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Sample records for hot strip mill

  1. Validation of the Hot Strip Mill Model

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Shulkosky; David Rosberg; Jerrud Chapman

    2005-03-30

    The Hot Strip Mill Model (HSMM) is an off-line, PC based software originally developed by the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program. The HSMM was developed to predict the temperatures, deformations, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip or plate rolled in a hot mill. INTEG process group inc. undertook the current task of enhancing and validating the technology. With the support of 5 North American steel producers, INTEG process group tested and validated the model using actual operating data from the steel plants and enhanced the model to improve prediction results.

  2. Coiling Temperature Control in Hot Strip Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanari, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Hiroaki

    Coiling temperature is one of the most significant factors in products of hot strip mill to determine material properties such as strength, toughness of steel, so it is very important to achieve accurate coiling temperature control (CTC). Usually there are a few pyrometers on the run out table in hot strip mill, therefore temperature model and its adapting system have large influences on the accuracy of CTC. Also unscheduled change of rolling speed has a bad effect to keep coiling temperature as its target. Newly developed CTC system is able to get very accurate coiling temperature against uncertain factors and disturbances by adopting easily identified temperature model, learning method and dynamic set up function. The features of the CTC system are discussed with actual data, and the effectiveness of the system is shown by actual control results.

  3. Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated mathematical Model

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samaraseker; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1998-09-30

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evaluation and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a join research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American steel makers.

  4. Extended Kalman Filter Based Neural Networks Controller For Hot Strip Rolling mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussaoui, A. K.; Abbassi, H. A.; Bouazza, S.

    2008-06-01

    The present paper deals with the application of an Extended Kalman filter based adaptive Neural-Network control scheme to improve the performance of a hot strip rolling mill. The suggested Neural Network model was implemented using Bayesian Evidence based training algorithm. The control input was estimated iteratively by an on-line extended Kalman filter updating scheme basing on the inversion of the learned neural networks model. The performance of the controller is evaluated using an accurate model estimated from real rolling mill input/output data, and the usefulness of the suggested method is proved.

  5. Extended Kalman Filter Based Neural Networks Controller For Hot Strip Rolling mill

    SciTech Connect

    Moussaoui, A. K.; Abbassi, H. A.; Bouazza, S.

    2008-06-12

    The present paper deals with the application of an Extended Kalman filter based adaptive Neural-Network control scheme to improve the performance of a hot strip rolling mill. The suggested Neural Network model was implemented using Bayesian Evidence based training algorithm. The control input was estimated iteratively by an on-line extended Kalman filter updating scheme basing on the inversion of the learned neural networks model. The performance of the controller is evaluated using an accurate model estimated from real rolling mill input/output data, and the usefulness of the suggested method is proved.

  6. Neural and Neural Gray-Box Modeling for Entry Temperature Prediction in a Hot Strip Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, José Angel; Torres-Alvarado, Miguel; Cavazos, Alberto; Leduc, Luis

    2011-10-01

    In hot strip mills, initial controller set points have to be calculated before the steel bar enters the mill. Calculations rely on the good knowledge of rolling variables. Measurements are available only after the bar has entered the mill, and therefore they have to be estimated. Estimation of process variables, particularly that of temperature, is of crucial importance for the bar front section to fulfill quality requirements, and the same must be performed in the shortest possible time to preserve heat. Currently, temperature estimation is performed by physical modeling; however, it is highly affected by measurement uncertainties, variations in the incoming bar conditions, and final product changes. In order to overcome these problems, artificial intelligence techniques such as artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been proposed. In this article, neural network-based systems, including neural-based Gray-Box models, are applied to estimate scale breaker entry temperature, given its importance, and their performance is compared to that of the physical model used in plant. Several neural systems and several neural-based Gray-Box models are designed and tested with real data. Taking advantage of the flexibility of neural networks for input incorporation, several factors which are believed to have influence on the process are also tested. The systems proposed in this study were proven to have better performance indexes and hence better prediction capabilities than the physical models currently used in plant.

  7. A novel real-time fuzzy-based diagnostic system of roll eccentricity influence in finishing hot strip mills

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, D.F.; Lopez, J.M.; Suarez, F.J.; Garcia, J.; Obeso, F.; Gonzalez, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    This paper proposes a method for the diagnosis of the influence of roll eccentricity on the strip thickness at the exit of a finishing hot strip mill (FHSM). Each strip thickness defect on exit is related to a roll of the FHSM, allowing the implementation of an optimal policy for the substitution and maintenance of the rolls, thereby maintaining the required quality level of the strip. This policy allows the minimization of roll changes and the concentration of several changes at the same time, reducing production costs. Fuzzy logic is used to compare spectra, looking for common patterns, which allows for a totally automated diagnostic system. Moreover, an innovative estimate of roll eccentricity based on a least-squares algorithm has been developed, which provides higher accuracy than classical algorithms, as well as a drastic reduction in the time required to perform eccentricity tests.

  8. Genetic based sensorless hybrid intelligent controller for strip loop formation control between inter-stands in hot steel rolling mills.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, S; Palanisamy, V; Duraiswamy, K

    2008-04-01

    Safe operating environment is essential for all complex industrial processes. The safety issues in steel rolling mill when the hot strip passes through consecutive mill stands have been considered in this paper. Formation of sag in strip is a common problem in the rolling process. The excessive sag can lead to scrap runs and damage to machinery. Conventional controllers for mill actuation system are based on a rolling model. The factors like rise in temperature, aging, wear and tear are not taken into account while designing a conventional controller. Therefore, the conventional controller cannot yield a requisite controlled output. In this paper, a new Genetic-neuro-fuzzy hybrid controller without tension sensor has been proposed to optimize the quantum of excessive sag and reduce it. The performance of the proposed controller has been compared with the performance of fuzzy logic controller, Neuro-fuzzy controller and conventional controller with the help of data collected from the plant. The simulation results depict that the proposed controller has superior performance than the other controllers. PMID:18093589

  9. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6 Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated Mathematical Model

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samarasekera; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1999-07-31

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AIS) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American Steelmakers.

  10. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-07-30

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills.

  11. A Comparison of Texture Development in an Experimental and Industrial Tertiary Oxide Scale in a Hot Strip Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xianglong; Jiang, Zhengyi; Zhao, Jingwei; Wei, Dongbin; Zhou, Ji; Zhou, Cunlong; Huang, Qingxue

    2015-12-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) has been used to investigate the microstructure and texture-based features of an industrial tertiary oxide scale formed on a micro-alloyed low-carbon steel from a hot strip mill. EBSD-derived maps demonstrate that the oxide scale consists primarily of magnetite (Fe3O4) with a small amount of hematite ( α-Fe2O3) which scatters near the surface, at the oxide/steel interface and at the cracking edges. The results extracted from these maps reveal that there is a significant difference between the industrial and the laboratory oxide scales in their grain boundaries, phase boundaries, and texture evolutions. There are high proportions of special coincidence site lattice boundaries Σ3 and Σ13b in the magnetite of the industrial oxide scale, rather than the lower orders of Σ5, Σ7, and Σ17b, which develop in the experimental oxide scale. Within the phase boundaries, the orientation relationships between the magnetite and the hematite correspond to the matching planes and directions {111}Fe3O4||{0001} α-Fe2O3 and {110}Fe3O4||{110} α-Fe2O3. Magnetite in both of these oxide scales develops a relatively weak {001} fiber texture component including a strong {001}<100> cube and a slightly strong {100}<210> texture components. Unlike the {001}<110> rotated cube component in the experimental oxide scale, the magnetite in the industrial tertiary oxide scale develops a strong {112}<110> and a relatively strong {113}<110> and {111}<110> texture components. These findings have the potential to provide a convincing step forward for oxidation research.

  12. #43 HOT ROLL, A TWOHIGH REVERSING MILL THAT PRODUCES THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    #43 HOT ROLL, A TWO-HIGH REVERSING MILL THAT PRODUCES THE LONGEST COPPER AND ALLOY STRIP IN THE U.S. INDUSTRY. OVERALL LENGTH OF THE RUN-OUT LINE IS 300'. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  13. Effect of Strip Velocity on Pickling Rate of Hot-Rolled Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, R. M.; Warning, C. J.

    1982-02-01

    The combined effect of strip velocity with other parameters on pickling rate of hot-rolled low-carbon steel in hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions was determined. At temperatures from 150 to200°F(66 to 93°), the time required for pickling decreased substantially as strip velocity was increased from 0 to about 250 fpm (76 mpm); no further decrease in time resulted when velocities were increased to 800 fpm (244 mpm). Other pickling variables were studied with a velocity of 400 fpm (122 mpm). Pickling times decrease with increases in HCl concentrations, CHCl, and temperature, TF, according to prediction equations of the form log t = A + B log CHCl + D(459 + TF)-1. At 200°F, temper-mill scalebreaking decreased pickling times by about 5 sec; at lower temperatures, a larger magnitude effect was noted for one steel in the group tested.

  14. Imaging the transformation of hot strip steel using magnetic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, E.; Bell, Cathy; Morris, Peter F.; Peyton, A. J.

    2001-07-01

    In the production of steel strip, the temperature distribution and cooling rates along the mill run-out table have a significant effect on the steel microstructure and hence on final material properties, e.g., yield strength, tensile strength, and ductility. Noncontacting optical temperature sensors are typically used to implement feedback control of cooling, but water spray and surface emissivity irregularities can adversely affect these sensors. Ideally, the control of cooling path should account for the progress of dynamic transformation at required points rather than the strip temperature alone. There are several reports describing the use of magnetic sensors to monitor transformation. These sensors exploit the change in the electromagnetic properties as the steel progresses through transformation, for example the austenitic phase is paramagnetic and the ferritic phase is ferromagnetic below the Curie point. Previous work has concentrated on the operation and design of individual transformation sensors. This paper now describes the use of an array of electromagnetic sensors to image the progression of transformation along a sample steel block on a pilot scale industrial mill. The paper will describe the underlying physical principles, the design of the system, and present images showing the progress of transformation along one surface of the sample.

  15. Transverse Crack Modeling of Continuously Casted Slabs through Finite Element Method in Roughing Rolling at Wide Strip Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesin, A.; Salganik, V.; Pustovoytov, D.

    2010-06-01

    In the pipe billet production at the wide strip mills of hot rolling big metal losses are caused by surface defects that affect most parts of the finished strips. The rolling surface defects are referred to the breach of steelmaking technology. Specialists mostly face defects of metal surface such as "scab" and "crack". The only area suffered from these defects is a slab edge. This area has the least surface temperature at the unbending of the continuous-casting machine, and together with deep buckles made by reciprocating motion of the crystallizer it is mostly subjected to transverse cracks that can be up to several millimeters. Each surface defect of the continuously casted slab will further turn into the surface defect of the strip bar. For some grade sets, mostly made of pipe steel grades the amount of strips with these defects can reach up to 60-70%. The area that is mostly prone to these defects is the edge of the strip. The work reveals investigation of the form change peculiarities in the transverse cracks of the continuously casted slab in roughing rolling in the horizontal rollers. The finite element method with software DEFORM 3D V6.1 has been applied in modeling. The work gives a form change mechanism of transverse cracks of slabs in deformation. Further crack growth in rolling is assessed due to Cockroft-Latham criteria.

  16. Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy, Quick, and Safe Technique

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ravi; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Amit; Garg, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Removal of jammed titanium screws can be difficult due to the problem of stripping of the hexagonal heads of the screws. We present a technique of extraction of stripped screws with the use of a standard 4.5 mm stainless steel hollow mill in a patient of peri-implant fracture of the radius fixed with a titanium locking plate 2 years back. The technique is quick, safe, and cost effective. PMID:25013544

  17. Hot super-Earths stripped by their host stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundkvist, M. S.; Kjeldsen, H.; Albrecht, S.; Davies, G. R.; Basu, S.; Huber, D.; Justesen, A. B.; Karoff, C.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Van Eylen, V.; Vang, C.; Arentoft, T.; Barclay, T.; Bedding, T. R.; Campante, T. L.; Chaplin, W. J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Gilliland, R. L.; Handberg, R.; Hekker, S.; Kawaler, S. D.; Lund, M. N.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Miglio, A.; Rowe, J. F.; Stello, D.; Tingley, B.; White, T. R.

    2016-04-01

    Simulations predict that hot super-Earth sized exoplanets can have their envelopes stripped by photoevaporation, which would present itself as a lack of these exoplanets. However, this absence in the exoplanet population has escaped a firm detection. Here we demonstrate, using asteroseismology on a sample of exoplanets and exoplanet candidates observed during the Kepler mission that, while there is an abundance of super-Earth sized exoplanets with low incident fluxes, none are found with high incident fluxes. We do not find any exoplanets with radii between 2.2 and 3.8 Earth radii with incident flux above 650 times the incident flux on Earth. This gap in the population of exoplanets is explained by evaporation of volatile elements and thus supports the predictions. The confirmation of a hot-super-Earth desert caused by evaporation will add an important constraint on simulations of planetary systems, since they must be able to reproduce the dearth of close-in super-Earths.

  18. Hot super-Earths stripped by their host stars.

    PubMed

    Lundkvist, M S; Kjeldsen, H; Albrecht, S; Davies, G R; Basu, S; Huber, D; Justesen, A B; Karoff, C; Silva Aguirre, V; Van Eylen, V; Vang, C; Arentoft, T; Barclay, T; Bedding, T R; Campante, T L; Chaplin, W J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Elsworth, Y P; Gilliland, R L; Handberg, R; Hekker, S; Kawaler, S D; Lund, M N; Metcalfe, T S; Miglio, A; Rowe, J F; Stello, D; Tingley, B; White, T R

    2016-01-01

    Simulations predict that hot super-Earth sized exoplanets can have their envelopes stripped by photoevaporation, which would present itself as a lack of these exoplanets. However, this absence in the exoplanet population has escaped a firm detection. Here we demonstrate, using asteroseismology on a sample of exoplanets and exoplanet candidates observed during the Kepler mission that, while there is an abundance of super-Earth sized exoplanets with low incident fluxes, none are found with high incident fluxes. We do not find any exoplanets with radii between 2.2 and 3.8 Earth radii with incident flux above 650 times the incident flux on Earth. This gap in the population of exoplanets is explained by evaporation of volatile elements and thus supports the predictions. The confirmation of a hot-super-Earth desert caused by evaporation will add an important constraint on simulations of planetary systems, since they must be able to reproduce the dearth of close-in super-Earths. PMID:27062914

  19. Hot super-Earths stripped by their host stars

    PubMed Central

    Lundkvist, M. S.; Kjeldsen, H.; Albrecht, S.; Davies, G. R.; Basu, S.; Huber, D.; Justesen, A. B.; Karoff, C.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Van Eylen, V.; Vang, C.; Arentoft, T.; Barclay, T.; Bedding, T. R.; Campante, T. L.; Chaplin, W. J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Gilliland, R. L.; Handberg, R.; Hekker, S.; Kawaler, S. D.; Lund, M. N.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Miglio, A.; Rowe, J. F.; Stello, D.; Tingley, B.; White, T. R.

    2016-01-01

    Simulations predict that hot super-Earth sized exoplanets can have their envelopes stripped by photoevaporation, which would present itself as a lack of these exoplanets. However, this absence in the exoplanet population has escaped a firm detection. Here we demonstrate, using asteroseismology on a sample of exoplanets and exoplanet candidates observed during the Kepler mission that, while there is an abundance of super-Earth sized exoplanets with low incident fluxes, none are found with high incident fluxes. We do not find any exoplanets with radii between 2.2 and 3.8 Earth radii with incident flux above 650 times the incident flux on Earth. This gap in the population of exoplanets is explained by evaporation of volatile elements and thus supports the predictions. The confirmation of a hot-super-Earth desert caused by evaporation will add an important constraint on simulations of planetary systems, since they must be able to reproduce the dearth of close-in super-Earths. PMID:27062914

  20. Production of hot rolled steel strip for sour gas service pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Issartel, C.; Fromm, M.C.; Audebert, S.; Sauermann, M.

    1999-11-01

    Linepipe steels intended for use in sour gas environments must combine high strength, superior toughness and excellent resistance to hydrogen induced cracking. Steel-making techniques for HIC resistant steel grades (from X52 to X65) have been developed, through selective chemistry, clean steel-making practices, nonmetallic inclusion control and hot strip mill process control. The typical chemical analysis is low carbon (< 0.06 %wt), low manganese (< 1 %wt) and low phosphorus content (< O.015 %wt). The level of sulfur is restricted to 0.002 %wt with the careful addition of calcium in order to avoid the formation of elongated MnS. Special conditions adopted in the steelshop and during continuous casting allow the production of very clean steels with limited and controlled centerline segregation. These conditions gave very satisfactory HIC results. Thermomechanical hot rolling leads to a very fine ferrite-perlite microstructure with good notch toughness and consistent mechanical properties throughout the coil length. Examples of results from HIC resistant X56 and X60 industrial production are shown.

  1. The Evolution of the Surface Morphologies and Microstructures of an Unleveled Hot-Rolled Steel Strip During Cold Rolling After Hydrogen Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yu-An; Shang, Qiuyue; Zang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Lei; Peng, Xingdong; Jia, Pinfeng

    2016-01-01

    The removal of oxide scale from a hot-rolled strip surface can completely eliminate environmental pollution if performed by hydrogen-reduction descaling instead of traditional pickling descaling. However, a large number of cracks appear on the surface of a leveled hot-rolled steel strip after hydrogen reduction. This effect is likely to impede the application of reduction descaling to cold-rolled products. Nevertheless, there are almost no cracks on the surface of an unleveled hot-rolled steel strip if the hot-rolled steel strip is not subjected to repeated bending by the leveler machine. The surface quality of a reduced steel strip will be better than that of a pickled steel strip. To investigate the evolution of the surface morphologies, microstructures, and properties of an unleveled strip steel during cold rolling, unleveled strip steel samples were rolled using a four-high mill after hydrogen reduction and after pickling. The surface morphologies and cross-sectional microstructures of the samples were observed by SEM, and the surface-roughness values were measured using a TR200 profilometer before and after cold-rolling deformation. The evolution of the surface morphologies and cross-sectional microstructures of the sample after cold rolling were analyzed. The results show that the oxide scale formed on the surface turns into a metallic iron layer, and a decarburization layer appears between the metallic iron layer and the steel matrix after hydrogen reduction. Few cracks, besides pores, and bubbles, appeared on the surface of the sample after hydrogen reduction. The pores and bubbles were roll-flattened after five passes of cold rolling. The work hardening degree and mechanical properties of the reduced sample are similar to those of the pickled sample after cold rolling. Compared with the rolled sample after pickling, the surface qualities of the reduced samples are better than those of the pickled samples and better than those of the reduced samples that

  2. Online aptitude automatic surface quality inspection system for hot rolled strips steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jin; Xie, Zhi-jiang; Wang, Xue; Sun, Nan-Nan

    2005-12-01

    Defects on the surface of hot rolled steel strips are main factors to evaluate quality of steel strips, an improved image recognition algorithm are used to extract the feature of Defects on the surface of steel strips. Base on the Machine vision and Artificial Neural Networks, establish a defect recognition method to select defect on the surface of steel strips. Base on these research. A surface inspection system and advanced algorithms for image processing to hot rolled strips is developed. Preparing two different fashion to lighting, adopting line blast vidicon of CCD on the surface steel strips on-line. Opening up capacity-diagnose-system with level the surface of steel strips on line, toward the above and undersurface of steel strips with ferric oxide, injure, stamp etc of defects on the surface to analyze and estimate. Miscarriage of justice and alternate of justice rate not preponderate over 5%.Geting hold of applications on some big enterprises of steel at home. Experiment proved that this measure is feasible and effective.

  3. 49. DETAIL, END OF THE LINE AT THE 84INCH STRIP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. DETAIL, END OF THE LINE AT THE 84-INCH STRIP MILL, WHERE THE HOT STRIP IS WATER-COOLED AND ROLLED ONTO COILS. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  4. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: TOXIC TREATMENTS, IN-SITU STEAM/HOT-AIR STRIPPING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Toxic Treatments (USA), Inc., (TTUSA) in situ steam/hot-air stripping technology and its applicability as an on-site treatment technique for hazardous waste site soil cleanup of volatile and semivolatile contaminants. Both ...

  5. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN-SITU STEAM/HOT AIR SOIL STRIPPING TOXIC TREATMENT (USA) INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology uses steam and hot air to strip volatile organics from contaminated soil. The treatment equipment is mobile and treats the soil in-situ without need for soil excavation or transportation. The organic contaminants volatilized from the soil are condensed and col...

  6. Measuring the Dust Stripping of Galaxies by the Hot Intracluster Gas in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Lee, Joon Hyeop; French, K. Decker; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-06-01

    Ram pressure stripping, the removal of gas from galaxies interacting with the hot intracluster medium, has been proposed as a mechanism for quenching star formation in cluster galaxies. While much effort has been made to identify gas stripped from the interstellar medium (ISM) of cluster galaxies, the ISM also includes dust, another potential tracer of stripping. Previous studies using radio and infra-red wavelengths have suggested gas and dust stripping in several cluster galaxies. In our study, we try a different approach: searching for optical extinction and reddening of background galaxies by dust stripped from foreground cluster members. As the first step, using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) and the VLA Imaging of Virgo in Atomic gas (VIVA) HI survey, we map the magnitudes and colors of galaxies behind Virgo cluster galaxies whose HI morphologies are disrupted. We discuss how efficiently dust stripping can be measured with this method and the connection to gas stripping.

  7. Improvement of sugar yields from corn stover using sequential hot water pretreatment and disk milling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Min; Dien, Bruce S; Tumbleson, M E; Rausch, Kent D; Singh, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    Efficient pretreatment is essential for economic conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into monosaccharides for biofuel production. To realize high sugar yields with low inhibitor concentrations, hot water or dilute acid pretreatment followed by disk milling is proposed. Corn stover at 20% solids was pretreated with hot water at 160-200°C for 4-8min with and without subsequent milling. Hot water pretreatment and disk milling acted synergistically to improve glucose and xylose yields by 89% and 134%, respectively, compared to hot water pretreatment alone. Hot water pretreated (180°C for 4min) and milled samples had the highest glucose and xylose yields among all hot water pretreated and milled samples, which were comparable to samples pretreated with 0.55% dilute acid at 160°C for 4min. However, samples pretreated with 1% dilute acid at 150°C for 4min and disk milled had the highest observed glucose (87.3%) and xylose yields (83.4%). PMID:27289063

  8. Effect of hot rolling on the microstructure and impact absorbed energy of the strip steel by CSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing-jing; Wu, Run; Liang, Wen; Xiang, Zhi-dong; Tang, Meng-xia

    2014-07-01

    The microstructures and impact absorbed energies at various temperatures were investigated for steel strips hot rolled to thickness reductions of 95.5%, 96.0%, 96.5%, 97.0%, and 97.5%. Results indicate that grain refinement can be realized with an increase in hot rolling reduction. Besides, finer precipitates can be achieved with an increase in hot rolling reduction from 95.5% to 97.0%. The impact absorbed energy decreases with a decrease in testing temperature for steel strips hot rolled to 95.5%, 96.0%, and 96.5% reductions in thickness. However, in the case of steel strips hot rolled to 97.0% and 97.5% reductions in thickness, the impact absorbed energy remained almost constant with a decrease in testing temperature.

  9. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongqi

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the methodology and preliminary results of a techno-economic analysis on a hot carbonate absorption process (Hot-CAP) with crystallization-enabled high pressure stripping for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture (PCC). This analysis was based on the Hot-CAP that is fully integrated with a sub-critical steam cycle, pulverized coal-fired power plant adopted in Case 10 of the DOE/NETL’s Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants. The techno-economic analysis addressed several important aspects of the Hot-CAP for PCC application, including process design and simulation, equipment sizing, technical risk and mitigation strategy, performance evaluation, and cost analysis. Results show that the net power produced in the subcritical power plant equipped with Hot-CAP is 611 MWe, greater than that with Econoamine (550 MWe). The total capital cost for the Hot-CAP, including CO{sub 2} compression, is $399 million, less than that for the Econoamine PCC ($493 million). O&M costs for the power plant with Hot-CAP is $175 million annually, less than that with Econoamine ($178 million). The 20-year levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the power plant with Hot-CAP, including CO2 transportation and storage, is 119.4 mills/kWh, a 59% increase over that for the plant without CO2 capture. The LCOE increase caused by CO{sub 2} capture for the Hot-CAP is 31% lower than that for its Econoamine counterpart.

  10. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O'Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily

  11. Using in-situ hot air/steam stripping (HASS) of hydrocarbons in soils

    SciTech Connect

    La Mori, P.N.

    1994-12-31

    The remediation of soils containing volatile (VOC) and semi-volatile (SVC) hydrocarbons is most desirably accomplished in-situ, i.e., without removal of the contaminated soils from the ground. This approach mitigates the environmental problem, i.e., does not transport it to another location, and when properly applied, does not impact on the local environment during remediation NOVATERRA has demonstrated commercially an in-situ, hot air/steam stripping (HASS) technology to remove VOC and SVC from soils both in the vadose and saturated zones. The technology consists of a drill tower which injects and mixes steam and hot air continuously into the soil below ground and a method to immediately capture all vapors escaping to the surface and remove the vaporized VOC/SVC using condensation and carbon beds. The air can be recompressed and recycled. The condensed liquid containing hydrocarbons is purified by distillation. The recovered hydrocarbons can be destroyed or recycled. The technology has successfully removed various chlorinated aliphatics and aromatics, glycol ethers, phthalates, polyaromatic compounds, ketones, petroleum hydrocarbons and many other compound types from sand to clay soils to risk based standards; e.g. 1 increased cancer risk in 1,000,000 using currently acceptable risk assessment standards.

  12. Microstructural model for hot strip rolling of high-strength low-alloy steels

    SciTech Connect

    Militzer, M.; Hawbolt, E.B.; Meadowcroft, T.R.

    2000-04-01

    The microstructural evolution during hot-strip rolling has been investigated in four commercial high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels and compared to that of a plain, low-carbon steel. The recrystallization rates decrease as the Nb microalloying content increases, leading to an increased potential to accumulate retained strain during the final rolling passes. The final microstructure and properties of the hot band primarily depend on the austenite decomposition and precipitation during run-out table cooling and coiling. A combined transformation-ferrite-grain-size model, which was developed for plain, low-carbon steels, can be applied to HSLA steels with some minor modifications. The effect of rolling under no-recrystallization conditions (controlled rolling) on the transformation kinetics and ferrite grain refinement has been evaluated for the Nb-containing steels. Precipitation of carbides, nitrides, and/or carbonitrides takes place primarily during coiling, and particle coarsening controls the associated strengthening effect. The microstructural model has been verified by comparison to structures produced in industrial coil samples.

  13. Quantifying texture evolution during hot rolling of AZ31 Twin Roll Cast strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelova, S.; Schaeben, H.

    2015-04-01

    Multi-pass rolling experiments with an AZ31 Twin Roll Cast (TRC) alloy were performed on an industrial scaled four-high rolling mill. Within the rolling with an intermediate annealing the evolution of texture was investigated. To quantify the extent of preferred crystallographic orientation experimental X-ray pole figures were measured after different process steps and analyzed using the free and open Matlab® toolbox MTEX for texture analysis. The development of the fiber texture was observed and analyzed in dependence on rolling conditions. In the initial state the specimen exhibits a texture composed of a weak basal texture and a cast texture with {0001}-planes oriented across the rolling direction. During the following rolling process a fiber texture was developed. The expected strength increment of the fiber texture was quantitatively confirmed in terms of volume portions of the orientation density function around the fiber and in terms of the canonical parameters of fitted pseudo Bingham distributions. On the results of this work a model for prediction of the texture evolution during the strip rolling of magnesium in the examined parameter range was developed.

  14. Simplified estimation method for the determination of the thermal effusivity and thermal conductivity using a low cost hot strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannot, Yves; Meukam, Pierre

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents the study of a hot strip made of thin rectangular electrical resistance with a thermocouple placed on its centre. The purpose was to simultaneously estimate thermal effusivity and conductivity in a limited time (t2 < 180 s) using a low cost probe. Heat transfer has been modelled with the quadrupole formalism to simulate the evolution of the temperature at the centre of a hot strip set between two samples of material to be characterized when a heat flux step is applied. Simulation is used to fix the optimal dimensions of a hot strip that behaves as a hot plate (1D transfer) during a minimal time t1 (>20 s) and that has higher sensitivity to the thermal conductivity between t1 and t2 (2D transfer). The thermal effusivity is estimated between 0 and t1 by minimization of the quadratic errors between the experimental curve and the curve calculated by the classical hot plate model. The thermal conductivity is estimated between t1 and t2 but using the complete 2D model. To validate the model and the estimation process, experimental tests were realized on three materials with low diffusivities (a < 2 × 10-7 m2 s-1) and having typical area of 6 cm × 4 cm and typical thickness of 1.5 cm.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of MgB2 Bulk Samples Using High-Energy Ball Milling and Hot Isostatic Pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, D.; Senkowicz, B. J.; Hanson, J. M.; Larbalestier, D. C.; Hellstrom, E. E.

    2008-03-01

    MgB2 bulk samples were prepared using high-energy ball milling in nitrogen atmosphere followed by cold isostatic pressing and hot isostatic pressing to increase densification and grain connectivity. Higher values of critical current densities Jc at high magnetic fields could be obtained after milling than those obtained with unmilled bulk samples. Jc values around 20,000 A/cm2 at 7 T, 4.2 K were found for the MgB2 sample milled for 300 minutes compared to 1000 A/cm2 for the unmilled material. The milling increased electron scattering and resistivity, increasing the irreversibility field μ0Hirr of the samples. The milled samples showed higher values of μ0Hirr than the unmilled sample. However, the milled samples showed lower pinning strength than the unmilled sample as a result of their larger average grain size after HIP, in spite of their higher μ0Hirr.

  16. Experimental and Numerical Study on the Effect of ZDDP Films on Sticking During Hot Rolling of Ferritic Stainless Steel Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Liang; Jiang, Zhengyi; Wei, Dongbin; Gong, Dianyao; Cheng, Xiawei; Zhao, Jingwei; Luo, Suzhen; Jiang, Laizhu

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of zinc dialkyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) films on sticking during hot rolling of a ferritic stainless steel strip. The surface characterization and crack propagation of the oxide scale are very important for understanding the mechanism of the sticking. The high-temperature oxidation of one typical ferritic stainless was conducted at 1373 K (1100 °C) for understanding its microstructure and surface morphology. Hot-rolling tests of a ferritic stainless steel strip show that no obvious cracks among the oxide scale were observed with the application of ZDDP. A finite element method model was constructed with taking into consideration different crack size ratios among the oxide scale, surface profile, and ZDDP films. The simulation results show that the width of the crack tends to be reduced with the introduction of ZDDP films, which is beneficial for improving sticking.

  17. Influence of oxide scales on the corrosion behaviors of B510L hot-rolled steel strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Cheng; Dong, Chao-fang; Xue, Hui-bin; Xiao, Kui; Li, Xiao-gang; Qi, Hui-bin

    2016-07-01

    The influence of oxide scales on the corrosion behaviors of B510L hot-rolled steel strips was investigated in this study. Focused ion beams and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe the morphologies of oxide scales on the surface and cross sections of the hot-rolled steel. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for the phase analysis of the oxide scales and corrosion products. The corrosion potential and impedance were measured by anodic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. According to the results, oxide scales on the hot-rolled strips mainly comprise iron and iron oxides. The correlation between mass gain and test time follows a power exponential rule in the damp-heat test. The corrosion products are found to be mainly composed of γ-FeOOH, Fe3O4, α-FeOOH, and γ-Fe2O3. The contents of the corrosion products are different on the surfaces of the steels with and without oxide scales. The steel with oxide scales is found to show a higher corrosion resistance and lower corrosion rate.

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of 7075 aluminum alloy nanostructured composites processed by mechanical milling and indirect hot extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Campos, R.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Miki-Yoshida, M.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.; Herrera-Ramirez, J.M.

    2012-01-15

    Nanostructured composites of 7075 aluminum alloy and carbon coated silver nanoparticles were produced by mechanical milling and indirect hot extrusion. The milling products were obtained in a high energy SPEX ball mill, and then were compacted by uniaxial load and pressure-less sintered under argon atmosphere. Finally, the sintered product was hot extruded. Carbon coated silver nanoparticles were well distributed in the matrix of the extruded material. Tensile tests were carried out to corroborate the hypothesis that second phase particles, well dispersed in the matrix, improve the strength of the material. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was employed to locate and make sure that the silver nanoparticles were homogeneously and finely dispersed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7075 Al nanostructured composites can be produced by mechanical milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon coated silver nanoparticles are well dispersed into aluminum matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ductile Ag-C NP's improve the mechanical properties of the 7075 Al-alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-C NP's content has an important effect in the particle and crystallite size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-C NP's keep their morphology after milling and conformation processes.

  19. Fabrication of fully dense nanostructured MnBi magnet by hot compaction of cryo-milled powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjipanayis, George; Neelam, Venkata; Gabay, Alex; Li, Wang

    2013-03-01

    Recently, rare-earth-free permanent magnets (REFPMs) have attracted much attention globally owing to rare-earth metal crisis and high cost. Among the REFPMs, MnBi is a potential candidate due to its unusual large magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K ~ 107 erg/cc) and positive temperature of coefficient of coercivity. In this work, we report for the first time a novel processing method that combines the cryo-milling with hot compaction to produce fully dense bulk nanostructured MnBi magnet. The effect of cryo-milling on particle size, phase formation, and magnetic properties of MnBi has been studied in detail. Also, the microstructural and magnetic properties of bulk nanostructured MnBi magnet were investigated. Adoption of cryo-milling results in nanocrystalline powders with particle size of 400-500 nm. Large coercivity (Hc) values of 18.5 kOe, and 12.9 kOe were obtained in cryo-milled powders and hot compacted magnet respectively. The MnBi magnet shows a large positive temperature coefficient of Hc and the Hc reaches a value of more than 30 kOe above 450 K. The work was supported by Siemens.

  20. Effect of ball-milling surfactants on the interface chemistry in hot-compacted SmCo5 magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Li, WF; Sepehri-Amin, H; Zheng, LY; Cui, BZ; Gabay, AM; Hono, K; Huang, WJ; Ni, C; Hadjipanayis, GC

    2012-11-01

    Anisotropic SmCo5 nanoflakes prepared by high-energy ball-milling with surfactants have great potential in applications for high-performance nanocomposite magnets. For such "nanocomposite" applications, the surface structure and chemistry of nanoflakes are crucial for achieving high coercivity. In this study, hot-pressed samples from anisotropic SmCo5 nanoflakes, ball-milled with different surfactants, oleic acid (OA) and oleylamine (OY), were investigated. Interface layers between the SmCo5 nanoflakes were found to consist of samarium oxides and a soft magnetic Co phase. These surface layers contribute to the degradation of hard magnetic performance, which is confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the cross-section of a single flake ball-milled with OA. Samples milled with OY show a much thinner interface layer in compacted samples, which means that the surface degradation during ball-milling with OY is much less than that with OA. The results show clearly that the choice of proper surfactant and the control of processing parameters are the key factors for improving the surface condition of the nanoflakes and the resulting hard magnetic properties. (C) 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A noise robust method based on completed local binary patterns for hot-rolled steel strip surface defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kechen; Yan, Yunhui

    2013-11-01

    Automatic recognition method for hot-rolled steel strip surface defects is important to the steel surface inspection system. In order to improve the recognition rate, a new, simple, yet robust feature descriptor against noise named the adjacent evaluation completed local binary patterns (AECLBPs) is proposed for defect recognition. In the proposed approach, an adjacent evaluation window which is around the neighbor is constructed to modify the threshold scheme of the completed local binary pattern (CLBP). Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach presents the performance of defect recognition under the influence of the feature variations of the intra-class changes, the illumination and grayscale changes. Even in the toughest situation with additive Gaussian noise, the AECLBP can still achieve the moderate recognition accuracy. In addition, the strategy of using adjacent evaluation window can also be used in other methods of local binary pattern (LBP) variants.

  2. Measuring thermal conductivity of thin films and coatings with the ultra-fast transient hot-strip technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkerk, B. E.; Soussou, M. A.; Carette, M.; Djouadi, M. A.; Scudeller, Y.

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports the ultra-fast transient hot-strip (THS) technique for determining the thermal conductivity of thin films and coatings of materials on substrates. The film thicknesses can vary between 10 nm and more than 10 µm. Precise measurement of thermal conductivity was performed with an experimental device generating ultra-short electrical pulses, and subsequent temperature increases were electrically measured on nanosecond and microsecond time scales. The electrical pulses were applied within metallized micro-strips patterned on the sample films and the temperature increases were analysed within time periods selected in the window [100 ns-10 µs]. The thermal conductivity of the films was extracted from the time-dependent thermal impedance of the samples derived from a three-dimensional heat diffusion model. The technique is described and its performance demonstrated on different materials covering a large thermal conductivity range. Experiments were carried out on bulk Si and thin films of amorphous SiO2 and crystallized aluminum nitride (AlN). The present approach can assess film thermal resistances as low as 10-8 K m2 W-1 with a precision of about 10%. This has never been attained before with the THS technique.

  3. Effect of Nb Microalloying and Hot Rolling on Microstructure and Properties of Ultrathin Cast Strip Steels Produced by the CASTRIP® Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Kelvin Y.; Yao, Lan; Zhu, Chen; Cairney, Julie M.; Killmore, Chris R.; Barbaro, Frank J.; Williams, James G.; Ringer, Simon P.

    2011-08-01

    The microstructure and corresponding tensile properties of both plain and Nb-microalloyed grades of ultrathin cast strip (UCS) low alloy steel produced using the CASTRIP® process were studied. Both as-cast and hot-rolled strip cast steels with various levels of Nb microalloying were manufactured and investigated in this study. Hot rolling had little effect on the yield strength of Nb microalloyed UCS specimens for a given chemical composition, but resulted in a slightly finer microstructure. The effect of Nb microalloying was significant, and this is attributable to the promotion of finer, tougher austenite transformation products such as bainite and acicular ferrite at the expense of large polygonal ferrite grains. A fine dispersion of Nb solute clusters was observed in all Nb-containing steels following hot rolling, and it is suggested that this also contributes to the observed strengthening.

  4. A Processing Map for Hot Deformation of an Ultrafine-Grained Aluminum-Magnesium-Silicon Alloy Prepared by Mechanical Milling and Hot Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgharzadeh, Hamed; Rahbar Niazi, Masoud; Simchi, Abdolreza

    2015-12-01

    Uniaxial compression test at different temperatures [573 K to 723 K (300 °C to 450 °C)] and strain rates (0.01 to 1 s-1) was employed to study the hot deformation behavior of an ultrafine-grained (UFG) Al6063 alloy prepared by the powder metallurgy route. The UFG alloy with an average grain size of ~0.3 µm was prepared by mechanical milling of a gas-atomized aluminum alloy powder for 20 hours followed by hot powder extrusion at 723 K (450 °C). To elaborate the effect of grain size, the aluminum alloy powder was extruded without mechanical milling to attain a coarse-grained (CG) structure with an average grain size of about 2.2 µm. By employing the dynamic materials model, processing maps for the hot deformation of the UFG and CG Al alloy were constructed. For investigation of microstructural evolutions and deformation instability occurring upon hot working, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with electron backscattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were utilized. It is shown that the grain refinement increases the deformation flow stress while reducing the strain hardening and power dissipation efficiency during the deformation process at the elevated temperatures. Restoration mechanisms, including dynamic recovery and recrystallization are demonstrated to control microstructural evolutions and thus the deformation behavior. Coarsening of the grain structure in the UFG alloy is illustrated, particularly when the deformation is performed at high temperatures and low strain rates. The manifestations of instability are observed in the form of cracking and void formation.

  5. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  6. Ram pressure stripping of hot coronal gas from group and cluster galaxies and the detectability of surviving X-ray coronae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, Rukmani; Ricker, Paul M.

    2015-05-01

    Ram pressure stripping can remove hot and cold gas from galaxies in the intracluster medium, as shown by observations of X-ray and H I galaxy wakes in nearby clusters of galaxies. However, ram pressure stripping, including pre-processing in group environments, does not remove all the hot coronal gas from cluster galaxies. Recent high-resolution Chandra observations have shown that ˜1-4 kpc extended, hot galactic coronae are ubiquitous in group and cluster galaxies. To better understand this result, we simulate ram pressure stripping of a cosmologically motivated population of galaxies in isolated group and cluster environments. The galaxies and the host group and cluster are composed of collisionless dark matter and hot gas initially in hydrostatic equilibrium with the galaxy and host potentials. We show that the rate at which gas is lost depends on the galactic and host halo mass. Using synthetic X-ray observations, we evaluate the detectability of stripped galactic coronae in real observations by stacking images on the known galaxy centres. We find that coronal emission should be detected within ˜10 arcsec, or ˜5 kpc up to ˜2.3 Gyr in the lowest (0.1-1.2 keV) energy band. Thus, the presence of observed coronae in cluster galaxies significantly smaller than the hot X-ray haloes of field galaxies indicates that at least some gas removal occurs within cluster environments for recently accreted galaxies. Finally, we evaluate the possibility that existing and future X-ray cluster catalogues can be used in combination with optical galaxy positions to detect galactic coronal emission via stacking analysis. We briefly discuss the effects of additional physical processes on coronal survival, and will address them in detail in future papers in this series.

  7. Optimization as a support for design of hot rolling technology of dual phase steel strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeliga, Danuta; Sztangret, Łukasz; Kusiak, Jan; Pietrzyk, Maciej

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the paper was performing of the sensitivity analysis of the model used for design of manufacturing technology for auto body parts made of the Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). Dual phase steel was considered as an example. The sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the importance of all variables as far as their influence on the finishing rolling temperature and grain size. The phase composition after cooling was also considered. An arbitrary hot rolling process characterized only by a number of passes and cooling conditions between passes, as well as by laminar cooling parameters, was selected for the analysis. Metamodel of the rolling cycle was developed to decrease the computing costs for the optimization task. Modified Avrami equation was used for modelling phase transformations during cooling. Such process parameters as the initial temperature, interpass times, heat exchange coefficients and rolling velocities were selected as optimization variables for the rolling process. Parameters of the thermal cycles were selected as the optimization variables for the laminar cooling process. Achieving the required phase composition of product was the optimization objective function. Optimization was performed using various techniques, including methods inspired by nature optimization.

  8. Influence of Composition and Hot Rolling on the Subsurface Microstructure and Bendability of Ultrahigh-Strength Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaijalainen, Antti Juhani; Liimatainen, Mia; Kesti, Vili; Heikkala, Jouko; Liimatainen, Tommi; Porter, David A.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of subsurface microstructure on the bendability of three 8-mm-thick low-alloyed hot-rolled and direct-quenched ultrahigh-strength strip steels with yield strengths in the range 800 to 1100 MPa has been investigated. Rolling to lower finish rolling temperatures increased austenite pancaking, leading to the formation of ferritic/granular bainitic subsurface microstructures that are softer than the upper bainitic microstructures found with higher finish rolling temperature. In addition, increased austenite pancaking was found to increase the intensities of {112}<111>α and {110}<112>α to {110}<111>α texture components in the surface layers, especially in upper bainitic microstructures. It is shown that the bendability of ultrahigh-strength steels is governed by subsurface hardness and crystallographic texture. Bendability was found to be related to mean microhardness 0.1 to 0.4 mm below the surface, such that excellent bendability was achieved with a relatively soft subsurface layer down to a depth of 0.4 mm, i.e., 5 pct of the sheet thickness. Intense {112}<111>α texture combined with upper bainite containing MA islands in the subsurface region is shown to be detrimental to bendability when the bend axis is perpendicular to the rolling direction probably as a result of geometrical softening combined with high hardness.

  9. Influence of Composition and Hot Rolling on the Subsurface Microstructure and Bendability of Ultrahigh-Strength Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaijalainen, Antti Juhani; Liimatainen, Mia; Kesti, Vili; Heikkala, Jouko; Liimatainen, Tommi; Porter, David A.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of subsurface microstructure on the bendability of three 8-mm-thick low-alloyed hot-rolled and direct-quenched ultrahigh-strength strip steels with yield strengths in the range 800 to 1100 MPa has been investigated. Rolling to lower finish rolling temperatures increased austenite pancaking, leading to the formation of ferritic/granular bainitic subsurface microstructures that are softer than the upper bainitic microstructures found with higher finish rolling temperature. In addition, increased austenite pancaking was found to increase the intensities of {112}<111>α and {110}<112>α to {110}<111>α texture components in the surface layers, especially in upper bainitic microstructures. It is shown that the bendability of ultrahigh-strength steels is governed by subsurface hardness and crystallographic texture. Bendability was found to be related to mean microhardness 0.1 to 0.4 mm below the surface, such that excellent bendability was achieved with a relatively soft subsurface layer down to a depth of 0.4 mm, i.e., 5 pct of the sheet thickness. Intense {112}<111>α texture combined with upper bainite containing MA islands in the subsurface region is shown to be detrimental to bendability when the bend axis is perpendicular to the rolling direction probably as a result of geometrical softening combined with high hardness.

  10. Combination of liquid hot water pretreatment and wet disk milling to improve the efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Weiqi, Wei; Shubin, Wu; Liguo, Liu

    2013-01-01

    Combination of liquid hot water pretreatment (LHWP) and wet disk milling (WDM) was investigated in this study to enhance the sugar recovery yield both in prehydrolyzate and enzymatic hydrolyzate. The results show that WDM with LHWP at 180 °C for 20 min produced maximum xylose and glucose yields of 91.62% and 88.12%, respectively, which are higher than that of dilute acid pretreatment or individual LHWP. Corresponding concentration of fermentation inhibitors such as acetic acid, HMF, and furfural in the prehydrolyzate are about 0.98, 0.07 and 0.78 g/L, respectively, which indicated that the detoxification may be not required in the next fermentation step. The acid-insoluble lignin recovery in the insoluble solid resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis, was 25.67/100g raw material, representing 90.7% of acid-insoluble lignin in the eucalyptus biomass. It can be concluded that liquid hot water pretreatment combined with wet disk milling can be successfully applied to eucalyptus. PMID:23260273

  11. Pulsating hot O subdwarfs in ω Centauri: mapping a unique instability strip on the extreme horizontal branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, S. K.; Calamida, A.; Fontaine, G.; Monelli, M.; Bono, G.; Alonso, M. L.; Van Grootel, V.; Brassard, P.; Chayer, P.; Catelan, M.; Littlefair, S.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of an extensive survey for rapid pulsators among Extreme Horizontal Branch (EHB) stars in ω Cen. The observations performed consist of nearly 100 h of time-series photometry for several off-centre fields of the cluster, as well as low-resolution spectroscopy for a partially overlapping sample. We obtained photometry for some 300 EHB stars, for around half of which we are able to recover light curves of sufficient quality to either detect or place meaningful non-detection limits for rapid pulsations. Based on the spectroscopy, we derive reliable values of log g, Teff and log N(He) /N(H) for 38 targets, as well as good estimates of the effective temperature for another nine targets, whose spectra are slightly polluted by a close neighbour in the image. The survey uncovered a total of five rapid variables with multi-periodic oscillations between 85 and 125 s. Spectroscopically, they form a homogeneous group of hydrogen-rich subdwarf O stars clustered between 48 000 and 54 000 K. For each of the variables we are able to measure between two and three significant pulsations believed to constitute independent harmonic oscillations. However, the interpretation of the Fourier spectra is not straightforward due to significant fine structure attributed to strong amplitude variations. In addition to the rapid variables, we found an EHB star with an apparently periodic luminosity variation of ~2700 s, which we tentatively suggest may be caused by ellipsoidal variations in a close binary. Using the overlapping photometry and spectroscopy sample we are able to map an empirical ω Cen instability strip in log g - Teff space. This can be directly compared to the pulsation driving predicted from the Montréal "second-generation" models regularly used to interpret the pulsations in hot B subdwarfs. Extending the parameter range of these models to higher temperatures, we find that the region where p-mode excitation occurs is in fact bifurcated, and the well

  12. Soft Starting Arrangements Availables for Hot Rolling Mills for Energy Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisen, A. M.; Bapat, P. M.; Gagnuly, S. K.

    2012-07-01

    The conventional rolling mills in India are producing a major part of structural steel requirement of the country. The energy conservation in these rolling mills can be achieved mainly by reducing the size of the prime mover i.e. main electric motor. The power consumption per ton can be considerably decreased through proper selection of electric motor since it has been an observation by many surveyors[1] that the selection of electric motor of the rolling mill has been almost five to ten times on the higher side which can be easily verified from the power consumption and motor working data.Flywheel is a mechanical storage device. Largest size of flywheels are frequently recommended for smooth running of rolling mills. The main difficulty encountered in selecting large capacity flywheel or flywheel gear box system is the starting of the mill with smaller capacity electric motor. The starting characteristic of electric motor is not suitable for starting such rolling mill with very high inertia flywheel. In such condition it becomes very essential to introduce the soft starting arrangement for the electric motor so that considerably small size motor can start the flywheel effectively.Soft starters are used for the smooth start-up control of three-phase induction motors. The soft starter is functionally located between the Flywheel and the electric motor. In selecting the correct soft starter to suit the application the peculiarities of the soft start should be considered. In the prevailing conditions we use the motor of high horse power due to the fact that the flywheel requires high torque to be driven initially. For the same reason the efficiency of the flywheel is very low initially. Once the flywheel stores sufficient power which is required at the start up, the flywheel then requires less power than given initially. If we somehow are able to increase the efficiency of the flywheel using a flexible electrical, mechanical, hydraulic or flexible drives with

  13. Real-time dynamics of a hot Yang-Mills theory: a numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Krasnitz, A.

    2002-03-01

    We discuss recent results obtained from simulations of high temperature, classical, real time dynamics of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory at temperatures of the order of the electroweak scale. Measurements of gauge covariant and gauge invariant autocorrelations of the fields indicate that the ASY-Bödecker scenario is irrelevant at these temperatures.

  14. Real-time dynamics of a hot Yang-Mills theory: a numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Krasnitz, A.

    We discuss recent results obtained from simulations of high temperature, classical, real time dynamics of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory at temperatures of the order of the electroweak scale. Measurements of gauge covariant and gauge invariant autocorrelations of the fields indicate that the ASY-Bödecker scenario is irrelevant at these temperatures.

  15. Development of nanodiamond foils for H- stripping to Support the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Vispute, R D; Ermer, Henry K; Sinsky, Phillip; Seiser, Andrew; Shaw, Robert W; Wilson, Leslie L

    2014-01-01

    Thin diamond foils are needed in many particle accelerator experiments regarding nuclear and atomic physics, as well as in some interdisciplinary research. Particularly, nanodiamond texture is attractive for this purpose as it possesses a unique combination of diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and high radiation hardness; therefore, it is a potential material for energetic ion beam stripper foils. At the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the installed set of foils must be able to survive a nominal five-month operation period, without the need for unscheduled costly shutdowns and repairs. Thus, a small foil about the size of a postage stamp is critical to the operation of SNS and similar sources in U.S. laboratories and around the world. We are investigating nanocrystalline, polycrystalline and their admixture films fabricated using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system for H- stripping to support the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here we discuss optimization of process variables such as substrate temperature, process gas ratio of H2/Ar/CH4, substrate to filament distance, filament temperature, carburization conditions, and filament geometry to achieve high purity diamond foils on patterned silicon substrates with manageable intrinsic and thermal stresses so that they can be released as free standing foils without curling. An in situ laser reflectance interferometry tool (LRI) is used for monitoring the growth characteristics of the diamond thin film materials. The optimization process has yielded free standing foils with no pinholes. The sp3/sp2 bonds are controlled to optimize electrical resistivity to reduce the possibility of surface charging of the foils. The integrated LRI and HFCVD process provides real time information on the growth of films and can quickly illustrate growth features and control film thickness. The results are discussed in the light of development of nanodiamond foils that

  16. Spray-forming monolithic aluminum alloy and metal matrix composite strip

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-10-01

    Spray forming with de Laval nozzles is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. Using this approach, aluminum alloys have been spray formed as strip, with technoeconomic advantages over conventional hot mill processing and continuous casting. The spray-formed strip had a flat profile, minimal porosity, high yield, and refined microstructure. In an adaptation to the technique, 6061 Al/SiC particulate-reinforced metal matrix composite strip was produced by codeposition of the phases.

  17. Production and recovery of monosaccharides from lignocellulose hot water extracts in a pulp mill biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Sainio, Tuomo; Kallioinen, Mari; Nakari, Olli; Mänttäri, Mika

    2013-05-01

    Processing of hemicelluloses obtained with pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) from Scots pine to monosaccharides and other chemicals was investigated experimentally. A process scheme consisting of ultrafiltration, acid hydrolysis, and chromatographic separation was proposed and evaluated. A two-stage ultrafiltration was found necessary for efficient fractionation of the wood extract. It was shown that the monosaccharides can be released from a concentrated hemicellulose fraction with sulfuric acid hydrolysis without a significant loss of yield due to decomposition of monosaccharides. Acid hydrolysate was successfully fractionated with ion exchange chromatography and the hydrolysis acid was recovered for reuse. The product fractions obtained include polyphenols and high molar mass hemicelluloses (from UF stage 1), arabinose (from UF stage 2), as well as acetic acid and a mixture of monosaccharides (xylose, galactose, mannose, glucose) from chromatography. PMID:23069608

  18. STANDBY TOP AND BOTTOM ROTARY MILLING CUTTERS FOR TORIN LINE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STANDBY TOP AND BOTTOM ROTARY MILLING CUTTERS FOR TORIN LINE. SOME PRODUCT FROM THE #43 HOT ROLL IS PROCESSED ON THE TORIN LINE TO REMOVE OXIDIZED SURFACE MATERIAL. IN PRACTICE 15-20/1000 IS CUT FROM THE UPPER AND LOWER SURFACES OF THE STRIP AND RECYCLED TO THE CASTING SHOP. TORIN LINE ADDED AS PART OF 1981 EXPANSION PROGRAM. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  19. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  20. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING THAT HOUSES THE HOT ROLL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BUILDING THAT HOUSES THE HOT ROLL MILL, ALSO KNOWN AS THE NO. 31 HOT ROLL MILL; LOOKING SOUTHWEST - American Brass Company, Kenosha Works, Hot Roll Mill, Kenosha, Kenosha County, WI

  1. Investigation of the influence of the chemical composition of HSLA steel grades on the microstructure homogeneity during hot rolling in continuous rolling mills using a fast layer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtchen, M.; Rimnac, A.; Warczok, P.; Kozeschnik, E.; Bernhard, C.; Bragin, S.; Kawalla, R.; Linzer, B.

    2016-03-01

    The newly developed LaySiMS simulation tool provides new insight for inhomogeneous material flow and microstructure evolution in an endless strip production (ESP) plant. A deepened understanding of the influence of inhomogeneities in initial material state, temperature profile and material flow and their impact on the finished product can be reached e.g. by allowing for variable layer thickness distributions in the roll gap. Coupling temperature, deformation work and work hardening/recrystallization phenomena accounts for covering important effects in the roll gap. The underlying concept of the LaySiMS approach will be outlined and new insight gained regarding microstructural evolution, shear and inhomogeneous stress and strain states in the roll gap as well as local residual stresses will be presented. For the case of thin slab casting and direct rolling (TSDR) the interrelation of inhomogeneous initial state, micro structure evolution and dissolution state of micro alloying elements within the roughing section of an ESP line will be discussed. Special emphasis is put on the influence of the local chemical composition arising from direct charging on throughthickness homogeneity of the final product. It is concluded that, due to the specific combination of large reductions in the high reduction mills (HRM) and the highly inhomogeneous inverse temperature profile, the ESP-concept provides great opportunities for homogenizing the microstructure across the strip thickness.

  2. Simulation of the hot rolling and accelerated cooling of a C-Mn ferrite-bainite strip steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debray, B.; Teracher, P.; Jonas, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    By means of torsion testing, the microstructures and mechanical properties produced in a 0.14 Pct C-1.18 Pct Mn steel were investigated over a wide range of hot-rolling conditions, cooling rates, and simulated coiling temperatures. The austenite grain size present before accelerated cooling was varied from 10 to 150 μm by applying strains of 0 to 0.8 at temperatures of 850 °C to 1050 °C. Two cooling rates, 55 °C/s and 90 °C/s, were used. Cooling was interrupted at temperatures ranging from 550 °C to 300 °C. Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to investigate the microstructures. The mechanical properties were studied by means of tensile testing. When a fine austenite grain size was present before cooling and a high cooling rate (90 °C/s) was used, the microstructure was composed of ferrite plus bainite and a mixture of ferrite and cementite, which may have formed by an interphase mechanism. The use of a lower cooling rate (55 °C/s) led to the presence of ferrite and fine pearlite. In both cases, the cooling interruption temperature and the amount of prior strain had little influence on the mechanical properties. Reheating at 1050 °C, which led to the presence of very coarse austenite, resulted in a stronger influence of the interruption temperature. A method developed at Institut de Recherche Sidérurgique (IRSID, St. Germain-en-Laye, France) for deducing the Continuous-Cooling-Transformation (CCT) diagrams from the cooling data was adapted to the present apparatus and used successfully to interpret the observed influence of the process parameters.

  3. Combined pretreatment with hot compressed water and wet disk milling opened up oil palm biomass structure resulting in enhanced enzymatic digestibility.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Hirata, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Shinji; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2015-10-01

    Combined pretreatment with hot compressed water and wet disk milling was performed with the aim to reduce the natural recalcitrance of oil palm biomass by opening its structure and provide maximal access to cellulase attack. Oil palm empty fruit bunch and oil palm frond fiber were first hydrothermally pretreated at 150-190° C and 10-240 min. Further treatment with wet disk milling resulted in nanofibrillation of fiber which caused the loosening of the tight biomass structure, thus increasing the subsequent enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose. The effectiveness of the combined pretreatments was evaluated by chemical composition changes, power consumption, morphological alterations by SEM and the enzymatic digestibility of treated samples. At optimal pretreatment process, approximately 88.5% and 100.0% of total sugar yields were obtained from oil palm empty fruit bunch and oil palm frond fiber samples, which only consumed about 15.1 and 23.5 MJ/kg of biomass, respectively. PMID:26125612

  4. 2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWOHIGH HANDOPERATED MILLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR VIEW OF MILL, SHOWING THE TWO-HIGH HAND-OPERATED MILLS (ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE), PRIOR TO THEIR OPERATION; THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN FROM THE OVERHEAD CRANE - American Brass Company, Kenosha Works, Hot Roll Mill, Kenosha, Kenosha County, WI

  5. Mechanical and wear properties of Al-Al3Mg2 nanocomposites prepared by mechanical milling and hot pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolriasatein, A.; Khosroshahi, R. A.; Emamy, M.; Nemati, N.

    2013-03-01

    β-Al3Mg2 intermetallic was used as a reinforcing agent to improve the mechanical properties of an aluminum matrix. Different amounts of Al3Mg2 nanoparticles (ranging from 0wt% to 20wt%) were milled with aluminum powders in a planetary ball mill for 10 h. Consolidation was conducted by uniaxial pressing at 400°C under a pressure of 600 MPa for 2 h. Microstructural characterization confirms the uniform distribution of Al3Mg2 nanoparticles within the matrix. The effects of nano-sized Al3Mg2 content on the wear and mechanical properties of the composites were also investigated. The results show that as the Al3Mg2 content increases to higher levels, the hardness, compressive strength, and wear resistance of the nanocomposites increase significantly, whereas the relative density and ductility decrease. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of worn surfaces reveals that a transition in wear mechanisms occurs from delamination to abrasive wear by the addition of Al3Mg2 nanoparticles to the matrix.

  6. DETAIL OF CUTTING ROLLS ON #72 BRASS MILL SLITTER, ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CUTTING ROLLS ON #72 BRASS MILL SLITTER, ONE OF THREE CURRENTLY IN OPERATION. BRASS STRIP IS CUT TO CUSTOMER ORDER; COPPER STRIP IS PRODUCED IN STANDARD SIZES. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. Looking east inside of the 44" slab mill building at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east inside of the 44" slab mill building at the red hot slabs being conveyed to the hot beds. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, 44" Slab Mill, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Standard specification for steel, sheet and strip, high-strength, low-alloy, columbium or vanadium, or both, hot-rolled and cold-rolled. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    DoD adopted. This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A05.19 on Steel Sheet and Strip. Current edition approved Jun. 10, 1998 and published September 1998. Originally published as A 607-70. Last previous edition was A 607-96.

  9. Improving the Surface Roughness of Pickled Steel Strip by Control of Rolling Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yao-Nan; Lin, Szu-Ning; Liou, Horng-Yih; Chang, Chu-Wei; Wu, Chia-Chan; Wang, Ying-Chun

    2013-01-01

    This investigation is to analyze the surface roughness problem of low carbon pickled steel strips from the view points of prior hot rolling conditions and the hot-rolled scales. The results showed that, compared with other parameters, the most important factor in hot rolling to affect the surface roughness was the rolling temperature. As the temperature was increased, the amount of the outer brittle α-Fe2O3 increased, leading to rough scale/substrate interface and rough surface after pickling. However, the effect of coiling temperature was almost negligible because no further rolling existed after that stage. Quantitative estimation showed that decrease in rolling temperature in this investigation reduced the surface roughness, Ra, from 1.06-1.78 μm to 0.88-1.10 μm after pickling in laboratory. Similar degree of improvement in roughness was also observed after pickling in mill.

  10. Production and research of silicon steel strips in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pârvu, G.; Miron, V.; Winckelbauer, C.

    1992-07-01

    Silicon steel strips production is presented in correlation with major technological improvements like vacuum decarburizing and continuos casting. Structure development and texture strengthening in hot rolling are analysed.

  11. Mathematical modeling of deformation during hot rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, D.; Stachowiak, R.G.; Samarasekera, I.V.; Brimacombe, J.K.

    1994-12-31

    The deformation that occurs in the roll bite during the hot rolling of steel, particularly the strain-rate and strain distribution, has been mathematically modeled using finite-element analysis. In this paper three different finite-element models are compared with one another and with industrial measurements. The first model is an Eulerian analysis based on the flow formulation method, while the second utilizes an Updated Lagrangian approach. The third model is based on a commercially available program DEFORM which also utilizes a Lagrangian reference frame. Model predictions of strain and strain-rate distribution, particularly near the surface of the slab, are strongly influenced by the treatment of friction at the boundary and the magnitude of the friction coefficient or shear factor. Roll forces predicted by the model have been compared with industrial rolling loads from a seven-stand hot-strip mill.

  12. A Novel Powder Metallurgy Processing Approach to Prepare Fine-Grained Cu-Al-Ni Shape-Memory Alloy Strips from Elemental Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajpai, S. K.; Dube, R. K.; Chatterjee, P.; Sangal, S.

    2012-07-01

    The current work describes the experimental results related to the successful preparation of fine-grained, Cu-Al-Ni, high-temperature shape-memory alloy (SMA) strips from elemental Cu, Al, and Ni powders via a novel powder metallurgy (P/M) processing approach. This route consists of short time period ball milling of elemental powder mixture, preform preparation from milled powder, sintering of preforms, hot-densification rolling of unsheathed sintered powder preforms under protective atmosphere, and postconsolidation homogenization treatment of the hot-rolled strips. It has been shown that it is possible to prepare chemically homogeneous Cu-Al-Ni SMA strips consisting of equiaxed grains of average size approximately 6 μm via the current processing approach. It also has been shown that fine-grained microstructure in the finished Cu-Al-Ni SMA strips resulted from the pinning effect of nanosized alumina particles present on the grain boundaries. The finished SMA strips were almost fully martensitic in nature, consisting of a mixture of β1^' } - and γ1^' } -type martensites. The Cu-Al-Ni SMA strips had 677 MPa average fracture strength, coupled with 13 pct average fracture strain. The fractured surfaces of the specimens exhibited primarily dimpled ductile type of fracture, together with some transgranular mode of fracture. The Cu-Al-Ni strips exhibited an almost 100 pct one-way shape recovery after bending followed by unconstrained heating at 1, 2, and 4 pct applied deformation prestrain. The two-way shape-memory strain was found approximately 0.35 pct after 15 training cycles at 4 pct applied training prestrain.

  13. Stripping Voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovrić, Milivoj

    Electrochemical stripping means the oxidative or reductive removal of atoms, ions, or compounds from an electrode surface (or from the electrode body, as in the case of liquid mercury electrodes with dissolved metals) [1-5]. In general, these atoms, ions, or compounds have been preliminarily immobilized on the surface of an inert electrode (or within it) as the result of a preconcentration step, while the products of the electrochemical stripping will dissolve in the electrolytic solution. Often the product of the electrochemical stripping is identical to the analyte before the preconcentration. However, there are exemptions to these rules. Electroanalytical stripping methods comprise two steps: first, the accumulation of a dissolved analyte onto, or in, the working electrode, and, second, the subsequent stripping of the accumulated substance by a voltammetric [3, 5], potentiometric [6, 7], or coulometric [8] technique. In stripping voltammetry, the condition is that there are two independent linear relationships: the first one between the activity of accumulated substance and the concentration of analyte in the sample, and the second between the maximum stripping current and the accumulated substance activity. Hence, a cumulative linear relationship between the maximum response and the analyte concentration exists. However, the electrode capacity for the analyte accumulation is limited and the condition of linearity is satisfied only well below the electrode saturation. For this reason, stripping voltammetry is used mainly in trace analysis. The limit of detection depends on the factor of proportionality between the activity of the accumulated substance and the bulk concentration of the analyte. This factor is a constant in the case of a chemical accumulation, but for electrochemical accumulation it depends on the electrode potential. The factor of proportionality between the maximum stripping current and the analyte concentration is rarely known exactly. In fact

  14. Effect of hot stamping parameters on the mechanical properties and microstructure of cold-rolled 22MnB5 steel strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jing; Wang, Bao-yu; Huang, Ming-dong; Cui, Dong

    2014-06-01

    Thermomechanical experiments were carried out to reproduce the hot stamping process and to investigate the effects of process parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of stamped parts. The process parameters, such as austenitizing temperature, soaking time, initial deformation temperature and cooling rate, are studied. The resulting microstructures of specimens were observed and analyzed. To evaluate the mechanical properties of specimens, tensile and hardness tests were also performed at room temperature. The optimum parameters to achieve the highest tensile strength and the desired microstructure were acquired by comparing and analyzing the results. It is indicated that hot deformation changes the transformation characteristics of 22MnB5 steel. Austenite deformation promotes the austenite-to-ferrite transformation and elevates the critical cooling rate to induce a fully martensitic transformation.

  15. Mathematical-Artificial Neural Network Hybrid Model to Predict Roll Force during Hot Rolling of Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, S.; Sengupta, P. P.; Singh, A. P.; Marik, A. K.; Talukdar, P.

    2013-03-01

    Accurate prediction of roll force during hot strip rolling is essential for model based operation of hot strip mills. Traditionally, mathematical models based on theory of plastic deformation have been used for prediction of roll force. In the last decade, data driven models like artificial neural network have been tried for prediction of roll force. Pure mathematical models have accuracy limitations whereas data driven models have difficulty in convergence when applied to industrial conditions. Hybrid models by integrating the traditional mathematical formulations and data driven methods are being developed in different parts of world. This paper discusses the methodology of development of an innovative hybrid mathematical-artificial neural network model. In mathematical model, the most important factor influencing accuracy is flow stress of steel. Coefficients of standard flow stress equation, calculated by parameter estimation technique, have been used in the model. The hybrid model has been trained and validated with input and output data collected from finishing stands of Hot Strip Mill, Bokaro Steel Plant, India. It has been found that the model accuracy has been improved with use of hybrid model, over the traditional mathematical model.

  16. Robotic Stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    UltraStrip Systems, Inc.'s M-200 removes paint from the hulls of ships faster than traditional grit-blasting methods. And, it does so without producing toxic airborne particles common to traditional methods. The M-2000 magnetically attaches itself to the hull of the ship. Its water jets generate 40,000 pounds of pressure per square inch, blasting away paint down to the ships steel substrate. The only by product is water and dried paint chips and these are captured by a vacuum system so no toxic residue can escape. It was built out of a partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the National Robotics Engineering Consortium.

  17. Resolution-independent modelling of environmental effects in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation that include ram-pressure stripping of both hot and cold gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yu; Kang, Xi; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Fu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The quenching of star formation in satellite galaxies is observed over a wide range of dark matter halo masses and galaxy environments. In the recent Guo et al. and Fu et al. semi-analytic + N-body models, the gaseous environment of the satellite galaxy is governed by the properties of the dark matter subhalo in which it resides. This quantity depends of the resolution of the N-body simulation, leading to a divergent fraction of quenched satellites in high- and low-resolution simulations. Here, we incorporate an analytic model to trace the subhaloes below the resolution limit. We demonstrate that we then obtain better converged results between the Millennium I and II simulations, especially for the satellites in the massive haloes (log Mhalo = [14, 15]). We also include a new physical model for the ram-pressure stripping of cold gas in satellite galaxies. However, we find very clear discrepancies with observed trends in quenched satellite galaxy fractions as a function of stellar mass at fixed halo mass. At fixed halo mass, the quenched fraction of satellites does not depend on stellar mass in the models, but increases strongly with mass in the data. In addition to the overprediction of low-mass passive satellites, the models also predict too few quenched central galaxies with low stellar masses, so the problems in reproducing quenched fractions are not purely of environmental origin. Further improvements to the treatment of the gas-physical processes regulating the star formation histories of galaxies are clearly necessary to resolve these problems.

  18. Preparation of in situ and ex situ reinforced Fe-10Cr-1Cu-1Ni-1Mo-2C containing NbC particles by milling and hot pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-qiang; Li, Zi-yang; Ye, Yong-quan; Hu, Ke

    2015-02-01

    An in situ and ex situ reinforced powder metallurgy (PM) steel was prepared by the combination of high-energy ball milling and subsequent hot pressing of elemental mixed powders of Fe-10Cr-1Cu-1Ni-1Mo-2C by mass with the addition of NbC particles. A 40-h milling pretreatment makes the powder particles nearly equiaxed with an average diameter of ˜8 μm, and the ferrite grain size is refined to ˜6 nm. The sintered density reaches 99.0%-99.7% of the theoretical value when the sintering is conducted at temperatures greater than 1000°C for 30 min. In the sintered bulk specimens, the formation of an in situ M7C3 (M = Cr, Fe, Mo) phase is confirmed. M7C3 carbides with several hundred nanometers in size are uniformly distributed in the matrix. Some ultra-fine second phases of 50-200 nm form around the ex situ NbC and in situ M7C3 particles. The sintered steel exhibits an excellent combination of hardness (> Hv 500) and compressive strength (2100-2420 MPa).

  19. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  20. Varicose vein stripping

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002952.htm Varicose vein stripping To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. Vein stripping is surgery to remove varicose veins in the legs. Description Varicose veins are swollen, ...

  1. Lateral flow strip assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  2. Anatomy comic strips.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists. PMID:21634024

  3. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  4. Prefix Stripping Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Marcus

    1981-01-01

    Presents and analyzes three experiments on prefix stripping. Results show that pseudoprefixed words are indiscriminately treated as prefixed words and concludes that prefix stripping does occur in word recognition and that prefixed words are accessed through a representation of their stem. (Author/BK)

  5. Science Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  6. NORTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. AT LEFT EDGE IS THE SINGLE CYLINDER “HOT SHOT” ENGINE THAT PROVIDED POWER FOR THE MILL. JUST IN FRONT OF IT IS AN ARRASTRA. AT CENTER IS THE BALL MILL AND SECONDARY ORE BIN. JUST TO THE RIGHT OF THE BALL MILL IS A RAKE CLASSIFIER, AND TO THE RIGHT ARE THE CONCENTRATION TABLES. WARM SPRINGS CAMP IS IN THE DISTANCE. SEE CA-292-4 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. NORTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. AT LEFT EDGE IS THE SINGLE CYLINDER “HOT SHOT” ENGINE THAT PROVIDED POWER FOR THE MILL. JUST IN FRONT OF IT IS AN ARRASTRA. AT CENTER IS THE BALL MILL AND SECONDARY ORE BIN. JUST TO THE RIGHT OF THE BALL MILL IS A RAKE CLASSIFIER, AND TO THE RIGHT ARE THE CONCENTRATION TABLES. WARM SPRINGS CAMP IS IN THE DISTANCE. SEE CA-292-17 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. Excimer laser photoresist stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genut, Menachem; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Iskevitch, Eli; Livshits, Boris

    1996-06-01

    A new method for stripping the most challenging photoresists on deep sub-micron technology semiconductor wafers has been developed. The method uses a combination of UV excimer laser ablation and reactive chemistry to strip the photoresist in a single dry process, eliminating the wet acids or solvents often used following ashing of high dose implantation (HDI) and reactive ion etching (RIE). The stripping process combines new removal mechanisms: chemical assisted UV excimer laser ablation/etching, laser induced chemical etching of side walls and residues, and enhanced combustion. During the laser pulses photolysis of the process gas occurs, UV laser radiation breaks the photoresist polymer chain bonds, and the photoresist (including foreign materials imbedded in it) is ablated. The combustion is ignited by the ablative impact of laser radiation and enhanced by the radicals formed during photo-thermal decomposition of the process gases. Following this process, the volatilized products and gases are evacuated. The optimum laser stripping conditions were developed to provide a wide process window for the most challenging stripping conditions, such as after HDI and RIE (metal, polysilicon), without causing damage to the wafer devices. A photoresist stripping system based on the described technology was designed and built. The system has been designated as the L-StripperTM and provides stripping time of 0.15 s/(micrometer cm2).

  9. HEATER'S HELPER OPERATING PUSHER. HOT BILLETS ON CONVEYOR MOVE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HEATER'S HELPER OPERATING PUSHER. HOT BILLETS ON CONVEYOR MOVE TO OPENING AT THE HEAD OF THE 12" MILL. PUSHER (ELECTRICALLY OPERATED) MOVES BILLETS INTO READY POSITION FOR 12" MILL. - Cambria Iron Company, Gautier Works, 12" Mill, Clinton Street & Little Conemaugh River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  10. Geometrical deuteron stripping revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Neoh, Y. S.; Yap, S. L.

    2014-03-05

    We investigate the reality of the idea of geometrical deuteron stripping originally envisioned by Serber. By taking into account of realistic deuteron wavefunction, nuclear density, and nucleon stopping mean free path, we are able to estimate inclusive deuteron stripping cross section for deuteron energy up to before pion production. Our semiclassical model contains only one global parameter constant for all nuclei which can be approximated by Woods-Saxon or any other spherically symmetric density distribution.

  11. Textures of strip cast Fe16%Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, D.; Reher, F.; Luecke, K. ); Hoelscher, M. )

    1993-07-01

    Ferritic stainless steels with a Cr content of 16% are mainly manufactured by continuous casting, hot rolling, cold rolling and final recrystallization. The recent development of the strip casting method, which provides sheets with an equivalent geometry, i.e. thickness and width as the hot rolled band, yields significant improvements in comparison to the conventional processing. The weak initial strip texture and the homogeneous microstructure through the sample thickness have shown evidence of avoiding the well known ridging phenomenon of the finally rolled and annealed product. The occurrence of ridging in conventionally processed FeCr steel has been attributed to the collective shear of grains with (hkl)<110>, i.e. [alpha]-fibre orientations, which become oriented and topologically arranged during hot rolling. In the present paper the textures of a stainless ferritic steel with 16% Cr and 0.02% C, strip casted (SC) as well as hot rolled (HR), were thus investigated. The textures were examined by measuring the four incomplete pole figures (110), (200), (112) and (103) in the back reflection mode. The orientation distribution function (ODF) was calculated by the series expansion method (1[sup max]=22). In the case of cubic crystal symmetry and orthorhombic sample symmetry an orientation can then be presented by the three Euler angles [var phi][sub 1], [var phi], [var phi][sub 2] in the reducted Euler space. Since bcc steels tend to develop characteristic fibre textures, it is favorable to present the ODFs as isointensity diagrams in [var phi][sub 1]-sections through the Eulerspace. In this work the [alpha]-fibre and the [gamma]-fibre are of major interest.

  12. Constitutive Constants for Hot Working of Steels: The Critical Strain for Dynamic Recrystallisation in C-Mn Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siyasiya, C. W.; Stumpf, W. E.

    2015-01-01

    The primary focus of this work was to determine the relationship between chemical composition and the Zener-Hollomon exponent q in the peak strain equation for hot working of C-Mn steels with the ultimate aim of improving the modeling of mean flow stresses for hot strip mills. Therefore, the hot deformation behavior of C-Mn steels was examined in which the C and Mn contents were increased systematically between the levels 0.035 up to 0.52%C and 0.22 to 1.58%Mn, respectively. In addition, data from other workers were also analyzed to complement the results from this investigation. As opposed to the observations from some other workers that the apparent activation energy for hot working Q HW appears to decrease with an increase in the carbon content, it was found that, despite a weak relationship, Q HW increases with an increase in carbon content i.e., from 300 to 355 kJ/mol as was also found by others. Consequently, the Zener-Hollomon exponent q in the peak strain equation for hot working and hence also the critical strain for dynamic recrystallisation, ɛc = 0.65 AD {0/m} Z q , was found to decrease with an increase in carbon content as follows, q = 0.21 - 14[%C] for C ≤ 0.8%C. The possible role played by manganese-carbon complexes in the austenite during hot working and the consequences of the variation in q for compact strip production rolling are discussed.

  13. The Yang-Mills Mass Gap Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablon, Jay R.

    2014-03-01

    The Yang-Mills Mass Gap problem is solved by deriving SU(3)C Chromodynamics as a corollary theory from Yang-Mills gauge theory. The mass gap is filled from finite non-zero eigenvalues of a configuration space inverse perturbation tensor containing vacuum excitations. This results from carefully developing six equivalent views of Yang-Mills gauge theory as having: 1) non-commuting (non-Abelian) gauge fields; 2) gauge fields with non-linear self-interactions; 3) a ``steroidal'' minimal coupling; 4) perturbations; 5) curvature in the gauge space of connections; and 6) gauge fields related to source currents through an infinite recursive nesting. Based on combining classical Yang-Mills electric and magnetic source field equations into a single equation, confinement results from showing how magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory exhibit color confinement and meson flow and have all the color symmetries of baryons, from which we conclude that they are one and the same as baryons. Chiral symmetry breaking results from the recursive behavior of these monopoles coupled with viewing Dirac's gamma matrices as Hamiltonian quaternions extended into spacetime. Finally, with aid from the ``steroidal'' view, the recursive view of Yang-Mills enables polynomial gauge field terms in the Yang-Mills action to be stripped out and replaced by polynomial source current terms prior to path integration. This enables an exact analytical calculation of a non-linear path integral using a closed recursive kernel and yields a non-linear quantum amplitude also with a closed recursive kernel, thus proving the existence of a non-trivial relativistic quantum Yang-Mills field theory on R4 for any simple gauge group G.

  14. Transient thermal model of the continuous single-wheel thin-strip casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guowei; Thomas, Brian G.

    1996-06-01

    A transient heat-transfer model (STRIP1D) has been developed to simulate the single-roll continuous strip-casting process. The model predicts temperature in the solidifying strip coupled with heat transfer in the rotating wheel, using an explicit finite difference procedure. The model has been calibrated using strip thickness data from a test caster at ARMCO Inc. (Middletown, OH) and verified with a range of other available measurements. The strip/wheel interface contact resistance and heat transfer were investigated in particular, and an empirical formula to calculate this heat-transfer coefficient as a function of contact time was obtained. Wheel temperature and final strip thickness are investigated as a function of casting speed, liquid steel pool depth, superheat, coatings on the wheel hot surface, strip detachment point, wheel wall thickness, and wheel material.

  15. Strip and load data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The method of taking batch data files and loading these files into the ADABAS data base management system (DBMS) is examined. This strip and load process allows the user to quickly become productive. Techniques for data fields and files definition are also included.

  16. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; McQueen, Miles A.

    1996-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests stable in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use.

  17. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; Wowczuk, Andrew; Vellenoweth, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

  18. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

    1996-04-16

    A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

  19. 12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (MONADNOCK CHILEAN) FROM EAST, c. 1912. ELEVATOR No. 1 ADJACENT TO MILL. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  20. Feasibility of cold rolling titanium strip cast by the plasma melt overflow process

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspar, T.A.; Sukonnik, I.M.; Bird, R.K.; Brewer, W.D.

    1995-12-31

    A new fabrication method tailored specifically for titanium alloys and intermetallics combined direct strip casting and cold rolling to produce foil products by completely eliminating hot working steps. Titanium strips 0.4-mm- to 0.7-mm-thick and 100-mm-wide were cast by the plasma melt overflow process. The cast strips were cold rolled to 0.15-mm-thick, fully dense foils. The effect of thermal and mechanical treatments on the microstructure of the cast strip was investigated. The cold rolled foils were characterized by measurement of average surface roughness, chemical composition, gas content and tensile properties.

  1. Biomass torrefaction mill

    DOEpatents

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  2. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher L.; Idzorek, George C.; Atencio, Leroy G.

    1987-01-01

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  3. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

    1985-02-19

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10/sup 6/. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  4. Mills at Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William

    1995-01-01

    Offers an insightful and perceptive portrait of the legendary sociologist C. Wright Mills by one of his former graduate students. Traces Mills's areas of interest from occupational characteristics to power groups leading to the publication of his seminal work, "The Power Elite." Discusses Mills's teaching styles and academic career. (MJP)

  5. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-05-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like `top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and `bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated.

  6. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like ‘top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and ‘bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated. PMID:27193558

  7. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2016-01-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like 'top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and 'bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated. PMID:27193558

  8. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  9. Paresev on Taxi Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Test pilot Milton Thompson sitting in NASA Flight Research Center-built Paresev 1 (Paraglider Research Vehicle) on the taxi strip in front of the NASA Flight Research Center in 1962. In this photo the control stick can be seen coming from overhead and hanging in front of the pilot. The control system was a direct link with the wing membrane made of doped Irish linen. By maintaining simplicity during construction, it was possible to make control and configuration changes overnight and, in many instances, in minutes.

  10. Hot Billet Surface Qualifier

    SciTech Connect

    Tzyy-Shuh Chang

    2007-04-30

    OG Technologies, Inc. (OGT), developed a prototype of a Hot Billet Surface Qualifier (“Qualifier”) based on OGT’s patented HotEye™ technology and other proprietary imaging and computing technologies. The Qualifier demonstrated its ability of imaging the cast billets in line with high definition pictures, pictures capable of supporting the detection of surface anomalies on the billets. The detection will add the ability to simplify the subsequent process and to correct the surface quality issues in a much more timely and efficient manner. This is challenging due to the continuous casting environment, in which corrosive water, temperature, vibration, humidity, EMI and other unbearable factors exist. Each installation has the potential of 249,000 MMBTU in energy savings per year. This represents a cost reduction, reduced emissions, reduced water usage and reduced mill scale.

  11. About NICADD extruded scintillating strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, A.; Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Chakraborty, D.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Lima, J.G.; Rykalin, V.; Zutshi, v.; Baldina, E.; Bross, A.; Deering, P.; Nebel, T.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Schellpfeffer, J.; Serritella, C.; Zimmerman, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    The results of control measurements of extruded scintillating strip responses to a radioactive source Sr-90 are provided, and details of strip choice, preparation, and method of measurement are included. About four hundred one meter long extruded scintillating strips were measured at four different points. These results were essential for prototyping a tail catcher and muon tracker for a future international electron positron linear collider detector.

  12. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  14. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; Baker, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

  15. MAIN DRIVE MOTOR FOR BLISS #43 HOT ROLL. THIS WESTINGHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN DRIVE MOTOR FOR BLISS #43 HOT ROLL. THIS WESTINGHOUSE UNIT HAS SINCE BEEN REPLACED BY A 5000 HP TOSHIBA MOTOR. REHEAT FURNACES ARE SHOWN BEHIND MILL MOTOR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  16. 70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. PRIMARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER No. 2 FROM NORTHWEST. MILL DISCHARGED INTO LAUNDER WHICH PIERCED THE SIDE OF THE CLASSIFIER PAN. WOOD LAUNDER WITHIN CLASSIFIER VISIBLE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS). HORIZONTAL WOOD PLANKING BEHIND MILL IS FEED BOX. MILL SOLUTION PIPING RUNS ALONG BASE OF WEST SIDE OF CLASSIFIER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  17. STRIPPING METAL COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Siefen, H.T.; Campbell, J.M.

    1959-02-01

    A method is described for removing aluminumuranium-silicon alloy bonded to metallic U comprising subjecting the Al-U -Si alloy to treatment with hot concentrated HNO/sun 3/ to partially dissolve and embrittle the alloy and shot- blasting the embrittled alloy to loosen it from the U.

  18. Nanostructuring of Undoped ZnSb by Cryo-Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X.; Valset, K.; Graff, J. S.; Thøgersen, A.; Gunnæs, A. E.; Luxsacumar, S.; Løvvik, O. M.; Snyder, G. J.; Finstad, T. G.

    2015-08-01

    We report the preparation of nanosized ZnSb powder by cryo-milling. The effect of cryo-milling then hot-pressing of undoped ZnSb was investigated and compared with that of room temperature ball-milling and hot-pressing under different temperature conditions. ZnSb is a semiconductor with favorable thermoelectric properties when doped. We used undoped ZnSb to study the effect of nanostructuring on lattice thermal conductivity, and with little contribution at room temperature from electronic thermal conductivity. Grain growth was observed to occur during hot-pressing, as observed by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The thermal conductivity was lower for cryo-milled samples than for room-temperature ball-milled samples. The thermal conductivity also depended on hot-pressing conditions. The thermal conductivity could be varied by a factor of two by adjusting the process conditions and could be less than a third that of single-crystal ZnSb.

  19. Microtube Strip Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1990-12-27

    Doty Scientific (DSI) believes their Microtube-Strip Heat Exchanger will contribute significantly to (a) the closed Brayton cycles being pursued at MIT, NASA, and elsewhere; (b) reverse Brayton cycle cryocoolers, currently being investigated by NASA for space missions, being applied to MRI superconducting magnets; and (c) high-efficiency cryogenic gas separation schemes for CO{sub 2} removal from exhaust stacks. The goal of this current study is to show the potential for substantial progress in high-effectiveness, low-cost, gas-to-gas heat exchangers for diverse applications at temperatures from below 100 K to above 1000 K. To date, the highest effectiveness measured is about 98%, and relative pressure drops below 0.1% with a specific conductance of about 45 W/kgK are reported. During the pre-award period DSI built and tested a 3-module heat exchanger bank using 103-tube microtube strip (MTS) modules. To add to their analytical capabilities, DSI has acquired computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This report describes the pre-award work and the status of the ten tasks of the current project, which are: analyze flow distribution and thermal stresses within individual modules; design a heat exchanger bank of ten modules with 400 microtube per module; obtain production quality tubestrip die and AISI 304 tubestrips; obtain production quality microtubing; construct revised MTS heat exchanger; construct dies and fixtures for prototype heat exchanger; construct 100 MTS modules; assemble 8-10 prototype MTS heat exchangers; test prototype MTS heat exchanger; and verify test through independent means. 7 refs., 9 figs. 1 tab. (CK)

  20. Bismuth-based electrochemical stripping analysis

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Method and apparatus for trace metal detection and analysis using bismuth-coated electrodes and electrochemical stripping analysis. Both anodic stripping voltammetry and adsorptive stripping analysis may be employed.

  1. Gas stripping in galaxy clusters: a new SPH simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jáchym, P.; Palouš, J.; Köppen, J.; Combes, F.

    2007-09-01

    Aims:The influence of a time-varying ram pressure on spiral galaxies in clusters is explored with a new simulation method based on the N-body SPH/tree code GADGET. Methods: We have adapted the code to describe the interaction of two different gas phases, the diffuse hot intracluster medium (ICM) and the denser and colder interstellar medium (ISM). Both the ICM and ISM components are introduced as SPH particles. As a galaxy arrives on a highly radial orbit from outskirts to cluster center, it crosses the ICM density peak and experiences a time-varying wind. Results: Depending on the duration and intensity of the ISM-ICM interaction, early and late type galaxies in galaxy clusters with either a large or small ICM distribution are found to show different stripping efficiencies, amounts of reaccretion of the extra-planar ISM, and final masses. We compare the numerical results with analytical approximations of different complexity and indicate the limits of the Gunn & Gott simple stripping formula. Conclusions: Our investigations emphasize the role of the galactic orbital history to the stripping amount. We discuss the contribution of ram pressure stripping to the origin of the ICM and its metallicity. We propose gas accumulations like tails, filaments, or ripples to be responsible for stripping in regions with low overall ICM occurrence. Appendix A is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  3. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  4. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  5. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  6. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites /strip hybrids/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Results are described which were obtained by applying advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends. This was done in order to illustrate the use of these methods for the apriori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-Glass/Random Composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle, and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  7. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites (strip hybrids)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics were applied to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends to illustrate the use of these methods for the a priori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-glass random composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  8. Conventional and Multiscale Modeling of Microstructure Evolution During Laminar Cooling of DP Steel Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyk, Maciej; Kusiak, Jan; Kuziak, Roman; Madej, Łukasz; Szeliga, Danuta; Gołąb, Rafał

    2014-12-01

    Physical and numerical simulations of the hot rolling and laminar cooling of DP steel strips are presented in the paper. The objectives of the paper were twofold. Physical simulations of hot plastic deformation were used to identify and validate numerical models. Validated models were applied to simulate the manufacturing of DP steel strips. Conventional flow stress model and microstructure evolution model were used in the hot deformation part. The approach to the complex systems analysis based on global thermodynamic characterization and detailed microstructure characterization was applied to determine equilibrium state at various temperatures. Finally, two numerical models were used to simulate kinetics of austenite decomposition at varying temperatures: the first, conventional model based on the Avrami equation, and the second, the discrete Cellular Automata approach. Plastometric tests and stress relaxation tests were used for identification of the hot rolling model for the DP steel. Dilatometric tests were performed to identify the phase transformation models. Verification confirmed good accuracy of all models. Validated models were applied to simulate the manufacturing of DP steel strips. Influence of technological parameters ( e.g., strip thickness and velocity, active sections in the laminar cooling, and water flux in the sections) on the DP microstructure was analyzed. The cooling schedules, which give required microstructures were proposed. The numerical tool, which simulates manufacturing chain for DP steel strips is the main output of the paper.

  9. 102. VIEW OF PILOT MILL INTERIOR, MILLING LEVEL FROM WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. VIEW OF PILOT MILL INTERIOR, MILLING LEVEL FROM WEST. BALL MILL FOUNDATION IN FOREGROUND, SLOPED CLASSIFIER BED AND CALCINE BIN ADJACENT, WITH CRUSHER IN BACKGROUND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. 9. Monadnock Mills complex from the south. Mill No. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Monadnock Mills complex from the south. Mill No. 1 is in the center, with the Wheel and Pump House and Mill No. 2 to the left, and the Clothroom Building/Bleach House to the right. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  11. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. 13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TROJAN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRIMARY MILL No. 1 (ALLIS CHALMERS BALL MILL) FROM EAST, c. 1919. ELECTRIC MOTOR AND DRIVE SHAFT CLEARLY VISIBLE. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  13. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  14. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. A Search for Ram-pressure Stripping in the Hydra I Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, B. A.

    2005-01-01

    Ram-pressure stripping is a method by which hot interstellar gas can be removed from a galaxy moving through a group or cluster of galaxies. Indirect evidence of ram-pressure stripping includes lowered X- ray brightness in a galaxy due to less X-ray emitting gas remaining in the galaxy. Here we present the initial results of our program to determine whether cluster elliptical galaxies have lower hot gas masses than their counterparts in less rich environments. This test requires the use of the high-resolution imaging of the Chundru Observatory and we present our analysis of the galaxies in the nearby cluster Hydra I.

  16. A Search for Ram-pressure Stripping in the Hydra I Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, B.

    2005-01-01

    Ram-pressure stripping is a method by which hot interstellar gas can be removed from a galaxy moving through a group or cluster of galaxies. Indirect evidence of ram-pressure stripping includes lowered X-ray brightness in a galaxy due to less X-ray emitting gas remaining in the galaxy. Here we present the initial results of our program to determine whether cluster elliptical galaxies have lower hot gas masses than their counterparts in less rich environments. This test requires the use of the high-resolution imaging of the Chandra Observatory and we present our analysis of the galaxies in the nearby cluster Hydra I.

  17. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. 13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE MILL, TRESTLES, A WAREHOUSE AT THE RIGHT SIDE TO THE PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE THE PIPE IN THE LOWER CENTER FOREGROUND. THIS IS A RUIN OF THE TAILING LINE THAT RAN FROM THE MILL TO THE CYANIDE PLANT ABOUT 1800 FEET NORTH OF THE MILL. DETERIORATED PIECES OF THE WOOD TRESTLE THAT CARRIED THE PIPE ARE SCATTERED AROUND THE PIPE. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  19. The Dark Side of the Moebius Strip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Gideon E.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are various models proposed for the Moebius strip. Included are a discussion of a smooth flat model and two smooth flat algebraic models, some results concerning the shortest Moebius strip, the Moebius strip of least elastic energy, and some observations on real-world Moebius strips. (KR)

  20. Ultra fast cooling of hot steel plate by air atomized spray with salt solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Soumya S.; Ravikumar, Satya V.; Jha, Jay M.; Singh, Akhilendra K.; Bhattacharya, Chandrima; Pal, Surjya K.; Chakraborty, Sudipto

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, the applicability of air atomized spray with the salt added water has been studied for ultra fast cooling (UFC) of a 6 mm thick AISI-304 hot steel plate. The investigation includes the effect of salt (NaCl and MgSO4) concentration and spray mass flux on the cooling rate. The initial temperature of the steel plate before the commencement of cooling is kept at 900 °C or above, which is usually observed as the "finish rolling temperature" in the hot strip mill of a steel plant. The heat transfer analysis shows that air atomized spray with the MgSO4 salt produces 1.5 times higher cooling rate than atomized spray with the pure water, whereas air atomized spray with NaCl produces only 1.2 times higher cooling rate. In transition boiling regime, the salt deposition occurs which causes enhancement in heat transfer rate by conduction. Moreover, surface tension is the governing parameter behind the vapour film instability and this length scale increases with increase in surface tension of coolant. Overall, the achieved cooling rates produced by both types of salt added air atomized spray are found to be in the UFC regime.

  1. Sex and stripping

    PubMed Central

    Pellecchia, Marco; Grève, Pierre; Daffonchio, Daniele; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis is known to infect only arthropods and nematodes (mainly filarial worms). A unique feature shared by the two Phyla is the ability to replace the exoskeleton, a process known as ecdysis. This shared characteristic is thought to reflect a common ancestry. Arthropod moulting is induced by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and a role for ecdysteroids in nematode ecdysis has also been suggested. Removing Wolbachia from filarial worms impairs the host’s development. From analyses of the genome of Wolbachia harbored by the filarial nematode Brugia malayi and that of its host, the bacterium may provide a source of heme, an essential component of cytochrome P450’s that are necessary for steroid hormone biosynthetic pathways. In arthropods, Wolbachia is a reproductive manipulator, inducing various phenotypic effects that may be due to differences in host physiology, in particular, endocrine-related processes governing development and reproduction. Insect steroids have well-defined roles in the coordination of multiple developmental processes, and in adults they control important aspects of reproduction, including ovarian development, oogenesis, sexual behavior, and in some taxa vitellogenin biosynthesis. According to some authors ecdysteroids may also act as sex hormones. In insects sex differentiation is generally thought to be a strictly genetic process, in which each cell decides its own sexual fate based on its sex chromosome constitution, but, surprisingly, recent data demonstrate that in Drosophila sex determination is not cell-autonomous, as it happens in mammals. Thus the presence of signals coordinating the development of a gender-specific phenotype cannot be excluded. This could explain why Wolbachia interferes with insect reproduction; and also could explain why Wolbachia interferes with insect development. Thus, is “sex (=reproduction) and stripping (=ecdysis)” the key to the intimate relationship between Wolbachia and its

  2. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The ion milling of sapphire is a complicated operation due to several characteristics of the material itself. It is a relatively hard transparent nonconductive crystalline material that does not transfer heat nearly as well as metals that have been successfully ion milled in the past. This investigation involved designing an experimental arrangement, using existing ion milling equipment, as the precursor to figuring the surface of sapphire and other insulating optical materials. The experimental arrangement employs a laser probe beam to constantly monitor the stresses being induced in the material, as it is being ion milled. The goal is to determine if the technique proposed would indeed indicate the stress being induced in the material so that these stresses can be managed to prevent failure of the optic.

  3. Pitt Mill Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Oder, R.R.; Borzone, L.A.

    1990-05-01

    Results of a technical and economic evaluation of application of the Pitt Mill to fine coal grinding are presented. The Pitt Mill is a vertically oriented, batch operated, intermediate energy density (0. 025 kW/lb media), stirred ball mill. The mill grinds coal from coarse sizes (typically 3/16 inch or 4 mesh topsize) to the 10 micron to 20 micron mean particle diameter size range in a single step using a shallow grinding bed containing inexpensive, readily available, course grinding media. Size reduction is efficient because of rapid product circulation through the grinding bed caused by action of a novel circulation screw mounted on the agitator shaft. When a dispersant is employed, the grinding can be carried out to 50% to 60% solids concentration. Use of coarse grinding media offers the possibility of enhanced mineral liberation because size reduction is achieved more by impact shattering than by attrition. The batch method offers the possibility of very close control over product particle size distribution without overproduction of fines. A two- phase program was carried out. In the first phase, Grinding Studies, tests were run to determine a suitable configuration of the Pitt Mill. Machine design parameters which were studied included screw configuration, media type, agitator RPM, time, media size, and slurry chamber aspect ratio. During the last part of this phase of the program, tests were carried out to compare the results of grinding Pocahontas seam, Pittsburgh {number sign}8, and East Kentucky Mingo County coals by the Pitt Mill and by a two-stage grinding process employing a Netzsch John mill to feed a high energy density (0.05 kW/Lb media) disc mill. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  4. Producing Foils From Direct Cast Titanium Alloy Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, T. A.; Gaspar, T. A.; Sukonnik, I. M.; Semiatan, S. L.; Batawi, E.; Peters, J. A.; Fraser, H. L.

    1996-01-01

    This research was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of producing high-quality, thin-gage, titanium foil from direct cast titanium strip. Melt Overflow Rapid Solidification Technology (MORST) was used to cast several different titanium alloys into 500 microns thick strip, 10 cm wide and up to 3 m long. The strip was then either ground, hot pack rolled or cold rolled, as appropriate, into foil. Gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) was cast and ground to approximately 100 microns thick foil and alpha-2 titanium aluminide (Ti3AI) was cast and hot pack rolled to approximately 70 microns thick foil. CP Ti, Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo, and Ti22AI23Nb (Orthorhombic), were successfully cast and cold-rolled into good quality foil (less than 125 microns thick). The foils were generally fully dense with smooth surfaces, had fine, uniform microstructures, and demonstrated mechanical properties equivalent to conventionally produced titanium. By eliminating many manufacturing steps, this technology has the potential to produce thin gage, titanium foil with good engineering properties at significantly reduced cost relative to conventional ingot metallurgy processing.

  5. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 406.80 - Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the hot... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.80 Applicability; description of the hot cereal subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. Emission of nearly stripped carbon and oxygen from the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sciambi, R. K.; Gloeckler, G.; Fan, C. Y.; Hovestadt, D.

    1975-01-01

    Energy spectra of nearly stripped carbon and oxygen nuclei were observed during several solar particle events indicating a systematic deviation of these spectra from a simple power law. The spectra bend below 100 keV per nucleon and the degree of turn-over are highly correlated with the size of the flare, as measured by the event averaged flux of 130 to 220 keV protons. The energy spectra of helium computed for the same time periods do not show a similar feature. A large variability of the alpha/CNO ratio from event to event (from 2 to about 20 at 40 keV per nucleon) is found, and, in all cases examined, the carbon and oxygen nuclei are nearly fully stripped. These results are interpreted as evidence for storage of energetic ions in hot (T sub e is approximatey 1.5 million K) coronal regions, followed by strong adiabatic deceleration.

  12. Intrabeam stripping in H- Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.; Solyak, N.; Ostigy, J.-F.; Alexandrov, A.; Shishlo, A.; /Oak Ridge

    2010-09-01

    A beam loss in the superconducting part of the SNS linac has been observed during its commissioning and operation. Although the loss does not prevent the SNS high power operation, it results in an almost uniform irradiation of linac components and increased radiation levels in the tunnel. Multi-particle tracking could neither account for the magnitude of the observed loss nor its dependence on machine parameters. It was recently found that the loss is consistent with the intrabeam particle collisions resulting in stripping of H{sup -} ions. The paper describes experimental observations and corresponding analytical estimates of the intrabeam stripping.

  13. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  14. Pulp and paper mills

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-14

    The various hazards present in the many steps used in the production of products from pulp and paper mills were reviewed and discussed. The biological effects of 43 chemical, physical and dust hazards were detailed in the report. Dust hazards included exposures to wood dust, mold and bagasse dusts and fibrogenic dusts. Physical hazards included high heat and humidity, and noise. Raw materials and chemical intermediates discussed included calcium-oxide (1305788), magnesium-oxide (1309484), pulping liquors, sodium-hydroxide (1310732), sulfate, sulfites, sulfides, sulfur (7704349) and sulfuric-acid (7664939). Pulp bleaching agents were discussed along with papermaking additives, contaminants and/or byproducts, and pulping or combustion effluents. Sampling and analytical techniques for physical and chemical hazards were discussed. Engineering controls for hazards in pulp and paper mills were reviewed. OSHA regulations governing pulp and paper mills were evaluated.

  15. 68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  16. 168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  17. Characteristics of laminates with delamination control strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. T.; Goering, J. C.; Alper, J. M.; Gause, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Tough resin is needed to resist delamination crack propagation. However, modulus often has to be compromised because it is difficult to retain both high modulus and toughness in a matrix material. A potential solution is to use a hybrid system in which tough resin strips are included within a conventional matrix composite. By adjusting the spacing of the tough resin strips, maximum delamination size can be controlled. Experimental results for impact damage and subsequent damage propagation in laminates containing tough resin strips are reported. Plain adhesive strips and fiber-reinforced tough resin composite strips were used in constructing the hybrid laminates. Test results indicated that size of delamination inflicted by impact was confined between the tough resin strips. As a result, significantly increased residual compressive strength was obtained. Impacted laminates containing tough resin strips were also fatigue tested. It was found that these strips reduced the growth of the impact damage area relative to the growth seen in coupons with no tough resin strips. Damage growth from an open hole under tension fatigue was evaluated using both tough resin strips and glass fiber reinforced tough resin strips. Unreinforced tough resin strips retarded delamination growth from the open hole, but did not stop matrix cracks growing in the fiber direction. Fiber reinforced tough resin strips did not contain axial delamination growth from the open hole. However, they did act as crack arresters, stopping the through-the-thickness tension crack originating from the hole.

  18. Characteristics of laminates with delamination control strips

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C.T.; Goering, J.C.; Alper, J.M.; Gause, L.W.

    1992-09-01

    Tough resin is needed to resist delamination crack propagation. However, modulus often has to be compromised because it is difficult to retain both high modulus and toughness in a matrix material. A potential solution is to use a hybrid system in which tough resin strips are included within a conventional matrix composite. By adjusting the spacing of the tough resin strips, maximum delamination size can be controlled. Experimental results for impact damage and subsequent damage propagation in laminates containing tough resin strips are reported. Plain adhesive strips and fiber-reinforced tough resin composite strips were used in constructing the hybrid laminates. Test results indicated that size of delamination inflicted by impact was confined between the tough resin strips. As a result, significantly increased residual compressive strength was obtained. Impacted laminates containing tough resin strips were also fatigue tested. It was found that these strips reduced the growth of the impact damage area relative to the growth seen in coupons with no tough resin strips. Damage growth from an open hole under tension fatigue was evaluated using both tough resin strips and glass fiber reinforced tough resin strips. Unreinforced tough resin strips retarded delamination growth from the open hole, but did not stop matrix cracks growing in the fiber direction. Fiber reinforced tough resin strips did not contain axial delamination growth from the open hole. However, they did act as crack arresters, stopping the through-the-thickness tension crack originating from the hole.

  19. Spiral Galaxies Stripped Bare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Six spectacular spiral galaxies are seen in a clear new light in images from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. The pictures were taken in infrared light, using the impressive power of the HAWK-I camera, and will help astronomers understand how the remarkable spiral patterns in galaxies form and evolve. HAWK-I [1] is one of the newest and most powerful cameras on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is sensitive to infrared light, which means that much of the obscuring dust in the galaxies' spiral arms becomes transparent to its detectors. Compared to the earlier, and still much-used, VLT infrared camera ISAAC, HAWK-I has sixteen times as many pixels to cover a much larger area of sky in one shot and, by using newer technology than ISAAC, it has a greater sensitivity to faint infrared radiation [2]. Because HAWK-I can study galaxies stripped bare of the confusing effects of dust and glowing gas it is ideal for studying the vast numbers of stars that make up spiral arms. The six galaxies are part of a study of spiral structure led by Preben Grosbøl at ESO. These data were acquired to help understand the complex and subtle ways in which the stars in these systems form into such perfect spiral patterns. The first image shows NGC 5247, a spiral galaxy dominated by two huge arms, located 60-70 million light-years away. The galaxy lies face-on towards Earth, thus providing an excellent view of its pinwheel structure. It lies in the zodiacal constellation of Virgo (the Maiden). The galaxy in the second image is Messier 100, also known as NGC 4321, which was discovered in the 18th century. It is a fine example of a "grand design" spiral galaxy - a class of galaxies with very prominent and well-defined spiral arms. About 55 million light-years from Earth, Messier 100 is part of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and lies in the constellation of Coma Berenices (Berenice's Hair, named after the ancient Egyptian queen Berenice II). The third

  20. 71. VIEW OF MILL FLOOR FROM WEST. SECONDARY MILL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. VIEW OF MILL FLOOR FROM WEST. SECONDARY MILL IN LOWER CENTER; BARREN SOLUTION TANK AT MIDDLE RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES AT TOP OF VIEW RUN FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS ON LEFT TO PRIMARY THICKENERS ON RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  1. 2. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, ALEXANDER'S MILL (WILSON'S MILL). THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, ALEXANDER'S MILL (WILSON'S MILL). THE 2-1/1-STORY MAIN BLOCK, ERECTED IN 1855, HAS OVERTONES OF THE GREEK REVIVAL STYLE. Photographer: louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL RIVER CULVERT (HAER NY-112) IS VISIBLE IN UPPER RIGHT HAND CORNER. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  3. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  4. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  5. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  6. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  7. 7 CFR 868.306 - Milling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.306 Milling requirements. The degree of milling for milled rice; i.e., “hard... interpretive line samples for such rice....

  8. Casting of High-Aluminum-Content Mg Alloys Strip by a Horizontal Twin-Roll Caster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hideto; Nishida, Shinichi; Masaki, Endo; Watari, Hisaki

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate casting of high-aluminum-content Mg alloys strip by a horizontal twin-roll caster. A horizontal-type twin-roll caster was equipped with a nozzle. This nozzle was movable. The roll size was φ300 × W150, and copper rolls were used. The rolling road was very small. It was possible to cast AZ91D and AZ121 magnesium alloys continuously by a horizontal twin-roll caster. There was gloss and no crack. The thickness of as-cast strip of AZ91D was 4.5 mm and that of AZ121 was 4.6 mm, respectively. In the case that roll velocity was 48 m/min, the thickness of as-cast strip of AZ121 was 2.0 mm. A 2.0-mm-thick strip was able to coil, and the diameter was φ500 mm. The microstructures of the as-cast strip of AZ91D and AZ121 magnesium alloys were observed using light optical microscopy. Isometric dendrite crystals were observed at the as-cast strip. The as-cast strip without facing of AZ91D and AZ121 magnesium alloys were able to hot rolling of 75 pct reduction. The surface of the as-rolled sheet was flat and glossy. The tensile strength of the as rolled was 230 MPa and the elongation of as rolled was 4 pct.

  9. BUFFERS AND VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buffers and filter strips are areas of permanent vegetation located within and between agricultural fields and the water courses to which they drain. These buffers are intended to intercept and slow runoff thereby providing water quality benefits. In addition, in many settings they are intended to...

  10. The Perils of Strip Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Every year, a few administrators mishandle school searches and create spectacles similar to the New Castle, Pennsylvania, incident involving six illegally strip-searched students. Principals using "cops-and-robber" techniques to unearth contraband may not realize the potential for infringing on students' constitutional privacy rights. Strip…

  11. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF GROUNDWATER STRIPPING EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the applicability of catalytic oxidation to control ground-water air stripping gaseous effluents, with special attention to system designs and case histories. The variety of contaminants and catalyst poisons encountered in stripping operations are also reviewed....

  12. Bimaterial Thermal Strip With Increased Flexing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Andrew D.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed bimaterial thermal strip, one layer has negative coefficient of thermal expansion, thereby increasing difference between coefficients of thermal expansion of two outer layers and consequently increasing flexing caused by change in temperature. Proposed bimaterial strips used in thermostats.

  13. Noise determination in silicon micro strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dubbs, T.; Kashigin, S.; Kratzer, M.

    1996-06-01

    The authors report the study of amplifier noise on silicon micro strip detectors. They have used a fast, low noise amplifier-comparator VLSI chip with 22ns shaping time developed for the LHC to determine the noise at the pre-amp as a function of strip length and strip geometry, i.e., interstrip capacitance and ohmic strip resistance. In addition, they have tested the noise in irradiated detectors. They have compared the results with simulations using SPICE.

  14. The hot γ Doradus and Maia stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balona, L. A.; Engelbrecht, C. A.; Joshi, Y. C.; Joshi, S.; Sharma, K.; Semenko, E.; Pandey, G.; Chakradhari, N. K.; Mkrtichian, David; Hema, B. P.; Nemec, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    The hot γ Doradus stars have multiple low frequencies characteristic of γ Dor or SPB variables, but are located between the red edge of the SPB and the blue edge of the γ Dor instability strips where all low-frequency modes are stable in current models of these stars. Though δ Sct stars also have low frequencies, there is no sign of high frequencies in hot γ Dor stars. We obtained spectra to refine the locations of some of these stars in the H-R diagram and conclude that these are, indeed, anomalous pulsating stars. The Maia variables have multiple high frequencies characteristic of β Cep and δ Sct stars, but lie between the red edge of the β Cep and the blue edge of the δ Sct instability strips. We compile a list of all Maia candidates and obtain spectra of two of these stars. Again, it seems likely that these are anomalous pulsating stars which are currently not understood.

  15. The hot γ Doradus and Maia stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balona, L. A.; Engelbrecht, C. A.; Joshi, Y. C.; Joshi, S.; Sharma, K.; Semenko, E.; Pandey, G.; Chakradhari, N. K.; Mkrtichian, David; Hema, B. P.; Nemec, J. M.

    2016-05-01

    The hot γ Doradus stars have multiple low frequencies characteristic of γ Dor or SPB variables, but are located between the red edge of the SPB and the blue edge of the γ Dor instability strips where all low-frequency modes are stable in current models of these stars. Though δ Sct stars also have low frequencies, there is no sign of high frequencies in hot γ Dor stars. We obtained spectra to refine the locations of some of these stars in the H-R diagram and conclude that these are, indeed, anomalous pulsating stars. The Maia variables have multiple high frequencies characteristic of β Cep and δ Sct stars, but lie between the red edge of the β Cep and the blue edge of the δ Sct instability strips. We compile a list of all Maia candidates and obtain spectra of two of these stars. Again, it seems likely that these are anomalous pulsating stars which are currently not understood.

  16. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stripped bond or stripped coupon is less than the amount computed under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of...)) shall be considered to be zero. For purposes of this computation, the number of complete years to maturity is measured from the date the stripped bond or stripped coupon is purchased. (b) Treatment...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. 1.1286-1 Section 1.1286-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gains and Losses § 1.1286-1 Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. (a) De...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. 1.1286-1 Section 1.1286-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gains and Losses § 1.1286-1 Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. (a) De...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. 1.1286-1 Section 1.1286-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gains and Losses § 1.1286-1 Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. (a) De...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  1. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  2. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  3. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  4. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  5. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  6. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  7. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  8. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  9. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  10. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  11. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  13. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  14. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  15. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  16. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  18. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  19. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  20. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  1. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  2. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  3. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  4. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  5. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  6. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  7. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  9. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  10. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  11. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  12. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  13. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  14. Hot Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  15. Hot Tickets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara; Kuzyk, Raya; McCormack, Heather; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the highlights of this year's BookExpo America (BEA) held at the Los Angeles Convention Center. The attendees at BEA had not minded that the air was recycled, the lighting was fluorescent, and the food was bad. The first hot book sighting came courtesy of Anne Rice. Michelle Moran, author of newly published novel, "The…

  16. Hot Canyon

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-03-01

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  17. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. Detection system for inclusion defects in hot-rolled steel plates using MFLT with two different magnetizing strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yotsuji, Junichi; Koshihara, Takahiro

    2014-02-01

    Recently, steel can manufacturing requires higher quality because otherwise minute non-metallic inclusions in thin sheets cause cracks and result in a burst during pressurization after the pressing process. Quality testing systems have already been installed in the final process in steel plants, but if there were another inspection in an earlier step, for example, at the hot strip mill, the mass manufacture of nonconforming products could be avoided and maintaining quality control would be more efficient. In order to detect inclusion defects in hot-rolled steel plates, the authors developed a new technique for MFLT (Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing) using different magnetizing forces. According to an analysis of the noise factors in MFLT, it was found that the signals generated from the scale layer on a steel surface are dominant. A different magnetizing force method is the used to decrease this overpowering noise level in MFLT. In this paper, it was confirmed that inclusions larger than 160μm in diameter and less than 0.45mm in depth can be detected utilizing this method.

  19. Effect of milling temperature and post-milling cooling procedures on rice milling quality appraisals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of different milling conditions and post-milling handling procedures on appraised milling quality of rough rice. Samples of medium grain rough rice (M202) with moisture content (MC) of 11.5±0.2% were used for this study. To create different mil...

  20. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  1. Bonded orthotropic strips with cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1978-01-01

    The elastostatic problem for a nonhomogeneous plane which consists of two sets of periodically arranged dissimilar orthotropic strips is considered. First, the problem of cracks fully imbedded into the homogeneous strips is considered. Then, the singular behavior of the stresses for two special crack geometries is studied in some detail. The first is the case of a broken laminate in which the crack tips touch the interfaces. The second is the case of cracks crossing the interfaces. A number of numerical examples are worked out in order to separate the primary material parameters influencing the stress intensity factors and the powers of stress singularity, and to determine the trends regarding the influence of the secondary parameters. Finally, some numerical results are given for the stress intensity factors in certain basic crack geometries and for typical material combinations.

  2. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-10-21

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  3. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-03-18

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  4. Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Clad Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, R.; Tsuge, H.; Haga, T.; Watari, H.; Kumai, S.

    2011-01-17

    Casting of aluminum alloy three layers of clad strip was tried using the two sets of twin roll casters, and effects of the casting parameters on the cladding conditions were investigated. One twin roll caster was mounted on the other twin roll caster. Base strip was 8079 aluminum alloy and overlay strips were 6022 aluminum alloy. Effects of roll-load of upper and lower casters and melt temperature of the lower caster were investigated. When the roll-load of the upper and lower caster was large enough, the overlay strip could be solidified and be connected. The overlay strip could be connected when the melt of the overlay strip cast by the lower caster was low enough. Sound three layers of clad strip could be cast by proper conditions.

  5. 15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: North side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue, with furnace-end in background. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace end (in background) to the smokestack end (in foreground). After the hot cane juice moved through the separate compartments until it reached the final compartment (now missing two sides) where it was drawn out from the copper lip in the corner. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  6. Linear giant magnetoresistance behavior of submicron scale Co/Cu multilayer strips with antiferromagnetic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, K.; Matsuo, K.; Nozaki, Y.

    2000-05-01

    Linear magntoresistance (MR) response of Co/Cu multilayer strips with sub-μm width has been performed with a field sensitivity of sub-Oe. The orthogonal spin orientation for neighboring Co layers is initiated with an additional external field applied along the short axis of the strip. The thickness of the Cu layer was optimized to be 2.1 nm, at which the MR ratio of the as grown sample took a maximum value. The MR ratio of the as-grown film of [Co(2 nm)/Cu(2.1 nm)]3/Co(2 nm)/Cu(2 nm) was 12.4%. The multilayer was patterned into strips with the pattern width w down to 0.2 μm by means of electron beam lithography and Ar ion milling. The measured maximum MR ratio of the strips with w=0.4 and 0.2 μm were 9.3% and 8.2%, respectively. The observed parabolic MR profile shows good agreement with the micromagnetic simulation assuming the symmetric scissors motion of the magnetization in the multilayer. A linear MR response was observed in a giant MR strip with 0.4 μm width by applying alternating external fields, ranged from 0.1 to 10 Oe, under a transverse bias field of 300 Oe.

  7. Mills, Bernard Yarnton (1920-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Australian engineer and astronomer, born near Sydney, and worked with the Australian CSIR Division of Radiophysics. He measured the position of Cygnus A and identified a faint nebulosity as its origin, confirmed by a more accurate position by F. G. Smith and 200 in photographs by W BAADE and R MINKOWSKI showing Cygnus A as a peculiar galaxy. Mills built a cross-type radio interferometer at the...

  8. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.

    2002-01-01

    The ion figuring system at the Marshall Space Flight Center has been successfully used for at least three previous investigations into the ion milling of metals. The research was directed toward improving the surface quality of X-ray directing optics. These studies were performed on surfaces that were already hand polished to an excellent surface quality and were intended to remove the residual unwanted figure left by those techniques. The ion milling was typically carried out on test surfaces or mandrels that were several centimeters in width and length. The good thermal conductivity of the metal samples allowed the ion beam to be directed onto the sample for an indefinite period of time. This is not true of sapphire or most electrical insulators and problems have arisen in recent attempts to ion mill thin samples of sapphire. The failure and fracture of the material was likely due to thermal stresses and the relatively low thermal conductivity of sapphire (compared to most metals), These assumed stresses actually provided the key as to how they might be monitored. A thermal gradient in the sapphire sample will induce an effective index of refraction change and because of the shape constraint and the crystal structure and simple thermal expansion, this index change will be nonuniform across the sample. In all but simple cubic crystal structures, this leads to a spatially nonuniform optical retardance induced on any polarized optical beam traversing the sample, and it is this retardance that can be monitored using standard polarimetric procedures.

  9. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  10. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  11. Analyzing the performance of diamond-coated micro end mills.

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, C. D.; Heaney, P. J.; Sumant, A. V.; Hamilton, M. A.; Carpick, R. W.; Pfefferkorn, F. E.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; Univ. of Pennsylvania

    2009-06-01

    A method is presented to improve the tool life and cutting performance of 300 {micro}m diameter tungsten carbide (WC) micro end mills by applying thin (<300 nm) fine-grained diamond (FGD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings using the hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) process. The performance of the diamond-coated tools has been evaluated by comparing their performance in dry slot milling of 6061-T6 aluminum against uncoated WC micro end mills. Tool wear, coating integrity, and chip morphology were characterized using SEM and white light interferometry. The initial test results show a dramatic improvement in the tool integrity (i.e., corners not breaking off), a lower wear rate, no observable adhesion of aluminum to the diamond-coated tool, and a significant reduction in the cutting forces (>50%). Reduction of the cutting forces is attributed to the low friction and adhesion of the diamond coating. However, approximately 80% of the tools coated with the larger FGD coatings failed during testing due to delamination. Additional machining benefits were attained for the NCD films, which was obtained by using a higher nucleation density seeding process for diamond growth. This process allowed for thinner, smaller grained diamond coatings to be deposited on the micro end mills, and enabled continued operation of the tool even after the integrity of the diamond coating had been compromised. As opposed to the FGD-coated end mills, only 40% of the NCD-tools experienced delamination issues.

  12. HOT METAL BRIDGE (NOTE: BUILDERS: JONES AND LAUGHLIN STEEL CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT METAL BRIDGE (NOTE: BUILDERS: JONES AND LAUGHLIN STEEL CA. 1890), SOUTH PORTAL. THREE PIN CONNECTED CAMELBACK TRUSS SPANS, ONE SKEWED THROUGH TRUSS SPAN ON NORTH SIDE TRUSS BRIDGE, EAST OF HOT METAL BRIDGE BUILT BY AMERICAN BRIDGE COMPANY CA. 1910. (RIVETED MULTI-SPAN TRUSS). - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  13. Buffer strips in composites at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The composite material 'buffer strip' concept is presently investigated at elevated temperatures for the case of graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels using a (45/0/45/90)2S layup, where the buffer strip material was 0-deg S-glass/polyimide. Each panel was loaded in tension until it failed, and radiographs and crack opening displacements were recorded during the tests to determine fracture onset, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after crack arrest. At 177 + or - 3 C, the buffer strips increased the panel strength by at least 40 percent in comparison with panels without buffer strips. Compared to similar panels tested at room temperature, those tested at elevated temperature had lower residual strengths, but higher failure strains.

  14. Hot Meetings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Mary

    2002-01-01

    A colleague walked by my office one time as I was conducting a meeting. There were about five or six members of my team present. The colleague, a man who had been with our institution (The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab, a.k.a. APL) for many years, could not help eavesdropping. He said later it sounded like we we re having a raucous argument, and he wondered whether he should stand by the door in case things got out of hand and someone threw a punch. Our Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) team was a hot group, to invoke the language that is fashionable today, although we never thought of ourselves in those terms. It was just our modus operandi. The tenor of the discussion got loud and volatile at times, but I prefer to think of it as animated, robust, or just plain collaborative. Mary Chiu and her "hot" team from the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory built the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft for NASA. Instruments on the spacecraft continue to collect data that inform us about what's happening on our most important star, the Sun.

  15. Strip of heat-recoverable articles

    SciTech Connect

    McLoughlin, R.H.; Kirkham, S.W.

    1985-01-29

    A strip of hollow heat-recoverable articles formed side-by-side by tear welding two lengths of polymeric material together at intervals so that individual articles may be torn off. A preferred method of making the strip involves cross-linking after the tear welding, heating the strip, and inflating the hollow articles to render them heat-recoverable by introducing pressure via an interconnecting passage formed for that purpose during the tear welding.

  16. Method of stripping metals from organic solvents

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Terry A.; Law, Jack D.; Herbst, R. Scott; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasily A.; Esimantovski, Vyatcheslav M.

    2009-02-24

    A new method to strip metals from organic solvents in a manner that allows for the recycle of the stripping agent. The method utilizes carbonate solutions of organic amines with complexants, in low concentrations, to strip metals from organic solvents. The method allows for the distillation and reuse of organic amines. The concentrated metal/complexant fraction from distillation is more amenable to immobilization than solutions resulting from current practice.

  17. Studies of NICADD Extruded Scintillator Strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dychkant, Alexandre; et al.

    2005-03-01

    About four hundred one meter long, 10 cm wide and 5 mm thick extruded scintillating strips were measured at four different points. The results of measurements strip responses to a radioactive source {sup 90}Sr are provided, and details of strip choice, preparation, and method of measurement are included. This work was essential for prototyping a tail catcher and muon tracker for a future international electron positron linear collider detector.

  18. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  19. Ammonia stripping of biologically treated liquid manure.

    PubMed

    Alitalo, Anni; Kyrö, Aleksis; Aura, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for efficient ammonia removal in air stripping is that the pH of the liquid to be stripped is sufficiently high. Swine manure pH is usually around 7. At pH 7 (at 20°C), only 0.4% of ammonium is in ammonia form, and it is necessary to raise the pH of swine slurry to achieve efficient ammonia removal. Because manure has a very high buffering capacity, large amounts of chemicals are needed to change the slurry pH. The present study showed that efficient air stripping of manure can be achieved with a small amount of chemicals and without strong bases like NaOH. Slurry was subjected to aerobic biological treatment to raise pH before stripping. This facilitated 8 to 32% ammonia removal without chemical treatment. The slurry was further subjected to repeated cycles of stripping with MgO and Ca(OH)(2) additions after the first and second strippings, respectively, to raise slurry pH in between the stripping cycles. After three consecutive stripping cycles, 59 to 86% of the original ammonium had been removed. It was shown that the reduction in buffer capacity of the slurry was due to ammonia and carbonate removal during the stripping cycles. PMID:22218195

  20. Chandra Galaxy Atals - Global Hot Gas Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Douglas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jennifer L.; McCollough, Michael L.; Morgan, Douglas; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2016-04-01

    The hot gas in early type galaxies (ETGs) plays a crucial role in understanding their formation and evolution. As the hot gas is often extended to the outskirts beyond the optical size, the large scale structural features identified by Chandra (including jets, cavities, cold fronts, filaments and tails) point to key evolutionary mechanisms, e.g., AGN feedback, merging history, accretion/stripping and star formation and its quenching. In our new project, the Chandra Galaxy Atlas, we systematically analyze the archival Chandra data of ~100 ETGs to study the hot ISM. Using uniformly derived data products with spatially resolved spectral information, we will present gas morphology, scaling relations and X-ray based mass profiles and address their implications.

  1. 9. VIEW OF MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES, MILLING AND LATHE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES, MILLING AND LATHE MACHINES WERE USED TO FORM COMPONENTS INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPE. IN THE FOUNDRY, ENRICHED URANIUM WAS CAST INTO SPHERICAL SHAPES OR INGOT FROM WHICH WEAPONS COMPONENTS WERE FABRICATED. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Important Questions about "Diploma Mills" and "Accreditation Mills."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Higher Education Accreditation, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet discusses "diploma mills" and "accreditation mills," dubious providers of educational offerings or operations that offer certificates and degrees that are considered bogus. Because it is not always easy to identify these operations, questions are provided to help the potential student determine whether a provider is a diploma mill…

  3. 1. 'Saltbox' mill worker house located in Dixie Mill village ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 'Saltbox' mill worker house located in Dixie Mill village area of LaGrange at 613 Arthur St. The saltbox house form is unusual in the LaGrange area and perhaps indicates the influence of Northern investors. - 613 Arthur Street (House), 613 Arthur Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  4. Bonded orthotropic strips with cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1979-01-01

    The elastostatic problem for a nonhomogeneous plane which consists of two sets of periodically arranged dissimilar orthotropic strips is considered. It is assumed that the plane contains a series of collinear cracks perpendicular to the interfaces and is loaded in tension away from and perpendicular to the cracks. The problem of cracks fully imbedded into the homogeneous strips is considered. The singular behavior of the stresses for two special crack geometries is studied. The first is the case of a broken laminate in which the crack tips touch the interfaces. The second is the case of cracks crossing the interfaces. An interesting result found from the analysis of the latter is that for certain orthotropic material combinations the stress state at the point of intersection of a crack and an interface may be bounded whereas in isotropic materials at this point stresses are always singular. A number of numerical examples are worked out to separate the primary material parameters influencing the stress intensity factors and the powers of stress singularity, and to determine the trends regarding the influence of the secondary parameters. Some numerical results are given for the stress intensity factors in certain basic crack geometries and for typical material combinations.

  5. Thermal modeling of roll and strip interfaces in rolling processes. Part 2: Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, A.A.

    1999-02-12

    Part 1 of this paper reviewed the modeling approaches and correlations used to study the interface heat transfer phenomena of the roll-strip contact region in rolling processes. The thermal contact conductance approach was recommended for modeling the interface phenomena. To illustrate, the recommended approach and selected correlations are adopted in the present study for modeling of the roll-strip interface region. The specific values of the parameters used to correlate the corresponding thermal contact conductance for the typical cold and hot rolling of steels are first estimated. The influence of thermal contact resistance on the temperature distributions of the roll and strip is then studied. Comparing the present simulation results with previously published experimental and analytical results shows that the thermal contact conductance approach and numerical models used can reliably simulate the heat transfer behavior of the rolling process.

  6. Optimization of Milling Parameters Employing Desirability Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. L. S.; Rubio, J. C. Campos; Abrão, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of tool material (one cermet and two coated carbide grades), cutting speed and feed rate on the machinability of hardened AISI H13 hot work steel, in order to identify the cutting conditions which lead to optimal performance. A multiple response optimization procedure based on tool life, surface roughness, milling forces and the machining time (required to produce a sample cavity) was employed. The results indicated that the TiCN-TiN coated carbide and cermet presented similar results concerning the global optimum values for cutting speed and feed rate per tooth, outperforming the TiN-TiCN-Al2O3 coated carbide tool.

  7. Mill recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Musto, R.L.

    1984-10-23

    A mill recirculation system that is operative for purposes of effecting the pulverization and firing of solid fuels, while yet possessing all of the desirable features of a direct fired system. The subject system includes pulverizer means classifier means and burner means as well as a preestablished fluid flow path by which the pulverizer means and the classifier means are interconnected in fluid flow relation with the burner means. In accord with the mode of operation of the subject mill recirculation system a stream of solid fuel is made to flow along the fluid flow path such that the solid fuel is pulverized in the pulverizer means, classified according to particle size in the classifier means and fired in the burner means. Further, a stream of a suitable gaseous medium is made to flow along the flow path such that the gaseous medium is operative to cause the solid fuel to be conveyed therewith through the pulverizer means while being dried thereby and to be conveyed therewith from the pulverizer means to the classifier means. At the classifier means a separation is had of the stream of the gaseous medium such that a portion of the gaseous medium is recirculated along with the oversize solid fuel particles bach to the pulverizer means, while the remainder of the gaseous medium is operative to convey the solid fuel particles that are of the desired size from the classifier means to the burner means for burning, i.e., firing, in the latter.

  8. Understanding the strength of hot-pressed nanostructured powder compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.; Harlow, D.G.

    1999-02-01

    Attrition-milled nanostructured powders were hot pressed, and macroscopic properties of density, hardness, grain size, and strength were measured. No correlation was found between processing conditions (temperature and time) used in this study and compact properties, nor was a correlation found between the tensile (or failure) stress and density, hardness, or grain size. Variations of compact properties of unmilled powder were similar to that of milled powders. Tensile data were not well fitted to a Gaussian distribution but were well fitted to a two-parameter Weibull distribution. Thus, although the milled powder compacts had an average tensile strength greater than the unmilled powder compacts, all sample compositions fit a distribution with zero as a possible minimal stress level. Weibull analysis suggests that the tensile and compression strength is controlled by the presence of fine cracks, which may limit future engineering applications. Efforts to eliminate these cracks during hot pressing were unsuccessful.

  9. Hot Subluminous Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    Vir systems from eclipse timings. The high incidence of circumbinary substellar objects suggests that most of the planets are formed from the remaining CE material (second generation planets). Several types of pulsating star have been discovered among hot subdwarf stars, the most common are the gravity-mode sdB pulsators (V1093 Her) and their hotter siblings, the p-mode pulsating V361 Hya stars. Another class of multi-periodic pulsating hot subdwarfs has been found in the globular cluster ω Cen that is unmatched by any field star. Asteroseismology has advanced enormously thanks to the high-precision Kepler photometry and allowed stellar rotation rates to be determined, the interior structure of gravity-mode pulsators to be probed and stellar ages to be estimated. Rotation rates turned out to be unexpectedly slow calling for very efficient angular momentum loss on the red giant branch or during the helium core flash. The convective cores were found to be larger than predicted by standard stellar evolution models requiring very efficient angular momentum transport on the red giant branch. The masses of hot subdwarf stars, both single or in binaries, are the key to understand the stars’ evolution. A few pulsating sdB stars in eclipsing binaries have been found that allow both techniques to be applied for mass determination. The results, though few, are in good agreement with predictions from binary population synthesis calculations. New classes of binaries, hosting so-called extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs (M < 0.3 M ⊙), have recently been discovered, filling a gap in the mosaic of binary stellar evolution. Like most sdB stars the ELM white dwarfs are the stripped cores of red giants, the known companions are either white dwarfs, neutron stars (pulsars) or F- or A-type main sequence stars (“EL CVn” stars). In the near future, the Gaia mission will provide high-precision astrometry for a large sample of subdwarf stars to disentangle the different stellar

  10. Evaporative heat transfer and enhancement performance of serpentine tubes with strip-type inserts using refrigerant-134a

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, S.S.; Jang, K.J.; Huang, M.T.

    1999-08-01

    Recent technological implications have given rise to increased interest in enhancement of the in-tube evaporation used in many air conditioning and refrigeration systems. Although many past studies have examined in-tube evaporative heat transfer enhancement and the associated pressure drop with internally finned tubes, in-tube evaporations with strip-type inserts, using R-134a as a refrigerant, have not been conducted. In addition, the fundamental phenomenon of nucleate boiling from a heated wall subject to a strip-type insert is as yet not well understood, especially for the flow in serpentine tubes. In this study, flow boiling tests were conducted in serpentine coil with inserts. To accomplish these tasks, experiments were performed in a seven-pass serpentine test tube with longitudinal strip and cross-strip types inserts, 10.6-mm inside diameter with R-134a as the boiling fluid immersed in a hot water bath.

  11. Technical development of double-clad process for thin strip casting of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.L.; Forkel, C.E.; Knudson, D.L.

    1984-08-01

    This report documents the technical development for a patent disclosure of a double-clad process for the continuous casting of thin-strip carbon steel. The fundamental idea of the disclosure is to form a product strip by depositing molten steel between two, cooled, clad strips of the same material. The claimed benefits include: (a) the conservation of energy in steel making through the elimination of soaking pits and reheat cycles, and (b) an improved surface on both sides of the as-cast product such that it will be suitable for direct feed to a cold-reduction mill. However, the process as conceived is not necessarily limited to the casting of carbon steel, but may be also applied to other metals and alloys. The work is described under three headings as follows. Preliminary Considerations and Scoping Analysis presents the basic idea of the double-clad, thin-strip casting process; the energy conservation potential; scoping heat transfer calculations for the casting process; and independent review of this work. Thermal Analysis for Roller Configuration of Double-Clad Process, presents the development, results, and independent review of a finite-element thermal analysis for the casting process as originally conceived (using only chilled rollers in direct contact with the clad material of the product strip). Further Considerations for Belt Configuration of Double-Clad Process deals with a modified equipment design which interposes two product support belts, one on each side of the product, between the clad strip and the rollers. In addition to the process description, this section presents the preliminary mechanical calculations for the endless metal belts and the work scope and results for the computer model revision and thermal analysis for the modified concept.

  12. Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the processing route for grain-oriented electrical steels using strip casting

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Yao, Sheng-Jie; Sun, Yu; Gao, Fei; Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Guo-Huai; Li, Lei; Geng, Dian-Qiao; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-08-15

    In the present work, a regular grade GO sheet was produced successively by strip casting, hot rolling, normalizing annealing, two-stage cold rolling with intermediate annealing, primary recrystallization annealing, secondary recrystallization annealing and purification. The aim of this paper was to characterize the evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the new processing route by comprehensive utilization of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that a fine microstructure with the ferrite grain size range of 7–12 μm could be obtained in the primary recrystallization annealed sheet though a very coarse microstructure was produced in the initial as-cast strip. The main finding was that the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture started on the through-thickness intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling, which was not similar to the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture starting on the surface layers of the hot rolled strip in the conventional production route. As a result, the origin of Goss nuclei capable of secondary recrystallization lied in the grains already presented in Goss orientation in the intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling. Another finding was that fine and dispersive inhibitors (mainly AlN) were easy to be produced in the primary recrystallization microstructure due to the initial rapid solidification during strip casting and the subsequent rapid cooling, and the very high temperature reheating usually used before hot rolling in the conventional production route could be avoided. - Highlights: • A regular grade grain-oriented electrical steel was produced. • Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor was characterized. • Origin of Goss nuclei lied in the intermediate annealed strip. • A fine primary recrystallization microstructure could be produced. • Effective inhibitors were easy to be obtained in the new processing route.

  13. Strategy Strips for Self-Reliant Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowell, Dorothy J.

    2003-01-01

    Explains how reading strategy strips were developed to focus students' attention on specific reading steps. Notes that students became more personally knowledgeable and independent by using reading strategy strips. Proposes that their small-group participation helped them progress as collaborative thinkers. (PM)

  14. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping...) must have a stripping system that is designed to remove crude oil from— (1) Each cargo tank at 1.25... under § 157.140(a)(2). (b) Each cargo tank must be designed to allow the level of crude oil in the...

  15. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping...) must have a stripping system that is designed to remove crude oil from— (1) Each cargo tank at 1.25... under § 157.140(a)(2). (b) Each cargo tank must be designed to allow the level of crude oil in the...

  16. Chemical milling of zircaloy tubing to produce integral OD spiral finned tubes. AWBA development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwood, W. A.

    1982-02-01

    A detailed process description is provided for producing integral spiral fins on the outside surface of Zircaloy nuclear fuel cladding tubes by masking with pressure sensitive tape strips and then chemical milling (pickling) the tube wall between the tape strips to leave the fins in relief. Fins up to 0.020 inch high by 0.05 to 0.12 inch wide were consistently produced on tubes having wall thickness of 0.008 inch or greater after fin pickling. Wall thickness uniformity was excellent. Information is provided on tube surface preparation to maximize tape mask adhesion time during pickling, acid chemistry control to prevent local tube wall thinning near the fin, and pickling techniques to promote uniform material removal. Simple fixture designs are described for quickly and conveniently applying the tape strips to the tube wall in an accurate spiral.

  17. Chemical milling of Zircaloy tubing to produce integral OD spiral finned tubes (AWBA development program)

    SciTech Connect

    Horwood, W.A.

    1982-02-01

    A detailed process description is provided for producing integral spiral fins on the outside surface of Zircaloy nuclear fuel cladding tubes by masking with pressure sensitive tape strips and then chemical milling (pickling) the tube wall between the tape strips to leave the fins in relief. Fins up to 0.020 inch high by 0.05 to 0.12 inch wide were consistently produced on tubes having wall thickness of 0.008 inch or greater after fin pickling. Wall thickness uniformity was excellent. Information is provided on tube surface preparation to maximize tape mask adhesion time during pickling, acid chemistry control to prevent local tube wall thinning near the fin, and pickling techniques to promote uniform material removal. Simple fixture designs are described for quickly and conveniently applying the tape strips to the tube wall in an accurate spiral. 13 figures, 4 tables.

  18. Extraction of uranium: comparison of stripping with ammonia vs. strong acid

    SciTech Connect

    Moldovan, B.; Grinbaum, B.; Efraim, A.

    2008-07-01

    Following extraction of uranium in the first stage of solvent extraction using a tertiary amine, typically Alamine 336, the stripping of the extracted uranium is accomplished either by use of an aqueous solution of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} /NH{sub 4}OH or by strong-acid stripping using 400-500 g/L H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Both processes have their merits and determine the downstream processing. The classical stripping with ammonia is followed by addition of strong base, to precipitate ammonium uranyl sulfate (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}UO{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}, which yields finally the yellow cake. Conversely, stripping with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, followed by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yields uranyl oxide as product. At the Cameco Key Lake operation, both processes were tested on a pilot scale, using a Bateman Pulsed Column (BPC). The BPC proved to be applicable to both processes. It met the process criteria both for extraction and stripping, leaving less than 1 mg/L of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the raffinate, and product solution had the required concentration of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} at high flux and reasonable height of transfer unit. In the Key Lake mill, each operation can be carried out in a single column. The main advantages of the strong-acid stripping over ammonia stripping are: (1) 60% higher flux in the extraction, (2) tenfold higher concentration of the uranium in the product solution, and (3) far more robust process, with no need of pH control in the stripping and no need to add acid to the extraction in order to keep the pH above the point of precipitation of iron compounds. The advantages of the ammoniacal process are easier stripping, that is, less stages needed to reach equilibrium and lower concentration of modifier needed to prevent the creation of a third phase. (authors)

  19. Smooth Muscle Strips for Intestinal Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Walthers, Christopher M.; Lee, Min; Wu, Benjamin M.; Dunn, James C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Functionally contracting smooth muscle is an essential part of the engineered intestine that has not been replicated in vitro. The purpose of this study is to produce contracting smooth muscle in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle organization. We employed intact smooth muscle strips and compared them to dissociated smooth muscle cells in culture for 14 days. Cells isolated by enzymatic digestion quickly lost maturity markers for smooth muscle cells and contained few enteric neural and glial cells. Cultured smooth muscle strips exhibited periodic contraction and maintained neural and glial markers. Smooth muscle strips cultured for 14 days also exhibited regular fluctuation of intracellular calcium, whereas cultured smooth muscle cells did not. After implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds, smooth muscle strip constructs expressed high levels of smooth muscle maturity markers as well as enteric neural and glial cells. Intact smooth muscle strips may be a useful component for engineered intestinal smooth muscle. PMID:25486279

  20. Cross Coating Weight Control by Electromagnetic Strip Stabilization at the Continuous Galvanizing Line of ArcelorMittal Florange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guelton, Nicolas; Lopès, Catherine; Sordini, Henri

    2016-08-01

    In hot dip galvanizing lines, strip bending around the sink roll generates a flatness defect called crossbow. This defect affects the cross coating weight distribution by changing the knife-to-strip distance along the strip width and requires a significant increase in coating target to prevent any risk of undercoating. The already-existing coating weight control system succeeds in eliminating both average and skew coating errors but cannot do anything against crossbow coating errors. It has therefore been upgraded with a flatness correction function which takes advantage of the possibility of controlling the electromagnetic stabilizer. The basic principle is to split, for every gage scan, the coating weight cross profile of the top and bottom sides into two, respectively, linear and non-linear components. The linear component is used to correct the skew error by realigning the knives with the strip, while the non-linear component is used to distort the strip in the stabilizer in such a way that the strip is kept flat between the knives. Industrial evaluation is currently in progress but the first results have already shown that the strip can be significantly flattened between the knives and the production tolerances subsequently tightened without compromising quality.

  1. Cross Coating Weight Control by Electromagnetic Strip Stabilization at the Continuous Galvanizing Line of ArcelorMittal Florange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guelton, Nicolas; Lopès, Catherine; Sordini, Henri

    2016-04-01

    In hot dip galvanizing lines, strip bending around the sink roll generates a flatness defect called crossbow. This defect affects the cross coating weight distribution by changing the knife-to-strip distance along the strip width and requires a significant increase in coating target to prevent any risk of undercoating. The already-existing coating weight control system succeeds in eliminating both average and skew coating errors but cannot do anything against crossbow coating errors. It has therefore been upgraded with a flatness correction function which takes advantage of the possibility of controlling the electromagnetic stabilizer. The basic principle is to split, for every gage scan, the coating weight cross profile of the top and bottom sides into two, respectively, linear and non-linear components. The linear component is used to correct the skew error by realigning the knives with the strip, while the non-linear component is used to distort the strip in the stabilizer in such a way that the strip is kept flat between the knives. Industrial evaluation is currently in progress but the first results have already shown that the strip can be significantly flattened between the knives and the production tolerances subsequently tightened without compromising quality.

  2. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice... (percent) Removed by a 5 plate 3 (percent) Removed by a 6 plate 3 (percent) Through a 6 sieve 3...

  3. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...) (percent) Chalky kernels 1,2 In long grain rice (percent) In medium or short grain rice (percent)...

  4. 35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  5. Hot Subluminous Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    Vir systems from eclipse timings. The high incidence of circumbinary substellar objects suggests that most of the planets are formed from the remaining CE material (second generation planets). Several types of pulsating star have been discovered among hot subdwarf stars, the most common are the gravity-mode sdB pulsators (V1093 Her) and their hotter siblings, the p-mode pulsating V361 Hya stars. Another class of multi-periodic pulsating hot subdwarfs has been found in the globular cluster ω Cen that is unmatched by any field star. Asteroseismology has advanced enormously thanks to the high-precision Kepler photometry and allowed stellar rotation rates to be determined, the interior structure of gravity-mode pulsators to be probed and stellar ages to be estimated. Rotation rates turned out to be unexpectedly slow calling for very efficient angular momentum loss on the red giant branch or during the helium core flash. The convective cores were found to be larger than predicted by standard stellar evolution models requiring very efficient angular momentum transport on the red giant branch. The masses of hot subdwarf stars, both single or in binaries, are the key to understand the stars’ evolution. A few pulsating sdB stars in eclipsing binaries have been found that allow both techniques to be applied for mass determination. The results, though few, are in good agreement with predictions from binary population synthesis calculations. New classes of binaries, hosting so-called extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs (M < 0.3 M ⊙), have recently been discovered, filling a gap in the mosaic of binary stellar evolution. Like most sdB stars the ELM white dwarfs are the stripped cores of red giants, the known companions are either white dwarfs, neutron stars (pulsars) or F- or A-type main sequence stars (“EL CVn” stars). In the near future, the Gaia mission will provide high-precision astrometry for a large sample of subdwarf stars to disentangle the different stellar

  6. Nanoscale grains, high irreversibility field and large critical current density as a function of high-energy ball milling time in C-doped magnesium diboride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkowicz, B. J.; Mungall, R. J.; Zhu, Y.; Jiang, J.; Voyles, P. M.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2008-03-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) powder was mechanically alloyed by high-energy ball milling with C to a composition of Mg(B0.95C0.05)2 and then sintered at 1000 °C in a hot isostatic press. Milling times varied from 1 to 3000 min. Full C incorporation required only 30-60 min of milling. The grain size of sintered samples decreased with increased milling time to <30 nm for 20-50 h of milling. Milling had a weak detrimental effect on the connectivity. A strong irreversibility field (H*) increase (from 13.3 to 17.2 T at 4.2 K) due to increased milling time was observed and correlated linearly with inverse grain size (1/d). As a result, the high-field Jc benefited greatly from lengthy powder milling. Jc (8 T, 4.2 K) peaked at>80 000 A cm-2 with 1200 min of milling compared with only ~26 000 A cm-2 for 60 min of milling. This non-compositional performance increase is attributed to grain refinement of the unsintered powder by milling, and to the probable suppression of grain growth by milling-induced MgO nanodispersions.

  7. Diffusion-Cooled Tantalum Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skalare, Anders; McGrath, William; Bumble, Bruce; LeDuc, Henry

    2004-01-01

    A batch of experimental diffusion-cooled hot-electron bolometers (HEBs), suitable for use as mixers having input frequencies in the terahertz range and output frequencies up to about a gigahertz, exploit the superconducting/normal-conducting transition in a thin strip of tantalum. The design and operation of these HEB mixers are based on mostly the same principles as those of a prior HEB mixer that exploited the superconducting/normal- conducting transition in a thin strip of niobium and that was described elsewhere.

  8. Tracing ram-pressure stripping with warm molecular hydrogen emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sivanandam, Suresh; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rieke, George H.

    2014-12-01

    We use the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph to study four infalling cluster galaxies with signatures of ongoing ram-pressure stripping. H{sub 2} emission is detected in all four, and two show extraplanar H{sub 2} emission. The emission usually has a warm (T ∼ 115-160 K) and a hot (T ∼ 400-600 K) component that is approximately two orders of magnitude less massive than the warm one. The warm component column densities are typically 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2} with masses of 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}. The warm H{sub 2} is anomalously bright compared with normal star-forming galaxies and therefore may be excited by ram-pressure. In the case of CGCG 97-073, the H{sub 2} is offset from the majority of star formation along the direction of the galaxy's motion in the cluster, suggesting that it is forming in the ram-pressure wake of the galaxy. Another galaxy, NGC 4522, exhibits a warm H{sub 2} tail approximately 4 kpc in length. These results support the hypothesis that H{sub 2} within these galaxies is shock-heated from the interaction with the intracluster medium. Stripping of dust is also a common feature of the galaxies. For NGC 4522, where the distribution of dust at 8 μm is well resolved, knots and ripples demonstrate the turbulent nature of the stripping process. The Hα and 24 μm luminosities show that most of the galaxies have star-formation rates comparable to similar mass counterparts in the field. Finally, we suggest a possible evolutionary sequence primarily related to the strength of ram-pressure that a galaxy experiences to explain the varied results observed in our sample.

  9. Tracing Ram-pressure Stripping with Warm Molecular Hydrogen Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanandam, Suresh; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rieke, George H.

    2014-12-01

    We use the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph to study four infalling cluster galaxies with signatures of ongoing ram-pressure stripping. H2 emission is detected in all four, and two show extraplanar H2 emission. The emission usually has a warm (T ~ 115-160 K) and a hot (T ~ 400-600 K) component that is approximately two orders of magnitude less massive than the warm one. The warm component column densities are typically 1019 to 1020 cm-2 with masses of 106 to 108 M ⊙. The warm H2 is anomalously bright compared with normal star-forming galaxies and therefore may be excited by ram-pressure. In the case of CGCG 97-073, the H2 is offset from the majority of star formation along the direction of the galaxy's motion in the cluster, suggesting that it is forming in the ram-pressure wake of the galaxy. Another galaxy, NGC 4522, exhibits a warm H2 tail approximately 4 kpc in length. These results support the hypothesis that H2 within these galaxies is shock-heated from the interaction with the intracluster medium. Stripping of dust is also a common feature of the galaxies. For NGC 4522, where the distribution of dust at 8 μm is well resolved, knots and ripples demonstrate the turbulent nature of the stripping process. The Hα and 24 μm luminosities show that most of the galaxies have star-formation rates comparable to similar mass counterparts in the field. Finally, we suggest a possible evolutionary sequence primarily related to the strength of ram-pressure that a galaxy experiences to explain the varied results observed in our sample.

  10. Lab experiments on the innovative rapid thick strip casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Richard; Senk, Dieter

    2012-05-01

    Rapid thick strip casting (RTSC) by Anton Hulek, Inventmetall®, is an innovative concept for the production of hot strips with a final as-cast thickness of about 25 mm before rolling. The innovation of the mechanism consists in a vertical mould performing a caterpillar motion. This moving mould has an unconventional parallelogram-shaped cross-section. The conventional rectangular shape is formed in the shaping machine, which is placed straight below the mould. Further elements of the technology are state-of-the-art. For the investigation of this new casting system theoretical calculations were complemented with practical experiments. The investigation focused mainly on two key aspects: the characteristics of the mould and the shaping process. For the practical analysis a static mould with three pairs of elements in laboratory scale was developed and commissioned by the Dept. of Ferrous Metallurgy @ RWTH Aachen University. The shaping experiments were carried out in model scale with two different materials and in variable boundary conditions. The results of these experiments delivered important mechanical as well as thermal informations about the casting system.

  11. A Strip Cell in Pyroelectric Devices.

    PubMed

    Siao, An-Shen; Chao, Ching-Kong; Hsiao, Chun-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The pyroelectric effect affords the opportunity to convert temporal temperature fluctuations into usable electrical energy in order to develop abundantly available waste heat. A strip pyroelectric cell, used to enhance temperature variation rates by lateral temperature gradients and to reduce cell capacitance to further promote the induced voltage, is described as a means of improving pyroelectric energy transformation. A precision dicing saw was successfully applied in fabricating the pyroelectric cell with a strip form. The strip pyroelectric cell with a high-narrow cross section is able to greatly absorb thermal energy via the side walls of the strips, thereby inducing lateral temperature gradients and increasing temperature variation rates in a thicker pyroelectric cell. Both simulation and experimentation show that the strip pyroelectric cell improves the electrical outputs of pyroelectric cells and enhances the efficiency of pyroelectric harvesters. The strip-type pyroelectric cell has a larger temperature variation when compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by about 1.9 and 2.4 times, respectively. The measured electrical output of the strip type demonstrates a conspicuous increase in stored energy as compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by of about 15.6 and 19.8 times, respectively. PMID:26999134

  12. A Strip Cell in Pyroelectric Devices

    PubMed Central

    Siao, An-Shen; Chao, Ching-Kong; Hsiao, Chun-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The pyroelectric effect affords the opportunity to convert temporal temperature fluctuations into usable electrical energy in order to develop abundantly available waste heat. A strip pyroelectric cell, used to enhance temperature variation rates by lateral temperature gradients and to reduce cell capacitance to further promote the induced voltage, is described as a means of improving pyroelectric energy transformation. A precision dicing saw was successfully applied in fabricating the pyroelectric cell with a strip form. The strip pyroelectric cell with a high-narrow cross section is able to greatly absorb thermal energy via the side walls of the strips, thereby inducing lateral temperature gradients and increasing temperature variation rates in a thicker pyroelectric cell. Both simulation and experimentation show that the strip pyroelectric cell improves the electrical outputs of pyroelectric cells and enhances the efficiency of pyroelectric harvesters. The strip-type pyroelectric cell has a larger temperature variation when compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by about 1.9 and 2.4 times, respectively. The measured electrical output of the strip type demonstrates a conspicuous increase in stored energy as compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by of about 15.6 and 19.8 times, respectively. PMID:26999134

  13. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    PubMed

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears. PMID:23643789

  14. Retractable spiked barrier strip for law enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.

    1995-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has designed an laboratory tested a prototype retractable spiked barrier strip for law enforcement. The proposed system, which is ready for controlled field testing, expands the functionality of existing spiked barrier strips. A retractable barrier strip, one that can place the spikes in either the active (vertical) or passive (horizontal) position, would allow law enforcement personnel to lay the unobtrusive strip across a road far in advance of a fleeing vehicle. No damage occurs to passing vehicles until the spikes are activated, and that can be done from a safe distance and at a strategic location when the offending vehicle is close to the strip. The concept also allows the strips to be place safely across several roadways that are potential paths of a fleeing vehicle. Since they are not activated until needed, they are harmless to nonoffending vehicles. The laboratory tests conducted on the system indicate that it will puncture tires only when the spikes are rotated to the active position and is safe to travel over when the spikes are in the down position. The strip itself will not cause instability to a vehicle driving over it, nor is the strip disturbed or adversely affected by vehicles driving over it. The spikes can be quickly rotated between the active (vertical) and passive (horizontal) position. However, the laboratory tests have only demonstrated that the retractable spiked barrier strip can perform its intended function in a laboratory environment. Field tests are needed to finalize the design and develop the system into a functional law enforcement tool.

  15. High energy H- ion transport and stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    During the Proton Driver design study based on an 8 GeV superconducting RF H{sup -} linac, a major concern is the feasibility of transport and injection of high energy H{sup -} ions because the energy of H{sup -} beam would be an order of magnitude higher than the existing ones. This paper will focus on two key technical issues: (1) stripping losses during transport (including stripping by blackbody radiation, magnetic field and residual gases); (2) stripping efficiency of carbon foil during injection.

  16. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Pesci, Adriana I.

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ4 theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation.

  17. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips.

    PubMed

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P; Goldstein, Raymond E; Pesci, Adriana I

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ^{4} theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation. PMID:27419593

  18. Saving Energy Through Advanced Power Strips (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Advanced Power Strips (APS) look just like ordinary power strips, except that they have built-in features that are designed to reduce the amount of energy used by many consumer electronics. There are several different types of APSs on the market, but they all operate on the same basic principle of shutting off the supply power to devices that are not in use. By replacing your standard power strip with an APS, you can signifcantly cut the amount of electricity used by your home office and entertainment center devices, and save money on your electric bill. This illustration summarizes the different options.

  19. 3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: South side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace (east) end to the smokestack (west) end of the boiling range. The sorghum pan sides are of redwood. The flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  20. Nonlocality in deuteron stripping reactions.

    PubMed

    Timofeyuk, N K; Johnson, R C

    2013-03-15

    We propose a new method for the analysis of deuteron stripping reactions, A(d,p)B, in which the nonlocality of nucleon-nucleus interactions and three-body degrees of freedom are accounted for in a consistent way. The model deals with equivalent local nucleon potentials taken at an energy shifted by ∼40  MeV from the "E(d)/2" value frequently used in the analysis of experimental data, where E(d) is the incident deuteron energy. The "E(d)/2" rule lies at the heart of all three-body analyses of (d, p) reactions performed so far with the aim of obtaining nuclear structure properties such as spectroscopic factors and asymptotic normalization coefficients that are crucial for our understanding of nuclear shell evolution in neutron- and proton-rich regions of the nuclear periodic table and for predicting the cross sections of stellar reactions. The large predicted shift arises from the large relative kinetic energy of the neutron and proton in the incident deuteron in those components of the n+p+A wave function that dominate the (d, p) reaction amplitude. The large shift reduces the effective d-A potentials and leads to a change in predicted (d, p) cross sections, thus affecting the interpretation of these reactions in terms of nuclear structure. PMID:25166525

  1. A video strip chart program

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-12-31

    A strip chart recorder has been utilized for trend analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory EN tandem since 1987. At the EN, the author could not afford the nice eight channel thermal pen recorder that was used at the 25 URC. He had to suffice with two channel fiber tip or capillary pen type recorders retrieved from salvage and maintained with parts from other salvaged recorders. After cycling through several machines that eventually became completely unserviceable, a search for a new thermal recorder was begun. As much as he hates to write computer code, he decided to try his hand at getting an old data acquisition unit, that had been retrieved several years ago from salvage, to meet his needs. A BASIC language compiler was used because time was not available to learn a more advanced language. While attempting to increase acquisition and scroll speed on the 6 MHz 80286 that the code was first developed on, it became apparent that scrolling only the first small portion of the screen at high speed and then averaging that region and histogramming the average provided both the speed necessary for capturing fairly short duration events, and a trend record without use of back scrolling and disk storage routines. This turned out to be quite sufficient.

  2. Building the Hot Intra-Group Medium in Spiral-Rich Compact Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Ewan

    2014-11-01

    Galaxy groups provide a natural laboratory for investigating the formation of the hot intergalactic medium (IGM). While galaxy clusters gain most of their hot gas through accretion and gravitational shocks, in groups the processes of galaxy evolution (stripping, collisions, star formation) play an important role in the initial build up of the hot halo. We present Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of groups still in the process of forming their IGM, including the well known compact groups HCG 16 and Stephan's Quintet (HCG 92). We show that starburst winds and shock-heating of stripped HI provide important contributions of gas and metals to the IGM, and discuss the impact of gas stripping, enhanced star formation and nuclear activity in the group member galaxies.

  3. Method of making steel strapping and strip

    SciTech Connect

    Robert D. Reilly

    2000-02-16

    The technical progress obtained for this time frame consisted of the awarding of two contracts for determination of metallurgical parameters for heat treatment of strapping and strip which are unavailable from current technology and/or published data in this field. The two contractors were Bricmont, Inc. and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Technological Institute of Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. Phase 1 of the two stage contract with Bricmont, Inc. which provided a computer analysis of the cooling rates of a typical range of thickness' of strapping was completed. This study was developed for the purpose of determining the time parameters for quenching low carbon steels to a martensitic microstructure within the time frame of the design of the proposed process. It also provides design criteria for cooling to ambient for the total process. This data is required for Phase 2 of the Bricmont proposal which completes the design and specifications of the total heat treating and cooling system for the process. This becomes the basis for developing the cost and space requirements for this component of the production line. The authors do not intend to award Phase 2 until the work done at Northwestern University discussed hereafter is completed. On or about May 1, 1999 a contract for a project entitled ``Effects of Steel Composition and Quench Rate on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Strapping'' to be performed at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering was awarded. The delay in initiating this project was due to the legal interpretation and final agreement of the intellectual provisions of the award by the author's attorneys, Northwestern's attorneys and the legal representative in the Chicago office of the DOE. The work to date includes rapid quenching of a number of different steel compositions and microstructure on an existing drop quench test apparatus. It was initially assumed that this procedure would simulate

  4. Ram Pressure Stripping: The Long Goodbye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Peter, Annika; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Weisz, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    What turns off star formation in satellite galaxies? Ram pressure stripping, the removal of a galaxy's gas through direct interaction with the gas halo in which it orbits, is an attractive quenching mechanism, particularly in the Milky Way halo where the radial distribution of quenching is dramatic. However, many implementations of this process in semi-analytic models result in overly-rapid gas removal when compared with observations. We use high resolution hydrodynamical simulations run with Enzo to parameterize the stripping of disk and halo gas from an orbiting satellite galaxy for use in the semi-analytic modeling code Galacticus. We find that using the instantaneous ram pressure overestimates the amount of gas that is stripped, and present a physically-motivated module for including ram pressure stripping in semi-analytic models that uses the integral of the ram pressure experienced by a satellite galaxy. We will compare our results to observations of the Milky Way satellites.

  5. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR STRIPPING OF ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Procedures and correlations for designing and costing stripping towers for the removal of organics from aqueous streams are presented. The emphasis is on practical methods suitable for engineering estimates. The designs cover steam strippers with and without condensers and reflux...

  6. Technique for stripping Teflon insulated wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babb, B. D.

    1967-01-01

    Cryogenic stripping of Teflon insulated wire leaves no residue and produces no physical damage. After the wire is immersed in liquid nitrogen, bent slightly, and returned to room temperature, the Teflon is removed by fingernails or flat-nosed pliers.

  7. 7. VIEW TO EAST, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO EAST, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND MECHANIC SHED. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  8. 8. VIEW OF THE MILL (FEATURE B27) AND MILL TAILINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE MILL (FEATURE B-27) AND MILL TAILINGS, FACING EAST. PHOTO TAKEN FROM TOP OF THE TAILINGS. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  9. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be

  10. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  11. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  12. 12 CFR 204.132 - Treatment of loan strip participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Treatment of loan strip participations. 204.132... strip participations. (a) Effective March 31, 1988, the glossary section of the instructions for the... participation arrangements (sometimes known or styled as loan strips or strip participations) are regarded...

  13. 12 CFR 204.132 - Treatment of loan strip participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of loan strip participations. 204.132... strip participations. (a) Effective March 31, 1988, the glossary section of the instructions for the... participation arrangements (sometimes known or styled as loan strips or strip participations) are regarded...

  14. 21 CFR 882.5900 - Preformed craniosynostosis strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preformed craniosynostosis strip. 882.5900 Section 882.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... craniosynostosis strip. (a) Identification. A preformed craniosynostosis strip is a plastic strip used to...

  15. 21 CFR 882.5900 - Preformed craniosynostosis strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preformed craniosynostosis strip. 882.5900 Section 882.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... craniosynostosis strip. (a) Identification. A preformed craniosynostosis strip is a plastic strip used to...

  16. 21 CFR 882.5900 - Preformed craniosynostosis strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preformed craniosynostosis strip. 882.5900 Section 882.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... craniosynostosis strip. (a) Identification. A preformed craniosynostosis strip is a plastic strip used to...

  17. 12 CFR 204.132 - Treatment of loan strip participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Treatment of loan strip participations. 204.132... strip participations. (a) Effective March 31, 1988, the glossary section of the instructions for the... participation arrangements (sometimes known or styled as loan strips or strip participations) are regarded...

  18. 12 CFR 204.132 - Treatment of loan strip participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Treatment of loan strip participations. 204.132... strip participations. (a) Effective March 31, 1988, the glossary section of the instructions for the... participation arrangements (sometimes known or styled as loan strips or strip participations) are regarded...

  19. 12 CFR 204.132 - Treatment of loan strip participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Treatment of loan strip participations. 204.132... strip participations. (a) Effective March 31, 1988, the glossary section of the instructions for the... participation arrangements (sometimes known or styled as loan strips or strip participations) are regarded...

  20. 21 CFR 882.5900 - Preformed craniosynostosis strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preformed craniosynostosis strip. 882.5900 Section 882.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... craniosynostosis strip. (a) Identification. A preformed craniosynostosis strip is a plastic strip used to...

  1. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  2. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  3. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  4. Magnetic property and microstructure of single crystalline Nd2Fe14B ultrafine particles ball milled from HDDR powders

    SciTech Connect

    Li, WF; Hu, XC; Cui, BZ; Yang, JB; Han, JZ; Hadjipanayis, GC

    2013-08-01

    In this work we report the microstructure and magnetic property of single crystalline Nd2Fe14B ultrafine particles ball milled from HDDR Nd-Fe-B alloys. The average size of the particles is 283 nm, and TEM observation reveals that these particles are single crystalline. The coercivity of these particles is 6.0 kOe, which is much higher than that of the particles ball milled from sintered and hot pressed Nd-Fe-B magnets. Micromagnetic analysis shows that the coercivity degradation is caused by surface damage during ball milling. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fate of Yang-Mills black hole in early Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Nakonieczny, Lukasz; Rogatko, Marek

    2013-02-21

    According to the Big Bang Theory as we go back in time the Universe becomes progressively hotter and denser. This leads us to believe that the early Universe was filled with hot plasma of elementary particles. Among many questions concerning this phase of history of the Universe there are questions of existence and fate of magnetic monopoles and primordial black holes. Static solution of Einstein-Yang-Mills system may be used as a toy model for such a black hole. Using methods of field theory we will show that its existence and regularity depend crucially on the presence of fermions around it.

  6. Noise exposure in oil mills

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, G. V. Prasanna; Dewangan, K. N.; Sarkar, Amaresh

    2008-01-01

    Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM) (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA), equivalent SPL was measured at operator's ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m × 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of Larson and Davis

  7. Production of chromium base alloys by ball milling in hydrogen iodide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, A.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of processing variables on the tensile properties and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of Cr + 4 vol% ThO2 alloys and of pure Cr produced by ball milling in hydrogen iodide were investigated. Hot rolled Cr + ThO2 was stronger than either hot pressed Cr + ThO2 or pure Cr at temperatures up to 1540 C. Hot pressed Cr + ThO2 had a DBTT of 500 C as compared with -8 to 24 C for the hot rolled Cr + ThO2 and with 140 C for pure Cr. It is postulated that the dispersoid in the hot rolled alloys lowers the DBTT by inhibiting recovery and recrystallization of the strained structure.

  8. Arizona strip breccia pipe program: exploration, development, and production

    SciTech Connect

    Mathisen, I.W. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    As part of the long-range plans for the Energy Fuels Corporation, they have embarked on one of the most active and aggressive uranium exploration programs in the US. These exploration efforts are located in the northwestern part of Arizona in an area referred to as the Arizona Strip. At a time when the domestic uranium industry is staggering to recover from its worst economic slump, Energy Fuels is spending millions of dollars a year on exploration, development, production, and milling. The reason for Energy Fuels' commitment to uranium exploration and production lies in the ground of Arizona in unique geologic formations called breccia pipes. Some of these structures, generally no more than 300 to 350 ft in diameter, contain uranium that is, on the average, five to ten times richer than ore found elsewhere in the US. The richness of this Arizona ore makes it the only conventionally mined uranium in the US that can compete in today's market of cheaper, high-grade foreign sources. Between January 1980 and December 1986, Energy Fuels has mined more than 10 billion lb of uranium from breccia pipe deposits at an average grade of 0.65% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Currently, Energy Fuels is operating six breccia pipe mines, and a plan of operations on a seventh mine has been submitted to the appropriate government agencies for the necessary mining permits.

  9. Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, III, Leon Y.

    1997-01-01

    A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid ticles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size.

  10. Helical currents in metallic Rashba strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Ignacio J.; Gazza, Claudio J.; Riera, José A.

    2016-05-01

    We study the texture of helical currents in metallic planar strips in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) on the lattice at zero temperature. In the noninteracting case and in the absence of external electromagnetic sources, we determine, by exact numerical diagonalization of the single-particle Hamiltonian, the distribution across the strip section of these Rashba helical currents (RHC) as well as their sign oscillation, as a function of the RSOC strength, strip width, electron filling, and strip boundary conditions. Then, we study the effects of charge currents introduced into the system by an Aharonov-Bohm flux for the case of rings or by a voltage bias in the case of open strips. The former setup is studied by variational Monte Carlo, and the latter by the time-dependent density-matrix renormalization-group technique. Particularly for strips formed by two, three, and four coupled chains, we show how these RHC vary in the presence of such induced charge current, and how their differences between spin-up and spin-down electron currents on each chain help to explain the distribution across the strip of charge currents, both of the spin-conserving and the spin-flipping types. We also predict the appearance of polarized charge currents on each chain. Finally, we show that these Rashba helical currents and their derived features remain in the presence of an on-site Hubbard repulsion as long as the system remains metallic, at quarter filling, and even at half filling where a Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition occurs for large Hubbard repulsion.

  11. NASA Space Science and a Search for Ram-Pressure Stripping in the Hydra I Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Beth

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Sciences and Exploration Directorate seeks to expand scientific knowledge through observational and theoretical research in the study of the Earth-Sun system, the solar system and the origins of life, and the birth and evolution of the universe. This talk will discuss some of the cutting-edge space science research being conducted at Goddard. In addition, I will discuss my research on ram-pressure stripping in cluster elliptical galaxies. Ram-pressure stripping is a method by which hot interstellar gas can be removed from a galaxy moving through a group or cluster of galaxies. Indirect evidence of ram-pressure stripping includes lowered X-ray brightness in a galaxy due to less X-ray emitting gas remaining in the galaxy. Here we present the initial results of our program to determine whether cluster elliptical galaxies have lower hot gas masses than their counterparts in less rich environments. This test requires the use of the high-resolution imaging of the Chandra Observatory and we present our analysis of the galaxies in the nearby cluster Hydra I.

  12. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. 1.1286-1 Section 1.1286-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1286-1 Tax treatment of...

  13. The microstructures of strip-cast low-carbon steels and their response to thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiang, L.-T.; Wray, P. J.

    1989-07-01

    The as-cast microstructure and its modification when subjected to heat treatment is examined for strip-cast low carbon steels. The local solidification rate in the twin-roll strip casting process is estimated to. be 590 to 850 °C/s, and the primary and secondary dendrite arm spacings are approximately 17 to 25 and 10 μm, respectively. The as-cast structure is predominantly Widmanstätten ferrite and, thereby, differs from the conventional hot-rolled sheet. It is suggested that the as-cast morphology is a result of the large initial austenite grain size and the cooling rate and is not a unique characteristic of rapid solidification of strip casting. By restricting the austenite grain size and cooling rate, polygonal ferrite morphology probably can be produced during strip casting. The response to heat treatment depends on the presence of aluminum; with a moderate amount of aluminum, the A1N precipitates in the as-cast structure inhibit the subsequent grain boundary movement and may affect the subsequent recrystallization behavior.

  14. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Silver Nanoparticles: Aggregation Leads to Incomplete Stripping

    PubMed Central

    Cloake, Samantha J; Toh, Her Shuang; Lee, Patricia T; Salter, Chris; Johnston, Colin; Compton, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    The influence of nanoparticle aggregation on anodic stripping voltammetry is reported. Dopamine-capped silver nanoparticles were chosen as a model system, and melamine was used to induce aggregation in the nanoparticles. Through the anodic stripping of the silver nanoparticles that were aggregated to different extents, it was found that the peak area of the oxidative signal corresponding to the stripping of silver to silver(I) ions decreases with increasing aggregation. Aggregation causes incomplete stripping of the silver nanoparticles. Two possible mechanisms of ‘partial oxidation’ and ‘inactivation’ of the nanoparticles are proposed to account for this finding. Aggregation effects must be considered when anodic stripping voltammetry is used for nanoparticle detection and quantification. Hence, drop casting, which is known to lead to aggregation, is not encouraged for preparing electrodes for analytical purposes. PMID:25861566

  15. ONLINE SAG MILL PULSE MEASUREMENT AND OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2006-06-24

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment.

  16. Combined fundamental and experimental approach to milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, Derek

    Air jet mills are important tools in the size reduction processing of pharmaceutical powders. The benefits of the air jet mill to the pharmaceutical industry are its sanitary design (no moving parts or media) and ability to produce narrow particle size distributions. Due to the high-value nature of active pharmaceutical ingredients, a trial-and-error approach to obtain optimal milling conditions for size reduction would lead to a needless expenditure of time and valuable resources. This work uses population balances for modeling the continuous milling of a spiral jet mill with inexpensive, readily available excipient powders, and predicts milling model parameters for high value powders with only small quantities being consumed. We have developed a multilevel model that describes the effect of material characteristics and mill operating variables on particle breakage in a specific air jet mill. This model allows us to predict product size distributions of brittle crystalline materials. The method used to develop this model can be utilized for many self-classifying mills. For a new mill, extensive initial milling with inexpensive excipient powders is required to determine mill-dependent model parameters. Subsequently, quick material characterization experiments can be made with limited powder consumption of expensive powders to determine powder-dependent milling parameters.

  17. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU( N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D = 4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D > 2.

  18. Mastering Interproximal Stripping: With Innovations in Slenderization

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastav, Sunita S; Hazarey, Pushpa V

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crowding and irregularity remain a consistent problem for children. Management of space problems continues to play an important role in a dental practice. It also represents an area of major interaction between the primary provider and the specialists. Proximal stripping is routinely carried out to avoid extraction in borderline cases where space discrepancy is less and in cases where there is a discrepancy between the mesio- distal width of maxillary and mandibular teeth to satisfy Bolton ratio. Proximal stripping is carried out using of metallic abrasive strip, safe sided carborundum disk, or with long thin tapered fissure burs with air rotor. The use of rotary cutting instrument can harm the pulp by exposure of mechanical vibration and heat generation (in some cases). Whereas, the large diameter of the disk obstructs vision of the working area. Also fracturing away a portion is a common problem with disk. Tapered fissure burs cut the tooth structure as the width of bur or overcutting may occur of the tooth structure due to high speed. The use of metallic abrasive strip is the safest procedure amongst the above. The strip can be placed in the anterior region without any difficulty but using it in the posterior region is difficult as, it is difficult to hold it with fingers while stripping the posterior teeth. To avoid this inconvenience here with a simple and economical way of fabricating strip holder from routine lab material is presented. Clinical implications: Proper management of space in the primary and mixed dentitions can prevent unnecessary loss in arch length. Diagnosing and treating space problems requires an understanding of the etiology of crowding and the development of the dentition to render treatment for the mild, moderate and severe crowding cases. Most crowding problems with less than 4.5 mm can be resolved through preservation of the leeway space, regaining space or limited expansion in the late mixed dentition. In cases with 5 to 9 mm

  19. ERTS-1 data applied to strip mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schubert, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two coal basins within the western region of the Potomac River Basin contain the largest strip-mining operations in western Maryland and West Virginia. The disturbed strip-mine areas were delineated along with the surrounding geological and vegetation features by using ERTS-1 data in both analog and digital form. The two digital systems employed were (1) the ERTS analysis system, a point-by-point digital analysis of spectral signatures based on known spectral values and (2) the LARS automatic data processing system. These two systems aided in efforts to determine the extent and state of strip mining in this region. Aircraft data, ground-verification information, and geological field studies also aided in the application of ERTS-1 imagery to perform an integrated analysis that assessed the adverse effects of strip mining. The results indicated that ERTS can both monitor and map the extent of strip mining to determine immediately the acreage affected and to indicate where future reclamation and revegetation may be necessary.

  20. Bimetallic strip for low temperature use

    DOEpatents

    Bussiere, Jean F.; Welch, David O.; Suenaga, Masaki

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a class of mechanically pre-stressed structures, suitably bi-layer strips comprising a layer of group 5 transition metals in intimate contact with a layer of an intermetallic compound of said transition metals with certain group 3A, 4A or 5A metals or metalloids suitably gallium, indium, silicon, germanium, tin, arsenic or antimony. The changes of Young's modulus of these bi-layered combinations at temperatures in the region of but somewhat above absolute zero provides a useful means of sensing temperature changes. Such bi-metallic strips may be used as control strips in thermostats, in direct dial reading instruments, or the like. The structures are made by preparing a sandwich of a group 5B transition metal strip between the substantially thicker strips of an alloy between copper and a predetermined group 3A, 4A or 5A metal or metalloid, holding the three layers of the sandwich in intimate contact heating the same, cooling the same and removing the copper alloy and then removing one of the two thus formed interlayer alloys between said transition metal and the metal previously alloyed with copper.

  1. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiano, R.; Ejrnaes, M.; Casaburi, A.; Zen, N.; Ohkubo, M.

    2015-12-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2-5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications.

  2. Modeling of continuous strip production by rheocasting

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumiya, T.; Flemings, M.C.

    1981-03-01

    A process was experimentally and mathematically modeled for continuous and direct production of metal strip from its molten state by the use of Rheocasting. The process comprises 1) continuous production of a Rheocast semisolid alloy, and 2) direct shaping of the semisolid into strip. Sn-15 pct Pb was used as the modeling alloy. Crack formation and surface quality of the strip produced depend on fraction solid and deformation force. Continuous, sound strip could be obtained with good surface quality when fraction solid was between 0.50 and 0.70 and deformation force did not exceed a given maximum. Sheet thickness depends on deformation force, fraction solid, rotor rate of Rheocaster and production line speed. At constant deformation force, sheet thickness increases as fraction solid increases, rotor rate decreases and line speed is reduced. Sheet thickness is larger in the center than in the edge, but the difference is reduced by applying edgers. Some segregation of lead toward the edges is observed, ad the segregation increases as amount of deformation is increased. A mathematical model for heat flow, solidification and deformation was constructed. The model predicts the point of completion of solidification in the strip and sheet thickness as a function of deformation force and line speed. Calculations are in good agreement with experimental results.

  3. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  4. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  5. 72. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER FROM NORTHWEST. WOOD FEED BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER FROM NORTHWEST. WOOD FEED BOX BEHIND MILL, BARREN SOLUTION TANK BEHIND TRAVELING CRANE TRUSS AND ABOVE MILL. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  6. 4. APPROACH OF CARRS MILL ROAD TO THE SOUTH PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. APPROACH OF CARRS MILL ROAD TO THE SOUTH PORTAL OF THE MITCHELLS MILL BRIDGE; VIEW TO NORTH. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  7. Elevation, west portal. Sign on portal reads Watson Mill Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation, west portal. Sign on portal reads Watson Mill Bridge, est. 1885. - Watson Mill Bridge, Spanning South Fork Broad River, Watson Mill Road, Watson Mill Bridge State Park, Comer, Madison County, GA

  8. 4. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO THE MILL, FACING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF THE ROAD TO THE MILL, FACING SOUTH. THE MILL (FEATURE B-27) IS SHOWN IN THE BACKGROUND. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Mill, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  9. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  10. 1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT MAIN ELEVATION OF STARK MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT MAIN ELEVATION OF STARK MILL, A REINFORCED CONCRETE MILL BUILT BY NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILLS IN 1923-24. THE MILL WAS DESIGNED BY LOCKWOOD GREENE ENGINEERS, AND CONTAINED 35,000 SPINDLES FOR MAKING TIRE FABRICS. PART OF THE WEAVING WOULD TAKE PLACE AT HOGANSVILLE MILL (BUILT c. 1900), ANOTHER NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILL NEARBY, UNTIL THE DEMOLITION OF THAT MILL IN THE 1970s. - Stark Mill, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  11. Factors contributing to milling quality differences in MY3, a 'RiceCAP' project milling population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique California long grain milling population is being phenotyped for milling and fissuring characteristics within the RiceCAP project. Low milling parent of this population has difference in grain shape, degree of chalkiness, and amylose content, as compared to the high milling parent. Contri...

  12. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... (75 FR 49524). Workers at the subject firm are engaged in employment related to the production of... Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised... of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina, to apply for Trade Adjustment...

  13. FIRST RESULTS OF SNS LASER STRIPPING EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Danilov, Viatcheslav V; Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Assadi, Saeed; Barhen, Jacob; Braiman, Yehuda; Brown, David L; Grice, Warren P; Henderson, Stuart D; Holmes, Jeffrey A; Liu, Yun

    2006-06-01

    Thin carbon foils are used as strippers for charge exchange injection into high intensity proton rings. However, the stripping foils become radioactive and produce uncontrolled beam loss, which is one of the main factors limiting beam power in high intensity proton rings. Recently, we presented a scheme for laser stripping of an H- beam for the Spallation Neutron Source ring. First, H- atoms are converted to H0 by a magnetic field, then H0 atoms are excited from the ground state to the upper levels by a laser, and the excited states are converted to protons by a magnetic field. This paper presents first results of the SNS laser stripping proof-of-principle experiment. The experimental setup is described, and possible explanations of the data are discussed.

  14. Thermal Insulation Strips Conserve Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Launching the space shuttle involves an interesting paradox: While the temperatures inside the shuttle s main engines climb higher than 6,000 F hot enough to boil iron for fuel, the engines use liquid hydrogen, the second coldest liquid on Earth after liquid helium. Maintained below 20 K (-423 F), the liquid hydrogen is contained in the shuttle s rust-colored external tank. The external tank also contains liquid oxygen (kept below a somewhat less chilly 90 K or -297 F) that combines with the hydrogen to create an explosive mixture that along with the shuttle s two, powdered aluminum-fueled solid rocket boosters allows the shuttle to escape Earth s gravity. The cryogenic temperatures of the main engines liquid fuel can cause ice, frost, or liquefied air to build up on the external tank and other parts of the numerous launch fueling systems, posing a possible debris risk when the ice breaks off during launch and causing difficulties in the transfer and control of these cryogenic liquid propellants. Keeping the fuel at the necessary ultra-cold temperatures while minimizing ice buildup and other safety hazards, as well as reducing the operational maintenance costs, has required NASA to explore innovative ways for providing superior thermal insulation systems. To address the challenge, the Agency turned to an insulating technology so effective that, even though it is mostly air, a thin sheet can prevent a blowtorch from igniting a match. Aerogels were invented in 1931 and demonstrate properties that make them the most extraordinary insulating materials known; a 1-inch-thick piece of aerogel provides the same insulation as layering 15 panes of glass with air pockets in between. Derived from silica, aluminum oxide, or carbon gels using a supercritical drying process - resulting in a composition of almost 99-percent air - aerogels are the world s lightest solid (among 15 other titles they hold in the Guinness World Records), can float indefinitely on water if treated to be

  15. Ram-pressure stripping and ICM physics in an infalling galaxy group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Dominique

    2014-09-01

    Ram-pressure stripped tails have been observed in a handful of individual interacting galaxies and are direct signatures of structure formation processes. We discovered a spectacular tail (>600 kpc long) of hot gas trailing behind an accreting group. This tail is the first in a galaxy group and it is longer than any known similar feature by a factor of 5. Because of its long survival (>700 Myr) and irregular morphology, this structure also provides us with a unique laboratory for the study of ICM physics. We propose a 200 ks observation of this accreting substructure with Chandra with the following aims: 1) characterize precisely its morphology; 2) determine the infall velocity and study the stripping processes; 3) provide constraints on transport processes and turbulence in the local ICM.

  16. Removal of semivolatiles from soils by steam stripping II. Effects of diffusion kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M.; Gomez-Lahoz, C.; Wilson, D.J.; Clarke, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    The validity of steady-state models for steam stripping of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) is explored within the framework of a simple one-compartment approach. The steady-state approximation appears to be valid after a relatively short warming phase. A mathematical model for the in situ steam or hot-air stripping of volatile and semivolatile compounds from vadose zone soils at hazardous waste sites is presented. The model assumes that the pneumatic permeability of the soil is constant and isotropic, and that the adsorption isotherm of the contaminant on the soil is linear. Diffusion kinetics are included in the model; it is assumed that the contaminant is adsorbed in porous low-permeability lenses of clay, till, or silt, and must diffuse to the surfaces of these structures in order to be removed by the advecting vapor phase. The dependence of results on model parameters is explored.

  17. Biomolecular ion detection using high-temperature superconducting MgB2 strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, N.; Shibata, H.; Mawatari, Y.; Koike, M.; Ohkubo, M.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting strip ion detectors (SSIDs) are promising for realization of ideal ion detection with 100% efficiency and nanosecond-scale time response in time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We have detected single biomolecular ions in the keV range using a 10-nm-thick and 250-nm-wide strip of a high temperature superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), at temperatures of up to 13 K. The output pulse shape is explained remarkably well using circuit simulations and time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations coupled with a heat diffusion equation. The simulations show that the hot spot model is applicable to the proposed MgB2-SSIDs and the normal region expansion is completed within 16 ps, which corresponds to a maximum length of 1010 nm.

  18. Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.; Newmark, R.L.; Udell, K.; Buetnner, H.M.; Aines, R.D.

    1995-09-12

    A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process. 4 figs.

  19. Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Newmark, Robin L.; Udell, Kent; Buetnner, Harley M.; Aines, Roger D.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process.

  20. Spray forming lead strip. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.

    1996-04-10

    A cooperative research project was conducted between the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to adapt the INEL spray forming process to produce near-net-shape lead alloy strip. The emphasis of the work was to spray form lead strip samples at INEL, using a variety of spray conditions, for characterization at JCI. An existing glove box apparatus was modified at INEL to spray form lead. The main spray forming components were housed inside the glove box. They included a spray nozzle, tundish (crucible), substrate assembly, gas heater and furnaces to heat the nozzle and tundish. To spray form metal strip, liquid metal was pressure-fed at a controlled rate through a series of circular orifices that span the width of the nozzle. There the metal contacted high velocity, high temperature inert gas (nitrogen) which atomized the molten material into fine droplets, entrained the droplets in a directed flow, and deposited them onto glass plates that were swept through the spray plume to form strip samples. In-flight convection cooling of the droplets followed by conduction and convection cooling at the substrate resulted in rapid solidification of the deposit. During operation, the inside of the glove box was purged with an inert gas to limit the effects of in-flight oxidation of the particles and spray-formed strips, as well as to protect personnel from exposure to airborne lead particulate. Remote controls were used to start/stop the spray and control the speed and position of the substrate. In addition, substrate samples were loaded into the substrate translator manually using the gloved side ports of the box. In this way, the glove box remained closed during a series of spray trials, and was opened only when loading the crucible with a lead charge or when removing lead strip samples for shipment to JCI.

  1. Machine Shop. Module 6: Milling. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Charles H.

    This document consists of materials for a 12-unit course on the following topics: (1) introduction to milling; (2) structure and accessories; (3) safety and maintenance; (4) cutting-tool variables; (5) basic set-up activities; (6) squaring a workpiece; (7) hole-making operations; (8) form milling; (9) machining keyways; (10) milling angular…

  2. 43 CFR 3596.1 - Milling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Milling. 3596.1 Section 3596.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.1 Milling. The operator/lessee shall conduct...

  3. 43 CFR 3596.1 - Milling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Milling. 3596.1 Section 3596.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.1 Milling. The operator/lessee shall conduct...

  4. 43 CFR 3596.1 - Milling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Milling. 3596.1 Section 3596.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.1 Milling. The operator/lessee shall conduct...

  5. 43 CFR 3596.1 - Milling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Milling. 3596.1 Section 3596.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling § 3596.1 Milling. The operator/lessee shall conduct...

  6. Water reuse in the Gaza Strip, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Vestner, R J; Brooke, K; Nicolet-Misslbeck, L

    2013-01-01

    The Gaza Strip suffers severe constraints in water supply due to its location, confinement, high population density and semi-arid coastal climate. To improve water and agricultural resources, a study was undertaken to show the requirements in planning and management for wastewater treatment, irrigation conveyance and aquifer recharge to meet high technical standards and sustainable economic benefits. Particular attention is paid to economic, financial and socioeconomic analysis. This paper discusses the impact that wastewater reuse will have on the water resources as part of the overall water balance in the Gaza Strip. PMID:23306249

  7. Grain size control of rhenium strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Gary B.

    1991-01-01

    Ensuring the desired grain size in the pure Re strip employed by the SP-100 space nuclear reactor design entails the establishment of an initial grain size in the as-received strip and the avoidance of excessive grain growth during subsequent fabrication. Pure Re tapered tensile specimens have been fabricated and tested in order to quantify the effects of grain-boundary migration. Grain size could be rendered fine and uniform by means of a rolling procedure that uses rather large reductions between short intermediate anneals. The critical strain regime varies inversely with annealing temperature.

  8. Extracting lignins from mill wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Addition of quaternary ammonium compound and activated charcoal to pulp and mill wastes precipitates lignins in sludge mixture. Methanol dissolves lignins for separation from resulting slurry. Mineral acid reprecipitates lignins in filtered solution. Quaternary ammonium compound, activated charcoal, as well as water may be recovered and recycled from this process.

  9. J. S. Mill on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Mill may be said either to have written rather little on education or to have written a very great deal. He himself distinguished between a "narrow" and a "wider" sense of education, the former limited to what happens in formal educational settings, the latter embracing all the influences that make us who and what we are. He wrote rather little on…

  10. Low-cost boring mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibdon, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Portable unit and special fixture serve as boring mill. Machine, fabricated primarily from scrap metal, was designed and set up in about 12 working days. It has reduced setup and boring time by 66 percent as compared with existing boring miles, thereby making latter available for other jobs. Unit can be operated by one man.

  11. Diploma Mills. Degrees of Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David W.; Spille, Henry A.

    Drawing on nearly 6 years of findings by the American Council of Education's Center for Adult Learning and Educational Credentials, this book exposes the techniques that diploma mills (shadowy educational institutions with addresses ranging from shopping malls to post office boxes) use to lure prospective students. Explanations of how many of…

  12. Metal powder reactions in ball milling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, A.

    1976-01-01

    On milling chromium powder in three metal chlorides and either chromium or nickel powders in ten organic liquids representative of nine different functional groups, the powders always reacted with the liquids and became contaminated with elements from them. The milled powders had specific surface areas ranging from 0.14 to 37 sq m/g, and the total contamination with elements from the milling liquid ranged from 0.01 to 56 wt%. In most milling runs, compounds resulting from substitution, addition, or elimination reactions formed in or from the milling liquid, and in most runs with organic liquids H2, CH4, and CO2 were generated.

  13. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... device made of filter paper or similar material intended to be inserted under a patient's lower eyelid...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... device made of filter paper or similar material intended to be inserted under a patient's lower eyelid...

  15. Strip edge cracking simulation in cold rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, C.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.

    2011-01-17

    This research work focuses on a specific defect which occurs during cold rolling of steel strips: edge-serration. Investigations on the industrial processes have led to the conclusion that this defect is the result of the edge-trimming and cold rolling sequences. The aim of this research work is to analyze the effect of the cutting process and the cold rolling on cracks occurrence, especially on strip edges.This study is performed using an experimental testing stand called Upsetting Rolling Test (URT). It allows to reproduce cold rolling contact parameters such as forward slip, reduction ratio and friction coefficients. Specimens sampled near trimmed industrial strip edges are deformed using the URT stand. Two sets of specimens with different stress states, obtained by annealing, are submitted to two reduction passes with extreme forward slips.Scanning electron microscopy observations added to 3D optical surface profiler topographies show that on one hand, forward slip has a major effect on cracks opening. On the other hand, cracks opening decreases according to high roll strip speed gradient. Concerning the heat-treated specimens, no crack appeared after all reduction passes, showing a large influence of the cutting process and consequently of the local stress state in the vicinity of the burnish and fracture regions.

  16. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to acquaint students with the theory and applications of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) as well as such ASV problems as contamination associated with trace analysis. The experimental procedure, instrumentation, and materials discussed are designed to minimize cost and keep procedures as simple as possible. (JM)

  17. Hexahedron Projection by Triangle Fans and Strips

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-05-10

    The program divides the projection of a hexahedron with not-necessarily-planar quadrilateral faces, such as would arise in a curvilinear grid, by the projections of its edges, into polygons overlapped by a single front-facing and a single back-facing face. These polygons are further organized into triangle strips and fans, for rapid volume rendering in graphics hardware.

  18. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: AIR STRIPPING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air striding is a means to transfer contaminants from aqueous solutions to air. ontaminants are not destroyed by air stripping but are physically separated from the aqueous solutions. ontaminant vapors are transferred into the air stream and, if necessary, can be treated by incin...

  19. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  20. Steam stripping recycle developed for gasifier liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    When coal is gasified in fixed bed processes such as the British Gas/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, the crude product contains steam which on cooling results in the formation of an aqueous liquor. This liquor contains soluble species such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride and phenols. These liquors are environmentally unacceptable and their disposal can be a serious problem. British Gas has developed a new process for the purification of such aqueous effluent liquors. It has been discovered that the gasification steam may be used, at gasification pressure, to strip the volatile compounds from such liquors and thereby include these compounds in the reactant stream where they are gasified within the main reactor. A portion of the gasifier feed steam may be superheated, passed through the condensate liquor, combined with the remaining portion of the gasifier feed steam and then injected through the tuyeres of the gasification plant. In this way an effluent liquor is produced with contains substantially only inorganic compounds, and these can be removed by conventional treatments. Although high-pressure steam stripping removes any lighter volatile components, compounds such as the higher molecular weight phenols may not be readily stripped out. The invention therefore provides also for the use of oxygen-containing gas under pressure to purify the effluent. The oxygen-containing gas may either be used alone, in a mixture with steam or as a second stage following the steam-stripping process.

  1. STRIP MINE DRAINAGE--AQUATIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this research program is to demonstrate methodologies for predicting, on the basis of characteristics of the site to be mined, the impact of strip mining on downstream biotic communities. To accomplish this objective and provide data for model verificatio...

  2. Low-antimony—lead alloy strip production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolisnyk, P. S.; Vincze, A. M.

    Cominco is developing a new casting process for the continuous production of low-antimony—lead alloy strip that is expanded to make positive plates for hybrid-design, maintenance-free batteries. The stages of development from initial trials to pilot production plant are reviewed. The advantages of the process and the product are also discussed.

  3. Grain size control of rhenium strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Gary B. A.

    1991-01-01

    Pure Re is being used in the SP-100. To obtain the desired final grain size it is necessary to both control the grain size of the starting Re strip and to avoid excessive grain growth during subsequent fabrication. It was found that the as-received strip, supplied by commerical vendors, typicall showed a large amount of scatter in its grain size. It was also observed that considerable grain growth often occurred during fabrication. The latter was due to strain induced grain boundary migration. A program was undertaken to develop a procedure to produce Re strip with a small and uniform grain size. In addition pure Re tapered tensile specimens were fabricated and tested to qunatify the effects of the grain boundary migration. Results of the work with Re strip showed that its grain size could be made fine and uniform by following a rolling procedure that employs relatively large reductions between short intermediate anneals. The tapered tensile specimen tests showed that the amount of grain growth due to grain boundary migration increases greatly with higher annealing temperatures. Also the critical strain regime varies inversely with this temperature-- that is the critical strain regime decreases to a lower range of strain values at higher annealing temperatures.

  4. Cardiac Muscle Studies with Rat Ventricular Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitten, Bert K.; Faleschini, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    Details undergraduate physiology laboratory experiments that demonstrate mechanical properties of cardiac muscle, using strips from the ventricle of a rat heart. Includes procedures for obtaining length-tension curves, demonstrating the role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling, and showing effects of several cardiovascular drugs…

  5. Effect of asymmetric hot rolling on texture, microstructure and magnetic properties in a non-grain oriented electrical steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Butler, J.; Melzer, S.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, both asymmetric hot rolling (AHR) and conventional hot rolling (CHR) were carried out to study the effect of the hot rolling conditions on the evolution of the texture and microstructure in a non-grain oriented (NGO) steel. The microstructure and texture in the subsequent processing stages were characterised and related to the final magnetic properties. The results show that AHR, compared with CHR, tends to homogenise texture through thickness of the hot band strips. AHR results in a higher fraction of the θ-fibre ({0 0 1}) and a lower fraction of the γ-fibre ({1 1 1}) in the hot band strips, which are favourable features in relation to the magnetic properties of the strip. However, the favourable features observed in hot rolled AHR strips are eliminated after cold rolling and annealing. Contrarily, the required θ-fibre is decreased and the unwanted γ-fibre is intensified in the AHR sheet after cold rolling and their strength is maintained in the subsequent process steps. On the other hand, AHR does not produce a discernible change in the grain size in the hot band annealed strip and in the final annealed sheet, except that the magnetic anisotropy in the AHR is improved after skin pass and extra annealing as the result of the redistribution of the texture components within the θ-fibre, no significant improvement of the magnetic properties as a direct consequence of the application of asymmetric hot rolling has been observed under the current AHR experimental conditions.

  6. Dry stripping as a surface treatment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, Ilkka

    1992-03-01

    High environmental and safety standards as well as use of new paint and substrate materials have created the need for developing stripping methods to substitute chemical and mechanical methods and on the other hand for expanding the applicability of blasting as a surface treatment. Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) (alternatively Dry Stripping System (DSS)) is an emerging technology first used in aircraft maintenance for paint stripping. Traditionally this task is performed by brushing and grinding or by using chemical solvents. With plastic media it is possible to remove thick paints with high adhesion without damaging the substrate and even layer by layer. If suitable type of plastic media, blasting pressure low enough, media concentration high enough and on the other right blasting time, blasting distance and blasting angle are chosen, the effectiveness of PMB can be varied to a large extent. In regard to the hardness of media plastic particles are situated between some organic materials and shots used in sand blasting. Therefore composite materials can be treated without damaging the substrate or thin metal plates without causing any deformations. The principle of plastic media blasting equipment is similar to traditional blasting equipment. Nevertheless the properties of plastic media are different to harder particles used in shot peening resulting in higher demands for filtration, ventilation and recycling systems. In addition the facilities have to contain proper recovery equipment, because plastic media can be reused, even 20 times. In recycling systems plastic media is cleaned, too large and too small particles are removed, hard and magnetic particles are removed from reusable media and dust is separated from media. In addition to paint stripping PMB can successfully be used for cleaning of surfaces from contamination and to some extent for polishing, grinding and roughening. Paint stripping has been the main application so far, but there may be many other

  7. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    PubMed

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  8. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: CII. Automated Anodic Stripping Voltammetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, John T.; Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents details of anodic stripping analysis (ASV) in college chemistry laboratory experiments. Provides block diagrams of the analyzer system, circuitry and power supplies of the automated stripping analyzer, and instructions for implementing microcomputer control of the ASV. (CS)

  9. Simulation of cold rolling and skin rolling of strips in the deformation zone consisting only of a forward slip zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Shalaevskii, D. L.; Traino, A. I.

    2012-11-01

    The conditions of the appearance of an unusual deformation zone consisting only of a forward slip zone during cold rolling and skin rolling are considered. The energy-force and structure parameters of metal deformation in such deformation zones are simulated. In this case, substantial energy saving is achieved; however, they can only be actualized in a real continuous mill by increasing the forward tension to the level that sharply increases the strip break probability. The process with such a deformation zone can be performed on a pinch-pass mill at an acceptable level of forward tension (up to 35% of the yield strength), and about 50% electric energy can be saved in this case.

  10. Self-aligned grating couplers on template-stripped metal pyramids via nanostencil lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemme, Daniel J.; Johnson, Timothy W.; Mohr, Daniel A.; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    We combine nanostencil lithography and template stripping to create self-aligned patterns about the apex of ultrasmooth metal pyramids with high throughput. Three-dimensional patterns such as spiral and asymmetric linear gratings, which can couple incident light into a hot spot at the tip, are presented as examples of this fabrication method. Computer simulations demonstrate that spiral and linear diffraction grating patterns are both effective at coupling light to the tip. The self-aligned stencil lithography technique can be useful for integrating plasmonic couplers with sharp metallic tips for applications such as near-field optical spectroscopy, tip-based optical trapping, plasmonic sensing, and heat-assisted magnetic recording.

  11. Considerations for multivariable control of the twin-roller strip caster.

    PubMed

    Cavazos, Alberto

    2006-04-01

    Twin-roller steel strip casters may offer advantages with respect to classical continuous casting hot rolling processes. Some works have reported control aspects of this process, however, the cross coupling elements have not been evaluated. In this work, the derivation of a 3 x 3 linearized multivariable model for process control purposes proposed in previous investigations is presented. The model was simplified to a 2 x 2 plant. The purpose of this work is to show that the process is highly interactive by performing an analysis of its multivariable characteristics. Some important considerations for process control design based on such multivariable characteristics of the process are discussed. PMID:16649571

  12. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.; /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate ({phi} coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m{sup 2}) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints.

  13. Air stripping. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of air stripping techniques to water treatment, including groundwater decontamination and wastewater purification. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. Cleanup of the organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. The primary applications of air stripping are in groundwater and soil cleanup. (Contains a minimum of 71 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  15. Conveyorized Photoresist Stripping Replacement for Flex Circuit Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Megan Donahue

    2009-02-24

    A replacement conveyorized photoresist stripping system was characterized to replace the ASI photoresist stripping system. This system uses the qualified ADF-25c chemistry for the fabrication of flex circuits, while the ASI uses the qualified potassium hydroxide chemistry. The stripping process removes photoresist, which is used to protect the copper traces being formed during the etch process.

  16. 21 CFR 880.2200 - Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. 880... Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2200 Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal forehead temperature strip is a device applied to the forehead that is used to...

  17. 21 CFR 880.2200 - Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. 880... Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2200 Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal forehead temperature strip is a device applied to the forehead that is used to...

  18. 21 CFR 880.2200 - Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. 880... Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2200 Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal forehead temperature strip is a device applied to the forehead that is used to...

  19. 21 CFR 880.2200 - Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. 880... Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2200 Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal forehead temperature strip is a device applied to the forehead that is used to...

  20. 21 CFR 880.2200 - Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. 880... Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2200 Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal forehead temperature strip is a device applied to the forehead that is used to...

  1. X-Band Strip-Line Power Divider/Combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    Strip-line circuit for X-band signals both divides and combines microwave power for distributed amplifier. Strip-line pattern (foil pattern over insulating layer over ground plane) laid out so all eight distributed ports lie at electrical distances of odd integral multiples of half wavelength from main input/output port. Strip line used as power divider and as power combiner.

  2. 30 CFR 77.1001 - Stripping; loose material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stripping; loose material. 77.1001 Section 77.1001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... Ground Control § 77.1001 Stripping; loose material. Loose hazardous material shall be stripped for a...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1001 - Stripping; loose material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stripping; loose material. 77.1001 Section 77.1001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... Ground Control § 77.1001 Stripping; loose material. Loose hazardous material shall be stripped for a...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1001 - Stripping; loose material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stripping; loose material. 77.1001 Section 77.1001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... Ground Control § 77.1001 Stripping; loose material. Loose hazardous material shall be stripped for a...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1001 - Stripping; loose material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stripping; loose material. 77.1001 Section 77.1001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... Ground Control § 77.1001 Stripping; loose material. Loose hazardous material shall be stripped for a...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1001 - Stripping; loose material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stripping; loose material. 77.1001 Section 77.1001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... Ground Control § 77.1001 Stripping; loose material. Loose hazardous material shall be stripped for a...

  7. 2. South facade of the Monadnock Mills complex looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. South facade of the Monadnock Mills complex looking east down Water Street. Mill No. 2 is in the center of the photo, Mill No. 1 is to the right. The tower in Mill No. 1 retains its original design. The tower in Mill No. 2 was altered when an elevator was installed. The shed monitor in Mill No. 2 was constructed in 1879. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  8. Bird community response to filter strips in Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blank, P.J.; Dively, G.P.; Gill, D.E.; Rewa, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Filter strips are strips of herbaceous vegetation planted along agricultural field margins adjacent to streams or wetlands and are designed to intercept sediment, nutrients, and agrichemicals. Roughly 16,000 ha of filter strips have been established in Maryland through the United States Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program. Filter strips often represent the only uncultivated herbaceous areas on farmland in Maryland and therefore may be important habitat for early-successional bird species. Most filter strips in Maryland are planted to either native warm-season grasses or cool-season grasses and range in width from 10.7 m to 91.4 m. From 2004 to 2007 we studied the breeding and wintering bird communities in filter strips adjacent to wooded edges and non-buffered field edges and the effect that grass type and width of filter strips had on bird community composition. We used 5 bird community metrics (total bird density, species richness, scrub-shrub bird density, grassland bird density, and total avian conservation value), species-specific densities, nest densities, and nest survival estimates to assess the habitat value of filter strips for birds. Breeding and wintering bird community metrics were greater in filter strips than in non-buffered field edges but did not differ between cool-season and warm-season grass filter strips. Most breeding bird community metrics were negatively related to the percent cover of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) in ???1 yr. Breeding bird density was greater in narrow (60 m) filter strips. Our results suggest that narrow filter strips adjacent to wooded edges can provide habitat for many bird species but that wide filter strips provide better habitat for grassland birds, particularly obligate grassland species. If bird conservation is an objective, avoid planting orchardgrass in filter strips and reduce or eliminate orchardgrass from filter strips through management practices. Copyright ?? 2011 The

  9. Bacteria and asphalt stripping. Final report, December 1983-August 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Ramamurti, K.; Jayaprakash, G.P.

    1987-08-01

    Major types of bituminous pavement distress were rutting, cracking (longitudinal, transverse, and alligator) and stripping. The rubble and loosely bound material contained bacteria. The deterioration lessened upward from the pavement-soil interface. The soil appears to be the prime source of the bacteria. Most of the bacterial cells were sausage shaped with polar flagellation. They appeared to belong to the genus Pseudomonas, which is a known user of asphaltic hydrocarbons. Cocci-type bacteria and a virus were also noted. Increasing the density of some asphaltic concrete and strengthening the bond between aggregate and asphalt are considered as the preferred alternatives to using chemical biocides. Anything to reduce pavement cracking would help. Adding lime to asphalt mixes may be one effective means of improving aggregate-asphalt bond and controlling biodeterioration. Lime stabilization of soils under asphalt pavements may provide an added protection against bacterial attack by rendering the soil more hostile to bacterial habitat. Full-depth hot-mix recycling would be more effective than partial-depth recycling in retarding bacterial decay at cracks.

  10. Online SAG Mill Pluse Measurement and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2007-06-30

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment. An instrumented load cell package that can measure the force of impacts inside the grinding chamber of a mill is developed here. The signal from the instrumented load cell package is interpreted in terms of a histogram termed as an impact spectrum which is a plot of the number of impacts at a specific energy level against the energy. It reflects on the average force regime of the mill. The instrumented load cell package was calibrated against the ultra fast load cell which has been unanimously accepted as a standard to measure single breakage events. The load cell package was successfully used to produce impact spectra in an 8.5 inch lab scale mill. The mill speed and the ball size were varied to study

  11. Analysis of a hybrid, unidirectional buffer strip laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharani, L. R.; Goree, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of analysis capable of predicting accurately the fracture behavior of a unidirectional composite laminate containing symmetrically placed buffer strips is presented. As an example, for a damaged graphite/epoxy laminate, the results demonstrate the manner in which to select the most efficient combination of buffer strip properties necessary to inhibit crack growth. Ultimate failure of the laminate after crack arrest can occur under increasing load either by continued crack extension through the buffer strips or the crack can jump the buffer strips. For some typical hybrid materials it is found that a buffer strip spacing-to-width ratio of about four to one is the most efficient.

  12. Analysis of a hybrid-undirectional buffer strip laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharani, L. R.; Goree, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of analysis capable of predicting accurately the fracture behavior of a unidirectional composite laminate containing symmetrically placed buffer strips is presented. As an example, for a damaged graphite/epoxy laminate, the results demonstrate the manner in which to select the most efficient combination of buffer strip properties necessary to inhibit crack growth. Ultimate failure of the laminate after the arrest can occur under increasing load either by continued crack extension through the buffer strips or the crack can jump the buffer strips. For some typical hybrid materials it is found that a buffer strip spacing to width ratio of about four to one is the most efficient.

  13. The Formation and Evolution of Stripped Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jessica; Tuan, Austin Zong; Lee, Christoph; Primack, Joel R.

    2016-01-01

    We implement a model to describe the density profiles of stripped dark matter halos. Our model generalizes the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) distribution to allow for more flexibility in the slope of the outer halo. We find that the density distributions of stripped halos tend to have outer slopes steeper than assumed by the NFW distribution. We also examine the relationship between severity of stripping and halo shape, spin parameter and concentration, and find that highly stripped halos are more spheroidal, have lower spin parameters, and have higher concentrations compared to less stripped halos.

  14. ITCS Test Strip Development and Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrigan, Caitlin; Adam, Niklas; Pickering, Karen; Gazda, Daniel; Piowaty, Hailey

    2011-01-01

    Internal coolant loops used for International Space Station thermal control must be periodically monitored for system health, including pH, biocide levels and any indication of ammonia. The presence of ammonia, possible via a microleak in the interface between the internal and external thermal control systems, could be a danger to the crew. The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Sampling Kit uses test strips as a colorimetric indicator of pH and concentrations of biocide and free ammonia. This paper describes the challenges in designing an ammonia colorimetric indicator in a variable pH environment, as well as lessons learned, ultimately resulting in a robust test strip to indicate a hazardous ammonia leak.

  15. Transverse current on strip dipole antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, A. D.

    1982-07-01

    Analyses of the current of thin wire dipole antennas presuppose that the current is parallel to the antenna axis. It is pointed out that a component of current transverse to the antenna axis can exist for antennas having a noncircular cross section, such as the strip dipole. The present investigation is concerned with a perfectly conducting strip antenna which is center driven by a delta function generator, taking into account the surface current-density components Kx(x,z) and Kz(x,z). In the solution of the resulting integral equations, it is assumed that Kz is considerably stronger than the transverse surface current density Kx. After obtaining an approximation to Kz, the second integral equation is solved for Kx. Results for the normalized transverse surface current density are presented in graphs.

  16. Strengthening Bridges with Prestressed CFRP Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwowski, Tomasz; Żółtowski, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    Limitation of bridge's carrying bearing capacity due to aging and deterioration is a common problem faced by road administration and drivers. Rehabilitation of bridges including strengthening may be applied in order to maintain or upgrade existing bridge parameters. The case studies of strengthening of two small bridges with high modulus prestressed CFRP strips have been presented in the paper. The first one - reinforced concrete slab bridge - and the other - composite steel-concrete girder bridge - have been successfully upgraded with quite new technology. In both cases the additional CFRP reinforcement let increasing of bridge carrying capacity from 15 till 40 metric tons. The CFRP strip prestressing system named Neoxe Prestressing System (NPS), developed by multi-disciplinary team and tested at full scale in Rzeszow University of Technology, has been also described in the paper.

  17. Continuous liquid sheet generator for ion stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, B.; Batson, P.; Leemann, B.; Rude, B.

    1984-10-01

    Many of the technical problems of generating a large thin liquid sheet from 0.02 to 0.20 ..mu..m thick (3 to 40 ..mu..gm/cm/sup 2/) have been solved. It is shown that this perennial sheet is stable and consonant in dimension. Several ion beam species from the SuperHILAC have been used for evaluation; at 0.11 MeV/n. In one of three modes this sheet serves as an equivalent substitute for a carbon foil. The second mode is characterized by a solid-like charge state distribution but with a varying fraction of unstripped ions. The third mode gives stripping performance akin to a vapor stripping medium. 9 references, 7 figures.

  18. Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.

    2001-03-26

    This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.

  19. Membrane air-stripping: Effects of pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, K. ); Zander, A.K. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    1995-03-01

    As a result of the Safe Drinking Water Act and its 1986 amendments, the number of regulated volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) has increased substantially. The discovery of drinking water supply sources contaminated by VOCs is also increasing. These factors have led to the development of alternative treatment methods for control of VOCs. Microporous polypropylene hollow-fiber membranes offer significant advantages over packed-tower aeration for removing volatile organic chemicals. A laboratory study assessed the performance of membrane air-stripping in continuous operation, while exposed to various pretreatments. Results indicate that membrane air-stripping is compatible with low-pH or low-chlorine waters but not with waters of high pH or high-chlorine concentration or those that are ozonated.

  20. On the sound fields of infinitely long strips.

    PubMed

    Mellow, Tim; Kärkkäinen, Leo

    2011-07-01

    Exact solutions are derived for sound radiation from four kinds of infinitely-long strips: namely a rigid strip in a baffle of finite width, a resilient strip in free space, and a resilient or rigid strip in an infinite baffle. In one limit, the strip in a finite baffle becomes a rigid strip in free space and in the other, a line source in a finite baffle. Here "rigid" means that the surface velocity is uniform, whereas "resilient" means that the surface pressure is uniform, and the strip is assumed to have zero mass or stiffness, as if a force were driving the acoustic medium directly. According to the Babinet-Bouwkamp principle, radiation from a resilient strip in an infinite baffle is equivalent to diffraction of a plane wave through a slit in the same. Plots are shown for the radiation impedances, far-field directivity patterns, and on-axis pressure responses of the four kinds of strip. A simple relationship between the radiation admittance of the rigid strip in an infinite baffle and the resilient strip in free space is presented. The two-dimensional rectangular wave functions developed in this paper can be applied to related problems. PMID:21786886

  1. Magnetic imaging and machine vision NDT for the on-line inspection of stainless steel strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, M.; Ficola, A.; Fravolini, M. L.; Battaglini, L.; Palazzi, A.; Burrascano, P.; Valigi, P.; Appolloni, L.; Cervo, S.; Rocchi, C.

    2013-02-01

    An on-line inspection system for stainless steel strips has been developed on an annealing and pickling line at the Acciai Speciali Terni S.p.A. steel mill. Besides a machine vision apparatus, the system contextually exploits a magnetic imaging system designed and realized for the specific application. The main goal of the research is represented by the fusion of the information provided by the two apparatuses that can improve the detection and classification tasks by enlarging the set of detectable defects. In this paper, the development, the calibration and the characteristics of the magnetic imaging apparatus are detailed and experimental results obtained both in laboratory and in situ are reported. A comparative analysis of the performances of the two devices is also reported based on preliminary results and some conclusions and perspectives are drawn.

  2. Buffer strip design for protecting water quality and fish habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Belt, G.H.; O'Laughlin, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Buffer strips are protective areas adjacent to streams or lakes. Among other functions, they protect water quality and fish habitat. A typical buffer strip is found in western Oregon, where they are called Riparian Management Areas (RMAs). The authors use the term buffer strip to include functional descriptions such as filter, stabilization, or leave strips, and administrative designations such as Idaho's Stream Protection Zone (SPZ), Washington's Riparian Management Zone (RMZ), and the USDA Forest Service's Streamside Management Zone (SMZ). They address water quality and fishery protective functions of buffer strips on forestlands, pointing out improvements in buffer strip design possible through research or administrative changes. Buffer strip design requirements found in some western Forest Practices Act (FPA) regulations are also compared and related to findings in the scientific literature.

  3. Antenna with distributed strip and integrated electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Payne, Jason A.; Ottesen, Cory W.

    2008-08-05

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element can be in proximity to a ground conductor and/or arranged as a dipole. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. An antenna can comprise a distributed strip patterned on a printed wiring board, integrated with electronic components mounted on top of or below the distributed strip, and substantially within the extents of the distributed strip. Mounting of electronic components on top of or below the distributed strip has little effect on the performance of the antenna, and allows for realizing the combination of the antenna and integrated components in a compact form. An embodiment of the invention comprises an antenna including a distributed strip, integrated with a battery mounted on the distributed strip.

  4. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping system. (a) Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or § 157.10c(b)(2... times the rate at which all the COW machines that are designed to simultaneously wash the bottom of...

  5. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping system. (a) Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or § 157.10c(b)(2... times the rate at which all the COW machines that are designed to simultaneously wash the bottom of...

  6. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping system. (a) Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or § 157.10c(b)(2... times the rate at which all the COW machines that are designed to simultaneously wash the bottom of...

  7. Milling precision and fitting accuracy of Cerec Scan milled restorations.

    PubMed

    Arnetzl, G; Pongratz, D

    2005-10-01

    The milling accuracy of the Cerec Scan system was examined under standard practice conditions. For this purpose, one and the same 3D design similar to an inlay was milled 30 times from Vita Mark II ceramic blocks. Cylindrical diamond burs with 1.2 or 1.6 mm diameter were used. Each individual milled body was measured exactly to 0.1 microm at five defined sections with a coordinate measuring instrument from the Zeiss company. In the statistical evaluation, both the different diamond bur diameters and the extent of material removal from the ceramic blank were taken into consideration; sections with large substance removal and sections with low substance removal were defined. The standard deviation for the 1.6-mm burs was clearly greater than that for the 1.2-mm burs for the section with large substance removal. This difference was significant according to the Levene test for variance equality. In sections with low substance removal, no difference between the use of the 1.6-mm or 1.2-mm bur was shown. The measuring results ranged between 0.053 and 0.14 mm. The spacing of the distances with large substance removal were larger than those with low substance removal. The T-test for paired random samples showed that the distance with large substance removal when using the 1.6-mm bur was significantly larger than the distance with low substance removal. The difference was not significant for the small burs. It was shown several times statistically that the use of the cylindrical diamond bur with 1.6-mm diameter led to greater inaccuracies than the use of the 1.2-mm cylindrical diamond bur, especially at sites with large material removal. PMID:16689028

  8. HOT GAS HALOS IN EARLY-TYPE FIELD GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E. E-mail: tesla@ucolick.or

    2010-05-20

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study the hot gas content in a sample of field early-type galaxies. We find that the L {sub X}-L {sub K} relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. The low hot gas content of field galaxies with L {sub K} {approx_lt} L {sub *} suggests that internal processes such as supernovae-driven winds or active galactic nucleus feedback expel hot gas from low-mass galaxies. Such mechanisms may be less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium can confine outflowing material. In addition, galaxies in groups and clusters may be able to accrete gas from the ambient medium. While there is a population of L {sub K} {approx_lt} L {sub *} galaxies in groups and clusters that retain hot gas halos, some galaxies in these rich environments, including brighter galaxies, are largely devoid of hot gas. In these cases, the hot gas halos have likely been removed via ram pressure stripping. This suggests a very complex interplay between the intragroup/intracluster medium and hot gas halos of galaxies in rich environments, with the ambient medium helping to confine or even enhance the halos in some cases and acting to remove gas in others. In contrast, the hot gas content of more isolated galaxies is largely a function of the mass of the galaxy, with more massive galaxies able to maintain their halos, while in lower mass systems the hot gas escapes in outflowing winds.

  9. Hot Spot at Yellowstone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dress, Abby

    2005-01-01

    Within this huge national park (over two million acres spread across Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho) are steaming geysers, hot springs, bubbling mudpots, and fumaroles, or steam vents. Drives on the main roads of Yellowstone take tourists through the major hot attractions, which also include Norris Geyser Basin, Upper and Lower Geyser Basin, West…

  10. The Earth's Hot Spots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Gregory E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Hot spots are isolated areas of geologic activity where volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and upwelling currents occur far from plate boundaries. These mantle plumes are relatively stable and crustal plates drift over them. The nature and location of hot spots (with particular attention to the Hawaiian Islands and Iceland) are discussed. (DH)

  11. A textbook example of ram-pressure stripping in the Hydra A/A780 cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Grandi, S.; Eckert, D.; Molendi, S.; Girardi, M.; Roediger, E.; Gaspari, M.; Gastaldello, F.; Ghizzardi, S.; Nonino, M.; Rossetti, M.

    2016-08-01

    In the current epoch, one of the main mechanisms driving the growth of galaxy clusters is the continuous accretion of group-scale halos. In this process, the ram pressure applied by the hot intracluster medium on the gas content of the infalling group is responsible for stripping the gas from its dark-matter halo, which gradually leads to the virialisation of the infalling gas in the potential well of the main cluster. Using deep wide-field observations of the poor cluster Hydra A/A780 with XMM-Newton and Suzaku, we report on the discovery of an infalling galaxy group 1.1 Mpc south of the cluster core. The presence of a substructure is confirmed by a dynamical study of the galaxies in this region. A wake of stripped gas is trailing behind the group over a projected scale of 760 kpc. The temperature of the gas along the wake is constant at kT ~ 1.3 keV, which is about a factor of two less than the temperature of the surrounding plasma. We observe a cold front pointing westwards compared to the peak of the group, which indicates that the group is currently not moving in the direction of the main cluster, but is moving along an almost circular orbit. The overall morphology of the group bears remarkable similarities with high-resolution numerical simulations of such structures, which greatly strengthens our understanding of the ram-pressure stripping process.

  12. Microstructure and Crystallographic Texture of Strip-Cast FE-3.2%SI Steel Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. B.; Yu, Y. M.; Cao, G. M.; Li, C. S.; Wang, G. D.; Jiang, Z. Y.

    Fe-3.2%Si steel strips were produced using vertical type twin casting process, and the changes of microstructure and texture trough thickness direction were analyzed. The equiaxed grains of approximately 44.6µm were observed in the center layer, the great mass of columnar dendrite was formed near the surface, and the dendrite truck mainly developed in the transverse direction with respect to the casting direction of about 45° or less. From the subsurface to the center, the volume fraction of the Goss texture (110)[001] gradually decreases. The Goss {110} <001> components at the surface are two times those at the center layer, the {001} <100> components are three times those at the center layer, and the overall texture components are similar to that of the hot-rolled oriented silicon steel strip. The minor α texture could be found from the φ2=45° sections of ODF, and there is no remarkable composition segregation of Si element in the thickness direction of thin strip.

  13. Porous Alumina Silicate Matrix Gubka for Solidification of {sup 137}Cs Strip Product

    SciTech Connect

    Aloy, Albert; Strelnikov, Alexander; Essimantovskiy, Vyacheslav

    2007-07-01

    Separated liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) fractions, in particular, about 100 liters of a {sup 137}Cs strip product with activity up to {approx} 100 Ci/l (3.7 TBq/l) have been produced during the development and testing of partitioning technology and temporarily stored at V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) (Saint-Petersburg, Russia). The bench-scale experimental unit designed for operation in the hot cell was developed for {sup 137}Cs strip product solidification using an alumina silicate porous inorganic material (PIM) called Gubka. Conditions of saturation, drying, and calcinations of the salts into Gubka pores were optimized, and the operations under a remote control regime were executed during tests using a simulated strip product doped with {sup 137}Cs. The volume reduction coefficients were equal by a factor of 3.2-3.9 and a {sup 137}Cs discharge into an off-gas system was not detected. {sup 137}Cs leach rates from Gubka blocks after calcination at 800 deg. C were 1.0-1.5.10{sup -3} g/m{sup 2}.per day. (authors)

  14. HOW TO LIGHT IT UP: SIMULATING RAM-PRESSURE STRIPPED X-RAY BRIGHT TAILS

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Bryan, Greg L.; Chen, Rena

    2011-04-20

    Some tails of ram-pressure stripped galaxies are detected in H I, some in H{alpha}, and some in X-ray (but never in all three so far). We use numerical simulations to probe the conditions for the production of X-ray bright tails, demonstrating that the primary requirement is a high-pressure intracluster medium (ICM). This is because the stripped tail is mostly in pressure equilibrium with the ICM, but mixing leaves it with densities and temperatures intermediate between the cold gas in the disk and the hot ICM. Given a high enough ICM pressure, this mixed gas lies in the X-ray bright region of the phase diagram. We compare the simulations to observations of the ram-pressure stripped tail of ESO 137-001, showing excellent agreement in the total measured X-ray and H{alpha} emission and non-flaring morphology of the tail, and consistent H I measurements. Using these comparisons, we constrain the level of mixing and efficiency of heat conduction in the ICM.

  15. Wide field strip-imaging optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Arthur H. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A strip imaging wide angle optical system is provided. The optical system is provided with a 'virtual' material stop to avoid aberrational effects inherent in wide angle optical systems. The optical system includes a spherical mirror section for receiving light from a 180-degree strip or arc of a target image. Light received by the spherical mirror section is reflected to a frusto-conical mirror section for subsequent rereflection to a row of optical fibers. Each optical fiber transmits a portion of the received light to a detector. The optical system exploits the narrow cone of acceptance associated with optical fibers to substantially eliminate vignetting effects inherent in wide-angle systems. Further, the optical system exploits the narrow cone of acceptance of the optical fibers to substantially limit spherical aberration. The optical system is ideally suited for any application wherein a 180-degree strip image need be detected, and is particularly well adapted for use in hostile environments such as in planetary exploration.

  16. TCT measurements with slim edge strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandić, Igor; Cindro, Vladimir; Gorišek, Andrej; Kramberger, Gregor; Mikuž, Marko; Zavrtanik, Marko; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Sadrozinski, Hartmut F.-W.; Christophersen, Marc; Phlips, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Transient current technique (TCT) measurements with focused laser light on miniature silicon strip detectors (n+-type strips on p-type bulk) with one inactive edge thinned to about 100 μm using the Scribe-Cleave-Passivate (SCP) method are presented. Pulses of focused IR (λ=1064 nm) laser light were directed to the surface of the detector and charge collection properties near the slim edge were investigated. Measurements before and after irradiation with reactor neutrons up to 1 MeV equivalent fluence of 1.5×1015 neq/cm2 showed that SCP thinning of detector edge does not influence its charge collection properties. TCT measurements were done also with focused red laser beam (λ=640 nm) directed to the SCP processed side of the detector. The absorption length of red light in silicon is about 3 μm so with this measurement information about the electric field at the edge can be obtained. Observations of laser induced signals indicate that the electric field distribution along the depth of the detector at the detector edge is different than in the detector bulk: electric field is higher near the strip side and lower at the back side. This is a consequence of negative surface charge caused by passivation of the cleaved edge with Al2O3. The difference between bulk and edge electric field distributions gets smaller after irradiation.

  17. Ram pressure stripping in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, C.; Combes, F.; Dasyra, K.; Salomé, P.; Braine, J.

    2015-10-01

    Gas can be violently stripped from their galaxy disks in rich clusters, and be dispersed over 100 kpc-scale tails or plumes. Young stars have been observed in these tails, suggesting they are formed in situ. This will contribute to the intracluster light, in addition to tidal stripping of old stars. We want to quantify the efficiency of intracluster star formation. We present CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) observations, made with the IRAM-30 m telescope, towards the ram-pressure stripped tail northeast of NGC 4388 in Virgo. We selected HII regions found all along the tails, together with dust patches, as observing targets. We detect molecular gas in 4 positions along the tail, with masses between 7 × 105 to 2 × 106M⊙. Given the large distance from the NGC 4388 galaxy, the molecular clouds must have formed in situ, from the HI gas plume. We compute the relation between surface densities of star formation and molecular gas in these regions, and find that the star formation has very low efficiency. The corresponding depletion time of the molecular gas can be up to 500 Gyr and more. Since this value exceeds a by far Hubble time, this gas will not be converted into stars, and will stay in a gaseous phase to join the intracluster medium.

  18. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mueller; L. Grisham; I. Kaganovich; R. L. Watson; V. Horvat; K. E. Zaharakis; Y. Peng

    2002-06-25

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters.

  19. Stripping organics from groundwater and wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, B.; Shearouse, D.

    1996-03-01

    At thousands of installations worldwide, air stripping has been used as an efficient method for removing volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from water -- both groundwater and industrial wastewater streams. In addition to numerous field installations, extensive laboratory analysis has confirmed the performance of various types and sizes of air strippers, and has made the practice highly predictable for a wide range of contaminants. The general principles of air stripping are quite simple. Within an air stripper, an air stream is directed across a thin film of contaminated water. Contaminants at the air-water interface volatilize and are discharged to the atmosphere, or to an off-gas treatment system. The two main types of air strippers are packed towers and try-type strippers. In many cases, air stripping can be a fast, efficient and economical approach to treating organics-laden water streams. However, since different wastewater streams can vary significantly, each must be evaluated to characterize its constitutents, determine each constituent`s potential affinity or resistance to being volatilized, and identify any pre-treatment steps that need to be taken to produce the desired results.

  20. Automating and controlling dry paint stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunliffe, F. R., III

    1989-03-01

    The key parameters which affect the efficiency and success of the dry paint-stripping process are discussed, including pressure at the nozzle, the size of the nozzle, the angle of blasting, the distance from the work-piece, the hardness and the size of the media, and the media flow. It is pointed out that, by automating the dry paint stripping process, many of these parameters can be controlled, making it possible to reproduce the same result, time and again. Attention is given to a recently developed automated aircraft wheel stripping machine, whose units are operated by joy stick controls from outside the cabinet. The wheel can be rotated and moved forward and backward in order to gain access to all of the surfaces; the operator also controls the nozzle manipulator which is a five-axis unit. At present, robotic systems are being developed for small aircraft and for the jumbo jets in use throughout the commercial airline fleets of the world.

  1. 3. Interior of the attic of Mill No. 1, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior of the attic of Mill No. 1, looking west. Unlike Mill No. 2 or the Sugar River Grist Mill, there were no iron tension members in this roof truss design. The structural framing members and the roof sheathing have been encased in finish millwork. - Monadnock Mills, Mill No. 1, 13-17 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  2. 10. View of the Monadnock Mills complex showing (left to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of the Monadnock Mills complex showing (left to right) Mill No. 3 (1892), the Weave Shed (1876), and Mill No. 2 (1853). The Office Building is visible in the foreground, with Mill No. 5 to its left. - Monadnock Mills, 15 Water Street, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  3. 1. VIEW FROM ROOF OF MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT STARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOF OF MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT STARK MILL HOUSING ON CORINTH ROAD. THESE FRONT GABLE BUNGALOWS WERE BUILT AS OVERSEERS HOUSES FOR NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILLS IN HOGANSVILLE IN 1923-1924. THE MILL ENGINEERS FOR STARK MILL, LOCKWOOD GREENE COMPANY, ALSO BUILT THE NEW WORKER HOUSING. - 110 Corinth Road (House), 110 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  4. 6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  5. Repellence of the red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda from grafted apple trees by impregnation of rubber budding strips with essential oils.

    PubMed

    van Tol, Rob W H M; Swarts, Henk J; van der Linden, Anton; Visser, J H

    2007-05-01

    The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by 'shield budding'. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely or partially, leading to bad union of the buds with the rootstocks. Budding strips are used very often by growers to bind scion buds to rootstocks. These strips cannot prevent midges from reaching the damaged tissue. Chemical treatments applied to the grafts and other types of strip do not provide better protection against the pest and may cause other risks for growers. In orchard experiments in 2000 and 2001, the authors evaluated the repellent action provided by three essential oils and five compounds of plant origin against the midges by impregnating budding strips with them. The essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (P. Mill.), and alpha-terpineol decreased the infestation of buds by more than 95 and 80% respectively. The other potential repellents tested [the essential oil of Juniperus virginiana (L.), citronellal, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl, R-carvone, linalool and R-fenchone] decreased infestation by 67, 66, 51, 45, 37 and 25% respectively. The formulation and commercial development of budding strips impregnated with lavender oil is discussed. PMID:17421054

  6. Tensile Properties of Nano AL2O3 Particulate-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites by Mechanical Alloying and Hot Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdinia, M.; Jenabali Jahromi, S. A.

    The powder of the micro Al and variant volume fractions of nano Al2O3 were milled by a high energy planetary ball-mill. By milling, a homogenous distribution of nano Al2O3 particles in the metal matrix were developed. Then the milled powder was cold compressed and sintered at 545°C for one hr. The mold and the sintered sample hold in a furnace until the temperature reached 545°C. Then the hot 27mm diameter sample was extruded to 6mm diameter. From the extruded specimens, tensile, hardness and microstructure of the prepared specimens were determined. By these tests the effect of milling time, the percent of nano-particles and the microstructure were evaluated. The hardness and tensile behaviors of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with nano Al2O3 particulate have been found to increase remarkably with the volume fraction of the reinforcement.

  7. Properties of dispersion-strengthened chromium - 4-volume-percent-thoria alloys produced by ball milling in hydrogen iodide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, A.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of processing variables on the tensile properties and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of Cr + 4 vol. %ThO2 alloys and of pure Cr produced by ball milling in hydrogen iodide were investigated. Hot rolled Cr + ThO2 was stronger than either hot pressed Cr + ThO2 or pure Cr at temperatures up to 1537 C. Hot pressed Cr + ThO2 had a DBTT of 501 C as compared with minus 8 to 24 C for the hot rolled Cr + ThO2 and with 139 C for pure Cr. It is postulated that the dispersoid in the hot rolled alloys lowers the DBTT by inhibiting recovery and recrystallization of the strained structure.

  8. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming Subcategory § 420.74... of 6.0 to 9.0. (c) Flat mills—(1) Hot strip and sheet mills, carbon and specialty. Subpart...

  9. Damage tolerance of woven graphite-epoxy buffer strip panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Graphite-epoxy panels with S glass buffer strips were tested in tension and shear to measure their residual strengths with crack-like damage. The buffer strips were regularly spaced narrow strips of continuous S glass. Panels were made with a uniweave graphite cloth where the S glass buffer material was woven directly into the cloth. Panels were made with different width and thickness buffer strips. The panels were loaded to failure while remote strain, strain at the end of the slit, and crack opening displacement were monitoring. The notched region and nearby buffer strips were radiographed periodically to reveal crack growth and damage. Except for panels with short slits, the buffer strips arrested the propagating crack. The strength (or failing strain) of the panels was significantly higher than the strength of all-graphite panels with the same length slit. Panels with wide, thick buffer strips were stronger than panels with thin, narrow buffer strips. A shear-lag model predicted the failing strength of tension panels with wide buffer strips accurately, but over-estimated the strength of the shear panels and the tension panels with narrow buffer strips.

  10. Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot-salt stress-corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    The Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppM H), duplex annealed (70 ppM H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppM) and a low (9 ppM H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot-salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill-annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppM did not influence resistance to hot-salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

  11. Yang-Mills Magnetofluid Unification

    SciTech Connect

    Bambah, Bindu A.; Mahajan, Swadesh M.; Mukku, Chandrasekher

    2006-08-18

    We generalize the hybrid magnetofluid model of a charged fluid interacting with an electromagnetic field to the dynamics of a relativistic hot fluid interacting with a non-Abelian field. The fluid itself is endowed with a non-Abelian charge and the consequences of this generalization are worked out. Applications of this formalism to the quark gluon plasma are suggested.

  12. Partial Northeast Elevation Mill #5 East & #5 West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial Northeast Elevation - Mill #5 East & #5 West (Part 4), Typical Floor - Partial Plan Mill #5 East & #5 West (Part 4) - Boott Cotton Mills, John Street at Merrimack River, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  13. INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR BRIDGE BETWEEN PLANING MILL AND CAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR BRIDGE BETWEEN PLANING MILL AND CAR MACHINE SHOP, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD PLANING MILL. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Planing Mill, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. 11. STOVE NUT USED IN THE MILL WHEN THE BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. STOVE NUT USED IN THE MILL WHEN THE BRAKE WHEEL DROVE ONE PAIR OF MILLSTONES DIRECTLY; FOUND ON THE FIRST FLOOR OF THE WINDMILL AT WATERMILL - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  15. 1. Mill exterior, high grade chute partially restored on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Mill exterior, high grade chute partially restored on the outside of mill building center of picture. Looking northeast from below bridge. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  16. 2. Dark brick buildings at right are mill (four story) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Dark brick buildings at right are mill (four story) and warehouse (two story) sections of 1900-1904 construction; at left is 1885 mill. - Empire Mills Company, Front Avenue between Eighth & Tenth Streets, Columbus, Muscogee County, GA

  17. 1. NORTHWEST VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES, WITH MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST SIDES, WITH MILL BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - Juniata Mill Complex, Mill Camp Shed, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  18. 6. VIEW TO WEST, SAMPLING BUILDING, MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW TO WEST, SAMPLING BUILDING, MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, AND GRINDING/ROD MILL. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  19. 5. DETAIL OF ROD MILL BASE AND CONVEYOR BELT SUPPORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF ROD MILL BASE AND CONVEYOR BELT SUPPORT, EAST VIEW. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Grinding Rod Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  20. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  1. CLOSE UP VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH UNLOADER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE UP VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH UNLOADER AND CRUSHING MILL WING IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  2. 2. VIEW NORTHEAST, SOUTH FRONT OF DAYVILLE MILLS COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTHEAST, SOUTH FRONT OF DAYVILLE MILLS COMPLEX LOOKING ACROSS ROUTE 101, MAIN MILL BUILDING - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  3. Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot salt stress corrosion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    The influence of the initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on subsequent resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement and cracking was investigated. A Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppm H), duplex annealed (70 ppm H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppm H) and a low (9 ppm H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppm did not influence resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

  4. Reinforced corrugated thin metal foil strip useful in a catalytic converter core, a catalytic converter core containing said strip and an electrically heatable catalytic converter containing said core

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelison, R.C.; Whittenberger, W.A.

    1993-08-31

    A corrugated thin metal foil strip is described having a longitudinally extending center line with an initial strip width and having at least one longitudinal edge folded toward the center line of the strip prior to corrugating said strip to form a folded section and a remaining portion of the strip which is unfolded, the width of the folded section being from about 5% to about 25% of the width of the remaining portion of the strip which is unfolded.

  5. Uranium mill ore dust characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Knuth, R.H.; George, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the /sup 238/U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the /sup 234/U and /sup 230/Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of /sup 226/Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the /sup 226/Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ..mu..m with a median diameter of 11 ..mu..m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement.

  6. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF KEX PLANT, FORMER CALLAWAY MILLS UNITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF KEX PLANT, FORMER CALLAWAY MILLS UNITY COTTON MILL (A. FRANCIS WALKER, 1900-01) FROM DUNSON STREET. UNITY COTTON MILL WAS THE FIRST OF SEVERAL TEXTILE MILLS BUILT BY THE CALLAWAY MILLS GROUP IN SOUTHWEST LAGRANGE DURING THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY. NOTE REMAINING PORTION OF ORIGINAL WATER TANK TOWER IN MIDDLE OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Unity Cotton Mill, 815 Leeman Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  7. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized.

  8. Numerical robust stability estimation in milling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Limin; Ding, Han; Xiong, Youlun

    2012-09-01

    The conventional prediction of milling stability has been extensively studied based on the assumptions that the milling process dynamics is time invariant. However, nominal cutting parameters cannot guarantee the stability of milling process at the shop floor level since there exists many uncertain factors in a practical manufacturing environment. This paper proposes a novel numerical method to estimate the upper and lower bounds of Lobe diagram, which is used to predict the milling stability in a robust way by taking into account the uncertain parameters of milling system. Time finite element method, a milling stability theory is adopted as the conventional deterministic model. The uncertain dynamics parameters are dealt with by the non-probabilistic model in which the parameters with uncertainties are assumed to be bounded and there is no need for probabilistic distribution densities functions. By doing so, interval instead of deterministic stability Lobe is obtained, which guarantees the stability of milling process in an uncertain milling environment. In the simulations, the upper and lower bounds of Lobe diagram obtained by the changes of modal parameters of spindle-tool system and cutting coefficients are given, respectively. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and can obtain satisfying bounds of Lobe diagrams. The proposed method is helpful for researchers at shop floor to making decision on machining parameters selection.

  9. In hot water, again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, Alastair; Watkins, Sheila

    2009-10-01

    Regarding Norman Willcox's letter about the problems of using solar panels for domestic heating (August p21), I also have thermal solar panels installed. However, contrary to his disappointing experience, I have found that they provide my family with a useful amount of hot water. In our system, the solar energy is used to heat a store of water, which has no other source of heat. Mains-pressure cold water passes through this store via a heat exchanger, removing heat from it and warming up. If the water becomes warm enough, an unpowered thermostatic valve allows it to go straight to the hot taps (mixing it with cold if it is too hot). However, if it is not hot enough, then the water is directed first through our previously installed gaspowered combination boiler and then to the taps.

  10. Reactor hot spot analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    The principle methods for performing reactor hot spot analysis are reviewed and examined for potential use in the Applied Physics Division. The semistatistical horizontal method is recommended for future work and is now available as an option in the SE2-ANL core thermal hydraulic code. The semistatistical horizontal method is applied to a small LMR to illustrate the calculation of cladding midwall and fuel centerline hot spot temperatures. The example includes a listing of uncertainties, estimates for their magnitudes, computation of hot spot subfactor values and calculation of two sigma temperatures. A review of the uncertainties that affect liquid metal fast reactors is also presented. It was found that hot spot subfactor magnitudes are strongly dependent on the reactor design and therefore reactor specific details must be carefully studied. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  11. Saturn's Hot Plasma Explosions

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation based on data obtained by NASA's Cassini Spacecraft shows how the "explosions" of hot plasma on the night side (orange and white) periodically inflate Saturn's magnetic field (white ...

  12. 1. EXTERIOR OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING 202, LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST. Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING 202, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Administration Building, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  13. 38. PHOTOCOPY OF ARCHITECTURAL WASH DRAWING OF CANNELTON MILL 'designed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. PHOTOCOPY OF ARCHITECTURAL WASH DRAWING OF CANNELTON MILL 'designed by Tefft' COURTESY JOHN HAY LIBRARY, BROWN UNIVERSITY - Cannelton Cotton Mill, Front & Fourth Streets, Cannelton, Perry County, IN

  14. 1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. Mill Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Civil Engineering Administration Office, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  15. 7. STONE PIER OF ORIGINAL WATERWHEEL INSTALLATION DOWNSTREAM FROM MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. STONE PIER OF ORIGINAL WATERWHEEL INSTALLATION DOWNSTREAM FROM MILL William E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 (copy negative) - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV

  16. Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-11-01

    Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

  17. Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. Arizona Strip Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, T.C.

    1993-05-01

    Founded in 1975 by uranium pioneer, Robert W. Adams, Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. (EFNI) emerged as the largest US uranium mining company by the mid-1980s. Confronting the challenges of declining uranium market prices and the development of high-grade ore bodies in Australia and Canada, EFNI aggressively pursued exploration and development of breccia-pipe ore bodies in Northwestern Arizona. As a result, EFNI's production for the Arizona Strip of 18.9 million pounds U[sub 3]O[sub 8] over the period 1980 through 1991, maintained the company's status as a leading US uranium producer.

  18. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  19. Power and control in gay strip clubs.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Joseph R G

    2007-01-01

    The gay strip club is a place in which more than displays of male beauty take place. The mix of customers, performers, liquor, and nudity results in fascinating dynamics. Of interest in this article are the power relationships and issues of control played out both among and between strippers and customers. Based on extensive participant observation conducted in eight cities and numerous bars/clubs and including more than 150 in-depth interviews, this article concerns just one aspect of the world of male strippers who perform for men. PMID:18019071

  20. Hot Oiling Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-10-22

    One of the most common oil-field treatments is hot oiling to remove paraffin from wells. Even though the practice is common, the thermal effectiveness of the process is not commonly understood. In order for producers to easily understand the thermodynamics of hot oiling, a simple tool is needed for estimating downhole temperatures. Such a tool has been developed that can be distributed as a compiled spreadsheet.

  1. Classifier mills for coal grinding and drying

    SciTech Connect

    Galk, J.; Peukert, W.

    1995-12-31

    This report presents a special air classifier mill for coal grinding. Air classifier mills use the two fundamental process steps grinding and classifying in one machine. An essential advantage is the independent operation of grinding rotor speed and classifier rotor speed. This offers good control of the produced particle size distribution and great flexibility in process control. Using an air classifier mill for grinding coal followed by direct injection into the firing chamber allows for good control of burnout. Another advantage is that drying of coal can take place as a parallel step by heating process air passing through the classifier mill. In this report an air classifier mill, some typical process data, possible throughput, and an industrial application are shown.

  2. Space Vehicle Heat Shield Having Edgewise Strips of Ablative Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Poteet, Carl C. (Inventor); Bouslog, Stan A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A heat shield for a space vehicle comprises a plurality of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA) blocks secured to a surface of the space vehicle and arranged in a pattern with gaps therebetween. The heat shield further comprises a plurality of PICA strips disposed in the gaps between the PICA blocks. The PICA strips are mounted edgewise, such that the structural orientation of the PICA strips is substantially perpendicular to the structural orientation of the PICA blocks.

  3. Validation of Edible Taste Strips for Assessing PROP Taste Perception

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A novel delivery method is described that incorporates taste stimuli into edible strips for determining n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status. Edible strips that contained 400 or 600nanomoles of PROP were prepared for psychophysical studies. Using these strips, we measured taste intensity, taste hedonics, and taste quality responses in a sample of healthy volunteers (n = 118). Participants were also asked to assess a single NaCl strip, a quinine strip, 3 NaCl solutions, and 3 PROP solutions. All psychophysical data were subsequently analyzed as a function of TAS2R38 genotype. The use of PROP strips for distinguishing between individuals with at least 1 PAV allele and individuals with other genotypes was assessed and compared with the use of PROP solutions for making this same distinction. For the 2 PROP strips and PROP solutions, individuals who expressed at least 1 PAV allele could perceive the bitter taste of PROP. Individuals who expressed 2 AVI alleles responded similarly to 400nanomole PROP strips and blank strips. Furthermore, individuals with 2 AVI alleles responded to 0.032 and 0.32mM PROP solutions at intensities that were similar to water, though intensity ratings to 3.2mM PROP solution exceeded water. In general, those with at least 1 PAV allele rated the bitter taste of PROP as unpleasant in both delivery methods (strips or solutions). Psychophysical data from PROP strips and solutions were consistent with TAS2R38 genotype. These results support the validity of edible taste strips as a method for assessing PROP taste perception in humans. PMID:23761681

  4. The MYB36 transcription factor orchestrates Casparian strip formation

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Takehiro; Borghi, Monica; Wang, Peng; Danku, John M. C.; Kalmbach, Lothar; Hosmani, Prashant S.; Naseer, Sadaf; Fujiwara, Toru; Geldner, Niko; Salt, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The endodermis in roots acts as a selectivity filter for nutrient and water transport essential for growth and development. This selectivity is enabled by the formation of lignin-based Casparian strips. Casparian strip formation is initiated by the localization of the Casparian strip domain proteins (CASPs) in the plasma membrane, at the site where the Casparian strip will form. Localized CASPs recruit Peroxidase 64 (PER64), a Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog F, and Enhanced Suberin 1 (ESB1), a dirigent-like protein, to assemble the lignin polymerization machinery. However, the factors that control both expression of the genes encoding this biosynthetic machinery and its localization to the Casparian strip formation site remain unknown. Here, we identify the transcription factor, MYB36, essential for Casparian strip formation. MYB36 directly and positively regulates the expression of the Casparian strip genes CASP1, PER64, and ESB1. Casparian strips are absent in plants lacking a functional MYB36 and are replaced by ectopic lignin-like material in the corners of endodermal cells. The barrier function of Casparian strips in these plants is also disrupted. Significantly, ectopic expression of MYB36 in the cortex is sufficient to reprogram these cells to start expressing CASP1–GFP, correctly localize the CASP1–GFP protein to form a Casparian strip domain, and deposit a Casparian strip-like structure in the cell wall at this location. These results demonstrate that MYB36 is controlling expression of the machinery required to locally polymerize lignin in a fine band in the cell wall for the formation of the Casparian strip. PMID:26124109

  5. Two new extremely hot pulsating white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, H. E.; Grauer, A. D.; Green, R. F.; Liebert, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    High speed photometry of the extremely hot, nearly degenerate stars PG 1707 + 427 and PG 2131 + 066 reveals that they are low-amplitude pulsating variables. Power spectral analysis shows both to be multiperiodic, with dominant periods of 7.5 and 6.4-6.9 minutes, respectively. Together with the known pulsators PG 1159 - 035 and the central star of the planetary nebula Kohoutek 1-16, these objects define a new pulsational instability strip at the hot edge of the H-R diagram. The variations of these objects closely resemble those of the much cooler pulsating ZZ Ceti DA white dwarfs; both groups are probably nonradial g-mode pulsators. Evolutionary contraction of the PG 1159 - 035 variables may lead to period changes that would be detectable in as little as 1 year. The optical and IUE spectra of the PG 1159 - 035 variables are characterized by absorption lines of C IV and other CNO ions, indicating radiative levitation of species heavier than helium. He II is also present in the spectra, but the hydrogen Balmer lines are absent. Effective temperatures near 100,000 K are required, and the He II 4686 A profiles indicate log g greater than 6. These helium-rich pulsators form the hottest known subgroup of the DO white dwarfs.

  6. Multi-field coupled numerical simulation of hot reversible rolling process of GCr15 steel rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sendong; Zhang, Liwen; Ruan, Jinhua; Mei, Hongyu; Zhen, Yu; Shi, Xinhua

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, based on rolling technology of hot reversible rolling mill, a multi-filed coupled finite element (FE) model of hot reversible rolling process of large dimension cross-section GCr15 steel rod is established. Thermal, mechanical and microstructural phenomena during the rolling process are coupled in the model. By employing grain growth experiment, double and single hit hot compression experiments, the austenite grain size growth mathematical model and recrystallization behavior mathematical models are determined. And a designed subprogram is coupled in the FE model. Actual hot reversible rolling process of GCr15 steel is simulated using the model and the distribution and evolution of different filed-variables, such as temperature, effective strain and austenite grain size are obtained. To verify the model predictions, hot rolling experiments are carried out and the temperature and microstructure of the rolling metal are compared with the predicted results. The comparison between the two sets of data shows a good agreement.

  7. RAPIDLY PULSATING HOT SUBDWARFS IN {omega} CENTAURI: A NEW INSTABILITY STRIP ON THE EXTREME HORIZONTAL BRANCH?

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, S. K.; Calamida, A.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Bono, G.

    2011-08-20

    Pulsating extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars offer the unique opportunity to use asteroseismology to probe their fundamental parameters and thus constrain one of the more poorly understood phases of stellar evolution. However, they have been observed only among the field population, which necessarily prevents asteroseismological tools from being applied to globular cluster EHB stars. We launched a search for rapid EHB pulsators in {omega} Cen on the basis of fast time-series photometry obtained with EFOSC2 at the New Technology Telescope. Fourier analysis uncovered four multi-mode oscillators with rather similar periods between 84 and 124 s and amplitudes up to 2.7% of the mean stellar brightness. Initially, it was assumed that these stars constitute the globular cluster counterparts to the EC 14026 stars, rapid subdwarf B pulsators with T{sub eff} {approx} 31,000 K that have been extensively studied among the field population, yet a subsequent atmospheric analysis of FORS MXU spectra reveals effective temperatures closely clustered around 50,000 K, implying that the four {omega} Cen variables are in fact helium-poor subdwarf O (sdO) stars rather than EC 14026 pulsators. It remains to be seen whether they are related to the one significantly hotter sdO oscillator known among the field star population, or belong to a hitherto unknown class of stellar pulsator that can now be subjected to asteroseismological scrutiny.

  8. Large strip RPCs for the LEPS2 TOF system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomida, N.; Niiyama, M.; Ohnishi, H.; Tran, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Chu, M.-L.; Chang, W.-C.; Chen, J.-Y.

    2014-12-01

    High time-resolution resistive plate chambers (RPCs) with large-size readout strips are developed for the time-of-flight (TOF) detector system of the LEPS2 experiment at SPring-8. The experimental requirement is a 50-ps time resolution for a strip size larger than 100 cm2/channel. We are able to achieve 50-ps time resolutions with 2.5×100 cm2 strips by directly connecting the amplifiers to strips. With the same time resolution, the number of front-end electronics (FEE) is also reduced by signal addition.

  9. An assessment of buffer strips for improving damage tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.; Kennedy, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Graphite/epoxy panels with buffer strips were tested in tension to measure their residual strength with crack-like damage. Panels were made with 45/0/-45/90(2S) and 45/0/450(2S) layups. The buffer strips were parallel to the loading directions. They were made by replacing narrow strips of the 0 deg graphite plies with strips of either 0 deg S-Glass/epoxy or Kevlar-49/epoxy on either a one for one or a two for one basis. In a third case, O deg graphite/epoxy was used as the buffer material and thin, perforated Mylar strips were placed between the 0 deg piles and the cross-plies to weaken the interfaces and thus to isolate the 0 deg plies. Some panels were made with buffer strips of different widths and spacings. The buffer strips arrested the cracks and increased the residual strengths significantly over those plain laminates without buffer strips. A shear-lag type stress analysis correctly predicted the effects of layups, buffer material, buffer strip width and spacing, and the number of plies of buffer material.

  10. The problem of an inclined crack in an orthotropic strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Bakirtas, I.; Erdogan, F.

    1978-01-01

    The elastostatic problem for an infinite orthotropic strip containing crack was considered. It was assumed that the orthogonal axes of material orthotropy may have an arbitrary angular orientation with respect to the orthogonal axes of geometric symmetry of the uncracked strip. The crack was located along an axis of orthotropy, hence, at an arbitrary angle with respect to the sides of the strip. The general problem was formulated in terms of a system of singular integral equations for arbitrary crack surface tractions. As examples Modes 1 and 2 stress intensity factors were calculated for the strip having an internal or an edge crack with various lengths and angular orientations.

  11. Stress distribution in a continuously cast intermetallic strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, George; Wronski, Zbignew; Sahoo, Mahi; Kiff, Dave

    Results of a study on the determination of the residual stress state in a nickel aluminide intermetallic strip by the hole drilling method (HDM) are presented. Special correlation functions that relate the relaxed surface strain and the original stresses before drilling were developed. It is shown that the HDM may be used to determine residual stresses in anisotropic materials such as intermetallic strips. The results indicate that a complex stress field develops through the thickness and across the width of the strip. However, a suitable thermomechanical treatment may be applied to redistribute the stresses before aluminide strips can be used to make engineering components.

  12. Antepartum Membrane Stripping in GBS Carriers, Is It Safe? (The STRIP-G Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kabiri, Doron; Hants, Yael; Yarkoni, Tom Raz; Shaulof, Esther; Friedman, Smadar Eventov; Paltiel, Ora; Nir-Paz, Ran; Aljamal, Wesam E.; Ezra, Yossef

    2015-01-01

    Objective Stripping of the membranes is an established and widely utilized obstetric procedure associated with higher spontaneous vaginal delivery rates, reduced need for formal induction of labor and a lower likelihood of post-term pregnancy. Due to the theoretical concern of bacterial seeding during the procedure many practitioners choose not to sweep the membranes in Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonized patients. We conducted ‘the STRIP-G study’ in order to determine whether maternal and neonatal outcomes are affected by GBS carrier status in women undergoing membrane stripping. Study design We conducted a prospective study in a tertiary referral center, comparing maternal and neonatal outcomes following membrane stripping among GBS-positive, GBS-negative, and GBS-unknown patients. We compared the incidence of composite adverse neonatal outcomes (primary outcome) among the three study groups, while secondary outcome measure was composite adverse maternal outcomes. Results A total of 542 women were included in the study, of which 135 were GBS-positive, 361 GBS-negative, and 46 GBS-unknown status. Demographic, obstetric, and intra-partum characteristics were similar for all groups. Adverse neonatal outcomes were observed in 8 (5.9%), 31 (8.6%), and 2 (4.3%) in the GBS-positive, GBS-negative, and unknown groups, respectively (P = 0.530), (Odds Ratio between GBS-Positive vs. GBS-Negative groups 0.67 (95%, CI = 0.30–1.50)); while composite adverse maternal outcomes occurred in 9 (6.66%), 31 (8.59%), and 5 (10.87%) in the GBS-positive, GBS-negative, and unknown groups, respectively (P = 0.617). Conclusions Antepartum membrane stripping in GBS carriers appears to be a safe obstetrical procedure that does not adversely affect maternal or neonatal outcomes. PMID:26719985

  13. SNS Laser Stripping for H- Injection

    SciTech Connect

    V.V. Danilov, Y. Liu, K.B. Beard, V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, Michelle D. Shinn

    2009-05-01

    The ORNL spallation neutron source (SNS) user facility requires a reliable, intense beams of protons. The technique of H- charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron has the potential to provide the needed beam currents, but it will be limited by intrinsic limitations of carbon and diamond stripping foils. A laser in combination with magnetic stripping has been used to demonstrate a new technique for high intensity proton injection, but several problems need to be solved before a practical system can be realized. Technology developed for use in Free Electron Lasers is being used to address the remaining challenges to practical implementation of laser controlled H- charge exchange injection for the SNS. These technical challenges include (1) operation in vacuum, (2) the control of the UV laser beam to synchronize with the H- beam and to shape the proton beam, (3) the control and stabilization of the Fabry-Perot resonator, and (4) protection of the mirrors from radiation.

  14. Transparent Helium in Stripped Envelope Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S.

    2014-09-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms.

  15. Solder flow on narrow copper strips

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Yost, F.G.; Holm, E.A.; Michael, J.R.

    1996-07-01

    Various solderability tests have been developed over the years to quantify the wetting behavior of solder on metallic surfaces. None offer an exact measure of capillary flow normally associated with conventional plated-through-hole and surface mount soldering. With shrinking package designs, increasing reliability requirements, and the emergence of new soldering technologies, there is a growing need to better understand and predict the flow of solder on printed wiring board (PWB) surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a capillary flow solderability test, through a joint effort with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences, that considers this fundamental wetting issue for surface mount technology. The test geometry consists of a metal strip (width, {delta}) connected to a circular metal pad (radius, r{sub c}). Solder flow from the pad onto the strip depends on the geometric relationship between {delta} and r{sub c}. Test methodology, experimental results, and validation of a flow model are presented in this paper. 17 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Crossectomy and great saphenous vein stripping.

    PubMed

    Winterborn, R J; Earnshaw, J J

    2006-02-01

    Crossectomy and stripping have been the standard of care for primary great saphenous varicose veins since the high failure rates of sclerotherapy became apparent in the 1970s. As the specialty of venous surgery has evolved, a number of clinical trials have established the optimal methods of surgical treatment, and the clinical benefit of routine stripping. Long-term trials, however, have uncovered a high recurrence rate after varicose vein surgery that approaches 70% after 10 years. There is much debate about whether this is the result of the dilatation of existing tributaries in the groin or the growth of new veins as a result of angiogenesis that follows surgical treatment and healing (neovascularisation). The addition of barrier technology to current crossectomy has the potential to improve the results of surgery in the future. In the meanwhile, new techniques are evolving to obliterate the great saphenous vein, including endovenous laser, radiofrequency ablation and foam sclerotherapy. Randomised clinical trials are urgently required to compare these new treatments against standard surgery, and they will need to focus on whether the short-term gains in reduced convalescence and morbidity are balanced by durable long-term results. PMID:16434942

  17. TRANSPARENT HELIUM IN STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S.

    2014-09-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms.

  18. Stripping of phenols in model cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, C.D.; Moe, T.A.; Wentz, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cooling towers are used to remove waste heat from unit operations in chemical processing plants. Using cooling towers for wastewater treatment and disposal through internal recycling has become an important alternative because of stricter wastewater discharge standards, the expense of specialized wastewater treatment systems and the limited availability and cost of water in arid regions. Designs for synfuels plants must address the problem of wastewater disposal. Alternative systems under consideration usually include zero discharge designs that incorporate evaporative cooling towers in the system. The mechanisms for contaminant removal in cooling towers are biological oxidation, stripping and chemical precipitation. Chemical precipitation is generally considered undesirable because of losses in heat transfer efficiency. Predicting whether stripping or biological oxidation will be the primary removal mechanism for phenolic compounds from coal conversion wastewaters used as makeup in cooling towers does not appear to be possible based on the results of these tests. The tests do indicate that the biological oxidation of phenol is possible in forced draft cooling towers.

  19. The structure of the Cepheid instability strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernie, J. D.

    1990-05-01

    About 100 classical Cepheids having color excesses on a homogeneous system with standard errors of 0.02 or less mag are used with the Feast-Walker period-luminosity-color relation to study the distribution of such stars in the instability strip. It is found that mean (B-V)mag is a better indicator of mean effective temperature than is mean B(i) - mean V(i)(i). The blue edge of the color-magnitude distribution is consistent with the theoretical blue edge for Y = 0.28 and Z = 0.02. Although the highest amplitude stars are found near the center of the period-color array, high- and low-amplitude stars can intermingle, and both kinds are to be found near the edges of the distribution. The same is true on the C-M array. Finally, it is pointed out that the Cepheids do not populate the instability strip uniformly if the red edge is taken to be parallel to the theoretical blue edge. Rather, the local instability region runs as a parallelogram in the C-M array from the theoretical blue edge upward and to the red.

  20. Liquid crystal elastomer strips as soft crawlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSimone, Antonio; Gidoni, Paolo; Noselli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we speculate on a possible application of Liquid Crystal Elastomers to the field of soft robotics. In particular, we study a concept for limbless locomotion that is amenable to miniaturisation. For this purpose, we formulate and solve the evolution equations for a strip of nematic elastomer, subject to directional frictional interactions with a flat solid substrate, and cyclically actuated by a spatially uniform, time-periodic stimulus (e.g., temperature change). The presence of frictional forces that are sensitive to the direction of sliding transforms reciprocal, 'breathing-like' deformations into directed forward motion. We derive formulas quantifying this motion in the case of distributed friction, by solving a differential inclusion for the displacement field. The simpler case of concentrated frictional interactions at the two ends of the strip is also solved, in order to provide a benchmark to compare the continuously distributed case with a finite-dimensional benchmark. We also provide explicit formulas for the axial force along the crawler body.

  1. Surface acquisition through virtual milling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1993-01-01

    Surface acquisition deals with the reconstruction of three dimensional objects from a set of data points. The most straightforward techniques require human intervention, a time consuming proposition. It is desirable to develop a fully automated alternative. Such a method is proposed in this paper. It makes use of surface measurements obtained from a 3-D laser digitizer - an instrument which provides the (x,y,z) coordinates of surface data points from various viewpoints. These points are assembled into several partial surfaces using a visibility constraint and a 2-D triangulation technique. Reconstruction of the final object requires merging these partial surfaces. This is accomplished through a procedure that emulates milling, a standard machining operation. From a geometrical standpoint the problem reduces to constructing the intersection of two or more non-convex polyhedra.

  2. FLINT MILL ROADLESS AREA, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, Wallace R.; Jones, Jay G.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was made on the Flint Mill Roadless Area in northeastern Tennessee. Studies of known manganese deposits, most of which are small and mined out, evaluation of iron prospects, and the results of a geochemical survey for other metals in stream sediments indicate there is probable resource potential for the occurrence of small iron-manganese resources in the roadless area. Nonmetallic minerals such as clay, carbonate rock, and other industrial raw material are found in the area but, similar commodites are found outside the area. The remote possibility of deep oil or gas in the southern Appalachians, of which the roadless area is a part, cannot be evaluated with existing data. Further geophysical study and possibly drilling would be necessary to evaluate the resource potential for gas and oil in the roadless area.

  3. Nanocrystalline Nb-Al-Ge mixtures fabricated using wet mechanical milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusceddu, E.; Charlton, S.; Hampshire, D. P.

    2008-02-01

    An investigation into Nb-Al-Ge mixtures is presented with special attention to the superconducting compounds Nb3(Al1-xGex) with x = 0, 0.3 and 1, which are reported to provide the highest upper critical field values for Nb-based compounds. Wet mechanical milling using copper milling media and distilled water as a process control agent (PCA) was used with the intention of improving the yield, properties and the performance of these materials. Very high yields of nanocrystalline material were achieved but significant copper contamination occurred - confirmed using inductively-coupled-plasma atomic-emission-spectroscopy. Simultaneous thermogravimetric measurements and differential scanning calorimetry were performed on powders milled for up to 20 h with different PCA content, to quantify the work done on the powders. A typical grain size of a few nm was obtained for the Nb-Al-Ge mixtures after several hours milling. Powder ground for 20 h with 5% PCA was processed using a hot isostatic press (HIP) operating at 2000 atm and temperatures up to 750 °C. The room temperature resistivity decreased as the temperature of the HIPing increased. Unfortunately, despite the nanocrystalline microstructure of the powders and the high HIP temperatures, if superconducting material was formed it was below the detection level of resistivity, Ac. susceptibility and SQUID measurements. We conclude that during milling there was widespread contamination of the powders by the PCA so that milling with distilled water as a PCA is not to be recommended for fabricating nanocrystalline Nb3(Al1-xGex) A15 superconducting compounds.

  4. Research on work roll thermal crown in cold rolling mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lei; Shen, Mingang; Chen, Xuebo; Wang, Junsheng

    2013-05-01

    The factors which have influence on the work roll thermal crown in cold strip rolling are discussed. The heat transferring in three directions (radial axis and circumference) were considered for calculating the work roll thermal deformation. Therefore, it is a three dimensions unstable system for the work roll temperature calculation. The plastic deformation work and friction heat are calculated by the divided element and digital integration method. The simplified calculation model is built for the heat transferring along work roll. There are four zones for work roll heat transferring: roll gap zone air cooling zone emulsion zone rolls contact zone. The heat transferring between the zones is decided by the temperature difference. The inter temperature field and thermal deformation of work roll can be calculated by two-dimension finite difference method. The work roll temperature and thermal crown of actual application cold rolling mill are analyzed by the model. By the comparison between calculated values and measured values, the work roll thermal calculation model can meet the accuracy requirement of on-line control.

  5. 31 CFR 356.31 - How does the STRIPS program work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the STRIPS program work? 356...) Miscellaneous Provisions § 356.31 How does the STRIPS program work? (a) General. Notes or bonds may be “stripped... amounts required for STRIPS. The minimum par amount of a fixed-principal security that may be stripped...

  6. Preparation of ultrafine jet-milled powders for Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets using hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination and hydrogen decrepitation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Michihide; Matsuura, Masashi; Tezuka, Nobuki; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Une, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Hirokazu; Sagawa, Masato

    2013-07-01

    Dy addition is used to increase the coercivity of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets. Given that Dy is rare and expensive, a method is needed for reducing the Dy content in such magnets without decreasing their coercivity. Refining Nd2Fe14B grains is a prospective method for increasing the coercivity of Nd-Fe-B magnets. Conventional jet milling, however, cannot crush strip-casted Nd-Fe-B alloys into powders less than 1 μm in size. We report a process for preparing ultrafine jet-milled powders with an average size of 0.33 μm for Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets: a combination of hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination, hydrogen decrepitation, and He jet milling.

  7. Improving nanocrystalline diamond coatings for micro end mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaney, Patrick J.

    A new method is presented for coating 300 mum diameter tungsten carbide (WC) micro end mills with diamond using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) method. This method has been developed to create uniform, conformal and continuous diamond coatings. Initial work is shown to prove the feasibility and concept of the project. This was the first work known to coat and evaluate the machining performance WC micro end mills. The performance of uncoated and coated micro end mills was evaluated by dry machining channels in 6061-T6 aluminum. The test results showed a 75% and 90% decrease in both cutting and trust forces for machining, respectfully. The coated tools produced a more predictable surface finish with no burring. These improved results are due to the superior tribological properties of diamond against aluminum. Initial results indicated severe problems with coating delamination causing complete tool failure. After proving the initial concept, new methods for optimizing the coating and improving performance were studied. Each optimization step is monitored through surface analysis techniques to monitor changes in coating morphology and diamond quality. Nucleation density was increased by improving the seed method, using ultra dispersed diamond (UDD) seed. The increase in nucleation density allowed the synthesis of coatings as thin as 60 nm. The adhesion of the coating to the tool was improved through carbon ion implantation (CII). CII is a different surface preparation technique that deactivates the effect of Co, while not weakening the tool. CII also creates a great nucleation layer which diamond can directly grow from, allowing the diamond coating to chemically bond to the substrate improving adhesion and eliminating the need for a seed layer. These thin coatings were shown to be of high quality sp3 trigonaly bonded diamond that resulted in lower machining forces with less delamination. The 90% reduction in machining forces that thin conformal

  8. Occultation Predictions Using CCD Strip-Scanning Astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, Edward W.; Ford, C. H.; Stone, R. P. S.; McDonald, S. W.; Olkin, C. B.; Elliot, J. L.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We are developing the method of CCD strip-scanning astrometry for the purpose of deriving reliable advance predictions for occultations involving small objects in the outer solar system. We are using a camera system based on a Ford/Loral 2Kx2K CCD with the Crossley telescope at Lick Observatory for this work. The columns of die CCD are aligned East-West, the telescope drive is stopped, and the CCD is clocked at the same rate that the stars drift across it. In this way we obtain arbitrary length strip images 20 arcmin wide with 0.58" pixels. Since planets move mainly in RA, it is possible to obtain images of the planet and star to be occulted on the same strip well before the occultation occurs. The strip-to-strip precision (i.e. reproducibility) of positions is limited by atmospheric image motion to about 0.1" rms per strip. However, for objects that are nearby in R.A., the image motion is highly correlated and their relative positions are good to 0.02" rms per strip. We will show that the effects of atmospheric image motion on a given strip can be removed if a sufficient number of strips of a given area have been obtained. Thus, it is possible to reach an rms precision of 0.02" per strip, corresponding to about 0.3 of Pluto or Triton's angular radius. The ultimate accuracy of a prediction based on strip-scanning astrometry is currently limited by the accuracy of the positions of the stars in the astrometric network used and by systematic errors most likely due to the optical system. We will show the results of . the prediction of some recent occultations as examples of the current capabilities and limitations of this technique.

  9. Multi-stage FE simulation of hot ring rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Geijselaers, H. J. M.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

    2013-05-01

    As a unique and important member of the metal forming family, ring rolling provides a cost effective process route to manufacture seamless rings. Applications of ring rolling cover a wide range of products in aerospace, automotive and civil engineering industries [1]. Above the recrystallization temperature of the material, hot ring rolling begins with the upsetting of the billet cut from raw stock. Next a punch pierces the hot upset billet to form a hole through the billet. This billet, referred to as preform, is then rolled by the ring rolling mill. For an accurate simulation of hot ring rolling, it is crucial to include the deformations, stresses and strains from the upsetting and piercing process as initial conditions for the rolling stage. In this work, multi-stage FE simulations of hot ring rolling process were performed by mapping the local deformation state of the workpiece from one step to the next one. The simulations of upsetting and piercing stages were carried out by 2D axisymmetric models using adaptive remeshing and element erosion. The workpiece for the ring rolling stage was subsequently obtained after performing a 2D to 3D mapping. The commercial FE package LS-DYNA was used for the study and user defined subroutines were implemented to complete the control algorithm. The simulation results were analyzed and also compared with those from the single-stage FE model of hot ring rolling.

  10. Microstructure, texture evolution and magnetic properties of strip-casting non-oriented 6.5 wt.% Si electrical steel doped with cerium

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hao-Ze Liu, Hai-Tao; Liu, Zhen-Yu Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-05-15

    A 0.3 mm thick non-oriented 6.5 wt.% Si electrical steel sheet doped with cerium is produced by twin-roll strip casting, hot rolling, warm rolling and annealing. A detailed study of the cerium precipitates in the as-cast strip, microstructure and texture evolution at different processing stages is carried out by electron probe micro-analysis, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction analysis. Grain interior distributing precipitates identified as Ce-oxides, Ce-oxysulfides and Ce-phosphides, and boundary distributing Ce-oxides and Ce-phosphides are observed in the as-cast strip. The initial as-cast strip is characterized by a much finer solidification microstructure and dominated by obvious < 001 >//ND texture through the strip thickness. After hot and warm rolling, inhomogeneous microstructure containing large amounts of in-grain shear bands is characterized by mixed < 110 >//RD and < 111 >//ND textures. The texture of the annealed sheet with a relatively large average grain size is far more optimized by the domination of the beneficial cube, rotated cube, (001)< 120 > to (001)< 130 > and Goss texture components, and the elimination of the detrimental γ-fiber texture, leading to a superior magnetic induction and improved iron loss. - Highlights: • An Fe–6.5 wt.% Si as-cast strip doped with cerium was produced. • A thin warm rolled sheet with limited edge cracks was obtained. • Microstructure and texture evolution at each stage were investigated. • Strong λ-fiber and Goss recrystallization textures were formed. • The magnetic properties of the annealed sheet were significantly improved.

  11. Active chatter control in a milling machine

    SciTech Connect

    Dohner, J.L.; Hinnerichs, T.D.; Lauffer, J.P.

    1997-08-01

    The use of active feedback compensation to mitigate cutting instabilities in an advanced milling machine is discussed in this paper. A linear structural model delineating dynamics significant to the onset of cutting instabilities was combined with a nonlinear cutting model to form a dynamic depiction of an existing milling machine. The model was validated with experimental data. Modifications made to an existing machine model were used to predict alterations in dynamics due to the integration of active feedback compensation. From simulations, subcomponent requirements were evaluated and cutting enhancements were predicted. Active compensation was shown to enable more than double the metal removal rate over conventional milling machines. 25 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Chemically modified flexible strips as electrochemical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Thota, Raju; Ganesh, V

    2014-09-21

    A flexible and disposable strip sensor for non-enzymatic glucose detection is demonstrated in this work. The strips are prepared by using chemical modification processes followed by a simple electroless deposition of copper. Essentially, polyester overhead projector (OHP) transparent films are modified with a monolayer of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and polyaniline (PANI) conducting polymer. Later, nanostructured copper is deposited onto this modified film. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies are used for the structural, morphological and crystallinity characterization of the modified films. Electrochemical techniques, namely cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA), are employed for the non-enzymatic detection of glucose. These studies clearly reveal the formation of homogeneous, close-packed spherical Cu particles converged into uniform film that exhibits a good catalytic activity towards the oxidation of glucose. The Cu/PANI/APTMS/OHP sensor displays a remarkable enhancement in the oxidation current density, a very high sensitivity value of 2.8456 mA cm(-2) per mM, and a linear concentration range from 100 μM to 6.5 mM associated with glucose detection. Detection limit is estimated to be 5 μM and the response time of the sensor is determined to be less than 5 s. For comparison, similar studies are performed without PANI, namely Cu/APTMS/OHP films for glucose detection. In this case, a sensitivity value of 2.4457 mA cm(-2) per mM and a linear concentration range of 100 μM-3 mM are estimated. The higher performance characteristics observed in the case of Cu/PANI/APTMS/OHP are attributed to the synergistic effects of the conducting polymer acting as an electron facilitator and the nanostructured Cu films. These disposable, flexible and low-cost strip sensors have also been applied to the detection of glucose in clinical blood serum samples and the results obtained agree very well with the actual glucose

  13. Simulations of ram-pressure stripping in galaxy-cluster interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauser, Dominik; Schindler, Sabine; Springel, Volker

    2016-06-01

    effect that is not captured in simplified treatements of RPS. Star formation in our model galaxies is quenched mainly because the hot gas halo is stripped, depriving the galaxy of its gas supply. The cold gas disk is only stripped completely in extreme cases, leading to full quenching and significant reddening on a very short timescale. Depending on the inclination angle, this can light up a galaxy for a few hundred Myrs until all of the gas is stripped or consumed and star formation drops to almost zero, suggesting a typical quenching timescale of ~200 Myr. On the other hand, galaxies experiencing only mild ram pressure actually show an enhanced star formation rate that is consistent with observations. Stripped gas in the wake is mixed efficiently with intracluster gas already a few tens of kpc behind the disk, and this gas is free of residual star formation.

  14. Fabrication of Biochips with Micro Fluidic Channels by Micro End-milling and Powder Blasting

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Dae Jin; Seo, Tae Il; Park, Dong Sam

    2008-01-01

    For microfabrications of biochips with micro fluidic channels, a large number of microfabrication techniques based on silicon or glass-based Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technologies were proposed in the last decade. In recent years, for low cost and mass production, polymer-based microfabrication techniques by microinjection molding and micro hot embossing have been proposed. These techniques, which require a proper photoresist, mask, UV light exposure, developing, and electroplating as a pre-process, are considered to have some problems. In this study, we propose a new microfabrication technology which consists of micro end-milling and powder blasting. This technique could be directly applied to fabricate the metal mold without any preprocesses. The metal mold with micro-channels is machined by micro end-milling, and then, burrs generated in the end-milling process are removed by powder blasting. From the experimental results, micro end-milling combined with powder blasting could be applied effectively for fabrication of the injection mold of biochips with micro fluidic channels.

  15. IR Hot Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  16. Hot fire fatigue testing results for the compliant combustion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavli, Albert J.; Kazaroff, John M.; Jankovsky, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen subscale rocket combustion chamber was designed incorporating an advanced design concept to reduce strain and increase life. The design permits unrestrained thermal expansion of a circumferential direction and, thereby, provides structural compliance during the thermal cycling of hot-fire testing. The chamber was built and test fired at a chamber pressure of 4137 kN/sq m (600 psia) and a hydrogen-oxygen mixture ratio of 6.0. Compared with a conventional milled-channel configuration, the new structurally compliant chamber had a 134 or 287 percent increase in fatigue life, depending on the life predicted for the conventional configuration.

  17. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists...

  18. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists...

  19. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists...

  20. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists...