after Single Action Potentials in Sympathetic Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cseresnyés, Zoltán; Schneider, Martin F.

    2004-01-01

    Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contributes to Ca2+ transients in frog sympathetic ganglion neurons. Here we use video-rate confocal fluo-4 fluorescence imaging to show that single action potentials reproducibly trigger rapidly rising Ca2+ transients at 1–3 local hot spots within the peripheral ER-rich layer in intact neurons in fresh ganglia and in the majority (74%) of cultured neurons. Hot spots were located near the nucleus or the axon hillock region. Other regions exhibited either slower and smaller signals or no response. Ca2+ signals spread into the cell at constant velocity across the ER in nonnuclear regions, indicating active propagation, but spread with a (time)1/2 dependence within the nucleus, consistent with diffusion. 26% of cultured cells exhibited uniform Ca2+ signals around the periphery, but hot spots were produced by loading the cytosol with EGTA or by bathing such cells in low-Ca2+ Ringer's solution. Peripheral hot spots for Ca2+ release within the perinuclear and axon hillock regions provide a mechanism for preferential initiation of nuclear and axonal Ca2+ signals by single action potentials in sympathetic ganglion neurons. PMID:14695260

  2. Hot Accretion Spots and Nitrogen Enhancement in Algol-Type Interacting Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.

    2013-07-01

    The shock from the impact of a gas stream onto the photosphere of a mass gainer in an Algol system is expected to produce a hot spot and also heat circumstellar material that is splashed from the impact site. Furthermore in some cases we expect the stripped-down mass loser (a late-type subgiant) to be nitrogen rich and carbon poor if CNO-processed material is currently being transferred. I will present observational evidence from the Kepler and FUSE spacecrafts for the presence of hot spots and discuss their behavior. FUSE observations of Algols that convincingly show that the gas stream material from some Algol secondaries is N-enhanced and virtually devoid of carbon is also presented. From Kepler data we have identified a long-term phenomenon in which the relative brightness of the quadrature light varies by a few percent and numerically reverses over a time scale of about a 100-400 days. We call the systems T/L (trailing hemisphere/leading hemisphere) variables. Such behavior has never been identified from ground-based photometry. WX Draconis (A8 + K0 IV, P = 1.80 d), a system whose primary displays delta Scuti-like pulsations, is the prototype. The Kepler light curves are being modeled with the latest version of the Wilson-Devinney program that includes the capability of treating migrating hot/cool spots. I will discuss whether the T/L behavior is likely due to a migrating hot accretion spot on the primary or variability in a large cool-spotted area on the secondary. From archival FUSE data we have confirmed the presence of a hot accretion spot in the Algol system U Cephei and present information on the spot parameters/behavior and conditions in a splash plasma from the impact site. Kepler and archival FUSE observations continue to provide important information on the nature of the component stars in Algol systems and the detailed physics of mass transfer, especially the role of accretion hot spots. We are grateful for support from NASA grants NNX11AC78G and

  3. Searching for hot spots and hot moments of soil denitrification in northern hardwood forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, J. L.; Duran, J.; Morillas, L.; Roales, J.; Bailey, S. W.; McGuire, K. J.; Groffman, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Denitrification is a key biogeochemical process that affects nitrogen (N) availability, N losses to aquatic systems, and atmospheric chemistry. In upland forests, denitrification has not been thought to be a major N pathway because it is an anaerobic microbial process that requires nitrate, labile carbon (C), and low oxygen (O2) conditions, which do not occur broadly or consistently throughout forest soils. However, there may be enough spatial and temporal heterogeneity at fine scales to support denitrification rates that are relevant at the landscape scale. To quantify the importance of spatial and temporal variability in soil denitrification in northern hardwood forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF; New Hampshire, USA), we developed two related projects: 1) we sought to identify hot spots of biogeochemical activity, including soil denitrification potential, based on hydropedologic settings and flowpaths in a catchment during the growing season; and 2) we investigated the influence of simulated rainfall events on soil O2 and nitrous oxide concentrations, denitrification rates, and soil respiration during different seasons at HBEF. In the first study, we expected to find that sites dominated by soils with thick Bh horizons (zones of C accumulation) would have the highest denitrification rates. However, despite the variation among soil profiles found in different hydropedologic settings, we did not find significant differences in denitrification potential. Rather, when areal coverage and horizon thickness for the contrasting hydropedologic settings were accounted for, catchment-scale estimates of denitrification potential were about 1/3 higher than conventionally calculated estimates. In the second study, soil O2 in surface horizons only decreased following additions of labile C. Responses of soil respiration and denitrification to simulated rainfall were also influenced by season. While these studies highlight the complex heterogeneity in forest

  4. Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale implosions on the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Hammel, B. A.; Suter, L. J.; Ralph, J.; Scott, H.; Barrios, M. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C.; Collins, G. W.; Dixit, S. N.; Doeppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H.; and others

    2012-05-15

    Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. The Rev. 5 ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraum x-ray drive [D. S. Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 052703 (2010)]. Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode () ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase [B. A. Hammel et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056310 (2011)]. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic-shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a mass-equivalent CH layer, was examined. The inferred amount of hot-spot-mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code [J. J. MacFarlane et al., High Energy Density Phys. 3, 181 (2006)], is typically below the 75-ng allowance for hot-spot mix [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. Predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results.

  5. Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale implosions on the NIFa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; Hammel, B. A.; Suter, L. J.; Ralph, J.; Scott, H.; Barrios, M. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C.; Collins, G. W.; Dixit, S. N.; Doeppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H.; Golovkin, I. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A.; Hicks, D. G.; Izumi, N.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Mancini, R. C.; McCrory, R. L.; Meezan, N. B.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Nikroo, A.; Peterson, K. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Springer, P.; Town, R. P. J.

    2012-05-01

    Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. The Rev. 5 ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraum x-ray drive [D. S. Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 052703 (2010)]. Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode (50<ℓ<200) ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase [B. A. Hammel et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056310 (2011)]. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic-shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a mass-equivalent CH layer, was examined. The inferred amount of hot-spot-mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code [J. J. MacFarlane et al., High Energy Density Phys. 3, 181 (2006)], is typically below the 75-ng allowance for hot-spot mix [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. Predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results.

  6. The Median Isn't the Message: Elucidating Nutrient Hot spots and Hot Moments in a Sierra Nevada Forest Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, M. E.; Hart, S. C.; Johnson, D. W.; Meadows, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Most biogeochemical studies in forests have concentrated on nutrient pools and transformations occurring at relatively large spatial scales (i.e., stand or small catchment), over monthly or annual time scales. Many of these studies have also focused on the average or medial values observed across the spatial or temporal scale studied, discounting outliers. However, extremely high values found consistently (hot spot) or infrequently (hot moment) at a given soil microsite may be critical for nutrient acquisition by organisms and nutrient retention by terrestrial ecosystems. We have been evaluating soil nutrient hot-spot and hot-moment phenomena vertically (to a 60-cm depth) and horizontally (2-m sampling interval within a 6 m x 6 m grid) in two areas within a mixed-conifer, Sierran forest experiencing a Mediterranean-type climate. Nutrient fluxes in space and time were measured using ion exchange resin capsules placed at various depths and collected at two times (first significant precipitation in fall and post-snowmelt in spring) per year. Our previous work over a single year showed that fluxes of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in mineral soil were substantially greater in the spring than in the fall, suggesting that soil water was a major factor in controlling these nutrient fluxes. The opposite pattern was found for NH4+ and Na+, where greater fluxes occurred following the first precipitation event in fall. Here, we report new data over two additional years at these same sites. Over the entire 3-year study, nutrient fluxes were greater in the fall for all mineral soil nutrients except Ca2+ and Mg2+. Calcium fluxes were consistent with previous results; however, Mg2+ demonstrated no statistical significance between fall and spring sampling dates. Generally, the number of high statistical outliers persisted through time for Ca2+ and Mg2+, suggesting hot spots for these nutrients. In contrast, large seasonal and annual changes in the number of high statistical outliers occurred for

  7. Co-Occurring Atomic Contacts for the Characterization of Protein Binding Hot Spots

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Ren, Jing; Song, Jiangning; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    A binding hot spot is a small area at a protein-protein interface that can make significant contribution to binding free energy. This work investigates the substantial contribution made by some special co-occurring atomic contacts at a binding hot spot. A co-occurring atomic contact is a pair of atomic contacts that are close to each other with no more than three covalent-bond steps. We found that two kinds of co-occurring atomic contacts can play an important part in the accurate prediction of binding hot spot residues. One is the co-occurrence of two nearby hydrogen bonds. For example, mutations of any residue in a hydrogen bond network consisting of multiple co-occurring hydrogen bonds could disrupt the interaction considerably. The other kind of co-occurring atomic contact is the co-occurrence of a hydrophobic carbon contact and a contact between a hydrophobic carbon atom and a π ring. In fact, this co-occurrence signifies the collective effect of hydrophobic contacts. We also found that the B-factor measurements of several specific groups of amino acids are useful for the prediction of hot spots. Taking the B-factor, individual atomic contacts and the co-occurring contacts as features, we developed a new prediction method and thoroughly assessed its performance via cross-validation and independent dataset test. The results show that our method achieves higher prediction performance than well-known methods such as Robetta, FoldX and Hotpoint. We conclude that these contact descriptors, in particular the novel co-occurring atomic contacts, can be used to facilitate accurate and interpretable characterization of protein binding hot spots. PMID:26675422

  8. Role of hydrodynamic instability growth in hot-spot mass gain and fusion performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2014-10-15

    In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. Here, this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation is quantified using contrasting 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations, and its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed is identified.

  9. Stress analysis for wall structure in mobile hot cell design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrin, Muhammad Hannan; Rahman, Anwar Abdul; Hamzah, Mohd Arif; Mamat, Mohd Rizal; Azman, Azraf; Hasan, Hasni

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency is developing a Mobile Hot Cell (MHC) in order to handle and manage Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS) such as teletherapy heads and irradiators. At present, there are only two units of MHC in the world, in South Africa and China. Malaysian Mobile Hot cell is developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency with the assistance of IAEA expert, based on the design of South Africa and China, but with improved features. Stress analysis has been performed on the design in order to fulfil the safety requirement in operation of MHC. This paper discusses the loading analysis effect from the sand to the MHC wall structure.

  10. Structural basis for human PRDM9 action at recombination hot spots

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anamika; Horton, John R.; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Zhang, Xing; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    The multidomain zinc finger (ZnF) protein PRDM9 (PRD1–BF1–RIZ1 homologous domain-containing 9) is thought to influence the locations of recombination hot spots during meiosis by sequence-specific DNA binding and trimethylation of histone H3 Lys4. The most common variant of human PRDM9, allele A (hPRDM9A), recognizes the consensus sequence 5′-NCCNCCNTNNCCNCN-3′. We cocrystallized ZnF8–12 of hPRDM9A with an oligonucleotide representing a known hot spot sequence and report the structure here. ZnF12 was not visible, but ZnF8–11, like other ZnF arrays, follows the right-handed twist of the DNA, with the α helices occupying the major groove. Each α helix makes hydrogen-bond (H-bond) contacts with up to four adjacent bases, most of which are purines of the complementary DNA strand. The consensus C:G base pairs H-bond with conserved His or Arg residues in ZnF8, ZnF9, and ZnF11, and the consensus T:A base pair H-bonds with an Asn that replaces His in ZnF10. Most of the variable base pairs (N) also engage in H bonds with the protein. These interactions appear to compensate to some extent for changes from the consensus sequence, implying an adaptability of PRDM9 to sequence variations. We investigated the binding of various alleles of hPRDM9 to different hot spot sequences. Allele C was found to bind a C-specific hot spot with higher affinity than allele A bound A-specific hot spots, perhaps explaining why the former is dominant in A/C heterozygotes. Allele L13 displayed higher affinity for several A-specific sequences, allele L9/L24 displayed lower affinity, and allele L20 displayed an altered sequence preference. These differences can be rationalized structurally and might contribute to the variation observed in the locations and activities of meiotic recombination hot spots. PMID:26833727

  11. High-temperature hot spots on Io as seen by the Galileo solid state imaging (SSI) experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.; Simonelli, D.P.; Senske, D.R.; Klaasen, K.P.; Keszthelyi, L.; Johnson, T.V.; Geissler, P.E.; Carr, M.H.; Belton, M.J.S.

    1997-01-01

    High-temperature hot spots on Io have been imaged at ???50 km spatial resolution by Galileo's CCD imaging system (SSI). Images were acquired during eclipses (Io in Jupiter's shadow) via the SSI clear filter (???0.4-1.0 ??m), detecting emissions from both small intense hot spots and diffuse extended glows associated with Io's atmosphere and plumes. A total of 13 hot spots have been detected over ???70% of Io's surface. Each hot spot falls precisely on a low-albedo feature corresponding to a caldera floor and/or lava flow. The hot-spot temperatures must exceed ???700 K for detection by SSI. Observations at wavelengths longer than those available to SSI require that most of these hot spots actually have significantly higher temperatures (???1000 K or higher) and cover small areas. The high-temperature hot spots probably mark the locations of active silicate volcanism, supporting suggestions that the eruption and near-surface movement of silicate magma drives the heat flow and volcanic activity of Io. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Characterization of the Bacterioferritin/Bacterioferritin Associated Ferredoxin Protein-Protein Interaction in Solution and Determination of Binding Energy Hot Spots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Yao, Huili; Cheng, Yuan; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P; Midaugh, C Russell; Rivera, Mario

    2015-10-13

    Mobilization of iron stored in the interior cavity of BfrB requires electron transfer from the [2Fe−2S] cluster in Bfd to the core iron in BfrB. A crystal structure of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa BfrB:Bfd complex revealed that BfrB can bind up to 12 Bfd molecules at 12 structurally identical binding sites, placing the [2Fe−2S] cluster of each Bfd immediately above a heme group in BfrB [Yao, H., et al. (2012) J. Am. Chem. Soc., 134, 13470−13481]. We report here study aimed at characterizing the strength of the P. aeruginosa BfrB:Bfd association using surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry as well as determining the binding energy hot spots at the protein−protein interaction interface. The results show that the 12 Bfd-binding sites on BfrB are equivalent and independent and that the protein−protein association at each of these sites is driven entropically and is characterized by a dissociation constant (Kd) of approximately 3 μM. Determination of the binding energy hot spots was carried out by replacing certain residues that comprise the protein−protein interface with alanine and by evaluating the effect of the mutation on Kd and on the efficiency of core iron mobilization from BfrB. The results identified hot spot residues in both proteins [LB 68, EA 81, and EA 85 in BfrB (superscript for residue number and subscript for chain) and Y2 and L5 in Bfd] that network at the interface to produce a highly complementary hot region for the interaction. The hot spot residues are conserved in the amino acid sequences of Bfr and Bfd proteins from a number of Gram-negative pathogens, indicating that the BfrB:Bfd interaction is of widespread significance in bacterial iron metabolism. PMID:26368531

  13. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality models, data bases, and other requirements specified in 40 CFR part 51, Appendix W (Guideline on... CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). 93.123 Section 93.123 Protection of... concentrations (hot-spot analysis). (a) CO hot-spot analysis. (1) The demonstrations required by §...

  14. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph... hot-spot analysis in PM10 and PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas for FHWA/FTA projects that...

  15. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph... hot-spot analysis in PM10 and PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas for FHWA/FTA projects that...

  16. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph... hot-spot analysis in PM10 and PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas for FHWA/FTA projects that...

  17. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality models, data bases, and other requirements specified in 40 CFR part 51, Appendix W (Guideline on... CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). 93.123 Section 93.123 Protection of... concentrations (hot-spot analysis). (a) CO hot-spot analysis. (1) The demonstrations required by §...

  18. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph... hot-spot analysis in PM10 and PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas for FHWA/FTA projects that...

  19. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality models, data bases, and other requirements specified in 40 CFR part 51, Appendix W (Guideline on... CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). 93.123 Section 93.123 Protection of... concentrations (hot-spot analysis). (a) CO hot-spot analysis. (1) The demonstrations required by §...

  20. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph... hot-spot analysis in PM10 and PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas for FHWA/FTA projects that...

  1. Timing of hot spot--related volcanism and the breakup of madagascar and India.

    PubMed

    Storey, M; Mahoney, J J; Saunders, A D; Duncan, R A; Kelley, S P; Coffin, M F

    1995-02-10

    Widespread basalts and rhyolites were erupted in Madagascar during the Late Cretaceous. These are considered to be related to the Marion hot spot and the breakup of Madagascar and Greater India. Seventeen argon-40/argon-39 age determinations reveal that volcanic rocks and dikes from the 1500-kilometer-long rifted eastern margin of Madagascar were emplaced rapidly (mean age = 87.6 +/- 0.6 million years ago) and that the entire duration of Cretaceous volcanism on the island was no more than 6 million years. The evidence suggests that the thick lava pile at Volcan de l'Androy in the south of the island marks the focal point of the Marion hot spot at approximately 88 million years ago and that this mantle plume was instrumental in causing continental breakup. PMID:17813912

  2. A DLR small satellite mission for the investigation of hot spots, vegetation and clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brieβ, K.; Jahn, H.; Röser, H. P.

    1996-11-01

    Starting from their FIRES proposal [1]the DLR makes a new approach in the design of a small satellite mission dedicated to hot spot detection and evaluation: the BIRD mission. The new approach is characterized by a strict design-to-cost philosophy. A two-channel infrared sensor system in combination with a Wide-Angle Optoelectronic Stereo Scanner (WAOSS) shall be the payload of a small satellite (80kg) considered for piggyback launch. So the launch is not a main cost driver as for other small satellite missions with dedicated launchers. The paper describes the mission objectives, the scientific payload, the spacecraft bus, and the mission architecture of a small satellite mission dedicated to the investigation of hot spots (forest fires, volcanic activities, burning oil wells or coal seams), of vegetation condition and changes and of clouds. The paper represents some results of a phase A study and of the progressing phase B.

  3. Hot-spot contributions in shocked high explosives from mesoscale ignition models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, G.; Vitello, P.; Howard, W. M.

    2013-06-01

    High explosive performance and sensitivity is strongly related to the mesoscale defect densities. Bracketing the population of mesoscale hot spots that are active in the shocked ignition of explosives is important for the development of predictive reactive flow models. By coupling a multiphysics-capable hydrodynamics code (ale3d) with a chemical kinetics solver (cheetah), we can parametrically analyze different pore sizes undergoing collapse in high pressure shock conditions with evolving physical parameter fields. Implementing first-principles based decomposition kinetics, burning hot spots are monitored, and the regimes of pore sizes that contribute significantly to burnt mass faction and those that survive thermal conduction on the time scales of ignition are elucidated. Comparisons are drawn between the thermal explosion theory and the multiphysics models for the determination of nominal pore sizes that burn significantly during ignition for the explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene.

  4. Influence of hot spot features on the initiation characteristics of heterogeneous nitromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Dattelbaum, Dana M; Sheffield, Stephen A; Stahl, David B; Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Engelke, Ray

    2010-01-01

    To gain insights into the critical hot spot features influencing energetic materials initiation characteristics, well-defined micron-scale particles have been intentionally introduced into the homogeneous explosive nitromethane (NM). Two types of potential hot spot origins have been examined - shock impedance mismatches using solid silica beads, and porosity using hollow microballoons - as well as their sizes and inter-particle separations. Here, we present the results of several series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on NM/particle mixtures with well-controlled shock inputs. Detailed insights into the nature of the reactive flow during the build-up to detonation have been obtained from the response of in-situ electromagnetic gauges, and the data have been used to establish Pop-plots (run-distance-to-detonation vs. shock input pressure) for the mixtures. Comparisons of sensitization effects and energy release characteristics relative to the initial shock front between the solid and hollow beads are presented.

  5. Hot-spot model for calculating the threshold for shock initiation of pyrotechnic mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, D.E.; Nutt, G.L.

    1986-05-14

    A model for predicting the pressure required to initiate a reaction in pyrotechnic mixtures is described. The pore temperature is determined by calculating the dynamics of pore collapse. An approximate solution for the motion of the pore radius is determined as a function of the pore size, viscosity, yield stress and pressure. The heating of the material surrounding the pore is given by an approximate solution of the heat conduction equation with a source term accounting for viscoplastic heating as a function of the pore motion. Ignition occurs when the surface temperature of the pore matches the hot-spot ignition criterion. The hot-spot ignition temperatures for 2Al/Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Ti/2B, and Ti/C are determined. Predictions for the ignition pressure of 2Al/Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (thermite) are in resonable agreement with experiment. 18 refs.

  6. Fusion yield rate recovery by escaping hot-spot fast ions in the neighboring fuel layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu; McDevitt, C. J.; Guo, Zehua; Berk, H. L.

    2014-02-01

    Free-streaming loss by fast ions can deplete the tail population in the hot spot of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target. Escaping fast ions in the neighboring fuel layer of a cryogenic target can produce a surplus of fast ions locally. In contrast to the Knudsen layer effect that reduces hot-spot fusion reactivity due to tail ion depletion, the inverse Knudsen layer effect increases fusion reactivity in the neighboring fuel layer. In the case of a burning ICF target in the presence of significant hydrodynamic mix which aggravates the Knudsen layer effect, the yield recovery largely compensates for the yield reduction. For mix-dominated sub-ignition targets, the yield reduction is the dominant process.

  7. Mantle shear-wave velocity structure beneath the Hawaiian hot spot.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Cecily J; Solomon, Sean C; Laske, Gabi; Collins, John A; Detrick, Robert S; Orcutt, John A; Bercovici, David; Hauri, Erik H

    2009-12-01

    Defining the mantle structure that lies beneath hot spots is important for revealing their depth of origin. Three-dimensional images of shear-wave velocity beneath the Hawaiian Islands, obtained from a network of sea-floor and land seismometers, show an upper-mantle low-velocity anomaly that is elongated in the direction of the island chain and surrounded by a parabola-shaped high-velocity anomaly. Low velocities continue downward to the mantle transition zone between 410 and 660 kilometers depth, a result that is in agreement with prior observations of transition-zone thinning. The inclusion of SKS observations extends the resolution downward to a depth of 1500 kilometers and reveals a several-hundred-kilometer-wide region of low velocities beneath and southeast of Hawaii. These images suggest that the Hawaiian hot spot is the result of an upwelling high-temperature plume from the lower mantle. PMID:19965755

  8. Resolving the electromagnetic mechanism of surface-enhanced light scattering at single hot spots

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-González, P.; Albella, P.; Schnell, M.; Chen, J.; Huth, F.; García-Etxarri, A.; Casanova, F.; Golmar, F.; Arzubiaga, L.; Hueso, L.E.; Aizpurua, J.; Hillenbrand, R.

    2012-01-01

    Light scattering at nanoparticles and molecules can be dramatically enhanced in the 'hot spots' of optical antennas, where the incident light is highly concentrated. Although this effect is widely applied in surface-enhanced optical sensing, spectroscopy and microscopy, the underlying electromagnetic mechanism of the signal enhancement is challenging to trace experimentally. Here we study elastically scattered light from an individual object located in the well-defined hot spot of single antennas, as a new approach to resolve the role of the antenna in the scattering process. We provide experimental evidence that the intensity elastically scattered off the object scales with the fourth power of the local field enhancement provided by the antenna, and that the underlying electromagnetic mechanism is identical to the one commonly accepted in surface-enhanced Raman scattering. We also measure the phase shift of the scattered light, which provides a novel and unambiguous fingerprint of surface-enhanced light scattering. PMID:22353715

  9. ELIPGRID-PC: A PC program for calculating hot spot probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    ELIPGRID-PC, a new personal computer program has been developed to provide easy access to Singer`s 1972 ELIPGRID algorithm for hot-spot detection probabilities. Three features of the program are the ability to determine: (1) the grid size required for specified conditions, (2) the smallest hot spot that can be sampled with a given probability, and (3) the approximate grid size resulting from specified conditions and sampling cost. ELIPGRID-PC also provides probability of hit versus cost data for graphing with spread-sheets or graphics software. The program has been successfully tested using Singer`s published ELIPGRID results. An apparent error in the original ELIPGRID code has been uncovered and an appropriate modification incorporated into the new program.

  10. Non-LTE modeling of the structure and spectra of hot accretion spots on the surface of young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodin, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    The results of modeling the structure and spectra of hot accretion spots on the surface of young stars with allowance made for the departures from LTE for hydrogen and helium are presented. The existence of ram pressure of the infalling gas at the outer boundary of the hot spot has been found to lead to Stark broadening of the hydrogen line profiles to ˜1000 km s-1 at the accretion parameters considered. It is shown that allowance for the departures from LTE for carbon and oxygen atoms and ions does not lead to noticeable changes in the structure of the hot spot.

  11. Wood ant nests as hot spots of carbon dioxide production and cold spots of methane oxidation in temperate forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilkova, Veronika; Picek, Tomas; Cajthaml, Tomas; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Wood ant nests are known as hot spots of carbon dioxide (CO2) production and are also thought to affect methane (CH4) flux. Stable high temperatures are maintained in ant nests even in cold environments. Here we focused on quantification of CO2 and CH4 flux in wood ant nests, contribution of ants and microbes to CO2 production, properties of nest material that affect CO2 production and the role of ants and microbes in the maintenance of nest temperature. The research was conducted in temperate and boreal forests inhabited by wood ants (Formica s. str.). Gas fluxes were measured either by an infrared gas analyser or a static chamber technique. Ants and nest materials were also incubated in a laboratory. Material properties potentially influencing CO2 flux, such as moisture, nutrient content or temperature were determined. According to the results, CH4 oxidation was lower in wood ant nests than in the surrounding forest soil suggesting that some characteristics of ant nests hinder CH4 oxidation or promote CH4 production. These characteristics were mainly available carbon and nitrogen contents. Wood ant nests clearly are hot spots of CO2 production in temperate forests originating mainly from ant and also from microbial metabolism. Most important properties positively affecting CO2 production were found to be moisture, nutrient content and temperature. Nest temperature is maintained by ant and microbial metabolism; nests from colder environments produce more metabolic heat to maintain similar temperature as nests from warmer environments. In conclusion, as the abundance of wood ant nests in some forests can be very high, ant nests may largely increase heterogeneity in greenhouse gas fluxes in forest ecosystems.

  12. Analysis of Binding Site Hot Spots on the Surface of Ras GTPase

    PubMed Central

    Buhrman, Greg; O’Connor, Casey; Zerbe, Brandon; Kearney, Bradley M.; Napoleon, Raeanne; Kovrigina, Elizaveta A.; Vajda, Sandor; Kozakov, Dima; Kovrigin, Evgenii L.; Mattos, Carla

    2011-01-01

    We have recently discovered an allosteric switch in Ras, bringing an additional level of complexity to this GTPase whose mutants are involved in nearly 30% of cancers. Upon activation of the allosteric switch, there is a shift in helix 3/loop 7 associated with a disorder to order transition in the active site. Here, we use a combination of multiple solvent crystal structures and computational solvent mapping (FTMap) to determine binding site hot spots in the “off” and “on” allosteric states of the GTP-bound form of H-Ras. Thirteen sites are revealed, expanding possible target sites for ligand binding well beyond the active site. Comparison of FTMaps for the H and K isoforms reveals essentially identical hot spots. Furthermore, using NMR measurements of spin relaxation, we determined that K-Ras exhibits global conformational dynamics very similar to those we previously reported for H-Ras. We thus hypothesize that the global conformational rearrangement serves as a mechanism for allosteric coupling between the effector interface and remote hot spots in all Ras isoforms. At least with respect to the binding sites involving the G domain, H-Ras is an excellent model for K-Ras and probably N-Ras as well. Ras has so far been elusive as a target for drug design. The present work identifies various unexplored hot spots throughout the entire surface of Ras, extending the focus from the disordered active site to well-ordered locations that should be easier to target. PMID:21945529

  13. Feature-enhancing zoom to facilitate Ki-67 hot spot detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molin, Jesper; Shaga Devan, Kavitha; Wârdell, Karin; Lundström, Claes

    2014-03-01

    Image processing algorithms in pathology commonly include automated decision points such as classifications. While this enables efficient automation, there is also a risk that errors are induced. A different paradigm is to use image processing for enhancements without introducing explicit classifications. Such enhancements can help pathologists to increase efficiency without sacrificing accuracy. In our work, this paradigm has been applied to Ki-67 hot spot detection. Ki-67 scoring is a routine analysis to quantify the proliferation rate of tumor cells. Cell counting in the hot spot, the region of highest concentration of positive tumor cells, is a method increasingly used in clinical routine. An obstacle for this method is that while hot spot selection is a task suitable for low magnification, high magnification is needed to discern positive nuclei, thus the pathologist must perform many zooming operations. We propose to address this issue by an image processing method that increases the visibility of the positive nuclei at low magnification levels. This tool displays the modified version at low magnification, while gradually blending into the original image at high magnification. The tool was evaluated in a feasibility study with four pathologists targeting routine clinical use. In a task to compare hot spot concentrations, the average accuracy was 75+/-4.1% using the tool and 69+/-4.6% without it (n=4). Feedback on the system, gathered from an observer study, indicate that the pathologists found the tool useful and fitting in their existing diagnostic process. The pathologists judged the tool to be feasible for implementation in clinical routine.

  14. The topographic wetness index as a predictor for hot spots of DOC export from catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musolff, Andreas; Oosterwoud, Marieke; Tittel, Jörg; Selle, Benny; Fleckenstein, Jan H.

    2015-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the discharge of many catchments in Europe and North America are rising. This increase is of concern for the drinking water supply from reservoirs since high DOC concentrations cause additional costs in water treatment and potentially the formation of harmful disinfection by-products. A prerequisite for understanding this increase is the knowledge on the spatial distribution of dominant soil DOC sources within catchments and on mobilization as well as transfer processes to the surface water. A number of studies identified wetland soils as the dominant source with fast mobilization and short transit times to the receiving surface water. However, most studies have either focussed on smaller, hillslope and single catchment or on larger scale multi-catchment assessments. Moreover, information on the distribution of soil types in catchments is not always readily available. This study brings together both types of assessment in a data-driven top-down approach: (i) a detailed survey on DOC concentration and loads over the course of one year within two paired data-rich catchments discharging into a large drinking water reservoir in central Germany and (ii) a database of hydrochemistry and physio-geographic characteristics of 113 catchments draining into 58 reservoirs across Germany over the course of 16 years. The objective is to define hot spots of DOC export within the catchments for both types of assessments (i, ii) and to test the suitability of the topographic wetness index (TWI) as a proxy for well-connected wetland soils at various spatial scales. In the sub-catchments of assessment (i) the spatial variability of concentrations and loads was much smaller than expected. None of the studied sub-catchments was a predominant producer of the total DOC loads exported from the catchments. We found the mean concentrations and loads to be positively correlated with the share of groundwater-dominated soils in the sub

  15. 2-(N-acetoxy-N-acetylamino)fluorene mutagenesis in mammalian cells: sequence-specific hot spot.

    PubMed Central

    Gentil, A; Margot, A; Sarasin, A

    1986-01-01

    Mutations induced by 2-(N-acetoxy-N-acetylamino)fluorene were studied using temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 (SV40) mutants as probe in monkey kidney cells. In vitro treatment of the SV40 virions with 2-(N-acetoxy-N-acetylamino)fluorene increased mutagenesis and decreased survival in the viral progeny. A lethal hit of approximately 85 acetylaminofluorene adducts per SV40 genome was calculated. UV irradiation of cells prior to infection did not modify the results. Molecular analysis of independent SV40 revertants showed that 2-(N-acetoxy-N-acetylamino)fluorene induces base substitutions that are located not opposite putative acetylaminofluorene adducts but next to them. Moreover, a hot spot of mutation restoring a true wild-type genotype was observed in 10 of the 16 revertants analyzed. This hot spot, not targeted opposite a major DNA lesion, was not observed using UV light as damaging agent in the same genetic assay. Two models involving the stabilization, by acetylaminofluorene adducts, of the secondary structure of a specific quasipalindromic SV40 sequence are proposed to explain this sequence-specific hot spot. PMID:3025845

  16. Hot spot activity and tectonic settings near Amsterdam-St. Paul plateau (Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janin, M.; HéMond, C.; Guillou, H.; Maia, M.; Johnson, K. T. M.; Bollinger, C.; Liorzou, C.; Mudholkar, A.

    2011-05-01

    The Amsterdam-St. Paul (ASP) plateau is located in the central part of the Indian Ocean and results from the interaction between the ASP hot spot and the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR). It is located near the diffuse boundary between the Capricorn and Australian plates. The seamount chain of the Dead Poets (CDP) is northeast of the ASP plateau and may represent older volcanism related to the ASP hot spot; this chain consists of two groups of seamounts: (1) large flat-topped seamounts formed 8-10 Ma and (2) smaller conical seamounts formed during the last 2 Myr. The ASP hot spot has produced two pulses of magmatism that have been ponded under the ASP plateau and erupted along the divergent boundary between the Capricorn and Australian plates. The N65° orientation of the CDP as well as the seamount's elongated shapes support an opening motion between the Capricorn and Australian plates along a suture oriented in the N155° direction. This motion compared to the Antarctic plate amounts to an apparent velocity of 7.7 cm/yr northeastward for the Capricorn-Australian block. This motion does not fit with a fixed plume model. We suggest, therefore, that the ASP plume experienced a motion of about 1-2 cm/yr to the SW, which is opposite to the asthenospheric flow in this region and suggests a deep-seated plume.

  17. DNA methylation epigenetically silences crossover hot spots and controls chromosomal domains of meiotic recombination in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yelina, Nataliya E.; Lambing, Christophe; Hardcastle, Thomas J.; Zhao, Xiaohui; Santos, Bruno; Henderson, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo crossover recombination, which is typically concentrated in narrow hot spots that are controlled by genetic and epigenetic information. Arabidopsis chromosomes are highly DNA methylated in the repetitive centromeres, which are also crossover-suppressed. Here we demonstrate that RNA-directed DNA methylation is sufficient to locally silence Arabidopsis euchromatic crossover hot spots and is associated with increased nucleosome density and H3K9me2. However, loss of CG DNA methylation maintenance in met1 triggers epigenetic crossover remodeling at the chromosome scale, with pericentromeric decreases and euchromatic increases in recombination. We used recombination mutants that alter interfering and noninterfering crossover repair pathways (fancm and zip4) to demonstrate that remodeling primarily involves redistribution of interfering crossovers. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, we show that crossover remodeling is driven by loss of CG methylation within the centromeric regions. Using cytogenetics, we profiled meiotic DNA double-strand break (DSB) foci in met1 and found them unchanged relative to wild type. We propose that met1 chromosome structure is altered, causing centromere-proximal DSBs to be inhibited from maturation into interfering crossovers. These data demonstrate that DNA methylation is sufficient to silence crossover hot spots and plays a key role in establishing domains of meiotic recombination along chromosomes. PMID:26494791

  18. The Canary and Cape Verde hot spots: morphological and geological links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriat, M.; Olivet, J. L.; Sahabi, M.; Aslanian, D.; Géli, L.

    2003-04-01

    The Canary and Cape-Verde achipelagoes are two groups of volcanic islands, 1400 km apart, located along the African margin of the Central Atlantic Ocean. They are often cited as case examples of the surface expression of two distinct hot-spot plumes. Their distribution, which does not define a line as much oceanic islands of the Pacific Ocean do, but a cluster, is considered as an indication of the steadiness of the African plate in the hot spots reference frame. From a bibliographic review and an examination of existing seismic profiles we emphasize the similarities existing between these two archipelagoes. - A continuous morphological basement ridge does exist along the margin that links the two archipelagoes. - An almost synchronous geological evolution is deduced from the stratigraphy of Fuerteventura island (Canary), Maio island (Cape-Verde), and the few DSDP holes in the area. The stratigraphic record evidences a Late Cretaceous/early Tertiary uplift following the classical oceanic subsidence but pre-dating the Tertiary volcanism that made the islands, or at least their aerial part. These geological arguments induces us to contest the relevance to put two distinct hot spot plumes forward to explain the evolution of such closely related geological structures.

  19. The FTMap family of web servers for determining and characterizing ligand binding hot spots of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kozakov, Dima; Grove, Laurie E.; Hall, David R.; Bohnuud, Tanggis; Mottarella, Scott; Luo, Lingqi; Xia, Bing; Beglov, Dmitri; Vajda, Sandor

    2016-01-01

    FTMap is a computational mapping server that identifies binding hot spots of macromolecules, i.e., regions of the surface with major contributions to the ligand binding free energy. To use FTMap, users submit a protein, DNA, or RNA structure in PDB format. FTMap samples billions of positions of small organic molecules used as probes and scores the probe poses using a detailed energy expression. Regions that bind clusters of multiple probe types identify the binding hot spots, in good agreement with experimental data. FTMap serves as basis for other servers, namely FTSite to predict ligand binding sites, FTFlex to account for side chain flexibility, FTMap/param to parameterize additional probes, and FTDyn to map ensembles of protein structures. Applications include determining druggability of proteins, identifying ligand moieties that are most important for binding, finding the most bound-like conformation in ensembles of unliganded protein structures, and providing input for fragment based drug design. FTMap is more accurate than classical mapping methods such as GRID and MCSS, and is much faster than the more recent approaches to protein mapping based on mixed molecular dynamics. Using 16 probe molecules, the FTMap server finds the hot spots of an average size protein in less than an hour. Since FTFlex performs mapping for all low energy conformers of side chains in the binding site, its completion time is proportionately longer. PMID:25855957

  20. Aquatic Ecosystem Exposure Associated with Atmospheric Mercury Deposition: Importance of Watershed and Water Body Hot Spots and Hot Moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knightes, C. D.; Golden, H. E.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of divalent mercury (Hg(II)) is the often the primary driving force for mercury contamination in fish tissue, resulting in mercury exposure to wildlife and humans. In lake systems associated with small watersheds, direct deposition to the water surface is typically the dominant mercury loading source; however, in lake systems with large watersheds and river systems, these inputs may be relatively small compared to loadings from the watershed via erosion and surface runoff. Within each system, transformation of the deposited mercury into the environmentally relevant form, methylmercury (MeHg), proceeds at different rates largely regulated by physical characteristics such as watershed land use types and water body hydraulic residence times, as water body chemistry, such as pH and trophic status Therefore, to fully represent mercury exposure in aquatic ecosystems, we must couple watershed models with water body models and explore where, why, and when hot spots and hot moments of transformation and transport occur. Here we link the simulated atmospheric mercury deposition results from the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, a spatially distributed grid-based watershed mercury (Hg) model (GBMM), and the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP). We use this multi-media modeling framework to simulate mercury species cycling over time for the different river reaches and watersheds within the Cape Fear River Basin, North Carolina. Through these simulations we investigate the importance of specific watershed and surface water system characteristics in simulating MeHg exposure concentrations. Because GBMM is a spatially-distributed model we are able to investigate the importance of such factors (i.e., watershed area, land-use types, and land-use percentages) in transporting and transforming deposited mercury. We present how particular land-use types and land-use change influence total loading and total mercury concentrations, how

  1. Variability of Jupiter’s Five-Micron Hot Spot Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Orton, G. S.; Wakefield, L.; Rogers, J. H.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Boydstun, K.

    2012-10-01

    Global upheavals on Jupiter involve changes in the albedo of entire axisymmetric regions, lasting several years, with the last two occurring in 1989 and 2006. Against this backdrop of planetary-scale changes, discrete features such as the Great Red Spot (GRS), and other vortices exhibit changes on shorter spatial- and time-scales. We track the variability of the discrete equatorial 5-μm hot spots, semi-evenly spaced in longitude and confined to a narrow latitude band centered at 6.5°N (southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt, NEB), abundant in Voyager images. Tantalizingly similar patterns were observed in the visible (bright plumes and blue-gray regions), where reflectivity in the red is anti-correlated with 5-μm thermal radiance. Ortiz et al. (1998, GRL, 103) characterized the latitude and drift rates of the hot spots, including the descent of the Galileo probe at the southern edge of a 5-μm hot spot, as the superposition of equatorial Rossby waves, with phase speeds between 99 - 103m/s, relative to System III. We note that the high 5-μm radiances correlate well but not perfectly with high 8.57-μm radiances. Because the latter are modulated primarily by changes in the upper ammonia (NH3) ice cloud opacity, this correlation implies that changes in the ammonia ice cloud field may be responsible for the variability seen in the 5-μm maps. During the NEB fade (2011 - early 2012), however, these otherwise ubiquitous features were absent, an atmospheric state not seen in decades. The ongoing NEB revival indicates nascent 5-μm hot spots as early as April 2012, with corresponding visible dark spots. Their continuing growth through July 2012 indicates the possible re-establishment of Rossby waves. The South Equatorial Belt (SEB) and NEB revivals began similarly with an instability that developed into a major outbreak, and many similarities in the observed propagation of clear regions.

  2. Hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Government officials in Montserrat and in Nicaragua spent the first week of December trying to usher residents out of their homes and away from simmering volcanoes in each of those nations. Some people cooperated, others decided to take their chances. On the tiny Caribbean island of Montserrat, about 3,500 people were ordered to vacate their homes for the second time in three months, as a lava dome in the Chances Peak volcano grew and threatened to erupt. In Leon, Nicaragua, at least a third of the 12,000 people ordered to evacuate their homes refused, choosing to protect their homes from looters rather than flee the gurgling Cerro Negro. The Nicaraguan volcano spewed ash and lava 900 m into the air on Dec. 2; the eruption was visible from Managua, 120 km to the southeast.

  3. Distribution of flares on the sun during 1955-1985 - 'Hot spots' (active zones) lasting for 30 years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Taeil

    1988-01-01

    The coordinates of 'major solar flares' observed during the period from January 1955 through August 1985 are analyzed. About 100 'superactive' regions (large, complex, active regions containing large sunspots) produced 46 percent of the major flares during the period. Superactive regions appeared more frequently in certain areas of the sun called 'hot spots' or 'active zones'. The synodic rotation periods of the northern and southern hemisphere hot spots were 26.72 d and 26.61 d, respectively. One of the two hot spots persisted through three solar cycles, and the other was active during cycles 19 and 21 but was dormant during cycle 20. These findings suggest that the mechanism producing hot spots must be stable for two or three solar cycles or longer.

  4. Time-domain interferometry of surface plasmons at nonlinear continuum hot spots in films of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Klemm, Philippe; Haug, Tobias; Bange, Sebastian; Lupton, John M

    2014-12-31

    Nonlinear continuum generation from diffraction-limited hot spots in rough silver films exhibits striking narrow-band intensity resonances in excitation wavelength. Time-domain Fourier spectroscopy uncovers how these resonances arise due to the formation of a "plasmon staircase", a discreteness in the fundamental oscillation of the plasmon excitations responsible for generating the white-light continuum. Whereas multiple scattering from discrete antennas can be invoked to explain hot spot formation in random assemblies of isolated particles, hot spots in films of fused nanoparticles are excited by interfering propagating surface plasmons, launched by scattering from individual nanoparticle antennas. For closed films, discrete propagating plasmons interact coherently over distances of tens of microns to pump the hot spot. PMID:25615373

  5. Characterization of hot spots for natural chloroform formation: Relevance for groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Albers, Christian N.; Laier, Troels

    2015-04-01

    Chloroform soil hot spot may deteriorate groundwater quality and may even result in chloroform concentration exceeding the Danish maximum limit of 1 µg/L in groundwater for potable use. In order to characterize the soil properties important for the chloroform production, various ecosystems were examined with respect to soil air chloroform and soil organic matter type and content. Coniferous forest areas, responsible for highest chloroform concentrations, were examined on widely different scales from km to cm scale. Furthermore, regular soil gas measurements including chloroform were performed during 4 seasons at various depths, together with various meteorological measurements and soil temperature recordings. Laboratory incubation experiments were also performed on undisturbed soil samples in order to examine the role of various microbiota, fungi and bacteria. To identify hot spots responsible for the natural contamination we have measured the production of chloroform in the upper soil from different terrestrial systems. Field measurements of chloroform in top soil air were used as production indicators. The production was however not evenly distributed at any scale. The ecosystems seem to have quite different net-productions of chloroform from very low in grassland to very high in some coniferous forests. Within the forest ecosystem we found large variation in chloroform concentrations depending on vegetation. In beech forest we found the lowest values, somewhat higher in an open pine forest, but the highest concentrations were detected in spruce forest without any vegetation beneath. Within this ecotype, it appeared that the variation was also large; hot spots with 2-4 decades higher production than the surrounding area. These hot spots were not in any way visually different from the surroundings and were of variable size from 3 to 20 meters in diameter. Besides this, measurements within a seemingly homogenous hot spot showed that there was still high

  6. Fossil hot spot-ridge interaction in the Musicians Seamount Province: Geophysical investigations of hot spot volcanism at volcanic elongated ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, H.; Kopp, C.; Phipps Morgan, J.; Flueh, E. R.; Weinrebe, W.; Morgan, W. J.

    2003-03-01

    The Musicians Seamount Province is a group of volcanic elongated ridges (VERs) and single seamounts located north of the Hawaiian Chain. A 327° trending seamount chain defines the western part of the province and has been interpreted as the expression of a Cretaceous hot spot beneath the northward moving Pacific Plate. To the east, elongated E-W striking ridges dominate the morphology. In 1999, wide-angle seismic data were collected across two 400 km long VERs. We present tomographic images of the volcanic edifices, which indicate that crustal thickening occurs in oceanic layer 2 rather than in layer 3. This extrusive style of volcanism appears to strongly contrast with the formation processes of aseismic ridges, where crustal thickening is mostly accommodated by intrusive underplating. High-resolution bathymetry was also collected, which yields a detailed image of the morphology of the VERs. From the occurrence of flat-top guyots and from the unique geomorphologic setting, two independent age constraints for the Pacific crust during the Cretaceous "quiet" zone are obtained, allowing a tectonic reconstruction for the formation of the Musicians VERs. Hot spot-ridge interaction leads to asthenosphere channeling from the plume to the nearby spreading center over a maximum distance of 400 km. The Musicians VERs were formed by mainly extrusive volcanism on top of this melt-generating channel. The proposed formation model may be applicable to a number of observed volcanic ridges in the Pacific, including the Tuamotu Isles, the eastern portion of the Foundation chain, and the western termination of the Salas y Gomez seamount chain.

  7. Predicting hot spots in protein interfaces based on protrusion index, pseudo hydrophobicity and electron-ion interaction pseudopotential features

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Junfeng; Yue, Zhenyu; Di, Yunqiang; Zhu, Xiaolei; Zheng, Chun-Hou

    2016-01-01

    The identification of hot spots, a small subset of protein interfaces that accounts for the majority of binding free energy, is becoming more important for the research of drug design and cancer development. Based on our previous methods (APIS and KFC2), here we proposed a novel hot spot prediction method. For each hot spot residue, we firstly constructed a wide variety of 108 sequence, structural, and neighborhood features to characterize potential hot spot residues, including conventional ones and new one (pseudo hydrophobicity) exploited in this study. We then selected 3 top-ranking features that contribute the most in the classification by a two-step feature selection process consisting of minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance algorithm and an exhaustive search method. We used support vector machines to build our final prediction model. When testing our model on an independent test set, our method showed the highest F1-score of 0.70 and MCC of 0.46 comparing with the existing state-of-the-art hot spot prediction methods. Our results indicate that these features are more effective than the conventional features considered previously, and that the combination of our and traditional features may support the creation of a discriminative feature set for efficient prediction of hot spots in protein interfaces. PMID:26934646

  8. Hot spot mitigation in microprocessors by application of single phase microchannel heat sink and microprocessor floor planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Anjali

    Poor thermal management in high frequency microprocessors results in thermal and mechanical stresses in the chip due to leakage losses, occurrence of hot spots and large temperature gradients. A micro-fluidics based cooling scheme of single phase microchannel heat sinks is found to be most promising cooling solution. Microchannel heat sinks have high cooling capability because of its high surface area to volume ratio and high heat transfer coefficient. Besides the fluid flow, heat transfer mechanism in microchannel heat sinks is affected by its installation on the microprocessor chip. Since microchannel heat sinks are capable of reducing only the average temperature rise of the microprocessor chip, technique of microprocessor floor planning can be applied to reduce hot spot temperature, mitigate multiple hot spots and reduce large temperature gradients on the surface of microprocessor chip. In this study, adequate installation of the microchannel heat sink on the processor chip has been proposed to extract maximum heat from the device. Microprocessor floor planning has also been explored to obtain an optimum chip floor plan on grounds of low performance penalty, low hot spot temperature and minimum number hot spots. The dependence of maximum hot spot temperature of the chip on pressure gradient across the microchannels has also been discussed.

  9. Role of microstructure and thermal transport in determining the rate of hot spot growth in aluminized PBX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Kaushik; Chaudhuri, Santanu

    The mechanisms of initiation and propagation of a hot spot in non-ideal explosives with aluminum additives are poorly understood due to greater complexity introduced by the different thermal and mechanical behavior of the components. In aluminized composites such as PBXN-109, the binder, RDX and Aluminum phases have been studied separately. However, not much is known about deflection of hot spots in the microstructured composite. Especially, the role of adhesion, debonding and thermal conductivity of binder phase is critical in moderating the sensitivity of such interfaces. Using reactive molecular dynamics simulations, the primary binder interfaces in PBXN-109 was investigated. Depending on the temperature of the growing hot spot reaching an RDX or Al/Al2O3 grain, the thermal conductivity and viscoplastic behavior of the binder interface determine the attenuation of reaction front and thermal shock leading the hot spot. Different mechanisms like melt-dispersion and failure of oxide layer for the release of Al in the hot spot regions remain underexplored to connect the chemistry to the microstructure. Although Al/Al2O3/RDX and Al/Al2O3/HTPB interfaces are chemically stable, the hot spot melts the AlxOy layers and create shear bands in aluminum domain due to thermomechanical strain created due to different thermal environment. In a shock-compressed microstructure without voids, the cohesive interaction and chemical composition of such interfaces for different phases of RDX will be presented.

  10. Process window and defect monitoring using high-throughput e-beam inspection guided by computational hot spot detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Pengcheng; Fang, Wei; Liu, Kevin; Jau, Jack; Wang, Lester; Wan, Alex; Hunsche, Stefan; Halder, Sandip; Leray, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    As design rules for leading edge devices have shrunk to 1x nm size and below, device patterns have become sensitive to sub-10nm size defects. Additionally, defectivity and yield are now increasingly dominated by systematic patterning defects. A method for identifying and inspecting these hot spot (HS) locations is necessary for both technology development and High Volume Manufacturing (HVM). In order to achieve sufficient statistical significance across the wafer for a specific product and layer, a guided, high-speed e-beam inspection system is needed to cover a significant amount of high-volume hot spot locations for process window monitoring. In this paper, we explore the capabilities of a novel, highthroughput e-beam hot spot inspection tool, SkyScanTM 5000, on a 10nm back-end-of-line (BEOL) wafer patterned using a triple lithography-etch process. ASML's high-resolution, design-aware computational hot spot inspection is used to identify relevant hot spot locations, including overlay-sensitive patterns. We guide the e-beam tool to these Points of Interest (POI) and obtain experimental data from inspection of 430k wafer locations. The large amount of data allows detection of wafer-level and intra-field defect signatures for a large number of hot spot patterns.

  11. Identification of environmental anomaly hot spots in West Africa from time series of NDVI and rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, Mirco; Nutini, Francesco; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Bartholomé, Etienne; Stroppiana, Daniela; Hoscilo, Agata

    2013-04-01

    Studies of the impact of human activity on vegetation dynamics of the Sahelian belt of Africa have been recently re-invigorated by new scientific findings that highlighted the primary role of climate in the drought crises of the 1970s-1980s. Time series of satellite observations revealed a re-greening of the Sahelian belt that indicates no noteworthy human effect on vegetation dynamics at sub continental scale from the 1980s to late 1990s. However, several regional/local crises related to natural resources occurred in the last decades despite the re-greening thus underlying that more detailed studies are needed. In this study we used time-series (1998-2010) of SPOT-VGT NDVI and FEWS-RFE rainfall estimates to analyse vegetation - rainfall correlation and to map areas of local environmental anomalies where significant vegetation variations (increase/decrease) are not fully explained by seasonal changes of rainfall. Some of these anomalous zones (hot spots) were further analysed with higher resolution images Landsat TM/ETM+ to evaluate the reliability of the identified anomalous behaviour and to provide an interpretation of some example hot spots. The frequency distribution of the hot spots among the land cover classes of the GlobCover map shows that increase in vegetation greenness is mainly located in the more humid southern part and close to inland water bodies where it is likely to be related to the expansion/intensification of irrigated agricultural activities. On the contrary, a decrease in vegetation greenness occurs mainly in the northern part (12°-15°N) in correspondence with herbaceous vegetation covers where pastoral and cropping practices are often critical due to low and very unpredictable rainfall. The results of this study show that even if a general positive re-greening due to increased rainfall is evident for the entire Sahel, some local anomalous hot spots exist and can be explained by human factors such as population growth whose level reaches the

  12. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 and Hot-Stamp Boron Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, Michael L; Frederick, David Alan; Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir spot welds were made in two high-strength steels: DP780, and a hot-stamp-boron steel with tensile strength of 1500 MPa. The spot welds were made at either 800 or 1600 rpm using either of two polycrystalline boron nitride tools. One stir tool, BN77, had the relatively common pin-tool shape. The second tool, BN46, had a convex rather than a concave shoulder profile and a much wider and shorter pin. The tools were plunged to preprogrammed depths either at a continuous rate (1-step schedule) or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate. In all cases, the welds were completed in 4s. The range of lap-shear values were compared to values required for resistance spot welds on the same steels. The minimum value of 10.3 kN was exceeded for friction stir spot welding of DP780 using a 2-step schedule and either the BN77- or the BN46-type stir tool. The respective minimum value of 12 kN was also exceeded for the HSB steel using the 2-step process and the BN46 stir tool.

  13. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 and Hot-Stamp Boron Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, Michael L.; Frederick, Alan; Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.

    2008-05-16

    Friction stir spot welds were made in two high-strength steels: DP780, and a hot-stamp-boron steel with tensile strength of 1500 MPa. The spot welds were made at either 800 or 1600 rpm using either of two polycrystalline boron nitride tools. One stir tool, BN77, had the relatively common pin-tool shape. The second tool, BN46, had a convex rather than a concave shoulder profile and a much wider and shorter pin. The tools were plunged to preprogrammed depths either at a continuous rate (1-step schedule) or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate. In all cases, the welds were completed in 4s. The range of lap-shear values were compared to values required for resistance spot welds on the same steels. The minimum value of 10.3 kN was exceeded for friction stir spot welding of DP780 using a 2-step schedule and either the BN77- or the BN46-type stir tool. The respective minimum value of 12 kN was also exceeded for the HSB steel using the 2-step process and the BN46 stir tool.

  14. The effect of current flow direction on motor hot spot allocation by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Stephani, Caspar; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of pulse configurations and current direction for corticospinal activation using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In 11 healthy subjects (8 female), a motor map for the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from the first dorsal interosseus (FDI), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), extensor carpi radialis, and biceps brachii (BB) muscles of the dominant side was established. Starting from a manually determined hot spot of the FDI representation, we measured MEPs at equal oriented points on an hexagonal grid, with 7 MEPs recorded at each point, using the following pulse configurations: posteriorly directed monophasic (Mo-P), anteriorly directed monophasic (Mo-A), biphasic with the more relevant second cycle oriented posteriorly (Bi-P) as well as a reversed biphasic condition (Bi-A). For each pulse configuration, a hot spot was determined and a center of gravity (CoG) was calculated. We found that the factor current direction had an effect on location of the CoG-adjusted hot spot in the cranio-caudal axis but not in the latero-medial direction with anteriorly directed pulses locating the CoG more anteriorly and vice versa. In addition, the CoG for the FDI was more laterally than the cortical representations for the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) which were registered as well. The results indicate that direction of the current pulse should be taken into account for determination of the motor representation of a muscle by TMS. PMID:26733248

  15. TERT promoter hot spot mutations are frequent in Indian cervical and oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Vinothkumar, Vilvanathan; Arunkumar, Ganesan; Revathidevi, Sundaramoorthy; Arun, Kanagaraj; Manikandan, Mayakannan; Rao, Arunagiri Kuha Deva Magendhra; Rajkumar, Kottayasamy Seenivasagam; Ajay, Chandrasekar; Rajaraman, Ramamurthy; Ramani, Rajendren; Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan

    2016-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix and oral cavity are most common cancers in India. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) overexpression is one of the hallmarks for cancer, and activation through promoter mutation C228T and C250T has been reported in variety of tumors and often shown to be associated with aggressive tumors. In the present study, we analyzed these two hot spot mutations in 181 primary tumors of the uterine cervix and oral cavity by direct DNA sequencing and correlated with patient's clinicopathological characteristics. We found relatively high frequency of TERT hot spot mutations in both cervical [21.4 % (30/140)] and oral [31.7 % (13/41)] squamous cell carcinomas. In cervical cancer, TERT promoter mutations were more prevalent (25 %) in human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative cases compared to HPV-positive cases (20.6 %), and both TERT promoter mutation and HPV infection were more commonly observed in advanced stage tumors (77 %). Similarly, the poor and moderately differentiated tumors of the uterine cervix had both the TERT hot spot mutations and HPV (16 and 18) at higher frequency (95.7 %). Interestingly, we observed eight homozygous mutations (six 228TT and two 250TT) only in cervical tumors, and all of them were found to be positive for high-risk HPV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study from India reporting high prevalence of TERT promoter mutations in primary tumors of the uterine cervix and oral cavity. Our results suggest that TERT reactivation through promoter mutation either alone or in association with the HPV oncogenes (E6 and E7) could play an important role in the carcinogenesis of cervical and oral cancers. PMID:26700669

  16. Modeling of two-dimensional effects in hot spot relaxation in laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaie, Ph.; Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Grech, M.

    2008-06-15

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of plasma heating and temperature hot spots relaxation are presented in the domain where the diffusive approximation for heat transport fails. Under relevant conditions for laser plasma interactions, the effects of the nonlocality of heat transport on the plasma response are studied comparing the Spitzer-Haerm model with several frequently used nonlocal models. The importance of using a high-order numerical scheme to correctly model nonlocal effects is discussed. A significant increase of the temperature relaxation time due to nonlocal heat transport is observed, accompanied by enhanced density perturbations. Applications to plasma-induced smoothing of laser beams are considered.

  17. Rapid experimental SAD phasing and hot-spot identification with halogenated fragments

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Joseph D.; Harrison, Jerry Joe E. K.; Arnold, Eddy

    2016-01-01

    Through X-ray crystallographic fragment screening, 4-bromopyrazole was discovered to be a ‘magic bullet’ that is capable of binding at many of the ligand ‘hot spots’ found in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). The binding locations can be in pockets that are ‘hidden’ in the unliganded crystal form, allowing rapid identification of these sites for in silico screening. In addition to hot-spot identification, this ubiquitous yet specific binding provides an avenue for X-ray crystallographic phase determination, which can be a significant bottleneck in the determination of the structures of novel proteins. The anomalous signal from 4-bromopyrazole or 4-iodopyrazole was sufficient to determine the structures of three proteins (HIV-1 RT, influenza A endonuclease and proteinase K) by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) from single crystals. Both compounds are inexpensive, readily available, safe and very soluble in DMSO or water, allowing efficient soaking into crystals. PMID:26870381

  18. Self-assembled large Au nanoparticle arrays with regular hot spots for SERS.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.; DePrince III, A. E.; Demortiere, A.; Joshi-Imre, A.; Shevchenko, E. V.; Gray, S.K.; Welp, U.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

    2011-08-22

    The cost-effective self-assembly of 80 nm Au nanoparticles (NPs) into large-domain, hexagonally close-packed arrays for high-sensitivity and high-fidelity surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is demonstrated. These arrays exhibit specific optical resonances due to strong interparticle coupling, which are well reproduced by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The gaps between NPs form a regular lattice of hot spots that enable a large amplification of both photoluminescence and Raman signals. At smaller wavelengths the hot spots are extended away from the minimum-gap positions, which allows SERS of larger analytes that do not fit into small gaps. Using CdSe quantum dots (QDs) a 3-5 times larger photoluminescence enhancement than previously reported is experimentally demonstrated and an unambiguous estimate of the electromagnetic SERS enhancement factor of {approx}10{sup 4} is obtained by direct scanning electron microscopy imaging of QDs responsible for the Raman signal. Much stronger enhancement of {approx}10{sup 8} is obtained at larger wavelengths for benzenethiol molecules penetrating the NP gaps.

  19. Global apparent polar wander paths in a hot spot reference frame

    SciTech Connect

    Bocharova, N.Yu.; Scotese, C.R. . Dept. of Geology); Van Der Voo, R. . Dept. Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data provide the basis for plate tectonic reconstructions, especially for the Early mesozoic and Paleozoic. Nevertheless, paleomagnetic pole positions indicate only paleolatitudes of lithospheric blocks without any longitudinal control. If paleomagnetic data, however, are combined with plate motions predicted by the trajectory of hot spot tracks, it is possible to constrain both the latitudinal and longitudinal motion. Global apparent polar wander (GAPW) paths were calculated back to Devonian time (400 Ma), using the paleomagnetic pole summary of Van der Voo (1992) and the global plate tectonic model of the PALEOMAP Project. Only poles with reliability factor not less than 3 were used in the analysis. Individual paleomagnetic poles were rotated in the reference frames of North America, Europe, Siberia, Africa, india, and Australia, and mean poles were calculated at 10 million year intervals. The best results (alpha 95 = 5[degree]) were obtained for Early and Middle Permian. Good results (alpha 95 = 7[degree]) were obtained Early tertiary, Cretaceous, triassic and the Late Carboniferous. Global mean poles for the Early Carboniferous and Early and Middle Jurassic grouped poorly (alpha 95 = 9[degree]). The worst results were obtained for the Devonian (alpha 95 = 11[degree]) and Late Jurassic (alpha 95 = 15[degree]). As a final step, in order to combine the paleomagnetic information with the motions predicted from the hot spot trajectories, stage poles were calculated that fit both the improved GAWP paths and the trajectory of intraplate volcanic chains.

  20. Sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion hot spot properties to the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, J.; Lim, H.; Rana, V.; Cheng, B.; Glimm, J.; Sharp, D. H.; Wilson, D. C.

    2015-02-01

    We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. Variation of this parameter reduces the simulation to experiment discrepancy in some, but not all, experimentally inferred quantities. Using simulations with radiation drives tuned to match experimental shots N120321 and N120405 from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), we carry out sets of simulations with varying amounts of added entropy and examine the sensitivities of important experimental quantities. Neutron yields, burn widths, hot spot densities, and pressures follow a trend approaching their experimentally inferred quantities. Ion temperatures and areal densities are sensitive to the adiabat changes, but do not necessarily converge to their experimental quantities with the added entropy. This suggests that a modification to the simulation adiabat is one of, but not the only explanation of the observed simulation to experiment discrepancies. In addition, we use a theoretical model to predict 3D mix and observe a slight trend toward less mixing as the entropy is enhanced. Instantaneous quantities are assessed at the time of maximum neutron production, determined dynamically within each simulation. These trends contribute to ICF science, as an effort to understand the NIC simulation to experiment discrepancy, and in their relation to the high foot experiments, which features a higher adiabat in the experimental design and an improved neutron yield in the experimental results.

  1. Sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion hot spot properties to the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat

    SciTech Connect

    Melvin, J.; Lim, H.; Rana, V.; Glimm, J.; Cheng, B.; Sharp, D. H.; Wilson, D. C.

    2015-02-15

    We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. Variation of this parameter reduces the simulation to experiment discrepancy in some, but not all, experimentally inferred quantities. Using simulations with radiation drives tuned to match experimental shots N120321 and N120405 from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), we carry out sets of simulations with varying amounts of added entropy and examine the sensitivities of important experimental quantities. Neutron yields, burn widths, hot spot densities, and pressures follow a trend approaching their experimentally inferred quantities. Ion temperatures and areal densities are sensitive to the adiabat changes, but do not necessarily converge to their experimental quantities with the added entropy. This suggests that a modification to the simulation adiabat is one of, but not the only explanation of the observed simulation to experiment discrepancies. In addition, we use a theoretical model to predict 3D mix and observe a slight trend toward less mixing as the entropy is enhanced. Instantaneous quantities are assessed at the time of maximum neutron production, determined dynamically within each simulation. These trends contribute to ICF science, as an effort to understand the NIC simulation to experiment discrepancy, and in their relation to the high foot experiments, which features a higher adiabat in the experimental design and an improved neutron yield in the experimental results.

  2. Confining hot spots in 3C 196 - Implications for QSO-companion galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L.; Broderick, J. J.; Mitchell, K. J.

    1986-01-01

    VLBI observations of the extremely compact hot spot in the northern radio lobe of the QSO 3C 196 reveal the angular size of its smallest substructure to be 0.065 arcsec x 0.045 arcsec or about 300 pc at the redshift distance. The morphology of the hot spot and its orientation relative to the more diffuse radio emission suggest that it is formed by an oblique interaction between the nuclear QSO jet and circum-QSO cloud. The inferred density in this cloud, together with its apparent size, imply that the cloud contains a galactic mass, greater than a billion solar masses of gas. The effect of the jet will be to hasten gravitational collapse of the cloud. If many QSOs such as 3C 196 are formed or found in gas-rich environments, the QSO radio phase may commonly stimulate the metamorphosis of circum-QSO gas to QSO-companion galaxies or it may play a significant part in catalyzing star formation in existing companions.

  3. Confining hot spots in 3C 196 - implications for QSO-companion galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.L.; Broderick, J.J.; Mitchell, K.J.

    1986-07-01

    VLBI observations of the extremely compact hot spot in the northern radio lobe of the QSO 3C 196 reveal the angular size of its smallest substructure to be 0.065 arcsec x 0.045 arcsec or about 300 pc at the redshift distance. The morphology of the hot spot and its orientation relative to the more diffuse radio emission suggest that it is formed by an oblique interaction between the nuclear QSO jet and circum-QSO cloud. The inferred density in this cloud, together with its apparent size, imply that the cloud contains a galactic mass, greater than a billion solar masses of gas. The effect of the jet will be to hasten gravitational collapse of the cloud. If many QSOs such as 3C 196 are formed or found in gas-rich environments, the QSO radio phase may commonly stimulate the metamorphosis of circum-QSO gas to QSO-companion galaxies or it may play a significant part in catalyzing star formation in existing companions. 30 references.

  4. Grain-Scale Simulations of Hot-Spot Initiation for Shocked TATB

    SciTech Connect

    Najjar, F; Howard, W; Fried, L

    2009-07-31

    High-explosive (HE) material consists of large-sized grains with micron-sized embedded impurities and pores. Under various mechanical/thermal insults, these pores collapse generating high-temperature regions leading to ignition. A computational study has been performed to investigate the mechanisms of pore collapse and hot spot initiation in TATB crystals, employing the thermohydrodynamics arbitrary-Lagrange-Eulerian code ALE3D. This initial study includes non-reactive dynamics to isolate the thermal and hydrodynamical effects. Two-dimensional high-resolution large-scale meso-scale simulations have been undertaken. We study an axisymmetric configuration for pore radii ranging from 0.5 to 2{micro}m, with initial shock pressures in the range from 3 to 11 GPa. A Mie-Gruneisen Equation of State (EOS) model is used for TATB, and includes a constant yield strength and shear modulus; while the air in the pore invokes a Livermore Equation of State (LEOS) model. The parameter space is systematically studied by considering various shock strengths, pore diameters and material properties. We find that thermal diffusion from the collapsed pores has an important effect in generating high-temperature hot spots in the TATB.

  5. Identifying geographic hot spots of reassortment in a multipartite plant virus.

    PubMed

    Savory, Fiona R; Varma, Varun; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2014-05-01

    Reassortment between different species or strains plays a key role in the evolution of multipartite plant viruses and can have important epidemiological implications. Identifying geographic locations where reassortant lineages are most likely to emerge could be a valuable strategy for informing disease management and surveillance efforts. We developed a predictive framework to identify potential geographic hot spots of reassortment based upon spatially explicit analyses of genome constellation diversity. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we examined spatial variation in the potential for reassortment among Cardamom bushy dwarf virus (CBDV; Nanoviridae, Babuvirus) isolates in Northeast India. Using sequence data corresponding to six discrete genome components for 163 CBDV isolates, a quantitative measure of genome constellation diversity was obtained for locations across the sampling region. Two key areas were identified where viruses with highly distinct genome constellations cocirculate, and these locations were designated as possible geographic hot spots of reassortment, where novel reassortant lineages could emerge. Our study demonstrates that the potential for reassortment can be spatially dependent in multipartite plant viruses and highlights the use of evolutionary analyses to identify locations which could be actively managed to facilitate the prevention of outbreaks involving novel reassortant strains. PMID:24944570

  6. Cortical hot spots and labyrinths: why cortical neuromodulation for episodic migraine with aura should be personalized

    PubMed Central

    Dahlem, Markus A.; Schmidt, Bernd; Bojak, Ingo; Boie, Sebastian; Kneer, Frederike; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation protocols for medical devices should be rationally designed. For episodic migraine with aura we outline model-based design strategies toward preventive and acute therapies using stereotactic cortical neuromodulation. To this end, we regard a localized spreading depression (SD) wave segment as a central element in migraine pathophysiology. To describe nucleation and propagation features of the SD wave segment, we define the new concepts of cortical hot spots and labyrinths, respectively. In particular, we firstly focus exclusively on curvature-induced dynamical properties by studying a generic reaction-diffusion model of SD on the folded cortical surface. This surface is described with increasing level of details, including finally personalized simulations using patient's magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner readings. At this stage, the only relevant factor that can modulate nucleation and propagation paths is the Gaussian curvature, which has the advantage of being rather readily accessible by MRI. We conclude with discussing further anatomical factors, such as areal, laminar, and cellular heterogeneity, that in addition to and in relation to Gaussian curvature determine the generalized concept of cortical hot spots and labyrinths as target structures for neuromodulation. Our numerical simulations suggest that these target structures are like fingerprints, they are individual features of each migraine sufferer. The goal in the future will be to provide individualized neural tissue simulations. These simulations should predict the clinical data and therefore can also serve as a test bed for exploring stereotactic cortical neuromodulation. PMID:25798103

  7. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents: potential hot spots for natural products discovery?

    PubMed

    Thornburg, Christopher C; Zabriskie, T Mark; McPhail, Kerry L

    2010-03-26

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are among the most extreme and dynamic environments on Earth. However, islands of highly dense and biologically diverse communities exist in the immediate vicinity of hydrothermal vent flows, in stark contrast to the surrounding bare seafloor. These communities comprise organisms with distinct metabolisms based on chemosynthesis and growth rates comparable to those from shallow water tropical environments, which have been rich sources of biologically active natural products. The geological setting and geochemical nature of deep-sea vents that impact the biogeography of vent organisms, chemosynthesis, and the known biological and metabolic diversity of Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea, including the handful of natural products isolated to date from deep-sea vent organisms, are considered here in an assessment of deep-sea hydrothermal vents as potential hot spots for natural products investigations. Of critical importance too are the logistics of collecting deep vent organisms, opportunities for re-collection considering the stability and longevity of vent sites, and the ability to culture natural product-producing deep vent organisms in the laboratory. New cost-effective technologies in deep-sea research and more advanced molecular techniques aimed at screening a more inclusive genetic assembly are poised to accelerate natural product discoveries from these microbial diversity hot spots. PMID:20099811

  8. Surface plasmon delocalization in silver nanoparticle aggregates revealed by subdiffraction supercontinuum hot spots

    PubMed Central

    Borys, Nicholas J.; Shafran, Eyal; Lupton, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The plasmonic resonances of nanostructured silver films produce exceptional surface enhancement, enabling reproducible single-molecule Raman scattering measurements. Supporting a broad range of plasmonic resonances, these disordered systems are difficult to investigate with conventional far-field spectroscopy. Here, we use nonlinear excitation spectroscopy and polarization anisotropy of single optical hot spots of supercontinuum generation to track the transformation of these plasmon modes as the mesoscopic structure is tuned from a film of discrete nanoparticles to a semicontinuous layer of aggregated particles. We demonstrate how hot spot formation from diffractively-coupled nanoparticles with broad spectral resonances transitions to that from spatially delocalized surface plasmon excitations, exhibiting multiple excitation resonances as narrow as 13 meV. Photon-localization microscopy reveals that the delocalized plasmons are capable of focusing multiple narrow radiation bands over a broadband range to the same spatial region within 6 nm, underscoring the existence of novel plasmonic nanoresonators embedded in highly disordered systems. PMID:23807624

  9. Computational Study of 3-D Hot-Spot Initiation in Shocked Insensitive High-Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, F. M.; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.

    2011-06-01

    High explosive shock sensitivity is controlled by a combination of mechanical response, thermal properties, and chemical properties. The interplay of these physical phenomena in realistic condensed energetic materials is currently lacking. A multiscale computational framework is developed investigating hot spot (void) ignition in a single crystal of an insensitive HE, TATB. Atomistic MD simulations are performed to provide the key chemical reactions and these reaction rates are used in 3-D multiphysics simulations. The multiphysics code, ALE3D, is linked to the chemistry software, Cheetah, and a three-way coupled approach is pursued including hydrodynamics, thermal and chemical analyses. A single spherical air bubble is embedded in the insensitive HE and its collapse due to shock initiation is evolved numerically in time; while the ignition processes due chemical reactions are studied. Our current predictions showcase several interesting features regarding hot spot dynamics including the formation of a ``secondary'' jet. Results obtained with hydro-thermo-chemical processes leading to ignition growth will be discussed for various pore sizes and different shock pressures. LLNL-ABS-471438. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Intense nitrogen cycling in permeable intertidal sediment revealed by a nitrous oxide hot spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutte, Charles A.; Joye, Samantha B.; Wilson, Alicia M.; Evans, Tyler; Moore, Willard S.; Casciotti, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 40% of the total global rate of nitrogen fixation is the result of human activities, and most of this anthropogenic nitrogen is used to fertilize agricultural fields. Approximately 23% of the applied agricultural nitrogen is delivered to the coastal zone, often reducing water quality and driving eutrophication. Nitrogen cycling in coastal sediments can mitigate eutrophication by removing bioavailable nitrogen. However, some of these processes generate nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas, as a by-product. Here we report the discovery of a nitrous oxide production hot spot in shallow barrier island sands. Nitrous oxide concentrations, production and consumption rates, vertical diffusion fluxes, and flux to the atmosphere were measured across triplicate depth profiles. Using a mass balance approach, rates of net nitrous oxide production were estimated to be 40 µmol m-2 d-1. This production was driven by a hot spot of nitrate consumption that removed bioavailable nitrogen from the coastal environment at a rate of 10 mmol m-2 d-1, a rate that is comparable with the highest rates of denitrification reported for coastal sediments.

  11. The radio sources CTA 21 and OF+247: The hot spots of radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyukh, V. S.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Chernikov, P. A.

    2013-06-01

    The physical conditions in the radio sources CTA 21 and OF+247 are studied assuming that the low-frequency spectral turnovers are due to synchrotron self-absorption. The physical parameters of the radio sources are estimated using a technique based on a nonuniform synchrotron source model. It is shown that the magnetic-field distributions in the dominant compact components of these radio sources are strongly inhomogeneous. The magnetic fields at the center of the sources are B ˜ 10-1 G, and the fields are two to three orders of magnitude weaker at the periphery. The magnetic field averaged over the compact component is B ˜ 10-3 G, and the density of relativistic electrons is n e ˜ 10-3 cm-3. Assuming that there is equipartition of the energies of the magnetic field and relativistic particles, averaged over the source, < E H > = < E e > ˜ 10-7-10-6 erg cm-3. The energy density of the magnetic field exceeds that of the relativistic electrons at the centers of the radio sources. The derived parameters of CTA 21 and OF+247 are close to those of the hot spots in the radio galaxy Cygnus A. On this basis, it is suggested that CTA 21 and OF+247 are radio galaxies at an early stage of their evolution, when the hot spots (dominant compact radio components) have appeared, and the radio lobes (weak extended components) are still being formed.

  12. The Amsterdam-St. Paul Plateau: A complex hot spot/DUPAL-flavored MORB interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janin, M.; HéMond, C.; Maia, M.; Nonnotte, P.; Ponzevera, E.; Johnson, K. T. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Amsterdam-St Paul (ASP) oceanic plateau results from the interaction between the ASP hot spot and the Southeast Indian ridge. A volcanic chain, named the Chain of the Dead Poets (CDP), lies to its northward tip and is related to the hot spot intraplate activity. The ASP plateau and CDP study reveals that ASP plume composition is inherited from oceanic crust and pelagic sediments recycled in the mantle through a 1.5 Ga subduction process. The ASP plateau lavas have a composition (major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes) reflecting the interaction between ASP plume and the Indian MORB mantle, including some clear DUPAL input. The Indian upper mantle below ASP plateau is heterogeneous and made of a depleted mantle with lower continental crust (LCC) fragments probably delaminated during the Gondwana break-up. The lower continental crust is one of the possible reservoirs for the DUPAL anomaly origin that our data support. The range of magnitude of each end-member required in ASP plateau samples is (1) 45% to 75% of ASP plume and (2) 25% to 55% of Indian DM within 0% to a maximum of 6% of LCC layers included within. The three end-members involved (plume, upper mantle and lower continental crust) and their mixing in different proportions enhances the geochemical variability in the plateau lavas. Consequently, the apparent composition homogeneity of Amsterdam Island, an aerial summit of the plateau, may result from the presence of intermediate magmatic chambers into the plateau structure.

  13. Identification of Hot Moments and Hot Spots for Real-Time Adaptive Control of Multi-scale Environmental Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wietsma, T.; Minsker, B. S.

    2012-12-01

    Increased sensor throughput combined with decreasing hardware costs has led to a disruptive growth in data volume. This disruption, popularly termed "the data deluge," has placed new demands for cyberinfrastructure and information technology skills among researchers in many academic fields, including the environmental sciences. Adaptive sampling has been well established as an effective means of improving network resource efficiency (energy, bandwidth) without sacrificing sample set quality relative to traditional uniform sampling. However, using adaptive sampling for the explicit purpose of improving resolution over events -- situations displaying intermittent dynamics and unique hydrogeological signatures -- is relatively new. In this paper, we define hot spots and hot moments in terms of sensor signal activity as measured through discrete Fourier analysis. Following this frequency-based approach, we apply the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem, a fundamental contribution from signal processing that led to the field of information theory, for analysis of uni- and multivariate environmental signal data. In the scope of multi-scale environmental sensor networks, we present several sampling control algorithms, derived from the Nyquist-Shannon theorem, that operate at local (field sensor), regional (base station for aggregation of field sensor data), and global (Cloud-based, computationally intensive models) scales. Evaluated over soil moisture data, results indicate significantly greater sample density during precipitation events while reducing overall sample volume. Using these algorithms as indicators rather than control mechanisms, we also discuss opportunities for spatio-temporal modeling as a tool for planning/modifying sensor network deployments. Locally adaptive model based on Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem Pareto frontiers for local, regional, and global models relative to uniform sampling. Objectives are (1) overall sampling efficiency and (2) sampling

  14. Effects of Long- and Intermediate-Wavelength Nonuniformities on Hot-Spot Energetics of Hydrodynamic Equivalent Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, A.; Betti, R.; Woo, K. M.; Christopherson, A. R.; Shvarts, D.

    2015-11-01

    The impact of intermediate- and low-mode nonuniformities on the performance of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions is investigated by a detailed study of hot-spot energetics. It is found that low- (1 ~ 2) and intermediate-mode (1 >= 10) asymmetries affect the hot-spot hydrodynamics in very different ways. It is observed that for low-mode asymmetries, the fusion yield decreases because of a significant reduction in hot-spot pressure while the neutron-averaged hot-spot volume remains comparable to that of unperturbed (clean) simulations. On the other hand, implosions with moderate-amplitude, intermediate-wavelength modes, which are amplified by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI), exhibit a fusion-yield degradation primarily caused by a reduction in the burn volume without significant degradation of the pressure. For very large amplitudes, the intermediate modes show a ``secondary piston effect,'' where the converging RTI spikes compress a much smaller volume, allowing for a secondary conversion of the shell's kinetic energy to internal energy at a central region. Understanding the effects of nonuniformities on the hot-spot energetics provides valuable insight in determining the causes of performance degradation in current ICF experiments. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and DE-FC02-04ER54789 (Fusion Science Center).

  15. Experimental estimation of the hot spot size in Nb-based Josephson tunnel junctions using Abrikosov vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Cristiano, R.; Frunzio, L.; Pagano, S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Lisitskii, M.P.

    1997-11-01

    We report on a new experimental approach to the size estimation of the hot spot induced by ionizing particles in a Josephson tunnel junction. Here, in contrast to the case of a superconducting strip, it is possible to investigate the hot spot dynamics in absence of effects due to the heating induced by the bias current. The reported experiment is based on the motion of Abrikosov vortices, trapped in the thin films constituting the junction electrodes, under 5.6 MeV {alpha}-particle irradiation. The fast time evolution of a hot spot, combined with the presence of Abrikosov vortices, produces a change of the static magnetic field in the junction area and thus a change of the critical current value, I{sub c}. Measurements of I{sub c} during the {alpha}-particle irradiation and in presence of trapped Abrikosov vortices allow to determine the rate of appearance of those I{sub c} changes. The behavior of the average appearance rate as function of the Abrikosov vortices density provides a direct determination of the maximum hot spot area. The experiment is performed on a high quality Nb/Al{endash}AlO{sub x}/Nb junction of circular geometry and with {open_quotes}small{close_quotes} dimensions with respect to the Josephson penetration depth. A value of 4.7{plus_minus}1.2{mu}m{sup 2} is found for the maximum hot spot area. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. HotSpot Wizard 2.0: automated design of site-specific mutations and smart libraries in protein engineering

    PubMed Central

    Bendl, Jaroslav; Stourac, Jan; Sebestova, Eva; Vavra, Ondrej; Musil, Milos; Brezovsky, Jan; Damborsky, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    HotSpot Wizard 2.0 is a web server for automated identification of hot spots and design of smart libraries for engineering proteins’ stability, catalytic activity, substrate specificity and enantioselectivity. The server integrates sequence, structural and evolutionary information obtained from 3 databases and 20 computational tools. Users are guided through the processes of selecting hot spots using four different protein engineering strategies and optimizing the resulting library's size by narrowing down a set of substitutions at individual randomized positions. The only required input is a query protein structure. The results of the calculations are mapped onto the protein's structure and visualized with a JSmol applet. HotSpot Wizard lists annotated residues suitable for mutagenesis and can automatically design appropriate codons for each implemented strategy. Overall, HotSpot Wizard provides comprehensive annotations of protein structures and assists protein engineers with the rational design of site-specific mutations and focused libraries. It is freely available at http://loschmidt.chemi.muni.cz/hotspotwizard. PMID:27174934

  17. HotSpot Wizard 2.0: automated design of site-specific mutations and smart libraries in protein engineering.

    PubMed

    Bendl, Jaroslav; Stourac, Jan; Sebestova, Eva; Vavra, Ondrej; Musil, Milos; Brezovsky, Jan; Damborsky, Jiri

    2016-07-01

    HotSpot Wizard 2.0 is a web server for automated identification of hot spots and design of smart libraries for engineering proteins' stability, catalytic activity, substrate specificity and enantioselectivity. The server integrates sequence, structural and evolutionary information obtained from 3 databases and 20 computational tools. Users are guided through the processes of selecting hot spots using four different protein engineering strategies and optimizing the resulting library's size by narrowing down a set of substitutions at individual randomized positions. The only required input is a query protein structure. The results of the calculations are mapped onto the protein's structure and visualized with a JSmol applet. HotSpot Wizard lists annotated residues suitable for mutagenesis and can automatically design appropriate codons for each implemented strategy. Overall, HotSpot Wizard provides comprehensive annotations of protein structures and assists protein engineers with the rational design of site-specific mutations and focused libraries. It is freely available at http://loschmidt.chemi.muni.cz/hotspotwizard. PMID:27174934

  18. KFC2: a knowledge-based hot spot prediction method based on interface solvation, atomic density, and plasticity features.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Mitchell, Julie C

    2011-09-01

    Hot spots constitute a small fraction of protein-protein interface residues, yet they account for a large fraction of the binding affinity. Based on our previous method (KFC), we present two new methods (KFC2a and KFC2b) that outperform other methods at hot spot prediction. A number of improvements were made in developing these new methods. First, we created a training data set that contained a similar number of hot spot and non-hot spot residues. In addition, we generated 47 different features, and different numbers of features were used to train the models to avoid over-fitting. Finally, two feature combinations were selected: One (used in KFC2a) is composed of eight features that are mainly related to solvent accessible surface area and local plasticity; the other (KFC2b) is composed of seven features, only two of which are identical to those used in KFC2a. The two models were built using support vector machines (SVM). The two KFC2 models were then tested on a mixed independent test set, and compared with other methods such as Robetta, FOLDEF, HotPoint, MINERVA, and KFC. KFC2a showed the highest predictive accuracy for hot spot residues (True Positive Rate: TPR = 0.85); however, the false positive rate was somewhat higher than for other models. KFC2b showed the best predictive accuracy for hot spot residues (True Positive Rate: TPR = 0.62) among all methods other than KFC2a, and the False Positive Rate (FPR = 0.15) was comparable with other highly predictive methods. PMID:21735484

  19. PredHS: a web server for predicting protein-protein interaction hot spots by using structural neighborhood properties.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lei; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; Chen, Zhigang; Meng, Yang; Guan, Jihong; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2014-07-01

    Identifying specific hot spot residues that contribute significantly to the affinity and specificity of protein interactions is a problem of the utmost importance. We present an interactive web server, PredHS, which is based on an effective structure-based hot spot prediction method. The PredHS prediction method integrates many novel structural and energetic features with two types of structural neighborhoods (Euclidian and Voronoi), and combines random forest and sequential backward elimination algorithms to select an optimal subset of features. PredHS achieved the highest performance identifying hot spots compared with other state-of-the-art methods, as benchmarked by using an independent experimentally verified dataset. The input to PredHS is protein structures in the PDB format with at least two chains that form interfaces. Users can visualize their predictions in an interactive 3D viewer and download the results as text files. PredHS is available at http://www.predhs.org. PMID:24852252

  20. A reactive burn model for shock initiation in a PBX: scaling and separability based on the hot spot concept

    SciTech Connect

    Show, Milton S; Menikoff, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    In the formulation of a reactive burn model for shock initiation, we endeavor to incorporate a number of effects based on the underlying physical concept of hot spot ignition followed by the growth of reaction due to diverging deflagration fronts. The passage of a shock front sets the initial condition for reaction, leading to a fraction of the hot spots that completely burn while others will quench. The form of the rate model is chosen to incorporate approximations based on the physical picture. In particular, the approximations imply scaling relations that are then used to mathematically separate various contributions. That is, the model is modular and refinements can be applied separately without changing the other contributions. For example, the effect of initial temperature, porosity, etc. predominantly enter the characterization of the non-quenching hot spot distribution. A large collection of velocity gauge data is shown to be well represented by the model with a very small number of parameters.

  1. The Cause of the Hot Spot in Vegetation Canopies and Soils: Shadow-Hiding Versus Coherent Backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hapke, Bruce; DiMucci, Dominick; Nelson, Robert; Smythe, William

    1996-01-01

    Two different mechanisms, shadow-hiding and coherent backscatter, can cause a hot spot, or opposition effect, in the bidirectional reflectance of vegetation and soils. Because the two mechanisms sample different properties, it is important to know which one is primarily responsible in a given medium. This question can be answered by measuring the bidirectional reflectance in circularly polarized light. If the results of the limited experiments reported here can be extrapolated to a wider range of materials, it appears that the primary cause of the hot spot in most vegetation canopies and in moist, clumpy soils is shadow-hiding. However, in vegetation with large numbers of wavelength-sized structures, such as mosses, and in dry, fine-grained soils, the hot spot is dominated by coherent backscatter.

  2. Physical and chemical nature of sensitization centers left from hot spots caused in triaminotrinitrobenzene by shock or impact

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, J.; Forbes, J.W.; Coffey, C.S.; Liddiard, T.P.

    1987-09-10

    Samples of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), a well-known explosive, were taken to the brink of ignition by either underwater shock or impact and were investigated for the generation of hot spots. SEM was used for detecting, locating, and measuring the size of the hot spot remnants. These were found to be tiny ragged holes in the explosive with a fine deposit of debris near them. By use of XPS, a specially surface-sensitive technique, it was found that the debris consisted of furoxan and furazan derivatives of TATB produced from its decomposition. The furoxans are far more sensitive than TATB and constitute sensitization centers where reaction an easily restart during handling of the explosive. The hot spot sites were of micron size for the impacted samples and an order of magnitude smaller for the underwater-shocked samples.

  3. Deep structure under Yellowstone National Park U.S.A.: A continental "hot spot"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iyer, H.M.

    1979-01-01

    In order to understand the origin of long-lived loci of volcanism (sometimes called "hot spots") and their possible role in global tectonic processes, it is essential to know their deep structure. Even though some work has been done on the crustal, upper-mantle, and deep-mantle structure under some of these "hot spots", the picture is far from clear. In an attempt to study the structure under the Yellowstone National Park U.S.A., which is considered to be such a "hot spot", we recorded teleseisms using 26 telemetered seismic stations and three groups of portable stations. The network was operated within a 150 km radius centered on the Yellowstone caldera, the major, Quaternary volcanic feature of the Yellowstone region. Teleseismic delays of about 1.5 sec are found inside the caldera, and the delays remain high over a 100 km wide area around the caldera. The spatial distribution and magnitude of the delays indicate the presence of a large body of low-velocity material with horizontal dimensions corresponding approximately to the caldera size (40 km ?? 80 km) near the surface and extending to a depth of 200-250 km under the caldera. Using ray-tracing and inversion techniques, it is estimated that the compressional velocity inside the anomalous body is lower than in the surrounding rock by about 15% in the upper crust and by 5% in the lower crust and upper mantle. It is postulated that the body is partly composed of molten rock with a high degree of partial melting at shallow depths and is responsible for the observed Yellowstone volcanism. The large size of the partially molten body, taken together with its location at the head of a 350 km zone of volcanic propagation along the axis of the Snake River Plain, indicates that the volcanism associated with Yellowstone has its origin below the lithosphere and is relatively stationary with respect to plate motion. Using our techniques, we are unable to detect any measurable velocity contrast in the mantle beneath the low

  4. Ion-microprobe dating of zircon from quartz-graphite veins at the Bristol, New Hampshire, metamorphic hot spot

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitler, P.K. ); Barreiro, B.; Chamberlain, C.P. ); Rumble, D. III )

    1990-07-01

    Detrital zircons entrained in hydrothermal quartz-graphite-rutile veins found near the Bristol, New Hampshire, metamorphic hot spot are overgrown by thin rims. Ion-microprobe analyses of these rims date their growth at 408 {plus minus} 6 Ma. These measurements quantitatively confirm textural evidence that the graphite veins were emplaced during peak metamorphism associated with the Acadian orogeny, and they provide a direct positive test of the hypothesis, based on petrological and stable-isotope evidence, that the hydrothermal systems responsible for the quartz-graphite veins were also responsible for the hot-spot metamorphism.

  5. Surface micro-topography causes hot spots of biogeochemical activity in wetland systems: A virtual modeling experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, S.; Knorr, K. H.; Peiffer, S.; Fleckenstein, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands provide important ecohydrological services by regulating fluxes of nutrients and pollutants to receiving waters, which can in turn mitigate adverse effects on water quality. Turnover of redox-sensitive solutes in wetlands has been shown to take place in distinct spatial and temporal patterns, commonly referred to as hot spots and hot moments. Despite the importance of such patterns for solute fluxes the mechanistic understanding of their formation is still weak and their existence is often explained by variations in soil properties and diffusive transport only. Here we show that surface micro-topography in wetlands can cause the formation of biogeochemical hot spots solely by the advective redistribution of infiltrating water as a result of complex subsurface flow patterns. Surface and subsurface flows are simulated for an idealized section of a riparian wetland using a fully integrated numerical code for coupled surface-subsurface systems. Biogeochemical processes and transport along advective subsurface flow paths are simulated kinetically using the biogeochemical code PHREEQC. Distinct patterns of biogeochemical activity (expressed as reaction rates) develop in response to micro-topography induced subsurface flow patterns. Simulated vertical pore water profiles for various redox-sensitive species resemble profiles observed in the field. This mechanistic explanation of hot spot formation complements the more static explanations that relate hot spots solely to spatial variability in soil characteristics and can account for spatial as well as temporal variability of biogeochemical activity, which is needed to assess future changes in the biogeochemical turnover of wetland systems.

  6. African hot spot volcanism: small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath cratons.

    PubMed

    King, S D; Ritsema, J

    2000-11-10

    Numerical models demonstrate that small-scale convection develops in the upper mantle beneath the transition of thick cratonic lithosphere and thin oceanic lithosphere. These models explain the location and geochemical characteristics of intraplate volcanos on the African and South American plates. They also explain the presence of relatively high seismic shear wave velocities (cold downwellings) in the mantle transition zone beneath the western margin of African cratons and the eastern margin of South American cratons. Small-scale, edge-driven convection is an alternative to plumes for explaining intraplate African and South American hot spot volcanism, and small-scale convection is consistent with mantle downwellings beneath the African and South American lithosphere. PMID:11073447

  7. Particle accelerators in the hot spots of radio galaxy 3C 445, imaged with the VLT.

    PubMed

    Prieto, M Almudena; Brunetti, Gianfranco; Mack, Karl-Heinz

    2002-10-01

    Hot spots (HSs) are regions of enhanced radio emission produced by supersonic jets at the tip of the radio lobes of powerful radio sources. Obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT), images of the HSs in the radio galaxy 3C 445 show bright knots embedded in diffuse optical emission distributed along the post-shock region created by the impact of the jet into the intergalactic medium. The observations reported here confirm that relativistic electrons are accelerated by Fermi-I acceleration processes in HSs. Furthermore, both the diffuse emission tracing the rims of the front shock and the multiple knots demonstrate the presence of additional continuous re-acceleration processes of electrons (Fermi-II). PMID:12364799

  8. Experimental Active-Site Mapping by Fragments: Hot Spots Remote from the Catalytic Center of Endothiapepsin.

    PubMed

    Radeva, Nedyalka; Krimmer, Stefan G; Stieler, Martin; Fu, Kan; Wang, Xiaojie; Ehrmann, Frederik R; Metz, Alexander; Huschmann, Franziska U; Weiss, Manfred S; Mueller, Uwe; Schiebel, Johannes; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard

    2016-08-25

    Successful optimization of a given lead scaffold requires thorough binding-site mapping of the target protein particular in regions remote from the catalytic center where high conservation across protein families is given. We screened a 361-entry fragment library for binding to the aspartic protease endothiapepsin by crystallography. This enzyme is frequently used as a surrogate for the design of renin and β-secretase inhibitors. A hit rate of 20% was achieved, providing 71 crystal structures. Here, we discuss 45 binding poses of fragments accommodated in pockets remote from the catalytic dyad. Three major hot spots are discovered in remote binding areas: Asp81, Asp119, and Phe291. Compared to the dyad binders, bulkier fragments occupy these regions. Many of the discovered fragments suggest an optimization concept on how to grow them into larger ligands occupying adjacent binding pockets that will possibly endow them with the desired selectivity for one given member of a protein family. PMID:27463859

  9. Global hot spots of biological invasions: evaluating options for ballast-water management.

    PubMed

    Drake, John M; Lodge, David M

    2004-03-22

    Biological invasions from ballast water are a severe environmental threat and exceedingly costly to society. We identify global hot spots of invasion based on worldwide patterns of ship traffic. We then estimate the rate of port-to-port invasion using gravity models for spatial interactions, and we identify bottlenecks to the regional exchange of species using the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm for network flows. Finally, using stochastic simulations of different strategies for controlling ballast-water introductions, we find that reducing the per-ship-visit chance of causing invasion is more effective in reducing the rate of biotic homogenization than eliminating key ports that are the epicentres for global spread. PMID:15156914

  10. The Role of Water Occlusion for the Definition of a Protein Binding Hot-Spot.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Irina S

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems rely on the establishment of interactions between biomolecules, which take place in the aqueous environment of the cell. It was already demonstrated that a small set of residues at the interface, Hot-Spots(HS), contributes significantly to the binding free energy. However, these energetic determinants of affinity and specificity are still not fully understood. Moreover, the contribution of water to their HS character is also poorly characterized. In this review, we have focused on the structural data available that support the occlusion of HS from solvent, and therefore the "O-ring theory"not only on protein-protein but also on protein-DNA complexes. We also emphasized the use of Solvent Accessible Surface Area (SASA) features in a variety of machine-learning approaches that aim to detect binding HS. PMID:25986686