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Sample records for hot wall epitaxial

  1. Hot Wall Epitaxy And Characterization Of Bismuth And Antimony Thin Films On Barium Fluoride Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collazo, Ramon; Dalmau, Rafael; Martinez, Antonio

    1998-03-01

    We have grown thin films of bismuth and antimony using hot wall epitaxy. The epitaxial films were grown on (111)-BaF2 substrates. The chemical integrity of the films was established using Auger electron spectroscopy and X ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The thickness of the films was measured using an atomic force microscope to establish their growth rate. The crystallographic properties of the films were assessed using x-ray diffraction techniques. Both bismuth and antimony thin films were found to be oriented with the [003] direction perpendicular to the plane of the films. Pole figures of both types of films indicate the epitaxial nature of the films. Bi/Sb multilayer structures were grown using the same growth technique. We will report on the results of the characterization of these films as well as on the growth apparatus and process. Work supported in part by EPSCoR-NSF Grant EHR-9108775 and NCRADA-NSWCDD-92-01.

  2. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy of AlN using a high temperature hot-wall reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Troy; Mayo, Ashley; Veisi, Zeinab; Lu, Peng; Schmitt, Jason

    2014-10-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) was grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The experiments utilized a two zone inductively heated hot-wall reactor. The surface morphology, crystal quality, and growth rate were investigated as a function of growth temperature in the range of 1450-1575 °C. AlN templates grown to a thickness of 1 μm were optimized with double axis X-ray diffraction (XRD) rocking curve full width half maximums (FWHMs) of 135″ for the (002) and 513″ for the (102).

  3. High growth rate 4H-SiC epitaxial growth using dichlorosilane in a hot-wall CVD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Iftekhar; Chandrasekhar, M. V. S.; Klein, Paul B.; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Sudarshan, Tangali

    2011-02-01

    Thick, high quality 4H-SiC epilayers have been grown in a vertical hot-wall chemical vapor deposition system at a high growth rate on (0 0 0 1) 8° off-axis substrates. We discuss the use of dichlorosilane as the Si-precursor for 4H-SiC epitaxial growth as it provides the most direct decomposition route into SiCl 2, which is the predominant growth species in chlorinated chemistries. A specular surface morphology was attained by limiting the hydrogen etch rate until the system was equilibrated at the desired growth temperature. The RMS roughness of the grown films ranged from 0.5-2.0 nm with very few morphological defects (carrots, triangular defects, etc.) being introduced, while enabling growth rates of 30-100 μm/h, 5-15 times higher than most conventional growths. Site-competition epitaxy was observed over a wide range of C/Si ratios, with doping concentrations <1×10 14 cm -3 being recorded. X-ray rocking curves indicated that the epilayers were of high crystallinity, with linewidths as narrow as 7.8 arcsec being observed, while microwave photoconductive decay (μPCD) measurements indicated that these films had high injection (ambipolar) carrier lifetimes in the range of 2 μs.

  4. Structural properties of CdTe-ZnTe strained-layer superlattice grown on GaAs by hot-wall epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, I.; Hobbs, A.; Ueda, O.; Shinohara, K.; Takigawa, H.

    1991-06-01

    CdTe-ZnTe strained-layer superlattices (SLSs) were grown on GaAs by hot-wall epitaxy. The individual layer thickness of the SLS is well controlled and the thickness fluctuation is less than ±1 monolayer. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show coherent SLS growth. We found that two-thirds of the threading dislocations can be reduced by inserting the SLS in CdTe/GaAs.

  5. PbSnTe double-heterostructure lasers and PbEuTe double-heterostructure lasers by hot-wall epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Nishijima, Y.

    1989-02-01

    Pb/sub 1-//sub x/ Sn/sub x/ Te, double-heterostructure (DH) lasers and Pb/sub 1-//sub x/ Eu/sub x/ Te DH lasers produced by hot-wall epitaxy have been studied. The growth temperature for both laser crystals is 300 /sup 0/C. This is lower than the growth temperatures obtainable by molecular-beam epitaxy and liquid phase epitaxy. By investigating the I-V characteristics of Pb/sub 1-//sub x/ Sn/sub x/ Te DH lasers with x values greater than 0.2, it was confirmed that the band structure of the p-n heterojunction is type 1'. A Pb/sub 1-//sub x/ Sn/sub x/ Te/sub 1-//sub y/ Se/sub y/ layer, rather than a PbTe/sub 1-//sub y/ Se/sub y/ layer, should be used for the cladding layer of Pb/sub 1-//sub x/ Sn/sub x/ Te DH lasers with x values greater than 0.2. One of the primary factors preventing an increase in the maximum operating temperature to 200 K is that the carrier density injected into the active layer is not sufficient for laser emissions over 200 K due to the p-n heterojunction of the type 1' band structure. The band structure of the p-n heterojunction of Pb/sub 1-//sub x/ Eu/sub x/ Te DH lasers is type 1. Therefore, the maximum operating temperatures of the Pb/sub 1-//sub x/ Eu/sub x/ Te DH lasers are expected to be greater than those of Pb/sub 1-//sub x/ Sn/sub x/ Te DH lasers. The maximum operating temperature of Pb/sub 1-//sub x/ Eu/sub x/ Te DH lasers exceeded 200 K. The maximum operating temperature of the laser with a PbTe active layer was 170 K under CW operation and 243 K under pulsed operation.

  6. In2Se3 films produced by Bi substitution in the hot-wall-epitaxy growth of Bi2Se3 films on In-containing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagaki, Y.; Jenichen, B.; Jahn, U.; Ramsteiner, M.; Biermann, K.

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate the production of In2Se3 films as the growth outcome when Bi2Se3 films are deposited using the hot-wall-epitaxy method on the substrates that contain In. The Bi atoms in Bi2Se3 are substituted with the In atoms supplied from the InAs substrates. Despite a large lattice mismatch, α-In2Se3 layers grow semicoherently on InAs(1 1 1). The substitution is induced on the InP substrates only when the substrate surface is roughened. The phase of the resultant In2Se3 depends on the degree of the surface roughness. When the roughness is not strong, layered structures of α-In2Se3 are produced by semicoherent heteroepitaxy not only on (1 1 1) but also on high-index surfaces. On heavily damaged InP substrates, the layers primarily consist of γ-In2Se3. We show, in addition, that the In-induced substitution causes the incorporation of Ga atoms in the In-Se compounds on (In,Ga)As surfaces.

  7. Element substitution from substrates in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 overlayers deposited by hot wall epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagaki, Y.; Jahn, U.; Jenichen, B.; Berlin, K.; Kong, X.; Biermann, K.

    2014-09-01

    In depositing Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 or Sb2Te3 layers on certain substrates by hot wall epitaxy, the Bi and Sb atoms in the layers are replaced by the atoms supplied from the substrates. We extend our exploration on this substitution phenomenon for a number of combinations of the layer and the substrate to infer the factors that determine the occurrence of the substitution. Using a series of Ga- and In-based III-V substrates, it is evidenced that the group III atoms substitute the group V overlayer atoms when the bonds in the substrates are weak. We demonstrate that Ag triggers the substitution more effectively than Cu as a catalyst. The competition between the catalyst-induced substitutions on ternary alloy substrates shows that the dependence on the bond strength is not as strong as to be exclusive. Additionally, defectiveness around the interface between a semicoherently grown α-In2Se3 layer produced by the substitution and the InAs substrate is demonstrated. The cathodeluminescence properties are also provided focusing on the dependence on the phase of In2Se3.

  8. Lateral Growth Expansion of 4H/6H-SiC m-plane Pseudo Fiber Crystals by Hot Wall CVD Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trunek, Andrew J.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Powell, J. A.; Spry, David J.; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Lateral expansion of small mixed polytype 4H/6H-SiC slivers were realized by hot wall chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). Small slivers cut from m-oriented ..11..00.. SiC boule slices containing regions of 4H and 6H SiC were exposed to HWCVD conditions using standard silane/propane chemistry for a period of up to eight hours. The slivers exhibited approximately 1500 microns (1.5 mm) of total lateral expansion. Initial analysis by synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) confirms, that the lateral growth was homoepitaxial, matching the polytype of the respective underlying region of the seed sliver.

  9. Study of Defect Structures in 6H-SiC a/ m-Plane Pseudofiber Crystals Grown by Hot-Wall CVD Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goue, Ouloide Y.; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Yang, Yu; Guo, Jianqiu; Dudley, Michael; Kisslinger, Kim; Trunek, Andrew J.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Woodworth, Andrew A.

    2016-04-01

    Structural perfection of silicon carbide (SiC) single crystals is essential to achieve high-performance power devices. A new bulk growth process for SiC proposed by researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center, called large tapered crystal (LTC) growth, based on axial fiber growth followed by lateral expansion, could produce SiC boules with potentially as few as one threading screw dislocation per wafer. In this study, the lateral expansion aspect of LTC growth is addressed through analysis of lateral growth of 6H-SiC a/ m-plane seed crystals by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition. Preliminary synchrotron white-beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) indicates that the as-grown boules match the polytype structure of the underlying seed and have a faceted hexagonal morphology with a strain-free surface marked by steps. SWBXT Laue diffraction patterns of transverse and axial slices of the boules reveal streaks suggesting the existence of stacking faults/polytypes, and this is confirmed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Transmission x-ray topography of both transverse and axial slices reveals inhomogeneous strains at the seed-epilayer interface and linear features propagating from the seed along the growth direction. Micro-Raman mapping of an axial slice reveals that the seed contains high stacking disorder, while contrast extinction analysis (g· b and g· b× l) of the linear features reveals that these are mostly edge-type basal plane dislocations. Further high-resolution transmission electron microscopy investigation of the seed-homoepilayer interface also reveals nanobands of different SiC polytypes. A model for their formation mechanism is proposed. Finally, the implication of these results for improving the LTC growth process is addressed.

  10. Structural Characterization of Lateral-grown 6H-SiC am-plane Seed Crystals by Hot Wall CVD Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goue, Ouloide Yannick; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Trunek, Andrew J.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Spry, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of commercially available silicon carbide (SiC) power devices is limited due to inherently high density of screw dislocations (SD), which are necessary for maintaining polytype during boule growth and commercially viable growth rates. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently proposed a new bulk growth process based on axial fiber growth (parallel to the c-axis) followed by lateral expansion (perpendicular to the c-axis) for producing multi-faceted m-plane SiC boules that can potentially produce wafers with as few as one SD per wafer. In order to implement this novel growth technique, the lateral homoepitaxial growth expansion of a SiC fiber without introducing a significant number of additional defects is critical. Lateral expansion is being investigated by hot wall chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) growth of 6H-SiC am-plane seed crystals (0.8mm x 0.5mm x 15mm) designed to replicate axially grown SiC single crystal fibers. The post-growth crystals exhibit hexagonal morphology with approximately 1500 m (1.5 mm) of total lateral expansion. Preliminary analysis by synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) confirms that the growth was homoepitaxial, matching the polytype of the respective underlying region of the seed crystal. Axial and transverse sections from the as grown crystal samples were characterized in detail by a combination of SWBXT, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy to map defect types and distribution. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the seed crystal contained stacking disorders and this appears to have been reproduced in the lateral growth sections. Analysis of the relative intensity for folded transverse acoustic (FTA) and optical (FTO) modes on the Raman spectra indicate the existence of stacking faults. Further, the density of stacking faults is higher in the seed than in the grown crystal. Bundles of dislocations are observed propagating from the seed in m-axis lateral directions

  11. Hot carrier relaxation of Dirac fermions in bilayer epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Alexander-Webber, J. A.; Janssen, T. J. B. M.; Tzalenchuk, A.; Yager, T.; Lara-Avila, S.; Kubatkin, S.; Myers-Ward, R. L.; Wheeler, V. D.; Gaskill, D. K.; Nicholas, R. J.

    2015-04-01

    Energy relaxation of hot Dirac fermions in bilayer epitaxial graphene is experimentally investigated by magnetotransport measurements on Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and weak localization. The hot-electron energy loss rate is found to follow the predicted Bloch-Grüneisen power-law behaviour of T4 at carrier temperatures from 1.4 K up to ˜100 K, due to electron-acoustic phonon interactions with a deformation potential coupling constant of 22 eV. A carrier density dependence n_e-1.5 in the scaling of the T4 power law is observed in bilayer graphene, in contrast to the n_e-0.5 dependence in monolayer graphene, leading to a crossover in the energy loss rate as a function of carrier density between these two systems. The electron-phonon relaxation time in bilayer graphene is also shown to be strongly carrier density dependent, while it remains constant for a wide range of carrier densities in monolayer graphene. Our results and comparisons between the bilayer and monolayer exhibit a more comprehensive picture of hot carrier dynamics in graphene systems.

  12. 15. View of interior, north wall of hot cell featuring ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of interior, north wall of hot cell featuring radioactive materials containment box, facing east - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  13. 47. ARAI. Interior view of operating wall of hot cell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. ARA-I. Interior view of operating wall of hot cell in ARA-626. Note stands for operators at viewing windows. Manipulators with hand grips extend cables and other controls into hot cell through ducts above windows. Ineel photo no. 81-27. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Experimental investigation of interaction processes between droplets and hot walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, A.; Frohn, A.

    2000-04-01

    A detailed experimental investigation of interaction processes of small liquid droplets with hot walls well above the Leidenfrost temperature has been carried out. The experimental method which uses monodisperse droplet streams in combination with a standard video camera allows very detailed observations and measurements with very high time resolution. The main intent of this paper is to study the mechanical behavior of liquid droplets impacting on hot walls well above the Leidenfrost temperature. A better understanding of this process may lead to a better modeling of two-phase flows, especially for applications in fuel preparation processes, combustion processes, and spray cooling. The loss of momentum of the droplets, the droplet deformation, and the onset of droplet disintegration have been investigated. For all experimental results correlations have been developed, which can be used to improve the numerical modeling of two-phase flows. Using the correlation for the loss of momentum a theoretical approximation for the maximum droplet deformation has been deduced, which yields a very good agreement with our own measurements as well as with results reported in the literature. A minimum impinging angle for droplet disintegration has been discovered for small impinging angles. Below this impinging angle no droplet disintegration is observed. This phenomenon is directly related to the energy dissipation at the wall during the interaction process. With the presented work the understanding of basic interaction processes between droplets and hot walls may be improved.

  15. Stress analysis for wall structure in mobile hot cell design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrin, Muhammad Hannan; Rahman, Anwar Abdul; Hamzah, Mohd Arif; Mamat, Mohd Rizal; Azman, Azraf; Hasan, Hasni

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency is developing a Mobile Hot Cell (MHC) in order to handle and manage Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS) such as teletherapy heads and irradiators. At present, there are only two units of MHC in the world, in South Africa and China. Malaysian Mobile Hot cell is developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency with the assistance of IAEA expert, based on the design of South Africa and China, but with improved features. Stress analysis has been performed on the design in order to fulfil the safety requirement in operation of MHC. This paper discusses the loading analysis effect from the sand to the MHC wall structure.

  16. Epitaxial Engineering of Domain Walls and Distortions in Ferrite Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundy, Julia

    The defining feature of ferroics is the ability of an external stimulus--electric field, magnetic field, or stress--to move domain walls. These topological defects and their motion enables many useful attributes, e.g., memories that can be reversibly written between stable states as well as enhanced conductivity, permittivity, permeability, and piezoelectricity. Although methods are known to drastically increase their density, the placement of domain walls with atomic precision has until now evaded control. Here we engineer the location of domain walls with monolayer precision and exploit this ability to create a novel multiferroic in which ferroelectricity enhances magnetism at all relevant length scales. Starting with hexagonal LuFeO3, a geometric ferroelectric with the greatest known planar rumpling, we introduce individual extra monolayers of FeO during growth to construct formula-unit-thick syntactic layers of ferrimagnetic LuFe2O4 within the LuFeO3 matrix, i.e., (LuFeO3)m /(LuFe2O4)1 superlattices. The severe rumpling imposed by the neighboring LuFeO3 drives the ferrimagnetic LuFe2O4 into a simultaneously ferroelectric state and reduces the LuFe2O4 spin frustration. This increases the magnetic transition temperature significantly--to 281 K for the (LuFeO3)9 /(LuFe2O4)1 superlattice. Moreover, LuFeO3 can form charged ferroelectric domain walls, which we align to the LuFe2O4 bilayers with monolayer precision. Charge transfers to these domain walls to alleviate the otherwise electrostatically unstable polarization arrangement, further boosting the magnetic moment. Our results demonstrate the utility of combining ferroics at the atomic-layer level with attention to domain walls, geometric frustration and polarization doping to create multiferroics by design.

  17. Artificial chemical and magnetic structure at the domain walls of an epitaxial oxide.

    PubMed

    Farokhipoor, S; Magén, C; Venkatesan, S; Íñiguez, J; Daumont, C J M; Rubi, D; Snoeck, E; Mostovoy, M; de Graaf, C; Müller, A; Döblinger, M; Scheu, C; Noheda, B

    2014-11-20

    Progress in nanotechnology requires new approaches to materials synthesis that make it possible to control material functionality down to the smallest scales. An objective of materials research is to achieve enhanced control over the physical properties of materials such as ferromagnets, ferroelectrics and superconductors. In this context, complex oxides and inorganic perovskites are attractive because slight adjustments of their atomic structures can produce large physical responses and result in multiple functionalities. In addition, these materials often contain ferroelastic domains. The intrinsic symmetry breaking that takes place at the domain walls can induce properties absent from the domains themselves, such as magnetic or ferroelectric order and other functionalities, as well as coupling between them. Moreover, large domain wall densities create intense strain gradients, which can also affect the material's properties. Here we show that, owing to large local stresses, domain walls can promote the formation of unusual phases. In this sense, the domain walls can function as nanoscale chemical reactors. We synthesize a two-dimensional ferromagnetic phase at the domain walls of the orthorhombic perovskite terbium manganite (TbMnO3), which was grown in thin layers under epitaxial strain on strontium titanate (SrTiO3) substrates. This phase is yet to be created by standard chemical routes. The density of the two-dimensional sheets can be tuned by changing the film thickness or the substrate lattice parameter (that is, the epitaxial strain), and the distance between sheets can be made as small as 5 nanometres in ultrathin films, such that the new phase at domain walls represents up to 25 per cent of the film volume. The general concept of using domain walls of epitaxial oxides to promote the formation of unusual phases may be applicable to other materials systems, thus giving access to new classes of nanoscale materials for applications in nanoelectronics and

  18. Artificial chemical and magnetic structure at the domain walls of an epitaxial oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farokhipoor, S.; Magén, C.; Venkatesan, S.; Íñiguez, J.; Daumont, C. J. M.; Rubi, D.; Snoeck, E.; Mostovoy, M.; de Graaf, C.; Müller, A.; Döblinger, M.; Scheu, C.; Noheda, B.

    2014-11-01

    Progress in nanotechnology requires new approaches to materials synthesis that make it possible to control material functionality down to the smallest scales. An objective of materials research is to achieve enhanced control over the physical properties of materials such as ferromagnets, ferroelectrics and superconductors. In this context, complex oxides and inorganic perovskites are attractive because slight adjustments of their atomic structures can produce large physical responses and result in multiple functionalities. In addition, these materials often contain ferroelastic domains. The intrinsic symmetry breaking that takes place at the domain walls can induce properties absent from the domains themselves, such as magnetic or ferroelectric order and other functionalities, as well as coupling between them. Moreover, large domain wall densities create intense strain gradients, which can also affect the material's properties. Here we show that, owing to large local stresses, domain walls can promote the formation of unusual phases. In this sense, the domain walls can function as nanoscale chemical reactors. We synthesize a two-dimensional ferromagnetic phase at the domain walls of the orthorhombic perovskite terbium manganite (TbMnO3), which was grown in thin layers under epitaxial strain on strontium titanate (SrTiO3) substrates. This phase is yet to be created by standard chemical routes. The density of the two-dimensional sheets can be tuned by changing the film thickness or the substrate lattice parameter (that is, the epitaxial strain), and the distance between sheets can be made as small as 5 nanometres in ultrathin films, such that the new phase at domain walls represents up to 25 per cent of the film volume. The general concept of using domain walls of epitaxial oxides to promote the formation of unusual phases may be applicable to other materials systems, thus giving access to new classes of nanoscale materials for applications in nanoelectronics and

  19. Growth of chromium carbide in a hot wall DLICVD reactor.

    PubMed

    Boisselier, G; Maury, F; Schuster, F

    2011-09-01

    Chromium carbide coatings were grown at 748 K in a hot wall CVD reactor fed by sublimation of bis(benzene)chromium, BBC (MOCVD) and by direct liquid injection using a BBC/toluene solution (DLICVD). The two types of coatings exhibit an amorphous structure and the same C content (22 at.%). DLICVD permits delivering higher mass flow rate of precursors and consequently the growth rate is 3 times higher and the thickness uniformity is better than using MOCVD. Chromium metal deposition has also been investigated by DLICVD in this hot wall reactor using BBC/toluene/additive as precursor. The purpose of the additive is to block carbide formation. Two additives have been studied: (i) hexachlorobenzene (C6Cl6) and (ii) thiophenol (C6H5SH). The ratio additive/BBC required for Cr metal deposition is a few percent. In this process, C6Cl6 is not decomposed and only traces of Cl (0.4 at.%) are found in the coatings. For a ratio C6Cl6/BBC > 27% the growth of any coating is blocked. The gas phase containing C6H5SH is more reactive since the onset of deposition occurs approximately 50 K before the temperature of the chlorinated compound. Furthermore, a sulfur contamination of 3 at.% has been analyzed in the coatings revealing a partial decomposition of the additive. The results are detailed and discussed in relation with previous works. PMID:22097571

  20. Telescopic hot double wall carbon nanotube for nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Adrian; Woods, Lilia

    2010-03-01

    Two main challenges in improving the use of an atomic force microscope tip for nanolithography have been identified for all types of methods for surface modification. One challenge is achieving high spatial resolutions, which is directly related to the sharpness of the tip; the other one is the accurate control of the tip-surface distance, which affects the quality of the surface modification. A telescopic hot double wall carbon nanotube for nanolithography that improves the spatial resolution and successfully solves the problem of maintaining a constant tip-surface distance is proposed. The system consists of a finite length outer tube attached to an atomic force microscope cantilever, while the inner tube with length larger than the outer one is free. By studying the heat transfer in the double wall carbon nanotube/surface, it is found that the size of the thermal spot on the surface is mainly determined by the inner tube diameter indicating that high spatial resolution can be achieved if small diameter nanotubes are used. The interaction forces in the system are of van der Waals type and we show that the inner tube is located always at the same energetically favorable distance from the surface. Since the inner tube can move telescopically along the double wall carbon nanotube axis, the tip/surface distance is maintained constant due to the van der Waals interaction, which in turn eliminates the need of an active feedback loop.

  1. Determination of hot-wire position from a solid wall in an opaque channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, C. M. J.; Khoo, B. C.; Chew, Y. T.

    2012-08-01

    Hot-wire experiments sometimes require the position of the hot-wire probe with respect to a solid wall to be known, as is often the case with boundary layer flow measurements. However, optical access to determine the position of the wall visually may not always be available. The current paper describes a procedure to allow a hot wire to determine accurately the location of the solid wall with respect to any arbitrary reference position using the response of the hot wire when it approaches a solid wall under no flow conditions. An accurate probe-positioning system can then be used to position the probe with respect to this wall. The method is applied to both an aluminum wall and a Perspex wall, and both give consistent measurements with an accuracy of better than ±0.005 mm.

  2. Wall proximity corrections for hot-wire readings in turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebbar, K. S.

    1980-01-01

    This note describes some details of recent (successful) attempts of wall proximity corrections for hot-wire measurements performed in a three-dimensional incompressible turbulent boundary layer. A simple and quite satisfactory method of estimating wall proximity effects on hot-wire readings is suggested.

  3. Observing hot carrier distribution in an n-type epitaxial graphene on a SiC substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Someya, T.; Ishida, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Iimori, T.; Yukawa, R.; Akikubo, K.; Yamamoto, Sh.; Yamamoto, S.; Kanai, T.; Itatani, J.; Komori, F.; Shin, S.; Matsuda, I.; Fukidome, H.; Funakubo, K.; Suemitsu, M.; Yamamoto, T.

    2014-04-21

    Hot carrier dynamics in the Dirac band of n-type epitaxial graphene on a SiC substrate were traced in real time using femtosecond-time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The spectral evolution directly reflects the energetically linear density of states superimposed with a Fermi–Dirac distribution. The relaxation time is governed by the internal energy dissipation of electron–electron scattering, and the observed electronic temperature indicates cascade carrier multiplication.

  4. Artificial chemical and magnetic structure at the domain walls of an epitaxial oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noheda, Beatriz

    Progress in nanotechnology requires new paradigms for materials synthesis that allow controlling their functionality down to the smallest scales. Here we report a novel two-dimensional ferromagnetic phase that is synthesized at the domain walls (DWs) of the antiferromagnetic insulator TbMnO3 when grown in thin layers under epitaxial strain. This Mn oxide phase presents an atomic arrangement that does not exist in bulk and cannot be synthesized by standard chemical routes. The number of 2D ferromagnetic sheets can be controlled by tuning the thickness of the thin films, giving rise to volume fractions that go up to 25% of the total film volume. Such novel phases are driven by a unique environment induced by the symmetry breaking and large stresses present at domain walls, which function as nanoreactors. This new class of nanoscale materials may find innovative applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics. The work is published as S. Farokhipoor, C. Magén, S. Venkatesan, J. Íñiguez, C. J. M. Daumont, D. Rubi, E. Snoeck, M. Mostovoy, C. de Graaf, A. Müller, M. Döblinger, C. Scheu, B. Noheda, Nature 515, 379 (2014)

  5. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2015-01-01

    High performance walls represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. The primary goal in improving wall thermal performance revolves around increasing the wall framing from 2x4 to 2x6, adding more cavity and exterior rigid insulation, achieving insulation installation criteria meeting ENERGY STAR's thermal bypass checklist, and reducing the amount of wood penetrating the wall cavity.

  6. A&M. TAN607. Shield wall sections and details around hot shop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607. Shield wall sections and details around hot shop and special equipment room, showing taper, crane rail elevations, and elevation for biparting door (door no. 301) in wall between hot shop and special equipment room. Ralph M. Parsons 902-3-ANP-607-S 138. Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 034-0607-62-963-106782 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. WHILE STEEL BEAMS DEFINE FUTURE WALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. WHILE STEEL BEAMS DEFINE FUTURE WALLS OF THE BUILDING, SHEET STEEL DEFINES THE HOT CELL "BOX" ITSELF. THREE OPERATING WINDOWS ON LEFT; ONE VIEWING WINDOW ON RIGHT. TUBES WILL CONTAIN SERVICE AND CONTROL LEADS. SPACE BETWEEN INNER AND OUTER BOX WALLS WILL BE FILLED WITH SHIELDED WINDOWS AND BARETES CONCRETE. CAMERA FACES SOUTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 7933. Unknown Photographer, ca. 5/1953 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Rapid low-temperature epitaxial growth using a hot-element assisted chemical vapor deposition process

    DOEpatents

    Iwancizko, Eugene; Jones, Kim M.; Crandall, Richard S.; Nelson, Brent P.; Mahan, Archie Harvin

    2001-01-01

    The invention provides a process for depositing an epitaxial layer on a crystalline substrate, comprising the steps of providing a chamber having an element capable of heating, introducing the substrate into the chamber, heating the element at a temperature sufficient to decompose a source gas, passing the source gas in contact with the element; and forming an epitaxial layer on the substrate.

  9. Response of hot element wall shear stress gages in laminar oscillating flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.; Murphy, J. D.; Giddings, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the time-dependent response of hot element wall shear stress gages in unsteady periodic air flows is reported. The study has focused on wall shear stress in laminar oscillating flows produced on a flat plate by a free stream velocity composed of a mean component and a superposed sinusoidal variation. Two types of hot element gages, platinum film and flush wire, were tested for values of reduced frequency ranging from 0.14 to 2.36. Values of the phase angle of the wall shear stress variation relative to the free stream velocity, as indicated by the hot element gages, are compared with numerical prediction. The comparisons show that the gages indicate a wall shear stress variation that lags the true variation, and that the gages will also not indicate the correct wall shear stress variation in periodic turbulent flows.

  10. Response of hot element flush wall gauges in oscillating laminar flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, T. A.; Cook, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    The time dependent response characteristics of flush-mounted hot element gauges used as instruments to measure wall shear stress in unsteady periodic air flows were investigated. The study was initiated because anomalous results were obtained from the gauges in oscillating turbulent flows for the phase relation of the wall shear stress variation, indicating possible gauge response problems. Flat plate laminar oscillating turbulent flows characterized by a mean free stream velocity with a superposed sinusoidal variation were performed. Laminar rather than turbulent flows were studied, because a numerical solution for the phase angle between the free stream velocity and the wall shear stress variation that is known to be correct can be obtained. The focus is on comparing the phase angle indicated by the hot element gauges with corresponding numerical prediction for the phase angle, since agreement would indicate that the hot element gauges faithfully follow the true wall shear stress variation.

  11. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, Marc; Springer, David; Dakin, Bill; German, Alea

    2015-01-01

    High performance walls represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. The primary goal in improving wall thermal performance revolves around increasing the wall framing from 2x4 to 2x6, adding more cavity and exterior rigid insulation, achieving insulation installation criteria meeting ENERGY STAR's thermal bypass checklist. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation) to solicit builder involvement in California to participate in field demonstrations of high performance wall systems. Builders were given incentives and design support in exchange for providing site access for construction observation, cost information, and builder survey feedback. Information from the project was designed to feed into the 2016 Title 24 process, but also to serve as an initial mechanism to engage builders in more high performance construction strategies. This Building America project utilized information collected in the California project.

  12. 113. ARAI Hot cell (ARA626) Building wall sections and details ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. ARA-I Hot cell (ARA-626) Building wall sections and details of radio chemistry lab. Shows high-bay roof over hot cells and isolation rooms below grade storage pit for fuel elements. Norman Engineering Company: 961-area/SF-626-A-4. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0626-00-613-102724. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Evaluation of Tritium Behavior in the Epoxy Painted Concrete Wall of ITER Hot Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Masataka

    2005-07-15

    Tritium behavior released in the ITER hot cell has been investigated numerically using a combined analytical methods of a tritium transport analysis in the multi-layer wall (concrete and epoxy paint) with the one dimensional diffusion model and a tritium concentration analysis in the hot cell with the complete mixing model by the ventilation. As the results, it is revealed that tritium concentration decay and permeation issues are not serious problem in a viewpoint of safety, since it is expected that tritium concentration in the hot cell decrease rapidly within several days just after removing the tritium release source, and tritium permeation through the epoxy painted concrete wall will be negligible as long as the averaged realistic diffusion coefficient is ensured in the concrete wall. It is also revealed that the epoxy paint on the concrete wall prevents the tritium inventory increase in the concrete wall greatly (two orders of magnitudes), but still, the inventory in the wall is estimated to reach about 0.1 PBq for 20 years operation.

  14. Hot-electron transport and magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heindl, E.; Vancea, J.; Woltersdorf, G.; Back, C. H.

    2007-09-01

    We report on ballistic electron magnetic microscopy studies at room temperature using an epitaxially grown Fe34Co66/Au/Fe34Co66 trilayer. Local hysteresis loops are obtained as a function of the in-plane magnetic field angle. In order to understand the underlying local magnetization behavior, the magnetic anisotropies were determined by ferromagnetic resonance. These results served as input for simulations of the hysteresis loops, which are compared to magneto-optic Kerr effect and ballistic electron magnetic microscopy data of the spin valve. In doing so, the relative magnetization configuration of the spin valve can be calculated as a function of the external magnetic field, and the magnetization behavior during the reversal can be explained. Since different magnetization configurations of the spin valve are available, epitaxial spin valves allow multimagnetocurrent values, when the magnetic field is applied along different directions.

  15. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. BLOWER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. BLOWER AND FILTER LOFT PLATFORM AND LADDER ON EAST SIDE. IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE MTR-632-IDO-4, 11/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-00-396-110563, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. ARCHITECTURAL WALL SECTIONS OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640). INL DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL WALL SECTIONS OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111682. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Hot wire production of single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Dillon, Anne C.; Mahan, Archie H.; Alleman, Jeffrey L.

    2010-10-26

    Apparatus (210) for producing a multi-wall carbon nanotube (213) may comprise a process chamber (216), a furnace (217) operatively associated with the process chamber (216), and at least one filament (218) positioned within the process chamber (216). At least one power supply (220) operatively associated with the at least one filament (218) heats the at least one filament (218) to a process temperature. A gaseous carbon precursor material (214) operatively associated with the process chamber (216) provides carbon for forming the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213). A metal catalyst material (224) operatively associated with the process (216) catalyzes the formation of the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213).

  18. Electrically active defects in n-type 4H-silicon carbide grown in a vertical hot-wall reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Storasta, L.; Bergman, J. P.; Son, N. T.; Janzén, E.

    2003-04-01

    We have studied intrinsic and impurity related defects in silicon carbide (SiC) epilayers grown with fast epitaxy using chemical vapor deposition in a vertical hot-wall reactor. Using capacitance transient techniques, we have detected low concentrations of electron traps (denoted as Z1/2, EH6/7 and titanium) and hole traps (denoted as HS1 and shallow boron) in the n-type 4H-SiC epilayers. The concentration of intrinsic defects (Z1/2, EH6/7, and HS1 centers) increases with increasing growth temperature. The incorporation of shallow boron (B) decreases at higher growth temperatures, whereas the titanium (Ti) concentration is not sensitive to the growth temperature. The concentration of shallow B and Ti increases with increasing C/Si ratio. The concentration of the EH6/7 and the HS1 centers however, decreases with increasing C/Si ratio. We have also tested graphite susceptors with TaC or SiC coating and observed that the purity of the susceptor material plays a critical role in reducing the background impurity incorporation. The correlation with the carrier lifetime of these epilayers indicates that the EH6/7 and the Z1/2 centers may be the lifetime limiting defects in the investigated epilayers.

  19. Convective response of a wall-mounted hot-film sensor in a shock tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Ortgies, K. R.; Gartenberg, E.; Carraway, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    Shock tube experiments were performed in order to determine the response of a single hot-film element of a sensor array to transiently induced flow behind weak normal shock waves. The experiments attempt to isolate the response due only to the change in convective heat transfer at the hot-film surface mounted on the wall of the shock tube. The experiments are described, the results being correlated with transient boundary layer theory and compared with an independent set of experimental results. One of the findings indicates that the change in the air properties (temperature and pressure) precedes the air mass transport, causing an ambiguity in the sensor response to the development of the velocity boundary layer. Also, a transient, local heat transfer coefficient is formulated to be used as a forcing function in a hot-film instrument model and simulation which remains under investigation.

  20. Convective response of a wall-mounted hot-film sensor in a shock tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. Sidney, Jr.; Ortgies, Kelly R.; Gartenberg, Ehud; Carraway, Debra L.

    1991-01-01

    Shock tube experiments were performed in order to determine the response of a single hot-film element of a sensor array to transiently induced flow behind weak normal shock waves. The experiments attempt to isolate the response due only to the change in convective heat transfer at the hot-film surface mounted on the wall of the shock tube. The experiments are described, the results being correlated with transient boundary layer theory and compared with an independent set of experimental results. One of the findings indicates that the change in the air properties (temperature and pressure) precedes the air mass transport, causing an ambiguity in the sensor response to the development of the velocity boundary layer. Also, a transient, local heat transfer coefficient is formulated to be used as a forcing function in an hot-film instrument model and simulation which remains under investigation.

  1. Hot film wall shear instrumentation for compressible boundary layer transition research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven P.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies of hot film wall shear instrumentation were performed. A new hot film anemometer was developed and tested. The anemometer performance was not quite as good as that of commercial anemometers, but the cost was much less and testing flexibility was improved. The main focus of the project was a parametric study of the effect of sensor size and substrate material on the performance of hot film surface sensors. Both electronic and shock-induced flow experiments were performed to determine the sensitivity and frequency response of the sensors. The results are presented in Michael Moen's M.S. thesis, which is appended. A condensed form of the results was also submitted for publication.

  2. Amorphous/epitaxial superlattice for thermoelectric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Akihiro; Thao, Hoang Thi Xuan; Shibata, Mamoru; Nakashima, Seisuke; Tatsuoka, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Hidenari; Kinoshita, Yohei; Ishikiriyama, Mamoru; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-08-01

    An amorphous/epitaxial superlattice system is proposed for application to thermoelectric devices, and the superlattice based on a PbGeTeS system was prepared by the alternate deposition of PbS and GeTe using a hot wall epitaxy technique. The structure was analyzed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray analysis, and it was found that the superlattice consists of an epitaxial PbTe-based layer and a GeS-based amorphous layer by the reconstruction of the constituents. A reduction in thermal conductivity due to the amorphous/epitaxial system was confirmed by a 2ω method. Electrical and thermoelectric properties were measured for the samples.

  3. Chloride-based fast homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC films in a vertical hot-wall CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoguo, Yan; Feng, Zhang; Yingxi, Niu; Fei, Yang; Xingfang, Liu; Lei, Wang; Wanshun, Zhao; Guosheng, Sun; Yiping, Zeng

    2016-06-01

    Chloride-based fast homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC epilayers was performed on 4° off-axis 4H-SiC substrates in a home-made vertical hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system using H2‑SiH4‑C2H4‑HCl. The effect of the SiH4/H2 ratio and reactor pressure on the growth rate of 4H-SiC epilayers has been studied successively. The growth rate increase in proportion to the SiH4/H2 ratio and the influence mechanism of chlorine has been investigated. With the reactor pressure increasing from 40 to 100 Torr, the growth rate increased to 52 μm/hand then decreased to 47 μm/h, which is due to the joint effect of H2 and HCl etching as well as the formation of Si clusters at higher reactor pressure. The surface root mean square (RMS) roughness keeps around 1 nm with the growth rate increasing to 49 μm/h. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrate that 96.7 μm thick 4H-SiC layers of good uniformity in thickness and doping with high crystal quality can be achieved. These results prove that chloride-based fast epitaxy is an advanced growth technique for 4H-SiC homoepitaxy. Project supported by the National High Technology R&D Program of China (No. 2014AA041402), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474113, 61274007, 61574140), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 4132076, 4132074), the Program of State Grid Smart Grid Research Institute (No. SGRI-WD-71-14-004), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS.

  4. Strain Control of Domain-Wall Stability in Epitaxial BiFeO3 (110) Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, M. P.; Chu, Y. H.; Zhang, J. X.; Yang, P. L.; Zavaliche, F.; He, Q.; Shafer, P.; Chen, L. Q.; Ramesh, R.

    2007-11-01

    We have studied the stability of domains and domain walls in multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films using a combination of piezoelectric force microscopy and phase-field simulations. We have discovered that a film-substrate misfit strain may result in a drastically different thermodynamic stability of two parallel domain walls with the same orientation. A fundamental understanding of the underlying physics, the stress distribution in a domain structure, leads to a novel approach to control the ferroelastic domain stability in the multiferroic BiFeO3 system.

  5. Large structural, thin-wall castings made of metals subject to hot tearing, and their fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smashey, Russell W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An article, such as a gas turbine engine mixer, is made by providing a mold structure defining a thin-walled, hollow article, and a base metal that is subject to hot tear cracking when cast in a generally equiaxed polycrystalline form, such as Rene' 108 and Mar-M247. The article is fabricated by introducing the molten base metal into the mold structure, and directionally solidifying the base metal in the mold structure to form a directionally oriented structure. The directionally oriented structure may be formed of a single grain or oriented multiple grains.

  6. Flavin-based quasi-epitaxial organization on single walled carbon nanotubes: Separation, characterization and device integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abanulo, Darlington C.

    Canonically defined as one atomically thin sheet of graphite (i.e. graphene), rolled up in a tube at a specific vector designated by a pair of indices ( n,m), single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have generated much enthusiasm in the scientific community for their promise to revolutionize materials and their functionalities. Due to their exceptional electrical, optical, mechanical, chemical, thermal and electronic properties, SWNTs have already began and continue to be exploited in a number of new multi-faceted technologies in a broad range of applications. This thesis presents a working model for taking nanotubes from dispersions to devices. Utilizing comprehensive characterization and molecular simulations, we highlight the unique abilities of outfitting SWNTs with a seamless flavin sheath. The precise organization of flavin moieties on the nanotube lattice in forming a perfect helical coating around the nanotube led to the discovery of the first ever-reported quasi-epitaxial based separation scheme. We also present in this thesis the molecular origin for such selection, as well as other consequential ramifications such as enantioselection, superhelical formation and supramolecular assembly. Last but not least, the viability of FMN/SWNT integration in devices such as thin film transistors and other potential sensory applications is also discussed from a design standpoint.

  7. New chemical and magnetic structure at the domain walls of an epitaxial oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farokhipoor, Saeedeh; Magen, C.; Venkatesan, S.; Iniguez, J.; Daumont, C. J. M.; Rubi, D.; Snoeck, E.; Mostovoy, M.; de Graaf, C.; Muller, A.; Doblinger, M.; Scheu, C.; Noheda, B.

    2015-03-01

    Domain walls (DWs) in multiferroic thin films are nanoscale regions presenting different properties compared to the adjacent domains. This distinct behavior originates from the broken crystal symmetry and intense strain gradients around the walls. Therefore, engineering and controlling the properties of DWs in different types of functional materials, in particular in complex oxides, can become a promising path to design and tailor novel nano-electronic and spintronic devices. In TbMnO3, an antiferromagnetic orthorhombic perovskite in bulk form, ferroelastic DWs can also be achieved in a very controlled way, with densities that increase inversely proportional to the film thickness, such that for the thinnest films, the volume fraction of DWs can become up to 25% of the total film volume. These DWs, display a net magnetic moment that originates in a unique chemical environment: a novel Mn coordination has been locally synthesized due to the local stress present at the DWs. We believe that this method can be applied more generally to obtain embedded 2D ferromagnetic sheets of interest in electronics and spintronics. S. Farokhipoor, et al., Nature (20.Nov.2014).

  8. Morphology Control of Hot-Wall MOCVD Selective Area Grown Hexagonal GaN Pyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundskog, Anders; Forsberg, Urban; Holtz, Per Olof; Janzen, Erik

    2012-11-01

    Morphological variations of gallium polar (0001)-oriented hexagonal GaN pyramids grown by hot wall metal organic chemical vapor deposition under various growth conditions are investigated. The stability of the semipolar {1 (1) over bar 02} and nonpolar {1 (1) over bar 00} facets is particularly discussed. The presence of the {1 (1) over bar 02} facets near the apex of the pyramid was found to be controllable by tuning the absolute flow rate of ammonia during the growth Vertical nonpolar {1 (1) over bar 00} facets appeared in gallium rich conditions, which automatically were created when the growth time was prolonged beyond pyramid completion. The result was attributed to a gallium passivation of the {1 (1) over bar 00} surface.

  9. Fibers comprised of epitaxially grown single-wall carbon nanotubes, and a method for added catalyst and continuous growth at the tip

    DOEpatents

    Kittrell, W. Carter; Wang, Yuhuang; Kim, Myung Jong; Hauge, Robert H.; Smalley, Richard E.; Marek leg, Irene Morin

    2010-06-01

    The present invention is directed to fibers of epitaxially grown single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and methods of making same. Such methods generally comprise the steps of: (a) providing a spun SWNT fiber; (b) cutting the fiber substantially perpendicular to the fiber axis to yield a cut fiber; (c) etching the cut fiber at its end with a plasma to yield an etched cut fiber; (d) depositing metal catalyst on the etched cut fiber end to form a continuous SWNT fiber precursor; and (e) introducing feedstock gases under SWNT growth conditions to grow the continuous SWNT fiber precursor into a continuous SWNT fiber.

  10. Additive Manufacturing of IN100 Superalloy Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair: Process Development, Modeling, Microstructural Characterization, and Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman

    2015-09-01

    This article describes additive manufacturing (AM) of IN100, a high gamma-prime nickel-based superalloy, through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE), aimed at the creation of thick deposits onto like-chemistry substrates for enabling repair of turbine engine hot-section components. SLE is a metal powder bed-based laser AM technology developed for nickel-base superalloys with equiaxed, directionally solidified, and single-crystal microstructural morphologies. Here, we combine process modeling, statistical design-of-experiments (DoE), and microstructural characterization to demonstrate fully metallurgically bonded, crack-free and dense deposits exceeding 1000 μm of SLE-processed IN100 powder onto IN100 cast substrates produced in a single pass. A combined thermal-fluid flow-solidification model of the SLE process compliments DoE-based process development. A customized quantitative metallography technique analyzes digital cross-sectional micrographs and extracts various microstructural parameters, enabling process model validation and process parameter optimization. Microindentation measurements show an increase in the hardness by 10 pct in the deposit region compared to the cast substrate due to microstructural refinement. The results illustrate one of the very few successes reported for the crack-free deposition of IN100, a notoriously "non-weldable" hot-section alloy, thus establishing the potential of SLE as an AM method suitable for hot-section component repair and for future new-make components in high gamma-prime containing crack-prone nickel-based superalloys.

  11. Gas temperature measurements inside a hot wall chemical vapor synthesis reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notthoff, Christian; Schilling, Carolin; Winterer, Markus

    2012-11-01

    One key but complex parameter in the chemical vapor synthesis (CVS) of nanoparticles is the time temperature profile of the gas phase, which determines particle characteristics such as size (distribution), morphology, microstructure, crystal, and local structure. Relevant for the CVS process and for the corresponding particle characteristics is, however, not the T(t)-profile generated by an external energy source such as a hot wall or microwave reactor but the temperature of the gas carrying reactants and products (particles). Due to a complex feedback of the thermodynamic and chemical processes in the reaction volume with the external energy source, it is very difficult to predict the real gas phase temperature field from the externally applied T(t)-profile. Therefore, a measurement technique capable to determine the temperature distribution of the gas phase under process conditions is needed. In this contribution, we demonstrate with three proof of principle experiments the use of laser induced fluorescence thermometry to investigate the CVS process under realistic conditions.

  12. Comparison of laser-ablation and hot-wall chemical vapour deposition techniques for nanowire fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, E.; Cheng, G.; Guthrie, S.; Turner-Evans, D.; Broomfield, E.; Lei, B.; Li, C.; Zhang, D.; Zhou, C.; Reed, M. A.

    2006-06-01

    A comparison of the transport properties of populations of single-crystal, In2O3 nanowires (NWs) grown by unassisted hot-wall chemical vapour deposition (CVD) versus NWs grown by laser-ablation-assisted chemical vapour deposition (LA-CVD) is presented. For nominally identical growth conditions across the two systems, NWs fabricated at 850 °C with laser-ablation had significantly higher average mobilities at the 99.9% confidence level, 53.3 ± 5.8 cm2 V-1 s-1 versus 10.2 ± 1.9 cm2 V-1 s-1. It is also observed that increasing growth temperature decreases mobility for LA-CVD NWs. Transmission electron microscopy studies of CVD-fabricated samples indicate the presence of an amorphous In2O3 region surrounding the single-crystal core. Further, low-temperature measurements verify the presence of ionized impurity scattering in low-mobility CVD-grown NWs.

  13. Modeling of epitaxial silicon carbide deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneroni, Alessandro; Omarini, Fabrizio; Moscatelli, Davide; Masi, Maurizio; Leone, Stefano; Mauceri, Marco; Pistone, Giuseppe; Abbondanza, Giuseppe

    2005-02-01

    The availability of reliable chemical kinetics data is still a key factor in designing epitaxial deposition reactors able to obtain electronic grade surface quality for SiC films. Here, a literature mechanism was considered for the gas phase while a new multi species surface one was introduced. That detailed mechanism was embedded in a series of reactor models of different complexity (1D-3D) to realize a multi hierarchy modeling approach. In the framework of horizontal hot wall reactor with multiwafer rotating susceptor, several process parameters were examined.

  14. Low-temperature growth of epitaxial (1 0 0) silicon based on silane and disilane in a 300 mm UHV/CVD cold-wall reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, T. N.; Bedell, S.; Reznicek, A.; Sadana, D. K.; Venkateshan, A.; Tsunoda, T.; Seino, T.; Nakatsuru, J.; Shinde, S. R.

    2010-11-01

    Epitaxial (1 0 0) silicon layers were grown at temperatures ranging from 500 to 800 °C in a commercial cold-wall type UHV/CVD reactor at pressures less than 7×10 -5 Torr. The substrates were 300 mm SIMOX SOI wafers and spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to assess growth rates and deposition uniformities. High-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to verify the atomic terrace configuration that resulted from epitaxial step-flow growth. Deposition from disilane exhibited a nearly perfect reaction limit for low temperatures and high precursor flow rates (partial pressures) with measured activation energies of ≈2.0 eV, while a linear dependence of growth rate on precursor gas flow was found for the massflow-controlled regime. A similar behavior was observed in the case of silane with substantially reduced deposition rates in the massflow-limited regime and nearly a factor of 2 reduced growth rates deep in the reaction limited regime. High growth rates of up to 50 μm/h and non-uniformities as low as 1 σ=1.45% were obtained in the massflow-limited deposition regime. Silicon layers as thin as 0.6 nm (4.5 atomic layers ) were deposited continuously as determined using a unique wet chemical etching technique as well as cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In contrast, epitaxial silicon deposited in RPCVD at 10 Torr using disilane within the same temperature range showed imperfect reaction limitation. While activation energies similar to that of UHV/CVD were found, no partial pressure limitation could be observed. Furthermore, layers deposited using disilane in RPCVD exhibited a large number of defects that appeared to form randomly during growth. We attribute this effect to gas phase reactions that create precursor fragments and radicals—an effect that is negligible in UHV/CVD.

  15. Epitaxial Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells Fabricated by Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition Below 750 ..deg..C: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Alberi, K.; Martin, I. T.; Shub, M.; Teplin, C. W.; Iwaniczko, E.; Xu, Y.; duda, A.; Stradin, P.; Johnston, S. W.; Romero, M. J.; Branz, H. M.; Young, D. L.

    2009-06-01

    We report on fabricating film c-Si solar cells on Si wafer templates by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. These devices, grown at glass-compatible temperatures < 750..deg..C, demonstrate open-circuit voltages > 500 mV and efficiencies > 5%.

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: High-Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-01

    In this project,the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) team worked with builders in California to implement wall assemblies meeting a U-value lower than 0.050 Btu/h-ft2-°F. ARBI and its project team members helped builders identify preferred wall designs that met the requirements of their architects, structural engineers, and purchasing agents and that were acceptable to their subcontractors. Construction methods were observed and documented and construction costs obtained from builders were used to inform cost estimates for a range of advanced wall system types and insulation types. Wall framing types of 2 × 6 (16- and 24-in. on center [o.c.]) and double stud were modeled in Building Energy Optimization (BEopt™) software with cavity insulation levels ranging from R-19 to R-33 (double stud) and exterior rigid insulation of R-4, R-6, and R-8.

  17. Dynamic analysis of moisture transport through walls and associated cooling loads in the hot/humid climate of Florianopolis, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, N.; Winkelmann, F.C.; Lamberts, R.; Philippi, P.C.; Da Cunha Neto, J.A.B.

    1996-04-01

    The authors describe the use of a dynamic model of combined heat and mass transfer to analyze the effects on cooling loads of transient moisture storage and transport through walls with porous building materials, under varying boundary conditions. The materials studied were brick, lime mortar and autoclaved cellular concrete. The physical properties of these materials, such as mass transport coefficients, thermal conductivity and specific heat, were taken to be functions of moisture content. The simulation results were compared to those obtained by pure conduction heat transfer without moisture effects. Also analyzed were the influence on cooling loads of high moisture content due to rain soaking of materials, and the influence of solar radiation on sunny and cloudy days. The weather used was a hot/humid summer period in Florianopolis (South Brazil). It is shown that neglecting moisture migration or assuming that the physical properties of wall materials do not depend on moisture content can result in large errors in sensible and latent heat transfer.

  18. EBSD analysis of tungsten-filament carburization during the hot-wire CVD of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Oliphant, Clive J; Arendse, Christopher J; Camagu, Sigqibo T; Swart, Hendrik

    2014-02-01

    Filament condition during hot-wire chemical vapor deposition conditions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes is a major concern for a stable deposition process. We report on the novel application of electron backscatter diffraction to characterize the carburization of tungsten filaments. During the synthesis, the W-filaments transform to W2C and WC. W-carbide growth followed a parabolic behavior corresponding to the diffusion of C as the rate-determining step. The grain size of W, W2C, and WC increases with longer exposure time and increasing filament temperature. The grain size of the recrystallizing W-core and W2C phase grows from the perimeter inwardly and this phenomenon is enhanced at filament temperatures in excess of 1,400°C. Cracks appear at filament temperatures >1,600°C, accompanied by a reduction in the filament operational lifetime. The increase of the W2C and recrystallized W-core grain size from the perimeter inwardly is ascribed to a thermal gradient within the filament, which in turn influences the hardness measurements and crack formation. PMID:24423105

  19. Analysis of SiC Deposition Rate in a Tubular Hot-Wall Reactor with Polymeric Source Using the DoE Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali Keikha, A.; Fanaei Sheikholeslami, T.; Behzadmehr, A.

    2013-06-01

    Atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide in a tubular hot-wall reactor using a polymeric source was studied. A three-dimensional model of the reactor was solved numerically based on the finite-volume method. To achieve the best desired conditions, the effects of substrate temperature, mass fraction of polycarbosilane (-Si[CH3]2-), inlet velocity, and substrate location on the SiC deposition rate were considered. These effects were investigated to obtain the optimum conditions by using the design of experiments (DoE) method. Finally, several contours are presented to help designers find suitable reactor conditions for higher performance.

  20. Prototype solar heated hot water systems and double-walled heat exchangers: A collection of quarterly reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The plan schedule and status of multiple objectives to be achieved in the development, manufacture, installation, and maintenance of two solar heated hot water prototype systems and two heat exchangers are reported. A computer program developed to resolve problems and evaluate system performance is described.

  1. Epitaxial growth and photoluminescence of hexagonal CdS 1- xSe x alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, M.; Gerlach, H.; Breitkopf, Th.; Hetterich, M.; Reznitsky, A.; Kalt, H.; Klingshirn, C.

    1995-01-01

    CdSSe ternary alloy films were grown on GaAs(111) by hot-wall beam epitaxy. The hexagonal crystal phase is obtained. The composition varies from 0 to 40% selenium. Luminescence spectroscopy at low temperatures shows a dominant effect by alloy disorder. Localization of carriers, for example, is still observed at a pulsed optical excitation density of 6 mJ/cm 2. The overall quality of the CdSSe films is sufficient to use them as buffer layers for the growth of hexagonal superlattices.

  2. A Microstructure Evolution Model for the Processing of Single-Crystal Alloy CMSX-4 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair (Part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Bansal, Rohan; Gambone, Justin J.; Das, Suman

    2014-12-01

    Part I [Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2014, DOI:10.1007/s11663-014-0117-9] presented a comprehensive thermal, fluid flow, and solidification model that can predict the temperature distribution and flow characteristics for the processing of CMSX-4 alloy powder through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE). SLE is an additive manufacturing technology aimed at the creation of equiaxed, directionally solidified and single-crystal (SX) deposits of nickel-based superalloys using a fast-scanning laser beam. Part II here further explores the Marangoni convection-based model to predict the solidification microstructure as a function of the conditions at the trailing edge of the melt pool formed during the SLE process. Empirical values for several microstructural characteristics such as the primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) criterion and the oriented-to-misoriented transition (OMT) criterion are obtained. Optical microscopy provides visual information on the various microstructural characteristics of the deposited material such as melt depth, CET location, OMT location, PDAS, etc. A quantitative and consistent investigation of this complex set of characteristics is both challenging and unprecedented. A customized image-analysis technique based on active contouring is developed to automatically extract these data from experimental micrographs. Quantitative metallography verifies that even for the raster scan pattern in SLE and the corresponding line heat source assumption, the PDAS follows the growth relation w ~ G -0.5 V -0.25 ( w = PDAS, G = temperature gradient and V = solidification velocity) developed for marginal stability under constrained growth. Models for the CET and OMT are experimentally validated, thereby providing powerful predictive capabilities for controlling the microstructure of SX alloys processed through SLE.

  3. A Microstructure Evolution Model for the Processing of Single-Crystal Alloy CMSX-4 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair (Part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Bansal, Rohan; Gambone, Justin J.; Das, Suman

    2014-09-01

    Part I [Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2014, DOI: 10.1007/s11663-014-0117-9] presented a comprehensive thermal, fluid flow, and solidification model that can predict the temperature distribution and flow characteristics for the processing of CMSX-4 alloy powder through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE). SLE is an additive manufacturing technology aimed at the creation of equiaxed, directionally solidified and single-crystal (SX) deposits of nickel-based superalloys using a fast-scanning laser beam. Part II here further explores the Marangoni convection-based model to predict the solidification microstructure as a function of the conditions at the trailing edge of the melt pool formed during the SLE process. Empirical values for several microstructural characteristics such as the primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) criterion and the oriented-to-misoriented transition (OMT) criterion are obtained. Optical microscopy provides visual information on the various microstructural characteristics of the deposited material such as melt depth, CET location, OMT location, PDAS, etc. A quantitative and consistent investigation of this complex set of characteristics is both challenging and unprecedented. A customized image-analysis technique based on active contouring is developed to automatically extract these data from experimental micrographs. Quantitative metallography verifies that even for the raster scan pattern in SLE and the corresponding line heat source assumption, the PDAS follows the growth relation w ~G -0.5 V -0.25 (w = PDAS, G = temperature gradient and V = solidification velocity) developed for marginal stability under constrained growth. Models for the CET and OMT are experimentally validated, thereby providing powerful predictive capabilities for controlling the microstructure of SX alloys processed through SLE.

  4. Catalyst-assisted hydride vapor phase epitaxy of GaN nanowires: exceptional length and constant rod-like shape capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekhal, K.; Avit, G.; André, Y.; Trassoudaine, A.; Gil, E.; Varenne, C.; Bougerol, C.; Monier, G.; Castelluci, D.

    2012-10-01

    The hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) process exhibits unexpected properties when growing GaN semiconductor nanowires (NWs). With respect to the classical well-known methods such as metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy, this near-equilibrium process based on hot wall reactor technology enables the synthesis of nanowires with a constant cylinder shape over unusual length. Catalyst-assisted HVPE shows a record short time process (less than 20 min) coupled to very low precursor consumption. NWs are grown at a fast solidification rate (50 μm h-1), facilitated by the high decomposition frequency of the chloride molecules involved in the HVPE process as element III precursors. In this work growth temperature and V/III ratio were investigated to determine the growth mechanism which led to such long NWs. Analysis based on the Ni-Ga phase diagram and the growth kinetics of near-equilibrium HVPE is proposed.

  5. Catalyst-assisted hydride vapor phase epitaxy of GaN nanowires: exceptional length and constant rod-like shape capability.

    PubMed

    Lekhal, K; Avit, G; André, Y; Trassoudaine, A; Gil, E; Varenne, C; Bougerol, C; Monier, G; Castelluci, D

    2012-10-12

    The hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) process exhibits unexpected properties when growing GaN semiconductor nanowires (NWs). With respect to the classical well-known methods such as metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy, this near-equilibrium process based on hot wall reactor technology enables the synthesis of nanowires with a constant cylinder shape over unusual length. Catalyst-assisted HVPE shows a record short time process (less than 20 min) coupled to very low precursor consumption. NWs are grown at a fast solidification rate (50 μm h(-1)), facilitated by the high decomposition frequency of the chloride molecules involved in the HVPE process as element III precursors. In this work growth temperature and V/III ratio were investigated to determine the growth mechanism which led to such long NWs. Analysis based on the Ni-Ga phase diagram and the growth kinetics of near-equilibrium HVPE is proposed. PMID:22983695

  6. Epitaxial thin film growth in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex; Chu, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for materials processing in space exploits the ultravacuum component of space for thin-film epitaxial growth. The unique LEO space environment is expected to yield 10-ftorr or better pressures, semiinfinite pumping speeds, and large ultravacuum volume (about 100 cu m) without walls. These space ultravacuum properties promise major improvement in the quality, unique nature, and throughput of epitaxially grown materials, including semiconductors, magnetic materials, and thin-film high-temperature superconductors.

  7. EDITORIAL: Epitaxial graphene Epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Heer, Walt A.; Berger, Claire

    2012-04-01

    Graphene is widely regarded as an important new electronic material with interesting two-dimensional electron gas properties. Not only that, but graphene is widely considered to be an important new material for large-scale integrated electronic devices that may eventually even succeed silicon. In fact, there are countless publications that demonstrate the amazing applications potential of graphene. In order to realize graphene electronics, a platform is required that is compatible with large-scale electronics processing methods. It was clear from the outset that graphene grown epitaxially on silicon carbide substrates was exceptionally well suited as a platform for graphene-based electronics, not only because the graphene sheets are grown directly on electronics-grade silicon carbide (an important semiconductor in its own right), but also because these sheets are oriented with respect to the semiconductor. Moreover, the extremely high temperatures involved in production assure essentially defect-free and contamination-free materials with well-defined interfaces. Epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide is not a unique material, but actually a class of materials. It is a complex structure consisting of a reconstructed silicon carbide surface, which, for planar hexagonal silicon carbide, is either the silicon- or the carbon-terminated face, an interfacial carbon rich layer, followed by one or more graphene layers. Consequently, the structure of graphene films on silicon carbide turns out to be a rich surface-science puzzle that has been intensively studied and systematically unravelled with a wide variety of surface science probes. Moreover, the graphene films produced on the carbon-terminated face turn out to be rotationally stacked, resulting in unique and important structural and electronic properties. Finally, in contrast to essentially all other graphene production methods, epitaxial graphene can be grown on structured silicon carbide surfaces to produce graphene

  8. Epitaxial jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stura, Enrico A.; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Taussig, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    By a combination of seeding and changing the growth medium new crystal forms may be obtained. The procedure is called an epitaxial jump. The seeds used in the seeding are from crystals of the same or related protein. For example, seeding followed by an increase in precipitant concentration has given higher diffracting crystals of the complex between tissue factor, factor VIIa and the inhibitor 5L15. For both an anti-steroid antibody fragment and human placental alkaline phosphatase a polymorph was obtained by changing a low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) with one of a higher molecular weight. In the first case, in one direction and in the latter case, in the other direction. A change of conformation could also have contributed to this. A DsbA mutant illustrates how such changes, result in a different packing from that for the wild-type. Seeding from crystals of wild-type protein yields crystals which appear to be morphologically different from both the wild-type and mutant crystal forms.

  9. Evolution of crystalline domain size and epitaxial orientation of CdTe/Si(111) quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suela, J.; Ribeiro, I. R. B.; Ferreira, S. O.; Malachias, A.; Fontes, G. N.; Montoro, L. A.; Ramirez, A. J.

    2010-03-01

    We have investigated the crystalline configuration of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) grown on hydrogen passivated Si(111) substrates by hot wall epitaxy. Coplanar and grazing incidence diffraction were used for determination of dot strain state and the vertical and lateral dimensions of the crystalline domain. A change in aspect ratio was observed as a function of dot size. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that despite a mismatch of almost 20% the islands grow with a fairly good epitaxial orientation with respect to the Si(111) substrate. The dot mosaicity was also determined and was found to decrease with island size from 7° to about 4° for the samples studied, indicating an improvement in epitaxial quality even before the island coalescence. Careful observation of CdTe(22¯0) reflections in an azimuthal scan showed that an additional ensemble of islands is responsible for low-intensity peaks with a 30° symmetry besides the expected 60° symmetry. Transmission electron microscopy results have shown good accordance with atomic force microscopy and XRD and revealed the presence of an amorphous Tellurium rich oxide layer at the CdTe/Si interface, which could explain the fully unstrained QD state observed.

  10. In situ etch treatments of silicon carbide epitaxial layer for morphological quality improvement of the surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, S.; Perrone, D.; Scaltrito, L.; Ferrero, S.; Pirri, C. F.; Mauceri, M.; Leone, S.; Pistone, G.; Abbondanza, G.; Crippa, D.

    2006-07-01

    Different homo epitaxial 4H-SiC commercial wafers were undergone hydrogen etching process that was developed in the reaction chamber of a Hot Wall Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) reactor. We have studied the effects of physical desorption to point out the morphology and the structural changes of epitaxial surfaces.An optical microscopy inspection was made to trace out a map of defect areas before and after etching treatments. We have analysed the morphological evolution of the surface in every etching process step by means of marked area on the defect map. We also achieved some other important information, concerning structural and morphological changing, by performing Atomic Force Microscopy and Micro Raman spectroscopy analysis on the same defect marked area.The etched epilayers showed a significant reduction of defects density and a good surface morphology. On investigated samples we fabricated Schottky diodes, their electrical behaviour compared to the devices fabricated on not etched epitaxial layer highlights the surface quality improvement and the increasing of SBD working yield.

  11. A proposal for epitaxial thin film growth in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex; Chu, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for materials processing in space exploits the ultravacuum component of space for thin film epitaxial growth. The unique low earth orbit space environment is expected to yield 10 to the -14th torr or better pressures, semiinfinite pumping speeds, and large ultravacuum volume without walls. These space ultravacuum properties promise major improvement in the quality, unique nature, and the throughput of epitaxially grown materials. Advanced thin film materials to be epitaxially grown in space include semiconductors, magnetic materials, and thin film high temperature superconductors.

  12. Origin of the low-energy emission band in epitaxially grown para-sexiphenyl nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadashchuk, A.; Schols, S.; Heremans, P.; Skryshevski, Yu.; Piryatinski, Yu.; Beinik, I.; Teichert, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Sitter, H.; Andreev, A.; Frank, P.; Winkler, A.

    2009-02-01

    A comparative study of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of para-sexiphenyl (PSP) films grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) and hot wall epitaxy (HWE) under comparable conditions is presented. Using different template substrates [mica(001) and KCl(001) surfaces] as well as different OMBE growth conditions has enabled us to vary greatly the morphology of the PSP crystallites while keeping their chemical structure virtually untouched. We prove that the broad redshifted emission band has a structure-related origin rather than being due to monomolecular oxidative defects. We conclude that the growth conditions and type of template substrate impacts substantially on the film morphology (measured by atomic force microscopy) and emission properties of the PSP films. The relative intensity of the defect emission band observed in the delayed spectra was found to correlate with the structural quality of PSP crystallites. In particular, the defect emission has been found to be drastically suppressed when (i) a KCl template substrate was used instead of mica in HWE-grown films, and (ii) in the OMBE-grown films dominated by growth mounds composed of upright standing molecules as opposed to the films consisting of crystallites formed by molecules lying parallel to the substrate.

  13. Origin of the low-energy emission band in epitaxially grown para-sexiphenyl nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect

    Kadashchuk, A.; Schols, S.; Heremans, P.; Skryshevski, Yu.; Piryatinski, Yu.; Beinik, I.; Teichert, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Sitter, H.; Andreev, A.; Frank, P.; Winkler, A.

    2009-02-28

    A comparative study of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of para-sexiphenyl (PSP) films grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) and hot wall epitaxy (HWE) under comparable conditions is presented. Using different template substrates [mica(001) and KCl(001) surfaces] as well as different OMBE growth conditions has enabled us to vary greatly the morphology of the PSP crystallites while keeping their chemical structure virtually untouched. We prove that the broad redshifted emission band has a structure-related origin rather than being due to monomolecular oxidative defects. We conclude that the growth conditions and type of template substrate impacts substantially on the film morphology (measured by atomic force microscopy) and emission properties of the PSP films. The relative intensity of the defect emission band observed in the delayed spectra was found to correlate with the structural quality of PSP crystallites. In particular, the defect emission has been found to be drastically suppressed when (i) a KCl template substrate was used instead of mica in HWE-grown films, and (ii) in the OMBE-grown films dominated by growth mounds composed of upright standing molecules as opposed to the films consisting of crystallites formed by molecules lying parallel to the substrate.

  14. Epitaxial solar cells fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiello, R. V.; Robinson, P. H.; Kressel, H.

    1975-01-01

    Silicon epitaxy has been studied for the fabrication of solar cell structures, with the intent of optimizing efficiency while maintaining suitability for space applications. SiH2CL2 yielded good quality layers and junctions with reproducible impurity profiles. Diode characteristics and lifetimes in the epitaxial layers were investigated as a function of epitaxial growth conditions and doping profile, as was the effect of substrates and epitaxial post-gettering on lifetime. The pyrolytic decomposition of SiH4 was also used in the epitaxial formation of highly doped junction layers on bulk Si wafers. The effects of junction layer thickness and bulk background doping level on cell performance, in particular, open-circuit voltage, were investigated. The most successful solar cells were fabricated with SiH2 CL2 to grow p/n layers on n(+) substrates. The best performance was obtained from a p(+)/p/n/n(+) structure grown with an exponential grade in the n-base layer.

  15. A Coupled Thermal, Fluid Flow, and Solidification Model for the Processing of Single-Crystal Alloy CMSX-4 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair (Part I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Bansal, Rohan; Gambone, Justin J.; Das, Suman

    2014-12-01

    Scanning laser epitaxy (SLE) is a new laser-based additive manufacturing technology under development at the Georgia Institute of Technology. SLE is aimed at the creation of equiaxed, directionally solidified, and single-crystal deposits of nickel-based superalloys through the melting of alloy powders onto superalloy substrates using a fast scanning Nd:YAG laser beam. The fast galvanometer control movement of the laser (0.2 to 2 m/s) and high-resolution raster scanning (20 to 200 µm line spacing) enables superior thermal control over the solidification process and allows the production of porosity-free, crack-free deposits of more than 1000 µm thickness. Here, we present a combined thermal and fluid flow model of the SLE process applied to alloy CMSX-4 with temperature-dependent thermo-physical properties. With the scanning beam described as a moving line source, the instantaneous melt pool assumes a convex hull shape with distinct leading edge and trailing edge characteristics. Temperature gradients at the leading and trailing edges are of order 2 × 105 and 104 K/m, respectively. Detailed flow analysis provides insights on the flow characteristics of the powder incorporating into the melt pool, showing velocities of order 1 × 10-4 m/s. The Marangoni effect drives this velocity from 10 to 15 times higher depending on the operating parameters. Prediction of the solidification microstructure is based on conditions at the trailing edge of the melt pool. Time tracking of solidification history is incorporated into the model to couple the microstructure prediction model to the thermal-fluid flow model, and to predict the probability of the columnar-to-equiaxed transition. Qualitative agreement is obtained between simulation and experimental result.

  16. Epitaxial thin films

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  17. Atomic layer epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Colin H. L.; Pessa, Markus V.

    1986-08-01

    Atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) is not so much a new technique for the preparation of thin films as a novel modification to existing methods of vapor-phase epitaxy, whether physical [e.g., evaporation, at one limit molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE)] or chemical [e.g., chloride epitaxy or metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)]. It is a self-regulatory process which, in its simplest form, produces one complete molecular layer of a compound per operational cycle, with a greater thickness being obtained by repeated cycling. There is no growth rate in ALE as in other crystal growth processes. So far ALE has been applied to rather few materials, but, in principle, it could have a quite general application. It has been used to prepare single-crystal overlayers of CdTe, (Cd,Mn)Te, GaAs and AlAs, a number of polycrystalline films and highly efficient electroluminescent thin-film displays based on ZnS:Mn. It could also offer particular advantages for the preparation of ultrathin films of precisely controlled thickness in the nanometer range and thus may have a special value for growing low-dimensional structures.

  18. Hetero epitaxial graphene on various substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Gary; Kaut, Gurpreet; Taylor, Crawford

    2015-03-01

    Large-scale production of graphene is pivotal for the development of graphene-based electronics. These results focus on the synthesis and characterization of graphene layers. Two methods were used to grow graphene films. First, graphene films were epitaxially grown on silicon carbide substrates by thermal decomposition of SiC at high temperature and low pressure. In-house built reactor consisting of induction furnace was used to form epitaxial films for electronic applications. Second, chemical vapor deposition method was used for direct graphene synthesis on 3C-SiC with the use of copper as a catalyst. In thermal CVD process, hydrogen and methane gases were used as precursors. Methane acts as a carbon source and annealing and cooling were done hydrogen environment. Different polytypes of silicon carbide (6H-SiC and 3C-SiC) and their crystal orientations were exploited as substrates to form epitaxial graphene. Hetero epitaxial 3C-SiC epilayer was first deposited on Si substrate using chemical vapor deposition technique in cold wall, low pressure, and horizontal CVD reactor. The reactor temperature, argon pressure, flow rates and concentration of different gases (propane, silane, hydrogen and argon) was investigated to control the growth of 3C-SiC and silicon sublimation rate. The resulting graphene films were confirmed using Raman spectroscopy. Further, graphene films have been characterized with the tools of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mobility, electrical resistivity and carrier density measurements were taken using hall measurements. NSF_PRDM

  19. A&M. Hot cell annex (TAN633) interior under construction. Hot cells ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot cell annex (TAN-633) interior under construction. Hot cells and their doors are along concrete wall. Note side wall of pumice block. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: October 28, 1957. INEEL negative no. 57-5335 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Commercial aspects of epitaxial thin film growth in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex; Chu, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for materials processing in space exploits the ultra vacuum component of space for thin film epitaxial growth. The unique low earth orbit space environment is expected to yield 10 to the -14th torr or better pressures, semiinfinite pumping speeds and large ultra vacuum volume (about 100 cu m) without walls. These space ultra vacuum properties promise major improvement in the quality, unique nature, and the throughput of epitaxially grown materials especially in the area of semiconductors for microelectronics use. For such thin film materials there is expected a very large value added from space ultra vacuum processing, and as a result the application of the epitaxial thin film growth technology to space could lead to major commercial efforts in space.

  1. Soft epitaxy of nanocrystal superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupich, Sara M.; Castro, Fernando C.; Irvine, William T. M.; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2014-12-01

    Epitaxial heterostructures with precise registry between crystal layers play a key role in electronics and optoelectronics. In a close analogy, performance of nanocrystal (NC) based devices depends on the perfection of interfaces formed between NC layers. Here we systematically study the epitaxial growth of NC layers for the first time to enable the fabrication of coherent NC layers. NC epitaxy reveals an exceptional strain tolerance. It follows a universal island size scaling behaviour and shows a strain-driven transition from layer-by-layer to Stranski-Krastanov growth with non-trivial island height statistics. Kinetic bottlenecks play an important role in NC epitaxy, especially in the transition from sub-monolayer to multilayer coverage and the epitaxy of NCs with anisotropic shape. These findings provide a foundation for the rational design of epitaxial structures in a fundamentally and practically important size regime between atomic and microscopic systems.

  2. Germanium epitaxy on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui; Yu, Jinzhong

    2014-04-01

    With the rapid development of on-chip optical interconnects and optical computing in the past decade, silicon-based integrated devices for monolithic and hybrid optoelectronic integration have attracted wide attention. Due to its narrow pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si technology, epitaxial Ge-on-Si has become a significant material for optoelectronic device applications. In this paper, we describe recent research progress on heteroepitaxy of Ge flat films and self-assembled Ge quantum dots on Si. For film growth, methods of strain modification and lattice mismatch relief are summarized, while for dot growth, key process parameters and their effects on the dot density, dot morphology and dot position are reviewed. The results indicate that epitaxial Ge-on-Si materials will play a bigger role in silicon photonics.

  3. Vacancies in epitaxial graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Davydov, S. Yu.

    2015-08-15

    The coherent-potential method is used to consider the problem of the influence of a finite concentration of randomly arranged vacancies on the density of states of epitaxial graphene. To describe the density of states of the substrate, simple models (the Anderson model, Haldane-Anderson model, and parabolic model) are used. The electronic spectrum of free single-sheet graphene is considered in the low-energy approximation. Charge transfer in the graphene-substrate system is discussed. It is shown that, in all cases, the density of states of epitaxial graphene decreases proportionally to the vacancy concentration. At the same time, the average charge transferred from graphene to the substrate increases.

  4. Induced base transistor fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.-Y.; Liu, W. C.; Jame, M. S.; Wang, Y. H.; Luryi, S.

    1986-09-01

    A novel three-terminal hot-electron device, the induced base transistor (IBT), has been fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. Two-dimensional electron gas induced by the applied collector field in an undoped GaAs quantum well is used as the base of the IBT. The common-base current gain alpha has been achieved as high as 0.96 under a collector bias of 2.5 V and an emitter current of 3 mA.

  5. Structural and photoelectrical characterization of hot wall deposited CuInSe{sub 2} thin films and the fabrication of CuInSe{sub 2} based solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Agilan, S.; Venkatachalam, S.; Mangalaraj, D. . E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com; Narayandass, Sa. K.; Velumani, S.; Mohan Rao, G.; Singh, Vijay P.

    2007-08-15

    Films of CuInSe{sub 2} were deposited onto glass substrates by a hot wall deposition method using bulk CuInSe{sub 2} as a source material. All the deposited CuInSe{sub 2} films were found to be polycrystalline in nature exhibiting the chalcopyrite structure with the crystallite orientation along (101),(112),(103),(211),(220),(312) and (400) directions. The photocurrent was found to increase with increase in film thickness and also with increase of light intensity. Photocurrent spectra show a peak related to the band-to-band transition. The spectral response of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films was studied by allowing the radiation to pass through a series of interference filters in the wavelength range 700-1200 nm. Films of higher thickness exhibited higher photosensitivity while low thickness films exhibited moderate photosensitivity. CuInSe{sub 2}-based Solar cells with different types of buffer layers such as CdS, CdSe, CuInSe{sub 2} and CdSe{sub 0.7}Te{sub 0.3} were fabricated. The current and voltage were measured using an optical power meter and an electrometer respectively. The fabricated solar cells were illuminated using 100 mW/cm2 white light under AM1 conditions.

  6. Epitaxial Approaches to Carbon Nanotube Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismach, Ariel

    Carbon nanotubes have unique electronic, mechanical, optical and thermal properties, which make them ideal candidates as building blocks in nano-electronic and electromechanical systems. However, their organization into well-defined geometries and arrays on surfaces remains a critical challenge for their integration into functional nanosystems. In my PhD, we developed a new approach for the organization of carbon nanotubes directed by crystal surfaces. The principle relies on the guided growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by atomic features presented on anisotropic substrates. We identified three different modes of surface-directed growth (or 'nanotube epitaxy'), in which the growth of carbon nanotubes is directed by crystal substrates: We first observed the nanotube unidirectional growth along atomic steps ('ledge-directed epitaxy') and nanofacets ('graphoepitaxy') on the surface of miscut C-plane sapphire and quartz. The orientation along crystallographic directions ('lattice-directed epitaxy') was subsequently observed by other groups on different crystals. We have proposed a "wake growth" mechanism for the nanotube alignment along atomic steps and nanofacets. In this mechanism, the catalyst nanoparticle slides along the step or facet, leaving the nanotube behind as a wake. In addition, we showed that the combination of surface-directed growth with external forces, such as electric-field and gas flow, can lead to the simultaneous formation of complex nanotube structures, such as grids and serpentines. The "wake growth" model, which explained the growth of aligned nanotubes, could not explain the formation of nanotube serpentines. For the latter, we proposed a "falling spaghetti" mechanism, in which the nanotube first grows by a free-standing process, aligned in the direction of the gas flow, then followed by absorption on the stepped surface in an oscillatory manner, due to the competition between the drag force caused by the gas flow on the suspended

  7. Dynamic nonlinearity in epitaxial BaTi O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyunina, M.; Savinov, M.

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic dielectric and piezoelectric constants of ferroelectrics increase proportionally to the amplitude of alternating electric field as a result of hysteretic Rayleigh-type motion of domain walls. Here a hysteresis-free quadratic field dependence of the dynamic dielectric response is experimentally demonstrated in the absence of domain walls in epitaxial BaTi O3 films. This extraordinary behavior is related to polar entities, whose presence is confirmed by the Vogel-Fulcher relaxation. The polar entities are ascribed to polarization fluctuations associated with lattice inhomogeneity.

  8. Hot gas filter and system assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, Thomas Edwin; Palmer, Kathryn Miles; Bruck, Gerald Joseph; Alvin, Mary Anne; Smeltzer, Eugene E.; Bachovchin, Dennis Michael

    1999-01-01

    A filter element for separating fine dirty particles from a hot gas. The filter element comprises a first porous wall and a second porous wall. Each porous wall has an outer surface and an inner surface. The first and second porous walls being coupled together thereby forming a substantially closed figure and open at one end. The open end is formed to be coupled to a hot gas clean up system support structure. The first and second porous walls define a channel beginning at the open end and terminate at the closed end through which a filtered clean gas can flow through and out into the clean gas side of a hot gas clean up system.

  9. Hot gas filter and system assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, T.E.; Palmer, K.M.; Bruck, G.J.; Alvin, M.A.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1999-08-31

    A filter element is described for separating fine dirty particles from a hot gas. The filter element comprises a first porous wall and a second porous wall. Each porous wall has an outer surface and an inner surface. The first and second porous walls being coupled together thereby forming a substantially closed figure and open at one end. The open end is formed to be coupled to a hot gas clean up system support structure. The first and second porous walls define a channel beginning at the open end and terminate at the closed end through which a filtered clean gas can flow through and out into the clean gas side of a hot gas clean up system. 8 figs.

  10. Ballistic electron magnetic microscopy on epitaxial spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heindl, E.; Vancea, J.; Back, C. H.

    2007-02-01

    The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope has been used as an injector of hot electrons or hot holes into a spin valve epitaxially grown on n-GaAs67P33 . Spin-dependent transport of injected and hole excited electrons has been studied in an external magnetic field at room temperature. Significant variations in the collector current due to the spin-dependent inelastic decay of the hot charge carriers have been measured for parallel and antiparallel configurations of the magnetization of the individual layers. We found magnetocurrent effects on the order of 600% and relative large transmission values compared to other ballistic electron magnetic microscopy studies. In addition, we investigated the excitation of electron-hole pairs with its subsequent electron transport in the spin valve and found a magnetocurrent effect with positive sign.

  11. Hot piston ring tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, David J.; Tomazic, William A.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project, tests were made at NASA Lewis Research Center to determine whether appendix gap losses could be reduced and Stirling engine performance increased by installing an additional piston ring near the top of each piston dome. An MTI-designed upgraded Mod I Automotive Stirling Engine was used. Unlike the conventional rings at the bottom of the piston, these hot rings operated in a high temperature environment (700 C). They were made of a high temperature alloy (Stellite 6B) and a high temperature solid lubricant coating (NASA Lewis-developed PS-200) was applied to the cylinder walls. Engine tests were run at 5, 10, and 15 MPa operating pressure over a range of operating speeds. Tests were run both with hot rings and without to provide a baseline for comparison. Minimum data to assess the potential of both the hot rings and high temperature low friction coating was obtained. Results indicated a slight increase in power and efficiency, an increase over and above the friction loss introduced by the hot rings. Seal leakage measurements showed a significant reduction. Wear on both rings and coating was low.

  12. The epitaxial growth of (1 1 1) oriented monocrystalline Si film based on a 4:5 Si-to-SiC atomic lattice matching interface

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chen; Chen, Zhiming; Hu, Jichao; Ren, Zhanqiang; Lin, Shenghuang

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► A monocrystalline Si film was demonstrated by XRD to epitaxially grow on the 6H-SiC substrate. ► A 4:5 Si-to-SiC lattice matching structure was observed at the Si/SiC interface. ► The calculated value of the actual lattice mismatch is only 0.26%. ► Defects can be effectively reduced at the 4:5 Si-to-SiC lattice matching Si/SiC interface. -- Abstract: Due to a huge lattice mismatch of about 20% theoretically existing between SiC and Si, it is difficult for growing monocrystalline Si/SiC heterojunction to realize the light control of SiC devices. However, based on a 4:5 Si-to-SiC atomic lattice matching interface structure, the monocrystalline Si films were epitaxially prepared on the 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1) substrate by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition in our work. The film was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis with only (1 1 1) orientation occurring. The X-ray rocking curves illustrated good symmetry with a full width at half maximum of 0.4339° omega. A 4:5 Si-to-SiC atomic matching structure of the Si/6H-SiC interface clearly observed by the transmission electron microscope revealed the essence of growing the monocrystalline Si film on the SiC substrate.

  13. Epitaxy: the motion picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finnie, Paul; Homma, Yoshikazu

    2002-03-01

    The engineering of many modern electronic devices demands control over a crystal down to the thickness of a single layer of atoms-and future demands will be even more challenging. Such control is achieved by the method of crystal growth known as epitaxy, and that makes this method the subject of intense study. More than that, recent advances are revolutionizing our knowledge of how surfaces grow. In fact, growing surfaces show a beautifully rich variety of phenomena, many of which are only now beginning to be uncovered. In the past few years many surface imaging techniques have been used to give us a close look at how crystals grow-while they are growing. The purpose of this article will be to illustrate some of the ways real surfaces grow and change as revealed by some of the latest in situ microscopic imaging technologies. It is often said that crystal growth is more of an art than a science. Here we will show that it is emphatically both.

  14. Dislocation reduction of InAs nanofins prepared on Si substrate using metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    InAs nanofins were prepared on a nanopatterned Si (001) substrate by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy. The threading dislocations, stacked on the lowest-energy-facet plane {111}, move along the SiO2 walls, resulting in a dislocation reduction, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The dislocations were trapped within a thin InAs epilayer. The obtained 90-nm-wide InAs nanofins with an almost etching-pit-free surface do not require complex intermediate-layer epitaxial growth processes and large thickness typically required for conventional epitaxial growth. PMID:23176442

  15. Hot Canyon

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-03-01

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  16. Hot Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  17. Hot Tickets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara; Kuzyk, Raya; McCormack, Heather; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the highlights of this year's BookExpo America (BEA) held at the Los Angeles Convention Center. The attendees at BEA had not minded that the air was recycled, the lighting was fluorescent, and the food was bad. The first hot book sighting came courtesy of Anne Rice. Michelle Moran, author of newly published novel, "The…

  18. Layer Resolved Imaging of Magnetic Domain Motion in Epitaxial Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohar, Sioan; Choi, Yongseong; Love, David; Mansell, Rhodri; Barnes, Crispin; Keavney, David; Rosenberg, Richard

    We use X-ray Excited Luminescence Microscopy (XELM) to image the elemental and layer resolved magnetic domain structure of an epitaxial Fe/Cr wedge/Co heterostructure in the presence of large magnetic fields. The observed magnetic domains exhibit several unique behaviors that depend on the Cr thickness (tCr) modulated interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) strength. For Cr thickness tCr??1.5?nm, strongly coupled parallel Co-Fe reversal and weakly coupled layer independent reversal are observed, respectively. The transition between these two reversal mechanisms for 0.34?wall motion and stationary zig zag domain walls. We observe domain walls nucleated at switching field minima are guided by IEC spatial gradients and collapse at switching field maxima.

  19. Solar Hot Water Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  20. Electronic cooling via interlayer Coulomb coupling in multilayer epitaxial graphene

    PubMed Central

    Mihnev, Momchil T.; Tolsma, John R.; Divin, Charles J.; Sun, Dong; Asgari, Reza; Polini, Marco; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A.; MacDonald, Allan H.; Norris, Theodore B.

    2015-01-01

    In van der Waals bonded or rotationally disordered multilayer stacks of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the electronic states remain tightly confined within individual 2D layers. As a result, electron–phonon interactions occur primarily within layers and interlayer electrical conductivities are low. In addition, strong covalent in-plane intralayer bonding combined with weak van der Waals interlayer bonding results in weak phonon-mediated thermal coupling between the layers. We demonstrate here, however, that Coulomb interactions between electrons in different layers of multilayer epitaxial graphene provide an important mechanism for interlayer thermal transport, even though all electronic states are strongly confined within individual 2D layers. This effect is manifested in the relaxation dynamics of hot carriers in ultrafast time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. We develop a theory of interlayer Coulomb coupling containing no free parameters that accounts for the experimentally observed trends in hot-carrier dynamics as temperature and the number of layers is varied. PMID:26399955

  1. Calorimetry of epitaxial thin films.

    PubMed

    Cooke, David W; Hellman, F; Groves, J R; Clemens, B M; Moyerman, S; Fullerton, E E

    2011-02-01

    Thin film growth allows for the manipulation of material on the nanoscale, making possible the creation of metastable phases not seen in the bulk. Heat capacity provides a direct way of measuring thermodynamic properties of these new materials, but traditional bulk calorimetric techniques are inappropriate for such a small amount of material. Microcalorimetry and nanocalorimetry techniques exist for the measurements of thin films but rely on an amorphous membrane platform, limiting the types of films which can be measured. In the current work, ion-beam-assisted deposition is used to provide a biaxially oriented MgO template on a suspended membrane microcalorimeter in order to measure the specific heat of epitaxial thin films. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction showed the biaxial order of the MgO template. X-ray diffraction was also used to prove the high quality of epitaxy of a film grown onto this MgO template. The contribution of the MgO layer to the total heat capacity was measured to be just 6.5% of the total addenda contribution. The heat capacity of a Fe(.49)Rh(.51) film grown epitaxially onto the device was measured, comparing favorably to literature data on bulk crystals. This shows the viability of the MgO∕SiN(x)-membrane-based microcalorimeter as a way of measuring the thermodynamic properties of epitaxial thin films. PMID:21361612

  2. Method for rapid, controllable growth and thickness, of epitaxial silicon films

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Qi; Stradins, Paul; Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M.

    2009-10-13

    A method of producing epitaxial silicon films on a c-Si wafer substrate using hot wire chemical vapor deposition by controlling the rate of silicon deposition in a temperature range that spans the transition from a monohydride to a hydrogen free silicon surface in a vacuum, to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness is disclosed. The method includes placing a c-Si substrate in a HWCVD reactor chamber. The method also includes supplying a gas containing silicon at a sufficient rate into the reaction chamber to interact with the substrate to deposit a layer containing silicon thereon at a predefined growth rate to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness.

  3. Method of depositing epitaxial layers on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit

    2003-12-30

    An epitaxial article and method for forming the same includes a substrate having a textured surface, and an electrochemically deposited substantially single orientation epitaxial layer disposed on and in contact with the textured surface. The epitaxial article can include an electromagnetically active layer and an epitaxial buffer layer. The electromagnetically active layer and epitaxial buffer layer can also be deposited electrochemically.

  4. Wonderful Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  5. Hot Meetings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Mary

    2002-01-01

    A colleague walked by my office one time as I was conducting a meeting. There were about five or six members of my team present. The colleague, a man who had been with our institution (The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab, a.k.a. APL) for many years, could not help eavesdropping. He said later it sounded like we we re having a raucous argument, and he wondered whether he should stand by the door in case things got out of hand and someone threw a punch. Our Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) team was a hot group, to invoke the language that is fashionable today, although we never thought of ourselves in those terms. It was just our modus operandi. The tenor of the discussion got loud and volatile at times, but I prefer to think of it as animated, robust, or just plain collaborative. Mary Chiu and her "hot" team from the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory built the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft for NASA. Instruments on the spacecraft continue to collect data that inform us about what's happening on our most important star, the Sun.

  6. Epitaxial silicon growth for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiello, R. V.; Robinson, P. H.; Richman, D.

    1979-01-01

    The epitaxial procedures, solar cell fabrication, and evaluation techniques are described. The development of baseline epitaxial solar cell structures grown on high quality conventional silicon substrates is discussed. Diagnostic layers and solar cells grown on four potentially low cost silicon substrates are considered. The crystallographic properties of such layers and the performance of epitaxially grown solar cells fabricated on these materials are described. An advanced epitaxial reactor, the rotary disc, is described along with the results of growing solar cell structures of the baseline type on low cost substrates. The add on cost for the epitaxial process is assessed and the economic advantages of the epitaxial process as they relate to silicon substrate selection are examined.

  7. Transitional Boundary Layers Under the Influence of High Free Stream Turbulence, Intensive Wall Cooling and High Pressure Gradients in Hot Gas Circulation. Ph.D. Thesis - Technische Hochschule, Karlsruhe, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rued, Klaus

    1987-01-01

    The requirements for fundamental experimental studies of the influence of free stream turbulence, pressure gradients and wall cooling are discussed. Under turbine-like free stream conditions, comprehensive tests of transitional boundary layers with laminar, reversing and turbulent flow increments were performed to decouple the effects of the parameters and to determine the effects during mutual interaction.

  8. Wall Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  9. Wall Shear Stress, Wall Pressure and Near Wall Velocity Field Relationships in a Whirling Annular Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1996-01-01

    The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.

  10. Thermal breaking systems for metal stud walls -- Can metal stud walls perform as well as wood stud walls

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.

    1997-12-31

    Metal stud wall systems for residential buildings are gaining in popularity. Strong thermal bridges caused by highly conductive metal studs degrade the thermal performance of such walls. Several wall configurations have been developed to improve their thermal performance. The authors tried to evaluate some of these wall systems. The thermal performance of metal stud walls is frequently compared with that of wood stud walls. A reduction of the in-cavity R-value caused by the wood studs is about 10% in wood stud walls. In metal stud walls, thermal bridges generated by the metal components reduce their thermal performance by up to 55%. Today, metal stud walls are believed to be considerably less thermally effective than similar systems made of wood because steel has much higher thermal conductivity than wood. Relatively high R-values may be achieved by installing insulating sheathing, which is now widely recommended as the remedy for weak thermal performance of metal stud walls. A series of promising metal stud wall configurations was analyzed. Some of these walls were designed and tested by the authors, some were tested in other laboratories, and some were developed and forgotten a long time ago. Several types of thermal breaking systems were used in these walls. Two- and three-dimensional finite-difference computer simulations were used to analyze 20 metal stud wall configurations. Also, a series of hot-box tests were conducted on several of these walls. Test results for 22 additional metal stud walls were analyzed. Most of these walls contained conventional metal studs. Commonly used fiberglass and EPS were used as insulation materials. The most promising metal stud wall configurations have reductions in the center-of-cavity R-values of less than 20%.

  11. Epitaxial growth of CZT(S,Se) on silicon

    DOEpatents

    Bojarczuk, Nestor A.; Gershon, Talia S.; Guha, Supratik; Shin, Byungha; Zhu, Yu

    2016-03-15

    Techniques for epitaxial growth of CZT(S,Se) materials on Si are provided. In one aspect, a method of forming an epitaxial kesterite material is provided which includes the steps of: selecting a Si substrate based on a crystallographic orientation of the Si substrate; forming an epitaxial oxide interlayer on the Si substrate to enhance wettability of the epitaxial kesterite material on the Si substrate, wherein the epitaxial oxide interlayer is formed from a material that is lattice-matched to Si; and forming the epitaxial kesterite material on a side of the epitaxial oxide interlayer opposite the Si substrate, wherein the epitaxial kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se, and wherein a crystallographic orientation of the epitaxial kesterite material is based on the crystallographic orientation of the Si substrate. A method of forming an epitaxial kesterite-based photovoltaic device and an epitaxial kesterite-based device are also provided.

  12. Brush Seal Would Impede Flow Of Hot Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Paul F.; Easter, Barry P.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed brush seal helps prevent recirculating flow of hot combustion gases from reaching bellows seal located deep in gap in wall of combustion chamber. More durable, more tolerant of irregularities, and easier to install. Seals also helpful in impeding deleterious flows of hot gases in other combustion chambers such as those of furnaces and turbomachines.

  13. Effect of substrate temperature on the magnetic properties of epitaxial sputter-grown Co/Pt

    SciTech Connect

    Mihai, A. P.; Whiteside, A. L.; Canwell, E. J.; Marrows, C. H.; Moore, T. A.; Benitez, M. J.; McGrouther, D.; McVitie, S.; McFadzean, S.

    2013-12-23

    Epitaxial Co/Pt films have been deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering onto heated C-plane sapphire substrates. X-ray diffraction, the residual resistivity, and transmission electron microscopy indicate that the Co/Pt films are highly ordered on the atomic scale. The coercive field and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy increase as the substrate temperature is increased from 100–250 °C during deposition of the Co/Pt. Measurement of the domain wall creep velocity as a function of applied magnetic field yields the domain wall pinning energy, which scales with the coercive field. Evidence for an enhanced creep velocity in highly ordered epitaxial Co/Pt is found.

  14. 'Stucco' Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

  15. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632, INTERIOR. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF HOT CELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632, INTERIOR. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF HOT CELL NO. 2 FROM STAIRWAY ALONG NORTH WALL. OBSERVATION WINDOW ALONG WEST SIDE BENEATH "CELL 2" SIGN. DOORWAY IN LEFT OF VIEW LEADS TO CELL 1 WORK AREA OR TO EXIT OUTDOORS TO NORTH. RADIATION DETECTION MONITOR TO RIGHT OF DOOR. CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-28-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Epitaxial growth of europium monoxide on diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Melville, A.; Heeg, T.; Mairoser, T.; Schmehl, A.; Fischer, M.; Gsell, S.; Schreck, M.; Awschalom, D. D.; Holländer, B.; Schubert, J.; Schlom, D. G.

    2013-11-25

    We report the epitaxial integration of phase-pure EuO on both single-crystal diamond and on epitaxial diamond films grown on silicon utilizing reactive molecular-beam epitaxy. The epitaxial orientation relationship is (001) EuO ‖ (001) diamond and [110] EuO ‖[100] diamond. The EuO layer is nominally unstrained and ferromagnetic with a transition temperature of 68 ± 2 K and a saturation magnetization of 5.5 ± 0.1 Bohr magnetons per europium ion on the single-crystal diamond, and a transition temperature of 67 ± 2 K and a saturation magnetization of 2.1 ± 0.1 Bohr magnetons per europium ion on the epitaxial diamond film.

  17. Laser Induced Surface Chemical Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinespring, Charter D.; Freedman, Andrew

    1990-02-01

    Studies of the thermal and photon-induced surface chemistry of dimethyl cadmium (DMCd) and dimethyl tellurium (DMTe) on GaAs(100) substrates under ultrahigh vacuum conditions have been performed for substrate temperatures in the range of 123 K to 473 K. Results indicate that extremely efficient conversion of admixtures of DMTe and DMCd to CdTe can be obtained using low power (5 - 10 mJ cm-2) 193 nm laser pulses at substrate temperatures of 123 K. Subsequent annealing at 473 K produces an epitaxial film.

  18. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  19. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  20. Epitaxial Growth and Characterization of Silicon Carbide Films

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanaraj,G.; Dudley, M.; Chen, Y.; Ragothamachar, B.; Wu, B.; Zhang, H.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) epitaxial layers have been grown in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system designed and fabricated in our laboratory. Silicon tetrachloride-propane as well as silane-propane were used as precursor gases. The hot zone was designed based on simulation by using numerical modeling. Growth rates up to 200 {mu}m could be achieved. A new growth-assisted hydrogen etching was developed to show the distribution of the micropipes present in the substrate. Higher growth rate was observed on off-axis (0 0 0 1) 4 H SiC compared to the on-axis (0 0 0 1) wafer and growth mechanism was explained.

  1. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  2. Enhanced cold wall CVD reactor growth of horizontally aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wei; Kwak, Eun-Hye; Chen, Bingan; Huang, Shirong; Edwards, Michael; Fu, Yifeng; Jeppson, Kjell; Teo, Kenneth; Jeong, Goo-Hwan; Liu, Johan

    2016-05-01

    HASynthesis of horizontally-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (HA-SWCNTs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) directly on quartz seems very promising for the fabrication of future nanoelectronic devices. In comparison to hot-wall CVD, synthesis of HA-SWCNTs in a cold-wall CVD chamber not only means shorter heating, cooling and growth periods, but also prevents contamination of the chamber. However, since most synthesis of HA-SWCNTs is performed in hot-wall reactors, adapting this well-established process to a cold-wall chamber becomes extremely crucial. Here, in order to transfer the CVD growth technology from a hot-wall to a cold-wall chamber, a systematic investigation has been conducted to determine the influence of process parameters on the HA-SWCNT's growth. For two reasons, the cold-wall CVD chamber was upgraded with a top heater to complement the bottom substrate heater; the first reason to maintain a more uniform temperature profile during HA-SWCNTs growth, and the second reason to preheat the precursor gas flow before projecting it onto the catalyst. Our results show that the addition of a top heater had a significant effect on the synthesis. Characterization of the CNTs shows that the average density of HA-SWCNTs is around 1 - 2 tubes/ μm with high growth quality as shown by Raman analysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Characterization of Epitaxial Film Silicon Solar Cells Grown on Seeded Display Glass: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D. L.; Grover, S.; Teplin, C.; Stradins, P.; LaSalvia, V.; Chuang, T. K.; Couillard, J. G.; Branz, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    We report characterizations of epitaxial film crystal silicon (c-Si) solar cells with open-circuit voltages (Voc) above 560 mV. The 2-um absorber cells are grown by low-temperature (<750 degrees C) hot-wire CVD (HWCVD) on Corning EAGLE XG display glass coated with a layer-transferred (LT) Si seed. The high Voc is a result of low-defect epitaxial Si (epi-Si) growth and effective hydrogen passivation of defects. The quality of HWCVD epitaxial growth on seeded glass substrates depends on the crystallographic quality of the seed and the morphology of the epitaxial growth surface. Heterojunction devices consist of glass/c-Si LT seed/ epi n+ Si:P/epi n- Si:P/intrinsic a-Si:H/p+ a-Si:H/ITO. Similar devices grown on electronically 'dead' n+ wafers have given Voc {approx}630 mV and {approx}8% efficiency with no light trapping features. Here we study the effects of the seed surface polish on epi-Si quality, how hydrogenation influences the device character, and the dominant junction transport physics.

  4. Origin and reduction of impurities at GaAs epitaxial layer-substrate interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanber, H.; Yang, H. T.; Zielinski, T.; Whelan, J. M.

    1988-09-01

    Surface cleaning techniques used for semi-insulating GaAs substrates prior to epitaxial growth can have an important and sometimes detrimental effect on the quality and characteristics of epitaxial layers that are grown on them. We observe that a HF rinse followed by a 5:1:1 H 2SO 4:H 2O 2:H 2O etch and H 2O rinse drastically reduced the maximum concentrations and total amount of both SIMS detected S and Si for MOCVD grown GaAs undoped epitaxial layers. Subsequent final HCl and H 2O reduced the S interfacial residues to the SIMS detection limit. Total amounts of residual Si are estimated to be equivalent to 10 -2 to 10 -3 monolayers. Residual S is less. Alternately the S residue can be comparable reduced by a HF rinse followed by a NH 4OH:H 2O 2:H 2O etch and H 2O rinse. Hot aqueous HCl removes S but not Si residues. The Si residue is not electrically active and most likely exists as islands of SiO 2. The relative significance of the impurity residues is most pronounced for halide VPE, smaller for MBE and least for MOCVD grown GaAs epitaxial layers.

  5. Epitaxial growth and stress relaxation of vapor-deposited Fe-Pd magnetic shape memory films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnemund, L.; Edler, T.; Kock, I.; Seibt, M.; Mayr, S. G.

    2009-11-01

    To achieve maximum performance in microscale magnetic shape memory actuation devices epitaxial films several hundred nanometers thick are needed. Epitaxial films were grown on hot MgO substrates (500 °C and above) by e-beam evaporation. Structural properties and stress relaxation mechanisms were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, in situ substrate curvature measurements and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The high misfit stress incorporated during Vollmer-Weber growth at the beginning was relaxed by partial or perfect dislocations depending on the substrate temperature. This relaxation allowed the avoidance of a stress-induced breakdown of epitaxy and no thickness limit for epitaxy was found. For substrate temperatures of 690 °C or above, the films grew in the fcc austenite phase. Below this temperature, iron precipitates were formed. MD simulations showed how these precipitates influence the movements of partial dislocations, and can thereby explain the higher stress level observed in the experiments in the initial stage of growth for these films.

  6. Flow Characteristics of Plane Wall Jet with Side Walls on Both Sides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imao, Shigeki; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Kozato, Yasuaki; Hayashi, Takayasu

    Flow characteristics of a two-dimensional jet with side walls have been studied experimentally. Three kinds of cylindrical walls and a flat wall were provided as the side walls, and they were combined and attached to a nozzle. Nine types of side wall conditions were investigated. Velocity was measured by a hot-wire probe and the separation point was measured by a Pitot tube. Mean velocity profiles, the growth of the jet half-width, the decay of jet maximum velocity, and the attachment distance were clarified. When cylindrical walls with different radii are installed, the flow pattern changes markedly depending on the velocity of the jet. A striking increase in the jet half-width is related to the separation of flow from the smaller cylindrical wall just behind the nozzle.

  7. Epitaxial silicon devices for dosimetry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bruzzi, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Casati, M.; Menichelli, D.; Talamonti, C.; Piemonte, C.; Svensson, B. G.

    2007-04-23

    A straightforward improvement of the efficiency and long term stability of silicon dosimeters has been obtained with a n{sup +}-p junction surrounded by a guard-ring structure implanted on an epitaxial p-type Si layer grown on a Czochralski substrate. The sensitivity of devices made on 50-{mu}m-thick epitaxial Si degrades by only 7% after an irradiation with 6 MeV electrons up to 1.5 kGy, and shows no significant further decay up to 10 kGy. These results prove the enhanced radiation tolerance and stability of epitaxial diodes as compared to present state-of-the-art Si devices.

  8. Ion implanted epitaxially grown ZnSe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of ZnSe on (100) Ge using the close-spaced transport process is described. Substrate temperature of 575 C and source temperatures of 675 C yield 10 micron, single crystal layers in 10 hours. The Ge substrates provides a nonreplenishable chemical transport agent and the epitaxial layer thickness is limited to approximately 10 microns. Grown epitaxial layers show excellent photoluminescence structure at 77 K. Grown layers exhibit high resistivity, and annealing in Zn vapor at 575 C reduces the resistivity to 10-100 ohms-cm. Zinc vapor annealing quenches the visible photoluminescence.

  9. Electroless epitaxial etching for semiconductor applications

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2002-01-01

    A method for fabricating thin-film single-crystal silicon on insulator substrates using electroless etching for achieving efficient etch stopping on epitaxial silicon substrates. Microelectric circuits and devices are prepared on epitaxial silicon wafers in a standard fabrication facility. The wafers are bonded to a holding substrate. The silicon bulk is removed using electroless etching leaving the circuit contained within the epitaxial layer remaining on the holding substrate. A photolithographic operation is then performed to define streets and wire bond pad areas for electrical access to the circuit.

  10. High throughput vacuum chemical epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraas, L. M.; Malocsay, E.; Sundaram, V.; Baird, R. W.; Mao, B. Y.; Lee, G. Y.

    1990-10-01

    We have developed a vacuum chemical epitaxy (VCE) reactor which avoids the use of arsine and allows multiple wafers to be coated at one time. Our vacuum chemical epitaxy reactor closely resembles a molecular beam epitaxy system in that wafers are loaded into a stainless steel vacuum chamber through a load chamber. Also as in MBE, arsenic vapors are supplied as reactant by heating solid arsenic sources thereby avoiding the use of arsine. However, in our VCE reactor, a large number of wafers are coated at one time in a vacuum system by the substitution of Group III alkyl sources for the elemental metal sources traditionally used in MBE. Higher wafer throughput results because in VCE, the metal-alkyl sources for Ga, Al, and dopants can be mixed at room temperature and distributed uniformly though a large area injector to multiple substrates as a homogeneous array of mixed element molecular beams. The VCE reactor that we have built and that we shall describe here uniformly deposits films on 7 inch diameter substrate platters. Each platter contains seven two inch or three 3 inch diameter wafers. The load chamber contains up to nine platters. The vacuum chamber is equipped with two VCE growth zones and two arsenic ovens, one per growth zone. Finally, each oven has a 1 kg arsenic capacity. As of this writing, mirror smooth GaAs films have been grown at up to 4 μm/h growth rate on multiple wafers with good thickness uniformity. The background doping is p-type with a typical hole concentration and mobility of 1 × 10 16/cm 3 and 350 cm 2/V·s. This background doping level is low enough for the fabrication of MESFETs, solar cells, and photocathodes as well as other types of devices. We have fabricated MESFET devices using VCE-grown epi wafers with peak extrinsic transconductance as high as 210 mS/mm for a threshold voltage of - 3 V and a 0.6 μm gate length. We have also recently grown AlGaAs epi layers with up to 80% aluminum using TEAl as the aluminum alkyl source. The Al

  11. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  12. Magnetization reversal of in-plane uniaxial Co films and its dependence on epitaxial alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Idigoras, O. Suszka, A. K.; Berger, A.; Vavassori, P.; Obry, B.; Hillebrands, B.; Landeros, P.

    2014-02-28

    This work studies the influence of crystallographic alignment onto magnetization reversal in partially epitaxial Co films. A reproducible growth sequence was devised that allows for the continuous tuning of grain orientation disorder in Co films with uniaxial in-plane anisotropy by the controlled partial suppression of epitaxy. While all stable or meta-stable magnetization states occurring during a magnetic field cycle exhibit a uniform magnetization for fully epitaxial samples, non-uniform states appear for samples with sufficiently high grain orientation disorder. Simultaneously with the occurrence of stable domain states during the magnetization reversal, we observe a qualitative change of the applied field angle dependence of the coercive field. Upon increasing the grain orientation disorder, we observe a disappearance of transient domain wall propagation as the dominating reversal process, which is characterized by an increase of the coercive field for applied field angles away from the easy axis for well-ordered epitaxial samples. Upon reaching a certain disorder threshold level, we also find an anomalous magnetization reversal, which is characterized by a non-monotonic behavior of the remanent magnetization and coercive field as a function of the applied field angle in the vicinity of the nominal hard axis. This anomaly is a collective reversal mode that is caused by disorder-induced frustration and it can be qualitatively and even quantitatively explained by means of a two Stoner-Wohlfarth particle model. Its predictions are furthermore corroborated by Kerr microscopy and by Brillouin light scattering measurements.

  13. Correlations between coercivity and exchange bias in epitaxial NiO-Co(110) bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubourg, S.; Bobo, J. F.; Ousset, J. C.; Warot, B.; Snoeck, E.

    2002-05-01

    We have sputtered epitaxial NiO-Co samples on MgO (110) substrates. NiO epitaxially grows on the isostructural fcc MgO substrate but, due to surface energy minimization, its surface morphology is saw-tooth-like with terraces aligned along [001] direction and either (100) or (010) termination planes. The obtained nanostructures are 80-200 Å wide facets with micron-size length. Subsequently deposited Co layers adopt a fcc structure conformal with the NiO nanofacets. It consists thus in a set of connected nanostripes as evidenced by complementary structural characterizations. Shape anisotropy induces a strong easy axis along the stripe edges [001] and a hard axis along the [-110] MgO direction. Magnetization loops recorded along [001] have a total squareness. Thermal treatments were done in zero field for investigating the NiO/Co exchange thermal stability and activation. We observed thermally assisted exchange bias field (HE) variations on 1000 Oe field treated samples for various temperatures between 300 K and 400 K. Similar experiments were also performed on polycrystalline bilayers for comparison. For all samples (polycrystalline and epitaxial), thermal treatments induce a HE raise with a kinetics related to the anneal temperature. However, while the coercive field HC of epitaxial samples is significantly reduced, one of the polycrystalline samples remains constant. The ferromagnetic domain wall pinning at antiferromagnetic antiphase boundaries explains both results.

  14. Epitaxial Deposition Of Germanium Doped With Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium made by chemical vapor deposition. Method involves combination of techniques and materials used in chemical vapor deposition with GeH4 or GeCl4 as source of germanium and GaCl3 as source of gallium. Resulting epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium expected to be highly pure, with high crystalline quality. High-quality material useful in infrared sensors.

  15. Silicon Holder For Molecular-Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E.; Grunthaner, Paula J.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    1993-01-01

    Simple assembly of silicon wafers holds silicon-based charge-coupled device (CCD) during postprocessing in which silicon deposited by molecular-beam epitaxy. Attains temperatures similar to CCD, so hotspots suppressed. Coefficients of thermal expansion of holder and CCD equal, so thermal stresses caused by differential thermal expansion and contraction do not develop. Holder readily fabricated, by standard silicon processing techniques, to accommodate various CCD geometries. Silicon does not contaminate CCD or molecular-beam-epitaxy vacuum chamber.

  16. MHD Electrode and wall constructions

    DOEpatents

    Way, Stewart; Lempert, Joseph

    1984-01-01

    Electrode and wall constructions for the walls of a channel transmitting the hot plasma in a magnetohydrodynamic generator. The electrodes and walls are made of a plurality of similar modules which are spaced from one another along the channel. The electrodes can be metallic or ceramic, and each module includes one or more electrodes which are exposed to the plasma and a metallic cooling bar which is spaced from the plasma and which has passages through which a cooling fluid flows to remove heat transmitted from the electrode to the cooling bar. Each electrode module is spaced from and electrically insulated from each adjacent module while interconnected by the cooling fluid which serially flows among selected modules. A wall module includes an electrically insulating ceramic body exposed to the plasma and affixed, preferably by mechanical clips or by brazing, to a metallic cooling bar spaced from the plasma and having cooling fluid passages. Each wall module is, similar to the electrode modules, electrically insulated from the adjacent modules and serially interconnected to other modules by the cooling fluid.

  17. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  18. Epitaxial graphene quantum dots for high-performance terahertz bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fatimy, Abdel; Myers-Ward, Rachael L.; Boyd, Anthony K.; Daniels, Kevin M.; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Barbara, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Light absorption in graphene causes a large change in electron temperature due to the low electronic heat capacity and weak electron–phonon coupling. This property makes graphene a very attractive material for hot-electron bolometers in the terahertz frequency range. Unfortunately, the weak variation of electrical resistance with temperature results in limited responsivity for absorbed power. Here, we show that, due to quantum confinement, quantum dots of epitaxial graphene on SiC exhibit an extraordinarily high variation of resistance with temperature (higher than 430 MΩ K‑1 below 6 K), leading to responsivities of 1 × 1010 V W‑1, a figure that is five orders of magnitude higher than other types of graphene hot-electron bolometer. The high responsivity, combined with an extremely low electrical noise-equivalent power (∼2 × 10‑16 W Hz‑1/2 at 2.5 K), already places our bolometers well above commercial cooled bolometers. Additionally, we show that these quantum dot bolometers demonstrate good performance at temperature as high as 77 K.

  19. Epitaxial graphene quantum dots for high-performance terahertz bolometers.

    PubMed

    El Fatimy, Abdel; Myers-Ward, Rachael L; Boyd, Anthony K; Daniels, Kevin M; Gaskill, D Kurt; Barbara, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Light absorption in graphene causes a large change in electron temperature due to the low electronic heat capacity and weak electron-phonon coupling. This property makes graphene a very attractive material for hot-electron bolometers in the terahertz frequency range. Unfortunately, the weak variation of electrical resistance with temperature results in limited responsivity for absorbed power. Here, we show that, due to quantum confinement, quantum dots of epitaxial graphene on SiC exhibit an extraordinarily high variation of resistance with temperature (higher than 430 MΩ K(-1) below 6 K), leading to responsivities of 1 × 10(10) V W(-1), a figure that is five orders of magnitude higher than other types of graphene hot-electron bolometer. The high responsivity, combined with an extremely low electrical noise-equivalent power (∼2 × 10(-16) W Hz(-1/2) at 2.5 K), already places our bolometers well above commercial cooled bolometers. Additionally, we show that these quantum dot bolometers demonstrate good performance at temperature as high as 77 K. PMID:26727199

  20. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  1. 14. View of interior, north and east walls featuring sink, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of interior, north and east walls featuring sink, facing east (Note: B/W scale on wall in foreground is in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  2. Hot cell shield plug extraction apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Philip A.; Manhart, Larry K.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for moving shielding plugs into and out of holes in concrete shielding walls in hot cells for handling radioactive materials without the use of external moving equipment. The apparatus provides a means whereby a shield plug is extracted from its hole and then swung approximately 90 degrees out of the way so that the hole may be accessed. The apparatus uses hinges to slide the plug in and out and to rotate it out of the way, the hinge apparatus also supporting the weight of the plug in all positions, with the load of the plug being transferred to a vertical wall by means of a bolting arrangement.

  3. Prototype solar domestic hot water systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

  4. Effects of contamination on selective epitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Brian J.; Paton, Eric; Adem, Ercan; En, Bill

    2004-06-01

    As MOSFET dimensions scale down in size, it has become increasingly difficult to maintain high drive current while suppressing the off-state leakage current. One method of avoiding short-channel effects is to scale the source/drain (S/D) junction depths proportionally with the gate length. Unfortunately, this increases the S/D resistance, which slows the circuit. To keep the S/D junction shallow without affecting the S/D resistance, a raised S/D (RSD) structure is required. Integrating RSD can be difficult. Selective epitaxial growth (SEG) is the process used to incorporate RSD. This process requires a relatively clean surface to initiate the growth. Insertion of SEG earlier in the process flow facilitates selective epitaxial growth. Insertion of SEG later in the process flow results in higher levels of contamination at the interface of the Si substrate and the RSD structure. In this paper, we identify some mechanisms that determine the quality of the selective epitaxial film. Results indicate that Si defects are not a dominant mechanism in SEG film quality. Instead, results suggest that higher levels of contamination increased the surface roughness of the epitaxial film. PMOS regions were found to have higher levels of contamination and rougher epitaxial films than NMOS regions. Hydrogen bake as high as 900 °C was required to lower the surface contamination and provide excellent epitaxial morphology. Unfortunately, this high temperature causes enhanced dopant diffusion and deactivation of the device. Previous work [H. van Meer, K. De Meyer, Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers, 2002, p. 170.] identified an alternative integration that provides excellent quality selective epitaxy, without dopant diffusion and deactivation.

  5. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.

    2013-11-01

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La2-xSrxCuO4 layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV ˜γI3, with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ /dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area ge -ph≈1 W/K cm2 at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity.

  6. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.

    2013-11-25

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La{sub 2−x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV∼γI{sup 3}, with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ/dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area g{sub e−ph}≈1 W/K cm{sup 2} at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity.

  7. Engineering epitaxial graphene with oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimouche, Amina; Martin, Sylvain; Winkelmann, Clemens; Fruchart, Olivier; Courtois, Hervé; Coraux, Johann; Hybrid system at low dimension Team

    2013-03-01

    Almost free-standing graphene can be obtained on metals by decoupling graphene from its substrate, for instance by intercalation of atoms beneath graphene, as it was shown with oxygen atoms. We show that the interaction of oxygen with epitaxial graphene on iridium leads to the formation of an ultrathin crystalline oxide extending between graphene and the metallic substrate via the graphene wrinkles. Graphene studied in this work was prepared under ultra-high vacuum by CVD. The samples were studied by combining scanning probe microscopy (STM, AFM) and spatially resolved spectroscopy (Raman, STS). The ultrathin oxide forms a decoupling barrier layer between graphene and Ir, yielding truly free-standing graphene whose hybridization and charge transfers with the substrate have been quenched. Our work presents novel types of graphene-based nanostructures, and opens the route to the transfer-free preparation of graphene directly onto an insulating support contacted to the metallic substrate which could serve as a gate electrode. Work supported by the EU-NMP GRENADA project

  8. Spin transport in epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tbd, -

    2014-03-01

    Spintronics is a paradigm focusing on spin as the information vector in fast and ultra-low-power non volatile devices such as the new STT-MRAM. Beyond its widely distributed application in data storage it aims at providing more complex architectures and a powerful beyond CMOS solution for information processing. The recent discovery of graphene has opened novel exciting opportunities in terms of functionalities and performances for spintronics devices. We will present experimental results allowing us to assess the potential of graphene for spintronics. We will show that unprecedented highly efficient spin information transport can occur in epitaxial graphene leading to large spin signals and macroscopic spin diffusion lengths (~ 100 microns), a key enabler for the advent of envisioned beyond-CMOS spin-based logic architectures. We will also show that how the device behavior is well explained within the framework of the Valet-Fert drift-diffusion equations. Furthermore, we will show that a thin graphene passivation layer can prevent the oxidation of a ferromagnet, enabling its use in novel humide/ambient low-cost processes for spintronics devices, while keeping its highly surface sensitive spin current polarizer/analyzer behavior and adding new enhanced spin filtering property. These different experiments unveil promising uses of graphene for spintronics.

  9. Nanoimprint-lithography patterned epitaxial Fe nanowire arrays with misaligned magnetocrystalline and shape anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Bowden, Mark E.; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2013-01-01

    We fabricated large area (>1 × 1 cm2), epitaxial Fe nanowire arrays on MgO(001) substrates by nanoimprint lithography with a direct metallization of epitaxial materials through a metallic mask, which avoided the disadvantageous metal-etching process in conventional methods. The magnetization reversals, as revealed by magneto-optic Kerr effect, showed competing effects between Fe cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy and lithographically induced uniaxial shape anisotropy. Unlike the weakly induced uniaxial anisotropy observed in continuous films, both the magnitude and direction of the uniaxial shape anisotropy can be easily modulated in the nanowires. Complex magnetization reversal processes including two-step and three-step loops were observed when magnetizing the samples along different Fe cubic easy axes, respectively. Finally, these modified magnetization reversal processes were explained by the nucleation and propagation of the domain walls along the non-superimposed easy axes of the competing magnetocrystalline and shape anisotropies.

  10. Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, William E.

    1982-01-01

    Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine. A mobile housing has an opening large enough to encircle the access hole and has a shielding door, with a door opening and closing mechanism, for uncovering and covering the opening. The housing contains a shaft which has an apparatus for rotating the shaft and a device for independently translating the shaft from the housing through the opening and access hole into the hot cell chamber. A properly sized cylindrical pig containing wire brushes and cloth or other disks, with an arrangement for releasably attaching it to the end of the shaft, circumferentially cleans the access hole wall of radioactive contamination and thereafter detaches from the shaft to fall into the hot cell chamber.

  11. Stereo-epitaxial growth of single-crystal Ni nanowires and nanoplates from aligned seed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyoban; Yoo, Youngdong; Kang, Taejoon; Lee, Jiyoung; Kim, Eungwang; Fang, Xiaosheng; Lee, Sungyul; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-05-01

    Epitaxially grown anisotropic Ni nanostructures are promising building blocks for the development of miniaturized and stereo-integrated data storage kits because they can store multiple magnetic domain walls (DWs). Here, we report stereo-epitaxially grown single-crystalline Ni nanowires (NWs) and nanoplates, and their magnetic properties. Vertical and inclined Ni NWs were grown at the center and edge regions of c-cut sapphire substrates, respectively. Vertical Ni nanoplates were grown on r-cut sapphire substrates. The morphology and growth direction of Ni nanostructures can be steered by seed crystals. Cubic Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni NWs, tetrahedral Ni seeds grow into inclined Ni NWs, and triangular Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni nanoplates. The shapes of the Ni seeds are determined by the interfacial energy between the bottom plane of the seeds and the substrates. The as-synthesized Ni NWs and nanoplates have blocking temperature values greater than 300 K at 500 Oe, verifying that these Ni nanostructures can form large magnetic DWs with high magnetic anisotropy properties. We anticipate that epitaxially grown Ni NWs and nanoplates will be used in various types of 3-dimensional magnetic devices.Epitaxially grown anisotropic Ni nanostructures are promising building blocks for the development of miniaturized and stereo-integrated data storage kits because they can store multiple magnetic domain walls (DWs). Here, we report stereo-epitaxially grown single-crystalline Ni nanowires (NWs) and nanoplates, and their magnetic properties. Vertical and inclined Ni NWs were grown at the center and edge regions of c-cut sapphire substrates, respectively. Vertical Ni nanoplates were grown on r-cut sapphire substrates. The morphology and growth direction of Ni nanostructures can be steered by seed crystals. Cubic Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni NWs, tetrahedral Ni seeds grow into inclined Ni NWs, and triangular Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni nanoplates. The shapes of the Ni

  12. Stress-induced phase transition in ferroelectric domain walls of BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepkova, V.; Marton, P.; Hlinka, J.

    2012-05-01

    The seminal paper by Zhirnov (1958 Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 35 1175-80) explained why the structure of domain walls in ferroelectrics and ferromagnets is drastically different. Here we show that the antiparallel ferroelectric walls in rhombohedral ferroelectric BaTiO3 can be switched between the Ising-like state (typical for ferroelectrics) and a Bloch-like state (unusual for ferroelectric walls but typical for magnetic ones). Phase-field simulations using a Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire model suggest that this symmetry-breaking transition can be induced by a compressive epitaxial stress. The strain-tunable chiral properties of these domain walls promise a range of novel phenomena in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films.

  13. Epitaxial growth of two-dimensional stanene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feng-Feng; Chen, Wei-Jiong; Xu, Yong; Gao, Chun-Lei; Guan, Dan-Dan; Liu, Can-Hua; Qian, Dong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2015-10-01

    Following the first experimental realization of graphene, other ultrathin materials with unprecedented electronic properties have been explored, with particular attention given to the heavy group-IV elements Si, Ge and Sn. Two-dimensional buckled Si-based silicene has been recently realized by molecular beam epitaxy growth, whereas Ge-based germanene was obtained by molecular beam epitaxy and mechanical exfoliation. However, the synthesis of Sn-based stanene has proved challenging so far. Here, we report the successful fabrication of 2D stanene by molecular beam epitaxy, confirmed by atomic and electronic characterization using scanning tunnelling microscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, in combination with first-principles calculations. The synthesis of stanene and its derivatives will stimulate further experimental investigation of their theoretically predicted properties, such as a 2D topological insulating behaviour with a very large bandgap, and the capability to support enhanced thermoelectric performance, topological superconductivity and the near-room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect.

  14. Effect of ferroelastic twin walls on local polarizations switching - phase field modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Quanzi; Choudhury, S; Zhang, J X; Li, Y L; Chen, Q; Kalinin, S V

    2008-01-01

    Local polarization switching in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films in the presence of ferroelastic domain walls was studied using phase-field approach. The nucleation bias profile across a twin wall was analyzed, and the localization of preferential nucleation sites was established. This analysis was further extended to a realistic domain structure with multiple twin boundaries. It was observed that the local nucleation voltage required for a 180{sup o} domain switching is closely related to the number of such local defects.

  15. Effect of ferroelastic twin walls on local polarization switching: Phase-field modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, S.; Zhang, J. X.; Li, Y. L.; Chen, L. Q.; Jia, Q. X.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2008-10-01

    Local polarization switching in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films in the presence of ferroelastic domain walls was studied using phase-field approach. The nucleation bias profile across a twin wall was analyzed, and the localization of preferential nucleation sites was established. This analysis was further extended to a realistic domain structure with multiple twin boundaries. It was observed that the local nucleation voltage required for a 180° domain switching is closely related to the number of such local defects.

  16. Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon

    DOEpatents

    Berkman, Samuel

    1984-01-01

    A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

  17. Epitaxial Crystal Silicon Absorber Layers and Solar Cells Grown at 1.8 Microns per Minute

    SciTech Connect

    Bobela, D. C.; Teplin, C. W.; Young, D. L.; Branz, H. M.; Stradins, P.

    2011-01-01

    We have grown device-quality epitaxial silicon thin films at growth rates up to 1.85 {micro}m/min, using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition from silane, at substrate temperatures below 750 C. At these rates, which are more than 30 times faster than those used by the amorphous and nanocrystalline Si industry, capital costs for large-scale solar cell production would be dramatically reduced, even for cell absorber layers up to 10 {micro}m thick. We achieved high growth rates by optimizing the three key parameters: silane flow, depletion, and filament geometry, based on our model developed earlier. Hydrogen coverage of the filament surface likely limits silane decomposition and growth rate at high system pressures. No considerable deterioration in PV device performance is observed when grown at high rate, provided that the epitaxial growth is initiated at low rate. A simple mesa device structure (wafer/epi Si/a-Si(i)/a-Si:H(p)/ITO) with a 2.3 {micro}m thick epitaxial silicon absorber layer was grown at 0.7 {micro}m/min. The finished device had an open-circuit voltage of 0.424 V without hydrogenation treatment.

  18. Encapsulated solid phase epitaxy of a Ge quantum well embedded in an epitaxial rare earth oxide.

    PubMed

    Laha, Apurba; Bugiel, E; Jestremski, M; Ranjith, R; Fissel, A; Osten, H J

    2009-11-25

    An efficient method based on molecular beam epitaxy has been developed to integrate an epitaxial Ge quantum well buried into a single crystalline rare earth oxide. The monolithic heterostructure comprised of Gd2O3-Ge-Gd2O3 grown on an Si substrate exhibits excellent crystalline quality with atomically sharp interfaces. This heterostructure with unique structural quality could be used for novel nanoelectronic applications in quantum-effect devices such as nanoscale transistors with a high mobility channel, resonant tunneling diode/transistors, etc. A phenomenological model has been proposed to explain the epitaxial growth process of the Ge layer under oxide encapsulation using a solid source molecular beam epitaxy technique. PMID:19875877

  19. Role of interface band structure on hot electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garramone, John J.

    Knowledge of electron transport through materials and interfaces is fundamentally and technologically important. For example, metal interconnects within integrated circuits suffer increasingly from electromigration and signal delay due to an increase in resistance from grain boundary and sidewall scattering since their dimensions are becoming shorter than the electron mean free path. Additionally, all semiconductor based devices require the transport of electrons through materials and interfaces where scattering and parallel momentum conservation are important. In this thesis, the inelastic and elastic scattering of hot electrons are studied in nanometer thick copper, silver and gold films deposited on silicon substrates. Hot electrons are electron with energy greater than kBT above the Fermi level (EF). This work was performed utilizing ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) which is a three terminal scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) technique that measures the percentage of hot electrons transmitted across a Schottky barrier interface. Hot electron attenuation lengths of the metals were extracted by measuring the BEEM current as a function of metal overlayer thickness for both hot electron and hot hole injection at 80 K and under ultra high vacuum. The inelastic and elastic scattering lengths were extracted by fitting the energetic dependence of the measured attenuation lengths to a Fermi liquid based model. A sharp increase in the attenuation length is observed at low injection energies, just above the Schottky barrier height, only for metals on Si(001) substrates. In contrast, the attenuation length measured on Si(111) substrates shows a sharp decrease. These results indicate that interface band structure and parallel momentum conservation have significant impact upon the transport of hot electrons across non epitaxial metal-semiconductor interfaces. In addition, they help to separate effects upon hot electron transport that are inherent to the metal

  20. Hot Spot at Yellowstone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dress, Abby

    2005-01-01

    Within this huge national park (over two million acres spread across Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho) are steaming geysers, hot springs, bubbling mudpots, and fumaroles, or steam vents. Drives on the main roads of Yellowstone take tourists through the major hot attractions, which also include Norris Geyser Basin, Upper and Lower Geyser Basin, West…

  1. The Earth's Hot Spots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Gregory E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Hot spots are isolated areas of geologic activity where volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and upwelling currents occur far from plate boundaries. These mantle plumes are relatively stable and crustal plates drift over them. The nature and location of hot spots (with particular attention to the Hawaiian Islands and Iceland) are discussed. (DH)

  2. Computer simulation of ferroelectric domain structures in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. X.; Li, Y. L.; Choudhury, S.; Chen, L. Q.; Chu, Y. H.; Zavaliche, F.; Cruz, M. P.; Ramesh, R.; Jia, Q. X.

    2008-05-01

    Ferroelectric domain structures of (001)c, (101)c, and (111)c oriented epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films were studied by using the phase-field approach. Long-range elastic and electrostatic interactions were taken into account. The effects of various types of substrate constraint on the domain morphologies were systematically analyzed. It is demonstrated that domain structures of BiFeO3 thin films could be controlled by selecting proper film orientations and substrate constraint. The dependence of the {110}c-type domain wall orientation on substrate constraint for the (001)c oriented BiFeO3 thin film was also discussed.

  3. Epitaxial growth of three dimensionally structured III-V photonic crystal via hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qiye; Kim, Honggyu; Zhang, Runyu; Sardela, Mauro; Zuo, Jianmin; Balaji, Manavaimaran; Lourdudoss, Sebastian; Sun, Yan-Ting; Braun, Paul V.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals are one class of materials where epitaxy, and the resultant attractive electronic properties, would enable new functionalities for optoelectronic devices. Here we utilize self-assembled colloidal templates to fabricate epitaxially grown single crystal 3D mesostructured GaxIn1-xP (GaInP) semiconductor photonic crystals using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The epitaxial relationship between the 3D GaInP and the substrate is preserved during the growth through the complex geometry of the template as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. XRD reciprocal space mapping of the 3D epitaxial layer further demonstrates the film to be nearly fully relaxed with a negligible strain gradient. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflection measurement indicates the optical properties of the photonic crystal which agree with finite difference time domain simulations. This work extends the scope of the very few known methods for the fabrication of epitaxial III-V 3D mesostructured materials to the well-developed HVPE technique.

  4. Epitaxial growth of three dimensionally structured III-V photonic crystal via hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Qiye; Kim, Honggyu; Zhang, Runyu; Zuo, Jianmin; Braun, Paul V.; Sardela, Mauro; Balaji, Manavaimaran; Lourdudoss, Sebastian; Sun, Yan-Ting

    2015-12-14

    Three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals are one class of materials where epitaxy, and the resultant attractive electronic properties, would enable new functionalities for optoelectronic devices. Here we utilize self-assembled colloidal templates to fabricate epitaxially grown single crystal 3D mesostructured Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}P (GaInP) semiconductor photonic crystals using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The epitaxial relationship between the 3D GaInP and the substrate is preserved during the growth through the complex geometry of the template as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. XRD reciprocal space mapping of the 3D epitaxial layer further demonstrates the film to be nearly fully relaxed with a negligible strain gradient. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflection measurement indicates the optical properties of the photonic crystal which agree with finite difference time domain simulations. This work extends the scope of the very few known methods for the fabrication of epitaxial III-V 3D mesostructured materials to the well-developed HVPE technique.

  5. Epitaxy of semiconductor-superconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Krogstrup, P; Ziino, N L B; Chang, W; Albrecht, S M; Madsen, M H; Johnson, E; Nygård, J; Marcus, C M; Jespersen, T S

    2015-04-01

    Controlling the properties of semiconductor/metal interfaces is a powerful method for designing functionality and improving the performance of electrical devices. Recently semiconductor/superconductor hybrids have appeared as an important example where the atomic scale uniformity of the interface plays a key role in determining the quality of the induced superconducting gap. Here we present epitaxial growth of semiconductor-metal core-shell nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy, a method that provides a conceptually new route to controlled electrical contacting of nanostructures and the design of devices for specialized applications such as topological and gate-controlled superconducting electronics. Our materials of choice, InAs/Al grown with epitaxially matched single-plane interfaces, and alternative semiconductor/metal combinations allowing epitaxial interface matching in nanowires are discussed. We formulate the grain growth kinetics of the metal phase in general terms of continuum parameters and bicrystal symmetries. The method realizes the ultimate limit of uniform interfaces and seems to solve the soft-gap problem in superconducting hybrid structures. PMID:25581626

  6. Epitaxial solar-cell fabrication, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiello, R. V.; Robinson, P. H.; Kressel, H.

    1977-01-01

    Dichlorosilane (SiH2Cl2) was used as the silicon source material in all of the epitaxial growths. Both n/p/p(+) and p/n/n(+) structures were studied. Correlations were made between the measured profiles and the solar cell parameters, especially cell open-circuit voltage. It was found that in order to obtain consistently high open-circuit voltage, the epitaxial techniques used to grow the surface layer must be altered to obtain very abrupt doping profiles in the vicinity of the junction. With these techniques, it was possible to grow reproducibly both p/n/n(+) and n/p/p(+) solar cell structures having open-circuit voltages in the 610- to 630-mV range, with fill-factors in excess of 0.80 and AM-1 efficiencies of about 13%. Combinations and comparisons of epitaxial and diffused surface layers were also made. Using such surface layers, we found that the blue response of epitaxial cells could be improved, resulting in AM-1 short-circuit current densities of about 30 mA/cm sq. The best cells fabricated in this manner had AM-1 efficiency of 14.1%.

  7. 6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  8. Stereo-epitaxial growth of single-crystal Ni nanowires and nanoplates from aligned seed crystals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoban; Yoo, Youngdong; Kang, Taejoon; Lee, Jiyoung; Kim, Eungwang; Fang, Xiaosheng; Lee, Sungyul; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-05-21

    Epitaxially grown anisotropic Ni nanostructures are promising building blocks for the development of miniaturized and stereo-integrated data storage kits because they can store multiple magnetic domain walls (DWs). Here, we report stereo-epitaxially grown single-crystalline Ni nanowires (NWs) and nanoplates, and their magnetic properties. Vertical and inclined Ni NWs were grown at the center and edge regions of c-cut sapphire substrates, respectively. Vertical Ni nanoplates were grown on r-cut sapphire substrates. The morphology and growth direction of Ni nanostructures can be steered by seed crystals. Cubic Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni NWs, tetrahedral Ni seeds grow into inclined Ni NWs, and triangular Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni nanoplates. The shapes of the Ni seeds are determined by the interfacial energy between the bottom plane of the seeds and the substrates. The as-synthesized Ni NWs and nanoplates have blocking temperature values greater than 300 K at 500 Oe, verifying that these Ni nanostructures can form large magnetic DWs with high magnetic anisotropy properties. We anticipate that epitaxially grown Ni NWs and nanoplates will be used in various types of 3-dimensional magnetic devices. PMID:27129106

  9. Epitaxially-Grown GaN Junction Field Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Chang, P.C.; Denbaars, S.P.; Lester, L.F.; Mishra, U.K.; Shul, R.J.; Willison, C.G.; Zhang, L.; Zolper, J.C.

    1999-05-19

    Junction field effect transistors (JFET) are fabricated on a GaN epitaxial structure grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The DC and microwave characteristics of the device are presented. A junction breakdown voltage of 56 V is obtained corresponding to the theoretical limit of the breakdown field in GaN for the doping levels used. A maximum extrinsic transconductance (gm) of 48 mS/mm and a maximum source-drain current of 270 mA/mm are achieved on a 0.8 µ m gate JFET device at VGS= 1 V and VDS=15 V. The intrinsic transconductance, calculated from the measured gm and the source series resistance, is 81 mS/mm. The fT and fmax for these devices are 6 GHz and 12 GHz, respectively. These JFETs exhibit a significant current reduction after a high drain bias is applied, which is attributed to a partially depleted channel caused by trapped hot-electrons in the semi-insulating GaN buffer layer. A theoretical model describing the current collapse is described, and an estimate for the length of the trapped electron region is given.

  10. Rarefied gas flow behavior in micro/nanochannels under specified wall heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaj, Mojtaba; Akhlaghi, Hassan; Roohi, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of convective heat transfer on the argon gas flow through micro/nanochannels subject to uniform wall heat flux (UWH) boundary condition using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Both the hot wall (qwall > 0) and the cold wall (qwall < 0) cases are considered. We consider the effect of wall heat flux on the centerline pressure, velocity profile and mass flow rate through the channel in the slip regime. The effects of rarefaction, property variations and compressibility are considered. We show that UWH boundary condition leads to the thermal transpiration. Our investigations showed that this thermal transpiration enhances the heat transfer rate at the walls in the case of hot walls and decreases it where the walls are being cooled. We also show that the deviation of the centerline pressure distribution from the linear distribution depends on the direction of the wall heat flux.

  11. Wind tunnel wall interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Perry A.; Mineck, Raymond E.; Barnwell, Richard W.; Kemp, William B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    About a decade ago, interest in alleviating wind tunnel wall interference was renewed by advances in computational aerodynamics, concepts of adaptive test section walls, and plans for high Reynolds number transonic test facilities. Selection of NASA Langley cryogenic concept for the National Transonic Facility (NTF) tended to focus the renewed wall interference efforts. A brief overview and current status of some Langley sponsored transonic wind tunnel wall interference research are presented. Included are continuing efforts in basic wall flow studies, wall interference assessment/correction procedures, and adaptive wall technology.

  12. Wall surveyor project report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-02-22

    A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

  13. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632, INTERIOR. HOT CELL NO. 1 (THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632, INTERIOR. HOT CELL NO. 1 (THE FIRST BUILT) IN LABORATORY 101. CAMERA FACES SOUTHEAST. SHIELDED OPERATING WINDOWS ARE ON LEFT (NORTH) SIDE. OBSERVATION WINDOW IS AT LEFT OF VIEW (ON WEST SIDE). PLASTIC COVERS SHROUD MASTER/SLAVE MANIPULATORS AT WINDOWS IN LEFT OF VIEW. NOTE MINERAL OIL RESERVOIR ABOVE "CELL 1" SIGN, INDICATING LEVEL OF THE FLUID INSIDE THE THICK WINDOWS. HOT CELL HAS BEVELED CORNER BECAUSE A SQUARED CORNER WOULD HAVE SUPPLIED UNNECESSARY SHIELDING. NOTE PUMICE BLOCK WALL AT LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-28-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. If walls could talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The plant cell wall is very complex, both in structure and function. The wall components and the mechanical properties of the wall have been implicated in conveying information that is important for morphogenesis. Proteoglycans, fragments of polysaccharides and the structural integrity of the wall may relay signals that influence cellular differentiation and growth control. Furthering our knowledge of cell wall structure and function is likely to have a profound impact on our understanding of how plant cells communicate with the extracellular environment.

  15. Epitaxial piezoelectric thick film heterostructures on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Min

    The significantly higher dielectric permittivity, piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling coefficients of single crystal relaxor ferroelectrics make them very attractive for medical ultrasound transducers and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications. The potential impact of thin-film relaxor ferroelectrics in integrated actuators and sensor on silicon has stimulated research on the growth and characterization of epitaxial piezoelectric thin films. We have fabricated heterostructures by (1) synthesizing optimally-oriented, epitaxial thin films of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO 3 (PMN-PT) on miscut (001) Si wafers with epitaxial (001) SrTiO 3 template layers, where the single crystal form is known to have the giant piezoelectric response, and (2) nano-structuring to reduce the constraint imposed by the underlying silicon substrate. Up to now, the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33) values of PMN and PMN-PT thin films range from 50 to 200 pC/N have been reported, which are far inferior to the properties of bulk single crystals value (d33 ˜ 2000 pC/N). These might be attributed to substrate constraints, pyrochlore phases and other effects. Here, we have realized the giant d33 values by fabricating epitaxial PMN-PT thick films on silicon. When the PMN-PT film was subdivided into ˜1 mum2 capacitors by focused ion beam processing, a 4 mum thick film shows a low-field d33 of 800 pm/V that increases to over 1200 pm/V under bias, which is the highest d33 value ever realized on silicon substrates. These high piezo-reponse PMN-PT epitaxial heterostructures can be used for multilayered MEMS devices which function with low driving voltage, high frequency ultrasound transducer arrays for medical imaging, and capacitors for charge and energy storage. Since these PMN-PT films are epitaxially integrated with the silicon, they can make use of the well-developed fabrication process for patterning and micromachining of this large-area, cost

  16. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Camera facing southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Camera facing southwest. Oblique view of east and north walls. Note three corrugated pipes at lower left indicating location of underground hot waste storage tanks. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-1-4 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. In hot water, again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, Alastair; Watkins, Sheila

    2009-10-01

    Regarding Norman Willcox's letter about the problems of using solar panels for domestic heating (August p21), I also have thermal solar panels installed. However, contrary to his disappointing experience, I have found that they provide my family with a useful amount of hot water. In our system, the solar energy is used to heat a store of water, which has no other source of heat. Mains-pressure cold water passes through this store via a heat exchanger, removing heat from it and warming up. If the water becomes warm enough, an unpowered thermostatic valve allows it to go straight to the hot taps (mixing it with cold if it is too hot). However, if it is not hot enough, then the water is directed first through our previously installed gaspowered combination boiler and then to the taps.

  18. Reactor hot spot analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    The principle methods for performing reactor hot spot analysis are reviewed and examined for potential use in the Applied Physics Division. The semistatistical horizontal method is recommended for future work and is now available as an option in the SE2-ANL core thermal hydraulic code. The semistatistical horizontal method is applied to a small LMR to illustrate the calculation of cladding midwall and fuel centerline hot spot temperatures. The example includes a listing of uncertainties, estimates for their magnitudes, computation of hot spot subfactor values and calculation of two sigma temperatures. A review of the uncertainties that affect liquid metal fast reactors is also presented. It was found that hot spot subfactor magnitudes are strongly dependent on the reactor design and therefore reactor specific details must be carefully studied. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  19. Saturn's Hot Plasma Explosions

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation based on data obtained by NASA's Cassini Spacecraft shows how the "explosions" of hot plasma on the night side (orange and white) periodically inflate Saturn's magnetic field (white ...

  20. Hot Oiling Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-10-22

    One of the most common oil-field treatments is hot oiling to remove paraffin from wells. Even though the practice is common, the thermal effectiveness of the process is not commonly understood. In order for producers to easily understand the thermodynamics of hot oiling, a simple tool is needed for estimating downhole temperatures. Such a tool has been developed that can be distributed as a compiled spreadsheet.

  1. One-dimensional domain walls in thin ferromagnetic films with fourfold anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Ross G.; Muratov, Cyrill B.

    2016-06-01

    We study the properties of domain walls and domain patterns in ultrathin epitaxial magnetic films with two orthogonal in-plane easy axes, which we call fourfold materials. In these materials, the magnetization vector is constrained to lie entirely in the film plane and has four preferred directions dictated by the easy axes. We prove the existence of {{90}\\circ} and {{180}\\circ} domain walls in these materials as minimizers of a nonlocal one-dimensional energy functional. Further, we investigate numerically the role of the considered domain wall solutions for pattern formation in a rectangular sample.

  2. Studies of Epitaxial Silicon Nanowire Growth at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joun, Hee-Joung

    Silicon nanowires were grown epitaxially on Si (100) and (111) surfaces using the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism under both thermal and plasma enhanced growth conditions. Nanowire morphology was investigated as a function of temperature, time, disilane partial pressure and substrate preparation. Silicon nanowires synthesized in low temperature plasma typically curved compared to the linear nanowires grown under simple thermal conditions. The nanowires tended bend more with increasing disilane partial gas pressure up to 25 x10 -3 mTorr. The nanowire curvature measured geometrically is correlated with the shift of the main silicon peak obtained in Raman spectroscopy. A mechanistic hypothesis was proposed to explain the bending during plasma activated growth. Additional driving forces related to electrostatic and Van der Waals forces were also discussed. Deduced from a systematic variation of a three-step experimental protocol, the mechanism for bending was associated with asymmetric deposition rate along the outer and inner wall of nanowire. The conditions leading to nanowire branching were also examined using a two-step growth process. Branching morphologies were examined as a function of plasma powers between 1.5 W and 3.5 W. Post-annealing thermal and plasma-assisted treatments in hydrogen were compared to understand the influences in the absence of an external silicon source (otherwise supplied by disilane). Longer and thicker nanowires were associated with longer annealing times due to an Ostwald-like ripening effect. The roles of surface diffusion, gas diffusion, etching and deposition rates were examined.

  3. Ferroelastic twin structures in epitaxial WO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Shinhee; Woo, Chang-Su; Kim, Gi-Yeop; Sharma, Pankaj; Lee, Jin Hong; Chu, Kanghyun; Song, Jong Hyun; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Seidel, Jan; Choi, Si-Young; Yang, Chan-Ho

    2015-12-01

    Tungsten trioxide is a binary oxide that has potential applications in electrochromic windows, gas sensors, photo-catalysts, and superconductivity. Here, we analyze the crystal structure of atomically flat epitaxial layers on YAlO3 single crystal substrates and perform nanoscale investigations of the ferroelastic twins revealing a hierarchical structure at multiple length scales. We have found that the finest stripe ferroelastic twin walls along pseudocubic <100> axes are associated with cooperative mosaic rotations of the monoclinic films and the larger stripe domains along pseudocubic <110> axes are created to reduce the misfit strain through a commensurate matching of an effective in-plane lattice parameter between film and substrate. The typical widths of the two fine and larger stripe domains increase with film thickness following a power law with scaling exponents of ˜0.6 and ˜0.4, respectively. We have also found that the twin structure can be readily influenced by illumination with an electron beam or a tip-based mechanical compression.

  4. Domain epitaxy for thin film growth

    DOEpatents

    Narayan, Jagdish

    2005-10-18

    A method of forming an epitaxial film on a substrate includes growing an initial layer of a film on a substrate at a temperature T.sub.growth, said initial layer having a thickness h and annealing the initial layer of the film at a temperature T.sub.anneal, thereby relaxing the initial layer, wherein said thickness h of the initial layer of the film is greater than a critical thickness h.sub.c. The method further includes growing additional layers of the epitaxial film on the initial layer subsequent to annealing. In some embodiments, the method further includes growing a layer of the film that includes at least one amorphous island.

  5. Wafer bonded epitaxial templates for silicon heterostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Harry A., Jr. (Inventor); Zahler, James M. (Inventor); Morral, Anna Fontcubera I (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A heterostructure device layer is epitaxially grown on a virtual substrate, such as an InP/InGaAs/InP double heterostructure. A device substrate and a handle substrate form the virtual substrate. The device substrate is bonded to the handle substrate and is composed of a material suitable for fabrication of optoelectronic devices. The handle substrate is composed of a material suitable for providing mechanical support. The mechanical strength of the device and handle substrates is improved and the device substrate is thinned to leave a single-crystal film on the virtual substrate such as by exfoliation of a device film from the device substrate. An upper portion of the device film exfoliated from the device substrate is removed to provide a smoother and less defect prone surface for an optoelectronic device. A heterostructure is epitaxially grown on the smoothed surface in which an optoelectronic device may be fabricated.

  6. Ultrahigh efficiencies in vertical epitaxial heterostructure architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fafard, S.; York, M. C. A.; Proulx, F.; Valdivia, C. E.; Wilkins, M. M.; Arès, R.; Aimez, V.; Hinzer, K.; Masson, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    Optical to electrical power converting semiconductor devices were achieved with breakthrough performance by designing a Vertical Epitaxial Heterostructure Architecture. The devices are featuring modeled and measured conversion efficiencies greater than 65%. The ultrahigh conversion efficiencies were obtained by monolithically integrating several thin GaAs photovoltaic junctions tailored with submicron absorption thicknesses and grown in a single crystal by epitaxy. The heterostructures that were engineered with a number N of such ultrathin junctions yielded an optimal external quantum efficiencies approaching 100%/N. The heterostructures are capable of output voltages that are multiple times larger than the corresponding photovoltage of the input light. The individual nanoscale junctions are each generating up to ˜1.2 V of output voltage when illuminated in the infrared. We compare the optoelectronic properties of phototransducers prepared with designs having 5 to 12 junctions and that are exhibiting voltage outputs between >5 V and >14 V.

  7. Axions as hot and cold dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Kwang Sik; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Fuminobu E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-02-01

    The presence of a hot dark matter component has been hinted at 3σ by a combination of the results from different cosmological observations. We examine a possibility that pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons account for both hot and cold dark matter components. We show that the QCD axions can do the job for the axion decay constant f{sub a}∼wall annihilation. We also investigate the cases of thermal QCD axions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons coupled to the standard model sector through the Higgs portal, and axions produced by modulus decay.

  8. Optical Epitaxial Growth of Gold Nanoparticle Arrays.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ningfeng; Martínez, Luis Javier; Jaquay, Eric; Nakano, Aiichiro; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-09-01

    We use an optical analogue of epitaxial growth to assemble gold nanoparticles into 2D arrays. Particles are attracted to a growth template via optical forces and interact through optical binding. Competition between effects determines the final particle arrangements. We use a Monte Carlo model to design a template that favors growth of hexagonal particle arrays. We experimentally demonstrate growth of a highly stable array of 50 gold particles with 200 nm diameter, spaced by 1.1 μm. PMID:26230429

  9. An epitaxial ferroelectric tunnel junction on silicon.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Guo, Xiao; Lu, Hui-Bin; Zhang, Zaoli; Song, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shaobo; Bosman, Michel; Zhu, Jing; Dong, Zhili; Zhu, Weiguang

    2014-11-12

    Epitaxially grown functional perovskites on silicon (001) and the ferroelectricity of a 3.2 nm thick BaTiO3 barrier layer are demonstrated. The polarization-switching-induced change in tunneling resistance is measured to be two orders of magnitude. The obtained results suggest the possibility of integrating ferroelectric tunnel junctions as binary data storage media in non-volatile memory cells on a silicon platform. PMID:25200550

  10. Method of deposition by molecular beam epitaxy

    DOEpatents

    Chalmers, S.A.; Killeen, K.P.; Lear, K.L.

    1995-01-10

    A method is described for reproducibly controlling layer thickness and varying layer composition in an MBE deposition process. In particular, the present invention includes epitaxially depositing a plurality of layers of material on a substrate with a plurality of growth cycles whereby the average of the instantaneous growth rates for each growth cycle and from one growth cycle to the next remains substantially constant as a function of time. 9 figures.

  11. Method of deposition by molecular beam epitaxy

    DOEpatents

    Chalmers, Scott A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Lear, Kevin L.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for reproducibly controlling layer thickness and varying layer composition in an MBE deposition process. In particular, the present invention includes epitaxially depositing a plurality of layers of material on a substrate with a plurality of growth cycles whereby the average of the instantaneous growth rates for each growth cycle and from one growth cycle to the next remains substantially constant as a function of time.

  12. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    SciTech Connect

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Meier, W.R.

    1982-08-17

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. Produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithiumceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  13. Subcooled Boiling Near a Heated Wall

    SciTech Connect

    T.A. Trabold; C.C. Maneri; P.F. Vassallo; D.M. Considine

    2000-10-27

    Experimental measurements of void fraction, bubble frequency, and velocity are obtained in subcooled R-134a flowing over a heated flat plate near an unheated wall and compared to analytical predictions. The measurements were obtained for a fixed system pressure and mass flow rate (P = 2.4 MPa and w = 106 kg/hr) at various inlet liquid temperatures. During the experiments, electrical power was applied at a constant rate to one side of the test section. The local void fraction data, acquired with a hot-film anemometer probe, showed the existence of a significant peak near the heated wall and a smaller secondary peak near the unheated wall for the larger inlet subcoolings. Local vapor velocity data, taken with the hot-film probe and a laser Doppler velocimeter, showed broad maxima near the centerline between the heated and unheated plates. Significant temperature gradients near the heated wall were observed for large inlet subcooling. Bubble size data, inferred from measurements of void fraction, bubble frequency and vapor velocity, when combined with the measured bubble chord length distributions illustrate the transition from pure three dimensional spherical to two-dimensional planar bubble flow, the latter being initiated when the bubbles fill the gap between the plates. These various two-phase flow measurements were used for development of a multidimensional, four-field calculational method; comparisons of the data to the calculations show reasonable agreement.

  14. Suppression of creep-regime dynamics in epitaxial ferroelectric BiFeO3 films

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Y. J.; Jeon, B. C.; Yang, S. M.; Hwang, I.; Cho, M. R.; Sando, D.; Lee, S. R.; Yoon, J.-G.; Noh, T. W.

    2015-01-01

    Switching dynamics of ferroelectric materials are governed by the response of domain walls to applied electric field. In epitaxial ferroelectric films, thermally-activated ‘creep’ motion plays a significant role in domain wall dynamics, and accordingly, detailed understanding of the system’s switching properties requires that this creep motion be taken into account. Despite this importance, few studies have investigated creep motion in ferroelectric films under ac-driven force. Here, we explore ac hysteretic dynamics in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films, through ferroelectric hysteresis measurements, and stroboscopic piezoresponse force microscopy. We reveal that identically-fabricated BiFeO3 films on SrRuO3 or La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 bottom electrodes exhibit markedly different switching behaviour, with BiFeO3/SrRuO3 presenting essentially creep-free dynamics. This unprecedented result arises from the distinctive spatial inhomogeneities of the internal fields, these being influenced by the bottom electrode’s surface morphology. Our findings further highlight the importance of controlling interface and defect characteristics, to engineer ferroelectric devices with optimised performance. PMID:26014521

  15. Suppression of creep-regime dynamics in epitaxial ferroelectric BiFeO3 films.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y J; Jeon, B C; Yang, S M; Hwang, I; Cho, M R; Sando, D; Lee, S R; Yoon, J-G; Noh, T W

    2015-01-01

    Switching dynamics of ferroelectric materials are governed by the response of domain walls to applied electric field. In epitaxial ferroelectric films, thermally-activated 'creep' motion plays a significant role in domain wall dynamics, and accordingly, detailed understanding of the system's switching properties requires that this creep motion be taken into account. Despite this importance, few studies have investigated creep motion in ferroelectric films under ac-driven force. Here, we explore ac hysteretic dynamics in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films, through ferroelectric hysteresis measurements, and stroboscopic piezoresponse force microscopy. We reveal that identically-fabricated BiFeO3 films on SrRuO3 or La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 bottom electrodes exhibit markedly different switching behaviour, with BiFeO3/SrRuO3 presenting essentially creep-free dynamics. This unprecedented result arises from the distinctive spatial inhomogeneities of the internal fields, these being influenced by the bottom electrode's surface morphology. Our findings further highlight the importance of controlling interface and defect characteristics, to engineer ferroelectric devices with optimised performance. PMID:26014521

  16. Interplay between magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange bias in epitaxial CoO/Co films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao-Liang; Brems, Steven; Zeng, Yu-Jia; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André; Van Haesendonck, Chris

    2016-05-01

    The interplay between magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange bias is investigated in CoO/Co bilayer films, which are grown epitaxially on MgO (0 0 1), by magnetization reversal measurements based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect. While an asymmetric magnetization reversal survives after training for cooling field (CF) along the hard axis, the magnetization reversal becomes symmetric and is dominated in both branches of the hysteresis loop by domain wall motion before and after training for CF along the easy axis. When performing an in-plane hysteresis loop perpendicular to the CF, the hysteresis loop along the easy axis becomes asymmetric: magnetization rotation dominates in the ascending branch, while there is a larger contribution of domain wall motion in the descending branch. Furthermore, the azimuthal angular dependence of the AMR shows two minima after performing a perpendicular hysteresis loop, instead of only one minimum after training. Relying on the extended Fulcomer and Charap model, these effects can be related to an increased deviation of the average uncompensated antiferromagnetic magnetization from the CF direction. This model provides a consistent interpretation of training and asymmetry of the magnetization reversal for epitaxial films with pronounced magnetocrystalline anisotropy as well as for the previously investigated polycrystalline films.

  17. Interplay between magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange bias in epitaxial CoO/Co films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Liang; Brems, Steven; Zeng, Yu-Jia; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André; Van Haesendonck, Chris

    2016-05-18

    The interplay between magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange bias is investigated in CoO/Co bilayer films, which are grown epitaxially on MgO (0 0 1), by magnetization reversal measurements based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect. While an asymmetric magnetization reversal survives after training for cooling field (CF) along the hard axis, the magnetization reversal becomes symmetric and is dominated in both branches of the hysteresis loop by domain wall motion before and after training for CF along the easy axis. When performing an in-plane hysteresis loop perpendicular to the CF, the hysteresis loop along the easy axis becomes asymmetric: magnetization rotation dominates in the ascending branch, while there is a larger contribution of domain wall motion in the descending branch. Furthermore, the azimuthal angular dependence of the AMR shows two minima after performing a perpendicular hysteresis loop, instead of only one minimum after training. Relying on the extended Fulcomer and Charap model, these effects can be related to an increased deviation of the average uncompensated antiferromagnetic magnetization from the CF direction. This model provides a consistent interpretation of training and asymmetry of the magnetization reversal for epitaxial films with pronounced magnetocrystalline anisotropy as well as for the previously investigated polycrystalline films. PMID:27092595

  18. Optical Spin-Transfer-Torque-Driven Domain-Wall Motion in a Ferromagnetic Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, A. J.; Roy, P. E.; Haigh, J. A.; Otxoa, R. M.; Irvine, A. C.; Janda, T.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Wunderlich, J.

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate optical manipulation of the position of a domain wall in a dilute magnetic semiconductor, GaMnAsP. Two main contributions are identified. First, photocarrier spin exerts a spin-transfer torque on the magnetization via the exchange interaction. The direction of the domain-wall motion can be controlled using the helicity of the laser. Second, the domain wall is attracted to the hot spot generated by the focused laser. Unlike magnetic-field-driven domain-wall depinning, these mechanisms directly drive domain-wall motion, providing an optical tweezerlike ability to position and locally probe domain walls.

  19. Junction Transport in Epitaxial Film Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D. L.; Li, J. V.; Teplin, C. W.; Stradins, P.; Branz, H. M.

    2011-07-01

    We report our progress toward low-temperature HWCVD epitaxial film silicon solar cells on inexpensive seed layers, with a focus on the junction transport physics exhibited by our devices. Heterojunctions of i/p hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si) on our n-type epitaxial crystal Si on n++ Si wafers show space-charge-region recombination, tunneling or diffusive transport depending on both epitaxial Si quality and the applied forward voltage.

  20. Selective epitaxy using the GILD process

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, K.H.

    1990-12-31

    The present invention comprises a method of selective epitaxy on a semiconductor substrate. The present invention provides a method of selectively forming high quality, thin GeSi layers in a silicon circuit, and a method for fabricating smaller semiconductor chips with a greater yield (more error free chips) at a lower cost. The method comprises forming an upper layer over a substrate, and depositing a reflectivity mask which is then removed over selected sections. Using a laser to melt the unmasked sections of the upper layer, the semiconductor material in the upper layer is heated and diffused into the substrate semiconductor material. By varying the amount of laser radiation, the epitaxial layer is formed to a controlled depth which may be very thin. When cooled, a single crystal epitaxial layer is formed over the patterned substrate. The present invention provides the ability to selectively grow layers of mixed semiconductors over patterned substrates such as a layer of Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} grown over silicon. Such a process may be used to manufacture small transistors that have a narrow base, heavy doping, and high gain. The narrowness allows a faster transistor, and the heavy doping reduces the resistance of the narrow layer. The process does not require high temperature annealing; therefore materials such as aluminum can be used. Furthermore, the process may be used to fabricate diodes that have a high reverse breakdown voltage and a low reverse leakage current.

  1. Selective epitaxy using the gild process

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention comprises a method of selective epitaxy on a semiconductor substrate. The present invention provides a method of selectively forming high quality, thin GeSi layers in a silicon circuit, and a method for fabricating smaller semiconductor chips with a greater yield (more error free chips) at a lower cost. The method comprises forming an upper layer over a substrate, and depositing a reflectivity mask which is then removed over selected sections. Using a laser to melt the unmasked sections of the upper layer, the semiconductor material in the upper layer is heated and diffused into the substrate semiconductor material. By varying the amount of laser radiation, the epitaxial layer is formed to a controlled depth which may be very thin. When cooled, a single crystal epitaxial layer is formed over the patterned substrate. The present invention provides the ability to selectively grow layers of mixed semiconductors over patterned substrates such as a layer of Ge.sub.x Si.sub.1-x grown over silicon. Such a process may be used to manufacture small transistors that have a narrow base, heavy doping, and high gain. The narrowness allows a faster transistor, and the heavy doping reduces the resistance of the narrow layer. The process does not require high temperature annealing; therefore materials such as aluminum can be used. Furthermore, the process may be used to fabricate diodes that have a high reverse breakdown voltage and a low reverse leakage current.

  2. Electron holography of devices with epitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Gribelyuk, M. A. Ontalus, V.; Baumann, F. H.; Zhu, Z.; Holt, J. R.

    2014-11-07

    Applicability of electron holography to deep submicron Si devices with epitaxial layers is limited due to lack of the mean inner potential data and effects of the sample tilt. The mean inner potential V{sub 0} = 12.75 V of the intrinsic epitaxial SiGe was measured by electron holography in devices with Ge content C{sub Ge} = 18%. Nanobeam electron diffraction analysis performed on the same device structure showed that SiGe is strain-free in [220] direction. Our results showed good correlation with simulations of the mean inner potential of the strain-free SiGe using density function theory. A new method is proposed in this paper to correct electron holography data for the overlap of potentials of Si and the epitaxial layer, which is caused by the sample tilt. The method was applied to the analysis of the dopant diffusion in p-Field-effect Transistor devices with the identical gate length L = 30 nm, which had alternative SiGe geometry in the source and drain regions and was subjected to different thermal processing. Results have helped to understand electrical data acquired from the same devices in terms of dopant diffusion.

  3. Near-wall turbulence alteration through thin streamwise riblets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Lazos, Barry S.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of improving the level of drag reduction associated with near-wall riblets is considered. The methodology involves the use of a hot-wire anemometer to study various surface geometries on small, easily constructed models. These models consist of small, adjacent rectangular channels on the wall aligned in the streamwise direction. The VITA technique is modified and applied to thin-element-array and smooth flat-plate data and the results are indicated schematically.

  4. Turbulent flame-wall interaction: a DNS study

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jackie; Hawkes, Evatt R; Sankaran, Ramanan; Gruber, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    A turbulent flame-wall interaction (FWI) configuration is studied using three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) and detailed chemical kinetics. The simulations are used to investigate the effects of the wall turbulent boundary layer (i) on the structure of a hydrogen-air premixed flame, (ii) on its near-wall propagation characteristics and (iii) on the spatial and temporal patterns of the convective wall heat flux. Results show that the local flame thickness and propagation speed vary between the core flow and the boundary layer, resulting in a regime change from flamelet near the channel centreline to a thickened flame at the wall. This finding has strong implications for the modelling of turbulent combustion using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes or large-eddy simulation techniques. Moreover, the DNS results suggest that the near-wall coherent turbulent structures play an important role on the convective wall heat transfer by pushing the hot reactive zone towards the cold solid surface. At the wall, exothermic radical recombination reactions become important, and are responsible for approximately 70% of the overall heat release rate at the wall. Spectral analysis of the convective wall heat flux provides an unambiguous picture of its spatial and temporal patterns, previously unobserved, that is directly related to the spatial and temporal characteristic scalings of the coherent near-wall turbulent structures.

  5. Enhanced heat transfer rocket combustor technology component hot-fire test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, William S.

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of a method for enhancing combustor hot-gas wall heat extraction by using hot-fire tests of a rocket engine combustor calorimeter with hot-gas wall ribs is presented. The capability for enhanced heat extraction is required to increase available turbine drive energy for high chamber pressure operation, and therefore higher overall expander cycle engine performance. Determination of the rib effectiveness for incorporation into the design of a high-performance combustor for an advanced expander cycle combustor intended for use in an orbital transfer vehicle or advanced space engine, was the objective of these tests.

  6. Halogenation of microcapsule walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.

  7. The Lamportian cell wall

    SciTech Connect

    Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. )

    1991-05-01

    The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.

  8. IR Hot Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  9. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  10. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    SciTech Connect

    Maniscalco, James A.; Meier, Wayne R.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  11. Wall of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-02-15

    We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

  12. Hydrothermal epitaxy of perovskite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Allen T.

    1998-12-01

    This work details the discovery and study of a new process for the growth of epitaxial single crystal thin films which we call hydrothermal epitaxy. Hydrothermal epitaxy is a low temperature solution route for producing heteroepitaxial thin films through the use of solution chemistry and structurally similar substrates. The application of this synthesis route has led to the growth of a variety of epitaxial perovskite (BaTiOsb3, SrTiOsb3, and Pb(Zr,Ti)Osb3 (PZT)) thin films which provides a simple processing pathway for the formation of other materials of technological interest. BaTiOsb3 and PZT heteroepitaxial thin films and powders were produced by the hydrothermal method at 90-200sp°C using various alkali bases. XRD and TEM analysis shows that, in each case, the films and powders form epitaxially with a composition nearly identical to that of the starting precursors. Sequential growth experiments show that film formation initiates by the nucleation of submicron faceted islands at the step edges of the SrTiOsb3 substrates followed by coalescence after longer growth periods. A Ba-rich interfacial layer between the BaTiOsb3 islands and the SrTiOsb3 surface is seen by cross-section TEM during early growth periods. Electrophoretic and Basp{2+} adsorption data provide a chemical basis for the existence of the interfacial layer. Homoepitaxial growth of SrTiOsb3 on SrTiOsb3 also occurs by island growth, suggesting that the growth mode may be a consequence of the aqueous surface chemistry inherent in the process. Film formation is shown to be affected by any number of factors including type of base, pH, temperature, and substrate pretreatments. Different cation bases (Na-, K-, Rb-, Cs-, TMA-OH) demonstrated pronounced changes in powder and film morphology. For example, smaller cation bases (e.g., NaOH, KOH and RbOH) resulted the formation of 1.5 mum \\{100\\} faceted perovskite PbTiOsb3 blocks while larger cation bases (e.g., CsOH and TMA-OH) produced 500 nm sized

  13. Wall conditioning in JT-60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Akino, N.; Kodama, K.; Nakamura, H.; Niikura, S.; Takatsu, H.; Shimizu, M.; Ohkubo, M.; Ohta, M.; JT-60 Team

    1987-02-01

    The vacuum vessel of JT-60 has a volume of 160 m 3 and a vacuum side surface of 2750 m 2 containing the surfaces of the first wall and many types of ports. The first wall is made of 20 μm TiC coated molybdenum and Inconel 625, bolted to the inner surface of the vacuum vessel. The vacuum vessel is evacuated with four identical pumping systems with a total pumping speed of 29 m 3/s for hydrogen. The wall conditioning procedure consisted of two wipes with special cloths wetted by freon after hot water and freon jet cleaning, and three bakeouts were carried out before the first plasma production. An ultimate pressure of 7.4 × 10 -7 Pa and an outgassing rate of 6.8 × 10 -10 Pa m 3/s m 2 were obtained. Low current pulse discharge cleaning (TDC) was carried out for two weeks at a vacuum vessel temperature of 200°C. The TDC is performed typically with a plasma current of 30 kA, a pulse duration of 40 ms, a repetition period in the range from 0.3 s to 1.2 s, a hydrogen pressure of 5.0 × 10 -3 Pa, and a toroidal field of 0.45 T. The TDC conditioning for 50 h removed a quantity of water vapor corresponding to approximately 0.3 g. The main residual gases consisting of hydrocarbons, were monitored in addition to hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  14. 13. View of interior, north wall featuring fume hood, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of interior, north wall featuring fume hood, facing north (Note: B/W scale on fume hood is in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  15. Silver plating technique seals leaks in thin wall tubing joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blenderman, W. H.

    1966-01-01

    Leaks in thin wall tubing joints are sealed by cleaning and silver plating the hot gas side of the joint in the leakage area. The pressure differential across the silver during hydrostatic test and subsequent use forces the ductile silver into the leak area and seals it.

  16. Extrusion of small-diameter, thin-wall tungsten tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, C. P.; Gyorgak, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    Small-diameter, thin-wall seamless tubing of tungsten has been fabricated in lengths of up to 10 feet by hot extrusion over a floating mandrel. Extrusion of 0.50-inch-diameter tubing over 0.4-inch-diameter mandrels was accomplished at temperatures ranging from 3000 degrees to 4000 degrees F.

  17. Sequential imposed layer epitaxy of cuprate films

    SciTech Connect

    Laguees, M.; Tebbji, H.; Mairet, V.; Hatterer, C.; Beuran, C.F.; Hass, N.; Xu, X.Z. ); Cavellin, C.D. )

    1994-02-01

    Layer-by-layer epitaxy has been used to grow cuprate films since the discovery of high-Tc compounds. This deposition technique is in principle suitable for the growth of layered crystalline structures. However, the sequential deposition of atomic layer by atomic layer of cuprate compounds has presently not been optimized. Nevertheless, this deposition process is the only one which allows one to build artificial cell structures such as Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]Ca[sub (n[minus]1)]Cu[sub n]O[sub y] with n as large as 10. This process will also be the best one to grow films of the so-called infinite layer phase compounds belonging to the Sr[sub 1[minus]x]Ca[sub x]CuO[sub 2] family, in order to improve the transport properties and the morphological properties of the cuprate films. When performed at high substrate temperature (typically more than 600[degree]C), the layer-by-layer epitaxy of cuprates exhibits usually 3D aggregate nucleation. Then the growth of the film no longer obeys the layer-by-layer sequence imposed during the deposition. We present here two experimental situations of true 2D sequential imposed layer epitaxy; the growth at 500[degree]C under atomic oxygen pressure of Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CuO[sub 6] and of Sr[sub 1[minus]x]Ca[sub y]CuO[sub 2] phases. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Hot off the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisco, Nicole D.

    2007-01-01

    In the past, the newspaper was one of the world's most used sources of information. Recently, however, its use has declined due to the popularity of cable television and the Internet. Yet the idea of reading the morning paper with a hot cup of coffee holds many warm memories for children who watched their parents in this daily ritual. In this…

  19. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  20. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-04-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  1. What's Hot? What's Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buczynski, Sandy

    2006-01-01

    When Goldilocks finds three bowls of porridge at different temperatures in the three bears' house, she accurately assesses the situation and comes up with one of the most recognizable lines in children's literature," This porridge is too hot; this porridge is too cold; aahh, this porridge is just right!" Goldilocks' famous line is a perfect…

  2. HOT GAS CLEANUP PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to identify and classify 22 hot gas cleanup (HGC) processes for desulfurizing reducing gases at above 430 C according to absorbent type into groups employing solid, molten salt, and molten metal absorbents. It describes each process in terms of...

  3. Horseshoe pitchers' hot hands.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gary

    2003-09-01

    Gilovich, Vallone, and Tversky's (1985) analysis of basketball data indicates that a player's chances of making a shot are not affected by the results of earlier shots. However, their basketball data do not control for several confounding influences. An analysis of horseshoe pitching, which does not have these defects, indicates that players do have modest hot and cold spells. PMID:14620374

  4. Local transport measurements on epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baringhaus, J.; Edler, F.; Neumann, C.; Stampfer, C.; Forti, S.; Starke, U.; Tegenkamp, C.

    2013-09-01

    Growth of large-scale graphene is still accompanied by imperfections. By means of a four-tip scanning tunneling and electron microscope (4-tip STM/SEM), the local structure of graphene grown on SiC(0001) was correlated with scanning electron microscope images and spatially resolved transport measurements. The systematic variation of probe spacings and substrate temperature has clearly revealed two-dimensional transport regimes of Anderson localization as well as of diffusive transport. The detailed analysis of the temperature dependent data demonstrates that the local on-top nano-sized contacts do not induce significant strain to the epitaxial graphene films.

  5. Materials issues in molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, J.Y.

    1993-12-31

    The technology of crystal growth has advanced enormously during the past two decades; among those advances, the development and refinement of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has been among the most important. Crystals grown by MBE are more precisely controlled than those grown by any other method, and today form the basis for many of the most advanced device structures in solid-state physics, electronics and optoelectronics. In addition to its numerous device applications, MBE is also an enormously rich and interesting area of materials science in and of itself. This paper, discusses a few examples of some of these materials issues, organized according to whether they involve bulk, thin films, or surfaces.

  6. Large area epitaxial germanane for electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amamou, Walid; Odenthal, Patrick M.; Bushong, Elizabeth J.; O'Hara, Dante J.; Luo, Yunqiu Kelly; van Baren, Jeremiah; Pinchuk, Igor; Wu, Yi; Ahmed, Adam S.; Katoch, Jyoti; Bockrath, Marc W.; Tom, Harry W. K.; Goldberger, Joshua E.; Kawakami, Roland K.

    2015-09-01

    We report the synthesis and transfer of epitaxial germanane (GeH) onto arbitrary substrates by electrochemical delamination and investigate its optoelectronic properties. GeH films with thickness ranging from 1 to 600 nm (2-1000 layers) and areas up to ˜1 cm2 have been reliably transferred and characterized by photoluminescence, x-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Wavelength dependent photoconductivity measurements on few-layer GeH exhibit an absorption edge and provide a sensitive characterization tool for ultrathin germanane materials. The transfer process also enables the possibility of integrating germanane into vertically stacked heterostructures.

  7. Perspective: Oxide molecular-beam epitaxy rocks!

    SciTech Connect

    Schlom, Darrell G.

    2015-06-01

    Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) is the “gold standard” synthesis technique for preparing semiconductor heterostructures with high purity, high mobility, and exquisite control of layer thickness at the atomic-layer level. Its use for the growth of multicomponent oxides got off to a rocky start 30 yr ago, but in the ensuing decades, it has become the definitive method for the preparation of oxide heterostructures too, particularly when it is desired to explore their intrinsic properties. Examples illustrating the unparalleled achievements of oxide MBE are given; these motivate its expanding use for exploring the potentially revolutionary states of matter possessed by oxide systems.

  8. Epitaxial growth dynamics in gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestad, Anders

    The problem of a complete theory describing the far-from-equilibrium statistical mechanics of epitaxial crystal growth remains unsolved. Besides its academic importance, this problem is also interesting from the point of view of device manufacturing. In order to improve on the quality and performance of lateral nanostructures at the lengthscales required by today's technology, a better understanding of the physical mechanisms at play during epitaxial growth and their influence on the evolution of the large-scale morphology is required. In this thesis, we present a study of the morphological evolution of GaAs (001) during molecular beam epitaxy by experimental investigation, theoretical considerations and computational modeling. Experimental observations show that initially rough substrates smooth during growth and annealing towards a steady-state interface roughness, as dictated by kinetic roughening theory. This smoothing indicates that there is no need for a destabilizing step-edge barrier in this material system. In fact, generic surface growth models display a much better agreement with experiments when a weak, negative barrier is used. We also observe that surface features grow laterally, as well as vertically during epitaxy. A growth equation that models smoothing combined with lateral growth is the nonlinear, stochastic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation. Simulation fits match the experimentally observed surface morphologies quite well, but we argue that this agreement is coincidental and possibly a result of limited dynamic range in our experimental measurements. In light of these findings, we proceed by developing a coupled growth equations (CGE) model that describes the full morphological evolution of both flat and patterned starting surfaces. The resulting fundamental model consists of two coupled, spatially dependent rate equations that describe the interaction between diffusing adatoms and the surface through physical processes such as adatom diffusion

  9. Perspective: Oxide molecular-beam epitaxy rocks!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlom, Darrell G.

    2015-06-01

    Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) is the "gold standard" synthesis technique for preparing semiconductor heterostructures with high purity, high mobility, and exquisite control of layer thickness at the atomic-layer level. Its use for the growth of multicomponent oxides got off to a rocky start 30 yr ago, but in the ensuing decades, it has become the definitive method for the preparation of oxide heterostructures too, particularly when it is desired to explore their intrinsic properties. Examples illustrating the unparalleled achievements of oxide MBE are given; these motivate its expanding use for exploring the potentially revolutionary states of matter possessed by oxide systems.

  10. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scruggs, S. J.; Putman, P. T.; Zhou, Y. X.; Fang, H.; Salama, K.

    2006-07-01

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local Tc suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown.

  11. An experimental study of near wall flow parameters in the blade end-wall corner region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhargava, Rakesh K.; Raj, Rishi S.

    1989-01-01

    The near wall flow parameters in the blade end-wall corner region is investigated. The blade end-wall corner region was simulated by mounting an airfoil section (NACA 65-015 base profile) symmetric blades on both sides of the flat plate with semi-circular leading edge. The initial 7 cm from the leading edge of the flat plate was roughened by gluing No. 4 floor sanding paper to artificially increase the boundary layer thickness on the flat plate. The initial flow conditions of the boundary layer upstream of the corner region are expected to dictate the behavior of flow inside the corner region. Therefore, an experimental investigation was extended to study the combined effect of initial roughness and increased level of free stream turbulence on the development of a 2-D turbulent boundary layer in the absence of the blade. The measurement techniques employed in the present investigation included, the conventional pitot and pitot-static probes, wall taps, the Preston tube, piezoresistive transducer and the normal sensor hot-wire probe. The pitot and pitot-static probes were used to obtain mean velocity profile measurements within the boundary layer. The measurements of mean surface static pressure were obtained with the surface static tube and the conventional wall tap method. The wall shear vector measurements were made with a specially constructed Preston tube. The flush mounted piezoresistive type pressure transducer were employed to measure the wall pressure fluctuation field. The velocity fluctuation measurements, used in obtaining the wall pressure-velocity correlation data, were made with normal single sensor hot-wire probe. At different streamwise stations, in the blade end-wall corner region, the mean values of surface static pressure varied more on the end-wall surface in the corner region were mainly caused by the changes in the curvature of the streamlines. The magnitude of the wall shear stress in the blade end-wall corner region increased significantly

  12. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  13. Epitaxial Crystal Silicon Absorber Layers and Solar Cells Grown at 1.8 Microns per Minute: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bobela, D. C.; Teplin, C. W.; Young, D. L.; Branz, H. M.; Stradins, P.

    2011-07-01

    We have grown device-quality epitaxial silicon thin films at growth rates up to 1.8 μm/min, using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition from silane at substrate temperatures below 750 degrees C. At these rates, which are more than 30 times faster than those used by the amorphous and nanocrystalline Si industry, capital costs for large-scale solar cell production would be dramatically reduced, even for cell absorber layers up to 10 ?m thick. We achieved high growth rates by optimizing the three key parameters: silane flow, depletion, and filament geometry, based on our model developed earlier. Hydrogen coverage of the filament surface likely limits silane decomposition and growth rate at high system pressures. No considerable deterioration in PV device performance is observed when grown at high rate, provided that the epitaxial growth is initiated at low rate. A simple mesa device structure (wafer/epi Si/a-Si(i)/a-Si:H(p)/ITO) with a 2.3 um epitaxial silicon absorber layer was grown at 700 nm/min. The finished device had an open-circuit voltage of 0.424 V without hydrogenation treatment.

  14. Exercising Safely in Hot Weather

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising Safely in Hot Weather Many people enjoy outdoor activities—walking, gardening, ... older adults and people with health problems. Being hot for too long can cause hyperthermia—a heat- ...

  15. Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Folliculitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hot Tub Rash ( Pseudomonas Folliculitis) Information for adults A ... the skin and small pus-filled lesions. Overview Hot tub rash ( Pseudomonas folliculitis) is an infection of ...

  16. Cell wall integrity

    PubMed Central

    Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The plant cell wall, a dynamic network of polysaccharides and glycoproteins of significant compositional and structural complexity, functions in plant growth, development and stress responses. In recent years, the existence of plant cell wall integrity (CWI) maintenance mechanisms has been demonstrated, but little is known about the signaling pathways involved, or their components. Examination of key mutants has shed light on the relationships between cell wall remodeling and plant cell responses, indicating a central role for the regulatory network that monitors and controls cell wall performance and integrity. In this review, we present a short overview of cell wall composition and discuss post-synthetic cell wall modification as a valuable approach for studying CWI perception and signaling pathways. PMID:23857352

  17. Graphene nanoribbons epitaxy on boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaobo; Yang, Wei; Wang, Shuopei; Wu, Shuang; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Meng, Jianling; Xie, Guibai; Wang, Duoming; Wang, Guole; Zhang, Ting Ting; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yang, Rong; Shi, Dongxia; Zhang, Guangyu

    2016-03-01

    In this letter, we report a pilot study on epitaxy of monolayer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). We found that GNRs grow preferentially from the atomic steps of h-BN, forming in-plane heterostructures. GNRs with well-defined widths ranging from ˜15 nm to ˜150 nm can be obtained reliably. As-grown GNRs on h-BN have high quality with a carrier mobility of ˜20 000 cm2 V-1 s-1 for ˜100-nm-wide GNRs at a temperature of 1.7 K. Besides, a moiré pattern induced quasi-one-dimensional superlattice with a periodicity of ˜15 nm for GNR/h-BN was also observed, indicating zero crystallographic twisting angle between GNRs and h-BN substrate. The superlattice induced band structure modification is confirmed by our transport results. These epitaxial GNRs/h-BN with clean surfaces/interfaces and tailored widths provide an ideal platform for high-performance GNR devices.

  18. Polar domain walls trigger magnetoelectric coupling

    PubMed Central

    Fontcuberta, Josep; Skumryev, Vassil; Laukhin, Vladimir; Granados, Xavier; Salje, Ekhard K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Interface physics in oxides heterostructures is pivotal in material’s science. Domain walls (DWs) in ferroic systems are examples of naturally occurring interfaces, where order parameter of neighboring domains is modified and emerging properties may develop. Here we show that electric tuning of ferroelastic domain walls in SrTiO3 leads to dramatic changes of the magnetic domain structure of a neighboring magnetic layer (La1/2Sr1/2MnO3) epitaxially clamped on a SrTiO3 substrate. We show that the properties of the magnetic layer are intimately connected to the existence of polar regions at twin boundaries of SrTiO3, developing at , that can be electrically modulated. These findings illustrate that by exploiting the responsiveness of DWs nanoregions to external stimuli, even in absence of any domain contribution, prominent and adjustable macroscopic reactions of neighboring layers can be obtained. We conclude that polar DWs, known to exist in other materials, can be used to trigger tunable responses and may lead to new ways for the manipulation of interfacial emerging properties. PMID:26387597

  19. Hot Billet Surface Qualifier

    SciTech Connect

    Tzyy-Shuh Chang

    2007-04-30

    OG Technologies, Inc. (OGT), developed a prototype of a Hot Billet Surface Qualifier (“Qualifier”) based on OGT’s patented HotEye™ technology and other proprietary imaging and computing technologies. The Qualifier demonstrated its ability of imaging the cast billets in line with high definition pictures, pictures capable of supporting the detection of surface anomalies on the billets. The detection will add the ability to simplify the subsequent process and to correct the surface quality issues in a much more timely and efficient manner. This is challenging due to the continuous casting environment, in which corrosive water, temperature, vibration, humidity, EMI and other unbearable factors exist. Each installation has the potential of 249,000 MMBTU in energy savings per year. This represents a cost reduction, reduced emissions, reduced water usage and reduced mill scale.

  20. Hot Spring Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Olalla; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Hot springs have been investigated since the XIX century, but isolation and examination of their thermophilic microbial inhabitants did not start until the 1950s. Many thermophilic microorganisms and their viruses have since been discovered, although the real complexity of thermal communities was envisaged when research based on PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes arose. Thereafter, the possibility of cloning and sequencing the total environmental DNA, defined as metagenome, and the study of the genes rescued in the metagenomic libraries and assemblies made it possible to gain a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities—their diversity, structure, the interactions existing between their components, and the factors shaping the nature of these communities. In the last decade, hot springs have been a source of thermophilic enzymes of industrial interest, encouraging further study of the poorly understood diversity of microbial life in these habitats. PMID:25369743

  1. THE HOT CHOCOLATE EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1980-12-01

    The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

  2. Hot chocolate effect

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.S.

    1982-05-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

  3. Phase-field simulation of domain structures in epitaxial BiFeO3 films on vicinal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winchester, B.; Wu, P.; Chen, L. Q.

    2011-08-01

    The ferroelectric domain structures of epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films on miscut substrates were studied using a phase-field model. The effects of substrate vicinality towards (100) are considered by assuming charge-compensated surface and film/substrate interface. The predicted domain structures show remarkable agreement with existing experimental observations, including domain wall orientations and local topological domain configurations. The roles of elastic, electric, and gradient energies on the domain structures were analyzed. It is shown that the substrate strain anisotropy due to the miscut largely determines the domain variant selection and domain configurations.

  4. Microstructural, Magnetic Anisotropy, and Magnetic Domain Structure Correlations in Epitaxial FePd Thin Films with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skuza, J. R.; Clavero, C.; Yang, K.; Wincheski, B.; Lukaszew, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    L1(sub 0)-ordered FePd epitaxial thin films were prepared using dc magnetron sputter deposition on MgO (001) substrates. The films were grown with varying thickness and degree of chemical order to investigate the interplay between the microstructure, magnetic anisotropy, and magnetic domain structure. The experimentally measured domain size/period and magnetic anisotropy in this high perpendicular anisotropy system were found to be correlated following the analytical energy model proposed by Kooy and Enz that considers a delicate balance between the domain wall energy and the demagnetizing stray field energy.

  5. The ''hot'' patella

    SciTech Connect

    Kipper, M.S.; Alazraki, N.P.; Feiglin, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Increased patellar uptake on bone scans is seen quite commonly but the possible or probable etiologies of this finding have not been previously well described. A review of 100 consecutive bone scans showed that the incidence of bilateral ''hot'' patellae is 15%. Identified etiologies include osteoarthritic degenerative disease (35%), fracture, possible metastatic disease, bursitis, Paget's disease, and osteomyelitis. The value of careful history, physical examination, and radiographs is stressed.

  6. Session: Hot Dry Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Duchane, David V.; Ponden, Raymond F.; Brown, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Hot Dry Rock - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long Term Flow Test'' by David V. Duchane; ''Start-Up Operations at the Fenton Hill HDR Pilot Plant'' by Raymond F. Ponden; and ''Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program'' by Donald W. Brown.

  7. Hot electron spin attenuation lengths of bcc Fe34Co66—Room temperature Magnetocurrent of 1200%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heindl, E.; Kefes, C.; Soda, M.; Vancea, J.; Back, C. H.

    2009-11-01

    We investigate spin-dependent hot electron transport through metallic epitaxial spin valves by ballistic electron magnetic microscopy (BEMM). By variation of the thickness of one of the ferromagnetic layers we determine the spin dependent attenuation lengths which reflect hot electron transport along the vicinity of the [1 0 0]-axis of the bcc Fe34Co66 lattice. The majority spin attenuation length is more than 6 times larger than that of the minority spins within the measured energy interval of 1.3 up to 2 eV above the Fermi level. Consequently a Magnetocurrent effect exceeding 1200% accompanied by a monotonic bias voltage behavior is observed at room temperature.

  8. Advances in Hot-Structure Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin; Glass, David E.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has actively participated in the development of hot structures technology for application to hypersonic flight systems. Hot structures have been developed for vehicles including the X-43A, X-37, and the Space Shuttle. These trans-atmospheric and atmospheric entry flight systems that incorporate hot-structures technology are lighter weight and require less maintenance than those that incorporate parasitic, thermal-protection materials that attach to warm or cool substructure. The development of hot structures requires a thorough understanding of material performance in an extreme environment, boundary conditions and load interactions, structural joint performance, and thermal and mechanical performance of integrated structural systems that operate at temperatures ranging from 1500 C to 3000 C, depending on the application. This paper will present recent advances in the development of hot structures, including development of environmentally durable, high temperature leading edges and control surfaces, integrated thermal protection systems, and repair technologies. The X-43A Mach-10 vehicle utilized carbon/carbon (C/C) leading edges on the nose, horizontal control surface, and vertical tail. The nose and vertical and horizontal tail leading edges were fabricated out of a 3:1 biased, high thermal conductivity C/C. The leading edges were coated with a three-layer coating comprised of a SiC conversion of the C/C, followed by a CVD layer of SiC, followed by a thin CVD layer of HfC. Work has also been performed on the development of an integrated structure and was focused on both hot and warm (insulated) structures and integrated fuselage/tank/TPS systems. The objective was to develop integrated multifunctional airframe structures that eliminate fragile external thermal-protection systems and incorporate the insulating function within the structure. The approach taken to achieve this goal was to develop candidate hypersonic

  9. Epitaxial EuO thin films on GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, A. G.; Ciraldo, J.; Wong, J. J. I.; Li Yan; Han Wei; Lin Tao; Shi, J.; Kawakami, R. K.; Mack, S.; Awschalom, D. D.

    2010-09-13

    We demonstrate the epitaxial growth of EuO on GaAs by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Thin films are grown in an adsorption-controlled regime with the aid of an MgO diffusion barrier. Despite the large lattice mismatch, it is shown that EuO grows well on MgO(001) with excellent magnetic properties. Epitaxy on GaAs is cube-on-cube and longitudinal magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements demonstrate a large Kerr rotation of 0.57 deg., a significant remanent magnetization, and a Curie temperature of 69 K.

  10. Epitaxial growth of fcc Cr on Au(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, S.M.; Berman, L.E.; Batterman, B.W.; Brodsky, M.B.; Hamaker, H.C.

    1988-04-15

    Synchrotron x-ray diffraction and anomalous dispersion measurements of 25A Cr layers epitaxially grown on (100) Au surfaces indicate the presence of fcc Cr domains, while extended x-ray absorption fine-structure spectra are consistent with the usual bcc phase of Cr. Together these data suggest that the fcc phase is a major fraction of the larger epitaxial Cr domains, but that most Cr atoms are in a bcc environment with much smaller domain sizes. This unusual, epitaxially stabilized fcc Cr structure may be related to previously reported low-temperature resistance anomalies.