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Sample records for hours post dosing

  1. Saran-Chloropel plastic suit worker dose rates from airborne tritium exposure - first exposure hour

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.

    1993-04-20

    Radiological Engineering was requested to develop Tritium Stay Time Chart dose rates for the 9 mil Saran-Chloropel (CPE) plastic suit for a period of one hour or less. Assumptions utilized in previous calculations were revised to better address the first hour of exposure in the suit for emergency situations.

  2. HOW RELIABLE IS 24 HOUR SERUM LITHIUM LEVEL AFTER A TEST DOSE OF LITHIUM IN PREDICTING OPTIMAL LITHIUM DOSE?

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, K.; Shaji, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY 57% of a group of 35 patients treated with Lithium Carbonate at dosages predicted by the nomogram suggested by Cooper et al (1973) failed to reach therapeutic levels of serum lithium. This finding casts serious doubts on the usefulness of the claim by Cooper et al (1973 & 1976) that 24 hour serum lithium level after a test dose of 600 mg. lithium can predict the daily lithium dose. PMID:21927360

  3. Validation of 1-hour post-thyroidectomy parathyroid hormone level in predicting hypocalcemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior work by our group suggested that a single one hour post-thyroidectomy parathyroid hormone (1 hr PTH) level could accurately stratify patients into high and low risk groups for the development of hypocalcemia. This study looks to validate the safety and efficacy of a protocol based on a 1 hr PTH threshold of 12 pg/ml. Study design Retrospective analysis of consecutive cohort treated with standardized protocol. Methods One hundred and twenty five consecutive patients underwent total or completion thyroidectomy and their PTH level was drawn 1-hour post operatively. Based on our previous work, patients were stratified into either a low risk group (PTH < 12 pg/ml) or a high risk group (PTH ≥ 12 pg/ml). Patients in the high risk group were immediately started on prophylactic calcium carbonate (5–10 g/d) and calcitriol (0.5-1.0 mcg/d). The outcomes were then reviewed focusing mainly on how many low risk patients developed hypocalcemia (false negative rate), and how many high risk patients failed prophylactic therapy. Results Thirty one patients (25%) were stratified as high risk, and 94 (75%) as low risk. Five (16%) of the high risk patients became hypocalcemic despite prophylactic therapy. Two of the low risk group became hypocalcemic, (negative predictive value = 98%). None of the hypocalcemic patients had anything more than mild symptoms. Conclusions A single 1-hour post-thyroidectomy PTH level is a very useful way to stratify thyroidectomy patients into high and low risk groups for development of hypocalcemia. Early implementation of oral prophylactic calcium and vitamin D in the high risk patients is a very effective way to prevent serious hypocalcemia. Complex protocols requiring multiple calcium and PTH measurements are not required to guide post-thyroidectomy management. PMID:24476535

  4. Sleep deprivation during a specific 3-hour time window post-training impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Toni-Moi; Wimmer, Mathieu; Choi, Jennifer; Havekes, Robbert; Aton, Sara; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts hippocampal function and plasticity. In particular, long-term memory consolidation is impaired by sleep deprivation, suggesting that a specific critical period exists following learning during which sleep is necessary. To elucidate the impact of sleep deprivation on long-term memory consolidation and synaptic plasticity, long-term memory was assessed when mice were sleep deprived following training in the hippocampus-dependent object place recognition task. We found that 3 hours of sleep deprivation significantly impaired memory when deprivation began 1 hour after training. In contrast, 3 hours of deprivation beginning immediately post-training did not impair spatial memory. Furthermore, a 3-hour sleep deprivation beginning 1 hour after training impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas sleep deprivation immediately after training did not affect LTP. Together, our findings define a specific 3-hour critical period, extending from 1 to 4 hours after training, during which sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal function. PMID:24380868

  5. Do regulated resident working hours affect medical graduate education? Trends in the American psychiatry board pass rates pre- and post-2003 duty hours regulations.

    PubMed

    Jain, Gaurav; Dzara, Kristina; Mazhar, Mir Nadeem; Punwani, Manisha

    2014-12-01

    Aims and method To assess trends of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology examination pass rates before and after the 2003 duty hours regulations (DHR). We obtained the pass rates for part I and II for years 2000-2010. Data were divided pre-DHR (2000-2003) and post-DHR (2007-2010). Results During the pre-DHR period, first- and multiple-attempt group pass rates were 80.7% and 39.0% which changed in the post-DHR period to 89.7% and 39.1% respectively. Similarly for the part II exam, the pre-DHR first- and multiple-attempt group pass rates were 60.2% and 43.5% respectively, which increased to 78.7% and 53.8%, among the post-DHR group. Overall, there was a significant increase in the first-attempt candidates pass rates for parts I and II, whereas multiple-attempt candidates did not benefit as strongly. Clinical implications The results suggest that the 2003 DHR may have had a positive impact on examination-based medical knowledge in psychiatry. PMID:25505632

  6. Efficacy of 2-hour post glucose insulin levels in predicting insulin resistance in polycystic ovarian syndrome with infertility

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Pikee; Prakash, Anupam; Nigam, Aruna

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is central to the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), but tests for determining IR are elaborate, tedious and expensive. AIMS: To evaluate if “2-hour post-glucose insulin level” is an effective indicator of IR and can aid in diagnosing IR in infertile PCOS women. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Observational study at infertility clinic of a tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 infertile women with PCOS and 20 females with tubal/male factor infertility were evaluated for the presence of IR, as defined by the fasting/2-hour post-glucose insulin levels cutoffs of >25/>41 μU/mL, respectively. The clinical, metabolic and endocrinologic profile was determined in both the groups. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS: Body mass index, post load glucose, insulin, glucose/insulin ratio, area under curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin and insulinogenic index were significantly lower in the controls as compared to the PCOS group. “2-hour post-glucose insulin levels” were elevated in 88% of PCOS individuals but were normal in all females not suffering from PCOS. These levels significantly correlated with AUC of glucose and insulin, and insulinogenic index and inversely correlated with 2-hour glucose to insulin ratio (r=0.827, 0.749 and –0.732, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: “2-hour post-glucose insulin levels” appears to be a good indicator of IR. It can be a useful tool, especially in low resource setting where a single sample can confirm the diagnosis, thus reducing cost and repeat visits. PMID:21772735

  7. Ticagrelor versus high dose clopidogrel in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients with high platelet reactivity post fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Perperis, Angelos; Koniari, Ioanna; Karvounis, Haralambos; Patsilinakos, Sotirios; Ziakas, Antonios; Barampoutis, Nikolaos; Panagiotidis, Theofilos; Akinosoglou, Karolina; Hahalis, George; Xanthopoulou, Ioanna

    2015-10-01

    Limited data are available on high platelet reactivity (HPR) rate early post fibrinolysis, while no effective way to overcome it has been proposed. In this context, we aimed to compare ticagrelor versus high dose clopidogrel in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who exhibit HPR post fibrinolysis. In a prospective, randomized, parallel design, 3-center study, 56 STEMI patients, out of 83 (67.5 %) screened, who presented with HPR (PRU ≥ 208 by VerifyNow) 3-48 h post fibrinolysis and prior to coronary angiography were allocated to ticagrelor 180 mg loading dose (LD)/90 mg bid maintenance dose (MD) or clopidogrel 600 mg LD/150 mg MD. Platelet reactivity was assessed at randomization (Hour 0), at Hour 2, Hour 24 and pre-discharge. The primary endpoint of platelet reactivity (in PRU) at Hour 2 was significantly lower for ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel with a least square mean difference (95 % confidence interval) of -141.7 (-173.4 to -109.9), p < 0.001. HPR rates at Hour 2 and 24 were significantly lower for ticagrelor versus clopidogrel (14.3 vs. 82.1 %, p < 0.001 and 0 vs. 25.0 %, p = 0.01 respectively), though not significantly different pre-discharge. In-hospital Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type ≥2 bleeding occurred in 1 and 2 clopidogrel and ticagrelor-treated patients, respectively. In STEMI patients, post fibrinolysis HPR is common. Ticagrelor treats HPR more effectively compared to high dose clopidogrel therapy. Although antiplatelet regimens tested in this study were well tolerated, this finding should be considered only exploratory. PMID:25680893

  8. Association between One-Hour Post-Load Plasma Glucose Levels and Vascular Stiffness in Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sciacqua, Angela; Maio, Raffaele; Miceli, Sofia; Pascale, Alessandra; Carullo, Giuseppe; Grillo, Nadia; Arturi, Franco; Sesti, Giorgio; Perticone, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a surrogate end-point for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A plasma glucose value ≥155 mg/dl for the 1-hour post-load plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is able to identify subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at high-risk for type-2 diabetes (T2D) and for subclinical organ damage. Thus, we addressed the question if 1-hour post-load plasma glucose levels, affects PWV and its central hemodynamic correlates, as augmentation pressure (AP) and augmentation index (AI). Methods We enrolled 584 newly diagnosed hypertensives. All patients underwent OGTT and measurements of PWV, AP and AI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by Matsuda-index. Results Among participants, 424 were NGT and 160 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Of 424 NGT, 278 had 1-h post-load plasma glucose <155 mg/dl (NGT<155) and 146 had 1-h post-load plasma glucose ≥155 mg/dl (NGT≥155). NGT≥155 had a worse insulin sensitivity and higher hs-CRP than NGT<155, similar to IGT subjects. In addition, NGT ≥155 in comparison with NGT<155 had higher central systolic blood pressure (134±12 vs 131±10 mmHg), as well as PWV (8.4±3.7 vs 6.7±1.7 m/s), AP (12.5±7.1 vs 9.8±5.7 mmHg) and AI (29.4±11.9 vs 25.1±12.4%), and similar to IGT. At multiple regression analysis, 1-h post-load plasma glucose resulted the major determinant of all indices of vascular stiffness. Conclusion Hypertensive NGT≥155 subjects, compared with NGT<155, have higher PWV and its hemodynamic correlates that increase their cardiovascular risk profile. PMID:23028545

  9. Axial Diffusivity of the Corona Radiata at 24 Hours Post-Stroke: A New Biomarker for Motor and Global Outcome.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Eric; Amor-Sahli, Mélika; Perlbarg, Vincent; Pires, Christine; Crozier, Sophie; Galanaud, Damien; Valabregue, Romain; Yger, Marion; Baronnet-Chauvet, Flore; Samson, Yves; Dormont, Didier; Rosso, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is an effective marker of motor outcome at the chronic stage of stroke yet proves to be less efficient at early time points. This study aims to determine which diffusion metric in which location is the best marker of long-term stroke outcome after thrombolysis with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 24 hours post-stroke. Twenty-eight thrombolyzed patients underwent DTI at 24 hours post-stroke onset. Ipsilesional and contralesional FA, mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities values were calculated in different Regions-of-Interest (ROIs): (1) the white matter underlying the precentral gyrus (M1), (2) the corona radiata (CoRad), (3) the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and (4) the cerebral peduncles (CP). NIHSS scores were acquired at admission, day 1, and day 7; modified Rankin Scores (mRS) at 3 months. Significant decreases were found in FA, MD, and AD of the ipsilesional CoRad and M1. MD and AD were also significantly lower in the PLIC. The ratio of ipsi and contralesional AD of the CoRad (CoRad-rAD) was the strongest diffusion parameter correlated with motor NIHSS scores on day 7 and with the mRS at 3 months. A Receiver-Operator Curve analysis yielded a model for the CoRad-rAD to predict good outcome based on upper limb NIHSS motor scores and mRS with high specificity and sensitivity. FA values were not correlated with clinical outcome. In conclusion, axial diffusivity of the CoRad from clinical DTI at 24 hours post-stroke is the most appropriate diffusion metric for quantifying stroke damage to predict outcome, suggesting the importance of early axonal damage. PMID:26562509

  10. Axial Diffusivity of the Corona Radiata at 24 Hours Post-Stroke: A New Biomarker for Motor and Global Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Eric; Amor-Sahli, Mélika; Perlbarg, Vincent; Pires, Christine; Crozier, Sophie; Galanaud, Damien; Valabregue, Romain; Yger, Marion; Baronnet-Chauvet, Flore; Samson, Yves; Dormont, Didier; Rosso, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is an effective marker of motor outcome at the chronic stage of stroke yet proves to be less efficient at early time points. This study aims to determine which diffusion metric in which location is the best marker of long-term stroke outcome after thrombolysis with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 24 hours post-stroke. Twenty-eight thrombolyzed patients underwent DTI at 24 hours post-stroke onset. Ipsilesional and contralesional FA, mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities values were calculated in different Regions-of-Interest (ROIs): (1) the white matter underlying the precentral gyrus (M1), (2) the corona radiata (CoRad), (3) the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and (4) the cerebral peduncles (CP). NIHSS scores were acquired at admission, day 1, and day 7; modified Rankin Scores (mRS) at 3 months. Significant decreases were found in FA, MD, and AD of the ipsilesional CoRad and M1. MD and AD were also significantly lower in the PLIC. The ratio of ipsi and contralesional AD of the CoRad (CoRad-rAD) was the strongest diffusion parameter correlated with motor NIHSS scores on day 7 and with the mRS at 3 months. A Receiver-Operator Curve analysis yielded a model for the CoRad-rAD to predict good outcome based on upper limb NIHSS motor scores and mRS with high specificity and sensitivity. FA values were not correlated with clinical outcome. In conclusion, axial diffusivity of the CoRad from clinical DTI at 24 hours post-stroke is the most appropriate diffusion metric for quantifying stroke damage to predict outcome, suggesting the importance of early axonal damage. PMID:26562509

  11. Efavirenz pharmacokinetics in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma over a 24-hour dosing interval.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Aylin; Watson, Victoria; Dickinson, Laura; Back, David

    2012-09-01

    We determined the pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) over a 24-h dosing interval in a patient who had undergone a lumbar drain because of cryptococcal meningitis. Drug concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in paired CSF (n = 24) and plasma (n = 25) samples. The median plasma efavirenz concentration was 3,718 ng/ml (range, 2,439 to 4,952), and the median CSF concentration was 16.3 ng/ml (range, 7.3 to 22.3). The CSF/plasma area-under-the-curve ratio was 0.0044 corresponding to a CSF penetration of 0.44% of plasma. PMID:22687515

  12. The Efficacy Profile of Rotigotine During the Waking Hours in Patients With Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis

    PubMed Central

    LeWitt, Peter A.; Poewe, Werner; Elmer, Lawrence W.; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Boroojerdi, Babak; Grieger, Frank; Bauer, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Transdermal delivery of rotigotine maintains stable plasma concentrations for 24 hours. Three phase 3 studies of rotigotine as add-on to levodopa in advanced Parkinson's disease showed a significant reduction in “off” time from baseline to end of maintenance (EoM). However, detailed analyses over the range of a day have not yet been performed. The objective was to examine the time course of the efficacy profile of rotigotine throughout the day. Methods Post hoc analysis of diary data from 3 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of rotigotine in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease inadequately controlled with levodopa, with average “off” time of ≥2.5 h/d (CLEOPATRA-PD [NCT00244387], 16-week maintenance; PREFER, 24-week maintenance; SP921 [NCT00522379], 12-week maintenance). Patients marked 30-minute intervals as “off,” “on without troublesome dyskinesia,” “on with troublesome dyskinesia,” or “sleep.” Diaries completed on the 3 days before EoM were analyzed. A 2-sample t test was performed for comparison of rotigotine + levodopa versus placebo + levodopa for mean percentage of time per status during four 6-hour periods: 12:00am (midnight) to 6:00am, 6:00am to 12:00pm (noon), noon to 6:00pm, and 6:00pm to midnight. Results Data were available for 967 patients (placebo + levodopa, 260; rotigotine + levodopa, 707). During the 24-hour period at EoM, an advantage in mean percentage time spent “off” and “on without troublesome dyskinesia” was observed with rotigotine + levodopa versus placebo + levodopa during the three 6-hour periods from 6:00am to midnight (P < 0.05; exploratory analysis). Conclusions These exploratory analyses of patients with motor fluctuations suggest that the efficacy of rotigotine transdermal patch, as captured by diary data, in reducing “off” time and increasing “on time without troublesome dyskinesia” may cover the full waking day. PMID:26882318

  13. Fluidized-bed combustion 1000-hour test program. Volume IV. Engineering details and post-test inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, A. G.; Barker, S. N.; Phillips, R. N.; Pillai, K. K.; Raven, P.; Wood, P.

    1981-09-01

    Volume IV of the report on the 1000 hour programme consists of three appendices giving details of the enginmering/construction aspects of the plant and reports from Stal-Laval Turbin A.B. Appendix N has been entered individually. (LTN)

  14. Analysis of TRMM 3-Hourly Multi-Satellite Precipitation Estimates Computed in Both Real and Post-Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Stocker, Erich; Bolvin, David T.; Nelkin, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite data form the core of the information available for estimating precipitation on a global basis. While it is possible to create such estimates solely from one sensor, researchers have increasingly moved to using combinations of sensors in an attempt to improve accuracy, coverage, and resolution. This poster updates a long-term project in which the authors are working to provide routine combined-sensor estimates of precipitation over the entire globe at relatively fine time and space intervals. The goal is to produce these globally complete precipitation estimates on a 25-km grid every 3 hours. Since late January 2002 we have been estimating precipitation for the latitude band 50 degrees N-S within about 6 hours of observation time. This work is 1 of only 2 or 3 such efforts in the world. Now we are preparing to provide similar estimates for the last 5 years. All of this work is being carried out as part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Initially, TRMM was focused on providing excellent long-term averages of precipitation in tropical regions, but since its launch in November 1997 continued research has allowed the same satellite and data system to be used for addressing weather-scale problems as well.

  15. Characteristics of zonal plasma drift during post-sunset hours observed using mult-frequency HF Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Tiju Joseph; Prabhakaran Nayar, S. R.

    F-region zonal plasma drifts near the magnetic equator around sunset period have been observed at multiple altitudes using the HF Doppler radar. The pattern of the plasma flow is such that it starts with a westward drift at the pre-sunset times followed by an eastward drift shortly after the E-region sunset. The striking feature of the zonal drift is the altitude dependence of the zonal drift and the presence of a vertical shear around the post sunset period at the F-region. The shear region is found to be in the altitude range of 200-300 km where the F and E -region compete for dominance. The negative gradient in the vertical drift and shear in the zonal drift are the deterministic features of the evening equatorial ionosphere to maintain the curl-free nature of the electric field. The simultaneous observation of the vertical and zonal plasma drifts suggests the existence of a post sunset velocity vortex over the equator.

  16. Coagulation Parameter Thresholds Associated with Non-Bleeding in the Eighth Hour of Adult Cardiac Surgical Post-Cardiotomy Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Riley, Jeffrey B; Schears, Gregory J; Nuttall, Gregory A; Oliver, William C; Ereth, Mark H; Dearani, Joseph A

    2016-06-01

    Excessive bleeding and allogeneic transfusion during adult post-cardiotomy venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are potentially harmful and expensive. Balancing the inhibition of clotting and distinguishing surgical from non-surgical bleeding in post-operative period is difficult. The sensitivity of coagulation tests including Thromboelastography(®) (TEG) to predict chest tube drainage in the early hours of ECMO was examined with the use of receiver-operating characteristics (ROC). The results are useful to incorporate in clinical evidence-based algorithms to guide management decisions. In the eighth hour of ECMO, 26 of the 53 adult patients (49%) studied were identified as non-bleeders (less than 2.0 mL/kg/h). All had experienced various types of cardiac surgical procedures. Fifty-two percent were female and the group was 54 ± 19 (mean ± 1 SD) years old. The coagulation parameter threshold with the maximum sensitivity and specificity to predict non-bleeding at 8 hours on ECMO was the kaolin plus heparinase TEG maximum amplitude (KH-TEG MA) at a significant ROC threshold (t) > 50 mm. The activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) t < 49 seconds, KH-TEG alpha-angle t > 51°, and the kaolin activated clotting time (ACT) t < 148 seconds were sensitive predictors of non-bleeders. The whole-blood KH-TEG MA was superior to the plasma-based aPTT or International Normalization Ratio (INR) to predict bleeding in the eighth hour of ECMO. Using coagulation laboratory thresholds that predict non-bleeding can begin a process of identifying patients earlier that are likely to bleed. Awareness of these parameter thresholds may improve care through patient protection from unnecessary transfusion and prolonging the life of the ECMO circuit. An algorithm incorporating the ROC thresholds was created to help recognize surgical bleeding to minimize unnecessary transfusions. PMID:27578897

  17. The efficacy of post-cardiopulmonary bypass dosing of vancomycin in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Raikhelkar, Jayashree K; Reich, David L; Schure, Rebecca; Varghese, Robin; Bodian, Carol; Scurlock, Corey

    2010-12-01

    Objective. Vancomycin is administered widely to patients undergoing cardiac surgery as prophylaxis against resistant Gram-positive sternal wound and venous donor site infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a standardized prebypass and postbypass dosing regimen of vancomycin by assessing plasma concentrations in the immediate postoperative period and postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs). Design. Retrospective cohort study. Setting . Cardiothoracic surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary care academic medical center. Methods. A total of 34 consecutive adult patients who had undergone cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were analyzed retrospectively. Each patient received 1000 mg of vancomycin administered over 1 hour around the time of induction of anesthesia and 500 mg after discontinuation of CPB. Trough vancomycin levels were sampled in the intensive care unit 12 hours after the last dose given in the operating room. Along with patient characteristics, postoperative readmission rates and SSIs were recorded for 1 year after surgery. Results. The nadir serum vancomycin level before the next dose was 9.3 ± 4.5 µg/mL (mean ± standard deviation). One superficial SSI was noted. Readmission rate for SSIs was 2.94%. Conclusion . Vancomycin concentrations in the serum were greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration for most staphylococci ranging from 4 to 19.3 µg/mL producing acceptable therapeutic serum concentrations and low rate of infectious complications. Thus postbypass dosing is acceptable in vancomycin cardiac surgical prophylaxis. PMID:20841364

  18. Dose correction for post-contrast T1 mapping of the heart: the MESA study.

    PubMed

    Gai, Neville D; Sandfort, Veit; Liu, Songtao; Lima, João A C; Bluemke, David A

    2016-02-01

    Post-contrast myocardial T1 (T1(myo,c)) values have been shown to be sensitive to myocardial fibrosis. Recent studies have shown differences in results obtained from T1(myo,c) and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) with respect to percentage fibrosis. By exploring the relationship between blood plasma volume and T1(myo,c), the underlying basis for the divergence can be explained. Furthermore, dose administration based on body mass index (BMI), age and gender can mitigate the divergence in results. Inter-subject comparison of T1(myo,c) required adjustment for dose (in mmol/kg), time and glomerular filtration rate. Further adjustment for effective dose based on lean muscle mass reflected by blood/plasma volume was performed. A test case of 605 subjects from the MESA study who had undergone pre- and post-contrast T1 mapping was studied. T1(myo,c) values were compared between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS), between smoking and non-smoking subjects, and subjects with and without impaired glucose tolerance, before and after dose adjustment based on plasma volume. Comparison with ECV (which is dose independent), pre-contrast myocardial T1 and blood normalized myocardial T1 values was also performed to validate the correction. There were significant differences in T1(myo,c) (post plasma volume correction) and ECV between current and former smokers (p value 0.017 and 0.01, respectively) but not T1(myo,c) prior to correction (p = 0.12). Prior to dose adjustment for plasma volume, p value was <0.001 for T1(myo,c) between MetS and non-MetS groups and was 0.13 between subjects with and without glucose intolerance; after adjustment for PV, p value was 0.63 and 0.99. Corresponding ECV p values were 0.44 and 0.99, respectively. Overall, ECV results showed the best agreement with PV corrected T1(myo,c) (mean absolute difference in p values = 0.073) and pre-contrast myocardial T1 in comparison with other measures (T1(myo,c( prior to correction, blood/plasma T1

  19. Behavioural interactions between West African dwarf nanny goats and their single-born kids during the first 48 hours post-partum.

    PubMed

    Addae; Awotwi; Oppong-Anane; Oddoye

    2000-03-22

    West African dwarf nanny goats and their single-born kids were tested to find out their behavioural response to separation and their mutual recognition during the first 48 h post-partum. The tests were conducted at 18, 24, 36 or 48 h post partum. Chi-square analyses were used to determine whether age, sex and birth weight of kids as well as h partum and parity of dams had an effect on post-partum bahaviours.In a preliminary study where the kids were not prevented from sucking prior to the tests, the majority of kids (93%) and does (86%) exhibited apparant minimal concern to separation (i.e., had scores of less than 3) and also failed to seek each other. When the kids were prevented from sucking 2 h prior to the tests, the couple showed some response to separation and made attempts to seek each other. This suggests that in goats the state of the neonate's nourishment and the fullness of the dam's udder may be important factors that determine the willingness of the kid and the dam to seek each other when separated. The behavioural response of 48-h-old kids to separation from their dams when they had not sucked for 2 h was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of 18-h-old kids. The sex and birth-weight of 48-h-old kids did not affect their response to separation from their dams. Hours post-partum and parity of does did not affect their response to separation from their kids even though the proportion of does exhibiting the highest response was much higher in primiparous then multiparous animals (44% vs. 13%). Recognition of dams by kids was poor at 18 and 24 h with more than half (71%) the kids failing to recognize their dams. Dam recognition ability improved with age and at 48 h the majority of kids (88%) were able to recognize their dams. Does tested at 48 h post partum had better (P0.05) kid recognition than those tested at 18 and 24 h. The sex and birth weight of kids and the parity of dams had no effect on the mutual recognition of kids and their dams at 48 h

  20. Measurement uncertainty analysis of low-dose-rate prostate seed brachytherapy: post-implant dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Kent J; Pattison, John E; Bibbo, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    The minimal dose covering 90 % of the prostate volume--D 90--is arguably the most important dosimetric parameter in low-dose-rate prostate seed brachytherapy. In this study an analysis of the measurement uncertainties in D 90 from low-dose-rate prostate seed brachytherapy was conducted for two common treatment procedures with two different post-implant dosimetry methods. The analysis was undertaken in order to determine the magnitude of D 90 uncertainty, how the magnitude of the uncertainty varied when D 90 was calculated using different dosimetry methods, and which factors were the major contributors to the uncertainty. The analysis considered the prostate as being homogeneous and tissue equivalent and made use of published data, as well as original data collected specifically for this analysis, and was performed according to the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). It was found that when prostate imaging and seed implantation were conducted in two separate sessions using only CT images for post-implant analysis, the expanded uncertainty in D 90 values were about 25 % at the 95 % confidence interval. When prostate imaging and seed implantation were conducted during a single session using CT and ultrasound images for post-implant analysis, the expanded uncertainty in D 90 values were about 33 %. Methods for reducing these uncertainty levels are discussed. It was found that variations in contouring the target tissue made the largest contribution to D 90 uncertainty, while the uncertainty in seed source strength made only a small contribution. It is important that clinicians appreciate the overall magnitude of D 90 uncertainty and understand the factors that affect it so that clinical decisions are soundly based, and resources are appropriately allocated. PMID:25555753

  1. Clinical Factors Associated with Dose of Loop Diuretics After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: Post Hoc Analysis.

    PubMed

    Haiberger, Roberta; Favia, Isabella; Romagnoli, Stefano; Cogo, Paola; Ricci, Zaccaria

    2016-06-01

    A post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing the clinical effects of furosemide and ethacrynic acid was conducted. Infants undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were included in order to explore which clinical factors are associated with diuretic dose in infants with congenital heart disease. Overall, 67 patients with median (interquartile range) age of 48 (13-139) days were enrolled. Median diuretic dose was 0.34 (0.25-0.4) mg/kg/h at the end of postoperative day (POD) 0 and it significantly decreased (p = 0.04) over the following PODs; during this period, the ratio between urine output and diuretic dose increased significantly (p = 0.04). Age (r -0.26, p = 0.02), weight (r -0.28, p = 0.01), cross-clamp time (r 0.27, p = 0.03), administration of ethacrynic acid (OR 0.01, p = 0.03), and, at the end of POD0, creatinine levels (r 0.3, p = 0.009), renal near-infrared spectroscopy saturation (-0.44, p = 0.008), whole-blood neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels (r 0.30, p = 0.01), pH (r -0.26, p = 0.02), urinary volume (r -0.2755, p = 0.03), and fluid balance (r 0.2577, p = 0.0266) showed a significant association with diuretic dose. At multivariable logistic regression cross-clamp time (OR 1.007, p = 0.04), use of ethacrynic acid (OR 0.2, p = 0.01) and blood pH at the end of POD0 (OR 0.0001, p = 0.03) was independently associated with diuretic dose. Early resistance to loop diuretics continuous infusion is evident in post-cardiac surgery infants: Higher doses are administered to patients with lower urinary output. Independently associated variables with diuretic dose in our population appeared to be cross-clamping time, the administration of ethacrynic acid, and blood pH. PMID:26961571

  2. Dose-dependent expression of CLIP2 in post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Selmansberger, Martin; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Hess, Julia; Güthlin, Denise; Likhtarev, I.; Shpak, Victor; Tronko, Mykola; Brenner, Alina; Abend, Michael; Blettner, Maria; Unger, Kristian; Jacob, Peter; Zitzelsberger, Horst

    2015-01-01

    A previous study on papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) in young patients who were exposed to 131iodine from the Chernobyl fallout revealed an exclusive gain of chromosomal band 7q11.23 in exposed cases compared to an age-matched control cohort. CLIP2, a gene located within band 7q11.23 was shown to be differentially expressed between exposed and non-exposed cases at messenger RNA and protein level. Therefore, a standardized procedure for CLIP2 typing of PTCs has been developed in a follow-up study. Here we used CLIP2 typing data on 117 post-Chernobyl PTCs from two cohorts of exposed patients with individual dose estimates and 24 non-exposed controls to investigate a possible quantitative dose-response relationship of the CLIP2 marker. The ‘Genrisk-T’ cohort consisted of 45 PTCs and the ‘UkrAm’ cohort of 72 PTCs. Both cohorts differed in mean dose (0.59 Gy Genrisk-T, 1.2 Gy UkrAm) and mean age at exposure (AaE) (2 years Genrisk-T, 8 years UkrAm), whilst the median latency (16 years Genrisk-T, 18 years UkrAm) was comparable. We analyzed the association between the binary CLIP2 typing and continuous thyroid dose with logistic regression. A clear positive dose-response relationship was found for young PTC cases [age at operation (AaO) < 20 years, AaE < 5 years]. In the elder age group a higher proportion of sporadic tumors is assumed due to a negligible dose response, suggesting different molecular mechanisms in sporadic and radiation-induced cases. This is further supported by the association of elder patients (AaO > 20 years) with positivity for BRAF V600E mutation. PMID:25957251

  3. Effects of low dose dexmedetomidine infusion on haemodynamic stress response, sedation and post-operative analgesia requirement in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Gourishankar Reddy; Upadhyay, Mahendra R; Swadia, VN

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Dexmedetomidine is a α2 agonist with sedative, sympatholytic and analgesic properties and hence, it can be a very useful adjuvant in anaesthesia as stress response buster, sedative and analgesic. We aimed primarily to evaluate the effects of low dose dexmedetomidine infusion on haemodynamic response to critical incidences such as laryngoscopy, endotracheal intubation, creation of pneumoperitoneum and extubation in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The secondary aims were to observe the effects on extubation time, sedation levels, post-operative analgesia requirements and occurrence of adverse effects. Methods: Sixty patients of American Society of Anaesthesiologists(ASA) physical grades I and II undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated into three groups of 20 patients each. Group NS patients received normal saline, Group Dex 0.2 and Group Dex 0.4 patients received dexmedetomidine infusion at 0.2 mcg/kg/h and 0.4 mcg/kg/h respectively, starting 15 min before induction and continued till end of surgery. Parameters noted were pulse rate, mean arterial pressure, oxygen saturation, post-operative sedation and analgesia requirements. SPSS 15.0 version software was used for statistical analysis. ANOVA test for continuous variables, post-hoc test for intergroup comparison, and Chi-square test for discrete values were applied. Results: In Group NS significant haemodynamic stress response was seen following laryngoscopy, tracheal intubation, creation of pneumoperitoneum and extubation. In dexmedetomidine groups, the haemodynamic response was significantly attenuated. The results, however, were statistically better in Dex 0.4 group compared with Dex 0.2 group. Post-operative 24 hour analgesic requirements were much less in dexmedetomidine groups. No significant side effects were noted. Conclusion: Low dose dexmedetomidine infusion in the dose of 0.4 mcg/kg/h effectively attenuates haemodynamic stress response during

  4. Efficient post-exposure prophylaxis against rabies by applying a four-dose DNA vaccine intranasally.

    PubMed

    Tesoro Cruz, Emiliano; Feria Romero, Iris Angélica; López Mendoza, Juan Gabriel; Orozco Suárez, Sandra; Hernández González, Rafael; Favela, Francisco Blanco; Pérez Torres, Armando; José Alvaro Aguilar Setién

    2008-12-01

    We tested two post-exposure prophylaxes (PEPs) for rabies in laboratory animals; one was a traditional antirabies vaccine for humans via intramuscular route (IM), and the other was a DNA vaccine administered by intranasal route (IN). In contrast to The World Health Organization's recommended five-dose PEP, we gave only four doses without hyper-immune antirabies sera, making the PEP more rigorous. All animals were challenged with challenge virus strain (CVS); 16h later, PEP was applied. All animals that received the PEP with DNA/IN survived, and 87% of the rabbits and 80% of the mice that received the PEP with traditional antirabies vaccine/IM survived. Negative controls succumbed to infection. The expression of G protein was detected in the NALT, cerebellum, cerebral cortex (neocortex), cerebellum and hippocampus, mainly in the glial cells (microglia) and microvessels. On the other hand, plasmid construct was detected in brain and its mRNA expression in medium and posterior encephalon. The efficiency of this DNA/IN PEP is probably due to the early expression of the antigen in the brain stimulating the immune system locally. PMID:18940223

  5. Comparison of Vaginal and Oral Doses of Misoprostol for Labour Induction in Post-Term Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie, Masomeh; Farhadifar, Fariba; Nayebi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Considering maternal complications, it is preferred to induce labour after 40 weeks. Labour induction is a procedure used to stimulate uterine contractions during pregnancy before the beginning of the labour. Aim The aim of this study was to compare oral misoprostol with vaginal misoprostol for induction of labour in post-term pregnancies. Materials and Methods This double blind clinical-trial study was performed on 180 post-term pregnant women who were admitted to the labour ward of Besat Hospital Sanandaj, Iran in 2013-2014. Participants were equally divided into three groups using block randomization method. The induction was performed for the first group with 100 μg of oral misoprostol, for the second group with 50 μg of oral misoprostol, and for the third group with 25 μg of vaginal misoprostol. Vaginal examination and FHR was done before repeating each dose to determine Bishop Score. Induction time with misoprostol to the start of uterine contractions, induction time to delivery, and mode of delivery, systolic tachycardia, hyper stimulation and fetal outcomes were studied as well. Results First minute Apgar scores and medication dosage of the study groups were significantly different (p=0.0001). But labour induction, induction frequency, mode of delivery, complications, and 5 minutes Apgar score in the groups had no significant difference (p>0.05). The risk of fetal distress and neonatal hospitalization of the groups were statistically significant (p=0. 02). There was no significant difference between the three groups in terms of mean time interval from the administration of misoprostol to the start of uterine contractions (labour induction), the time interval from the start of uterine contractions to delivery and taking misoprostol to delivery. From the administration of misoprostol to start of the uterine contractions the mean difference between time intervals in the three groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion Based on our

  6. High-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide to promote graft-host tolerance after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Luznik, Leo

    2010-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease, or GVHD, is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Here, we describe a novel method for preventing GVHD after alloHSCT using high-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (Cy). Post-transplantation Cy promotes tolerance in alloreactive host and donor T cells, leading to suppression of both graft rejection and GVHD after alloHSCT. High-dose, post-transplantation Cy facilitates partially HLA-mismatched HSCT without severe GVHD and is effective as sole prophylaxis of GVHD after HLA-matched alloHSCT. By reducing the morbidity and mortality of alloHSCT, post-transplantation Cy may expand the applications of this therapy to the treatment of autoimmune diseases and non-malignant hematologic disorders such as sickle cell disease. PMID:20066512

  7. A Single Dose of Prednisolone as a Modulator of Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin and Insulin Sensitivity Post-Exercise in Healthy Young Men: A Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brennan-Speranza, Tara C; Stepto, Nigel K; Jerums, George; Parker, Lewan; McConell, Glenn K; Anderson, Mitchell; Garnham, Andrew; Hare, David L; Ebeling, Peter R; Seeman, Ego

    2016-01-01

    Background Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) increases insulin sensitivity in mice. In humans, data are supportive, but the studies are mostly cross-sectional. Exercise increases whole-body insulin sensitivity, in part via ucOC, while acute glucocorticoid treatment suppresses ucOC in humans and mice. Objectives A single dose of prednisolone reduces the rise in ucOC produced by exercise, which partly accounts for the failed increase in insulin sensitivity following exercise. Methods Healthy young men (n=12) aged 18 to 40 years will be recruited. Initial assessments will include analysis of fasting blood, body composition, aerobic power (VO2peak), and peak heart rate. Participants will then be randomly allocated, double-blind, to a single dose of 20 mg of prednisolone or placebo. The two experimental trials will involve 30 minutes of interval exercise (90%-95% peak heart rate), followed by 3 hours of recovery and 2 hours of euglycaemic- hyperinsulinaemic clamp (insulin clamp). Seven muscle biopsies and blood samples will be obtained at rest, following exercise and post-insulin clamps. Results The study is funded by the National Heart Foundation of Australia and Victoria University. Enrollment has already commenced and data collection will be completed in 2016. Conclusion If the hypothesis is confirmed, the study will provide novel insights into the potential role of ucOC in insulin sensitivity in human subjects and will elucidate pathways involved in exercise-induced insulin sensitivity. PMID:27259402

  8. Prognostic Value of the 24-Hour Neurological Examination in Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke: A post hoc Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled Stroke Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Frankel, Michael; Jovin, Tudor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early prognostication of long-term outcomes following ischemic stroke can facilitate medical decision-making. We hypothesized that the 24-hour National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) predicts 3-month clinical outcomes in anterior circulation stroke. Methods Secondary analyses of the Interventional Management of Stroke 3 (IMS3) and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for acute ischemic stroke [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) IV tPA] trials were performed. In participants with documented 24-hour NIHSS and 3-month Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), the predictive power of the 24-hour NIHSS and 24-hour NIHSS improvement for 3-month outcomes [mRS 0-2 and Barthel Index (BI) ≥95] was assessed. Percentages of good outcome (mRS 0-2 or BI ≥95) at 3, 6, and 12 months and mean quality of life (EQ5D™) index at 3 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were compared. Results The majority of the study participants were included (IMS3 n = 587/656, NINDS IV tPA n = 619/624). The 24-hour NIHSS was correlated with 3-month mRS (R = 0.73) with excellent predictive power for mRS 0-2 [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.91] and BI ≥95 (AUC = 0.9) in both cohorts. A model with the 24-hour NIHSS alone correctly classified 82-84% of patients in both cohorts. The percentages of good outcomes at 3-12 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were similar in both cohorts. mRS 0-2 was achieved by 75.6-77.7% of patients with 24-hour NIHSS ≤11 but by only 1.4-3.6% with 24-hour NIHSS ≥20. The EQ5D index at 3 months varied among NIHSS 0-4 (mean 0.86 ± 0.16), 5-11 (0.77 ± 0.18), and 12-19 (0.59 ± 0.26) quartiles. Conclusions The 24-hour NIHSS strongly predicts long-term stroke outcomes and is associated with quality of life. Its easy availability, reliability, and validity support its use as an early prognostic marker and surrogate of clinical outcome in ischemic stroke. PMID:27051408

  9. Epidural dexamethasone for post-operative analgesia in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy: A dose ranging and safety evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Hefni, Amira Fathy; Mahmoud, Mohamed Sidky; Al Alim, Azza Atef Abd

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Number of studies revealed that epidural bupivacaine-dexamethasone has the same analgesic potency as bupivacaine-fentanyl with opioid sparing and antiemetic effects. Different doses of dexamethasone were used in different studies. This study was designed to evaluate the optimum dose of epidural dexamethasone for post-operative analgesia. Materials and Methods: In this double-blinded randomized controlled study, we evaluated the efficiency and safety of different doses of epidural dexamethasone for post-operative analgesia in 160 patients aged 45-60 years scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy. Patient were randomly allocated into four groups to receive a total volume of 10 ml epidural plain bupivacaine 0.25% in the control group (Group D0) with either 4 mg dexamethasone in (Group D4) or 6 mg dexamethasone in (Group D6) or 8 mg dexamethasone in (Group D8). Patients then received general anesthesia. Sedation, satisfaction and visual analog pain scores (VAS) at rest and with effort were measured post-operatively. Meperidine was administered when VAS > or = 4. Intra-operative fentanyl dose, post-operative meperidine consumption and the time to first analgesic requirement were recorded by a blinded observer. Blood glucose was measured pre-operatively and at 4 h and 8 h after study drug administration. Wound healing and infection were assessed after 1 week. Results: Intraoperative fentanyl requirements were comparable among groups. The time to first analgesic requirement was significantly prolonged 5.5 times in D8 Group but only 1.5 times in D6 and D4 Groups more than the analgesic duration in the control Group D0, with a P < 0.01. There was a significant reduction in post-operative meperidine consumption during the first 24 h in the D8 (75%) in comparison with D6 and D4 Groups (50%), respectively, (P < 0.01) and the control Group D0 (0%) (P < 0.01). VAS scores were significantly lower and patient satisfaction score was significantly higher in the D8 and

  10. [Effect of coal tar on cignolin erythema--1 hour treatment of psoriasis with high-dose cignolin with and without tar].

    PubMed

    Schauder, S; Mahrle, G

    1985-06-01

    Coal tar applied simultaneously showed a suppressive effect on anthralin erythema. This effect was demonstrated by an epicutaneous test 24 hours (27 patients) and 1 hour (46 patients) after application of various concentrations of anthralin combined with tar 3%. In a clinical study on 9 patients, anthralin 3% alone or combined with tar 10% were administered in a right and left comparison on symmetrical chronic psoriatic lesions for 1 hour daily. Anthralin plus tar exhibited a stronger anti-psoriatic effect than anthralin alone did. Tar reduced the anthralin erythema in the perilesional skin. These findings favor the combination of coal tar and anthralin in the 1-hour treatment schedule of psoriasis. PMID:3160177

  11. Measurement of skin and target dose in post-mastectomy radiotherapy using 4 and 6 MV photon beams

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For patients with high risk breast cancer and mastectomy, radiotherapy is the treatment of choice to improve survival and local control. Target dose is mainly limited due to skin reactions. The feasibility of using 4 MV beams for chest wall treatment was studied and compared to standard 6 MV bolus radiotherapy. Methods Post-mastectomy IMRT was planned on an Alderson-phantom using 4 and 6 MV photon beams without/with a 0.5 cm thick bolus. Dose was measured using TLDs placed at 8 locations in 1 and 3 mm depth to represent skin and superficial target dose, respectively. Results 4 MV and 6 MV beams with bolus perform equally regarding target coverage. The minimum and mean superficial target dose for the 6 MV and 4 MV were 93.0% and 94.7%, and 93.1% and 94.4%, respectively. Regarding skin dose the 4 MV photon beam was advantageous. The minimum and mean skin dose for the 6 MV and 4 MV was 76.7% and 81.6%, and 69.4% and 72.9%, respectively. The TPS was able to predict dose in the build-up region with a precision of around 5%. Conclusions The use of 4 MV photon beams are a good alternative for treating the thoracic wall without the need to place a bolus on the patient. The main limitation of 4 MV beams is the limited dose rate. PMID:24238366

  12. Is the Office Hour Obsolete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A colleague can't make a coffee date at a time the author proposes because it would conflict with his office hour. No student has actually made an appointment with him during the hour, but he is committed to being in his office as promised in case someone drops by. The author's reaction to her colleague's faithfulness to his posted office hour…

  13. Post-radioembolization yttrium-90 PET/CT - part 2: dose-response and tumor predictive dosimetry for resin microspheres

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coincidence imaging of low-abundance yttrium-90 (90Y) internal pair production by positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (PET/CT) achieves high-resolution imaging of post-radioembolization microsphere biodistribution. Part 2 analyzes tumor and non-target tissue dose-response by 90Y PET quantification and evaluates the accuracy of tumor 99mTc macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single-photon emission computed tomography with integrated CT (SPECT/CT) predictive dosimetry. Methods Retrospective dose quantification of 90Y resin microspheres was performed on the same 23-patient data set in part 1. Phantom studies were performed to assure quantitative accuracy of our time-of-flight lutetium-yttrium-oxyorthosilicate system. Dose-responses were analyzed using 90Y dose-volume histograms (DVHs) by PET voxel dosimetry or mean absorbed doses by Medical Internal Radiation Dose macrodosimetry, correlated to follow-up imaging or clinical findings. Intended tumor mean doses by predictive dosimetry were compared to doses by 90Y PET. Results Phantom studies demonstrated near-perfect detector linearity and high tumor quantitative accuracy. For hepatocellular carcinomas, complete responses were generally achieved at D70 > 100 Gy (D70, minimum dose to 70% tumor volume), whereas incomplete responses were generally at D70 < 100 Gy; smaller tumors (<80 cm3) achieved D70 > 100 Gy more easily than larger tumors. There was complete response in a cholangiocarcinoma at D70 90 Gy and partial response in an adrenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor metastasis at D70 53 Gy. In two patients, a mean dose of 18 Gy to the stomach was asymptomatic, 49 Gy caused gastritis, 65 Gy caused ulceration, and 53 Gy caused duodenitis. In one patient, a bilateral kidney mean dose of 9 Gy (V20 8%) did not cause clinically relevant nephrotoxicity. Under near-ideal dosimetric conditions, there was excellent correlation between intended tumor mean doses by predictive dosimetry and those

  14. Repeated Post- or Presession Cocaine Administration: Roles of Dose and Fixed-Ratio Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Branch, Marc N.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of repeated administration of cocaine to animals behaving under operant contingencies have depended on when the drug is given. Moderate doses given presession have generally led to a decrease in the drug's effect, an outcome usually referred to as tolerance. When these same doses have been given after sessions, the usual result has been no…

  15. Determination of Radiation Absorbed Dose to Primary Liver Tumors and Normal Liver Tissue Using Post-Radioembolization 90Y PET

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Shyam M.; Natarajan, Navin; Kuroiwa, Joshua; Gallagher, Sean; Nasr, Elie; Shah, Shetal N.; DiFilippo, Frank P.; Obuchowski, Nancy; Bazerbashi, Bana; Yu, Naichang; McLennan, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Radioembolization with Yttrium-90 (90 Y) microspheres is becoming a more widely used transcatheter treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using post-treatment 90 Y positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) scans, the distribution of microspheres within the liver can be determined and quantitatively assessed. We studied the radiation dose of 90 Y delivered to liver and treated tumors. Methods: This retrospective study of 56 patients with HCC, including analysis of 98 liver tumors, measured and correlated the dose of radiation delivered to liver tumors and normal liver tissue using glass microspheres (TheraSpheres®) to the frequency of complications with modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECIST). 90 Y PET/CT and triphasic liver CT scans were used to contour treated tumor and normal liver regions and determine their respective activity concentrations. An absorbed dose factor was used to convert the measured activity concentration (Bq/mL) to an absorbed dose (Gy). Results: The 98 studied tumors received a mean dose of 169 Gy (mode 90–120 Gy; range 0–570 Gy). Tumor response by mRECIST criteria was performed for 48 tumors that had follow-up scans. There were 21 responders (mean dose 215 Gy) and 27 non-responders (mean dose 167 Gy). The association between mean tumor absorbed dose and response suggests a trend but did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.099). Normal liver tissue received a mean dose of 67 Gy (mode 60–70 Gy; range 10–120 Gy). There was a statistically significant association between absorbed dose to normal liver and the presence of two or more severe complications (p = 0.036). Conclusion: Our cohort of patients showed a possible dose–response trend for the tumors. Collateral dose to normal liver is non-trivial and can have clinical implications. These methods help us understand whether patient adverse events, treatment success, or

  16. Dynamics of changes in micronucleus frequencies in subjects post cessation of chronic low-dose radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Tsai, M H; Hwang, J S; Chen, K C; Lin, Y P; Hsieh, W A; Chang, W P

    2001-05-01

    To assess DNA damage remaining in peripheral lymphocytes, 48 individuals were evaluated twice for lymphocyte micronucleus frequencies by the cytokinesis-blocking cytochalasin B (CBMN) analysis post relocation from radio-contaminated apartments after various periods of time. The frequencies of CBMN at the first evaluation were significantly higher than those at the second examination (Chang et al., 1999c). These individuals were categorized into three groups: those with cumulative exposure of >300 mSv (defined as high exposure, HDose), those with 100-300 mSv (MDose) and those with <100 mSv (LDose). Using the Poisson mixed-effect model (Little et al., 1996), the estimated mean CBMN frequencies ( per thousand) for individuals in HDose, MDose and LDose exposure categories when they had only recently relocated were 21.8, 17.6 and 15.4, respectively. The estimated mean duration post relocation for the CBMN frequencies of these individuals to reduce to 10.2, the second CBMN frequency, on average, was 47.5, 37.2 and 28.3 months in the three exposure groups, respectively. The rates of change in CBMN frequencies were shown to be significantly higher in the HDose group than in the MDose and LDose groups. The results suggested a characteristic dose-dependent decline in the CBMN frequencies in the exposed population post cessation of chronic low-dose ionizing radiation exposure. PMID:11320151

  17. Fertility after two doses of PGF2α concurrently or at 6-hour interval on the day of CIDR removal in 5-day CO-Synch progesterone-based synchronization protocols in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    White, Stephanie S; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Kasimanickam, Vanmathy R

    2016-08-01

    Timed artificial insemination protocols in beef cattle are designed to synchronize ovulation in a greater proportion of females while simultaneously achieving acceptable pregnancy rates and a concise calving season. Protocols achieving such goals reduce time and labor associated with estrus detection and make advanced reproductive technologies implementable for beef producers. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of three different PGF2α (PGF) dosage schemes on artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rates in beef heifers. We hypothesized that two doses of PGF administered concurrently at the time of controlled internal drug release (CIDR) removal would attain similar pregnancy rates compared with two doses given 6-hours apart-one at CIDR removal and the next 6 hours later in the 5-day CO-Synch progesterone-based synchronization protocol. Angus heifers (n = 875) at six locations in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon states were included in this study. Heifers within locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS). All heifers received a CIDR (1.38 g of progesterone) and 100 μg IM of GnRH on Day 0. The CIDRs were removed on Day 5, heifers were randomly allocated to one of three protocol groups: 1PGF (n = 291), received 25 mg IM of dinoprost (PGF); 2CO-PGF (n = 291), received 50 mg IM of dinoprost at CIDR removal, 2PGF (n = 293), received 25 mg IM of dinoprost at CIDR removal, and an additional 25 mg IM of dinoprost 6 hours later. Each heifer was given GnRH (100 μg, IM) and artificially inseminated at 56 hours after CIDR removal. Heifers were examined for pregnancy status between 50 and 70 days after AI to determine time of conception. A mixed-model procedure (PROC GLIMMIX of SAS) was used to evaluate the effect of treatments (1PGF, 2CO-PGF, and 2PGF) on AI pregnancy rates. Models included were treatments, BCS categories (≤5 and >5), and treatment by BCS category interaction. Location (state), handling facilities, handlers

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on onion sprouting. I.--Influence of dose rate and post-harvest period of treatment.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, W A; Donini, B

    1976-01-01

    Onions of "Dorata di Parma" variety were exposed to 10 Krads of Co60 gamma irradiation in 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 minutes in December, 1975 and then stored in the cold storage (10 +/- 1 degree C; R.H. 65-70%) and at the room temperature (15-20 degrees C; R.H. 40-70%) for 3 months, to study the influence of dose-rate and post-harvest period of treatment. Average number of buds sprouted in each onion bulb under cold storage condition ranged from 2-3, while this number was found to increase to 3-4 under ambient storage conditions. Although no effect of either irradiation or dose rate was observed when onions were irradiated after the break of their dormancy, however, a significant slowing down effect of irradiation could be observed as far as the rate of growth of sprouts was concerned. Weight loss was also reduced significantly in the irradiated onions as compared with controls. PMID:1037423

  19. Assessing pre/post-weaning neurobehavioral development for perinatal exposure to low doses of methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinping; Fujimura, Masatake; Bo, Dandan

    2015-12-01

    Fetuses and neonates are known to be high-risk groups for Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. MeHg can be transferred to the fetus through the placenta and to newborn offspring through breast milk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects of low doses of MeHg (1 and 5μg/mL in drinking water) administration, from gestational day 1 to postnatal day (PND) 21, on the neurobehavioral development of rats. The results showed that the no-observed-effect level of MeHg is somewhere in the range of 1-4μg/mL. Neurobehavioral development analysis revealed a delayed appearance of cliff drop and negative geotaxis reflexes in the 5μg/mL MeHg exposure group. Developmental exposure to MeHg affected locomotor activity functions for the females, but not for the males, implying that the female pups were more vulnerable than the male pups. All pups exposed to 5μg/mL of MeHg showed a significant deficit in motor coordination in the rotarod test compared with controls, and the highest accumulated concentrations of Hg were found in the cerebellum, followed by the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, indicating that the cerebellum is a possible target for MeHg toxicity. We demonstrated adverse effects of developmental exposure to MeHg associated with tissue concentrations very close to the current human body burden of this persistent and bioaccumulative compound. PMID:26702966

  20. Immediate post-dosing paralysis following severe soman and VX toxicosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Bide, R W; Schofield, L; Risk, D J

    2005-01-01

    There have been numerous studies of the central nervous system (CNS) involvement in organophosphate (OP) poisoning showing status epilepticus and/or 'electrographic seizures'. Brain damage has been demonstrated as 'neuronal necrosis' primarily in the cortex, thalamus and hippocampus. To the authors' knowledge there have been no reports of partial/total paralysis following close upon OP exposure although delayed paralysis has been reported. This report summarizes the immediate, OP induced paralytic events recorded in guinea pigs during development of the Canadian reactive skin decontaminant lotion (RSDL). As part of the development work, supra-lethal cutaneous doses of OP were applied to large numbers of guinea pigs followed by decontamination with the RSDL or predecessor lotions and solvents. Soman (pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate; GD) challenges were applied to 1277 animals and S-(2-diisopropyl-aminoethyl) methylphosphorothiolate (VX) challenges to 108. The classic sequence of clinical signs--ptyalism, tremors, fasciculations, convulsions, apnea and flaccid paralysis before death--was seen in the 658 animals that died and in many of the survivors. Eighty-four of 688 survivors of GD and 4 of 39 survivors of VX showed random paralysis of various distal regions following recovery from an insult which produced convulsions and/or flaccid paralysis. Because the experiments were designed to assess the decontamination procedures, there were no apparent relationships between the amounts of OP applied and the sequellae recorded. The observations of paralysis were also incidental to the prime focus of the experiments. Because of this, only ten animals paralysed following GD exposure were examined for histological effects. The pathologist diagnosed 'encephalomalacia' and 'focal necrotic lesions' in the cerebral cortex and 'focal necrotic lesions' in one spinal cord. Of the 84 guinea pigs paralysed after GD challenge, one was not decontaminated and the decontaminants used

  1. Cracking the Credit Hour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitinen, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The basic currency of higher education--the credit hour--represents the root of many problems plaguing America's higher education system: the practice of measuring time rather than learning. "Cracking the Credit Hour" traces the history of this time-based unit, from the days of Andrew Carnegie to recent federal efforts to define a credit hour. If…

  2. Forecasting Credit Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivin, David; Rooney, Patrick Michael

    1999-01-01

    This study used Tobit analysis to estimate retention probabilities and credit hours at two universities. Tobit was judged as appropriate for this problem because it recognizes the lower bound of zero on credit hours and incorporates this bound into parameter estimates and forecasts. Models are estimated for credit hours in a single year and…

  3. Synaptotoxicity of chronic low-dose pre- and post-natal ethanol exposure: A new animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Walewski, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic Low-dose Pre- and Post-natal Ethanol exposure (CLPPEE) is the most frequent cause of teratogenically induced mental deficiency in the Western world. Although the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAAS) is associated with high levels of alcohol consumption, the relative teratogenic risk of moderate ethanol consumption is not well defined. CLPPEE may affect some processes involved in synapse formation, affecting the proper development and maturation of the nervous system. Ethanol was admixed (3 v/v%) with high-protein liquid diet (Bio-Serve) as the only nutrient source. The controls received an isocaloric sucrose liquid diet mixture. Ethanol treatment began on day 8 of pregnancy. 3 v/v% ethanol did not significantly reduce the body weights or diet consumption of dams, nor the gross growth of ethanol-exposed pups. Standard neuromuscular twitch preparations in vivo, utilizing the sciatic nerve-gastrocnemius muscle, were done on 1, 2, 3 and 7 week old pups. The physiologic functional tests of nursing pups (1-3 weeks), indicated that the ethanol-treated pups had abnormal responses to indirect stimulation. The deficit was determined to be pre-synaptic. The ethanol-exposed at these ages demonstrated abnormal responses to presynaptic challenge. Histochemical staining revealed motor nerve terminal morphology. In 2 and 3 week ethanol-treated pups, the number of nerve terminal branches, and endplate lengths were significantly reduced. Reversibility was examined by allowing the pups to mature while receiving only standard rat chow and water. Tests were repeated at 7 weeks of age. The responses of the ethanol-exposed to pharmacologic challenge, and motor nerve terminal morphology were still significantly different in the young adult animals. CLPPEE, at doses sub-threshold for FAS, affects the normal development of the skeletal neuromuscular system, with long-lasting effects on motor nerve terminal function and morphology.

  4. Negligible risk of inducing resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with single-dose rifampicin as post-exposure prophylaxis for leprosy.

    PubMed

    Mieras, Liesbeth; Anthony, Richard; van Brakel, Wim; Bratschi, Martin W; van den Broek, Jacques; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Cavaliero, Arielle; Kasang, Christa; Perera, Geethal; Reichman, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Saunderson, Paul; Steinmann, Peter; Yew, Wing Wai

    2016-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for leprosy is administered as one single dose of rifampicin (SDR) to the contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients. SDR reduces the risk of developing leprosy among contacts by around 60 % in the first 2-3 years after receiving SDR. In countries where SDR is currently being implemented under routine programme conditions in defined areas, questions were raised by health authorities and professional bodies about the possible risk of inducing rifampicin resistance among the M. tuberculosis strains circulating in these areas. This issue has not been addressed in scientific literature to date. To produce an authoritative consensus statement about the risk that SDR would induce rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis, a meeting was convened with tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy experts. The experts carefully reviewed and discussed the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and risk factors for the development of (multi) drug-resistance in M. tuberculosis with a view to the special situation of the use of SDR as PEP for leprosy. They concluded that SDR given to contacts of leprosy patients, in the absence of symptoms of active TB, poses a negligible risk of generating resistance in M. tuberculosis in individuals and at the population level. Thus, the benefits of SDR prophylaxis in reducing the risk of developing leprosy in contacts of new leprosy patients far outweigh the risks of generating drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. PMID:27268059

  5. A randomized, crossover comparison of standard-dose versus low-dose lenograstim in the prophylaxis of post-chemotherapy neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Juan, O; Campos, J M; Carañana, V; Sanchez, J J; Casañ, R; Alberola, V

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this trial was to compare the severity of neutropenia, the frequency of hospital admission for fever or infection, and the use of antibiotics among patients treated with a standard dose of lenograstim (263 microg/day of Euprotin) and others treated with half of this dose (131.5 microg/day) and the cost-effectiveness of each of the two doses. In this single-center study, 44 patients with solid tumors, who were all receiving standard-dose chemotherapy regimens following previous neutropenia or were at high risk of neutropenia, were randomized to receive lenograstim at a dose of 263 microg or 131.5 microg daily in the first cycle and then crossed over to the alternate dose for the following cycle. Crossover to the alternate dose was repeated for patients who received more than two cycles. Lenograstim was administered from day +5 to day +14. The absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was assessed on days +5, +8, +12 and +15 of each cycle. Statistical analysis was performed using a general lineal model for repeated samples. In all, 120 cycles were administered, with a median of 3 cycles (range 1-6). Only 4 patients received only 1 cycle. No statistically significant difference (P=0.324) in ANC was observed between standard-dose (mean 5.3, 10.7, 8.3, 11.4 x 10(9)/l) and low-dose (5.0, 8.6, 5.4, 7.5 x 10(9)/l) treatment at days +5, +8, +12 and + 15. Neutropenia grade III-IV was more common in patients receiving the low than in those receiving the standard dose of lenograstim (20% vs 12%, respectively), but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.1). The incidence of fever and frequency of hospital admission were not affected by the dose of lenograstim: 3 patients presented with fever with the standard dose (all of those were admitted to hospital) and 2 patients with the low dose (1 was admitted). ANC in both groups (standard and low doses) was independent of chemotherapy line (first versus second or more). Lenograstim at a dose of 131.5 microg

  6. The relation between doses or post-plasma time points and apoptosis of leukemia cells induced by dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Haixia; Xue, Zhixiao; Yin, Huijuan; Niu, Qing; Chen, Hongli

    2015-12-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was applied to induce apoptosis of LT-12 leukemia cells. Plasma effects on cell death was evaluated by MTT assay and FCM apoptosis assay with Annexin V/PI double staining, suggesting that plasma killing cells rate and inducing cell apoptosis rate both positively were related to the plasma doses or the post-plasma time points. The cell death rates increased from 15.2% to 33.1% and the apoptosis rate raise from 23.8% to 28% when the dose raise from 60s to 120 s at 8 h post-plasma, while they increased from 15.4% to 34.9% and from 48% to 55.3% respectively at the same doses at 12 h post-plasma. Furthermore, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene and protein expression for Caspases and Bcl-2 family members were measured for exploring the related apoptotic mechanisms phenomenon. We found ROS immediately increased to 1.24 times of the original amount, then increasing to 5.39-fold at 20 h after treatment. The gene and protein expression for Caspases and Bcl-2 family members are very active at 8-12 h post-plasma. Our results demonstrate that DBD plasma can effectively induce tumor cell death through primarily related apoptotic mechanisms.

  7. Hourly marginal emissions tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hourly marginal emissions tool is an excel workbook that estimates the hourly NOx, SO2 and CO2 emission reductions of energy efficiency and renewable energy policies and programs in the electric power sector. It will be based on EPA's proposed "Road map for Incorporating ene...

  8. Effect of lurasidone dose on cognition in patients with schizophrenia: post-hoc analysis of a long-term, double-blind continuation study.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip D; Siu, Cynthia O; Ogasa, Masaaki; Loebel, Antony

    2015-08-01

    We previously reported that treatment with 160mg/d of lurasidone improved cognitive performance in a manner superior to placebo, quetiapine XR 600mg/d, and lurasidone 80mg/d, based on a 6-week randomized trial of patients with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. The objective of this post-hoc analysis was to explore the cognitive and functional performance of patients whose final doses of lurasidone were 40/80mg/d, 120mg/d, and 160mg/d compared to quetiapine XR 200-800mg/d (QXR) during a 6-month, double-blind continuation study that followed a short-term trial. Subjects who received final doses of lurasidone 120mg/d (n=77) and 160mg/d (n=49) showed significantly greater improvement in overall cognitive performance compared to QXR (n=85) at week 32 (month 6 of the extension study), while those on last doses of 40/80mg/d (n=25) showed a trend towards significance at week 32. Mean changes in neurocognitive composite z-score from pre-treatment baseline were significant for the 3 lurasidone final dose groups at both weeks 19 and 32, with composite change scores of z=1.53, z=1.43, and z=1.34 for the lurasidone 40/80mg/d, 120mg/d, and 160mg/d, respectively, at week 32. In contrast, the composite change score was not statistically significant in the overall quetiapine group (z=0.46), with none of the individual quetiapine doses showing any significant improvement. Functional capacity scores improved in all treatment groups. Our findings indicate improved cognitive performance in patients treated with each of the flexible doses of lurasidone 40-160mg/d, compared to quetiapine XR 200-800mg/d. All doses of lurasidone were superior to all doses of quetiapine for cognitive performance. PMID:26117157

  9. SU-E-T-235: Monte Carlo Analysis of the Dose Enhancement in the Scalp of Patients Due to Titanium Plate Backscatter During Post-Operative Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, M; Elson, H; Lamba, M; Wolf, E; Warnick, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the clinically observed dose enhancement adjacent to cranial titanium fixation plates during post-operative radiotherapy. Methods: Irradiation of a titanium burr hole cover was simulated using Monte Carlo code MCNPX for a 6 MV photon spectrum to investigate backscatter dose enhancement due to increased production of secondary electrons within the titanium plate. The simulated plate was placed 3 mm deep in a water phantom, and dose deposition was tallied for 0.2 mm thick cells adjacent to the entrance and exit sides of the plate. These results were compared to a simulation excluding the presence of the titanium to calculate relative dose enhancement on the entrance and exit sides of the plate. To verify simulated results, two titanium burr hole covers (Synthes, Inc. and Biomet, Inc.) were irradiated with 6 MV photons in a solid water phantom containing GafChromic MD-55 film. The phantom was irradiated on a Varian 21EX linear accelerator at multiple gantry angles (0–180 degrees) to analyze the angular dependence of the backscattered radiation. Relative dose enhancement was quantified using computer software. Results: Monte Carlo simulations indicate a relative difference of 26.4% and 7.1% on the entrance and exit sides of the plate respectively. Film dosimetry results using a similar geometry indicate a relative difference of 13% and -10% on the entrance and exit sides of the plate respectively. Relative dose enhancement on the entrance side of the plate decreased with increasing gantry angle from 0 to 180 degrees. Conclusion: Film and simulation results demonstrate an increase in dose to structures immediately adjacent to cranial titanium fixation plates. Increased beam obliquity has shown to alleviate dose enhancement to some extent. These results are consistent with clinically observed effects.

  10. Pooled post hoc analysis of population pharmacokinetics of oxycodone and acetaminophen following a single oral dose of biphasic immediate-release/extended-release oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Ryan M; Morton, Terri; Devarakonda, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This analysis evaluated the single-dose population pharmacokinetics (PK) of biphasic immediate-release (IR)/extended-release (ER) oxycodone (OC)/acetaminophen (APAP) 7.5/325 mg tablets administered under fasted conditions and the effects of a meal on their single-dose population PK. Data were pooled from four randomized, single-dose crossover trials enrolling healthy adult (18–55 years old) participants (three trials) and nondependent recreational users of prescription opioids (one trial) with a body weight of ≥59 kg. Participants received IR/ER OC/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets in single doses of 7.5/325 mg (one tablet), 15/650 mg (two tablets), or 30/1,300 mg (four tablets) under fasted or fed conditions. Six variables were examined: sex, race, age, weight, height, and body mass index. Single-dose population PK was analyzed using first-order conditional estimation methods. A total of 151 participants were included in the analysis under fasted conditions, and 31 participants were included in the fed analysis. Under fasted conditions, a 10% change in body weight was accompanied by ~7.5% change in total body clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) of OC and APAP. Black participants had 17.3% lower CL/F and a 16.9% lower V/F of OC compared with white participants. Under fed conditions, the absorption rate constant of OC and APAP decreased significantly, although there was no effect on CL/F and V/F. Considering that the recommended dose for IR/ER OC/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets is two tablets every 12 hours, adjustments of <50% are not clinically relevant. Dose adjustment may be necessary for large deviations from average body weight, but the small PK effects associated with race and consumption of a meal are not clinically relevant. PMID:26316698

  11. Pooled post hoc analysis of population pharmacokinetics of oxycodone and acetaminophen following a single oral dose of biphasic immediate-release/extended-release oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets.

    PubMed

    Franke, Ryan M; Morton, Terri; Devarakonda, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This analysis evaluated the single-dose population pharmacokinetics (PK) of biphasic immediate-release (IR)/extended-release (ER) oxycodone (OC)/acetaminophen (APAP) 7.5/325 mg tablets administered under fasted conditions and the effects of a meal on their single-dose population PK. Data were pooled from four randomized, single-dose crossover trials enrolling healthy adult (18-55 years old) participants (three trials) and nondependent recreational users of prescription opioids (one trial) with a body weight of ≥59 kg. Participants received IR/ER OC/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets in single doses of 7.5/325 mg (one tablet), 15/650 mg (two tablets), or 30/1,300 mg (four tablets) under fasted or fed conditions. Six variables were examined: sex, race, age, weight, height, and body mass index. Single-dose population PK was analyzed using first-order conditional estimation methods. A total of 151 participants were included in the analysis under fasted conditions, and 31 participants were included in the fed analysis. Under fasted conditions, a 10% change in body weight was accompanied by ~7.5% change in total body clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) of OC and APAP. Black participants had 17.3% lower CL/F and a 16.9% lower V/F of OC compared with white participants. Under fed conditions, the absorption rate constant of OC and APAP decreased significantly, although there was no effect on CL/F and V/F. Considering that the recommended dose for IR/ER OC/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets is two tablets every 12 hours, adjustments of <50% are not clinically relevant. Dose adjustment may be necessary for large deviations from average body weight, but the small PK effects associated with race and consumption of a meal are not clinically relevant. PMID:26316698

  12. Computational Modeling of Cellular Effects Post-Irradiation with Low- and High-Let Particles and Different Absorbed Doses

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S.; Tavares, João Manuel R. S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of computational methods to improve the understanding of biological responses to various types of radiation is an approach where multiple parameters can be modelled and a variety of data is generated. This study compares cellular effects modelled for low absorbed doses against high absorbed doses. The authors hypothesized that low and high absorbed doses would contribute to cell killing via different mechanisms, potentially impacting on targeted tumour radiotherapy outcomes. Cellular kinetics following irradiation with selective low- and high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles were investigated using the Virtual Cell (VC) radiobiology algorithm. Two different cell types were assessed using the VC radiobiology algorithm: human fibroblasts and human crypt cells. The results showed that at lower doses (0.01 to 0.2 Gy), all radiation sources used were equally able to induce cell death (p>0.05, ANOVA). On the other hand, at higher doses (1.0 to 8.0 Gy), the radiation response was LET and dose dependent (p<0.05, ANOVA). The data obtained suggests that the computational methods used might provide some insight into the cellular effects following irradiation. The results also suggest that it may be necessary to re-evaluate cellular radiation-induced effects, particularly at low doses that could affect therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:23930101

  13. 24-hour care programs.

    PubMed

    Hergenrader, R

    1996-06-01

    Twenty-four-hour care programs, which combine group health programs with workers' compensation and disability benefits, hold considerable potential for cost savings and greater efficiency. This article explains these programs and uses a care history to show the savings they can achieve. PMID:10157798

  14. Multicenter, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study to evaluate dosing of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women undergoing ovulation induction

    PubMed Central

    Nawroth, Frank; Tandler-Schneider, Andreas; Bilger, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    This prospective, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study evaluated doses of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women who were anovulatory or oligomenorrheic and undergoing ovulation induction (OI) alone or OI with intrauterine insemination. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved monofollicular or bifollicular development (defined as one or two follicles ≥15 mm). Secondary endpoints included characteristics of ovulation stimulation treatment, such as mean total and mean daily r-hFSH doses. Data were analyzed for 3,193 patients from 30 German fertility centers. The proportion of patients with monofollicular or bifollicular development was 71.1% (n=2,270 of a total of 3,193 patients; intent-to-treat population). The mean±standard deviation total and daily doses of r-hFSH were 696.9±542.5 IU and 61.7±29.4 IU, respectively. The three doses prescribed most frequently were: 37.5 IU (n=703 from N=3,189; 22.0%), 50.0 IU (n=1,056 from N=3,189; 33.1%), and 75.0 IU (n=738 from N=3,189; 23.1%) on the first day of stimulation; and 37.5 IU (n=465 from N=3,189; 14.6%), 50.0 IU (n=922 from N=3,189; 28.9%), and 75.0 IU (n=895 from N=3,189; 28.1%) on the last day of stimulation. This noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study found that monofollicular or bifollicular development was achieved in 71% of patients studied and the small dose increment (12.5 IU) of the redesigned follitropin alfa pen allowed individualized treatment of women undergoing OI. PMID:25926755

  15. Historical development and evolution of EPRI's post-closure dose assessment of potential releases to the biosphere from the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham; Kozak, Matthew W

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the development and evolution of the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) post-closure dose assessment for potential releases of radionuclides from the proposed High Level Waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The starting point for this work was the 1995 publication of Technical Bases for Yucca Mountain Standards by the Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources of the National Research Council. This report proposed the development and application of an individual risk-based standard for releases from the repository to replace the existing one, which was based on radionuclide release limits. This in turn implied the development and application of methods to assess radiation doses to humans. Accordingly, EPRI produced a methodology for such dose assessment as part of its Total System Performance Assessment program for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site. The methodology initially addressed releases via groundwater and then releases associated with extrusive igneous events. The methodology was updated and applied over the following years to take account of regulatory developments, changes in estimates of the source term to the biosphere, peer review through international model comparison exercises, new site generic data, and new data concerning conditions at the point of compliance in Amargosa Valley. The main outputs were Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors, which relate radionuclide levels in environmental media to the annual individual doses to a member of a hypothetical critical group and to the regulator-defined Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual. Most recently, consideration has been given to uncertainty in the dose estimates based on a probabilistic analysis. The paper provides a perspective on the evolution of the dose assessments in response to the developments listed above. PMID:22048489

  16. Post-treatment with an ultra-low dose of NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium attenuates disease progression in multiple Parkinson’s disease models

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Li; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Wilson, Belinda; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Ali, Syed; Robinson, Bonnie; Rao, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, a key superoxide-producing enzyme, plays a critical role in microglia-mediated chronic neuroinflammation and subsequent progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Although nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-targeting anti-inflammatory therapy for Parkinson’s disease has been proposed, its application in translational research remains limited. The aim of this study was to obtain preclinical evidence supporting this therapeutic strategy by testing the efficacy of an ultra-low dose of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium in both endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated mice using post-treatment regimens. Our data revealed that post-treatment with diphenyleneiodonium significantly attenuated progressive dopaminergic degeneration and improved rotarod activity. Remarkably, post-treatment with diphenyleneiodonium 10 months after lipopolysaccharide injection when mice had 30% loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons, showed high efficacy in protecting the remaining neuronal population and restoring motor function. Diphenyleneiodonium-elicited neuroprotection was associated with the inhibition of microglial activation, a reduction in the expression of proinflammatory factors and an attenuation of α-synuclein aggregation. A pathophysiological evaluation of diphenyleneiodonium-treated mice, including assessment of body weight, organs health, and neuronal counts, revealed no overt signs of toxicity. In summary, infusion of ultra-low dose diphenyleneiodonium potently reduced microglia-mediated chronic neuroinflammation by selectively inhibiting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and halted the progression of neurodegeneration in mouse models of Parkinson’s disease. The robust neuroprotective effects and lack of apparent toxic side effects suggest that diphenyleneiodonium

  17. Bag and loop small bowel contouring strategies differentially estimate small bowel dose for post-hysterectomy women receiving pencil beam scanning proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Melody J; Kirk, Maura; Zhai, Huifang; Lin, Lilie L

    2016-07-01

    Background Small bowel (SB) dose-volume relationships established during initial computed tomography (CT) simulations may change throughout therapy due to organ displacement and motion. We investigated the impact of organ motion on SB dose-volume histograms (DVHs) in women with gynecologic malignancies treated with pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy and compared PBS SB DVHs to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Material and methods Post-hysterectomy patients (n = 11) treated for gynecologic cancers were enrolled on an image-guided proton therapy protocol involving CT simulation with full (CTF) and empty (CTE) bladders and weekly/biweekly on-treatment scans. IMRT plans were generated for comparative analysis. SB was contoured as bowel loops or bowel bag. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for matched-pair comparisons of SB, bladder, and rectum dose-volumes between CT scans and between PBS and IMRT plans. Results In PBS loops analysis, on-treatment DVH was significantly higher than CTF for doses <45 Gy (p < 0.05), and not significantly different than CTE. Specifically, V15 for loops was higher on-treatment (median 240 cm(3)) compared to CTF (median 169 cm(3), p = 0.03). In PBS bag analysis, on-treatment DVH was not significantly different from CTF across all dose ranges. Bowel bag V45 was not significantly different between on-treatment (median 540 cm(3)) and CTF (median 499 cm(3), p = 0.53). Decreasing bladder volume was associated with increasing V15 for loops and V45 for bowel bag (p < 0.005, both). Comparing PBS and IMRT, PBS resulted in significantly lower DVHs at low dose regions (<38 Gy) and higher DVHs at high dose regions (42.5-45.5 Gy) in both loops and bag analysis. IMRT plans demonstrated higher on-treatment SB loop DVHs and only minimal differences in bowel bag DVHs compared to CTF. Conclusions SB DVHs were well estimated by CTF bowel bag and underestimated by CTF loops in the setting of inconsistent

  18. [24-hour blood pressure measurement in normal pregnancy in hypertensive pregnant patients].

    PubMed

    Rath, W; Schrader, J; Guhlke, U; Buhr-Schinner, H; Haupt, A; Kramer, A; Kuhn, W

    1990-08-01

    Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in 17 normotensive and 19 preeclamptic pregnant women. The normotensive women showed a significant nightly decline in their systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In contrast, the preeclamptic women demonstrated either an attenuated circadian rhythm or no circadian rhythm at all. This result was even more pronounced in patients with severe hypertension, some of whom had a nocturnal increase in blood pressure in spite of being treated with antihypertensive drugs in an evening dose. The lack of nocturnal blood pressure decrease was also found 24 hours post partum. In summary, these results suggest that preeclamptic women are endangered by hypertensive emergencies mostly during the night. Therefore blood pressure controls should be extended into the night, and antihypertensive drugs should also be given in a sufficient evening dose. PMID:2214601

  19. PV Hourly Simulation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, Jesse; Metzger, Ian

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple general building characteristics and usage information to calculate the energy and cost benefits of solar PV. This tool conducts and complex hourly simulation of solar PV based primarily on the area available on the rooftop. It uses a simplified efficiency calculation method and real panel characteristics. It includes a detailed rate structure to account for time-of-use rates, on-peak and off-peak pricing, and multiple rate seasons. This tool includes the option for advanced system design inputs if they are known. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, incentives and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  20. PV Hourly Simulation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple general building characteristics and usage information to calculate the energy and cost benefits of solar PV. This tool conducts and complex hourly simulation of solar PV based primarily on the area available on the rooftop. It uses a simplified efficiency calculation method and real panel characteristics. It includes a detailed rate structure to account for time-of-use rates, on-peak and off-peak pricing, and multiple rate seasons. This tool includes themore » option for advanced system design inputs if they are known. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, incentives and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less

  1. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  2. The protection conferred by chelation therapy in post-MI diabetics might be replicated by high-dose zinc supplementation.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-05-01

    The recent Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) study, enrolling subjects who had previously experienced a myocardial infarction, has provided strong evidence that intravenous chelation therapy can markedly reduce risk for mortality and vascular events in diabetics, whereas no discernible benefit was observed in non-diabetics. It has plausibly been suggested that this reflects a role for transition metal ions--iron or copper--in the genesis of advanced glycation end products, key mediators of diabetic complications that can destabilize plaque. Since phlebotomy therapy fails to prevent vascular events in diabetics, we hypothesize that labile copper may be the chief culprit whose removal by chelation mediated the benefit observed in TACT. If so, strategies less time and labor intensive than chelation therapy might provide comparable benefit. A number of recent studies report that the copper-specific orally-active chelator trientine can reduce risk for range of diabetic complications in rodents; a clinical trial with this agent demonstrated some decrease in left ventricular mass in diabetics with ventricular hypertrophy. However, until this agent becomes less expensive, supplementation with high-dose zinc may represent a more feasible alternative. Zinc opposes the absorption and redox activity of copper via induction of the antioxidant protein metallothionein, which binds copper tightly. A great many studies demonstrate that increased expression of metallothionein decreases risk for tissue damage in diabetic rodents, and in some of these studies metallothionein expression was boosted by supplemental zinc. Zinc supplementation also modestly improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetics, and might reduce risk for diabetes by protecting pancreatic beta cells from oxidative stress. A long term study assessing the impact of supplementing diabetics with high-dose zinc, assessing risk for mortality, vascular events, and diabetic complications, may be warranted. Histidine

  3. Effects of aggressive cholesterol lowering and low-dose anticoagulation on clinical and angiographic outcomes in patients with diabetes: the Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Trial.

    PubMed

    Hoogwerf, B J; Waness, A; Cressman, M; Canner, J; Campeau, L; Domanski, M; Geller, N; Herd, A; Hickey, A; Hunninghake, D B; Knatterud, G L; White, C

    1999-06-01

    Diabetic patients have greater risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) events after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery than nondiabetic patients. The Post CABG trial studied the effects of aggressive cholesterol lowering and low-dose anticoagulation in diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic patients. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial in 1,351 patients (1-11 years after CABG), the Post CABG trial consisted of two interventions (aggressive cholesterol-lowering versus moderate lowering and low-dose warfarin versus placebo) on angiographic end points. Angiographic changes in saphenous vein graft conduits 4.3 years after entry were compared in 116 diabetic and 1,235 nondiabetic patients. Seven clinical centers participated in the trial, as well as the National Institutes of Health project office (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute), the coordinating center (Maryland Medical Research Institute), and the Angiogram Reading Center (University of Minnesota). Baseline characteristics of the diabetic patients differed from the nondiabetic patients in the following ways: percentage of women participants, 15 vs. 7%, P = 0.002; mean baseline weight, 87.4 vs. 82.8 kg, P = 0.006; mean BMI, 29.5 vs. 27.6 kg/m2, P = 0.0002; mean systolic blood pressure, 141.7 vs. 133.6, P < 0.0001; mean triglyceride concentrations, 2.09 vs. 1.77 mmol/l, P < 0.0001; and mean HDL cholesterol concentrations, 0.93 vs. 1.02 mmol, P = 0.0001. The percentage of clinical events was higher in diabetic than nondiabetic patients (20.6 vs. 13.4, P = 0.033) and angiographic outcomes were not different. The benefits of aggressive cholesterol lowering were comparable in diabetic and nondiabetic patients for the angiographic end points. Warfarin use was not associated with clinical or angiographic benefit. Diabetic patients in the Post CABG trial had more CHD risk factors at study entry and higher clinical event rates during the study than nondiabetic patients. The benefits of aggressive

  4. Is the Professor In? Faculty Presence during Office Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfund, Rory A.; Rogan, Jessica D.; Burnham, Bryan R.; Norcross, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were conducted on the availability of full-time faculty during their posted office hours. In the first, we surveyed students and faculty at a single university on their estimates of the percentage of faculty present during office hours. Students ("N" = 380) and faculty ("N" = 176) estimated that 77% and 83% of…

  5. Comparison of validity of food group intake by food frequency questionnaire between pre- and post- adjustment estimates derived from 2-day 24-hour recalls in combination with the probability of consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Woo; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Kim, Jeongseon

    2012-01-01

    Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) utilising a short-term measurement method is challenging when the reference method does not accurately reflect the usual food intake. In addition, food group intake that is not consumed on daily basis is more critical when episodically consumed foods are related and compared. To overcome these challenges, several statistical approaches have been developed to determine usual food intake distributions. The Multiple Source Method (MSM) can calculate the usual food intake by combining the frequency questions of an FFQ with the short-term food intake amount data. In this study, we applied the MSM to estimate the usual food group intake and evaluate the validity of an FFQ with a group of 333 Korean children (aged 3-6 y) who completed two 24-hour recalls (24HR) and one FFQ in 2010. After adjusting the data using the MSM procedure, the true rate of non-consumption for all food groups was less than 1% except for the beans group. The median Spearman correlation coefficients against FFQ of the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and the MSM-adjusted data were 0.20 (range: 0.11 to 0.40) and 0.35 (range: 0.14 to 0.60), respectively. The weighted kappa values against FFQ ranged from 0.08 to 0.25 for the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and from 0.10 to 0.41 for the MSM-adjusted data. For most food groups, the MSM-adjusted data showed relatively stronger correlations against FFQ than raw 2-d 24HRs data, from 0.03 (beverages) to 0.34 (mushrooms). The results of this study indicated that the application of the MSM, which was a better estimate of the usual intake, could be worth considering in FFQ validation studies among Korean children. PMID:22938437

  6. An Observational Study of Blood Glucose Levels during Admission and 24 Hours Post-Operation in a Sample of Patients with Traumatic Injury in a Hospital in Kuala Lumpur

    PubMed Central

    Harun @ Haron, Rahmat; Imran, Musa Kamarul; Haspani, Mohammed Saffari Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been associated with an acute stress response mediated by the sympathoadrenomedullary axis, which can be assessed by measuring blood glucose level. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted for a year in 2007 among 294 patients who had been treated for TBI in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Patients fulfilling the set criteria were recruited into the study and data, including blood glucose level and Glasgow Outcome Score at 3-month follow-up, were collected. Results: 294 patients were included in the study: 50 females (17.0%) and 244 males (83.0%). The majority of cases were young adult patients (mean age of 34.2 years, SD 13.0). The mean blood glucose level during admission and post-surgery were 6.26 mmol/L (SD 1.30, n = 294) and 6.66 mmol/L (SD 1.44, n = 261), respectively. Specifically, the mean admission glucose level associated with mild TBI was 5.04 mmol/L (SD 0.71); moderate TBI, 5.78 mmol/L (SD 1.02); and severe TBI, 7.04 mmol/L (SD 1.18). The mean admission glucose level associated with a poor outcome in patients with isolated TBI was 6.98 mmol/L (SD 1.21). Patients with admission glucose of 5.56 mmol/L (SD 1.21) were more likely to have a favourable outcome. Conclusion: Mild, moderate, and severe TBI were associated with an increase in blood glucose levels during admission, and the mean increase in glucose levels is based on the severity of the isolated TBI. Surgical intervention did not cause further significant changes in blood glucose levels. Patients with isolated TBI and minimal increases in blood glucose levels were more likely to have a favourable outcome. PMID:22589675

  7. The Swedish duty hour enigma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Swedish resident duty hour limit is regulated by Swedish and European legal frameworks. With a maximum average of 40 working hours per week, the Swedish duty hour regulation is one of the most restrictive in the world. At the same time, the effects of resident duty hour limits have been neither debated nor researched in the Swedish context. As a result, little is known about the Swedish conceptual framework for resident duty hours, their restriction, or their outcomes: we call this “the Swedish duty hour enigma.” This situation poses a further question: How do Swedish residents themselves construct a conceptual framework for duty hour restrictions? Methods A case study was conducted at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm – an urban, research-intensive hospital setting. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 34 residents currently in training in 6 specialties. The empirical data analysis relied on theoretical propositions and was conducted thematically using a pattern-matching technique. The interview guide was based on four main topics: the perceived effect of duty hour restrictions on (1) patient care, (2) resident education, (3) resident well-being, and (4) research. Results The residents did not perceive the volume of duty hours to be the main determinant of success or failure in the four contextual domains of patient care, resident education, resident well-being, and research. Instead, they emphasized resident well-being and a desire for flexibility. Conclusions According to Swedish residents’ conceptual framework on duty hours, the amount of time spent on duty is not a proxy for the quality of resident training. Instead, flexibility, organization, and scheduling of duty hours are considered to be the factors that have the greatest influence on resident well-being, quality of learning, and opportunities to attain the competence needed for independent practice. PMID:25559074

  8. Age-related dose response of selected reproductive parameters to acute cadmium chloride exposure in the male Long-Evans rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groups of Long Evans rats 30, 50, or 70 days old were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with a single dose of between 0 and 52 micromoles Cd/Kg as cadmium (CD) chloride. Sixty days post dosing and two hours prior to sacrifice the rats were injected s.c. with 100 IU of hCG to stimula...

  9. Breast milk intake: 12 hour versus 24 hour assessment.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, M; Pittard, W

    1982-11-01

    Letter to the editor commenting on "Clinical and field studies of human lactation: methodological considerations," by Brown et al. The point is made that in test-weighing infants to estimate breast milk intake, culture related breastfeeding practices must be studied before a 12 hour test period is used to estimate intake for a complete 24 hour period. In western cultures milk intake between 7 am and 7 pm was found to differ significantly from intake between 7 pm and 7 am, whereas in a Bangladesh study milk intake during the 2 12 hour periods was comparable. PMID:7137079

  10. The impact of fertilization on the chicken egg yolk plasma and granule proteome 24 hours post-lay at room temperature: capitalizing on high-pH/low-pH reverse phase chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass tag (TMT) technology.

    PubMed

    Padliya, Neerav D; Qian, Meiqian; Mimi Roy, Sushmita; Chu, Patrick; Zheng, Haiyan; Tess, Alex; Dariani, Maghsoud; Hariri, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Chicken egg yolk is a rich source of nutrients providing high quality proteins, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids and antioxidants. Chicken egg yolk, recovered from whole egg within 24 hours post-lay has been utilized as a starting material in the preparation of a dietary supplement that has been demonstrated to lead to gains in muscle mass in a human clinical study. Further, an oil derived from chicken egg yolk has been utilized as a topical agent to treat third degree burn injury. The molecular changes that take place in fertilized, chicken egg yolk during the first 24 hours post-lay are not well understood. By studying how the protein composition of egg yolk varies with fertility status, one can utilize this knowledge to develop egg yolk-based products that have been optimized for specific applications. In this study, a direct quantitative comparison was made between the proteome of fertilized chicken egg yolk and the proteome of unfertilized chicken egg yolk, both maintained at 20 °C and analyzed within 24 hours post-lay. Egg yolk proteins from each fertility state were digested with trypsin, labeled with distinct chemical labels (tandem mass tag reagents) and then combined in a 1 : 1 ratio. A TMT-labeled tryptic digest derived from chicken egg yolk proteins (fertilized and unfertilized) was separated using high-pH/low-pH reverse-phase chromatography and analyzed using mass spectrometry. 225 protein identifications were made from this TMT-labeled tryptic digest based on a minimum of 2 unique peptides observed per protein. 9 proteins increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk and 9 proteins decreased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk. Some proteins that increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk play an important role in angiogenesis (pleiotrophin, histidine rich glycoprotein) and defense against pathogens (mannose-binding lectin, β-defensin 11, serum amyloid P-component, ovostatin

  11. Hourly Data Flow, Concentration of Hourly RINEX Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowers, D.; Habrich, H.

    2000-01-01

    The program RNXDIFF makes use of subroutines of the Bernese GPS Software to get the content of each data field and successively compares the fields of the daily files with that of the concatenated hourly files.

  12. Rationale for monitoring cyclosporine concentration at 2 hours after administration in infants posttransplantation.

    PubMed

    Furlan, V; Lykavieris, P; Maubert, M A; Habes, D; Debray, D

    2009-10-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring is critical to avoid overimmunosuppression or underimmunosuppression in young pediatric transplant recipients. The objective of this study was to examine cyclosporine (CsA) trough (C0) and 2-hour post-dose (C2) concentrations in the early period after liver transplantation (OLT) to determine whether CsA C2 monitoring is justified. Seventeen infants younger than 2 years treated with CsA (Neoral) were monitored at C0. The biopsy-proved acute rejection rate was 65% at 3 months post-OLT. No correlation was observed between values at C0 and C2. Poor absorption of CsA was observed in most infants during the first 2 weeks post-OLT, as well as interindividual variability in CsA clearance. Exposure to CsA could not be estimated using either C0 or C2 determinations in the early post-OLT period. As a marker of poor absorption, C2 is useful but does not indicate delayed or rapid clearance of drug without simultaneous measurement of concentration at C0. We suggest the use of both C0 and C2 monitoring, or AUC monitoring on an individual basis during at least the first 2 weeks post-OLT. PMID:19857744

  13. SU-E-J-97: Pretreatment Test and Post-Treatment Evaluation for Iso-NTCP Dose Guided Adapive Radiotherapy (DGART), Experience with Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Rectal Balloons

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, J; Hardcastle, N; Bender, E; Jeong, K; Tome', M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of pretreatment test for iso-NTCP DGART and to compare the pretreatment test results with post-treatment evaluations. Methods: NTCP here refers to late rectal wall toxicity only and is calculated with the ring rectal wall DVH. Simulation for one time iso- NTCP DGART starts after half of the total dose was done for 10 patients to investigate if TCP gains could be achieved. Six patients were treated using a 12-fraction 4.3Gy technique and four using 16-fraction 3.63Gy technique. For each of the 12-fraction cases a VMAT plan was generated in Pinnacle3™ using the daily CT obtained prior to the 6th fraction. A pretreatment simulation was performed using only the first 6 daily CTs. The idea is to add the 6 original plan delivered doses with 6 DGART plan delivered doses by deformable dose accumulation (DDA) on each of the first 6 CTs, resulting in 6 rectal wall doses (RWDs) and NTCPs. The 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the 6 NTCPs were computed.The posttreatment evaluation was done by: a) copy the DGART plan to 6 CTs for fraction 7–12 and calculate the 6 actual DGART delivered fractional doses; b) sum the 6 actual DGART doses with the 6 original plan delivered doses by DDA on each of the 12 CTs resulting in 12 post-treatment RWDs and NTCPs; c) boxplot the 12 post-treatment NTCPs. Results: Target dose gain is 0.76–1.93 Gy. The 95%CI widths of the pretreatment tests NTCPs were 1.1–2.7%. For 5 patients, the planned NTCP fell within the 95%CI. For 4 patients, the planned NTCP was lower than the 95%CI lines. Post-treatment results show that for 7 patients, the upper quartile was within the 95%CI; for 2 patients, the upper quartile were higher than the 95%CI. Conclusion: The pretreatment test yields conservative prediction of the actual delivered NTCP.

  14. Post-hoc analysis showing better clinical response with the loading dose of certolizumab pegol in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Eguchi, Katsumi; Watanabe, Akira; Origasa, Hideki; Kobayashi, Mariko; Shoji, Toshiharu; Togo, Osamu; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) with and without loading dose (LD) in a post-hoc analysis of two Japanese clinical studies. Methods: Data from the double-blind trials (DBT) J-RAPID and HIKARI, and their open-label extension (OLE) studies, were used. Patients randomized to CZP 200 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) groups starting with LD (400 mg Weeks 0/2/4; LD group; J-RAPID: n = 82, HIKARI: n = 116) and patients randomized to placebo groups who subsequently started CZP Q2W without LD in the OLEs (No-LD group; J-RAPID: n = 61, HIKARI: n = 99) were analyzed. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics were assessed during 24 weeks. Adverse events were reported from all studies. Results: In both trials, the LD groups showed more rapid initial ACR20/50/70 kinetics, and maintained higher ACR50/70 responses until 24 weeks, compared with the No-LD groups. Anti-CZP antibody development was less frequent in the LD groups (J-RAPID: 1.2% versus 4.9%; HIKARI: 17.2% versus 27.3%). Similar safety profiles were reported between LD and No-LD groups (any AEs: 281.8 versus 315.7 [J-RAPID], 282.6 versus 321.3 [HIKARI] [incidence rate/100 patient-years]). Conclusions: Despite limitations, including comparing DBT and OLE studies, these results suggest that a CZP LD improves clinical response in active rheumatoid arthritis without altering the safety profile. PMID:26472043

  15. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell support followed by post-transplant doxorubicin and taxol as initial therapy for metastatic breast cancer: hematopoietic tolerance and efficacy.

    PubMed

    deMagalhaes-Silverman, M; Hammert, L; Lembersky, B; Lister, J; Rybka, W; Ball, E

    1998-06-01

    A multistep HDC regimen was designed as first-line chemotherapy for MBC. Twenty-four patients with MBC and no previous chemotherapy for metastatic disease were treated with high-dose cyclophosphamide (5000 mg/m2), and etoposide (1000 mg/m2) (CyVP16), followed by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) were collected. Subsequently patients received cyclophosphamide (6000 mg/m2), thiotepa (500 mg/m2) and carboplatin (800 mg/m2) (CTCb) with hematopoietic rescue. Upon recovery from hematopoietic and gastrointestinal toxicity three cycles of doxorubicin (50 mg/m2) and taxol (150 mg/m2) were delivered. After CyVP16 42% of patients developed neutropenic fevers. There was one documented episode of bacteremia. Patients received CTCb 32 days after starting CyVP16. After CTCb the median number of days to ANC >5 x 10(9)/l was 10 and to a platelet count >20 x 10(9)/l was 14. Neutropenic fevers developed in 16 patients. There were no hemorrhagic episodes. A total of 69 cycles of doxorubicin and taxol were delivered (87% of planned). The median time from PBSC infusion to the first cycle was 38 days. The median time to the second cycle was 27 days and to the last cycle was 24 days. One patient developed congestive heart failure. Two episodes of neutropenic fevers were observed. No toxicity-related deaths were observed. Grafts are stable at 6 months post transplantation. This multistep regimen is feasible with acceptable toxicity. PMID:9674853

  16. Predicting hours of care needed.

    PubMed

    Disler, P B; Roy, C W; Smith, B P

    1993-02-01

    This study investigated whether the number of hours of care needed by a person with disability could be predicted by his or her score on the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) or the Edinburgh Rehabilitation Status Scale (ERSS). Seventy-five subjects (age range, 19 to 65), from a variety of residential services, with neurological disabilities, were visited by an experienced observer to estimate the number of hours of care per week required, from whatever source, for the subject to manage adequately. A second observer, blind to the observations of the first, assessed the subjects' FIM and ERSS scores by interview with the subjects and their carers. Wide ranges of scores on both scales suggested that subjects with many different dependency levels were surveyed, confirmed by "required care hours" varying between 0 and 168 per week (median 18). Pearson's correlation coefficients were 0.36 for ERSS (p < 0.002) and -0.39 for FIM (p < 0.001). Analysis of the scattergrams identified three aberrant cases. Investigation of these showed they each had a high level of dependency due to supervision rather than physical care; exclusion of these cases resulted in much stronger correlations for the remaining 72 cases (ERSS, 0.61; FIM, -0.76). Both ERSS and FIM correlate well with hours of care required, but their association with hours of supervision is poor. PMID:8431096

  17. Proteomic analysis of post-nuclear supernatant fraction and percoll-purified membranes prepared from brain cortex of rats exposed to increasing doses of morphine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proteomic analysis was performed in post-nuclear supernatant (PNS) and Percoll-purified membranes (PM) prepared from fore brain cortex of rats exposed to increasing doses of morphine (10–50 mg/kg) for 10 days. Results In PNS, the 10 up (↑)- or down (↓)-regulated proteins exhibiting the largest morphine-induced change were selected, excised manually from the gel and identified by MALDI-TOF MS/MS: 1-(gi|148747414, Guanine deaminase), ↑2.5×; 2-(gi|17105370, Vacuolar-type proton ATP subunit B, brain isoform), ↑2.6×; 3-(gi|1352384, Protein disulfide-isomerase A3), ↑3.4×; 4-(gi|40254595, Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2), ↑3.6×; 5-(gi|149054470, N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein, isoform CRAa), ↑2.0×; 6-(gi|42476181, Malate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial precursor), ↑1.4×; 7-(gi|62653546, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), ↑1.6×; 8-(gi|202837, Aldolase A), ↑1.3×; 9-(gi|31542401, Creatine kinase B-type), ↓0.86×; 10-(gi|40538860, Aconitate hydratase, mitochondrial precursor), ↑1.3×. The identified proteins were of cytoplasmic (1, 4, 5, 7, 9), cell membrane (2), endoplasmic reticulum (3) and mitochondrial (6, 8, 10) origin and 9 of them were significantly increased, 1.3-3.6×. The 4 out of 9 up-regulated proteins (4, 6, 7, 10) were described as functionally related to oxidative stress; the 2 proteins participate in genesis of apoptotic cell death. In PM, the 18 up (↑)- or down (↓)-regulated proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS and were of plasma membrane [Brain acid soluble protein, ↓2.1×; trimeric Gβ subunit, ↓2.0x], myelin membrane [MBP, ↓2.5×], cytoplasmic [Internexin, ↑5.2×; DPYL2, ↑4.9×; Ubiquitin hydrolase, ↓2.0×; 60S ribosomal protein, ↑2.7×; KCRB, ↓2.6×; Sirtuin-2, ↑2.5×; Peroxiredoxin-2, ↑2.2×; Septin-11, ↑2.2×; TERA, ↑2.1×; SYUA, ↑2.0×; Coronin-1A, ↓5.4×] and mitochondrial [Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, ↑2.7×; SCOT1, ↑2.2×; Prohibitin, ↑2.2

  18. Low-dose ticagrelor yields an antiplatelet efficacy similar to that of standard-dose ticagrelor in healthy subjects: an open-label randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pan; Gu, Ying; Yang, Yawei; Chen, Lizhi; Liu, Junmei; Gao, Lihong; Qin, Yongwen; Cai, Quancai; Zhao, Xianxian; Wang, Zhuo; Ma, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Ticagrelor has a greater antiplatelet efficacy than clopidogrel but may be accompanied by an increased risk of bleeding. This study evaluated the antiplatelet effect and pharmacokinetic profile of low-dose ticagrelor in healthy Chinese volunteers. Thirty healthy subjects were randomized to receive standard-dose ticagrelor (180-mg loading dose, 90-mg twice daily [bid] [n = 10]), low-dose ticagrelor (90-mg loading dose, 45-mg bid [n = 10]), or clopidogrel (600-mg loading dose, 75-mg once daily [n = 10]). Platelet reactivity was assessed by using the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay at baseline and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours post-dosing. The ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX concentrations were measured for pharmacokinetic analysis. The percentage inhibition of P2Y12 reaction units was higher in the low-dose and standard-dose ticagrelor group than in the clopidogrel group at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 48 hours post-dosing (P < 0.05 for all), but did not differ significantly between the two ticagrelor doses at any time-point (P > 0.05). The plasma ticagrelor and ARC124910XX concentrations were approximately 2-fold higher with standard-dose versus low-dose ticagrelor. No serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, low-dose ticagrelor achieved faster and higher inhibition of platelet functions in healthy Chinese subjects than did clopidogrel, with an antiplatelet efficacy similar to that of standard-dose ticagrelor. PMID:27554803

  19. Low-dose γ-irradiation induces dual radio-adaptive responses depending on the post-irradiation time by altering microRNA expression profiles in normal human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bae, Seunghee; Kim, Karam; Cha, Hwa Jun; Choi, Yeongmin; Shin, Shang Hun; An, In-Sook; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Su Jae; Kim, Ji Young; Nam, Seon Young; An, Sungkwan

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation, including γ-radiation, induces severe skin disorders. However, the biological consequences and molecular mechanisms responsible for the response of human skin to low-dose γ-radiation (LDR) are largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that LDR (0.1 Gy) induces distinct cellular responses in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) depending on the post-irradiation time point. A MTT-based cell viability assay and propidium iodide staining-based cell cycle assay revealed that the viability and proportion of the cells in the G2/M phase were differed at 6 and 24 h post-irradiation. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that LDR significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1), but downregulated the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) at 24 h post-irradiation. MicroRNA (miRNA) microarray analysis further demonstrated that LDR induced changes in the expression profiles of specific miRNAs and that some of the deregulated miRNAs were specific to either the early or late radio-adaptive response. Our results suggest that LDR generates dual radio-adaptive responses depending on the post-irradiation time by altering specific miRNA expression profiles in NHDFs. PMID:25384363

  20. Solar Hot Water Hourly Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel which provides an hourly simulation of a solar hot water heating system (including solar geometry, solar collector efficiency as a function of temperature, energy balance on storage tank and lifecycle cost analysis).

  1. 75 Hour Nurse Aide Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Coll. of Education.

    This 75-hour nurse aide course has been designed to meet the training requirements of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 for aides working in nursing facilities and skilled nursing facilities. Emphasis in the course is on students achieving a basic level of knowledge and demonstrating skills to provide safe, effective resident care. The…

  2. Carprofen as an analgesic for postoperative pain in cats: dose titration and assessment of efficacy in comparison to pethidine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Lascelles, B D; Cripps, P; Mirchandani, S; Waterman, A E

    1995-12-01

    The aim of this study was to titrate the optimal dose of carprofen for single dose usage, for alleviating postoperative pain, under a double-blind and randomised protocol, using both negative and positive controls. Renal tolerance was assessed by screening plasma urea and creatinine. Pre- and postoperative assessment of pain and sedation was made using a dynamic and interactive visual analogue scoring system in 60 cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. The cats were randomly assigned to one of six groups: (1) carprofen at 1.0 mg/kg subcutaneously (sc); (2) carprofen at 2.0 mg/kg sc; (3) carprofen at 4.0 mg/kg sc; (4) pethidine at 5.0 mg/kg intramuscularly (im), (5) pethidine at 10.0 mg/kg im: and (6) no analgesics (injection of saline). All injections were given postoperatively on tracheal extubation and administered in a double-blind manner. Assessments were made up to 20 hours post extubation. Prior to induction and at 20 hours post extubation, blood samples were taken for laboratory analysis of the urea and creatinine content to check for any adverse effect on renal function. Cats given pethidine did not appear more sedated than the groups receiving carprofen or saline. Cats receiving carprofen were in less pain postoperatively overall, with 4.0 mg/kg being the most effective dose rate (significantly better than the other doses of carprofen at four and eight hours post extubation). The highest dose of pethidine provided significantly better analgesia than the highest dose of carprofen up to two hours post extubation, but from two to 20 hours post extubation carprofen at 4.0 mg/kg provided significantly better analgesia than the pethidine. None of the analgesic regimens appeared to affect renal function adversely, as measured by urea and creatinine levels. PMID:8926722

  3. Hourly temporal distribution of wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligiannis, Ilias; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The wind process is essential for hydrometeorology and additionally, is one of the basic renewable energy resources. Most stochastic forecast models are limited up to daily scales disregarding the hourly scale which is significant for renewable energy management. Here, we analyze hourly wind timeseries giving emphasis on the temporal distribution of wind within the day. We finally present a periodic model based on statistical as well as hydrometeorological reasoning that shows good agreement with data. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  4. 76 FR 61098 - Guidance for 1-Hour SO2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ...Notice is hereby given that the EPA has posted its draft non- binding guidance titled, ``Guidance for 1-Hour SO2 NAAQS SIP Submissions'' on its Web site. The EPA invites public comments on this guidance document during the comment period specified below, and plans to issue an updated version of the guidance after reviewing timely submitted...

  5. 75 FR 71545 - Changes to NARA Facilities' Hours of Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Register (75 FR 54543) for a 60-day public comment period. This proposed rule changed NARA's regulations... Central Research Room are posted at http://www.archives.gov . The exhibit areas' hours of operation are... of Operation AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  6. The Dose of Exposure and Prevalence Rates of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in a Sample of Turkish Children Eleven Months After the 1999 Marmara Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Sefa; Bulut, Solmaz; Tayli, Asli

    2005-01-01

    Since Turkey is a centrally prime earthquake zone, Turkey's children are at risk for developing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) caused by earthquake exposures and threats of anticipated earthquakes. Given the gaps in the literature and the risk to children living in Turkey, the present study was undertaken to investigate the severity and…

  7. Residency Work-Hours Reform

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, Teryl K; Escarce, José J

    2005-01-01

    Background In response to proposed federal legislation, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education limited resident work-hours in July 2003. The cost may be substantial but, if successful, the reform might lower preventable adverse event costs in hospital and after discharge. Objectives This study sought to estimate the reform's net cost in 2001 dollars, and to determine the reduction in preventable adverse events needed to make reform cost neutral from teaching hospital and societal perspectives. Design Cost analysis using published literature and data. Net costs were determined for 4 reform strategies and over a range of potential effects on preventable adverse events. Results Nationwide, transferring excess work to task-tailored substitutes (the lowest-level providers appropriate for noneducational tasks) would cost $673 million; mid-level providers would cost $1.1 billion. Reform strategies promoting adverse events would increase net teaching hospital and societal costs as well as mortality. If task-tailored substitutes decrease events by 5.1% or mid-level providers decrease them by 8.5%, reform would be cost neutral for society. Events must fall by 18.5% and 30.9%, respectively, to be cost neutral for teaching hospitals. Conclusions Because most preventable adverse event costs occur after discharge, a modest decline (5.1% to 8.5%) in them might make residency work-hours reform cost neutral for society but only a much larger drop (18.5% to 30.9%) would make it cost neutral for teaching hospitals, unless additional funds are allocated. Future research should evaluate which reform approaches prevent adverse events and at what cost. PMID:16191130

  8. Resident Work Hour Restrictions and Change Management: A Cautionary Tale.

    PubMed

    Fang, Z Amy; Hudson, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Residents are a significant part of coverage in many hospitals. Resident associations are negotiating work hour limits to prevent fatigue-induced medical errors. Our intensive care unit experienced an unexpected resident shortage and used the opportunity to trial a shift schedule for one month. Post-surveys were sent to nurses, attending physicians and residents to evaluate the effects on staff interactions, patient safety and education quality. The trial was clearly a failure on all fronts. Work hour restrictions are a reality in medical education, and administrators need to start considering alternative staffing models and discussing alternative schedules with their medicine faculty. PMID:26359002

  9. Safe orthotopic transplantation of hearts harvested 24 hours after brain death and preserved for 24 hours

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Stig; Paskevicius, Audrius; Liao, Qiuming; Sjöberg, Trygve

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. The aim of this study was to demonstrate safe orthotopic transplantation of porcine donor hearts harvested 24 hours after brain death and preserved for 24 hours before transplantation. Design. Circulatory normalization of brain dead (decapitated) pigs was obtained using a new pharmacological regimen (n = 10). The donor hearts were perfused at 8 °C in cycles of 15 min perfusion followed by 60 min without perfusion. The perfusate consisted of an albumin-containing hyperoncotic cardioplegic nutrition solution with hormones and erythrocytes. Orthotopic transplantation was done in 10 recipient pigs after 24 hours’ preservation. Transplanted pigs were monitored for 24 hours, then an adrenaline stress test was done. Results. All transplanted pigs were stable throughout the 24-hour observation period with mean aortic pressure around 80 mmHg and normal urine production. Mean right and left atrial pressures were in the range of 3–6 and 5–10 mmHg, respectively. Blood gases at 24 hours did not differ from baseline values. The adrenaline test showed a dose dependent response, with aortic pressure increasing from 98/70 to 220/150 mmHg and heart rate from 110 to 185 beats/min. Conclusion. Orthotopic transplantation of porcine hearts harvested 24 hours after brain death and preserved for 24 hours can be done safely. PMID:26882241

  10. My Half Hour with Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romer, Robert H.

    2005-03-01

    "So you're studying at Princeton. Would you like to meet Einstein?" That question, during a brief two-body collision at a cocktail party, a collision that was over before I could think of an appropriate response, led—over a year later—to one of the more memorable half hours of my life. It was an elastic collision, we drifted apart, and I thought it had simply been a casual remark until a few days later when the mail brought me a carbon copy [sic] of a letter (dated "25.XII.52") from the speaker, Dr. Tilly Edinger, to Albert Einstein. Accompanying the letter to Einstein was a card that Dr. Edinger advised me to send around to Einstein's home on Mercer Street to request a meeting. (What is perhaps most truly astonishing in connection with this event is that not only do I still have that carbon copy—and the eventual letter from Mercer Street that invited me to Einstein's home—but that I was able to find both documents in my attic!)

  11. Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DNBP) and Diisobutyl Phthalate (DiBP) Metabolism in a Human Volunteer after Single Oral Doses [Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    An individual (male, 36 years, 87 kg) ingested two separate doses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) at a rate of ~60 µg/kg. Key monoester and oxidized metabolites were identified and quantified in urine continuously collected until 48 hours post dos...

  12. Adult immunization—Need of the hour

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, P. Srinivas; Ganta, Avani; Kattimani, Vivekanand S.; Tiwari, Rahul V. C.

    2016-01-01

    Immunization is the process or the act of making individuals immune, which is usually done during childhood. Everyone is aware about immunization during childhood, however, very few know about adult immunization. This led us to review the adult immunization literature for the preventive strategies through various vaccination protocols. Adults do require vaccination protocols with booster doses for hepatitis B, Shingles, communicable diseases, traveler's diseases, etc. In this context, this article revises much of the available adult immunization literature and presents comprehensive guidelines. This article will increase the awareness regarding the importance of vaccination for adults to prevent a variety of conditions prevalent in our country as well as epidemics. The article comprehensively provides insights into the available vaccination and preventive strategy of human papilloma virus (HPV), hepatitis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in this part of the review. We strongly recommend all the health care professionals to educate their co-professionals and the public to use the benefits of adult immunization. It is the need of the hour and reduces the burden of treatment and increases productivity. PMID:27583212

  13. Adult immunization-Need of the hour.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthi, P Srinivas; Ganta, Avani; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Tiwari, Rahul V C

    2016-01-01

    Immunization is the process or the act of making individuals immune, which is usually done during childhood. Everyone is aware about immunization during childhood, however, very few know about adult immunization. This led us to review the adult immunization literature for the preventive strategies through various vaccination protocols. Adults do require vaccination protocols with booster doses for hepatitis B, Shingles, communicable diseases, traveler's diseases, etc. In this context, this article revises much of the available adult immunization literature and presents comprehensive guidelines. This article will increase the awareness regarding the importance of vaccination for adults to prevent a variety of conditions prevalent in our country as well as epidemics. The article comprehensively provides insights into the available vaccination and preventive strategy of human papilloma virus (HPV), hepatitis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in this part of the review. We strongly recommend all the health care professionals to educate their co-professionals and the public to use the benefits of adult immunization. It is the need of the hour and reduces the burden of treatment and increases productivity. PMID:27583212

  14. Results of a 1462 hour ammonia arcjet endurance test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, J. E.; Goodfellow, K. D.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 1462 hours of operaton were demonstrated in an endurance test of a 30 kWe-class ammonia arcjet operated at 10 kWe. The propellant flow rate was 0.170 g/s, and the measured performance increased from approximately 650 s specific impulse at 36 percent efficiency at the beginning of the test to 675 s at 39 percent near the end. The voltage increased and the current dropped slightly over the first 400 hours, and then remained approximately constant for the remainder of the test. The test, scheduled for 1500 hours, was terminated after an insulator in the rear of the engine failed. Post-test examination of the electrodes revealed only minimal damage. Although there was evidence of a number of mass transport processes occurring in the discharge chamber, the primary life-limiting wear mechanisms appear to be cathode tip erosion and constrictor melting.

  15. Results of a 1462 hour ammonia arcjet endurance test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, J. E.; Goodfellow, K. D.

    1992-07-01

    A total of 1462 hours of operaton were demonstrated in an endurance test of a 30 kWe-class ammonia arcjet operated at 10 kWe. The propellant flow rate was 0.170 g/s, and the measured performance increased from approximately 650 s specific impulse at 36 percent efficiency at the beginning of the test to 675 s at 39 percent near the end. The voltage increased and the current dropped slightly over the first 400 hours, and then remained approximately constant for the remainder of the test. The test, scheduled for 1500 hours, was terminated after an insulator in the rear of the engine failed. Post-test examination of the electrodes revealed only minimal damage. Although there was evidence of a number of mass transport processes occurring in the discharge chamber, the primary life-limiting wear mechanisms appear to be cathode tip erosion and constrictor melting.

  16. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  17. Long Work Hours May Hurt Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159479.html Long Work Hours May Hurt Your Health At the job ... at Ohio State University. The link between long work hours and disease ''seems to be present a ...

  18. 12 hour shifts the Nambour Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    2007-08-01

    Union members have a lengthy history of campaigning for fair working hours and conditions. The success of such campaigns has led to the implementation of the eight hour working day and the 40 hour and then 38 hour week as industrial standards. More recently though, calls for greater flexibility in their shift arrangements by nurses at Nambour Hospital have led to a voluntary 12 hour shift being implemented in their Intensive Care Unit. While union members are protective of their hard won gains in achieving reduced working hours through the 8 hour day--ICU nurses at Nambour Hospital say the voluntary 12 hour shift initiative goes a way in addressing their work/life balance issues. PMID:17879604

  19. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Work hours. 26.205 Section 26.205 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.205 Work hours. (a) Individuals subject to work hour controls. Any individual who performs duties identified in § 26.4(a)(1) through...

  20. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  1. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  2. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  3. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and...

  4. The effects of a systemic single dose of zoledronic acid on post-implantation bone remodelling and inflammation in an ovariectomised rat model.

    PubMed

    Cardemil, Carina; Omar, Omar M; Norlindh, Birgitta; Wexell, Cecilia L; Thomsen, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Bisphosphonates reverse the negative effects of ovariectomy on bone, but they have also been associated with adverse processes in human jawbone. The molecular events determining bone regeneration and implant integration in osteoporotic conditions, with and without bisphosphonate treatment, are unclear. In this study, ovariectomised rats, to which a single dose of saline (NaCl) or zoledronic acid (Zol) was administered, received titanium alloy implants in their tibiae and mandibles. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, gene expression analysis and histomorphometry were performed. The results show that ovariectomy, per se, upregulated the expression of genes denoting bone formation in the tibia, bone remodelling in the mandible and apoptosis in the tibia and mandible. Zoledronic acid administration resulted in lower levels of a remodelling marker in serum and downregulated gene expression for inflammation, bone formation, angiogenesis and apoptosis, mainly in the mandible, after 28 d of healing. Histomorphometry revealed improved bone-to-implant contact in the tibia, while the opposite was observed in the mandible. The present data show that a systemic single dose of zoledronic acid, in ovariectomised animals, results in site-specific differences in the regulation of genes involved in bone healing and regeneration in association with implant installation. These events occur in parallel with site-specific differences in the rate of osseointegration, indicating diverse tissue responses in the tibia and mandible after zoledronic acid treatment. The zoledronic acid effect on gene expression, during the late phase of healing in the mandible, suggests negative effects by the anti-resorptive agent on osseointegration at that particular site. PMID:23182921

  5. What is the ideal dose and power output of low-level laser therapy (810 nm) on muscle performance and post-exercise recovery? Study protocol for a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies involving phototherapy applied prior to exercise have demonstrated positive results regarding the attenuation of muscle fatigue and the expression of biochemical markers associated with recovery. However, a number of factors remain unknown, such as the ideal dose and application parameters, mechanisms of action and long-term effects on muscle recovery. The aims of the proposed project are to evaluate the long-term effects of low-level laser therapy on post-exercise musculoskeletal recovery and identify the best dose andapplication power/irradiation time. Design and methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial with be conducted. After fulfilling the eligibility criteria, 28 high-performance athletes will be allocated to four groups of seven volunteers each. In phase 1, the laser power will be 200 mW and different doses will be tested: Group A (2 J), Group B (6 J), Group C (10 J) and Group D (0 J). In phase 2, the best dose obtained in phase 1 will be used with the same distribution of the volunteers, but with different powers: Group A (100 mW), Group B (200 mW), Group C (400 mW) and Group D (0 mW). The isokinetic test will be performed based on maximum voluntary contraction prior to the application of the laser and after the eccentric contraction protocol, which will also be performed using the isokinetic dynamometer. The following variables related to physical performance will be analyzed: peak torque/maximum voluntary contraction, delayed onset muscle soreness (algometer), biochemical markers of muscle damage, inflammation and oxidative stress. Discussion Our intention, is to determine optimal laser therapy application parameters capable of slowing down the physiological muscle fatigue process, reducing injuries or micro-injuries in skeletal muscle stemming from physical exertion and accelerating post-exercise muscle recovery. We believe that, unlike drug therapy, LLLT has a biphasic dose–response pattern. Trial

  6. Comparison of intermediate-dose methotrexate with cranial irradiation for the post-induction treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia in children

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, A.I.; Weinberg, V.; Brecher, M.L.; Jones, B.; Glicksman, A.S.; Sinks, L.F.; Weil, M.; Pleuss, H.; Hananian, J.; Burgert, E.O. Jr.

    1983-03-03

    The authors compared two regimens with respect to their ability to prolong disease-free survival in 506 children and adolescents with acute lymphocytic leukemia. All responders to induction therapy were randomized to treatment with 2400 rad of cranial irradiation plus intrathecal methotrexate or to treatment with intermediate-dose methotrexate plus intrathecal methotrexate, as prophylaxis for involvement of the central nervous system and other sanctuary areas. Complete responders were stratified into either standard-risk or increased-risk groups on the basis of age and white-cell count at presentation. Among patients with standard risk, hematologic relapses occurred in 9 of 117 given methotrexate and 24 of 120 given irradiation. The rate of central-nervous-system relapse was higher in the methotrexate group (23 of 117) than in the irradiation group. Among patients with increased risk, radiation offered greater protection to the central nervous system than methotrexate; there was no difference in the rate of hematologic relapse. Methotrexate offered better protection against systemic relapse in standard-risk patients and better protection against testicular relapse overall, but it offered less protection against relapses in the central nervous system than cranial irradiation.

  7. Comparison of intermediate-dose methotrexate with cranial irradiation for the post-induction treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia in children

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, A.I.; Weinberg, V.; Brecher, M.L.

    1983-03-03

    We compared two regimens with respect to their ability to prolong disease-free survival in 506 children and adolescents with acute lymphocytic leukemia. All responders to induction therapy were randomized to treatment with 2400 rad of cranial irradiation plus intrathecal methotrexate or to treatment with intermediate-dose methotrexate plus intrathecal methotrexate, as prophylaxis for involvement of the central nervous system and other sanctuary areas. Patients were then treated with a standard maintenance regimen. Complete responders were stratified into either standard-risk or increased-risk groups on the basis of age and white-cell count at presentation. Among patients with standard risk, hematologic relapses occurred in 9 of 117 given methotrexate and 24 of 120 given irradiation (P less than 0.01). The rate of central-nervous-system relapse was higher in the methotrexate group (23 of 117) than in the irradiation group (8 of 120) (P . 0.01). Among patients with increased risk, radiation offered greater protection to the central nervous system than methotrexate (P . 0.03); there was no difference in the rate of hematologic relapse. In both risk strata the frequency of testicular relapse was significantly lower in the methotrexate group (1 patient) than the radiation group (10 patients) (P . 0.01). Methotrexate offered better protection against systemic relapse in standard-risk patients and better protection against testicular relapse overall, but it offered less protection against relapses in the central nervous system than cranial irradiation.

  8. Improved response with post-ASCT consolidation by low dose thalidomide, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone as first line treatment for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Neil; Percy, Laura; Khan, Iftekhar; Quinn, John; D'Sa, Shirley; Yong, Kwee L

    2012-08-01

    The use of consolidation or maintenance to improve disease response, and hence clinical outcome, following autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) remains the subject of intense clinical research. We carried out a single-arm study to assess the toxicity and efficacy of a short block of consolidation therapy with cyclophosphamide, low dose thalidomide and dexamethasone (CTD) in patients within 6 months following ASCT, as part of frontline therapy for symptomatic multiple myeloma. Forty-five patients who had not progressed were enrolled on the study, and 43 completed treatment on protocol. This regimen was well tolerated soon after ASCT, with only grade 1/2 toxicity apart from neutropenia, and no long-term sequelae. Importantly, CTD consolidation improved the depth of response in treated patients, increasing the complete/very good partial response rate from 44% at 3 months, to 72% at 12 months, which was significantly higher compared with a historical group of control patients (P = 0·002). There was a trend to longer progression-free survival that favoured the study group. Consolidation therapy did not adversely affect subsequent disease response to salvage therapies at relapse. We conclude that CTD consolidation may be a useful, non-toxic and cost-effective strategy to deepen disease response following ASCT, and deserves further study in a randomized trial. PMID:22712536

  9. A post-partum single-dose TDF/FTC tail does not prevent the selection of NNRTI resistance in women receiving pre-partum ZDV and intrapartum single-dose nevirapine to prevent mother-to- child HIV-1 transmission.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Reshmi; Paredes, Roger; Parboosing, Raveen; Moodley, Pravi; Singh, Lavanya; Naidoo, Anneta; Gordon, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Although the rates of vertical transmission of HIV in the developing world have improved to around 3% in countries like South Africa, resistance to antiretrovirals (ARV) used in Prevention of Mother-to-Child transmission (pMTCT) strategies may thwart such outcomes and affect the efficacy of future ARV regimens in mothers and children. This study conducted in Durban, South Africa, between 2010 and 2013 found a high rate of nevirapine (NVP) resistance among women receiving Zidovudine (AZT) from 14 weeks gestation, single dose nevirapine (sd NVP) at the onset of labor and a single dose of coformulated Tenofovir/Emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) postpartum. Using Sanger sequencing, high and intermediate levels of nevirapine (NVP) resistance were detected in 15/44 (34%) and in 1/44 (2%) of women tested, respectively. Most subjects selected the K103N mutation (22% (10/45) of all patients and 66% (10/15) of those with high-level NVP resistance). Such rate of NVP resistance is comparable to studies where only sd NVP was used. In conclusion, a post-partum single-dose TDF/FTC tail does not prevent the selection of NNRTI resistance in women receiving pre-partum ZDV and intrapartum sd NVP to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25940687

  10. Relief of Dental Pain: A Controlled 12-Hour Comparison of Etodolac, Aspirin, and Placebo

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Sharon L.; Bergman, Stewart A.

    1985-01-01

    Single doses of the study drugs were evaluated for 12 hours by 201 out-patients reporting moderate or severe pain following oral surgery. The results of this double-blind study indicated that 50, 100, and 200 mg of etodolac as well as 650 mg of aspirin were significantly more effective than placebo. A dose-response relationship was found for the three doses of etodolac, which was significant for summed pain relief scores for up to 8 hours. In terms of total analgesic effect, etodolac 200 mg was significantly superior to placebo for 8 hours, while aspirin and the two lower doses of etodolac were similarly effective in the range of 3-6 hours postdrug. All doses showed a favorable onset of analgesia (½-1 hour). Etodolac 200 mg resulted in a duration of action which was approximately twice as long as aspirin's and also produced a peak pain relief which was significantly greater than the lower doses of etodolac and aspirin. All study medications were well tolerated with no reports of significant adverse side effects. No dose-related effects were observed with etodolac PMID:2934008

  11. Randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of three vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 vaccine for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robert J; Kalsi, Gurdyal; Montalvo-Lugo, Victor M; Sharma, Mona; Wu, Yukun; Muse, Derek D; Sheldon, Eric A; Hampel, Frank C; Lemiale, Laurence

    2016-04-19

    AV7909 vaccine being developed for post-exposure prophylaxis of anthrax disease may require fewer vaccinations and reduced amount of antigen to achieve an accelerated immune response over BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed). A phase 2, randomized, double-blind, BioThrax vacccine-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of three intramuscular vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 in 168 healthy adults. Subjects were randomized at a 4:3:2:4:2 ratio to 5 groups: (1) AV7909 on Days 0/14; (2) AV7909 on Days 0/28; (3) AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; (4) half dose AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; and (5) BioThrax vaccine on Days 0/14/28. Vaccinations in all groups were well tolerated. The incidences of adverse events (AEs) were 79% for AV7909 subjects and 65% for BioThrax subjects; 92% of AV7909 subjects and 87% of BioThrax subjects having AEs reported Grade 1-2 AEs. No serious AEs were assessed as potentially vaccine-related, and no AEs of potential autoimmune etiology were reported. There was no discernible pattern indicative of a safety concern across groups in the incidence or severity of reactogenicity events. Groups 2-4 achieved success for the primary endpoint, demonstrated by a lower 95% confidence limit of the percentage of subjects with protective toxin neutralizing antibody NF50 values (≥0.56) to be ≥40% at Day 63. Group 1 marginally missed the criterion (lower bound 95% confidence limit of 39.5%). Immune responses were above this threshold for Groups 1, 3 and 4 at Day 28 and all groups at Day 42. Further study of an AV7909 two-dose schedule given 2 weeks apart is warranted in light of the favorable tolerability profile and immunogenicity response relative to three doses of BioThrax vaccine, as well as preliminary data from nonclinical studies indicating similar immune responses correlate with higher survival for AV7909 than BioThrax vaccine. PMID:26979136

  12. 16 CFR 0.3 - Hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hours. 0.3 Section 0.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.3 Hours. Principal and field offices are open on each business day from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m....

  13. 47 CFR 0.403 - Office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Office hours. 0.403 Section 0.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General Information General § 0.403 Office hours. The main offices of the Commission are open from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Monday...

  14. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  15. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington,...

  16. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington,...

  17. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  18. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington,...

  19. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  20. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  1. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington,...

  2. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  3. 16 CFR 0.3 - Hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hours. 0.3 Section 0.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.3 Hours. Principal and field offices are open on each business day from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m....

  4. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington,...

  5. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission,...

  6. 47 CFR 0.403 - Office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Office hours. 0.403 Section 0.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General Information General § 0.403 Office hours. The main offices of the Commission are open from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Monday...

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Single-Dose Dolutegravir in HIV-Seronegative Subjects With Moderate Hepatic Impairment Compared to Healthy Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ivy H; Borland, Julie; Savina, Paul M; Chen, Shuguang; Patel, Parul; Wajima, Toshihiro; Peppercorn, Amanda F; Piscitelli, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dolutegravir pharmacokinetics (PK) in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment compared to matched, healthy controls. In this open-label, parallel-group study, eight adult subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Score 7–9) and eight healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and body mass index received a single dolutegravir 50-mg dose. Following dosing, 72-hour PK sampling was performed to determine total and unbound dolutegravir concentrations. PK parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. Geometric least squares mean ratios (GMR) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) in subjects with hepatic impairment versus healthy subjects were generated by analysis of variance. Results showed that PK parameters of total plasma dolutegravir were similar between subject groups. The unbound fraction was higher in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment than in healthy subjects with GMR (90% CI) of 2.20 (1.62, 2.99) for unbound fraction at 3 hours post-dose and 1.76 (1.23, 2.51) for unbound fraction at 24 hours post-dose; this correlated with lower serum albumin concentrations and was not considered clinically significant. Dolutegravir was well tolerated in both groups; all adverse events were reported as minor. Although free fraction was increased, no dose adjustment is required for patients treated with dolutegravir who have mild to moderate hepatic impairment. PMID:26097786

  8. Meloxicam prevents COX-2 mediated post-surgical inflammation but not pain following laparotomy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Roughan, John V.; Bertrand, Henri G.M.J.; Isles, Hannah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammation is thought to be a major contributor to post-surgical pain so nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used analgesics. However, compared to rats, considerably less is known as to how successfully these prevent pain in mice. Methods A fluorescent COX-2 selective probe was used for the first time to evaluate the post-surgical anti-inflammatory effects of meloxicam, and automated behaviour analyses (HomeCageScan; HCS), the Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS) and body weight changes to assess its pain preventative properties. Groups of 8-9 BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected with saline (0.3mls) or meloxicam at (1, 5 or 20mg/kg) 1 hour before a 1.5cm midline laparotomy. The probe or a control dye (2mg/kg) was injected intravenously 3 hours later. Imaging was used to quantify inflammation at 7, 24 and 48 hours following surgery. HCS data and MGS scores were obtained from video recordings and photographs before and at 24 hours. Results Post-surgical inflammation was dose dependently reduced by meloxicam; with 5 or 20mg/kg being most effective compared to saline. However, all mice lost weight, MGS scores increased and behavioural activity was reduced by surgery for at least 24 hours with no perceivable beneficial effect of meloxicam on any of these potentially pain-associated changes. Conclusions Although meloxicam prevented inflammation, even large doses did not prevent post-laparotomy pain possibly arising due a range of factors, including, but not limited to inflammation. MGS scoring can be applied by very naïve assessors and so should be effective for cage-side use. PMID:25908253

  9. Simultaneous administration of high-dose atorvastatin and clopidogrel does not interfere with platelet inhibition during percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kreutz, Rolf P; Breall, Jeffrey A; Sinha, Anjan; von der Lohe, Elisabeth; Kovacs, Richard J; Flockhart, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background Reloading with high-dose atorvastatin shortly before percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) has been proposed as a strategy to reduce periprocedural myonecrosis. There has been a concern that statins that are metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 may interfere with clopidogrel metabolism at high doses. The impact of simultaneous administration of high doses of atorvastatin and clopidogrel on the efficacy of platelet inhibition has not been established. Methods Subjects (n=60) were randomized to receive atorvastatin 80 mg together with clopidogrel 600 mg loading dose (n=28) versus clopidogrel 600 mg alone (n=32) at the time of PCI. Platelet aggregation was measured at baseline, 4 hours after clopidogrel loading dose, and 16–24 hours after clopidogrel loading dose by light transmittance aggregometry using adenosine diphosphate as agonist. Results Platelet aggregation was similar at baseline in both the atorvastatin and the control groups (adenosine diphosphate 10 µM: 57%±19% vs 61%±21%; P=0.52). There was no significant difference in platelet aggregation between the atorvastatin and the control groups at 4 hours (37%±18% vs 39%±21%; P=0.72) and 16–24 hours post-clopidogrel loading dose (35%±17% vs 37%±18%; P=0.75). No significant difference in incidence of periprocedural myonecrosis was observed between the atorvastatin and control groups (odds ratio: 1.02; 95% confidence interval 0.37–2.8). Conclusion High-dose atorvastatin given simultaneously with clopidogrel loading dose at the time of PCI does not significantly alter platelet inhibition by clopidogrel. Statin reloading with high doses of atorvastatin at the time of PCI appears to be safe without adverse effects on platelet inhibition by clopidogrel (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00979940). PMID:27350760

  10. A comparison between 24-hour and 2-hour urine collection for the determination of proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Somanathan, N; Farrell, T; Galimberti, A

    2003-07-01

    Proteinuria is one of the fundamental criteria for the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia with quantitative assessment based on the 24-hour urine protein estimation as the gold standard. This study was undertaken to determine whether a 2-hour protein estimation correlated with that of a formal 24-hour collection. Thirty women with proteinuric hypertension were recruited. There was significant correlation between the 2-hour and 24-hour urine protein levels (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.76 (P 0.000). A positive 2-hour test was associated more closely with significant levels of 24-hour proteinuria than dipstick analysis alone. We conclude from this study that a random 2-hour sample could be used for the initial assessment of proteinuria and so avoid the delay associated with 24-hour quantification of urinary protein. PMID:12881076

  11. What are 12-hour shifts good for?

    PubMed

    In the UK many hospitals use 12-hour shifts, believing it to be a cost-efficient means of providing 24-hour nursing care on wards. While healthcare organisations need to find ways to deliver nursing care around the clock and efficiency is a key consideration, nurse leaders have raised concerns about ' whether nurses can function effectively and safely when working long hours (Calkin, 2012; Rogers et al, 2004). In this Policy Plus, we focus specifically on what is known about the impact of shift length on patient safety, employee health and quality of care. PMID:23696995

  12. Hourly rounding in a high dependency unit.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Lynsey; Hodgson, Gillian

    The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust is one of the many organisations that have signed up to Safety Express, a pilot programme of the Department of Health's Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention safe care coalition. Its aim is to reduce avoidable harm to patients in four areas: trips and falls, pressure ulcers, catheter-associated urinary tract infections and venous thromboembolism. Hourly rounding (hourly checks on patients) has been identified as a means of reducing harm to patients. This article describes the preparation needed to introduce hourly rounding in a high dependency unit. PMID:23189600

  13. Exposing physicians to reduced residency work hours did not adversely affect patient outcomes after residency.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, work hours for physicians-in-training (residents) were capped by regulation at eighty hours per week, leading to the hotly debated but unexplored issue of whether physicians today are less well trained as a result of these work-hour reforms. Using a unique database of nearly all hospitalizations in Florida during 2000-09 that were linked to detailed information on the medical training history of the physician of record for each hospitalization, we studied whether hospital mortality and patients' length-of-stay varied according to the number of years a physician was exposed to the 2003 duty-hour regulations during his or her residency. We examined this database of practicing Florida physicians, using a difference-in-differences analysis that compared trends in outcomes of junior physicians (those with one-year post-residency experience) pre- and post-2003 to a control group of senior physicians (those with ten or more years of post-residency experience) who were not exposed to these reforms during their residency. We found that the duty-hour reforms did not adversely affect hospital mortality and length-of-stay of patients cared for by new attending physicians who were partly or fully exposed to reduced duty hours during their own residency. However, assessment of the impact of the duty-hour reforms on other clinical outcomes is needed. PMID:25288430

  14. Enhancement of viability of radiosensitive (PBMC) and resistant (MDA-MB-231) clones in low-dose-rate cobalt-60 radiation therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Patrícia Lima; Motta, Bárbara Miranda; de Lima, Fernanda Castro; Lima, Celso Vieira; Campos, Tarcísio Passos Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the present study, the authors investigated the in vitro behavior of radio-resistant breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cells line and radiosensitive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as a function of different radiation doses, dose rates and postirradiation time kinetics, with a view to the interest of clinical radiotherapy. Materials and Methods The cells were irradiated with Co-60, at 2 and 10 Gy and two different exposure rates, 339.56 cGy.min–1 and the other corresponding to one fourth of the standard dose rates, present over a 10-year period of cobalt therapy. Post-irradiation sampling was performed at pre-established kinetics of 24, 48 and 72 hours. The optical density response in viability assay was evaluated and a morphological analysis was performed. Results Radiosensitive PBMC showed decrease in viability at 2 Gy, and a more significant decrease at 10 Gy for both dose rates. MDAMB- 231 cells presented viability decrease only at higher dose and dose rate. The results showed MDA-MB-231 clone expansion at low dose rate after 48–72 hours post-radiation. Conclusion Low dose rate shows a possible potential clinical impact involving decrease in management of radio-resistant and radiosensitive tumor cell lines in cobalt therapy for breast cancer. PMID:26185342

  15. An Evaluation of First Offender Driver Alcohol Education Models: 40 Hours versus 15 Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Kim; And Others

    An evaluation assessed the impact of the 40- and 15-hour driver alcohol education (DAE) program models on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of driving while intoxicated (DWI) first offenders in Massachusetts. The 40-hour program evaluation studied 306 clients from 31 DAE programs; the 15-hour study group consisted of 207 clients in 23 DAE…

  16. POST-SHOT RADIATION ENVIRONMENT FOLLOWING LOW-YIELD SHOTS INSIDE THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaraman, S; Brereton, S; Dauffy, L; Hall, J; Hansen, L; Khater, H; Kim, S; Pohl, B; Verbeke, J

    2010-10-29

    A detailed model of the Target Bay (TB) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been developed to estimate the post-shot radiation environment inside the facility. The model includes large number of structures and diagnostic instruments present inside the TB. These structures and instruments are activated by the few nanosecond pulse of neutrons generated during a shot and the resultant gamma dose rates are estimated at various decay times following the shot. The results presented in this paper are based on a low-yield D-T shot of 10{sup 16} neutrons. General environment dose rates drop to below 3 mrem/h within three hours following a shot with higher dose rates observed at contact with some of the components. Dose rate maps of the different TB levels were generated to aid in estimating worker stay-out times following a shot before entry is permitted into the TB.

  17. Delinking resident duty hours from patient safety.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Roisin; Parshuram, Christopher S

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is a powerful motivating force for change in modern medicine, and is often cited as a rationale for reducing resident duty hours. However, current data suggest that resident duty hours are not significantly linked to important patient outcomes. We performed a narrative review and identified four potential explanations for these findings. First, we question the relevance of resident fatigue in the creation of harmful errors. Second, we discuss factors, including workload, experience, and individual characteristics, that may be more important determinants of resident fatigue than are duty hours. Third, we describe potential adverse effects that may arise from--and, therefore, counterbalance any potential benefits of--duty hour reductions. Fourth, we explore factors that may mitigate any risks to patient safety associated with using the services of resident trainees. In summary, it may be inappropriate to justify a reduction in working hours on the grounds of a presumed linkage between patient safety and resident duty hours. Better understanding of resident-related factors associated with patient safety will be essential if improvements in important patient safety outcomes are to be realized through resident-focused strategies. PMID:25561349

  18. Delinking resident duty hours from patient safety

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is a powerful motivating force for change in modern medicine, and is often cited as a rationale for reducing resident duty hours. However, current data suggest that resident duty hours are not significantly linked to important patient outcomes. We performed a narrative review and identified four potential explanations for these findings. First, we question the relevance of resident fatigue in the creation of harmful errors. Second, we discuss factors, including workload, experience, and individual characteristics, that may be more important determinants of resident fatigue than are duty hours. Third, we describe potential adverse effects that may arise from – and, therefore, counterbalance any potential benefits of – duty hour reductions. Fourth, we explore factors that may mitigate any risks to patient safety associated with using the services of resident trainees. In summary, it may be inappropriate to justify a reduction in working hours on the grounds of a presumed linkage between patient safety and resident duty hours. Better understanding of resident-related factors associated with patient safety will be essential if improvements in important patient safety outcomes are to be realized through resident-focused strategies. PMID:25561349

  19. Determining Optimal Post-Stroke Exercise (DOSE)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-23

    Cerebrovascular Accident; Stroke; Cerebral Infarction; Brain Infarction; Brain Ischemia; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Brain Diseases; Central Nervous System Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Vascular Diseases

  20. 29 CFR 778.110 - Hourly rate employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... number of hours worked in excess of 40 in the week. Thus a $6 hourly rate will bring, for an employee who works 46 hours, a total weekly wage of $294 (46 hours at $6 plus 6 at $3). In other words, the employee....80 for 46 hours (46 hours at $6.20 plus 6 hours at $3.10, or 40 hours at $6.20 plus 6 hours at $9.30)....

  1. Twenty-four hour hormone profiles of TSH, Free T3 and free T4 in hypothyroid patients on combined T3/T4 therapy.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, P; Siddique, H; Simmons, D J; Greenwood, R; Dayan, C M

    2007-04-01

    The benefits of using thyroxine (T4) plus triiodothyronine (T3) in combination in thyroid hormone replacement are unproven but many individuals continue to be treated with this regime. When T3 is used alone for hypothyroidism, it results in wide fluctuations of thyroid hormone levels. However, only limited data exists on combined T3/T4 therapy. In this study, we have compared 24-hour profiles of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (fT4) and free T3 (fT3) and cardiovascular parameters in 10 hypothyroid patients who had been on once daily combined T3/T4 therapy for more than 3 months with 10 patients on T4 alone. Twenty patients, who were part of a larger study, investigating the long-term benefits of combined T3/T4 therapy, were recruited into this sub-study. Over 24-hours, 12 samples were taken for thyroid hormones. Their 24-hour pulse and BP is also monitored on a separate occasion. On T4 alone, a modest 16% rise in fT4 with no change in fT3 was seen in the first 4-hours post-dose. In contrast, on combined treatment, fT3 levels showed a marked rise of 42% within the first 4-hours post-dose (T3/T4:T4=6.24: 4.63 mU/L, p<0.001). Mean exposure to fT3 calculated by area under the curve (AUC) was higher (T3/T4:T4=1148:1062, p<0.0001) on T3. Circadian rhythm of TSH was maintained on both treatments. No difference in pulse or blood pressure over the 24-hours was seen between the groups. Our data suggests that despite chronic combined T3/T4 therapy, wide peak-to-trough variation in fT3 levels persists. Although no immediate cardiovascular effects were seen, the long-term consequences for patients on combined therapy are unknown. PMID:17479444

  2. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  3. Post clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, John K. (Inventor); Meyn, Erwin H. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A pair of spaced collars are mounted at right angles on a clamp body by retaining rings which enable the collars to rotate with respect to the clamp body. Mounting posts extend through aligned holes in the collars and clamp body. Each collar can be clamped onto the inserted post while the clamp body remains free to rotate about the post and collar. The clamp body is selectively clamped onto each post.

  4. 12-hour shifts: job satisfaction of nurses.

    PubMed

    Todd, C; Robinson, G; Reid, N

    1993-09-01

    A before and after study was carried out amongst staff of 10 wards of a county hospital before and after the introduction of a 12-hour shift system for nurses. The purpose was to investigate the impact of the shift system on job satisfaction. Some 320 nurses covering all qualified and unqualified grades were surveyed using a standard job satisfaction attitude scale. It was found that under the 12-hour shift both intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job satisfaction had been detrimentally affected. Considerable dissatisfaction was expressed about hours of work, conditions of work and the impact of the shift on domestic and social arrangements. The vast majority (83%) reported that they did not want to go on working the shift and there was support for the view that recruitment to nursing would be adversely affected by the shift. PMID:8313062

  5. Attribution of the discrepancy between ELISA and LC-MS/MS assay results of a PEGylated scaffold protein in post-dose monkey plasma samples due to the presence of anti-drug antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujie J; Wu, Steven T; Gokemeijer, Jochem; Fura, Aberra; Krishna, Murli; Morin, Paul; Chen, Guodong; Price, Karen; Wang-Iverson, David; Olah, Timothy; Weiner, Russell; Tymiak, Adrienne; Jemal, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    method. In the presence of the ADAs, the ELISA method measured only the active circulating drug (target-binding), while the LC-MS/MS method measured the total circulating drug. The work presented here indicates that the bioanalysis of protein drugs may be complicated owing to the presence of drug-binding endogenous components or ADAs in the post-dose (incurred) samples. The clear understanding of the behavior of different bioanalytical techniques vis-à-vis the potentially interfering components found in incurred samples is critical in selecting bioanalytical strategies for measuring protein drugs. PMID:22130720

  6. Constructing gridded hourly temperature data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2013-04-01

    Air temperature is the main climatological element, with major impact on the earth-atmosphere energy balance. The characteristics of the surface air temperature in locations without meteorological measurements are obtained using spatio-temporal interpolation techniques. Gridded surface meteorological data are essential for evaluating the performance of regional climate models (RCMs), for applying Statistical Downscaling (SD) methods and as input data for hydrological models. In this study we proposed a methodolgy for interpolating hourly surface temperatures. Three gridding methods are compared. A two-step multivariate gridding approach was used. First we interpolated the hourly normal maps, considered as multiannual average (1961-2010), of air temperature for each hour (4 meteorological terms) of a standard year (366 days). In this step, the Residual Kriging method was used with potential predictors derived from DEM and Landcover Corinne. For interpolating the residuals of the regression model we tested 3 gridding methods: Multiquadratic (MQ), Ordinary Kriging (OK) and 3D Kriging (using time as a third dimension). In the second step, we calculated the anomalies of each hour, day, year for the period 1961-2010. The anomalies were interpolated using the same methods applied for gridding regression residuals. The final hourly surface air temperature maps were obtained by summing the maps from first step with the anomlies map. The main data used in this work were the hourly air temperatures of the 4 observation terms (01, 07, 13, 19), measured between 1961-2010 at the weather stations of the Romanian Meteorological Administration. The predictors were derived from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DEM and from CORINE Land Cover 2000 product. The gridding was performed in a Romanian National Grid (Stereo 70), at 1 km2 spatial resolution, using R language. The study has been financed by the research project Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in

  7. Organizational interventions in response to duty hour reforms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Changes in resident duty hours in Europe and North America have had a major impact on the internal organizational dynamics of health care organizations. This paper examines, and assesses the impact of, organizational interventions that were a direct response to these duty hour reforms. Methods The academic literature was searched through the SCOPUS database using the search terms “resident duty hours” and “European Working Time Directive,” together with terms related to organizational factors. The search was limited to English-language literature published between January 2003 and January 2012. Studies were included if they reported an organizational intervention and measured an organizational outcome. Results Twenty-five articles were included from the United States (n = 18), the United Kingdom (n = 5), Hong Kong (n = 1), and Australia (n = 1). They all described single-site projects; the majority used post-intervention surveys (n = 15) and audit techniques (n = 4). The studies assessed organizational measures, including relationships among staff, work satisfaction, continuity of care, workflow, compliance, workload, and cost. Interventions included using new technologies to improve handovers and communications, changing staff mixes, and introducing new shift structures, all of which had varying effects on the organizational measures listed previously. Conclusions Little research has assessed the organizational impact of duty hour reforms; however, the literature reviewed demonstrates that many organizations are using new technologies, new personnel, and revised and innovative shift structures to compensate for reduced resident coverage and to decrease the risk of limited continuity of care. Future research in this area should focus on both micro (e.g., use of technology, shift changes, staff mix) and macro (e.g., culture, leadership support) organizational aspects to aid in our understanding of how best to respond to these duty hour reforms

  8. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA. PMID:27249874

  9. Out-of-hours special patient notes.

    PubMed

    Holt, Victoria; Bernstein, Dan; Jones, Adam; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Ormerod, Georgina

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, an out-of-hours service in central London reviewed its system for special patient notes (SPNs) - a main mechanism to communicate valuable information about patients to the clinicians who cover two-thirds of the week when day-time general practices are closed. This revealed that: half of frequent callers did not have an SPNabout half of existing SPNs were out of dateday-time general practitioners (GPs) respond well to requests by out-of-hours doctors to provide an SPNproviding SPNs was low on the list of priorities of day-time GPs who were too busy reacting to everyday problems. PMID:25949699

  10. Out-of-hours special patient notes.

    PubMed

    Holt, Victoria; Bernstein, Dan; Jones, Adam; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Ormerod, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, an out-of-hours service in central London reviewed its system for special patient notes (SPNs) - a main mechanism to communicate valuable information about patients to the clinicians who cover two-thirds of the week when day-time general practices are closed. This revealed that: half of frequent callers did not have an SPNabout half of existing SPNs were out of dateday-time general practitioners (GPs) respond well to requests by out-of-hours doctors to provide an SPNproviding SPNs was low on the list of priorities of day-time GPs who were too busy reacting to everyday problems. PMID:25949684

  11. A Malaysia 97 monovalent foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (>6PD50/dose) protects pigs against challenge with a variant FMDV A SEA-97 lineage virus, 4 and 7 days post vaccination.

    PubMed

    Nagendrakumar, Singanallur Balasubramanian; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Geoffrey, Fosgate T; Jacqueline, Morris Michelle; Andrew, Davis; Michelle, Giles; Van Phuc, Kim; Ngon, Quach Vo; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phuc, Nguyen Ngoc Hong; Hanh, Tran Xuan; Van Hung, Vo; Quynhanh, Le Thi; Tan, Tran Minh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Wilna, Vosloo

    2015-08-26

    Pigs play a significant role during outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) due to their ability to amplify the virus. It is therefore essential to determine what role vaccination could play to prevent clinical disease and lower virus excretion into the environment. In this study we investigated the efficacy of the double oil emulsion A Malaysia 97 vaccine (>6PD50/dose) against heterologous challenge with an isolate belonging to the A SEA-97 lineage at 4 and 7 days post vaccination (dpv). In addition, we determined whether physical separation of pigs in the same room could prevent virus transmission. Statistically there was no difference in the level of protection offered by 4 and 7 dpv. However, no clinical disease or viral RNA was detected in the blood of pigs challenged 4 dpv, although three of the pigs had antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs), indicating viral replication. Viral RNA was also detected in nasal and saliva swabs, but on very few occasions. Two of the pigs vaccinated seven days prior to challenge had vesicles distal from the injection site, but on the inoculated foot, and two pigs had viral RNA detected in the blood. One pig sero-converted to the NSPs. In contrast, all unvaccinated and inoculated pigs had evidence of infection. No infection occurred in any of the susceptible pigs in the same room, but separated from the infected pigs, indicating that strict biosecurity measures were sufficient under these experimental conditions to prevent virus transmission. However, viral RNA was detected in the nasal swabs of one group of pigs, but apparently not at sufficient levels to cause clinical disease. Vaccination led to a significant decrease in viral RNA in vaccinated pigs compared to unvaccinated and infected pigs, even with this heterologous challenge, and could therefore be considered as a control option during outbreaks. PMID:26192355

  12. 75 FR 2467 - Hours of Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 395 RIN 2126-AB26 Hours of Service AGENCY: Federal...-service (HOS) regulations. Specifically, the Agency wants to know what factors, issues, and data it should... Act Statement for the FDMS published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or...

  13. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  14. On the Shelf in 48 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Marihelen

    2006-01-01

    Moving materials from receipt of the shipment to distribution to branches within 48 hours is such a hassle among members of the technical services department of Columbus Metropolitan Library. However, these issues challenged them to find alternative solutions to achieve their goals. After reviewing the in and outs of their department and making a…

  15. Stunden-abstract (Class-Hour Plan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Heinz-Otto

    1977-01-01

    Offers a class-hour plan for Grade 11 on the theme of "James Thurber, 'The Peacelike Mongoose' - Discussion of Text," dividing the treatment into stages: Introduction and Reading, Text Elucidation, Comprehension Check, Summarizing Content, Reflection, Written Homework. Possible alternative approaches are discussed. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  16. Accommodating to Restrictions on Residents' Working Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Henry W., Jr.; Seltzer, Vicki L.

    1991-01-01

    In response to New York State legislation limiting house staff working hours, a survey of obstetrics and gynecology resident programs (n=26) was conducted. Results were used to construct a prototype call schedule and a hypothetical monthly schedule indicating how a single resident would function without violating any state regulations. (MSE)

  17. Characterization of a new photo-fluorescent film dosimeter for high-radiation dose applications

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Mark K. ); Miller, Steven D. ); Kovacs, Andras; Mclaughlin, William L.; Slezsak, Istvan

    2001-12-01

    Characterization studies on one of the first versions of the Sunna fluorescent dosimeter have been published by Kovacs and McLaughlin. This present study describes testing results of a newer version of the dosimeter (Model and 61543;, batch 0399-20). This dosimeter is a 1-cm by 3-cm polymeric film of 0.5 mm thickness that emits a green fluorescence component at intensities almost linear with dose. The manufacturing method (injection molding) allows potential batch sizes on the order of a million while maintaining a signal precision on the order of+/- 1%. Studies include dose response, dose rate dependence, energy dependence, post-irradiation stability, environmental effects, and variation of response within a batch. Data for both food irradiation and sterilization dose levels were obtained. The results indicate that the green signal (0.3-200 kGy) works well for food irradiation dose levels, especially in refrigerated facilities that maintain tight temperature control. The green signal also works well in sterilization facilities because its irradiation temperature coefficient above room temperature is minimal at sterilization doses. If the user requires readout results in less than 22 hours after room temperature irradiation, the user can either calibrate for a specific post-irradiation readout time(s) or simply heat the dosimeters in a small laboratory oven to quickly stabilize the signal.

  18. 10 CFR 835.604 - Exceptions to posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exceptions to posting requirements. 835.604 Section 835.604 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Posting and Labeling § 835.604 Exceptions to posting requirements. (a) Areas may be excepted from the posting requirements of § 835.603 for periods of less than 8 continuous hours...

  19. 10 CFR 835.604 - Exceptions to posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exceptions to posting requirements. 835.604 Section 835.604 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Posting and Labeling § 835.604 Exceptions to posting requirements. (a) Areas may be excepted from the posting requirements of § 835.603 for periods of less than 8 continuous hours...

  20. 10 CFR 835.604 - Exceptions to posting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions to posting requirements. 835.604 Section 835.604 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Posting and Labeling § 835.604 Exceptions to posting requirements. (a) Areas may be excepted from the posting requirements of § 835.603 for periods of less than 8 continuous hours...

  1. 24-Hour Access: Responding to Students' Need for Late Library Hours at the University of Denver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Bethany B.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Denver's Penrose Library saw a substantial increase in use as a result of several new and enhanced services over a six-year period. In turn, longer operating hours and increased staffing for a 24-hours-a-day, five-days-a-week (24 x 5) operating schedule was funded. This case study analyzes student need for longer library hours…

  2. Post-prandial changes in protein synthesis in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) larvae.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Ian D; Fuiman, Lee A

    2011-06-01

    Protein synthesis is one of the major energy-consuming processes in all living organisms. Post-prandial changes in protein synthesis have been studied in a range of animal taxa but have been little studied in fish larvae. Using the flooding-dose method, we measured post-prandial changes in whole-body rates of protein synthesis in regularly fed red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus) larvae for 24-28 h following their daily meal. Fractional rates of protein synthesis increased from a baseline (pre-feeding) rate of 16% day(-1) to a post-prandial peak of 48% day(-1) ca. 8 h after feeding before declining to 12% day(-1) after 24-28 h. The overall mean daily rate of protein synthesis was calculated as 27% day(-1). Although suggested as energetically impossible in larval poikilotherms, our results show that rates in excess of 30% day(-1) can be attained by larval fishes for a few hours but are not sustained. The average daily energetic cost of protein synthesis was estimated as 34% of daily total oxygen consumption, ranging from 19% immediately before feeding to 61% during the post-prandial peak in protein synthesis. This suggests that during the post-prandial peak, protein synthesis will require a large proportion of the hourly energy production, which, given the limited metabolic scope in fish larvae, may limit the energy that could otherwise be allocated to other energy-costly functions, such as foraging and escape responses. PMID:21562168

  3. Electric System Intra-hour Operation Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-03-07

    ESIOS is a software program developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that performs intra-hour dispatch and automatic generation control (AGC) simulations for electric power system frequency regulation and load/variable generation following. The program dispatches generation resources at minute interval to meet control performance requirements, while incorporating stochastic models of forecast errors and variability with generation, load, interchange and market behaviors. The simulator also contains an operator model that mimics manual actions to adjust resourcemore » dispatch and maintain system reserves. Besides simulating generation fleet intra-hour dispatch, ESIOS can also be used as a test platform for the design and verification of energy storage, demand response, and other technologies helping to accommodate variable generation.« less

  4. Why Surface Nanobubbles Live for Hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijs, Joost H.; Lohse, Detlef

    2013-02-01

    We present a theoretical model for the experimentally found but counterintuitive exceptionally long lifetime of surface nanobubbles. We can explain why, under normal experimental conditions, surface nanobubbles are stable for many hours or even up to days rather than the expected microseconds. The limited gas diffusion through the water in the far field, the cooperative effect of nanobubble clusters, and the pinned contact line of the nanobubbles lead to the slow dissolution rate.

  5. Household Energy Consumption Segmentation Using Hourly Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kwac, J; Flora, J; Rajagopal, R

    2014-01-01

    The increasing US deployment of residential advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) has made hourly energy consumption data widely available. Using CA smart meter data, we investigate a household electricity segmentation methodology that uses an encoding system with a pre-processed load shape dictionary. Structured approaches using features derived from the encoded data drive five sample program and policy relevant energy lifestyle segmentation strategies. We also ensure that the methodologies developed scale to large data sets.

  6. Ampere-Hour Meter For Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Schott, Timothy D.; Tcheng, Ping

    1993-01-01

    Low-power analog/digital electronic circuit meters discharge of storage battery in ampere-hours. By metering discharge, one obtains indication of state of charge of battery and avoids unnecessary recharging, maintaining capacity of battery and prolonging life. Because of its small size and low power consumption, useful in such applications as portable video cameras, communication equipment on boats, portable audio equipment, and portable medical equipment.

  7. Geomagnetic storm forecasts several hours ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podladchikova, Tatiana; Petrukovich, Anatoli

    In this study we present a service implemented at Space Research Institute, Russia, providing an advance warning about the future geomagnetic storm magnitude (the negative peak Dst) using first geomagnetic storm indications. We demonstrate a clear relation between the solar wind parameters in the beginning of the storm development with the ultimate storm strength. For suddenly developing major storms that have essential influence on susceptible technological systems such as satellites, pipelines, power systems, and radio communications we predict lower and upper limits of the negative peak Dst. The high predictive potential of the proposed technique was confirmed by testing it on geomagnetic storms during the period 1995-2013. The advance warning time about the future geomagnetic storm strength on average achieves 5-6 hours and varies from 1 to 22 hours. The error of the peak Dst prediction does not exceed 25% with probability of 0.96. The false prediction probability does not exceed 0.03. Real-time predictions of the geomagnetic storm magnitude are updated every hour and published at http://spaceweather.ru

  8. Human Trials of a 2-Hour Prebreathe Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Bruce D.; Vann, R. D.; Nishi, Ronald Y.; Gerth, W. A.; Beltran, E.; Conkin, J.; Schneider, Suzanne; Loftin, K. C.; Sullivan, Pat A.; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We evaluate 2-hour prebreathe protocols combining simulated microgravity and exercise during prebreathe with the objective of validating a protocol for use on International Space Station (ISS). The protocol was tested with four different exercise doses during prebreathe in a multi-center trial involving three laboratories. Subject selection, Doppler monitoring techniques for venous gas emboli (VGE), test termination criteria, and definitions of decompression sickness (DCS) were standardized in all laboratories. The Phase II protocol met the accept criteria for a prebreathe procedure for use by astronauts during assembly and maintenance of the ISS Dual-cycle ergometry or light exercise individually was not sufficient to protect against DCS at acceptable levels. The combination of both was successful.

  9. Deep venous thrombophlebitis: detection with 4-hour versus 24-hour platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Ahmed, F.; Coughlan, J.D.; Jensen, K.C.

    1987-11-01

    Thirty-one nonheparinized patients with suspected deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT) underwent contrast venography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy (In-111 PS). Venography permitted identification of acute DVT in 12 of 31 cases (39%). One additional patient was considered to have acute DVT despite nonconclusive venography results. In-111 PS results were positive at 4 hours in nine of 13 cases (69%) and at 24 hours in 12 of 13 cases (92%). Two of four patients with false-negative 4-hour In-111 PS studies had received warfarin. Thus, the sensitivity of 4-hour In-111 PS in patients not receiving anticoagulants was 82%. Venography results were negative for acute DVT in 18 cases, and 4-hour In-111 PS studies were negative or equivocal in each. In-111 PS is an alternative to contrast venography for detecting acute DVT. If 4-hour In-111 PS results are positive, anticoagulation can be initiated. Delayed images are necessary if the 4-hour images are negative or equivocal.

  10. How to increase the burden on trauma centers: implement the 80-hour work week.

    PubMed

    Schroeppel, Thomas J; Sharpe, John P; Magnotti, Louis J; Weinberg, Jordan A; Croce, Martin A; Fabian, Timothy C

    2014-07-01

    The 80-hour week was implemented in 2003 to improve outcomes and limit errors. We hypothesize that there has been no change in outcomes postimplementation of the restrictions. Outcomes were queried from the trauma registry from 1997 to 2002 (PRE) and 2004 to 2009 (POST). Primary outcomes were mortality, intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS), and length of stay (LOS). Patients were stratified based on demographics, blood pressure, heart rate, and injury severity (Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Score, base deficit). Outcomes were then compared PRE with POST. A total of 41,770 patients were admitted during the study period. The mean age was 38 years with most being male (73%) and blunt mechanism (78%). Although patients admitted in the POST period had a slightly higher blood pressure, they were older and had higher injury severity. ICU LOS, LOS, self-pay, and mortality were higher in the POST period. After adjusted analysis, admission in the POST period was no longer a predictor of mortality (odds ratio, 1.02; confidence interval, 0.92 to 1.14). Whereas patients were more slightly more injured in the POST period, the adjusted analysis shows no difference in mortality and both a longer LOS and ICU LOS. Whether the increase is the result of more severe injury in the POST period or less efficient disposition remains to be elucidated. This study adds to the mounting evidence that the implementation of the limits on work hours does not lead to better outcomes. PMID:24987896

  11. 5 CFR 550.1303 - Hourly rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... annual rate in effect at the time the hour was actually worked. ... hourly rate of basic pay is computed by dividing the applicable annual rate of basic pay by 2756 hours. The resulting firefighter hourly rate of basic pay is multiplied by all nonovertime hours to...

  12. 5 CFR 550.1303 - Hourly rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... annual rate in effect at the time the hour was actually worked. ... hourly rate of basic pay is computed by dividing the applicable annual rate of basic pay by 2756 hours. The resulting firefighter hourly rate of basic pay is multiplied by all nonovertime hours to...

  13. 29 CFR 778.114 - Fixed salary for fluctuating hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... average hourly earnings from the salary fall below the minimum hourly wage rate applicable under the Act... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed salary for fluctuating hours. 778.114 Section 778.114... salary for fluctuating hours. (a) An employee employed on a salary basis may have hours of work...

  14. MiR-34a is up-regulated in response to low dose, low energy X-ray induced DNA damage in breast cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression including DNA damage responses. Low doses of low energy X-ray radiation, similar to those used in mammographic exams, has been described to be genotoxic. In the present work we investigated the expression of miR-34a; a well described p53-regulated miRNA implicated in cell responses to X-ray irradiation at low doses. Methods Non-cancerous breast cell line MCF-10A and cancerous T-47D and MCF-7 cell lines were submitted to a low-energy X-ray irradiation (ranging from 28–30 Kv) using a dose of 5 Gy. The expression level of miR-34a, let-7a and miR-21 was assessed by qRT-PCR at 4 and 24 hours post-irradiation. DNA damage was then measured by comet assay and micronuclei estimation in MCF-10A and MCF-7 cell lines, where an increase of miR-34a levels could be observed after irradiation. The rate of apoptotic cells was estimated by nuclear staining and fluorescence microscopy. These experiments were also performed at low doses (3; 12 and 48 mGy) in MCF-10A and MCF-7 cell lines. Results We have observed an increase in miR-34a expression 4 hours post-irradiation at 5 Gy in MCF-10A and MCF-7 cell lines while its level did not change in T-47D, a breast cancer cell line bearing non-functional p53. At low doses, miR-34a was up-regulated in non-tumoral MCF-10A to a higher extent as compared to MCF-7. MiR-34a levels decreased 24 hours post-irradiation. We have also observed DNA damage and apoptosis at low-energy X-ray irradiation at low doses and the high dose in MCF-10A and MCF-7 4 and 24 hours post-irradiation relative to the mock control. Conclusion Low energy X-ray is able to promote DNA strand breaks and miR-34a might be involved in cell responses to low energy X-ray DNA damage. MiR-34a expression correlates with X-ray dose, time after irradiation and cell type. The present study reinforces the need of investigating consequences of low dose X-ray irradiation of breast cells. PMID

  15. The Effect of Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate on Post-Operative Analgesia During Laminectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffaripour, Sina; Eghbal, Hossein; Rahimi, Ashkan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Post-operative pain control is an important concern for both patients and physicians. Magnesium is being used as an adjuvant for anesthesia and analgesia during and after various surgeries. We aimed to investigate the effects of intravenous magnesium sulfate on post-operative analgesia after laminectomy. Methods Materials: In this randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial, we enrolled 40 adult patients aged 18-60 with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA)  Class I-II who were candidates for elective laminectomy. The patients were randomly assigned in two control groups and were similarly anesthetized. In the case group, after the induction of anesthesia, a loading dose of magnesium sulfate (30 mg/kg) was administered within five to 10 minutes followed by a maintenance dose of 10 mg/kg/hr up to the end of the surgery; while, the patients in the control group received the same volume of saline. After the surgery, all patients received a patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) pump containing morphine. The first time of using PCA, the amount of consumed morphine during the first 24 hours, and pain score were recorded at 6,12,18 and 24 hours in the post-operative period. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to the amount of morphine consumed in 24 hours after the surgery (P value =0.23), the first time of using of PCA pump (P value =0.79) and pain intensity (P value=0.52). Conclusion: The infusion of Magnesium Sulfate during laminectomy had no effect on patients’ pain and opioid requirement during the first 24 hours after the surgery. PMID:27433405

  16. 20140430_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    SciTech Connect

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-05-05

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 April to 30 April 2014.

  17. Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-07-15

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 6/1/13 to 6/30/13

  18. Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data 20130731

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-08-30

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 7/1/13 to 7/31/13.

  19. 20130416_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-04-24

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 4/16/13.

  20. 48 CFR 16.602 - Labor-hour contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... labor-hour contracts. See 12.207(b) for the use of labor-hour contracts for certain commercial services. ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts...

  1. [Seven hour shifts versus 12 hours in intensive nursing care: going against the tide].

    PubMed

    Moreno Arroyo, M C; Jerez González, J A; Cabrera Jaime, S; Estrada Masllorens, J M; López Martín, A

    2013-01-01

    Working in shifts has an impact on the well being of health care professionals, affecting their quality of life. The main objective of this study is to describe the consequences of 12hours work shifts versus 7hours for nursing professionals working in intensive care units. A cost-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals of Barcelona, these being the Hospital Clínico and Hospital Vall d'Hebron (of 7hour and 12hour shifts, respectively). The data was collected through a questionnaire having 29 closed questions that was anonymous and self-administered. The questionnaire was based on two scales: Standard Shiftwork Index and Shiftwork. locus of control. Data was processed through SPSS V.18.0. The target population consisted of 85 people, for whom 52 surveys were valid: 22 in Hospital Clínico of Barcelona and 30 in Hospital Vall d'Hebron. Professionals working a 12-hour shift express higher levels of work and family conciliation, especially in the case of leisure time to enjoy (×2: 10.635 p=0.031) and family-friends time dedication as well as lower levels of perceived fatigue. No differences were found between type of shift and ease of development of professional work, even though the 12-hour shift has higher levels. PMID:23891261

  2. Single-dose oral guanidinoacetic acid exhibits dose-dependent pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Vojvodic-Ostojic, Aleksandra

    2015-03-01

    Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), the natural precursor of creatine, has potential as a dietary supplement for human nutrition, yet no data are available regarding its dose-dependent pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior. We hypothesized that a single dose of orally administered GAA exhibited dose-dependent PK behavior in healthy volunteers. Forty-eight young adults were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trial to receive single oral doses of GAA (1.2, 2.4, and 4.8 g) or a placebo. Pharmacokinetic metrics for plasma GAA and creatine were assessed immediately before (0 hours) and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after GAA ingestion. The lag time appeared to be similar after the bolus ingestion of GAA (0.14 ± 0.17 hours for low-dose GAA, 0.31 ± 0.18 hours for medium-dose GAA, and 0.38 ± 0.32 hours for high-dose GAA; P = .05). An increase in the area under the concentration-time curve for plasma GAA was found for the dose range tested, with 2.4- and 9.3-fold increases in the area under the concentration-time curve for every 2-fold increase in the GAA dose (P < .0001). No differences were found for elimination half-time between the low-dose and medium-dose groups (<1.75 hours), whereas the elimination half-time was significantly longer (>2.1 hours) for the high-dose GAA regimen (P = .001). The volume of distribution was affected by the dosage of GAA applied (102.6 ± 17.3 L for low-dose GAA, 97.5 ± 15.7 L for medium-dose GAA, and 61.1 ± 12.7 L for high-dose GAA; P < .0001). Ingestion of GAA elevated plasma creatine by 80%, 116%, and 293% compared with the placebo for the 1.2, 2.4, and 4.8 g doses, respectively (P < .0001). Guanidinoacetic acid single-dose PK metrics were nonlinear with respect to dose size. Across the dose range of 1.2 to 4.8 g, systemic exposure to GAA increased in a greater than dose-proportional manner. PMID:25622538

  3. Accuracy considerations when using early (four- or six-hour) radioactive iodine uptake to predict twenty-four-hour values for radioactive iodine dosage in the treatment of Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Morris, L F; Waxman, A D; Braunstein, G D

    2000-09-01

    Although literature has offered methods to predict 24-hour radioactive iodine uptake values from early (4- to 6-hour) measurements, the resultant dosage errors have not been examined. Potential errors include underdosage, overdosage, and a failure to recognize rapid turnover patients (early-to-late uptake ratios > or = 1) who are at high risk for treatment failure and full-body radiation exposure. We developed and tested a novel method for minimizing error involved in using a single early uptake measurement to derive late uptake. From a retrospective analysis of 203 Graves' disease patients, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis enabled us to identify patients likely to experience rapid turnover and therefore should receive 24-hour studies. Twenty-four-hour uptake measurements are necessary with 77% or more 4-hour uptake values and 80% or more 6-hour values. After eliminating these patients, we developed linear regression equations to predict the 24-hour uptake from 4-hour (n = 61) and 6-hour (n = 22) rule groups, testing their efficacy on separate 4-hour (n = 61) and 6-hour (n = 21) patient groups. We also used our test population to measure error in four early-to-late uptake conversion formulas presented in the literature. Error involved in these predictions ranged from a 10.6% overestimate for 4-hour calculations to a 5.9% underestimate for 6-hour calculations. When applied to two dosage formulas incorporating gland size, absorbed dose, and 24-hour uptake, average dosage error was 7%. In comparison to the other sources of error radioactive iodine (131I) dosimetry, potential error in predicting 24-hour uptake from 4- or 6-hour uptake values is low. PMID:11041455

  4. Total-dose and charge-trapping effects in gate oxides for CMOS LSI devices

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.S.; Kaputa, D.J.; Korman, C.S.; Surowiec, E.P.

    1984-12-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on CMOS devices fabricated using 3 Micron CMOS BULK process has been studied as a function of gate oxide processing and subsequent annealing. Threshold shifts, speed degradation, and power supply currents were measured as a function of total dose up to 10/sup 6/ Rad (Si). Using hot electron injection techniques, trapping densities and capture cross-sections of the traps in each oxide type have been determined at pre- and post-irradiation levels. Power supply leakage and speed performance of the devices were recovered within three to five hours by annealing them at 125/sup 0/C, +10 V bias.

  5. [Management of post partum haemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Csorba, Roland

    2012-04-29

    Primary post partum haemorrhage is the most common form of major obstetric haemorrhage. The traditional definition of primary post partum haemorrhage is the loss of 500 ml or more of blood from the genital tract within 24 hours of the birth of a baby. Post partum haemorrhage can be minor (500-1000 ml) or major (more than 1000 ml). Major could be divided to moderate (1000-2000 ml) or severe (more than 2000 ml). The recommendations in this article apply to women experiencing primary post partum haemorrhage of 500 ml or more. Secondary post partum haemorrhage is defined as abnormal or excessive bleeding from the birth canal between 24 hours and 12 weeks postnatally. The main causes of the secondary form are: inflammations (endometritis), placental tissue retention, inadequate involution of the uterus and malignancy. Because of its importance as a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, obstetric haemorrhage must be considered as a priority topic. According to the tragic and dramatic outcomes of this morbidity, and to the fact that most cases of post partum haemorrhage have no identifiable risk factors, the practical obstetricians should be aware of the accurate diagnosis and management of this illness. PMID:22543219

  6. Excretion profile of hydrocodone, hydromorphone and norhydrocodone in urine following single dose administration of hydrocodone to healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Valtier, Sandra; Bebarta, Vikhyat S

    2012-09-01

    Abuse of prescription opioids for non-medical use has been on the rise over the past decade. The most commonly abused opioid is hydrocodone, a frequently prescribed pain medication metabolized by the body to hydromorphone, norhydrocodone and other minor metabolites. This study describes the excretion profile of hydrocodone, hydromorphone and norhydrocodone in urine following a single dose (10 mg) administration of hydrocodone to human subjects (n = 7) and presents a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for analysis of the drug and its metabolites. Limit of quantitation was 5 ng/mL for all analytes; limit of detection was 2.5 ng/mL for hydrocodone and norhydrocodone and 5 ng/mL for hydromorphone. Peak concentrations of hydrocodone were found at 3:30-7:00 hours post-dose and were in the range of 612-2,190 ng/mL. Hydromorphone peak concentrations were found at 6:15-26:45 hours post-dose and ranged from 102 to 342 ng/mL. For norhydrocodone, peak concentrations were found at 4:20-13:00 hours post-dose and ranged from 811 to 3,460 ng/mL. Although hydromorphone was found at lower levels than hydrocodone, in six of seven subjects, it persisted for as long as hydrocodone was detected. Norhydrocodone was found at higher levels and lasted for a longer period of time than hydrocodone, thus making the nor-metabolite a valuable tool in evaluating hydrocodone use and/or misuse. PMID:22782534

  7. Increased active metabolite formation explains the greater platelet inhibition with prasugrel compared to high-dose clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher D; Li, Ying Grace; Small, David S; Ernest, C Steven; Farid, Nagy A; Jakubowski, Joseph A; Brandt, John T; Salazar, Daniel E; Winters, Kenneth J

    2007-11-01

    Prasugrel pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics after a 60-mg loading dose (LD) and daily 10-mg maintenance doses (MD) were compared in a 3-way crossover study to clopidogrel 600-mg/75-mg and 300-mg/75-mg LD/MD in 41 healthy, aspirin-free subjects. Each LD was followed by 7 days of daily MD and a 14-day washout period. Inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) was assessed by turbidometric aggregometry (20 and 5 microM ADP). Prasugrel 60-mg achieved higher mean IPA (54%) 30 minutes post-LD than clopidogrel 300-mg (3%) or 600-mg (6%) (P < 0.001) and greater IPA by 1 hour (82%) and 2 hours (91%) than the 6-hour IPA for clopidogrel 300-mg (51%) or 600-mg (69%) (P < 0.01). During MD, IPA for prasugrel 10-mg (78%) exceeded that of clopidogrel (300-mg/75-mg, 56%; 600-mg/75-mg, 52%; P < 0.001). Active metabolite area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-tlast) after prasugrel 60-mg (594 ng.hr/mL) was 2.2 times that after clopidogrel 600-mg. Prasugrel active metabolite AUC0-tlast was consistent with dose-proportionality from 10-mg to 60-mg, while clopidogrel active metabolite AUC0-tlast exhibited saturable absorption and/or metabolism. In conclusion, greater exposure to prasugrel's active metabolite results in faster onset, higher levels, and less variability of platelet inhibition compared with high-dose clopidogrel in healthy subjects. PMID:18030066

  8. 12-hour shifts: an ethical dilemma for the nurse executive.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Susan G

    2008-06-01

    Flexible work hours, including 12-hour shifts, have become a common scheduling option for nurses. The author explores whether 12-hour shifts are an ethical scheduling option for nurses because recent research suggests that 12-hour shifts are a potential hazard to patients. A multistep model for ethical decision making, reflecting the concept of procedural justice, is used to examine this issue. PMID:18562834

  9. 46 CFR 9.9 - Two hours between broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Two hours between broken periods. 9.9 Section 9.9... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.9 Two hours between broken periods. Where 2 hours or more intervene between broken periods, one-half day's extra pay will be allowed for each distinct 2-hour period or...

  10. 46 CFR 9.9 - Two hours between broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Two hours between broken periods. 9.9 Section 9.9... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.9 Two hours between broken periods. Where 2 hours or more intervene between broken periods, one-half day's extra pay will be allowed for each distinct 2-hour period or...

  11. 46 CFR 9.9 - Two hours between broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Two hours between broken periods. 9.9 Section 9.9... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.9 Two hours between broken periods. Where 2 hours or more intervene between broken periods, one-half day's extra pay will be allowed for each distinct 2-hour period or...

  12. 46 CFR 9.9 - Two hours between broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Two hours between broken periods. 9.9 Section 9.9... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.9 Two hours between broken periods. Where 2 hours or more intervene between broken periods, one-half day's extra pay will be allowed for each distinct 2-hour period or...

  13. Effect of high or low protamine dosing on postoperative bleeding following heparin anticoagulation in cardiac surgery. A randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Michael I; Veerhoek, Dennis; de Lange, Fellery; de Vries, Jacob-Willem; de Jong, Jan R; Romijn, Johannes W A; Kelchtermans, Hilde; Huskens, Dana; van der Steeg, Robin; Thomas, Pepijn W A; Burtman, David T M; van Barneveld, Laurentius J M; Vonk, Alexander B A; Boer, Christa

    2016-08-01

    While experimental data state that protamine exerts intrinsic anticoagulation effects, protamine is still frequently overdosed for heparin neutralisation during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Since comparative studies are lacking, we assessed the influence of two protamine-to-heparin dosing ratios on perioperative haemostasis and bleeding, and hypothesised that protamine overdosing impairs the coagulation status following cardiac surgery. In this open-label, multicentre, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial, patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery were assigned to a low (0.8; n=49) or high (1.3; n=47) protamine-to-heparin dosing group. The primary outcome was 24-hour blood loss. Patient haemostasis was monitored using rotational thromboelastometry and a thrombin generation assay. The low protamine-to-heparin dosing ratio group received less protamine (329 ± 95 vs 539 ± 117 mg; p<0.001), while post-protamine activated clotting times were similar among groups. The high dosing group revealed increased intrinsic clotting times (236 ± 74 vs 196 ± 64 s; p=0.006) and the maximum post-protamine thrombin generation was less suppressed in the low dosing group (38 ± 40 % vs 6 ± 9 %; p=0.001). Postoperative blood loss was increased in the high dosing ratio group (615 ml; 95 % CI 500-830 ml vs 470 ml; 95 % CI 420-530 ml; p=0.021) when compared to the low dosing group, respectively. More patients in the high dosing group received fresh frozen plasma (11 % vs 0 %; p=0.02) and platelet concentrate (21 % vs 6 %; p=0.04) compared to the low dosing group. Our study confirms in vitro data that abundant protamine dosing is associated with increased postoperative blood loss and higher transfusion rates in cardiac surgery. PMID:27277211

  14. Phosphoproteomics profiling of human skin fibroblast cells reveals pathways and proteins affected by low doses of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Feng; Waters, Katrina M.; Miller, John H.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Zhao, Rui; Du, Xiuxia; Livesay, Eric A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Wang, Yingchun; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Stenoien, David L.

    2010-11-30

    Background: High doses of ionizing radiation result in biological damage, however the precise relationships between long term health effects, including cancer, and low dose exposures remain poorly understood and are currently extrapolated using high dose exposure data. Identifying the signaling pathways and individual proteins affected at the post-translational level by radiation should shed valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms that regulate dose dependent responses to radiation. Principle Findings: We have identified 6845 unique phosphopeptides (2566 phosphoproteins) from control and irradiated (2 and 50 cGy) primary human skin fibroblasts one hour post-exposure. Dual statistical analyses based on spectral counts and peak intensities identified 287 phosphopeptides (from 231 proteins) and 244 phosphopeptides (from 182 proteins) that varied significantly following exposure to 2 and 50 cGy respectively. This screen identified phosphorylation sites on proteins with known roles in radiation responses including TP53BP1 as well as previously unidentified radiation responsive proteins such as the candidate tumor suppressor SASH1. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that low and high doses of radiation affect both overlapping and unique biological processes and suggest a role of MAP kinase and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in the radiation response as well as differential regulation of p53 networks at low and high doses of radiation. Conlcusions: Our results represent the most comprehensive analysis of the phosphoproteomes of human primary fibroblasts exposed to multiple doses of ionizing radiation published to date and provides a basis for the systems level identification of biological processes, molecular pathways and individual proteins regulated in a dose dependent manner by ionizing radiation. Further study of these modified proteins and affected networks should help to define the molecular mechanisms that regulate biological responses to radiation at

  15. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  16. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  17. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  18. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  19. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... governed by the Portal-to-Portal Act (see paragraph (b) of this section), the agreement of the parties will... 4 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947 (see parts 785 and 790 of this chapter), no agreement by the... not become hours worked under the Portal-to-Portal Act even if made compensable by contract,...

  20. Hours to Graduation: A National Survey of Credit Hours Required for Baccalaureate Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitter, Gita Wijesinghe; And Others

    In the context of an increased emphasis on accountability in higher education and time taken to earn a baccalaureate degree, the Board of Regents of the State University System of Florida conducted a national survey of 75 public universities concerning the minimum credit hours required for the baccalaureate degree for various disciplines. The…

  1. Fatigue and extended work hours among cardiovascular perfusionists: 2010 Survey.

    PubMed

    Trew, A; Searles, B; Smith, T; Darling, E M

    2011-09-01

    Due to the emergent unpredictable nature of cardiac surgery, perfusionists, potentially, are susceptible to extended work hours and acute sleep deprivation. While fatigue among other healthcare clinicians has been studied, there has been no research on this topic specifically in the perfusion community. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to: (1) collect preliminary data on the prevalence of fatigue in perfusion and (2) identify if there were concerns regarding fatigue, performance and perfusion safety. In May 2010, a link to a 50-question survey (surveymonkey.com) was posted on Perflist and Perfmail. The survey was closed in July 2010. There were 445 respondents and data were analyzed and expressed as a response percent. Participants included 27% chief perfusionists/managers, 67% staff perfusionists, and 6.0% other (perfusion education faculty, retired perfusionists, locum tenens). Regarding extended work hours, 68.9% of surveyed perfusionists have worked at the hospital for greater than 23 hours straight and 17.5% have worked continuously for over 36 hours. Actual performance of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) after 17, 23, and 36 hours of wakefulness was reported by 82.9%, 63% and 14.8% respondents, respectively. Regarding bathroom requirements while on CPB, 87.5% have felt extremely uncomfortable at least once, 19.9% have relieved themselves in the operating room at least once, and 22.3% have left the pump attended by a non-perfusionist to use the restroom at least once. Microsleep during CPB was reported by 49.5% of respondents. Automobile accidents attributed to an extended period of work and fatigue was reported by 6.9% and another 44.4% reported a near-miss auto accident. A fatigue-related minor error was reported by 66% and 6.7% admit to having a serious perfusion accident believed to be due to fatigue. Concerning critical phases of bypass, 51.5% believe that they perform less effectively when fatigued. Additionally, 75.9% indicate that they have been

  2. Life of a Six-Hour Hurricane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Kay L.; Molinari, John

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Claudette developed from a weak vortex in 6 h as deep convection shifted from downshear into the vortex center, despite ambient vertical wind shear exceeding 10 m/s. Six hours later it weakened to a tropical storm, and 12 h after the hurricane stage a circulation center could not be found at 850 hPa by aircraft reconnaissance. At hurricane strength the vortex contained classic structure seen in intensifying hurricanes, with the exception of 7-12 C dewpoint depressions in the lower troposphere upshear of the center. These extended from the 100-km radius to immediately adjacent to the eyewall, where equivalent potential temperature gradients reached 6 K/km. The dry air was not present prior to intensification, suggesting that it was associated with vertical shear-induced subsidence upshear of the developing storm. It is argued that weakening of the vortex was driven by cooling associated with the mixing of dry air into the core, and subsequent evaporation and cold downdrafts. Evidence suggests that this mixing might have been enhanced by eyewall instabilities after the period of rapid deepening. The existence of a fragile, small, but genuinely hurricane-strength vortex at the surface for 6 h presents difficult problems for forecasters. Such a "temporary hurricane" in strongly sheared flow might require a different warning protocol than longer-lasting hurricane vortices in weaker shear.

  3. Antibiotics for Post-Tonsillectomy Morbidity: Comparative Analysis of a Single Institutional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Aljfout, Qais; Alississ, Amjad; Rashdan, Hesham; Maita, Abdullah; Saraireh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background We have conducted this study to evaluate the effect of antibiotics, whether oral or intravenous, compared to no antibiotic protocol on post-tonsillectomy morbidity. Methods A total of 270 patients aged 3 - 12 years were included in the study. Patients were assigned into three groups randomly; each group consisted of 90 patients. In the first group (group A), patients were given intravenous injections of ceftriaxone 50 mg/kg/24 hours in divided doses, the second group (group B) received oral co-amoxiclav (dose according to weight) for 5 days post-operatively, and in the third group, patients were not given antibiotics. Patients were evaluated for the incidence of any bleeding, number of days before resuming normal diet, incidence of nausea and vomiting, incidence of abdominal pain, frequency of analgesic use in the first week, and pain. Results Our study groups were comparable in age, gender, and weight. There were no statistically significant differences between our study groups with regard to the incidence of post-tonsillectomy bleeding, time relapsed to resume normal diet, and pain score scale. Incidence of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain was more in the oral antibiotic group, and it was statistically significant. Conclusion We do not recommend the routine use of antibiotics in post-tonsillectomy period in pediatric age group and oral antibiotics prove to have worse outcome with regard to the incidence of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, and these recommendations need to be evaluated by multicenter evaluation. PMID:27081424

  4. [Exercise tolerance in angina patients 3 and 24 hours after administration of a new delayed-action preparation of metoprolol].

    PubMed

    Giusti, C; Verdecchia, P; Pentimone, F; Regoli, F; Cordoni, M; Bongini, A M

    1981-01-01

    To assess the duration of improved exercise tolerance by metoprolol given in a new sustained-release formulation, 40 in-patients affected by stable exercise-induced angina pectoris received single-blind placebo in day 1 and thereafter, in double-blind cross-over once daily administration, metoprolol RETARD 100 mg and 200 mg in days 3 and 5. Symptom-limited cycloergometric exercise tests were performed at 3 and 24 hours after placebo and after each of the two doses of metoprolol RETARD. Duration of exercise, maximal workload and total work performed did significantly increase at 3 and 24 hours after metoprolol RETARD 100 mg (P less than 0.01) and 200 mg (P less than 0.01), without any significant difference between the two doses. Peak systolic arterial pressure and heart rate were lowered by metoprolol RETARD 200 mg at 3 (P less than 0.01) and 24 (P less than 0.01) hours, whereas only the peak heart rate at 3 hours was lowered (P less than 0.05) by the 100 mg dose. It is concluded that in patients with stable exercise-induced angina pectoris, metoprolol RETARD 200 mg appears to be able to increase exercise tolerance and to reduce exercise-induced myocardial oxygen consumption throughout 24 hours period. This may justify a once daily dosing schedule of the 200 mg dose, aimed at improving patient compliance. PMID:7343379

  5. Phase I and pharmacologic study of 72-hour infused 5-fluorouracil and hyperfractionated cyclical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Byfield, J.E.; Frankel, S.S.; Sharp, T.R.; Hornbeck, C.L.; Callipari, F.B.

    1985-04-01

    The authors have studied 21 patients infused for 72 hours with 5- Fluorouracil (5-FU) at progressive doses combined with hyperfractionated radiation. The schedule was chosen as being one capable of inducing 5-FU radiosensitization (RS). All patients were started at a daily 5-FU dose of 40 mg/kg/24 hours; doses were then escalated with each subsequent treatment cycle to limiting toxicity or until taken off study. Patients received between one and six infusion cycles. Every treatment cycle included coincident hyperfractionated radiation to various body areas including the abdomen, chest, and head and neck region. Radiation fractionation was invariant; 1,000 rad were delivered in four equal fractions. Two fractions of 250 rad each were given on days 1 and 2 of each three day 5-FU cycle, i.e. at approximately 0, 8, 24, and 32 hours into the drug infusion. Patients were followed for toxicity; serum 5-FU concentrations were determined using a high pressure liquid chromatographic assay. 5-FU clearances were calculated from the mean serum drug levels and the infused drug dose. The toxicity spectrum was not found to be significantly different from infused drug alone in this dose range except when the head and neck region received coincident irradiation. In that region the two anticipated toxicities combined in what appears to be a synergistic fashion to enhance mucositis. Most toxicities including gastrointestinal and bone marrow appeared dependent on the mean serum 5-FU level as did mucositis itself. 5-FU clearance was found to be non-linear in this dose region but did not appear influenced by radiation to any part of the body.

  6. Fluconazole dosing predictions in critically-ill patients receiving prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy: a Monte Carlo simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Gharibian, Katherine N; Mueller, Bruce A

    2016-07-01

    Fluconazole is a renally-eliminated antifungal commonly used to treat Candida species infections. In critically-ill patients receiving prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT), limited pharmacokinetic (PK) data are available to guide fluconazole dosing. We used previously-published fluconazole clearance data and PK data of critically-ill patients with acute kidney injury to develop a PK model with the goal of determining a therapeutic dosing regimen for critically-ill patients receiving PIRRT. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to create a virtual cohort of patients receiving different fluconazole dosing regimens. Plasma drug concentration-time profiles were evaluated on the probability of attaining a mean 24-hour area under the drug concentration-time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration ratio (AUC24h : MIC) of 100 during the initial 48 hours of antifungal therapy. At the susceptibility breakpoint of Candida albicans (2 mg/L), 93 - 96% of simulated subjects receiving PIRRT attained the pharmacodynamic target with a fluconazole 800-mg loading dose plus 400 mg twice daily (q12h or pre and post PIRRT) regimen. Monte Carlo simulations of a PK model of PIRRT provided a basis for the development of an informed fluconazole dosing recommendation when PK data was limited. This finding should be validated in the clinical setting. PMID:27251341

  7. Setting Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for 1 hour or 24 hour contingency exposures to airborne chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Hector D.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Since the early years of the manned space program, NASA has developed and used exposure limits called Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) to help protect astronauts from airborne toxicants. Most of these SMACS are based on an exposure duration of 7 days, since this is the duration of a 'typical' mission. A set of 'contingency SMACs' is also being developed for scenarios involving brief (1-hour or 24- hour) exposures to relatively high levels of airborne toxicants from event-related 'contingency' releases of contaminants. The emergency nature of contingency exposures dictates the use of different criteria for setting exposure limits. The NASA JSC Toxicology Group recently began a program to document the rationales used to set new SMACs and plans to review the older, 7-day SMACs. In cooperation with the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology, a standard procedure has been developed for researching, setting, and documenting SMAC values.

  8. Habitual sleep length and patterns of recovery sleep after 24 hour and 36 hour sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Benoit, O; Foret, J; Bouard, G; Merle, B; Landau, J; Marc, M E

    1980-12-01

    Five long sleepers (LS) and 5 short sleepers (SS) were selected from 310 medical students. Nine regular sleepers (RS) were used as a control. The sleep was recorded during 3 reference nights, one recovery night after a 36 h sleep deprivation (R2), one morning sleep after a 24 h sleep deprivation (D1) and the night following D1(R1). According to previous data slow wave sleep (SWS) amounts were the same in the 3 groups while stage 2 and paradoxical sleep (PS) amounts increased with the sleep duration. The hourly distribution of intervening wakefulness and SWS were similar for all groups. When compared to RS or SS the hourly distribution in LS of PS was lower until the sixth hour. As a function of experimental conditions, sleep patterns of LS were the most affected. In R2 the sleep of LS more closely resembled that of RS or SS than in reference nights, while in R1 LS' sleep was the most disturbed. Morning sleep durations were very similar for all groups, but in LS intervening wakefulness was increased and PS was decreased when compared to RS and SS. Negative correlations (Spearman rank test) were found between the morning increase of body temperature after a sleep-deprived night and both TST and PS durations. In all recorded sleep periods, SWS amounts were positively correlated with prior wakefulness duration and the PS amount with TST. PMID:6160990

  9. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  10. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  11. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  12. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  13. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  14. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  15. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  16. 29 CFR 553.221 - Compensable hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Compensable hours of work. (a) The general rules on compensable hours of work are set forth in 29 CFR part 785 which is applicable to employees for whom the section 7(k) exemption is claimed. Special rules for...

  17. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  18. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  19. 75 FR 54543 - Changes to NARA Facilities' Hours of Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... of Operation AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... provide NARA facilities' hours of operation. The proposed regulations will remove NARA facilities' hours of operation from the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and establish procedures that NARA...

  20. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) A quarter of an hour shall be the largest fraction of an hour used for crediting irregular or... than the full fraction, odd minutes shall be rounded up or rounded down to the nearest full fraction...

  1. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) A quarter of an hour shall be the largest fraction of an hour used for crediting irregular or... than the full fraction, odd minutes shall be rounded up or rounded down to the nearest full fraction...

  2. Fingolimod first-dose effects in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis concomitantly receiving selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bermel, R A; Hashmonay, R; Meng, X; Randhawa, S; von Rosenstiel, P; Sfikas, N; Kantor, D

    2015-05-01

    Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), commonly administered for depression and anxiety in patients with multiple sclerosis, are associated with QT interval prolongation. Fingolimod (FTY720; Gilenya(®), Novartis Pharma AG) is a first-in-class sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator approved for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Fingolimod first-dose administration is associated with a transient, generally asymptomatic, slowing of heart rate, which may also prolong QT interval. This posthoc analysis compared cardiac outcomes in over 3300 patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis who were or were not receiving SSRIs during fingolimod treatment initiation, including a subset of patients receiving citalopram or escitalopram. Vital signs were recorded hourly for 6h, and electrocardiograms were obtained pre-dose and 6 h post-dose. Changes in mean hourly heart rate from baseline (pre-dose) to 6 h post-dose were similar among patients not receiving SSRIs (fingolimod 0.5 mg, -7.5 bpm; placebo, 0.0 bpm) and those receiving SSRIs (fingolimod 0.5 mg, -6.6 bpm; placebo, 0.3 bpm). In patients treated with fingolimod 0.5 mg, the mean change in corrected QT interval from baseline to 6 h after treatment initiation was under 10 ms, and few patients had absolute corrected QT intervals of over 450 ms (men) or 470 ms (women), calculated according to Bazett׳s or Fridericia׳s correction methods, irrespective of whether or not they were receiving an SSRI; similar findings were reported in the placebo group. Co-administration of SSRIs and fingolimod was not associated with an increased incidence of any electrocardiogram findings compared with fingolimod therapy alone, and the majority of patients receiving fingolimod (83-86%) were discharged from first-dose monitoring at 6 h irrespective of whether they were also receiving SSRIs. These analyses provide reassurance that concomitant use of SSRIs does not affect cardiac outcomes associated with fingolimod treatment

  3. Dose Proportionality of Fentanyl Buccal Tablet in Healthy Japanese Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Mona; Tempero, Kenneth; Jiang, John G; Thompson, Jeffrey; Simonson, Philip G

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to assess the dose proportionality, safety, and tolerability of fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) in Japanese volunteers. Methods Healthy, opioid-naive Japanese adults received single-dose FBT 100, 200, 400, and 800 µg in a randomized, open-label, crossover fashion. Naltrexone was given to minimize the opioid effects of fentanyl. Peak serum fentanyl concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax (tmax), area under the serum fentanyl concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–∞), and AUC from 0 to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0–last) were summarized using descriptive statistics. Dose proportionality was claimed if the ln-ln plots of Cmax, AUC0–∞, and AUC0–last vs. dose were linear and the 90% confidence intervals (CI) of the slopes were within 0.8927 and 1.1073. The safety population comprised volunteers who received ≥1 FBT. Results Twenty-five volunteers were enrolled, 23 were included in the safety population (mean age 35.3 years), and 19 completed the study. The assessment of dose proportionality did not meet the statistical criteria (slope [90% CI]: 0.9118 [0.8601, 0.9635] for Cmax, 1.0756 [1.0377, 1.1136] for AUC0–∞, and 1.0992 [1.0677, 1.1307] for AUC0–last). However, the increase in systemic exposure with dose appeared linear, and a post hoc analysis of partial AUCs from time 0 to 8, 12, 18, and 24 hours supported dose proportionality. Median tmax of 90 minutes (range 30–180 minutes) was independent of dose. Adverse events (AEs) were mild or moderate. The most frequent AEs were nausea (N = 9), dizziness (N = 8), headache (N = 6), somnolence (N = 6), dyspepsia (N = 5), and vomiting (N = 3). No application-site or serious AEs were reported. Conclusions Systemic exposure to FBT was approximately dose proportional across the range 100 µg to 800 µg in healthy Japanese adults. Adverse events were mild or moderate. PMID:19915713

  4. Evaluation of the adverse event profile and pharmacodynamics of toceranib phosphate administered to dogs with solid tumors at doses below the maximum tolerated dose

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The receptor kinase inhibitor toceranib phosphate (Palladia) was approved for use in dogs in 2009 using a dose of 3.25 mg/kg administered every other day. Preliminary data suggests that lower doses of toeceranib may be associated with a reduced adverse event profile while maintaining sufficient drug exposure to provide biologic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the Cmax of toceranib in dogs with solid tumors receiving 2.5-2.75 mg/kg every other day and to document the adverse events associated with this dose rate. Secondary objectives included determination of plasma VEGF concentrations in treated dogs and response to therapy. Results Dogs with solid tumors were administered toceranib at an intended target dose ranging from 2.5-2.75 mg/kg every other day and plasma samples were obtained for analysis of toceranib and VEGF plasma concentrations on days 0, 7, 14 and 30 of the study at 6 and 8 hours post drug administration. Additionally, plasma samples were obtained at 0, 1, 2, 6, 8, and 12 hours from dogs on day 30 for confirmation of Cmax. Response to therapy was assessed using standard RECIST criteria and adverse events were characterized using the VCOG-CTCAE. Toceranib administered at doses between 2.4-2.9 mg/kg every other day resulted in an average 6–8 hr plasma concentration ranging from 100–120 ng/ml, well above the 40 ng/ml concentration associated with target inhibition. Plasma VEGF concentrations increased significantly over the 30 day treatment period indicating that VEGFR2 inhibition was likely achieved in the majority of dogs. The lower doses of toceranib used in this study were associated with a substantially reduced adverse event profile compared to the established label dose of 3.25 mg/kg EOD. Conclusions Doses of toceranib ranging from 2.4-2.9 mg/kg every other day provide drug exposure considered sufficient for target inhibition while resulting in an adverse event profile substantially reduced from that

  5. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article "Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets" [1]. PMID:27054190

  6. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article “Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets” [1]. PMID:27054190

  7. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of credit hours. 610.408 Section 610... Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior Executive Service (SES) may not accumulate credit hours under an alternative work schedule. Any credit...

  8. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of credit hours. 610.408 Section 610... Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior Executive Service (SES) may not accumulate credit hours under an alternative work schedule. Any credit...

  9. 5 CFR 550.1304 - Overtime hourly rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1304 Overtime hourly rates of pay. (a) For a firefighter who is... overtime hourly rate of pay equals 11/2 times the firefighter hourly rate of basic pay for that firefighter, as established under § 550.1303(a) and (b)(2). (b) For a firefighter who is exempt from the FLSA,...

  10. 29 CFR 778.324 - Effect on hourly rate employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect on hourly rate employees. 778.324 Section 778.324... Problems Reduction in Workweek Schedule with No Change in Pay § 778.324 Effect on hourly rate employees. A similar situation is presented where employees have been hired at an hourly rate of pay and...

  11. 29 CFR 778.324 - Effect on hourly rate employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect on hourly rate employees. 778.324 Section 778.324... Problems Reduction in Workweek Schedule with No Change in Pay § 778.324 Effect on hourly rate employees. A similar situation is presented where employees have been hired at an hourly rate of pay and...

  12. 46 CFR 9.9 - Two hours between broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two hours between broken periods. 9.9 Section 9.9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.9 Two hours between broken periods. Where 2 hours or more...

  13. 5 CFR 550.1304 - Overtime hourly rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1304 Overtime hourly rates of pay. (a) For a firefighter who is... overtime hourly rate of pay equals 11/2 times the firefighter hourly rate of basic pay for that firefighter, as established under § 550.1303(a) and (b)(2). (b) For a firefighter who is exempt from the FLSA,...

  14. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of...

  15. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of...

  16. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of...

  17. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of...

  18. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of...

  19. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fractional hours of work. 551.521 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Fractional Hours of Work § 551.521 Fractional hours of work. (a) An employee shall be compensated for every minute of regular overtime work....

  20. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fractional hours of work. 551.521 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Fractional Hours of Work § 551.521 Fractional hours of work. (a) An employee shall be compensated for every minute of regular overtime work....

  1. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of credit hours. 610.408 Section 610... Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior Executive Service (SES) may not accumulate credit hours under an alternative work schedule. Any credit...

  2. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of credit hours. 610.408 Section 610.408 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior...

  3. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of credit hours. 610.408 Section 610.408 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior...

  4. Resident Duty Hours: Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmer, Cheryl, Ed.; Wolman, Dianne Miller, Ed.; Johns, Michael M. E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Medical residents in hospitals are often required to be on duty for long hours. In 2003 the organization overseeing graduate medical education adopted common program requirements to restrict resident workweeks, including limits to an average of 80 hours over 4 weeks and the longest consecutive period of work to 30 hours in order to protect…

  5. Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T

    1999-10-06

    On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other

  6. A 12-hour evaluation of the analgesic efficacy of diflunisal, aspirin, and placebo in postoperative dental pain.

    PubMed

    Forbes, J A; Calderazzo, J P; Bowser, M W; Foor, V M; Shackleford, R W; Beaver, W T

    1982-01-01

    Two-hundred and one outpatients with postoperative pain following oral surgery were randomly assigned, on a double-blind basis, a single oral dose of diflunisal (250, 500, or 1000 mg), aspirin (650 mg), or placebo. Using a self-rating record, the subjects rated their pain and its relief hourly for 12 hours after medication. Measures of peak and total analgesia were derived from the patients' subjective reports. Diflunisal 250 and 1000 mg were significantly superior to aspirin for every measure of total and peak analgesia; the 500-mg diflunisal dose was significantly superior to aspirin for measures of total analgesia only. All doses of diflunisal were significantly superior to aspirin and placebo at each hour from hour 3 through hour 12. Approximately 60 per cent of the patients treated with diflunisal completed the 12-hour observation period without the need for additional analgesic therapy. Adverse effects were mild and transitory and occurred in less than 10 per cent of the patients. PMID:7068938

  7. The intra-articular use of ropivacaine for the control of post knee arthroscopy pain

    PubMed Central

    Samoladas, Efthimios P; Chalidis, Byron; Fotiadis, Hlias; Terzidis, Ioanis; Ntobas, Thomas; Koimtzis, Miltos

    2006-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this prospective randomised study is to evaluate the efficacy, safety and the appropriate dose of the ropivacaine in the control of post-knee arthroscopy pain. Methods We randomised 60 patients in two groups to receive 10 ml/7.5 mg/ml ropivacaine (Group B) or 20 ml/7.5 mg/ml (Group A) at the end of a routine knee arthroscopy. We monitored the patient's blood pressure, heart rate, allergic reactions, headache, nausea, we assessed the pain using the visual analogue score at intervals of 1,2,3,4 and 6 hours after the operation. and we recorded the need for extra analgesia. Results The intraarticular use of the ropivacaine provided excellent control of pain after knee arthroscopy. At two hours post-operatively there wasn't any difference between the two groups. Afterwards, the Group A showed increased pain and need for supplementary medication. Conclusion We believe that intraarticular use of ropivacaine is effective to reduce post-operative pain minimising the use of systematic analgesia. PMID:17187686

  8. A priming dose of protons alters the early cardiac cellular and molecular response to 56Fe irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Samy S.; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A.; Boerma, Marjan

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence suggests that the heart may be injured by ionizing radiation at lower doses than was previously thought. This raises concerns about the cardiovascular risks from exposure to radiation during space travel. Since space travel is associated with exposure to both protons from solar particle events and heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays, we here examined the effects of a "priming" dose of protons on the cardiac cellular and molecular response to a "challenge" dose of 56Fe in a mouse model. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice at 10 weeks of age were exposed to sham-irradiation, 0.1 Gy of protons (150 MeV), 0.5 Gy of 56Fe (600 MeV/n), or 0.1 Gy of protons 24 hours prior to 0.5 Gy of 56Fe. Hearts were obtained at 7 days post-irradiation and western-blots were used to determine protein markers of cardiac remodeling, inflammatory infiltration, and cell death. Results: Exposure to 56Fe caused an increase in expression of α-smooth muscle cell actin, collagen type III, the inflammatory cell markers mast cell tryptase, CD2 and CD68, the endothelial glycoprotein thrombomodulin, and cleaved caspase 3. Of all proteins investigated, protons at a dose of 0.1 Gy induced a small increase only in cleaved caspase 3 levels. On the other hand, exposure to protons 24 hours before 56Fe prevented all of the responses to 56Fe. Conclusions: This study shows that a low dose of protons may prime the heart to respond differently to a subsequent challenge dose of heavy ions. Further investigation is required to identify responses at additional time points, consequences for cardiac function, threshold dose levels, and mechanisms by which a proton priming dose may alter the response to heavy ions.

  9. Biological post

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. Suresh; Kumar, Senthil; Mohan Kumar, N. S.; Karunakaran, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior tooth fracture as a result of traumatic injuries, is frequently encountered in endodontic practice. Proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth can be achieved through the fragment reattachment procedure known as “biological restoration.” This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of extensively damaged maxillary central incisor through the preparation and adhesive cementation of “biological post” in a young patient. Biological post obtained through extracted teeth from another individual–represent a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged anterior teeth. PMID:26538952

  10. 2,445 Hours of Code: What I Learned from Facilitating Hour of Code Events in High School Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a school librarian's experience with initiating an Hour of Code event for her school's student body. Hadi Partovi of Code.org conceived the Hour of Code "to get ten million students to try one hour of computer science" (Partovi, 2013a), which is implemented during Computer Science Education Week with a goal of…

  11. Improving Weekend Out Of hours Surgical Handover (WOOSH)

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Melissa; Tappenden, Janine; Peter, Mark

    2016-01-01

    An effective surgical handover is imperative to optimise patient care and safety, whilst ensuring progression of clinical management and the delivery of an efficient service. The introduction of full-shift working, as a response to progressive implementation of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD), has placed the spotlight on patient and doctor safety. Effective handover between shifts is vital to protect patient safety and assist doctors with clinical governance. The weekend is a critical point where the transfer of patient care to the ongoing weekend team is efficient, thorough and informative, as this is a point in the patient journey where the patient is the most vulnerable. The weekend team is often not responsible for the management of the patient throughout the week and poor or incomplete information can have disastrous consequences on patient safety. (1,2,3) There is a general consensus and anecdotal evidence that this process is variable, occasionally unsafe or of poor quality, and can be improved. (4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11) However, no standardised format is deemed optimal or available. The aim therefore, was to design and implement a weekend handover proforma, in order to deliver a more efficient and safer system for patient care over the weekend without increasing junior doctor workload. The Weekend Out Of Hours Surgical Handover (WOOSH) form was designed following consultation with medical, nursing and allied health professionals. All staff were instructed how to complete the form, with pre- and post-intervention questionnaires undertaken. The results of the study enforce and advocate the permanent practice of the WOOSH form with 93.33% endorsing the permanent introduction of the form and 100% finding the form useful. PMID:27096094

  12. SU-E-T-511: Do Presage 3D Dosimeters Show Dose Fractionation Sensitivity?

    SciTech Connect

    Klawikowski, S; Alqathami, M; Ibbott, G; Adamovics, J; Benning, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether Presage 3D polymer dosimeter dose response is sensitive to dose delivery fractionation. Bang gels have demonstrated a dose fractionation related dependence in which a single 400 cGy irradiation would produce a different detector response than four 100 cGy irradiations even if delivered closely in time to one another. Such a fractional dependent response in Presage would be detrimental for measuring multi-beam irradiations. Methods: Two separate batches of Presage were poured into cuvettes, and a third batch was molded into cuvette shaped blocks. A total of 37 cuvettes/blocks were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 irradiator to 400 cGy within solid water phantoms in either one, eight, or sixteen fractions. Another group of 15 cuvettes were also kept unirradiated and used for background subtraction between the pre-scan and post-scan results. The times between fractional deliveries were held constant at 30 seconds and the Cobalt irradiator dose rate was 49 cGy/min. Each Presage batch has a separate dose sensitivity and therefore fractionation response comparisons were only performed within the same batch. The cuvettes were first pre-scanned the day prior to irradiation and post-scanned the day after irradiation. Other than approximately 3 hours warming time prior to each irradiation and optical density measurement the cuvettes were stored in a refrigerator. All cuvettes were stored in a lightless environment throughout manufacturing and testing. The cuvettes’ optical densities were optically measured at 632 nm with a spectrophotometer. Results: No noticeable dose fractionation dependence was detected for any of the three independent batches of Presage for either the eight or sixteen fraction irradiation schemes. Conclusion: These results indicate using Presage 3D dosimeters to measure multi-beam photon irradiations common in IMRT, Gamma Knife, and Cyberknife treatment delivery schemes. Presage dosimeters are made by and trademarked by Heuris

  13. First-dose effects of fingolimod: Pooled safety data from three phase 3 studies.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, John P; O'Connor, Paul; Cohen, Jeffrey A; Reder, Anthony T; Zhang-Auberson, Lixin; Tang, Dejun; Collins, William; Kappos, Ludwig

    2014-09-01

    Fingolimod treatment initiation is associated with a transient slowing of heart rate and atrioventricular conduction. This report presents first-dose fingolimod effects (0.5mg or 1.25mg) on cardiac parameters using phase 3 FREEDOMS, FREEDOMS II and TRANSFORMS pooled study data (n=3635 patients). Vital signs were recorded hourly for ≥6h; 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was obtained at baseline and at 6h post-dose. Clinical events were graded at the first-dose administrator׳s discretion. At screening, on day 1 and at month 3, 1073 patients underwent 24-h ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring. A transient decrease in mean measured heart rate occurred 4-5h after the first dose, with a maximum reduction of 8 (fingolimod 0.5mg) and 11 beats per minute (fingolimod 1.25mg) below baseline. Symptomatic bradycardia at treatment initiation was reported in 0.6% (fingolimod 0.5mg) and 2.1% (fingolimod 1.25mg) of patients; events were typically mild or moderate in severity, and most resolved spontaneously. Atrioventricular (AV) conduction delays were observed in a few patients (Wenckebach (Mobitz type I) second-degree AV block, fingolimod 0.5mg, 0.2%; 1.25mg, 1%: 2:1 AV block fingolimod, 0.5mg, 0%; 1.25mg, 0.2% on ECG 6-h post-dose). These were usually well tolerated and first occurred within 6h of dosing. Consistent with its effects on atrial myocytes, fingolimod treatment initiation induced a transient slowing of heart rate and AV conduction. However, symptomatic bradycardia and second-degree AV block were uncommon and did not require intervention. PMID:26265275

  14. A 3-D Look at Post-Tropical Cyclone Hermine

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby animation of GPM imagery shows Post-Tropical Storm Hermine on Sept. 6. Rain was falling at a rate of over 1.1 inches (27 mm) per hour between the Atlantic coast and Hermine's center ...

  15. Transient and Post-irradiation Response of Optoelectronic Devices to Ionizing Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, F. A. A.; Chee, F. P.

    2015-01-01

    Space and ground level electronic equipment with semiconductor devices are subjected to the deleterious effects by radiation. This paper is attempted to present the transient and post-irradiation response of optoelectronic devices to gamma (γ) rays utilizing cobalt-60. In situ measurements were made on the devices under test (DUTs) up to a total dose of 60 krad followed by a post-irradiation not in-flux test for eight hours. Current transfer ratio (CTR) with is the vital merit of the optoelectronic system is found to decrease remarkably with the absorbed dose. This degradation is induced by the interaction of the energetic photons from gamma rays via two main mechanisms. The dominant effect is the mechanism by ionization while the secondary is by displacement. This radiation effect is found to arouse either a permanent or temporarily damage in the DUTs depending on their current drives and also the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) absorbed. The TID effects by gamma rays are cumulative and gradually take place throughout the lifecycle of the devices exposed to radiation. The full damage cascade phenomenon in the DUTs is calculated via the simulation.

  16. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris.

    PubMed

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P; Hinton, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae. PMID:25927361

  17. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.; Amendola, Roberto

    2015-04-30

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³⁷Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d⁻¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did notmore » affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d⁻¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.« less

  18. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae. PMID:25927361

  19. Clinical and In Vitro Studies on Impact of High-Dose Etoposide Pharmacokinetics Prior Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia on the Risk of Post-Transplant Leukemia Relapse.

    PubMed

    Sobiak, Joanna; Kazimierczak, Urszula; Kowalczyk, Dariusz W; Chrzanowska, Maria; Styczyński, Jan; Wysocki, Mariusz; Szpecht, Dawid; Wachowiak, Jacek

    2015-10-01

    The impact of etoposide (VP-16) plasma concentrations on the day of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) on leukemia-free survival in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was studied. In addition, the in vitro effects of VP-16 on the lymphocytes proliferation, cytotoxic activity and on Th1/Th2 cytokine responses were assessed. In 31 children undergoing allo-HSCT, VP-16 plasma concentrations were determined up to 120 h after the infusion using the HPLC-UV method. For mentioned in vitro studies, VP-16 plasma concentrations observed on allo-HSCT day were used. In 84 % of children, VP-16 plasma concentrations (0.1-1.5 μg/mL) were quantifiable 72 h after the end of the drug infusion, i.e. when allo-HSCT should be performed. In 20 (65 %) children allo-HSCT was performed 4 days after the end of the drug infusion, and VP-16 was still detectable (0.1-0.9 μg/mL) in plasma of 12 (39 %) of them. Post-transplant ALL relapse occurred in four children, in all of them VP-16 was detectable in plasma (0.1-0.8 μg/mL) on allo-HSCT day, while there was no relapse in children with undetectable VP-16. In in vitro studies, VP-16 demonstrated impact on the proliferation activity of stimulated lymphocytes depending on its concentration and exposition time. The presence of VP-16 in plasma on allo-HSCT day may demonstrate an adverse effect on graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) reaction and increase the risk of post-transplant ALL relapse. Therefore, if 72 h after VP-16 administration its plasma concentration is still above 0.1 μg/mL then the postponement of transplantation for next 24 h should be considered to protect GvL effector cells from transplant material. PMID:26040247

  20. Patterns and Predictors of Amelioration of Genitourinary Toxicity after High-Dose Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Implications for Defining Post-Radiotherapy Urinary Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ghadjar, Pirus; Jackson, Andrew; Spratt, Daniel E.; Oh, Jung Hun; Rosenschöld, Per Munck af; Kollmeier, Marisa; Yorke, Ellen; Hunt, Margie; Deasy, Joseph O.; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment-related toxicity and quality of life (QoL) considerations are important when counseling patients with localized prostate cancer. Objective To determine the incidence and longitudinal pattern of late genitourinary (GU) toxicity and QoL after high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Design, setting, and participants A total of 268 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated between 06/2004 and 12/2008 at a tertiary referral center. Median follow-up was 5 (range, 3–7.7) years. Intervention Patients underwent IMRT to a total dose of 86.4 Gy, 50% of patients underwent neoadjuvant and concurrent androgen-deprivation therapy. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Patients were evaluated with the prospectively obtained International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. GU toxicity was also scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v4.0; toxicity events were defined as increase over baseline. Differences in increases in IPSS sums and QoL index between baseline IPSS sum and QoL index groups were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were applied. Results and limitations The overall median IPSS sum increase during follow-up was 3, and was less pronounced among patients with severe compared with mild baseline symptoms (median increase 0 vs. 4; p < 0.0001). Overall, QoL index was unchanged after IMRT but appeared to improve in patients with dissatisfied baseline QoL compared with satisfied baseline QoL (p < 0.0001). Fifty-five (20%) and 2 (1%) patients developed grade 2 and 3 late GU toxicity; however, 28/57 (49%) of these resolved during follow-up. Even though the IPSS data was prospectively obtained, most patients were not treated within a prospective protocol. Conclusions Late GU toxicity after high-dose IMRT was mild and severe late GU toxicity was rare. Changes in IPSS sum and QoL index were dependent on the baseline

  1. Precise estimation of hourly global solar radiation for micrometeorological analysis by using data classification and hourly sunshine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Kuwagata, Tsuneo; Ishigooka, Yasushi

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a method for estimating hourly global solar radiation (GSR) from hourly sunshine duration data. This procedure requires only hourly sunshine duration as the input data and utilizes hourly precipitation and daily snow cover as auxiliary data to classify time intervals into six cases according to weather conditions. To obtain hourly GSR using a simple algebraic form, a quadratic function of the solar elevation angle and the sunshine duration ratio is used. Daily GSR is given by a sum of hourly GSRs. We evaluated the performance of the newly developed method using data obtained at 67 meteorological stations and found that the estimated GSR is highly consistent with that observed. Hourly and daily root-mean-square misfits are approximately 0.2 MJ/m2/h (~55 W/m2) and 1.4 to 1.5 MJ/m2/day (~16 to 17 W/m2), respectively. Our classification of weather conditions is effective for reducing estimation errors, especially under cloudy skies. Since the sunshine duration is observed at more meteorological stations than GSR, the proposed new method is a powerful tool for obtaining solar radiation with hourly resolution and a dense geographical distribution. One of the proposed methods, GSRgrn, can be applicable to hourly GSR estimations at different observation sites by setting local parameters (the precipitable water, surface albedo, and atmospheric turbidity) suitable to the sites. The hourly GSR can be applied for various micrometeorological studies, such as the heat budget of crop fields.

  2. Evaluation of a twelve-hour/day shift schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.M.; Swaim, D.J.

    1986-06-18

    In April 1985, the operating crews at the Fast Flux Test Facility near Richland, Washington, changed their rotating shift schedule from an 8-hour to a 12-hour a day work schedule. The primary purpose of the change was to reduce the attrition of operators by increasing their job satisfaction. Eighty-four percent of the operators favored the change. A program was established to evaluate the effects on plant performance, operator alertness, attrition, sleep, health, job satisfaction, and off-the-job satisfaction. Preliminary results from that evaluation program indicate that the 12-hour shift schedule is a reasonable alternative to an 8-hour schedule at this facility.

  3. Migration plans and hours of work in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Gillin, E D; Sumner, D A

    1985-01-01

    "This article describes characteristics of prospective migrants in the Malaysian Family Life Survey and investigates how planning to move affects hours of work. [The authors] use ideas about intertemporal substitution...to discuss the response to temporary and permanent wage expectations on the part of potential migrants. [An] econometric section presents reduced-form estimates for wage rates and planned migration equations and two-stage least squares estimates for hours of work. Men currently planning a move were found to work fewer hours. Those originally planning only a temporary stay at their current location work more hours." PMID:12280256

  4. The Contribution of Tissue Level Organization to Genomic Stability Following Low Dose/Low Dose Rate Gamma and Proton Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheryl G. Burrell, Ph.D.

    2012-05-14

    The formation of functional tissue units is necessary in maintaining homeostasis within living systems, with individual cells contributing to these functional units through their three-dimensional organization with integrin and adhesion proteins to form a complex extra-cellular matrix (ECM). This is of particular importance in those tissues susceptible to radiation-induced tumor formation, such as epithelial glands. The assembly of epithelial cells of the thyroid is critical to their normal receipt of, and response to, incoming signals. Traditional tissue culture and live animals present significant challenges to radiation exposure and continuous sampling, however, the production of bioreactor-engineered tissues aims to bridge this gap by improve capabilities in continuous sampling from the same functional tissue, thereby increasing the ability to extrapolate changes induced by radiation to animals and humans in vivo. Our study proposes that the level of tissue organization will affect the induction and persistence of low dose radiation-induced genomic instability. Rat thyroid cells, grown in vitro as 3D tissue analogs in bioreactors and as 2D flask grown cultures were exposed to acute low dose (1, 5, 10 and 200 cGy) gamma rays. To assess immediate (6 hours) and delayed (up to 30 days) responses post-irradiation, various biological endpoints were studied including cytogenetic analyses, apoptosis analysis and cell viability/cytotoxicity analyses. Data assessing caspase 3/7 activity levels show that, this activity varies with time post radiation and that, overall, 3D cultures display more genomic instability (as shown by the lower levels of apoptosis over time) when compared to the 2D cultures. Variation in cell viability levels were only observed at the intermediate and late time points post radiation. Extensive analysis of chromosomal aberrations will give further insight on the whether the level of tissue organization influences genomic instability patterns after

  5. Dose refinement. ARAC's role

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J. S.; Sullivan, T. J.; Baskett, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, since the late 1970's has been involved in assessing consequences from nuclear and other hazardous material releases into the atmosphere. ARAC's primary role has been emergency response. However, after the emergency phase, there is still a significant role for dispersion modeling. This work usually involves refining the source term and, hence, the dose to the populations affected as additional information becomes available in the form of source term estimates release rates, mix of material, and release geometry and any measurements from passage of the plume and deposition on the ground. Many of the ARAC responses have been documented elsewhere. 1 Some of the more notable radiological releases that ARAC has participated in the post-emergency phase have been the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear power plant (NPP) accident outside Harrisburg, PA, the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident in the Ukraine, and the 1996 Japan Tokai nuclear processing plant explosion. ARAC has also done post-emergency phase analyses for the 1978 Russian satellite COSMOS 954 reentry and subsequent partial burn up of its on board nuclear reactor depositing radioactive materials on the ground in Canada, the 1986 uranium hexafluoride spill in Gore, OK, the 1993 Russian Tomsk-7 nuclear waste tank explosion, and lesser releases of mostly tritium. In addition, ARAC has performed a key role in the contingency planning for possible accidental releases during the launch of spacecraft with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) on board (i.e. Galileo, Ulysses, Mars-Pathfinder, and Cassini), and routinely exercises with the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in preparation for offsite consequences of radiological releases from NPPs and nuclear weapon accidents or incidents. Several accident post-emergency phase assessments are discussed in this paper in order to illustrate

  6. Dose audit failures and dose augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, C.

    1999-01-01

    Standards EN 552 and ISO 11137, covering radiation sterilization, are technically equivalent in their requirements for the selection of the sterilization dose. Dose Setting Methods 1 and 2 described in Annex B of ISO 11137 can be used to meet these requirements for the selection of the sterilization dose. Both dose setting methods require a dose audit every 3 months to determine the continued validity of the sterilization dose. This paper addresses the subject of dose audit failures and investigations into their cause. It also presents a method to augment the sterilization dose when the number of audit positives exceeds the limits imposed by ISO 11137.

  7. Code System for Emergency Response Dose Assessment.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-01-16

    Version: 00 A dose assessment model for emergency response applications. Dose pathways represented in the model are those that are most likely to be important during and immediately following a release (hours) rather than over an extended time frame (days or weeks). The doses computed include: external dose resulting from exposure to radiation emitted by radionuclides in the air and deposited on the ground, internal dose commitment resulting from inhalation, and total whole-body dose. Threemore » preprocessors are included. RSFPREP generates the MESORAD run specification (input) file, METWR creates the meteorological data file, and RELPREP prepares the release definition file. PRNT is a postprocessor for generating printer or screen-compatible output. All four programs run interactively. MESORAD was developed from version 2.0 of the MESOI atmospheric dispersion model (NESC 9862) retaining its modular nature.« less

  8. Single dose NTBC-treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type I.

    PubMed

    Schlune, A; Thimm, E; Herebian, D; Spiekerkoetter, U

    2012-09-01

    NTBC (2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3cyclohexanedione) is the mainstay of treatment in tyrosinemia type 1 (HT 1). The current recommendation is to divide the total daily dose of NTBC into two doses. We monitored the plasma NTBC concentrations in a series of seven patients who were changed from multiple divided doses to a single daily dose of NTBC. Two additional patients were started on a single daily dose of NTBC after the diagnosis of HT 1 was established. In three patients, NTBC kinetics were performed over 6 and 24 hours, respectively. The use of multiple divided doses or a single daily dose did not significantly affect plasma NTBC concentrations or the mean daily dose needed to attain therapeutic plasma NTBC concentrations. Moreover, kinetic studies demonstrated that plasma NTBC concentrations were completely stable over a period of 24 hours with a single dose regimen, as expected given the known NTBC plasma half life of 54 hours. Although these preliminary results need to be confirmed in more patients, our findings show that administration of NTBC in a single daily dose may be as effective as a multiple-dose regimen in reaching therapeutic plasma NTBC concentrations and suppressing succinylacetone formation in patients with HT 1. In fact, single dose treatment may increase patients' compliance with the drug treatment and improve metabolic control. PMID:22307209

  9. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  10. Workweeks of 41 Hours or More and Premium Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The survey conducted in May, 1975 by the Bureau of Census showed that both the number of employees working more than the standard 40-hour workweek and the number receiving premium pay for hours in excess of the standard were substantially fewer than in the previous year. About 14.1 million wage and salary employees worked overtime in May, 1975…

  11. 17 CFR 10.4 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business address; hours. 10.4 Section 10.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.4 Business address; hours. The Office of Proceedings is located at Three...

  12. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3 Section 12.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours....

  13. 17 CFR 10.4 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business address; hours. 10.4 Section 10.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.4 Business address; hours. The Office of Proceedings is located at Three...

  14. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules...

  15. 17 CFR 10.4 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business address; hours. 10.4 Section 10.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.4 Business address; hours. The Office of Proceedings is located at Three...

  16. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials identified in...

  17. 17 CFR 171.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business address; hours. 171.3 Section 171.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO... MEMBER RESPONSIBILITY ACTIONS General Provisions § 171.3 Business address; hours. The principal office...

  18. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules...

  19. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 11582, Jan. 1, 1971; 34 FR 2957; 3 CFR Ch. 11) (b) Local conditions requiring different hgurs. If... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hours of business. 101.6 Section 101.6 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.6 Hours of business. Except as specified in paragraphs (a) through (g) of...

  20. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of...

  1. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of...

  2. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials identified in...

  3. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3 Section 12.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours....

  4. 17 CFR 171.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business address; hours. 171.3 Section 171.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO... MEMBER RESPONSIBILITY ACTIONS General Provisions § 171.3 Business address; hours. The principal office...

  5. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3 Section 12.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours....

  6. 17 CFR 171.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business address; hours. 171.3 Section 171.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO... MEMBER RESPONSIBILITY ACTIONS General Provisions § 171.3 Business address; hours. The principal office...

  7. 7 CFR 1520.2 - Location and hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location and hours. 1520.2 Section 1520.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC § 1520.2 Location and hours. Members of the...

  8. 7 CFR 1520.2 - Location and hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location and hours. 1520.2 Section 1520.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC § 1520.2 Location and hours. Members of the...

  9. 7 CFR 1520.2 - Location and hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location and hours. 1520.2 Section 1520.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC § 1520.2 Location and hours. Members of the...

  10. Contact Hours in Dutch and Vietnamese Higher Education: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quyen, Do Thi Ngoc

    2009-01-01

    The number of contact hours, one of the important institutional context factors, was examined and compared between Dutch and Vietnamese higher education at institute and student levels in Psychology and Business and/or Economics specializations. The quantity of contact hours per credit point given by institutions was investigated in a number of…

  11. Resident duty hours in Canada: a survey and national statement.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Mark F; Shrichand, Pankaj; Maniate, Jerry M

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in general, and residents in particular, are adapting to duty schedules in which they have fewer continuous work hours; however, there are no Canadian guidelines on duty hours restrictions. To better inform resident duty hour policy in Canada, we set out to prepare a set of recommendations that would draw upon evidence reported in the literature and reflect the experiences of resident members of the Canadian Association of Internes and Residents (CAIR). A survey was prepared and distributed electronically to all resident members of CAIR. A total of 1796 eligible residents participated in the survey. Of those who responded, 38% (601) reported that they felt they could safely provide care for up to 16 continuous hours, and 20% (315) said that 12 continuous hours was the maximum period during which they could safely provide care (n=1592). Eighty-two percent (1316) reported their perception that the quality of care they had provided suffered because of the number of consecutive hours worked (n=1598). Only 52% (830) had received training in handover (n=1594); those who had received such training reported that it was commonly provided through informal modelling. On the basis of these data and the existing literature, CAIR recommends that resident duty hours be managed in a way that does not endanger the health of residents or patients; does not impair education; is flexible; and does not violate ethical or legal standards. Further, residents should be formally trained in handover skills and alternative duty hour models. PMID:25559388

  12. (Updated) Fort Detrick Gate Hours Change Effective April 10 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Fort Detrick gate hours will change beginning Friday, April 10. The new hours were recently provided by the U.S. Army Garrison (USAG), Fort Detrick. NCI will continue to work with the USAG to address questions that may arise. Note that no changes have been made for facilities outside of the Fort Detrick campus (e.g., the Advanced Technology Research Facility).

  13. Hours of work, and perceptions of fatigue among truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Arnold, P K; Hartley, L R; Corry, A; Hochstadt, D; Penna, F; Feyer, A M

    1997-07-01

    Drivers and companies operating in the heavy road transport industry were surveyed about drivers' hours of work and perceptions of the causes and magnitude of fatigue as an industry problem. These drivers were operating in a state which, at the time of the survey, did not restrict driving hours for heavy haulage drivers. On the day of the interview, estimates based on retrospective and prospective reports, suggest that in a 24 hour period about 38% of drivers exceed 14 hours of driving, and 51% exceed 14 hours of driving plus other non-driving work. About 12% of drivers reported less than 4 hours of sleep on one or more working days in the week preceding the interview. These drivers are likely to be operating their vehicles while having a significant sleep debt. About 20% of drivers reported less than 6 hours sleep before starting their current journey, but nearly 40% of dangerous events that occurred on the journey were reported by these drivers (p < 0.05). Many drivers and company representatives reported fatigue to be a problem for other drivers, but considered themselves or their companies' drivers to be relatively unaffected by fatigue. There were differences between drivers' and companies' perceptions about causes of fatigue, and strategies that should be used to manage it. The results obtained from these drivers in an unregulated state were compared with earlier findings from drivers in states where driving hours restrictions are in place. PMID:9248505

  14. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3 Section 12.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours....

  15. 12 CFR 905.3 - Location and business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location and business hours. 905.3 Section 905.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Functions and Responsibilities of Finance Board § 905.3 Location and business hours. (a)...

  16. 19 CFR 360.107 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hours of operation. 360.107 Section 360.107 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.107 Hours of operation. The automatic licensing system will generally be...

  17. 19 CFR 360.107 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hours of operation. 360.107 Section 360.107 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.107 Hours of operation. The automatic licensing system will generally be...

  18. 29 CFR 2530.200b-2 - Hour of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR EMPLOYEE PENSION BENEFIT PLANS UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR EMPLOYEE PENSION BENEFIT PLANS Scope and General Provisions § 2530.200b-2 Hour of service. (a) General rule. An hour of service which must, as a minimum,...

  19. The 1973 dust storm on Mars: Maps from hourly photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The hourly progress of the 1973 major Martian storm was mapped using photographic images from the International Planetary Patrol. Two series of 20 daily maps show the semi-hourly positions of the storm brightenings in red light and blue light. The maps indicate that the 1973 storm had many similarities to the 1971 storm.

  20. Estimating Software Effort Hours for Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallshein, Corinne C.

    2010-01-01

    Software Cost Estimation (SCE) uses labor hours or effort required to conceptualize, develop, integrate, test, field, or maintain program components. Department of Defense (DoD) SCE can use initial software data parameters to project effort hours for large, software-intensive programs for contractors reporting the top levels of process maturity,…

  1. 46 CFR 15.1111 - Work hours and rest periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Work hours and rest periods. 15.1111 Section 15.1111 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1111 Work hours and rest periods. (a) Each...

  2. 46 CFR 15.1111 - Work hours and rest periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Work hours and rest periods. 15.1111 Section 15.1111 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1111 Work hours and rest periods. (a) Every...

  3. 46 CFR 15.1111 - Work hours and rest periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Work hours and rest periods. 15.1111 Section 15.1111 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1111 Work hours and rest periods. (a) Each...

  4. 46 CFR 15.1111 - Work hours and rest periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Work hours and rest periods. 15.1111 Section 15.1111 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1111 Work hours and rest periods. (a) Each...

  5. 49 CFR 228.7 - Hours of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hours of duty. 228.7 Section 228.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Records...

  6. 49 CFR 228.7 - Hours of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hours of duty. 228.7 Section 228.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Records...

  7. 49 CFR 228.7 - Hours of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hours of duty. 228.7 Section 228.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Records...

  8. 49 CFR 228.11 - Hours of duty records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hours of duty records. 228.11 Section 228.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING;...

  9. 46 CFR 15.1111 - Work hours and rest periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Work hours and rest periods. 15.1111 Section 15.1111 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1111 Work hours and rest periods. (a) Each...

  10. HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND 24-HOUR MINIMUM HEART RATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heart rate variability (HRV) indices based on 24-hour electrocardiograph recordings have been used in clinical research studies to assess the aggregate activity of the autonomic nervous system. While 24-hour HRV is generally considered non-invasive, use in research protocols typically involves cons...

  11. 75 FR 82169 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...To promote safety and to protect driver health, FMCSA proposes to revise the regulations for hours of service for drivers of property- carrying commercial motor vehicles (CMVs). To achieve these goals, the proposed rule would provide flexibility for drivers to take breaks when needed and would reduce safety and health risks associated with long hours. The proposed rule would make seven changes......

  12. Night Owl: Maryland's After-Hours Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Deborah C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses "Night Owl," a Maryland public library's after hours telephone reference service. Issues include project start-up, user profiles, types of questions, volume, after hours reference accessibility, security, costs, service limits, publicity, staffing, and employee turnover. Similar services in other states are cited. (Contains six…

  13. 49 CFR 228.11 - Hours of duty records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hours of duty records. 228.11 Section 228.11... duty records. (a) In general. Each railroad, or a contractor or a subcontractor of a railroad, shall keep a record, either manually or electronically, concerning the hours of duty of each employee....

  14. Hourly Paid Workers: Who They Are and What They Earn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Earl F.; Haugen, Steven E.

    1986-01-01

    This article focuses on earnings as a pure wage paid to the employee--stripped of any effects of tips, premium pay for overtime, bonuses, and commissions. It discusses median hourly earnings and earnings distribution (those receiving $12.00 or more per hour, minimum and subminimum wage workers). (CT)

  15. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of...

  16. 19 CFR 132.3 - Observation of official hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Observation of official hours. 132.3 Section 132.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY QUOTAS General Provisions § 132.3 Observation of official hours. An entry summary for...

  17. 19 CFR 132.3 - Observation of official hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Observation of official hours. 132.3 Section 132.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY QUOTAS General Provisions § 132.3 Observation of official hours. An entry summary for...

  18. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... No. 11582, Jan. 1, 1971; 34 FR 2957; 3 CFR Ch. 11) (b) Local conditions requiring different hgurs. If... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hours of business. 101.6 Section 101.6 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.6 Hours of business. Except as specified in paragraphs (a) through (g) of...

  19. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of...

  20. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules...

  1. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in...

  2. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal..., SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of the... and are open Monday through Friday from 8:15 a.m. to 4:45 p.m....

  3. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal... EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules are located at 2101 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 600, Arlington, VA 22201-3078 and are open Monday through...

  4. Number of Instructional Days/Hours in the School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    While state requirements vary on the number of instructional days and/or hours in the school year, the majority of states require 180 days of student instruction. Most also specify the minimum length of time that constitutes an instructional day. Some states set instructional time in terms of days, some specify hours, and some provide…

  5. 29 CFR 2530.200b-2 - Hour of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... period III, A takes a vacation for a period lasting more than 2 weeks. A is entitled to be credited with 80 hours of service for his vacation in computation period III (40 hours per week multiplied by 2 weeks) even though the vacation lasted more than 2 weeks. (B) Employee B has no regular work...

  6. A 2000-Hour Durability Test of a 5-Centimeter Diameter Mercury Bombardment Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakanishi, S.; Finke, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    A 2000-hour durability test of a modified Hughes SIT-5 (Structurally Integrated Thruster, 5 cm) was conducted at the Lewis Research Center. The thruster operated with a translating screen thrust vector grid locked in position for 10 deg beam deflection. The test was essentially continuous except for seven stoppages of beam current. The neutralizer keeper voltage and thruster floating potential increased slightly with time. Performance profiles and maps of thruster characteristics were obtained at 453 and 2023 hours into the test. Overall efficiency was nearly constant at 31 - 32 percent, and operating characteristics were similar at both points in the test. A post-shutdown inspection showed negligible erosion damage to the accelerator and cathode baffle. Some erosion was found in the aperture of the neutralizer cathode.

  7. Efficiency of ciprofloxacin for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and in vivo fertility of buffalo spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Qadeer, S; Iqbal, R; Ullah, N

    2013-09-01

    Ciprofloxacin (CP) was evaluated for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and fertility of buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Micrococcus sp., and Staphylococcus sp. were isolated from buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium sp., and Micrococcus sp. were resistant to streptomycin, whereas P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp. were resistant to penicillin. All bacteria were susceptible to CP. In vitro dose toxicity was assessed in sodium citrate buffer containing 0, 200 to 2000 μg/mL of CP. CP up to 1000 μg/mL was found nontoxic to motility and viability of buffalo sperm. For post-thaw quality, buffalo semen was frozen in Tris-citric acid extender containing streptomycin-penicillin (SP; 1000 μg/mL-1000 IU/mL) or CP 600 μg/mL and was assessed for total aerobic bacterial count (post-thaw), motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability at 0, 2, and 4 hours post-thaw. At 4 hours post-thaw, plasma membrane integrity (%) was higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing CP than SP. Total aerobic bacterial count was 0.00 in extender containing CP compared with 0.07 × 10(4) cfu/mL with SP. To assess the in vivo fertility rate, semen (two bulls) frozen in Tris-citric acid extender containing SP or CP was used to inseminate, and 400 inseminations (200/group) were recorded. Higher (P ≤ 0.05) fertility rate was recorded with CP (55%) compared with SP (41%). In conclusion, use of CP in extender was efficient to control the bacterial contamination without compromising the post-thaw quality and fertility of cryopreserved water buffalo bull semen. PMID:23746693

  8. Equine post-breeding endometritis: A review.

    PubMed

    Maischberger, E; Irwin, Ja; Carrington, Sd; Duggan, Ve

    2008-01-01

    The deposition of semen, bacteria and debris in the uterus of the mare after breeding normally induces a self-limiting endometritis. The resultant fluid and inflammatory products are cleared by 48 hours post cover. Mares that are susceptible to persistent post-breeding endometritis (PPBEM) have impaired uterine defence and clearance mechanisms, making them unable to resolve this inflammation within the normal time. This persists beyond 48 hours post-breeding and causes persistent fluid accumulation within the uterus. Mares with PPBEM have an increased rate of embryonic loss and a lower overall pregnancy rate than those without the condition. To enhance conception rates, mares at high risk need optimal breeding management as well as early diagnosis, followed by the most appropriate treatment. This article reviews the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of PPBEM and the management of affected mares. PMID:21851709

  9. Participation and hours of work of married females in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Soliman, A

    1991-12-01

    The study provides estimates of female labor force participation and hours of work in Cairo, Egypt, from a sample of 3882 married females in 1984. The determinants of labor force participation are examined. The urban participation rate was 31% in 1984 compared to total labor force participation of 9% in 1976. Hours of work were estimated with ordinary least squares techniques and were based on the theories of Ben-Porath, Gronau, and Heckman. Determinants of labor force participation include weekly earnings, income, unemployment, age, schooling, and fertility measures. Educational status and age explain 10% of the variance in earnings; however the full set of explanatory variables explain 40-50% of the variation in hours of work function for all females. An increase in the level of schooling increased the probability of labor force participation by 47-48%. Women with higher levels of education had an average work week longer by 6.2-6.9 hours. Unemployment of a household member decreased the probability of participation. Level of household income was statistically significant and positive for participation and hours of work. The probability of participation was decreased by the presence of children under the age of 5 years in the household. The presence of a child 6-11 years old decreased the number of hours of work by 2 hours and an additional child aged 6-11 years decreased an hour of work by 0.2%. An increased weekly wage rate of L.E.10 led to a 2-hour per week work increase. The relationship of hours of work and wages is considered strongly inelastic. PMID:12288770

  10. A Multi-Compartment, Single and Multiple Dose Pharmacokinetic Study of the Vaginal Candidate Microbicide 1% Tenofovir Gel

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jill L.; Rountree, Wes; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Brache, Vivian; Creinin, Mitchell D.; Poindexter, Alfred; Kearney, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Tenofovir (TFV) gel is being evaluated as a microbicide with pericoital and daily regimens. To inhibit viral replication locally, an adequate concentration in the genital tract is critical. Methods and Findings Forty-nine participants entered a two-phase study: single-dose (SD) and multi-dose (MD), were randomized to collection of genital tract samples (endocervical cells [ECC], cervicovaginal aspirate and vaginal biopsies) at one of seven time points [0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 24 hr(s)] post-dose following SD exposure of 4 mL 1% TFV gel and received a single dose. Forty-seven were randomized to once (QD) or twice daily (BID) dosing for 2 weeks and to collection of genital tract samples at 4, 8 or 24 hrs after the final dose, but two discontinued prior to gel application. Blood was collected during both phases at the seven times post-dose. TFV exposure was low in blood plasma for SD and MD; median Cmax was 4.0 and 3.4 ng/mL, respectively (C≤29 ng/mL). TFV concentrations were high in aspirates and tissue after SD and MD, ranging from 1.2×104 to 9.9×106 ng/mL and 2.1×102 to 1.4×106 ng/mL, respectively, and did not noticeably differ between proximal and distal tissue. TFV diphosphate (TFV-DP), the intracellular active metabolite, was high in ECC, ranging from 7.1×103 to 8.8×106 ng/mL. TFV-DP was detectable in approximately 40% of the tissue samples, ranging from 1.8×102 to 3.5×104 ng/mL. AUC for tissue TFV-DP was two logs higher after MD compared to SD, with no noticeable differences when comparing QD and BID. Conclusions Single-dose and multiple-dose TFV gel exposure resulted in high genital tract concentrations for at least 24 hours post-dose with minimal systemic absorption. These results support further study of TFV gel for HIV prevention. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00561496 PMID:22039430

  11. Evaluation of the analgesic activity and tolerability of aceclofenac in the treatment of post-episiotomy pain.

    PubMed

    Movilia, P G

    1989-01-01

    The activity and tolerability of aceclofenac, a new arylacetic anti-inflammatory drug, was assessed in the treatment of post-episiotomal pain in a controlled double-blind study with paracetamol. Aceclofenac was administered in single 100 mg doses and paracetamol in single 650 mg doses (both drugs in tablet form) to 60 women aged between 18 and 38 years with post-episiotomal pain. They were randomised into two groups of 30 patients. The severity of the pain was assessed by the patients using an analog visual test (Huskisson's test) before treatment and 0.5, 1,2,3,4,5 and 6h after receiving the drug. At the end of the study, the investigator questioned the patients about the evolution of their pain and any side-effects that might have appeared during the 6 h of observation. On the basis of their replies, the investigator evaluated the pain on a semi-quantitative scale of 5 points. The tolerability was assessed on the basis of the appearance of any undesired effects. The patients treated with drug A* showed a progressive and marked reduction of their pain with a significant difference from the baseline score after the second hour of observation (Huskisson's test) and after the first hour (physician's assessment with the 5-point scale), respectively. The antalgic effect of drug B showed a similar evolution over time to drug A but the analgesic efficacy seemed to be much less.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2663407

  12. Effect of multiple doses of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of a single dose of rivaroxaban.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kenneth Todd; Plotnikov, Alexei Nikolaevich; Thyssen, An; Vaccaro, Nicole; Ariyawansa, Jay; Burton, Paul Bryan

    2011-12-01

    Many patients with acute coronary syndrome receive chronic dual antiplatelet therapy (acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel) for secondary event prophylaxis, and new oral anticoagulants are being investigated as adjunctive therapy in this indication. Gastrointestinal side effects such as bleeding are commonly associated with antiplatelet use; accordingly, many patients receive proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to mitigate this. PPIs can reduce the antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel through cytochrome P450 2C19 inhibition, and pantoprazole reduces the bioavailability of dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor that acts via cytochrome P450 2C19-independent mechanisms. These observations support the investigation of potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between PPIs and anticoagulants. We evaluated the influence of administering once-daily omeprazole 40 mg for 5 days on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single 20-mg dose of the oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban, in a randomized, open-label, 2-way, crossover, drug-drug interaction study in healthy subjects. No clinically meaningful interactions were observed; geometric mean ratios were 101%, 101%, and 93.5% for rivaroxaban area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the time of the last quantifiable concentration (AUClast), or until infinity (AUC∞), and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), respectively. Prothrombin time increased similarly in both treatment groups, with maximal values observed approximately 4 hours post rivaroxaban administration. A single 20-mg rivaroxaban dose appears well tolerated when administered alone or after 5 days of once-daily omeprazole 40 mg administration. PMID:21822144

  13. 10 CFR 20.1004 - Units of radiation dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of unknown charge 20 0.05 Neutrons of unknown energy 10 0.1 High-energy protons 10 0.1 a Absorbed... convenient to measure the neutron fluence rate than to determine the neutron dose equivalent rate in rems per hour or sieverts per hour, as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, 1 rem (0.01 Sv) of...

  14. 10 CFR 20.1004 - Units of radiation dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of unknown charge 20 0.05 Neutrons of unknown energy 10 0.1 High-energy protons 10 0.1 a Absorbed... convenient to measure the neutron fluence rate than to determine the neutron dose equivalent rate in rems per hour or sieverts per hour, as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, 1 rem (0.01 Sv) of...

  15. 10 CFR 20.1004 - Units of radiation dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of unknown charge 20 0.05 Neutrons of unknown energy 10 0.1 High-energy protons 10 0.1 a Absorbed... convenient to measure the neutron fluence rate than to determine the neutron dose equivalent rate in rems per hour or sieverts per hour, as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, 1 rem (0.01 Sv) of...

  16. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of bisphenol A: Evidence against sublingual absorption following ingestion in soup.

    PubMed

    Teeguarden, Justin G; Twaddle, Nathan C; Churchwell, Mona I; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Seryak, Liesel M; Doerge, Daniel R

    2015-10-15

    Extensive first-pass metabolism of ingested bisphenol A (BPA) in the gastro-intestinal tract and liver restricts blood concentrations of bioactive BPA to <1% of total BPA in humans and non-human primates. Absorption of ingested BPA through non-metabolizing tissues of the oral cavity, recently demonstrated in dogs, could lead to the higher serum BPA concentrations reported in some human biomonitoring studies. We hypothesized that the extensive interaction with the oral mucosa by a liquid matrix, like soup, relative to solid food or capsules, might enhance absorption through non-metabolizing oral cavity tissues in humans, producing higher bioavailability and higher serum BPA concentrations. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24hour period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. Absorption of d6-BPA was rapid (t1/2=0.45h) and elimination of the administered dose was complete 24h post-ingestion, evidence against any tissue depot for BPA. The maximum serum d6-BPA concentration was 0.43nM at 1.6h after administration and represented <0.3% of total d6-BPA. Pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacokinetic model simulations, and the significantly faster appearance half-life of d6-BPA-glucuronide compared to d6-BPA (0.29h vs 0.45h) were evidence against meaningful absorption of BPA in humans through any non-metabolizing tissue (<1%). This study confirms that typical exposure to BPA in food produces picomolar to subpicomolar serum BPA concentrations in humans, not nM concentrations reported in some biomonitoring studies. PMID:25620055

  17. A 9700-hour durability test of a five centimeter diameter ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakanishi, S.; Finke, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    A modified Hughes SIT-5 thrustor has been life-tested at the Lewis Research Center. The final 2700 hours of the test are described with a charted history of thrustor operating parameters and off-normal events. Performance and operating characteristics were nearly constant throughout the test except for neutralizer heater power requirements and accelerator drain current. A post-shutdown inspection revealed sputter erosion of ion chamber components and component flaking of sputtered metal. Several flakes caused beamlet divergence and anomalous grid erosion, causing the test to be terminated. All sputter erosion sources have been identified and promising sputter resistant components are currently being evaluated.

  18. Improving Trainees' Experience During The Implementation Of Out Of Hours' Rotas

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Gareth; Cheema, Maheera

    2016-01-01

    During clinical induction for psychiatry at Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust, doctors covering out of hours rotas are expected to attend a meeting to finalise on call duties. The meeting aims to support doctors to utilise leave whilst ensuring patient safety. The meeting has being cited as being a negative experience for doctors. Attendees were asked to complete a questionnaire before and after the introduction of a new policy that would prepare doctors adequately and ensure the meeting runs smoothly. Post intervention, there was an improvement in the experience and satisfaction of doctors who attended. PMID:27158495

  19. 34 CFR 668.9 - Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relationship between clock hours and semester, trimester, or quarter hours in calculating Title IV, HEA program assistance. 668.9 Section 668.9 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT...

  20. Comparison of Kodak EDR2 and Gafchromic EBT film for intensity-modulated radiation therapy dose distribution verification

    SciTech Connect

    Sankar, A. . E-mail: asankar_phy@yahoo.co.in; Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Nehru, R. Mothilal; Gopalakrishna Kurup, P.G.; Murali, V.; Enke, Charles A.; Velmurugan, J.

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative dose validation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans require 2-dimensional (2D) high-resolution dosimetry systems with uniform response over its sensitive region. The present work deals with clinical use of commercially available self-developing Radio Chromic Film, Gafchromic EBT film, for IMRT dose verification. Dose response curves were generated for the films using a VXR-16 film scanner. The results obtained with EBT films were compared with the results of Kodak extended dose range 2 (EDR2) films. The EBT film had a linear response between the dose range of 0 to 600 cGy. The dose-related characteristics of the EBT film, such as post irradiation color growth with time, film uniformity, and effect of scanning orientation, were studied. There was up to 8.6% increase in the color density between 2 to 40 hours after irradiation. There was a considerable variation, up to 8.5%, in the film uniformity over its sensitive region. The quantitative differences between calculated and measured dose distributions were analyzed using DTA and Gamma index with the tolerance of 3% dose difference and 3-mm distance agreement. The EDR2 films showed consistent results with the calculated dose distributions, whereas the results obtained using EBT were inconsistent. The variation in the film uniformity limits the use of EBT film for conventional large-field IMRT verification. For IMRT of smaller field sizes (4.5 x 4.5 cm), the results obtained with EBT were comparable with results of EDR2 films.

  1. Repeated cycles with 72-hour continuous infusion interleukin-2 in kidney cancer and melanoma.

    PubMed

    Quan, Walter; Brick, Wendy; Vinogradov, Mikhail; Taylor, W Chris; Khan, Nawazish; Burgess, Russell

    2004-06-01

    While high-dose bolus inpatient interleukin-2 is generally given on 8-week cycles, continuous infusion interleukin-2 could potentially allow for more rapidly repeated cycles. Fourteen (14) patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) of 0 or 1, having either kidney cancer (6) or melanoma (8), have been treated with continuous infusion (CIV) interleukin-2 (IL-2) 18 MIU/m(2)/24 hours for 72 hours. Cycles were repeated every 3 weeks up to 4 cycles, then every 3-4 weeks for 2 cycles, then every 6-8 weeks, until progression or intolerable toxicity. All patients received famotidine 20 mg intravenously (i.v.) twice per day during the 72-hour infusions. Patient characteristics included a median ECOG performance status of 1; median age = 63 (range: 25-79); most common metastatic sites: lung (9), bone (5), lymph nodes (5), and the liver (3). No patients with metastatic kidney cancer underwent a nephrectomy prior to interleukin-2. Median number of cycles received = 5 (1-9). No patients required Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. There have been no treatment-related deaths. Most common toxicities have been rigors, fever, nausea/emesis, and the reversible elevation of creatinine. One complete response and three partial responses (67% response rate; 95% confidence interval: 30%-90%) have been seen in kidney cancer, and two partial responses (25% response rate; 95% confidence interval: 7%-60%) have occurred in melanoma. Median survival has not been reached at >9+ months. Responding sites include the liver, bone, lung, lymph node and subcutaneous sites. Inpatient 72-hour continuous infusion interleukin-2 at this dose and schedule is well tolerated by patients with an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1 and has activity in kidney cancer and melanoma. PMID:15285881

  2. Perspectives on the working hours of Australian junior doctors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The working hours of junior doctors have been a focus of discussion in Australia since the mid-1990s. Several national organizations, including the Australian Medical Association (AMA), have been prominent in advancing this agenda and have collected data (most of which is self-reported) on the working hours of junior doctors over the last 15 years. Overall, the available data indicate that working hours have fallen in a step-wise fashion, and AMA data suggest that the proportion of doctors at high risk of fatigue may be declining. It is likely that these changes reflect significant growth in the number of medical graduates, more detailed specifications regarding working hours in industrial agreements, and a greater focus on achieving a healthy work–life balance. It is notable that reductions in junior doctors’ working hours have occurred despite the absence of a national regulatory framework for working hours. Informed by a growing international literature on working hours and their relation to patient and practitioner safety, accreditation bodies such as the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) and the Australian Medical Council (AMC) are adjusting their standards to encourage improved work and training practices. PMID:25560522

  3. Report of 1,000 Hour Catalyst Longevity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Ginosar

    2009-06-01

    This report presents the results of a 1,000 hour, high-pressure, catalyst longevity test for the decomposition of concentrated sulfuric acid. The reaction is used for both the sulfur-iodine (S-I) cycle and hybrid sulfur cycle. By the time of the delivery date of April 17, 2009, for project milestone no. 2NIN07TC050114, the 1% Pt/TiO2 catalyst had been in the reaction environment for 658 hours. During the first 480 hours of testing, the catalyst activity provided stable, near-equilibrium yields of 46.8% SO2 and 22.8% O2. However, product yields declined at sample exposure times >480 hours. At 658 hours of operation, catalyst activity (based on oxygen yield) declined to 57% relative to the stable period of catalyst activity. Thus, as of April 17, this catalyst did not provide the desired stability level of <10% degradation per 1,000 hours. The experiment was terminated on April 27, after 792 hours, when a fitting failed and the catalyst was displaced from the reactor such that the sample could not be recovered. Oxygen conversion at the end of the experiment was 12.5% and declining, suggesting that at that point, catalyst activity had decreased to 54% of the initial level.

  4. Evaluation of a 12-hour/day shift schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.M.; Swaim, D.J.

    1986-06-01

    In April 1985, the operating crews at the Fast Flux Test Facility near Richland, Washington, changed their rotating shift schedule from an 8- to a 12-hour/day work schedule. The primary purpose of the change was to reduce the attrition of operators by increasing their job satisfaction. Eighty-four percent of the operators favored the change. A program was established to evaluate the effects on plant performance, operator alertness, attrition, sleep, health, job satisfaction, and off-the-job satisfaction. Preliminary results from that evaluation program indicate that the 12-hour shift schedule is a reasonable alternative to an 8-hour schedule at this facility.

  5. The indirect NMDAR inhibitor flupirtine induces sustained post-ischemic recovery, neuroprotection and angioneurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Hanna M; Pehlke, Jens R; Kaltwasser, Britta; Kilic, Ertugrul; Bähr, Mathias; Hermann, Dirk M; Doeppner, Thorsten R

    2015-06-10

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation induces excitotoxicity, contributing to post-stroke brain injury. Hitherto, NMDAR deactivation failed in clinical trials due to insufficient pre-clinical study designs and drug toxicity. Flupirtine is an indirect NMDAR antagonist being used as analgesic in patients. Taking into account its tolerability profile, we evaluated effects of flupirtine on post-stroke tissue survival, neurological recovery and brain remodeling.Mice were exposed to stroke and intraperitoneally treated with saline (control) or flupirtine at various doses (1-10 mg/kg) and time-points (0-12 hours). Tissue survival and cell signaling were studied on day 2, whereas neurological recovery and tissue remodeling were analyzed until day 84.Flupirtine induced sustained neuroprotection, when delivered up to 9 hours. The latter yielded enhanced neurological recovery that persisted over three months and which was accompanied by enhanced angioneurogenesis. On the molecular level, inhibition of calpain activation was noted, which was associated with increased signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-6 (STAT6) abundance, reduced N-terminal-Jun-kinase and NF-κB activation, as well as reduced proteasomal activity. Consequently, blood-brain-barrier integrity was stabilized, oxidative stress was reduced and brain leukocyte infiltration was diminished.In view of its excellent tolerability, considering its sustained effects on neurological recovery, brain tissue survival and remodeling, flupirtine is an attractive candidate for stroke therapy. PMID:26050199

  6. The indirect NMDAR inhibitor flupirtine induces sustained post-ischemic recovery, neuroprotection and angioneurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Hanna M.; Pehlke, Jens R.; Kaltwasser, Britta; Kilic, Ertugrul; Bähr, Mathias; Hermann, Dirk M.; Doeppner, Thorsten R.

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation induces excitotoxicity, contributing to post-stroke brain injury. Hitherto, NMDAR deactivation failed in clinical trials due to insufficient pre-clinical study designs and drug toxicity. Flupirtine is an indirect NMDAR antagonist being used as analgesic in patients. Taking into account its tolerability profile, we evaluated effects of flupirtine on post-stroke tissue survival, neurological recovery and brain remodeling. Mice were exposed to stroke and intraperitoneally treated with saline (control) or flupirtine at various doses (1-10 mg/kg) and time-points (0-12 hours). Tissue survival and cell signaling were studied on day 2, whereas neurological recovery and tissue remodeling were analyzed until day 84. Flupirtine induced sustained neuroprotection, when delivered up to 9 hours. The latter yielded enhanced neurological recovery that persisted over three months and which was accompanied by enhanced angioneurogenesis. On the molecular level, inhibition of calpain activation was noted, which was associated with increased signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-6 (STAT6) abundance, reduced N-terminal-Jun-kinase and NF-κB activation, as well as reduced proteasomal activity. Consequently, blood-brain-barrier integrity was stabilized, oxidative stress was reduced and brain leukocyte infiltration was diminished. In view of its excellent tolerability, considering its sustained effects on neurological recovery, brain tissue survival and remodeling, flupirtine is an attractive candidate for stroke therapy. PMID:26050199

  7. Comparison of protein expression profile changes in human fibroblasts induced by low doses of gamma rays and energetic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Clement, Jade; Gridley, Diala; Rohde, Larry; Wu, Honglu

    Extrapolation of known radiation risks to the risks from low dose and low dose-rate exposures of human population, especially prolonged exposure of astronauts in the space radiation environment, relies in part on the mechanistic understanding of radiation induced biological consequences at the molecular level. While some genomic data at the mRNA level are available for cells or animals exposed to radiation, the data at the protein level are still lacking. Here, we studied protein expression profile changes using Panorama antibody microarray chips that contain antibodies to more than 200 proteins (or modified proteins) involved in cell signaling that included mostly apoptosis, cytoskeleton, cell cycle and signal transduction. Normal human fibroblasts were cultured till fully confluent and then exposed to 2 cGy of gamma rays at either low (1 cGy/hr) or high (0.2 Gy/min) dose-rate, or to 2 cGy of 150 MeV protons at high dose-rate. The proteins were isolated at 2 and 6 hours after exposure and labeled with Cy3 for the irradiated cells and with Cy5 for the control samples before loaded onto the protein microarray chips. The intensities of the protein spots were analyzed using ScanAlyze software and normalized by the summed fluorescence intensities and the housekeeping proteins. Comparison of the overall protein expression profiles in gamma-irradiated cells showed significantly higher inductions at the high dose-rate than at the low dose-rate. The protein profile in cells after the proton exposure showed a much earlier induction pattern in comparison to both the high and low dose-rate gamma exposures. The same expression patterns were also found in individual cell signaling cascades. At 6 hours post irradiation, high dose-rate gamma rays induced cellular protein level changes (ratio to control ˜2) mostly in apoptosis, cell cycle and cytoskeleton, while low dose-rate gamma rays induced similar changes with smaller fold-change values. In comparison, protons induced

  8. 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project of IYA2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, M.

    2008-11-01

    The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities taking place from 2--5 April. A high-profile opening event will include presentation of Galileo's original telescope. Webcasts of international science center discussions and 24 hours of webcasts from professional research observatories will follow. A 24-hour global star party will occur on the last day. The Moon's phase will range from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing, and Saturn will also be well placed for early evening observing events. Amateur astronomers will be encouraged to present educational events in schools as well as non-traditional venues. Online resources will include advertising, educational and how-to materials.

  9. 2 Kids an Hour Hurt in Strollers, Infant Carriers

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160484.html 2 Kids an Hour Hurt in Strollers, Infant Carriers ... Although strollers and child carriers may look safe, two children are injured in these kid-movers every ...

  10. Balancing Authority Cooperation Concepts - Intra-Hour Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, Matthew; Samaan, Nader; Milligan, Michael; Guo, Tao; Liu, Guangjuan; Toolson, Jacob

    2013-03-29

    The overall objective of this study was to understand, on an Interconnection-wide basis, the effects intra-hour scheduling compared to hourly scheduling. Moreover, the study sought to understand how the benefits of intra-hour scheduling would change by altering the input assumptions in different scenarios. This report describes results of three separate scenarios with differing key assumptions and comparing the production costs between hourly scheduling and 10-minute scheduling performance. The different scenarios were chosen to provide insight into how the estimated benefits might change by altering input assumptions. Several key assumptions were different in the three scenarios, however most assumptions were similar and/or unchanged among the scenarios.

  11. Hourly Rounding to Improve Nursing Responsiveness: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Matthew D.; Lavenberg, Julia G.; Trotta, Rebecca; Umscheid, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Synthesize the evidence concerning the effect of hourly rounding programs on patient satisfaction with nursing care, and discuss implications for nurse administrators. Background Patient satisfaction is a key metric that influences both hospital ratings and reimbursement. Studies have suggested that purposeful nursing rounds can improve patient satisfaction but the evidence to date has not been systematically examined. Methods Systematic review of published literature and GRADE analysis of evidence regarding nursing rounds. Results There is little consistency in how results of hourly rounds were measured, precluding quantitative analysis. There is moderate-strength evidence that hourly rounding programs improve patients’ perception of nursing responsiveness. There is also moderate-strength evidence that these programs reduce patient falls and call light use. Conclusions Nurse administrators should consider implementing an hourly rounding program while controlled trials discern the most cost-effective approach. PMID:25148400

  12. Aging Instruction Offers New Challenges for the Social Studies Hour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Joan Norman

    1986-01-01

    Describes a ten and one-half hour upper elementary grade level unit of instruction on the physical, social, and psychological aspects of aging among the elderly. Copies of the course are available from the author. (JDH)

  13. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work. PMID:8899576

  14. NEWS: Post-16 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    (post16) Making physics connect Doesn't Melvyn Bragg do a wonderful job, engaging both scientists and artists in sensitive discussion on Radio 4 about their methods and their purposes? But every week teachers have the chance to show their students that physics is a way of seeing the world that is well-connected with other aspects of knowledge and culture. The stakes are high: students who fail to appreciate this generally choose not to study the subject beyond GCSE. Most students find our preoccupation with technical detail off-putting. Accepting that we have a syllabus to cover, it's still a question of balance. In our teaching we should aim for variety in order to find ways to connect with every student's interests. Also, we can show that we (the nearest embodiment of a physicist some students will experience) are multidimensional and so fully human. Most important, teachers need flexibility to both encourage and respond to student comment and questions. The first booklet in the discussion series Shaping the Future takes up these themes. Rich in ideas for both immediate use and the longer term, it aims to stimulate debate and improve teaching. Copies cost £5.50 including postage and are available from Ingrid Ebeyer, Post-16 Initiative, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH. How far is it? This question is asked in many family cars and school minibuses at the start of a journey, and answered by most in terms of hours and minutes rather than miles. What a good idea for introducing a social and historical perspective to a lesson on distance, velocity and time. How far can you actually get in a day? What is the range of human activity? Walking for eight hours will get many people about 25 miles. A pack horse will progress at much the same rate, but fast riding or a coach and team of horses will get further. Motorway driving (when the cones are on holiday) would take you nearly 500 miles. The 05.15 am train from Penzance arrives in Inverness at 7

  15. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal... REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS (EFF. UNTIL 7-22-2011) § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the..., and are open Monday through Friday except holidays from 8:15 a.m. to 4:45 p.m....

  16. Perspective: ten thousand hours to patient safety, sooner or later.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Vincent D

    2012-02-01

    A call by the Institute of Medicine to advance the cause of patient safety catalyzed the current focus on duty hours limits during resident education. Unrelated benefits to resident education have accrued from those efforts, but, despite rigorous study of the issue, there is little evidence of a positive impact on patient safety resulting from trainee duty hours adjustments. Moreover, the discussion has become worrisomely myopic in its singular preoccupation with the impact of postgraduate medical education duty hours on safe patient care. The author argues that patient safety efforts should focus instead on the three essential elements of capacity, of which a discussion of duty hours and fatigue are an important part, commitment, and competence. Commitment requires altruism and professionalism, which are discouraged by a shift-work orientation. Competence is essential for safe patient care; as duty hours are constricted in the name of reducing fatigue-related medical error, it must be remembered that a certain amount of time is required to both acquire a knowledge base and attain proficiency in needed technical skills. Until a competency-based educational system can be implemented, the profession and patients would be well served by a heightened awareness of the increased number of years required in a constrained work hours environment to achieve proficiency in the independent practice of medicine, especially when procedural competence is required. Such a realization will inevitably result in voluntary lengthening of some residency training programs, particularly in surgical disciplines and those medical specialties with a prominent procedural component. PMID:22189877

  17. 29 CFR 778.325 - Effect on salary covering more than 40 hours' pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hour in all weeks. This assumes that when an employee works less than 50 hours in a particular week... hour in excess of 40. In weeks of 55 hours or more, his regular rate remains $5 per hour and he is due... $275 for 55 hours of work, he was entitled to a statutory overtime premium for the 15 hours in......

  18. Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome in patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine long-acting injection, I: analysis of cases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An advance in the treatment of schizophrenia is the development of long-acting intramuscular formulations of antipsychotics, such as olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI). During clinical trials, a post-injection syndrome characterized by signs of delirium and/or excessive sedation was identified in a small percentage of patients following injection with olanzapine LAI. Methods Safety data from all completed and ongoing trials of olanzapine LAI were reviewed for possible cases of this post-injection syndrome. Descriptive analyses were conducted to characterize incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome. Regression analyses were conducted to assess possible risk factors. Results Based on approximately 45,000 olanzapine LAI injections given to 2054 patients in clinical trials through 14 October 2008, post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome occurred in approximately 0.07% of injections or 1.4% of patients (30 cases in 29 patients). Symptomatology was consistent with olanzapine overdose (e.g., sedation, confusion, slurred speech, altered gait, or unconsciousness). However, no clinically significant decreases in vital signs were observed. Symptom onset ranged from immediate to 3 to 5 hours post injection, with a median onset time of 25 minutes post injection. All patients recovered within 1.5 to 72 hours, and the majority continued to receive further olanzapine LAI injections following the event. No clear risk factors were identified. Conclusions Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome can be readily identified based on symptom presentation, progression, and temporal relationship to the injection, and is consistent with olanzapine overdose following probable accidental intravascular injection of a portion of the olanzapine LAI dose. Although there is no specific antidote for olanzapine overdose, patients can be treated symptomatically as needed. Special precautions include use of proper injection technique and a post-injection observation period

  19. The Study of External Dose Rate and Retained Body Activity of Patients Receiving 131I Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiying; Jiao, Ling; Cui, Songye; Wang, Liang; Tan, Jian; Zhang, Guizhi; He, Yajing; Ruan, Shuzhou; Fan, Saijun; Zhang, Wenyi

    2014-01-01

    Radiation safety is an integral part of targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of this work was to study the external dose rate and retained body activity as functions of time in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients receiving 131I therapy. Seventy patients were stratified into two groups: the ablation group (A) and the follow-up group (FU). The patients’ external dose rate was measured, and simultaneously, their retained body radiation activity was monitored at various time points. The equations of the external dose rate and the retained body activity, described as a function of hours post administration, were fitted. Additionally, the release time for patients was calculated. The reduction in activity in the group receiving a second or subsequent treatment was more rapid than the group receiving only the initial treatment. Most important, an expeditious method was established to indirectly evaluate the retained body activity of patients by measuring the external dose rate with a portable radiation survey meter. By this method, the calculated external dose rate limits are 19.2, 8.85, 5.08 and 2.32 μSv·h−1 at 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 m, respectively, according to a patient’s released threshold level of retained body activity <400 MBq. This study is beneficial for radiation safety decision-making. PMID:25337944

  20. The impact of overtime and long work hours on occupational injuries and illnesses: new evidence from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dembe, A; Erickson, J; Delbos, R; Banks, S

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To analyse the impact of overtime and extended working hours on the risk of occupational injuries and illnesses among a nationally representative sample of working adults from the United States. Methods: Responses from 10 793 Americans participating in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) were used to evaluate workers' job histories, work schedules, and occurrence of occupational injury and illness between 1987 and 2000. A total of 110 236 job records were analysed, encompassing 89 729 person-years of accumulated working time. Aggregated incidence rates in each of five exposure categories were calculated for each NLSY survey period. Multivariate analytical techniques were used to estimate the relative risk of long working hours per day, extended hours per week, long commute times, and overtime schedules on reporting a work related injury or illness, after adjusting for age, gender, occupation, industry, and region. Results: After adjusting for those factors, working in jobs with overtime schedules was associated with a 61% higher injury hazard rate compared to jobs without overtime. Working at least 12 hours per day was associated with a 37% increased hazard rate and working at least 60 hours per week was associated with a 23% increased hazard rate. A strong dose-response effect was observed, with the injury rate (per 100 accumulated worker-years in a particular schedule) increasing in correspondence to the number of hours per day (or per week) in the workers' customary schedule. Conclusions: Results suggest that job schedules with long working hours are not more risky merely because they are concentrated in inherently hazardous industries or occupations, or because people working long hours spend more total time "at risk" for a work injury. Strategies to prevent work injuries should consider changes in scheduling practices, job redesign, and health protection programmes for people working in jobs involving overtime and extended hours. PMID

  1. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  2. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  3. The Effect of the Children's Health Insurance Program on Pediatricians' Work Hours

    PubMed Central

    He, Fang; White, Chapin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our study examines changes in physicians' work hours in response to a coverage expansion. Methods We use as a natural experiment the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), which was established in 1997 and significantly expanded children's eligibility for public health insurance coverage. The magnitude of the CHIP expansion varied across states and over time, allowing its effects to be identified using a state-year fixed effects model. We focus on pediatricians, and we measure their self-reported work hours using multiple waves (pre- and post-CHIP) of the physician survey component of the Community Tracking Study. To address endogeneity concerns, we instrument for CHIP enrollment using key program features (income eligibility cutoffs and waiting times). Results We find a large negative relationship between the magnitude of a state's CHIP expansion and trends in pediatricians' work hours. This relationship could be due to key supply-side features of CHIP, including relatively low provider reimbursements and heavy use of managed care tools. PMID:24753962

  4. Vision, Training Hours, and Road Testing Results in Bioptic Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Bradley E.; Flom, Roanne E.; Bullimore, Mark A.; Raasch, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bioptic telescopic spectacles (BTS) can be used by people with central visual acuity that does not meet the state standards to obtain an unrestricted driver’s license. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among visual and demographic factors, training hours, and the results of road testing for bioptic drivers. Methods A retrospective study of patients who received an initial daylight bioptic examination at the Ohio State University and subsequently received a bioptic license was conducted. Data were collected on vision including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and visual field. Hours of driver training and results of Highway Patrol road testing were extracted from records. Relationships among vision, training hours, and road testing were analyzed. Results Ninety-seven patients who completed a vision examination between 2004 and 2008 and received daylight licensure with BTS were included. Results of the first Highway Patrol road test were available for 74 patients. The median interquartile range (IQR) hours of training prior to road testing was 21±17 hours, (range of 9 to 75 hours). Candidates without previous licensure were younger (p< 0.001) and had more documented training (p< 0.001). Lack of previous licensure and more training were significantly associated with having failed a portion of the Highway Patrol test and points deducted on the road test. Conclusions New bioptic drivers without previous non-bioptic driving experience required more training and performed more poorly on road testing for licensure than those who had previous non-bioptic licensure. No visual factor was predictive of road testing results after adjustment for previous experience. The hours of training received remained predictive of road testing outcome even with adjustment for previous experience. These results suggest that previous experience and trainer assessments should be investigated as potential predictors of road safety in bioptic drivers in

  5. Performance of KCl:Eu2+ storage phosphor dosimeters for low dose measurements

    PubMed Central

    Li, H. Harold; Hansel, Rachael; Knutson, Nels; Yang, Deshan

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu2+) storage phosphor material has the potential to become the physical foundation of a novel and reusable dosimetry system using either film-like devices or devices similar to thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips. The purposes of this work are to quantify the performance of KCl:Eu2+ prototype dosimeters for low dose measurements and to demonstrate how it can be incorporated into clinical application for in vivo peripheral dose measurements. Pellet-style KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The dosimeters were read using a laboratory photostimulated luminescence detection system. KCl:Eu2+ prototype storage phosphor dosimeter was capable of measuring a dose-to-water as low as 0.01 cGy from a 6 MV photon beam with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 6. A pre-readout thermal annealing procedure enabled the dosimeter to be read within an hour post irradiation. After receiving large accumulated doses (~10 kGy), the dosimeters retained linear response in the low dose region with only a 20 percent loss of sensitivity comparing to a fresh sample (zero Gy history). The energy-dependence encountered during low dose peripheral measurements could be accounted for via a single point outside-field calibration per each beam quality. With further development the KCl:Eu2+− based dosimeter could become a versatile and durable dosimetry tool with large dynamic range (sub-cGy to 100 Gy). PMID:23735856

  6. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.; Amendola, Roberto

    2015-04-30

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³⁷Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d⁻¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d⁻¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  7. The influence of TRP53 in the dose response of radiation-induced apoptosis, DNA repair and genomic stability in murine haematopoietic cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lemon, Jennifer A.; Taylor, Kristina; Verdecchia, Kyle; Phan, Nghi; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic and DNA damage endpoints are frequently used as surrogate markers of cancer risk, and have been well-studied in the Trp53+/- mouse model. We report the effect of differing Trp53 gene status on the dose response of ionizing radiation exposures (0.01-2 Gy), with the unique perspective of determining if effects of gene status remain at extended time points. Here we report no difference in the dose response for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in bone marrow and genomic instability (MN-RET levels) in peripheral blood, between wild-type (Trp53+/+) and heterozygous (Trp53+/-) mice. The dose response for Trp53+/+ mice showed higher initial levelsmore » of radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis relative to Trp53+/- between 0 and 1 Gy. Although this trend was observed up to 12 hours post-irradiation, both genotypes ultimately reached the same level of apoptosis at 14 hours, suggesting the importance of late-onset p53-independent apoptotic responses in this mouse model. Expected radiation-induced G1 cell cycle delay was observed in Trp53+/+ but not Trp53+/-. Although p53 has an important role in cancer risk, we have shown its influence on radiation dose response can be temporally variable. This research highlights the importance of caution when using haematopoietic endpoints as surrogates to extrapolate radiation-induced cancer risk estimation.« less

  8. Post-/γ-irradiation reactions in vitamin E stabilised and unstabilised HDPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallégol, J.; Carlsson, D. J.; Deschênes, L.

    2001-12-01

    The oxidation of high density polyethylene (HDPE), both unstabilised and vitamin E stabilised, has been studied by infrared (IR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies in the period following γ-irradiation at doses from 1 to 60 kGy (range of food sterilisation). Derivatisation by reaction with sulphur tetrafluoride was used to identify macro-ketone and carboxylic acid components of the overlapped IR carbonyl region. Oxidation continued for several hundred hours after the cessation of irradiation as shown by the increase in hydroxyl, ketone and acid groups. Carboxylic acid groups are particularly important as a direct indication of backbone scission. Vitamin E, although an effective antioxidant during γ-irradiation, was less effective in reducing the post-irradiation changes, which are probably driven by migration of radical sites along the polymer backbone from within the crystalline phase to the amorphous/crystalline inter-phase, where they become oxygen accessible.

  9. Nurses working 12-hour shifts in the hospice setting.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, L A

    1995-04-01

    A system of 12-hour nursing shifts was adopted at a newly-opened independent hospice. This paper presents the results from an exploratory, descriptive study in which nursing staff reported perceived advantages, disadvantages and satisfaction with the 12-hour shift system. A small sample (n = 11) of both qualified and unqualified nurses working the 12-hour shift completed the questionnaire. A content analysis of the qualitative data produced a number of categories relating to the perceived advantages and disadvantages of the 12-hour shift system in relation to the respondents, to the hospice and to patient and family care. The need for continuing to monitor and evaluate the shift system was demonstrated, particularly in relation to patient and family satisfaction, and the quality of care. It was concluded that examining the advantages and disadvantages of the 12-hour shift system increased awareness of the needs of staff, presented a useful way of identifying and managing potential difficulties within the workplace, and highlighted areas for future research. PMID:7606330

  10. Thyroid surgery as a 23-hour stay procedure

    PubMed Central

    Perera, AH; Patel, SD

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The main barriers to short stay thyroidectomy are haemorrhage, bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy causing respiratory compromise and hypocalcaemia. This study assessed the safety and effectiveness of thyroidectomy as a 23-hour stay procedure. Methods All patients undergoing total or completion thyroidectomy were prescribed calcium and vitamin D3 supplements following surgery. Retrospective analysis identified patients admitted for longer than 23 hours and any readmissions. Results A total of 164 patients were admitted for 23-hour stay thyroid surgery over a 25-month period between 2008 and 2010. Four patients (2%) required admission for longer than 23 hours. No patients required emergency intervention for postoperative haemorrhage or airway compromise. Biochemical hypocalcaemia (despite calcium supplements) was detected in one patient when measured at the outpatient clinic two weeks following surgery. Twelve patients (7.3%) attended the accident and emergency department following discharge; four required admission for intravenous antibiotics for wound infection and one for biochemical hypocalcaemia. Conclusions This single centre UK experience demonstrates that thyroidectomy can be carried out both safely and effectively as a 23-hour stay procedure. Prophylactic prescription of calcium and vitamin D3 reduces hypocalcaemia, and thereby also prolonged admission and readmission due to hypocalcaemia. Supplements are an acceptable, cost effective method of reducing hypocalcaemia and shortening postoperative length of stay. PMID:24780020

  11. Out of hours attendance in an army practice.

    PubMed

    Grundy-Wheeler, N J

    1991-05-01

    There is some evidence that rates of out of hours calls in army general practices are higher than the average for the NHS. In an attempt to reduce out of hours demand a programme of preventive and educational initiatives for patients was introduced at an army practice in Hohne, West Germany early in 1985. This included regular child development clinics, well woman clinics, a practice booklet and leaflets about the management of simple illnesses, a library of books and videos for patients and health education videos in the waiting room. The project was complemented by an audit of doctors' prescribing habits followed by drawing up agreed protocols for the treatment of common disorders such as sore throat. Annual attendance rates per registered patient were recorded for 1984-86 to compare use of out of hours services by patients before and after the introduction of the project. Out of hours attendance rates fell by 35% (from 0.17 per annum to 0.11 per annum) overall and by 61% in young children. The total annual attendance rate dropped by 14% (from 5.13 to 4.43) during the same period, but fell by only 1% over the same period at a similar practice in Osnabruck. The decrease was particularly marked for out of hours attendances which the doctor classified as lower urgency: attendances classed as very low urgency decreased by 78% between 1984 and 1986 but those classed as medium urgency decreased by only 2%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1878273

  12. Phase II trial of cyclophosphamide, leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil 24-hour infusion and tamoxifen in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Eckel, F; Lersch, C; Lippl, F; Assmann, G; Schulte-Frohlinde, E

    2000-09-01

    Leucovorin modulates the cytotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the treatment of cancer. 24-hour infusion of 5-FU has been shown to enhance antitumor activity in colorectal cancer compared to bolus infusion. According to experimental data cyclophosphamide and tamoxifen may enhance the effectiveness of leucovorin and 5-FU. A phase II trial was initiated to evaluate the effect of a combination of low-dose cyclophosphamide (C), leucovorin (L), 5-FU (F) and tamoxifen (T) (CLFT) in advanced pancreatic cancer. Fifty patients were treated monthly with 300 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide and weekly with 500 mg/m2 leucovorin followed by a 24-hour infusion of 2000 mg/m2 5-FU and tamoxifen 20 mg bid. Three patients had a partial response (6%), two a minor response (4%) and 32 (64%) no change of disease. The median survival time was 8.5 months for all patients, the median time to progression of disease was 4.6 months and the 1-year survival rate was 28%. CLFT was fairly well tolerated. These data suggest that biochemical modulation of 24-hour infusional 5-FU with leucovorin together with cyclophosphamide and tamoxifen has some positive effects in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:11144522

  13. Resident duty hours around the globe: where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Safe and appropriate health care, especially in urgent or emergency situations, is the expectation of the public throughout the developed world. Achieving this goal requires appropriate levels of medical and other staff, appropriate training, and sensible working hours. Too often the brunt of such care, especially in out-of-hours situations, is borne by medical residents, who – to make matters worse – are frequently poorly supervised by more senior and experienced staff. Many jurisdictions have been alerted to this problem and are striving to correct it. However, the variation in attempts to restrict the actual hours worked by residents to “safe” levels is enormous, and all too often there is no consensus as to what should be put in place to achieve safe patient care. This paper sets out the current position for Europe, North America, and Australia. PMID:25559277

  14. A template for change and response to work hour restrictions.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Kathryn A; Mendoza, Bernardo; Britt, L D

    2003-08-01

    Surgical program directors are seeking how to best meet the work hour restrictions recently mandated by the American College of Graduate Medical Education. Implementation of an 80-hour work week forces major change to graduate medical education, especially surgical education. Creative restructuring of surgical training is necessary to ensure compliance. Developing an innovative solution to meet these requirements must consider programmatic needs, requiring commitment to a change process. The Department of Surgery at Eastern Virginia Medical School experienced a 5-month strategic planning process that generated the Mendoza plan. This plan uses an every third night call model and a night float model to meet site-specific needs. The specifics of the Mendoza plan protect the cornerstone of surgical education, which is continuity of patient care and resident education. The Mendoza plan, and the process leading to its development, may provide insightful information for other surgical residency programs planning to meet work hour guidelines. PMID:12885595

  15. 100,000 hour design life of turbo compressor packages

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-20

    Many turbomachinery manufacturers and operators typically quote 100,000 hours as a design limit for service life of turbo compressor components. The Pipeline Research Committee initiated this study to review the life limiting criteria for certain critical components and determine if the design target of 100,000 hours can be safely and reliably met or extended with special component management practices. The first phase of the project was to select the turbomachinery components that would be included in the review. Committee members were surveyed with a detailed questionnaire designed to identify critical components based on: high hours (e.g. at or approaching 100,000 hours) the most common engine types operated by the member organizations, and the components of greatest concern from a risk and expense point of view. The selection made covers a wide range of engine types that are of interest to most of the committee companies. This selection represents some 78% of the high hour units operated by the committee and includes components from GE Frame 3 and Frame 5, Solar Saturn, Rolls Royce Avon, and Cooper RT56 engines. The report goes into detail regarding the various damage mechanism which can be the main life limiting factor of the component; creep, fatigue, environmental attack, wear and microstructure instability. For each of the component types selected, the study identifies the life limiting criteria and outlines how the components may be managed for extended life. Many of the selected components can be reliably operated beyond 100,000 hours by following the management practices set out in the report.

  16. Ambient dose and dose rate measurements in the vicinity of Elekta Precise accelerators for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Zutz, H; Hupe, O

    2014-12-01

    In radiation therapy, commercially available medical linear accelerators (LINACs) are used. At high primary beam energies in the 10-MeV range, the leakage dose of the accelerator head and the backscatter from the room walls, the air and the patient become more important. Therefore, radiation protection measurements of photon dose rates in the treatment room and in the maze are performed to quantify the radiation field. Since the radiation of the LINACs is usually pulsed with short radiation pulse durations in the microsecond range, there are problems with electronic dose (rate) meters commonly used in radiation protection. In this paper measurements with ionisation chambers are presented and electronic dosemeters are used for testing at selected positions. The measured time-averaged dose rate ranges from a few microsieverts per hour in the maze to some millisieverts per hour in the vicinity of the accelerator head and up to some sieverts per hour in the blanked primary beam and several hundred sieverts per hour in the direct primary beam. PMID:24379437

  17. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C‑1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  18. Estimation of the passing of four consecutive hours.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.; Ross, W.

    1972-01-01

    In the AM and PM (9 to 1) males and females gave estimates of the hourly passing of time for 4 hr. There were no differences between sexes or AM/PM estimates. The group was less than 1 min off after an hour and 12 min off after 4 hr. There was a wide range of individual differences. One-fourth of the subjects were within an error of 10 min after 4 hr whereas another one-fourth were off more than 50 min. The accuracy of estimates was about equal to accuracy of awakening from sleep to randomly chosen awakening times.

  19. Elimination of 24-hour continuous medical resident duty in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Hamadani, Fadi; Deckelbaum, Dan; Shaheen, Mohammed; Sauvé, Alexandre; Dumitra, Sinziana; Ahmed, Najma; Latulippe, Jean-François; Balaa, Fady; Walsh, Mark; Fata, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Summary In 2012 Quebec limited continuous in-hospital duty to 16 consecutive hours for all residents regardless of postgraduate (PGY) level. The new restrictions in Quebec appeared to have a profound, negative effect on the quality of life of surgical residents at McGill University and a perceived detrimental effect on the delivery of surgical education and patient care. Here we discuss the results of a nationwide survey that we created and distributed to general surgery residents across Canada to capture and compare their perceptions of the changes to duty hour restrictions. PMID:26574704

  20. Health problems due to long working hours in Japan: working hours, workers' compensation (Karoshi), and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori

    2006-10-01

    Late in the 1970s, serious social concern over health problems due to long working hours has arisen in Japan. This report briefly summarizes the Japanese circumstances about long working hours and what the Government has achieved so far. The national statistics show that more than 6 million people worked for 60 h or more per week during years 2000 and 2004. Approximately three hundred cases of brain and heart diseases were recognized as labour accidents resulting from overwork (Karoshi) by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) between 2002 and 2005. Consequently, the MHLW has been working to establish a more appropriate compensation system for Karoshi, as well as preventive measures for overwork related health problems. In 2001, the MHLW set the standards for clearly recognizing Karoshi in association with the amount of overtime working hours. These standards were based on the results of a literature review and medical examinations indicating a relationship between overwork and brain and heart diseases. In 2002, the MHLW launched the program for the prevention of health impairment due to overwork, and in 2005 the health guidance through an interview by a doctor for overworked workers has been enacted as law. Long working hours are controversial issues because of conflicts between health, safety, work-life balance, and productivity. It is obvious that we need to continue research regarding the impact on worker health and the management of long working hours. PMID:17085914

  1. Dose sculpting with generalized equivalent uniform dose

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Qiuwen; Djajaputra, David; Liu, Helen H.; Dong Lei; Mohan, Radhe; Wu, Yan

    2005-05-01

    With intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a variety of user-defined dose distribution can be produced using inverse planning. The generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) has been used in IMRT optimization as an alternative objective function to the conventional dose-volume-based criteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of gEUD optimization to fine tune the dose distributions of IMRT plans. We analyzed the effect of gEUD-based optimization parameters on plan quality. The objective was to determine whether dose distribution to selected structures could be improved using gEUD optimization without adversely altering the doses delivered to other structures, as in sculpting. We hypothesized that by carefully defining gEUD parameters (EUD{sub 0} and n) based on the current dose distributions, the optimization system could be instructed to search for alternative solutions in the neighborhood, and we could maintain the dose distributions for structures already satisfactory and improve dose for structures that need enhancement. We started with an already acceptable IMRT plan optimized with any objective function. The dose distribution was analyzed first. For structures that dose should not be changed, a higher value of n was used and EUD{sub 0} was set slightly higher/lower than the EUD value at the current dose distribution for critical structures/targets. For structures that needed improvement in dose, a higher to medium value of n was used, and EUD{sub 0} was set to the EUD value or slightly lower/higher for the critical structure/target at the current dose distribution. We evaluated this method in one clinical case each of head and neck, lung and prostate cancer. Dose volume histograms, isodose distributions, and relevant tolerance doses for critical structures were used for the assessment. We found that by adjusting gEUD optimization parameters, the dose distribution could be improved with only a few iterations. A larger value of n

  2. Do flexible alcohol trading hours reduce violence? A theory-based natural experiment in alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, David K; Eisner, Manuel P

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol-related violence is a pressing public health concern. In 2005, the government of England and Wales took a controversial approach to preventing violence by removing restrictions on opening hours for alcohol outlets, thus increasing the availability of alcohol. The policy aimed to remove fixed closing times, which it claimed was contributing to urban violence occurring at peak closing times. It proposed to reduce violence and disorder by installing systems of 'staggered closing times'. This policy was criticised for overlooking established public health principles prioritising the control of alcohol availability in the prevention of alcohol-related harm. In this study, we treated the removal of trading hour restrictions as a natural experiment to test competing theoretical principles about the relationship between alcohol availability and violence. Our study took place in the City of Manchester over a four-year period 2004-2008. Detailed trading records for over 600 alcohol outlets were obtained, as were police records for all violent incidents. We found considerable variation in the implementation of extended trading hours across the city, which affected area-level exposure of changes in alcohol availability and staggered closing times. To isolate the effect of these changes on violence, we performed a dose-response analysis to examine whether improved staggering of closing hours (or increased alcohol availability) was associated with decreases in violence. We found no evidence to support the government-proposed hypothesis that staggered closing reduces violence. We also found no support for the alternative hypothesis; that increase alcohol availability would result in increased violence. This study provides an example of how better evidence can be generated from natural experiments by placing added emphasis on theory, causal mechanisms and implementation science. PMID:24565135

  3. Absorbed Dose and Dose Equivalent Calculations for Modeling Effective Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Andrew; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    While in orbit, Astronauts are exposed to a much higher dose of ionizing radiation than when on the ground. It is important to model how shielding designs on spacecraft reduce radiation effective dose pre-flight, and determine whether or not a danger to humans is presented. However, in order to calculate effective dose, dose equivalent calculations are needed. Dose equivalent takes into account an absorbed dose of radiation and the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. This is important in preventing long-term, stochastic radiation effects in humans spending time in space. Monte carlo simulations run with the particle transport code FLUKA, give absorbed and equivalent dose data for relevant shielding. The shielding geometry used in the dose calculations is a layered slab design, consisting of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. Water is used to simulate the soft tissues that compose the human body. The results obtained will provide information on how the shielding performs with many thicknesses of each material in the slab. This allows them to be directly applicable to modern spacecraft shielding geometries.

  4. 29 CFR 778.411 - Sixty-hour limit on pay guaranteed by contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contract under this section may not work more than 60 hours in any week; it means merely that pay in an.... If he works in excess of 60 hours he must be paid, for each hour worked in excess of 60, overtime... maximum hours standard is 40 hours and the specified regular rate is $5 an hour the weekly guaranty...

  5. Population Pharmacokinetic Model Characterizing 24-Hour Variation in the Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Midazolam in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    van Rongen, A; Kervezee, L; Brill, MJE; van Meir, H; den Hartigh, J; Guchelaar, H-J; Meijer, JH; Burggraaf, J; van Oosterhout, F

    2015-01-01

    Daily rhythms in physiology may affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-hour variation in the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrate midazolam. Oral (2 mg) and intravenous (1 mg) midazolam was administered at six timepoints throughout the 24-hour period in 12 healthy volunteers. Oral bioavailability (population mean value [RSE%] of 0.28 (7.1%)) showed 24-hour variation that was best parameterized as a cosine function with an amplitude of 0.04 (17.3%) and a peak at 12:14 in the afternoon. The absorption rate constant was 1.41 (4.7%) times increased after drug administration at 14:00. Clearance (0.38 L/min (4.8%)) showed a minor 24-hour variation with an amplitude of 0.03 (14.8%) L/min and a peak at 18:50. Simulations show that dosing time minimally affects the concentration time profiles after intravenous administration, while concentrations are higher during the day compared to the night after oral dosing, reflecting considerable variation in intestinal processes. PMID:26380154

  6. Population Pharmacokinetic Model Characterizing 24-Hour Variation in the Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Midazolam in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    van Rongen, A; Kervezee, L; Brill, Mje; van Meir, H; den Hartigh, J; Guchelaar, H-J; Meijer, J H; Burggraaf, J; van Oosterhout, F

    2015-08-01

    Daily rhythms in physiology may affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-hour variation in the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrate midazolam. Oral (2 mg) and intravenous (1 mg) midazolam was administered at six timepoints throughout the 24-hour period in 12 healthy volunteers. Oral bioavailability (population mean value [RSE%] of 0.28 (7.1%)) showed 24-hour variation that was best parameterized as a cosine function with an amplitude of 0.04 (17.3%) and a peak at 12:14 in the afternoon. The absorption rate constant was 1.41 (4.7%) times increased after drug administration at 14:00. Clearance (0.38 L/min (4.8%)) showed a minor 24-hour variation with an amplitude of 0.03 (14.8%) L/min and a peak at 18:50. Simulations show that dosing time minimally affects the concentration time profiles after intravenous administration, while concentrations are higher during the day compared to the night after oral dosing, reflecting considerable variation in intestinal processes. PMID:26380154

  7. Radiation dose to the global flying population.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Luis E; Eastham, Sebastian D; Barrett, Steven R H

    2016-03-01

    Civil airliner passengers and crew are exposed to elevated levels of radiation relative to being at sea level. Previous studies have assessed the radiation dose received in particular cases or for cohort studies. Here we present the first estimate of the total radiation dose received by the worldwide civilian flying population. We simulated flights globally from 2000 to 2013 using schedule data, applying a radiation propagation code to estimate the dose associated with each flight. Passengers flying in Europe and North America exceed the International Commission on Radiological Protection annual dose limits at an annual average of 510 or 420 flight hours per year, respectively. However, this falls to 160 or 120 h on specific routes under maximum exposure conditions. PMID:26769857

  8. 5 CFR 551.421 - Regular working hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regular working hours. 551.421 Section 551.421 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... have a regularly scheduled administrative workweek. However, under title 5 United States Code, and...

  9. 8 HOUR OZONE DESIGN VALUE FOR 1998-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ozone design value is based on the average of the annual 4th highest dailsy 8-hour maximum over a 3-year period (1998-2000) in this case. This is a human health based metric. Ozone causes respiratory illness in humans.

  10. Chapter 4: 24-hour recall and diet record methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two methods described in this chapter, the 24-hour dietary recall (24hdr) and the food record (FR) method, are the currently preferred methods of dietary intake assessment, and are based on foods and amounts actually consumed by an individual on one or more specific days. This minimizes some sou...

  11. Educating Future Accountants: Alternatives for Meeting the 150-Hour Requirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Celia; Tanner, Margaret

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 19% of 2,000 accountants in states with 150-hour education requirement indicated their preference for the following options: bachelor's degree in accounting/master's in taxation, bachelor's in accounting/management information systems, bachelor's in accounting, master of business administration, accounting bachelor's and master's,…

  12. Beyond Consultation: A New Model for Librarian's Office Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Susan; Hahn, Jim; Zilic, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Given the many changes in our students and their study and research practices, libraries are finding it necessary to seek new ways to reach these students. The Undergraduate Library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign created a new model to do so. Librarian's Office Hours are a hybrid of reference and instructional services that…

  13. Index of /data/nccf/com/hourly/prod

    Science.gov Websites

    Name Last modified Size Parent Directory - gaugeqc 05-Jun-2016 03:58 - hourly.20160604 ... 01-Jun-2016 12:50 - nampcpnanal.20160525 02-Jun-2016 12:50 - nampcpnanal.20160526 ...

  14. Achieving the Best: Gender and the Literacy Hour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Helen

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 30 British elementary children investigated the relationship between reading and gender and attitudes towards the literacy hour. Findings indicate boys wanted shorter time spans of learning activities, preferred independent work, and liked computer work. Both sexes liked working in small groups and disliked sharing their work…

  15. The 150-Hour Requirement for CPA Licensure: One Institution's Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Virtually all states now require candidates for the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) examination and subsequent licensure to have completed 150 semester hours of college education. The rationale behind this requirement is to improve the preparation of students entering the profession and to increase their chances of successful completion of the…

  16. "Rosetta" Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and "Philae's" Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In November 2014 the "Rosetta" mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its "Philae" lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more…

  17. Electronic Office Hours: A Component of Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, F. Layne; Wallace, Susan R.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a technique to blend distance learning with traditional educational methods using electronic office hours to connect teachers and students outside the classroom. Explains the use of various existing computer mediated communication tools and techniques, including email, Usenet newsgroups, text-based conferences, video-based conferences,…

  18. The 24 Hours before Hospitalization: Factors Related to Suicide Attempting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, John A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatients (N=59) were interviewd concerning psychological and environmental events that occurred in the 24 hours prior to their hospitalization. Suicide attempters were more likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and less likely to have contacted a health care professional than suicide ideators, even when past history of suicide…

  19. 12 CFR 905.3 - Location and business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Functions and Responsibilities of Finance Board § 905.3 Location and business hours. (a) Location. All office units of the Finance Board are located at 1777...

  20. International Offshore Students' Perceptions of Virtual Office Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wdowik, Steven; Michael, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this study is to gauge international offshore students' perceptions of virtual office hours (VOH) to consult with their offshore unit coordinators in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This paper employs a quantitative and qualitative approach where data was sourced from three offshore campuses over a 12-month period…

  1. Older Adults' Reports of Formal Care Hours and Administrative Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Steven M.; Brassard, Andrea B.; Simone, Bridget; Stern, Yaakov

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Personal assistance care is a Medicaid benefit in New York, but few data are available on its prevalence and contribution to home care. We examined these issues in a New York City sample by assessing older adults' reports of weekly home care hours and Medicaid billing records. Design and Methods: With help from New York City's Human…

  2. How to record and evidence practice hours for revalidation.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Lyn; Llewellyn, Denise

    2016-06-22

    Rationale and key points This is the second in a series of eight articles providing information about the Nursing and Midwifery Council's (NMC) revalidation process. This article focuses on recording and providing evidence that you have practised for a minimum of 450 hours, or 900 hours if revalidating as both a nurse and midwife. » Revalidation is a mandatory process for nurses and midwives, enabling them to demonstrate their ability to practise safely and effectively. » Revalidation encourages nurses and midwives to stay up to date in their professional practice. Reflective activity 'How to' revalidate articles can help to update your practice and provide information about the revalidation process, including how you can record and evidence practice hours for revalidation. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Some of the direct, indirect and non-clinical practice activities you have undertaken over the past 3 years. 2. How you could provide evidence to support your practice hours. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:27332609

  3. 47 CFR 80.93 - Hours of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... traffic. (b) Public coast stations. (1) Each public coast station whose hours of service are not... coast station authorized to operate on frequencies in the 3000-23,000 kHz band must maintain continuous... described in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section are determined by the station licensee....

  4. 47 CFR 80.93 - Hours of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... traffic. (b) Public coast stations. (1) Each public coast station whose hours of service are not... coast station authorized to operate on frequencies in the 3000-23,000 kHz band must maintain continuous... described in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section are determined by the station licensee....

  5. 47 CFR 80.93 - Hours of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... traffic. (b) Public coast stations. (1) Each public coast station whose hours of service are not... coast station authorized to operate on frequencies in the 3000-23,000 kHz band must maintain continuous... described in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section are determined by the station licensee....

  6. 47 CFR 80.93 - Hours of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... traffic. (b) Public coast stations. (1) Each public coast station whose hours of service are not... coast station authorized to operate on frequencies in the 3000-23,000 kHz band must maintain continuous... described in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section are determined by the station licensee....

  7. 47 CFR 80.93 - Hours of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... traffic. (b) Public coast stations. (1) Each public coast station whose hours of service are not... coast station authorized to operate on frequencies in the 3000-23,000 kHz band must maintain continuous... described in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section are determined by the station licensee....

  8. 29 CFR 2530.200b-2 - Hour of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Under the sick leave policy of E's employer E is paid his normal weekly salary for the first 8 weeks of... sick leave policy under which an employee is entitled to a certain number of hours of sick leave each... 4, 1978. Under the employer's sick leave policy, the employee is entitled to compensation for...

  9. Scheduling in the context of resident duty hour reform

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fuelled by concerns about resident health and patient safety, there is a general trend in many jurisdictions toward limiting the maximum duration of consecutive work to between 14 and 16 hours. The goal of this article is to assist institutions and residency programs to make a smooth transition from the previous 24- to 36-hour call system to this new model. We will first give an overview of the main types of coverage systems and their relative merits when considering various aspects of patient care and resident pedagogy. We will then suggest a practical step-by-step approach to designing, implementing, and monitoring a scheduling system centred on clinical and educational needs in the context of resident duty hour reform. The importance of understanding the impetus for change and of assessing the need for overall workflow restructuring will be explored throughout this process. Finally, as a practical example, we will describe a large, university-based teaching hospital network’s transition from a traditional call-based system to a novel schedule that incorporates the new 16-hour duty limit. PMID:25561221

  10. Training for fitness: reconsidering the 80-hour work week.

    PubMed

    Caldicott, Catherine V; Holsapple, James W

    2008-01-01

    The medical literature is replete with articles about the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's 2003 resident duty hour restrictions. Most of these papers describe creative and thoughtful responses to the new system. However, others express concern that the "80-hour work week" could hamper continuity of care and educational activities. Nevertheless, if fatigue impairs resident learning and medical care quality, then work hour restrictions seem worthwhile. We add our voices to the critics' for additional reasons. Data support that fatigue occurs even with reasonable work schedules, and residents do not reliably use time off from work to rest. Regulated work schedules can interfere with adequate rehearsal of the physical and mental stamina required in certain specialties, yet patients have a right to expect their physicians to be trained in the particular demands of those specialties. Similarly, residents have a right to a realistic understanding of authentic clinical practice. Further, while self-sacrifice need not be routine, trainees should feel that occasional self-sacrifice is appropriate and acceptable for a physician. We reject uniform, arbitrary duty hour limits for all specialties. Rather, we propose that a subspecialty-based system can foster the development of the endurance, skills, and reasoning that patients and colleagues expect. PMID:18192772

  11. Sexual Messages on Family Hour Television: Content and Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Dale; And Others

    The purpose of this content analysis was to examine in detail the nature and extent of messages about sex that are presented in the "family hour" on broadcast network television. The research sought to identify any patterns that exist in portrayals of sexual behavior as well as characters' talk about sex, using a sample of programming from the…

  12. Scheduling in the context of resident duty hour reform.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ning-Zi; Maniatis, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Fuelled by concerns about resident health and patient safety, there is a general trend in many jurisdictions toward limiting the maximum duration of consecutive work to between 14 and 16 hours. The goal of this article is to assist institutions and residency programs to make a smooth transition from the previous 24- to 36-hour call system to this new model. We will first give an overview of the main types of coverage systems and their relative merits when considering various aspects of patient care and resident pedagogy. We will then suggest a practical step-by-step approach to designing, implementing, and monitoring a scheduling system centred on clinical and educational needs in the context of resident duty hour reform. The importance of understanding the impetus for change and of assessing the need for overall workflow restructuring will be explored throughout this process. Finally, as a practical example, we will describe a large, university-based teaching hospital network's transition from a traditional call-based system to a novel schedule that incorporates the new 16-hour duty limit. PMID:25561221

  13. 77 FR 7544 - Hours of Service of Drivers: Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    .... SUMMARY: FMCSA corrects the hours of service (HOS) final rule published on December 27, 2011 (76 FR 81143... the discussion of the Agency's intentions in the section- by-section analysis on 76 FR 81165 col. 3... December 27, 2011 rule. This notice does not change, in any manner, the regulatory text intended. In FR...

  14. Work Hours, Retirement and Supportive Relations among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal

    2010-01-01

    While the literature widely acknowledges the importance of social support to the health, well-being and performance of older adults, little is known about the way in which occupational conditions affect older employees’ access to social support over time and whether these effects are maintained after retirement. Accordingly, in the current study we examine the degree to which work hours have longer term effects on the amount and type of support older individuals receive from intimate coworkers, family and non-work friends, and whether these effects are attenuated or intensified for those who retire. Longitudinal data were collected from a random sample of members of nine unions, 6 months prior to their retirement eligibility (T1) and approximately one year after Time 1 (T2). Our findings indicate that while retirement attenuates the positive association between Time 1 work hours and subsequent coworkers' support as well as the negative relationship between Time 1 work hours and subsequent non-work friends support, retirement fails to attenuate the negative effect of Time 1 work hours on subsequent family support. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:20485475

  15. The Afterschool Hours: A New Focus for America's Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Mark; Hutchinson, Audrey M.; Frant, Nina

    2005-01-01

    During a typical week, as many as 14 million children and youth across the United States lack adult supervision during non-school hours. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the lack of structured and supervised afterschool programs in American communities contributes to a higher incidence of drug and alcohol use and delinquent…

  16. 17 CFR 232.12 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATION S-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS General § 232.12 Business hours of the..., is open each day, except Saturdays, Sundays, and federal holidays, from 9 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Eastern... in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (b) Submissions made in paper. Filers may submit...

  17. 17 CFR 232.12 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATION S-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS General § 232.12 Business hours of the..., is open each day, except Saturdays, Sundays, and federal holidays, from 9 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Eastern... in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (b) Submissions made in paper. Filers may submit...

  18. 12 CFR 905.3 - Location and business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Functions and Responsibilities of Finance Board § 905.3 Location and business hours. (a) Location. All office units of the Finance Board are located at 1777...

  19. Student opinions on orthopedic residency selection, education, and work hours.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Waqas; Hussain, Haroon; Manning, David W

    2013-08-01

    Other articles have been written about resident selection, musculoskeletal education, work hours, and call coverage, but none has described orthopedic applicants' opinions on these issues. We conducted a study to gain insight into applicants' attitudes about issues relevant to the specialty. We distributed a survey to 53 applicants interviewing for an orthopedic residency. The survey used both a multiple-choice format and a Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree or least important) to 5 (strongly agree or most important). Respondents rated the adequacy of musculoskeletal education in medical school a mean standard deviation (SD) of 2.00 (0.8) on the Likert scale. Ranking the factors most valuable to an orthopedic surgery application, they rated United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 board examination scores a mean (SD) of 4.26 (0.9). In addition, of the 53 respondents, 46 (87%) anticipated working as a resident more than 80 hours per week, and 36 (68%) anticipated working as an attending 60 to 70 hours per week or less. Respondents also agreed that they should receive compensation for call coverage. Therefore, students agreed that medical school education is insufficient, rated USMLE scores the most important application factor, anticipated working more than 80 hours per week, and agreed that call coverage should be compensated. PMID:24078953

  20. CASTNET HOURLY DEPOSITION VELOCITIES AND FLUXES, 2 NC, 1 VA

    EPA Science Inventory

    CASTNet hourly deposition velocity and fluxes for each site and year. Each site/year separated into ZIP file with its documentation. Two sites in North Carolina: Beaufort (BFT142) and Candor (CND125). One site in Virginia: Prince Edward (PED108).

  1. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 11582, Jan. 1, 1971; 34 FR 2957; 3 CFR Ch. 11) (b) Local conditions requiring different hgurs. If... Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY..., such hours shall be observed provided the Commissioner of Customs and Border Protection approves...

  2. SYN1deg-M3Hour Ed3A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-08

    ... and Order:  Reverb   Reverb Tutorial Subset/Visualization Tool: CERES Order Tool Order Data:  ... Detailed CERES SYN1deg Product Information Data Products Catalog:  DPC_SYN1deg-M3Hour_R5V1 ...

  3. Japanese Non Resident Language Refresher Course; 210 Hour Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This military intelligence unit refresher course in Japanese is designed for 210 hours of audiolingual instruction. The materials, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, are intended for students with considerable intensive training in spoken and written Japanese who are preparing for a military language assignment. [Not available in hard…

  4. MESOSCALE STORM AND DRY PERIOD PARAMETERS FROM HOURLY PRECIPITATION DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hourly precipitation data from 89 first-order National Weather Service stations in the Northeastern United States are used to define seasonal storm (wet-period) and dry-period statistics. Mean values of regional storm and dry-period duration and of precipitation rates for storms ...

  5. Incorporation of Hourly Weather Input Data to Cotton2K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The COTTON2K (C2K) model is a simulation model that is well adapted to simulate cotton growth and development and lint yield in dry climates in part due to the algorithm used to calculate crop evapotranspiration (ET). However, earlier versions of C2K interpolated hourly values of air temperature (Ta...

  6. Using the Film "The Hours" to Teach Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Quinn M.

    2006-01-01

    The popular film "The Hours" (S. Rudin, R. Fox, & S. Daldry, 2002), which portrays several characters struggling with mood disorders and other mental health problems, is discussed as an effective tool for teaching diagnosis. The author discusses the movie and characters, the methods used to incorporate the film into instruction, and students'…

  7. Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low-Dose, Low-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-11-03

    month after irradiation (IR). At four months post-IR, these animals were comparable to sham-treated controls with regards to the abovementioned structural parameters. Irradation at 1 or 10 cGy did not result in any significant changes in bone structural parameters. (3) Irradiation of 16-wk old male mice with high doses of 56Fe or proton (50 or 200cGy), but not at low doses (5 or 10cGy), showed a similar loss of cancellous BV/TV and trabecular number at five weeks post-IR. (4) Age-related bone loss overtook acute radiation-induced decrements in bone structure within four months post-IR with 100 cGy gamma and 12 months post-IR with 200 cGy iron. Transgenic mice globally overexpressing human catalase gene in mitochondria did not exhibit cancellous bone loss as assessed at four month post-IR with 10 cGy proton, 50 cGy iron, or in combination. (5) The cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for loss of bone with radiation are mediated primarily through increased osteoclastogenesis. Our data provide evidence that there are increases in gene expression of TNF alpha and MCP1 in the bone marrow cells 24 hours post-IR and of osteoclastogenic differentiation factor RANKL by day 3. These cytokines in the marrow may stimulate mature osteoclasts or drive osteoclastogenesis from precursors. (6) Osteoblastogenesis from marrow progenitors evaluated ex vivo decreased following whole body 56Fe irradiation at a dose threshold between 20 and 50 cGy whereas osteoclastogenesis ex vivo increased with doses as low as 10cGy two days post-IR of mice. However, the latter finding was not observed in more than a single experiment. (7) Gamma irradiation of cells in vitro requires relatively high doses (200cGy) to disturb normal osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis as evidenced by decrements in mineralized nodule formation, osteoclast counts, and expression of osteoblast related genes such as runx2, col1a1. (8) We also investigated the effect of antioxidants on osteoblastogenesis following

  8. Changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of running and cycling on changes in hydration status and body composition during a 24-hour race have been described previously, but data for 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers are missing. The present study investigated changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers. Methods We compared in 49 (37 men and 12 women) 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers) changes (Δ) in body mass (BM). Fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF) and skeletal muscle mass (SM) were estimated using anthropometric methods. Changes in total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid (ECF) and intracellular fluid (ICF) were determined using bioelectrical impedance and changes in foot volume using plethysmography. Haematocrit, plasma [Na+], plasma urea, plasma osmolality, urine urea, urine specific gravity and urine osmolality were measured in a subgroup of 25 ultra-MTBers (16 men and 9 women). Results In male 24-hour ultra-MTBers, BM (P < 0.001), FM (P < 0.001), %BF (P < 0.001) and ECF (P < 0.05) decreased whereas SM and TBW did not change (P > 0.05). A significant correlation was found between post-race BM and post-race FM (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). In female ultra-MTBers, BM (P < 0.05), %BF (P < 0.05) and FM (P < 0.001) decreased, whereas SM, ECF and TBW remained stable (P > 0.05). Absolute ranking in the race was related to Δ%BM (P < 0.001) and Δ%FM in men (P < 0.001) and to Δ%BM (P < 0.05) in women. In male ultra-MTBers, increased post-race plasma urea (P < 0.001) was negatively related to absolute ranking in the race, Δ%BM, post-race FM and Δ%ECF (P < 0.05). Foot volume remained stable in both sexes (P > 0.05). Conclusions Male and female 24-hour ultra-MTBers experienced a significant loss in BM and FM, whereas SM remained stable. Body weight changes and increases in plasma urea do not reflect a change in body hydration status. No oedema

  9. Benchmark Dose Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Finite doses are employed in experimental toxicology studies. Under the traditional methodology, the point of departure (POD) value for low dose extrapolation is identified as one of these doses. Dose spacing necessarily precludes a more accurate description of the POD value. ...

  10. Cellular and molecular effects of 1GeV/n iron ion exposure on post-mitotic human neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, Peter; Vazquez, Marcelo E.; Guida, Peter; Kim, Angela

    During space travel, astronauts will be exposed to high energy, high atomic number (HZE) radiation. The potential for damage to cells of the central nervous system following exposure to HZE particle radiation has been characterized as a potential critical risk. Unfortunately, there are very few working model systems of human neurons and as a result, data describing the effects of HZE radiation on them is scarce. To begin risk assessment studies, we utilized an in vitro model consisting of terminally differentiated, post-mitotic human neurons (hNT cells). Previous studies have shown that transplantation of these cells into numerous rodent models of neurological diseases has resulted in successful mitigation of the related disorders, thereby demonstrating their functional relevance. Following exposure of these cells to 1GeV/n Fe ions at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, we measured the induction and repair of DNA damage (as revealed by g-H2AX foci), cytotoxicity, gene expression changes, and the induction of apoptosis and its pharmacological reduction. Fluorescence microscopy techniques revealed that there was a dose-dependent induction of g- H2AX foci in hNT cells, with a peak effect 4 hours after exposure (which is significantly longer than for reports using mitotic cells). DNA repair was evident in that the levels of g-H2AX foci were reduced to those in unirradiated cells by 24 hours post-irradiation. Cytotoxicity was also induced in a dose-dependent manner as detected by the fluorescent-based Live/Dead assay. Analysis of the status of the apoptosis-inducing gene p53 showed that the levels of this protein increased significantly 4-8 hours after exposure to Fe ions. By 3 days post-irradiation, annexin V staining demonstrated a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in the hNT cells. Pre-treatment with two different concentrations of the growth factor TGF-b were effective in reducing the levels of Fe ion-induced apoptosis to statistically significant degrees.

  11. Post-Adolescent Issues

    MedlinePlus

    Search COPING & HEALING CARING FOR A CHILD: POST-ADOLESCENT ISSUES As your child reaches adulthood, there will ... intake. New issues that you and your post adolescent child may want to discus together with his/ ...

  12. Twelve-hour shifts: burnout or job satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Dall'Ora, Chiara; Griffiths, Peter; Ball, Jane

    Job satisfaction and burnout in the nursing workforce are global concerns. Not only do job satisfaction and burnout affect the quality and safety of care, but job satisfaction is also a factor in nurses' decisions to stay or leave their jobs. Shift patterns may be an important aspect influencing wellbeing and satisfaction among nurses. Many hospitals worldwide are moving to 12-hour shifts in an effort to improve efficiency and cope with nursing shortages. But what is the effect of these work patterns on the wellbeing of nurses working on hospital wards? This article reports on the results of a study performed in 12 European countries exploring whether 12-hour shifts are associated with burnout, job satisfaction and intention to leave the job. PMID:27180462

  13. Hourly rounding for falls prevention: a change initiative.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Daryl; Thiele, Tracy; Kebicz, Rodney; Klassen, Michelle; Erenberg, Carly

    2013-01-01

    Fall-related injuries are a particular concern within the elderly population, and trends toward an aging demographic will keep this issue at the forefront in health care. We are challenged to develop creative strategies to significantly reduce harm and fall rates among the elderly. This article describes the process of establishing an hourly rounding initiative in a health care facility. Hourly rounding is supported by the literature as an effective strategy for falls prevention and patient safety. When the initiative was not successfully adopted initially, the implementation process was critically examined and an innovative sustainability plan was developed to ensure that the change would be embedded in the organization's culture. Through this opportunity, nurses and allied health members from all levels were able to collaborate on strategies for this patient safety initiative. PMID:24400470

  14. The Impact of Oxytocin on Food Intake and Emotion Recognition in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Double Blind Single Dose Within-Subject Cross-Over Design

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Eom, Jin-Sup; Yang, Jae-Won; Kang, Jiwon; Treasure, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Social difficulties and problems related to eating behaviour are common features of both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of intranasal oxytocin on consummatory behaviour and emotional recognition in patients with AN and BN in comparison to healthy controls. Materials A total of 102 women, including 35 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), 34 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 33 healthy university students of comparable age and intelligence, participated in a double-blind, single dose placebo-controlled cross-over study. A single dose of intranasal administration of oxytocin (40 IU) (or a placebo) was followed by an emotional recognition task and an apple juice drink. Food intake was then recorded for 24 hours post-test. Results Oxytocin produced no significant change in appetite in the acute or 24 hours free living settings in healthy controls, whereas there was a decrease in calorie consumption over 24 hours in patients with BN. Oxytocin produced a small increase in emotion recognition sensitivity in healthy controls and in patients with BN, In patients with AN, oxytocin had no effect on emotion recognition sensitivity or on consummatory behaviour. Conclusions The impact of oxytocin on appetite and social cognition varied between people with AN and BN. A single dose of intranasal oxytocin decreased caloric intake over 24 hours in people with BN. People with BN showed enhanced emotional sensitivity under oxytocin condition similar to healthy controls. Those effects of oxytocin were not found in patients with AN. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov KCT0000716 PMID:26402337

  15. The Effects of the 80-hour Workweek on Occupational Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khouja, Lutfi; Colen, Chaim

    2016-01-01

    Background  The most recent work-hour restrictions were implemented in July 2011 for training physicians. The impact of these regulations on workplace injuries is not yet fully understood. Our goal is to determine the effect of the work-hour limitation on the rates of needlestick and eyesplash injuries. Methods  Approximately 1200 neurosurgery residents and fellows in the United States were emailed a survey, several times, Sept 2013–February 2014. There were 212 responses across postgraduate years 1–7 and fellowship regarding the rate of needlestick and eyesplash injuries experienced or witnessed before and after July 2011. Results  Regarding witnessing a needlestick/eyesplash accident: 89.33% of respondents claimed witnessing an injury. Specifically regarding percutaneous injuries (PCIs): before July 2011, 21.77% claimed never witnessing; after July 2011, only 8.9% indicated never witnessing. Specifically regarding eyesplash injuries: comparing the injuries (40.94%) before July 2011 to those (51.94%) after July 2011, the survey indicated an increase in eyesplash injuries. Conclusion  The results of this survey document that neurosurgery residents/fellows observed (or personally sustained) an increased number of needlestick and eyesplash injuries after implementation of the July 2011 work-hour limitations. Although the last set of reduced-hour regulations have been in place for more than three years, there does not therefore seem to be a safety advantage associated with them regarding a reduction in PCI or eyesplash accidents. This may be due to other confounding factors, not yet affirmatively identified, which warrant additional investigation and identification, directed at preventing future injuries. PMID:27182471

  16. Shared medical appointments: increasing patient access without increasing physician hours.

    PubMed

    Bronson, David L; Maxwell, Richard A

    2004-05-01

    Shared medical visits are a new concept in patient care. Doctors perform a series of one-on-one patient encounters in a group setting during a 90-minute visit and manage and advise each patient in front of the others. Patients benefit from improved access to their physician and significantly increased education, while providers can boost their access and productivity without increasing hours. Such group visits are voluntary and for established patients only. PMID:15195773

  17. Giorgio Vasari and the Image of the Hour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahtan, M. W.

    2011-06-01

    Giorgio Vasari created the first allegories of the twenty-four hours in the mid-16th century. This essay explores Vasari's novel images in the context of his visual and literary sources, the rising importance of household timepieces, and the artist's other works and writings. Although a focused study of a single motif within Vasari's oeuvre, it has implications for the broader transformation time perception and its psychological dimensions then taking place in Early Modern Europe.

  18. Appy Hour: Health Sciences Professionals Learn About Apps.

    PubMed

    Casucci, Tallie; Gregory, Joan M; Shipman, Jean P

    2016-01-01

    Appy Hour is a recurring event hosted by an academic health sciences library featuring apps that are informally presented and demonstrated by invited speakers. The audience is encouraged to ask questions during the presentation of the featured app(s). This event provides learning and networking opportunities for health sciences faculty, staff, students, and health care professionals. This article illustrates the process for hosting the event, shares lessons learned, and discusses possible future directions to gain a wider audience. PMID:27391175

  19. 24 hour forecast of the surface UV for the antipsoriatic heliotherapy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, J W; Guzikowski, J; Czerwińska, A; Lesiak, A; Narbutt, J; Jarosławski, J; Sobolewski, P S; Rajewska-Więch, B; Wink, J

    2015-07-01

    Analyses of the spectral and broad-band UV data collected at Belsk (20.79°E, 51.84°N), Poland, show that standard broad-band instrument, Solar Light (SL) 501A, could be used for measurements of both erythemal and antipsoriatic irradiance. A prognostic model is proposed for the next-day duration of outdoor exposure required to receive a dose, the so-called minimum antipsoriatic dose (MAD), equivalent to that received by standard antipsoriatic daily treatment in the phototherapy cabinet containing TL-01 fluorescent tubes. The model uses the 24 h forecast of the column amount of ozone (to predict next day clear sky UV irradiance), and low- and mid-level cloudiness (to estimate a reduction of the clear-sky UV irradiation due to clouds). The predicted duration of sunbathing required to receive a dose of 1 MAD matches the observed value, i.e. the correlation coefficients is 0.68. If the model predicts the antipsoriatic exposure over 1 MAD threshold the observed dose will be also above this threshold in 91% of cases. Thus, the model could be used for planning the next-day outdoor exposure to clear psoriasis. Hourly resolved maps, starting from 6 am up to 1 pm (GMT), showing the duration of antipsoriatic exposure over Poland are made public. The model provides a tool for a psoriatic patient to find the sunbathing starting time and its duration, which has the same healing potential as a single indoor phototherapy session. PMID:25911984

  20. Negative Impacts of Shiftwork and Long Work Hours

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Claire C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Healthcare organizations often have to provide patient care around the clock. Shift work (any shift outside of 7 a.m. to 6 p.m) and long work hours increase the risk for short sleep duration and sleep disturbances. Thirty-two percent of healthcare workers report they do not get enough sleep. The purpose of the article is to give an overview of the wide range of risks to nurses, patients, and employers that are linked to shift work, long work hours, and poor sleep from other sources. Findings Shift work and long work hours increase the risk for reduced performance on the job, obesity, injuries, and a wide range of chronic diseases. In addition, fatigue-related errors could harm patients. Fatigued nurses also endanger others during their commute to and from work. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance The key strategy to reduce these risks is making sleep a priority in the employer’s systems for organizing work and in the nurse’s personal life. PMID:23780784

  1. [Necessity of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing].

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    The preventive effects of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing on mistyping of transfused blood was examined. Blood transfusion tests have been performed by blood transfusion technologists during working hours and by physicians at other times. In March 2000, we introduced a system in which technologists perform blood transfusion tests after working hours. Technologists of the Blood Transfusion Unit and Central Clinical Laboratory perform the test jointly, and column agglutination technology was introduced as the test method. A computer system setup exclusively for the testing was also introduced to perform computer cross-matching. Since transfusion error is likely to occur during emergency blood transfusion, a manual was established to prioritize safety. After introduction of the system, mistyping that may have been caused by inaccurate blood test results markedly decreased, confirming the usefulness of this system for prevention of mistyping. In addition, transfusion errors also decreased in wards and the improved system increased the safety of the entire medical care system. The frequency of mistyping was about 1% when physicians performed blood typing, showing the importance of clinical technologists for blood transfusion tests. PMID:12652691

  2. Evaluation of a standardized hourly rounding process (SHaRP).

    PubMed

    Krepper, Rebecca; Vallejo, Beryl; Smith, Claudia; Lindy, Cheryl; Fullmer, Cheryl; Messimer, Sharon; Xing, Yun; Myers, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Current research suggests that hourly rounds on hospitalized patients may be associated with improvements in care delivery and in the patients' perception of care, as well as a reduction in patient safety events. Implementing an hourly rounding protocol involves a major change in nursing staff workflow and a substantial training and education program to ensure the success of the program. This quasi-experimental study aimed to determine if a standardized hourly rounding process (SHaRP), implemented through a formal education program, would result in improved efficiency, quality, safety, and patient satisfaction metrics when compared to a less standardized process introduced through the traditional train-the-trainer method. Data were collected over a 6-month period and results were trended for an additional 6 months later to determine if significant gains were sustained over time. Significant reductions in call light use during the study period (p = .001) and the number of steps taken by the day-shift staff (p = .02) were seen on the intervention unit. Differences in the number of patient falls, 30-day readmission rates, and patients' perception of care were not statistically significant. PMID:23237186

  3. Post-epileptic headache and migraine.

    PubMed Central

    Schon, F; Blau, J N

    1987-01-01

    One hundred epileptic patients were questioned about their headaches. Post-ictal headaches occurred in 51 of these patients and most commonly lasted 6-72 hours. Major seizures were more often associated with post-epileptic headaches than minor attacks. Nine patients in this series of 100 also had migraine: in eight of these nine a typical, albeit a mild, migraine attack was provoked by fits. The post-ictal headache in the 40 epileptics who did not have migraine was accompanied by vomiting in 11 cases, photophobia in 14 cases and vomiting with photophobia in 4 cases. Furthermore, post-epileptic headache was accentuated by coughing, bending and sudden head movements and relieved by sleep. It is, therefore, clear that seizures provoke a syndrome similar to the headache phase of migraine in 50% of epileptics. It is proposed that post-epileptic headache arises intracranially and is related to the vasodilatation known to follow seizures. The relationship of post-epileptic headache to migraine is discussed in the light of current ideas on migraine pathogenesis, in particular the vasodilation which accompanies Leao's spreading cortical depression. PMID:3117978

  4. 76 FR 81463 - Hours of Service of Motorcoach Drivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... for Live Webcast. FMCSA will post specific information on how to participate via the Internet on ] the... Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail..., 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . FOR...

  5. Developing reimbursable clinical pharmacy programs: pharmacokinetic dosing service.

    PubMed

    Moore, T D; Schneider, P J; Nold, E G

    1979-11-01

    The development, operation and evaluation of a pharmacy-conducted pharmacokinetic dosing service is described. Pharmacists recommend individualized drug dosing regimens based on pharmacokinetic models and equations clinically tested for accuracy by the pharmacy department. Pharmacokinetic values are determined with the aid of online computer programs developed by the department. Drug assays are provided by the hospital's laboratory. All of the department's pharmacists were trained to provide the 24-hour service. The pharmacy department's $20 pharmacokinetic dosing service fee is reimbursed by Blue Cross. The pharmacokinetic dosing service is the first nonteaching, nonproduct-oriented pharmaceutical service whose cost-effectiveness has been recognized by a third-party payer. PMID:517538

  6. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality of the psychotropic agent paliperidone extended release.

    PubMed

    Boom, Sandra; Talluri, Krishna; Janssens, Luc; Remmerie, Bart; De Meulder, Marc; Rossenu, Stefaan; van Osselaer, Nancy; Eerdekens, Marielle; Cleton, Adriaan

    2009-11-01

    Paliperidone extended-release tablet (paliperidone ER) is a centrally active dopamine D(2)- and serotonergic 5-HT(2A)-receptor antagonist that is registered for the treatment of schizophrenia. The controlled rate of release of paliperidone from the ER formulation is designed to have a slower absorption rate, which results in gradual ascending plasma concentrations with observed maximum plasma concentrations occurring at 24 hours after dosing on the first dosing day. On subsequent treatment days, the ER formulation provides minimal fluctuations in plasma concentrations. Paliperidone is eliminated with a terminal half-life of approximately 24 hours. Steady state is achieved after 4 daily doses. Paliperidone ER exhibits time-invariant pharmacokinetics. It shows a 3.5-fold accumulation upon steady state, mainly caused by the controlled release characteristics of the formulation. Paliperidone ER displays dose proportionality over the dose range of 3 to 15 mg; the 90% confidence intervals of the pairwise dose comparisons are all included in the 80% to 125% bioequivalence limits. PMID:19713555

  7. Twenty-four hour activity budgets and patterns of behavior in captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis).

    PubMed

    Weller, S H.; Bennett, C L.

    2001-02-16

    Activity budgets of captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) were assessed from over 547h of observational data obtained from six ocelots; two females at the Dallas Zoo (Dallas, TX), two females at the Caldwell Zoo (Tyler, TX) and a male and female at the Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (Glen Rose, TX). Data were examined for the percentage of active behaviors exhibited during the day and nighttime hours; temporal patterns of active, pace, exploratory and marking behavior, and for significance in pacing behavior between pre- and post-feeding times. The captive cats had a bimodal pattern of active behavior similar to field studies of wild ocelots, except that the timing of the active peaks were closer to the diurnal hours for the captive cats. The captive ocelots were less active than wild ocelots, and more diurnal. Also, the captive cats exhibited stereotypic pacing. When the percentage of time of active behavior was assessed for each cat, a strong variation between individuals and institution was not seen. Pacing behavior was highest prior to the feeding times for the cats. In assessing patterns of behavior, peaks in marking and exploratory behavior in the cats did not occur at the same time as the peaks in active behavior. However, we did see institutional differences in the pattern of exploratory and marking behavior, which may have been influenced by differing management practices. PMID:11179560

  8. Disaggregation of Rainy Hours: Compared Performance of Various Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Haha, M.; Hingray, B.; Musy, A.

    In the urban environment, the response times of catchments are usually short. To de- sign or to diagnose waterworks in that context, it is necessary to describe rainfall events with a good time resolution: a 10mn time step is often necessary. Such in- formation is not always available. Rainfall disaggregation models have thus to be applied to produce from rough rainfall data that short time resolution information. The communication will present the performance obtained with several rainfall dis- aggregation models that allow for the disaggregation of rainy hours into six 10mn rainfall amounts. The ability of the models to reproduce some statistical character- istics of rainfall (mean, variance, overall distribution of 10mn-rainfall amounts; ex- treme values of maximal rainfall amounts over different durations) is evaluated thanks to different graphical and numerical criteria. The performance of simple models pre- sented in some scientific papers or developed in the Hydram laboratory as well as the performance of more sophisticated ones is compared with the performance of the basic constant disaggregation model. The compared models are either deterministic or stochastic; for some of them the disaggregation is based on scaling properties of rainfall. The compared models are in increasing complexity order: constant model, linear model (Ben Haha, 2001), Ormsbee Deterministic model (Ormsbee, 1989), Ar- tificial Neuronal Network based model (Burian et al. 2000), Hydram Stochastic 1 and Hydram Stochastic 2 (Ben Haha, 2001), Multiplicative Cascade based model (Olsson and Berndtsson, 1998), Ormsbee Stochastic model (Ormsbee, 1989). The 625 rainy hours used for that evaluation (with a hourly rainfall amount greater than 5mm) were extracted from the 21 years chronological rainfall series (10mn time step) observed at the Pully meteorological station, Switzerland. The models were also evaluated when applied to different rainfall classes depending on the season first and on the

  9. Safety of 96-hour incision-site continuous infusion of ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia after bowel cancer resection.

    PubMed

    Corso, Olivia H; Morris, Raymond G; Hewett, Peter J; Karatassas, Alex

    2007-02-01

    hours to 96 hours seems to be a safe alternative and/or adjunct to standard opiate analgesia after colorectal surgery using a right lateral transverse incision, hence reducing the incidence of opiate adverse effects and enhancing recovery. Unbound ropivacaine concentrations suggest there is scope for testing elevated doses to enhance efficacy further. PMID:17304151

  10. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  11. Worse outcomes for patients undergoing brain tumor and cerebrovascular procedures following the ACGME resident duty-hour restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Ranjith; Thomas, Steven; Hazzard, Matthew A.; Friedman, Allan H.; Sampson, John H.; Adamson, Cory; Zomorodi, Ali R.; Haglund, Michael M.; Patil, Chirag G.; Boakye, Maxwell; Lad, Shivanand P.

    2015-01-01

    Object On July 1, 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) implemented duty-hour restrictions for resident physicians due to concerns for patient and resident safety. Though duty-hour restrictions have increased resident quality of life, studies have shown mixed results with respect to patient outcomes. In this study, the authors have evaluated the effect of duty-hour restrictions on morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and charges in patients who underwent brain tumor and cerebrovascular procedures. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to evaluate the effect of duty-hour restrictions on complications, mortality, length of stay, and charges by comparing the pre-reform (2000–2002) and post-reform (2005–2008) periods. Outcomes were compared between nonteaching and teaching hospitals using a difference-in-differences (DID) method. Results A total of 90,648 patients were included in the analysis. The overall complication rate was 11.7%, with the rates not significantly differing between the pre –and post–duty hour eras (p = 0.26). Examination of hospital teaching status revealed that complication rates decreased in nonteaching hospitals (12.1% vs 10.4%, p = 0.0004) and remained stable in teaching institutions (11.8% vs 11.9%, p = 0.73) in the post-reform era. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significantly higher complication risk in teaching institutions (OR 1.33 [95% CI 1.11–1.59], p = 0.0022), with no significant change in nonteaching hospitals (OR 1.11 [95% CI 0.91–1.37], p = 0.31). A DID analysis to compare the magnitude in change between teaching and nonteaching institutions revealed that teaching hospitals had a significantly greater increase in complications during the post-reform era than nonteaching hospitals (p = 0.040). The overall mortality rate was 3.0%, with a significant decrease occurring in the post-reform era in both nonteaching (5.0% vs 3.2%, p < 0.0001) and teaching (3.2% vs 2.3%, p < 0

  12. Tasimelteon for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, D N

    2015-01-01

    Tasimelteon (Hetlioz®), a melatonin receptor agonist, is the first, and, at the time of the publication, the only drug to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (non-24). This circadian rhythm disorder occurs most commonly in blind individuals without light perception, and it results from their inability to entrain to the 24-hour photoperiod, although the indication does not specify a particular patient population. Non-24 is characterized by a persistent cycle of nighttime insomnia and daytime sleepiness, alternating with asymptomatic periods depending on an individual's degree of circadian rhythm synchronization with the photoperiod at any particular time. Phase II clinical trials in healthy individuals confirmed the circadian phase-shifting potential of tasimelteon. Phase III trials in totally blind subjects diagnosed with non-24 demonstrated the efficacy of tasimelteon in reducing both nighttime wakefulness and daytime napping. Physiologic monitoring revealed that tasimelteon resulted in a higher proportion of individuals becoming entrained to the 24-hour cycle compared with placebo. Safety assessments indicated that tasimelteon is well tolerated, with the most common adverse events being headache, alanine aminotransferase elevation, nightmares or unusual dreams, and upper respiratory or urinary tract infections. Tasimelteon is available as a capsule in a single 20-mg dose and it must be obtained through Vanda Pharmaceutical's HetliozSolutions program with dispensing through a specialty pharmacy. Safety studies in blind individuals diagnosed with non-24 are ongoing and a future clinical trial with Smith-Magenis syndrome patients is planned. PMID:25685859

  13. Treating allergic conjunctivitis: A once-daily medication that provides 24-hour symptom relief

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Jack; Donnenfeld, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a common ocular inflammatory manifestation of allergen exposure in sensitized individuals. Signs and symptoms of AC can decrease quality of life, interfere with productivity, and lead to considerable economic burden. Consistent suppression of conjunctival inflammation is necessary for managing AC, but currently available medications require frequent administration and exhibit limited duration of action. Methods: In this review, we summarized AC pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options as well as their limitations. Findings from the literature were discussed in the context of the unmet need for a once-daily medication with sustained 24-hour effectiveness. Results: Topical pharmacologic treatments are the most common approach for managing extant AC; however, most available medications require multiple daily instillations. Dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizing agents are currently considered first-line therapeutics for AC because they provide acute relief of signs and symptoms and block persistent inflammation to promote regression of AC. Recent studies of a newly-developed, higher-concentration formulation of a dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizer have demonstrated that this formulation provides a 24-hour duration of action with once-daily dosing. Conclusions: Dual-acting AC medications exhibit a high degree of overall effectiveness and are well tolerated for chronic use. A newly available once-daily medication that manages signs and symptoms of AC for a full 24 hours may be considered a treatment of choice for patients experiencing seasonal or perennial AC. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01743027 and NCT01479374 PMID:27466061

  14. Morphological changes induced by different doses of gamma irradiation in garlic sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, C. N.; Croci, C. A.; Orioli, G. A.

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma rays applied in dormancy and post-dormancy on garlic bulbs in relation with some morphophysiological parameters. High (commercial) doses cause the complete inhibition of sprouting and mitosis (due to nuclear aberrations). Relatively low doses show no effects on bulbs but doses of 10 Gy applied in post-dormancy reduce sprouting and stop mitosis. This inhibition becomes noticeable from 150 days post-harvest onwards. Exogenous growth regulators can reverse these effects. Results may reinforce the good practice of radioinhibition processes in garlic.

  15. Nutrition habits in 24-hour mountain bike racers.

    PubMed

    Chlíbková, Daniela; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Tomášková, Ivana; Chadim, Vlastimil; Shortall, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    We investigated seventy-four ultra-mountain bikers (MTBers) competing in the solo category in the first descriptive field study to detail nutrition habits and the most common food before during and after the 24 hour race using questionnaires. During the race, bananas (86.5%), energy bars (50.0%), apples (43.2%) and cheese (43.2%) were the most commonly consumed food, followed by bread (44.6%), rice (33.8%) and bananas (33.8%) after the race. Average fluid intake was 0.5 ± 0.2 l/h. The main beverage was isotonic sports drink (82.4%) during and pure water (66.2%) after the race. The most preferred four supplements in the four weeks before, the day before, during and after the race were vitamin C (35.1%), magnesium (44.6%), magnesium (43.2%) and branched-chain amino acids (24.3%), respectively. Total frequency of food intake (30.6 ± 10.5 times/24 hrs) was associated with fluid intake (r = 0.43, P = 0.04) and both were highest at the beginning of the race and lower during the night hours and the last race segment in a subgroup of twenty-three ultra-MTBers. Supplement intake frequency (6.8 ± 8.4 times/24 hrs) was highest during the night hours and lower at the beginning and end of the race. Elevated food and fluid intake among participants tracked across all race segments (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the nutrition strategy employed by ultra-MTBers was similar to those demonstrated in previous studies of ultra-cyclists with some exceptions among selected individuals. PMID:25674455

  16. Revisits within 48 Hours to a Thai Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Nithimathachoke, Adisak; Tirrell, Gregory Philip; Surawongwattana, Sataporn; Liu, Shan Woo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Emergency department (ED) revisits are a common ED quality measure. This study was undertaken to ascertain the contributing factors of revisits within 48 hours to a Thai ED and to explore physician-related, illness-related, and patient-related factors behind those revisits. Methods. This study was a chart review from one tertiary care, urban Thai hospital from October 1, 2009, to September 31, 2010. We identified patients who returned to the ED within 48 hours for the same or related complaints after their initial discharge. Three physicians classified revisit as physician-related, illness-related, and patient-related factors. Results. Our study included 172 ED patients' charts. 86/172 (50%) were male and the mean age was 38 ± 5.6 (SD) years. The ED revisits contributing factors were physician-related factors [86/172 (50.0%)], illness-related factors [61/172 (35.5%)], and patient-related factor [25/172 (14.5%)], respectively. Among revisits classified as physician-related factors, 40/86 (46.5%) revisits were due to misdiagnosis and 36/86 (41.9%) were due to suboptimal management. Abdominal pain [27/86 (31.4%)] was the majority of physician-related chief complaints, followed by fever [16/86 (18.6%)] and dyspnea [15/86 (17.4%)]. Conclusion. Misdiagnosis and suboptimal management contributed to half of the 48-hour repeat ED visits in this Thai hospital. PMID:27478642

  17. Use of effective dose.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D; Balonov, M; Martin, C J; Ortiz Lopez, P; Menzel, H-G; Simmonds, J R; Smith-Bindman, R; Wakeford, R

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 provided a detailed explanation of the purpose and use of effective dose and equivalent dose to individual organs and tissues. Effective dose has proven to be a valuable and robust quantity for use in the implementation of protection principles. However, questions have arisen regarding practical applications, and a Task Group has been set up to consider issues of concern. This paper focusses on two key proposals developed by the Task Group that are under consideration by ICRP: (1) confusion will be avoided if equivalent dose is no longer used as a protection quantity, but regarded as an intermediate step in the calculation of effective dose. It would be more appropriate for limits for the avoidance of deterministic effects to the hands and feet, lens of the eye, and skin, to be set in terms of the quantity, absorbed dose (Gy) rather than equivalent dose (Sv). (2) Effective dose is in widespread use in medical practice as a measure of risk, thereby going beyond its intended purpose. While doses incurred at low levels of exposure may be measured or assessed with reasonable reliability, health effects have not been demonstrated reliably at such levels but are inferred. However, bearing in mind the uncertainties associated with risk projection to low doses or low dose rates, it may be considered reasonable to use effective dose as a rough indicator of possible risk, with the additional consideration of variation in risk with age, sex and population group. PMID:26980800

  18. Prevention of post-operative infections after surgical treatment of bite wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Axel; Assadian, Ojan; Frank, Matthias; Bender, Claudia; Hinz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    After reviewing the literature about the microbial spectrum, the risk factors of post-operative infections, and the results of surgical interventions, the following recommendation can be made for the management of bite wounds: fresh, open wounds: surgical debridement, if appropriate, then an antiseptic lavage with a fluid consisting of povidone iodine and ethanol (e.g., Betaseptic®), no antibiotics, primary wound closure nearly closed fresh wounds (e.g., cat bites): surgical debridement, if appropriate, dressing with an antiseptic-soaked compress for ~60 minutes with repeated soaking (e.g., Betaseptic®), no antibiotics older wounds after ~4 hours: surgical debridement, if appropriate, dressing with an antiseptic-soaked compress or bandage for ~60 minutes with repeated soaking (e.g., Betaseptic®), at the same time intravenous or dose-adapted oral antibiotics (Amoxicillin and/or clavulanic acid) older wounds after ~24 hours: surgical debridement, then antiseptic lavage (Betaseptic®), in case of clinically apparent infection or inflammation surgical revision with opening of wound and treatment with antibiotics according to resistogram (empirical start with Amoxicillin and/or clavulanic acid). For each kind of bite wound, the patient’s tetanus immunization status as well as the risk of exposure to rabies have to be assessed. Similarly, the possibility of other infections, such as lues (Syphilis), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HBC), hepatitis D (HDV) and HIV, in the rare case of a human bite wound, has to be taken into account. PMID:20941334

  19. Historical trend of hourly extreme rainfall in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafrina, A. H.; Zalina, M. D.; Juneng, L.

    2015-04-01

    Hourly rainfall data between the years 1975 and 2010 across the Peninsular Malaysia were analyzed for trends in hourly extreme rainfall events. The analyses were conducted on rainfall occurrences during the northeast monsoon (November-February) known as NEM, the southwest monsoon (May-August) known as SWM, and the two inter-monsoon seasons, i.e., March-April (MA) and September-October (SO). Several extreme rainfall indices were calculated at the station level. The extreme rainfall events in Peninsular Malaysia showed an increasing trend between the years 1975 and 2010. The trend analysis was conducted using linear regression; no serial correlation was detected from the Durbin-Watson test. Ordinary kriging was used to determine the spatial patterns of trends in seasonal extremes. The total amount of rainfall received during NEM is higher compared to rainfall received during inter-monsoon seasons. However, intense rainfall is observed during the inter-monsoon season with higher hourly total amount of rainfall. The eastern part of peninsular was most affected by stratiform rains, while convective rain contributes more precipitation to areas in the western part of the peninsular. From the distribution of spatial pattern of trend, the extreme frequency index (Freq >20) gives significant contribution to the positive extreme rainfall trend during the monsoon seasons. Meanwhile, both extreme frequency and extreme intensity (24-Hr Max, Freq >95th, Tot >95th, Tot >99th, and Hr Max) indices give significant contribution to the positive extreme rainfall trend during the inter-monsoon seasons. Most of the significant extreme indices showed the positive sign of trends. However, a negative trend of extreme rainfall was found in the northwest coast due to the existence of Titiwangsa Range. The extreme intensity, extreme frequency, and extreme cumulative indices showed increasing trends during the NEM and MA while extreme intensity and extreme frequency had similar trends during

  20. Provisional hourly values of equatorial Dst for 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.; Poros, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    Tables and plots of provisional hourly values of the equatorial Dst index for 1971 are given, a table of daily mean Dst values for 1971 is also provided. The base line values for the four observatories, Hermanus, Kakioka, Honolulu, and San Juan, were obtained from extrapolations using the coefficients for the secular variations determined for the previous years. Examining the Dst values for quiet days, the base lines so determined appear to be slightly low, so that the Dst index for quiet periods tends to be high.

  1. 20140601-0630_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    SciTech Connect

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-06-30

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 June to 30 June 2014.

  2. 20140701-0731_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    SciTech Connect

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-07-31

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 July to 31 July 2014.

  3. NASA 50 amp hour nickel cadmium battery waste heat determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, V. C.

    1980-01-01

    A process for determining the waste heat generated in a 50-ampere-hour, nickel cadmium battery as a function of the discharge rate is described and results are discussed. The technique involved is essentially calibration of the battery as a heat transfer rate calorimeter. The tests are run at three different levels of battery activity, one at 40-watts of waste heat generated, one at 60, and one at 100. Battery inefficiency ranges from 14 to 18 percent at discharge rates of 284 to 588 watts, respectively and top-of-cell temperatures of 20 C.

  4. Penile Replantation After Five Hours of Warm Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Facio, Fernando N; Spessoto, Luis C; Arruda, Pedro; Paiva, Cristiano S; Arruda, José G; Facio, Maria F

    2015-05-01

    Although a rare occurrence, this event may occur as a result of self-mutilation among individuals with psychiatric disturbances or due to work-related accidents, iatrogenic injuries or the actions of individuals motivated by jealously, rage and feelings of betrayal. In western societies, most penile amputations are the result of self-aggression during a psychotic episode, the treatment of victims involves resuscitation, stabilization and immediate psychiatric support. The amputated tissue must be preserved under hypothermic conditions. Micro-surgery is currently the most widely employed method for penile replantation. This paper describes a successful case of penile replantation following 5 hours of warm ischemia. PMID:26793508

  5. Rosetta Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and Philae's Descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-09-01

    In November 2014 the Rosetta mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its Philae lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more challenging. Philae fell almost radially towards 67P, as shown in an animation produced by the European Space Agency (ESA) prior to the event. Below, we investigate whether it is possible to model the spacecraft's descent time and impact speed using concepts taught in an introductory physics course.

  6. 20130901-0930_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2013-10-25

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 1 September 2013 to 30 September 2013.

  7. 20140501-0531_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-06-02

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 May to 31 May 2014.

  8. 20140101-0131_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-02-03

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 Jan to 31 Jan 2014.

  9. 20140201-0228_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-03-03

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 Feb to 28 Feb 2014.

  10. 20131101-1130_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2013-12-02

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 Nov to 30 Nov 2013.

  11. 20130501-20130531_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-06-18

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from May 2013

  12. 20131201-1231_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-01-08

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 Dec to 31 Dec 2013.

  13. 20140301-0331_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-04-07

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 Mar to 31 Mar 2014.

  14. 20131001-1031_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2013-11-05

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 1 Oct 2013 to 31 Oct 2013.

  15. 20130801-0831_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-09-10

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 8/1/13 to 8/31/13.

  16. Effects of a 2-hour run on metabolic economy and lower extremity strength in men and women.

    PubMed

    Glace, B W; McHugh, M P; Gleim, G W

    1998-03-01

    Changes in running economy, or the oxygen cost of running at a given submaximal speed (ml/m/kg), during prolonged exercise have been well described in men but not in women. Lower extremity strength changes associated with prolonged exercise have never been addressed. We examined changes in running economy and strength following a 2-hour run in eight men and eight women. Knee and hip strength were measured pre- and post-running. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and oxygen consumption at ventilatory threshold were determined. Subjects then ran for 2 hours at an intensity which elicited ventilatory threshold (68.7% vs. 66.6% of VO2peak for men and women, p = 0.5). Water was ingested at a rate of 0.5% of body weight each half hour. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and respiratory exchange ratio were measured initially and at 1 and 2 hours. Body weight declined in the men (p = 0.001) but not in the women (p = 0.12). Running economy decreased in the men (p < 0.001) but not in the women (p = 0.084). At 2 hours of running, knee flexion and extension strength declined significantly in the men only (effect of gender x time, p < 0.014), but hip flexion, abduction, and adduction strength declined in both genders. Decreased knee extensor/flexor strength was evident in men only, while decreased hip strength was independent of gender. We conclude that 2 hours of running produced changes in knee strength and running economy in men only. PMID:9513864

  17. Intensified Mycophenolate Mofetil Dosing and Higher Mycophenolic Acid Trough Levels Reduce Severe Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease After Double-Unit Cord Blood Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Harnicar, S.; Ponce, D.M.; Hilden, P.; Zheng, J.; Devlin, S.M.; Lubin, M.; Pozotrigo, M.; Mathew, S.; Adel, N.; Kernan, N.A.; O'Reilly, R.; Prockop, S.; Scaradavou, A.; Hanash, A.; Jenq, R.; van den Brink, M.; Giralt, S.; Perales, M.A.; Young, J.W.; Barker, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    While mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has replaced corticosteroids as immunosuppression in cord blood transplantation (CBT), optimal MMF dosing has yet to be established. We intensified MMF dosing from every 12 to 8 hours to augment graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in double-unit CBT (dCBT) and evaluated outcomes according to the total daily MMF dose/kg in 174 double-unit CBT recipients (median age 39 years, range 1–71) transplanted for hematologic malignancies. Recipients of a MMF dose ≤ the median (36 mg/kg/day) had an increased day 100 grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) incidence compared with patients who received > 36 mg/kg/day (24% versus 8%, p = 0.008). Recipients of ≤ the median dose who had highly HLA-allele (1-3/6) mismatched dominant units had the highest day 100 grade III-IV aGVHD incidence of 37% (p = 0.009). This finding was confirmed in multivariate analysis (p = 0.053). In 83 patients evaluated for mycophenolic acid (MPA) troughs, those with a mean week 1-2 trough < 0.5 mcg/mL had an increased day 100 grade III-IV aGVHD of 26% versus 9% (p = 0.063), and those who received a low total daily MMF dose and had a low week 1-2 MPA trough had a 40% incidence (p = 0.008). Higher MMF dosing or MPA troughs had no impact on engraftment after myeloablation. This analysis supports intensified MMF dosing in mg/kg/day and MPA trough level monitoring early post-transplant in dCBT recipients. PMID:25687796

  18. Vocal dose in teachers: correlation with dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Santos, Juliana Nunes; Pedra, Elisângela de Fátima Pereira; Rabelo, Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos; Magalhães, Max de Castro; Casas, Estevam Barbosa de Las

    2016-04-01

    Teachers are professionals with high prevalence of dysphonia, whose main risk factors are the large work hours in classrooms with the presence of background noise. The purpose of the study was to calculate the phonation time and the cycle dose of teachers with dysphonia and teachers without voice disorders during the class. There were two groups analyzed: five teachers with functional dysphonia were the first group and five teachers without voice disorders were the second group. For the data was used the VoxLog® dosimeter and the parameters were: intensity; fundamental frequency; phonation time and cycle dose. The statistical analysis used ANOVA, Student's T-test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Dysphonic teachers showed major values of phonation time and cycle dose compared with teachers without voice disorders. The dysphonia is related to extended period of speech time and greater exposure of the tissue of the vocal fold to phonotrauma. PMID:27191884

  19. Twenty four hour intermittent, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed Central

    Egger, M; Bianchetti, M G; Gnädinger, M; Kobelt, R; Oetliker, O

    1987-01-01

    Blood pressure and heart rate were measured every 30 minutes during the day and every hour during the night in 43 children (20 girls and 23 boys, aged 10 to 16) with a portable automated monitor. The apparatus was better accepted in girls than in boys, and the failure rate was lower during the day. The overall failure rate was 22%, which corresponds with comparable studies in adults. During the night blood pressure and heart rate fell by 10% and 14% of the daytime values, respectively. Mean (SD) blood pressure was significantly higher in boys than in girls (126/72 (17/8) v 109/64 (9/5) mm Hg) and measurements correlated positively with age, body weight, and height of the subjects. Heart rate was not significantly influenced by gender or age. A positive correlation between heart rate and blood pressure was found when expressed as standard normal deviations or hourly variations. In children intermittent monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate is a suitable method for measuring individual diurnal patterns. PMID:3688917

  20. Effective forecasting of hourly typhoon rainfall using support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Gwo-Fong; Chen, Guo-Rong; Wu, Ming-Chang; Chou, Yang-Ching

    2009-08-01

    Typhoon rainfall is one of the most difficult elements of the hydrologic cycle to forecast because of the high variability in space and time and the complex physical process. To obtain more effective forecasts of hourly typhoon rainfall, novel models with better ability are desired. On the basis of support vector machines (SVMs), which are a novel kind of neural networks (NNs), effective hourly typhoon rainfall forecasting models are constructed. As compared with backpropagation networks (BPNs), which are the most frequently used conventional NNs, SVMs have three advantages: (1) SVMs have better generalization ability, (2) the architectures and the weights of the SVMs are guaranteed to be unique and globally optimal, and (3) SVM is trained much more rapidly. An application is conducted to clearly demonstrate these three advantages. The results indicate that the proposed SVM-based models are better performed, robust, and efficient than the existing BPN-based models. To further improve the long lead time forecasting, typhoon characteristics are added as key input to the proposed models. The comparison between SVM-based models with and without typhoon characteristics confirms the significant improvement in forecasting performance due to the addition of typhoon characteristics for long lead time forecasting. The proposed SVM-based models are recommended as an alternative to the existing models. The proposed modeling technique is also expected to be useful to support reservoir operation systems and flood, landslide, debris flow, and other disaster warning systems.

  1. Stochastic generation of hourly rainstorm events in Johor

    SciTech Connect

    Nojumuddin, Nur Syereena; Yusof, Fadhilah; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2015-02-03

    Engineers and researchers in water-related studies are often faced with the problem of having insufficient and long rainfall record. Practical and effective methods must be developed to generate unavailable data from limited available data. Therefore, this paper presents a Monte-Carlo based stochastic hourly rainfall generation model to complement the unavailable data. The Monte Carlo simulation used in this study is based on the best fit of storm characteristics. Hence, by using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Anderson Darling goodness-of-fit test, lognormal appeared to be the best rainfall distribution. Therefore, the Monte Carlo simulation based on lognormal distribution was used in the study. The proposed model was verified by comparing the statistical moments of rainstorm characteristics from the combination of the observed rainstorm events under 10 years and simulated rainstorm events under 30 years of rainfall records with those under the entire 40 years of observed rainfall data based on the hourly rainfall data at the station J1 in Johor over the period of 1972–2011. The absolute percentage error of the duration-depth, duration-inter-event time and depth-inter-event time will be used as the accuracy test. The results showed the first four product-moments of the observed rainstorm characteristics were close with the simulated rainstorm characteristics. The proposed model can be used as a basis to derive rainfall intensity-duration frequency in Johor.

  2. Analysis of clear hour solar irradiation for seven Canadian stations

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.; Sahami, K.

    1995-12-31

    Hourly global and diffuse irradiation and corresponding surface meteorological data have been analyzed for the seven Canadian stations at Edmonton, Goose Bay, Montreal, Port Hardy, Resolute, Toronto, and Winnipeg. The variation of the most probable clear hour values of clearness index k{sub t}, diffuse index k{sub d}, direct beam index k{sub b}, and Angstrom turbidity coefficient {beta} with solar elevation, atmospheric precipitable water, and snow depth are obtained. Values of these quantities are presented which are consistent with the attenuation and scattering of solar radiation by the atmosphere which is expected. The most probable values of {beta} tend to be lower than the average values of {beta} recently reported by Gueymard. The data indicate a drift in the calibration of the instruments used for measurements of the irradiation data for the stations at Goose Bay and Resolute. The data for the other five stations indicate that the instrument calibration is maintained over the years of the data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. BOREAS ECMWF 6-Hour Analysis and Forecast Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterbo, Pedro; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcommer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Betts, Alan; Strub, Richard

    2000-01-01

    In cooperation with BOREAS atmospheric research efforts, the ECMWF agreed to provide BOREAS with a customized subset of its 6-hourly forecast data. This data set contains parameters from three ECMWF data products in GRIB format: Surface and Diagnostic Fields, Supplemental Fields, and Extension Data. Sample software and information are provided to assist in reading the data files. Temporally, the atmospheric parameters are available for the four main synoptic hours of 00, 06, 12, and 18 UTC from 1994 to 1996. Spatially, the data are stored in a 0.5- by 0.5-degree latitude/longitude grid. To cover the entire BOREAS study area, the grid extends from 48 to 62 degrees latitude and -92 to -114 degrees longitude. The data are stored in binary data representation known as FM 92 GRIB. Due to the complexity of the content and format of this data set, users are advised to read Sections 6, 7, 8, and 14 before using data. Based on agreements between BOREAS and ECMWF, users may legally obtain and use these data only by having a set of the BOREAS CD-ROMs that contain the data. Possession or use of these data under any other circumstance is prohibited. See Sections 11.3 and 20.4 for details.

  4. Reviewing 741 patients records in two hours with FASTVISU

    PubMed Central

    Escudié, Jean-Baptiste; Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Zapletal, Eric; Cohen, Sarah; Malamut, Georgia; Burgun, Anita; Rance, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    The secondary use of electronic health records opens up new perspectives. They provide researchers with structured data and unstructured data, including free text reports. Many applications been developed to leverage knowledge from free-text reports, but manual review of documents is still a complex process. We developed FASTVISU a web-based application to assist clinicians in reviewing documents. We used FASTVISU to review a set of 6340 documents from 741 patients suffering from the celiac disease. A first automated selection pruned the original set to 847 documents from 276 patients’ records. The records were reviewed by two trained physicians to identify the presence of 15 auto-immune diseases. It took respectively two hours and two hours and a half to evaluate the entire corpus. Inter-annotator agreement was high (Cohen’s kappa at 0.89). FASTVISU is a user-friendly modular solution to validate entities extracted by NLP methods from free-text documents stored in clinical data warehouses. PMID:26958189

  5. Effect of a single dose of emulsified versus capsular fish oils on plasma phospholipid fatty acids over 48 hours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emulsified fish oil supplements provide an alternative to encapsulated fish oils. Oil-in-water emulsions may offer an advantage in digestion and absorption thereby increasing the bioavailability of fatty acids. We evaluated the effect of three oil-in-water emulsified fish oils (Emulsion B, Emulsion ...

  6. A 15,000-hour cyclic endurance test of an 8-centimeter-diameter electron bombardment mercury ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakanishi, S.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory model 8 cm thruster with improvements to minimize ion chamber erosion and peeling of sputtered metal was subjected to a cyclic endurance test for 15,040 hours and 460 restarts. A charted history of several thruster operating variables and off-normal events are shown in 600-hour segments at three points in the test. The transient behavior of these variables during a typical start-stop cycle is presented. Finding of the post-test inspection confirmed most of the expected results. Charge exchange ions caused normal accelerator grid erosion. The workability of the various design features was substantiated, and attainable improvements in propellant utilization efficiency should significantly reduce accelerator erosion.

  7. Post-training and post-reactivation administration of amphetamine enhances morphine conditioned place preference

    PubMed Central

    Blaiss, Cory A.; Janak, Patricia H.

    2006-01-01

    Amphetamine has been shown to enhance consolidation in a variety of memory paradigms. However, it is not known if amphetamine can modulate the consolidation of the types of context-reward associations involved in drug addiction, such as those formed in the conditioned place preference (CPP) task. Also, some types of memory exhibit a second period of lability following memory reactivation, and it is not known whether amphetamine administered during this period can modulate CPP. Our study investigated whether amphetamine can enhance morphine CPP when administered during the consolidation period or the post-reactivation period. Subjects were trained in the CPP task and injected with amphetamine or vehicle immediately or six hours after each training session. The day after the completion of training, they were tested. Amphetamine injected immediately but not six hours after training enhanced morphine CPP. In separate experiments, subjects were first trained in the CPP task. The day following the completion of training, subjects were given a memory reactivation session and injected with amphetamine or vehicle immediately or six hours after reactivation. Subjects were tested the next day. Amphetamine injected immediately but not six hours after memory reactivation enhanced morphine CPP. However, amphetamine injected without memory reactivation had no effect on the expression of morphine CPP. Our results suggest that amphetamine enhances the consolidation of morphine CPP and that morphine CPP exhibits a temporally limited period of post-reactivation lability during which the memory can be modulated. PMID:16698095

  8. Post-Exposure Prophylaxis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Dementia Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination ... New Media Tools Blogs Mashups Mobile Office Hours Online Collaboration Tools Photo Sharing Sites Podcasts QR Codes ...

  9. [Isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex from the "24-hour bath"].

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Murakami, K; Ishii, N; Kwon, H H

    2000-01-01

    The "24-HOUR BATH" is an apparatus which circulates the bath water, keeps it clean and warm, and makes it possible to take a bath at any time during the day or night. It consists of apparatus for cleaning (sponge or mesh filter and filter material), heating (ceramic heater), and sterilizing (UV lamp). Recently, three cases of skin disease due to M. avium infection in private homes, in which "24-HOUR BATH" water was suspected to be the source of infection, have been reported. We attempted to isolate M. avium complex from the water (32 specimens), sponge filter (29 specimens), and filter material (32 specimens) of the "24-HOUR BATH". One hundred-ml samples of bath water, and 50-ml samples of rinse from a sponge filter or filter material were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 min. Sediment was suspended in distilled water and a smear was prepared, and then digested and decontaminated with 2% sodium hydroxide. The processed specimens were cultured on 2% Ogawa medium containing ofloxacin (1 microgram/ml) and ethambutol (2.5 micrograms/ml) for 8 weeks at 37 degrees C. Positive smears were 3 (9.4%), 25 (86.2%) and 25 (78.1%) specimens from the water, sponge and filter material, respectively. A few bacterial clumps were observed, especially in the sponge specimens. The number of positive culture was 5 (15.6%), 24 (82.8%) and 25 (78.1%) from the water, sponge and filter material, respectively. Among them the number of Runyon's Group III-positive cultures was 5 (100%), 22 (91.7%) and 20 (80%) in the water, sponge, and filter material specimens, respectively. In most cases, cultures were positive for both the sponge and filter material specimens. All of the Group III mycobacteria were smooth, grew at 28, 37, 42, and 45 degrees C, negative for niacin, nitrate reductase, semiquantitative catalase, urease and Tween80 hydrolysis, and positive for 68 degrees C catalase. All of the strains reacted with M. avium complex AccuProbe and M. avium AccuProbe, but none of the strains reacted

  10. Hour-Scale Variability in NGC 663 and NGC 1960

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Steven P.; Garcia Soto, Aylin; Wong, Hallee

    2016-06-01

    Since 2010 we have been monitoring massive emission-line (mainly Be) stars in young open clusters using narrowband imaging at Hα (656nm) and the nearby continuum (645nm) (Souza, Davis, and Teich 2013, BAAS. 45, PM354.22; Souza, Beltz-Mohrmann, and Sami 2014. JAAVSO, 42, 154). To supplement longer-timescale data taken at Williams College we obtained high-cadence observations, in both filters, of NGC 663 on the night of 12/10/15, and of NGC 1960 on the nights of 12/10/14, 1/23/15, 1/25/15, 11/11/15, and 12/13/15 at the 0.5m ARCSAT at Apache Point Observatory. After raw magnitude extraction using Aperture Photometry Tool (Laher et al. 2012, PASP, 124, 737), we used inhomogeneous ensemble photometry (Bhatti et al., 2010, ApJ Supp., 186, 233) to correct for transparency and seeing variations. The NGC 663 field is crowded; of 29 known Be stars in the observed field, 10 have nearby interferers. None of the remaining 19 Be stars showed significant variation during ~5.5 hours of observation. 1σ uncertainty estimates range from 0.02mag at R~10 to 0.15mag at R~14. To verify the observing and reduction procedure, we recovered hour-scale variability in known variables BY Cas (δ Cephei type, ~0.05mag decline) and V1155 Cas (β Cephei type, ~0.04mag amplitude). In NGC 1960, of 5 known and suspect Be stars observed, two not previously reported as variable (BD+34 1110 and USNOB1.0 1241-0103450) showed irregular variation on timescales of hours. In NGC 1960 we also report the incidental discovery of two non-Be suspect variables: a likely eclipsing binary (0.07mag), and a possible δ Scuti star (maximum amplitude ~0.02mag). We gratefully acknowledge support for student research from NSF grant AST-1005024 to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium, and the Office of the Dean of Faculty and the DIII Research Funding Committee of Williams College. Based on observations obtained with Apache Point Observatory's 0.5-m Astrophysical Research Consortium Small Aperture Telescope.

  11. Effect of a Stable Angiotensin‐(1–7) Analogue on Progenitor Cell Recruitment and Cardiovascular Function Post Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Pessôa, Bruno Sevá; Becher, Peter Moritz; Van Veghel, Richard; De Vries, René; Tempel, Dennie; Sneep, Stefan; Van Beusekom, Heleen; Van Der Velden, Vincent H. J.; Westermann, Dirk; Danser, A. H. Jan; Roks, Anton J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Angiotensin‐(1–7) improves cardiac function and remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). This may involve recruitment of hematopoietic progenitor cells that support angiogenesis. However, angiotensin‐(1–7) is rapidly metabolized in plasma and tissue. The authors investigated in mice the effect of a metabolically stable angiotensin‐(1–7) analogue, cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7), on progenitor cell recruitment and on the heart post MI, when given in the angiogenesis phase of remodeling. Methods and Results Angiogenic progenitor cell recruitment was measured by using flow cytometry 24 and 72 hours after a daily bolus injection of cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7) in healthy C57BL/6 mice. Further, mice underwent MI or sham surgery and subsequently received saline or 2 different doses of cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7) for 3 or 9 weeks. Cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7) increased circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells at 24 hours but not 72 hours. Post MI, cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7) diminished cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and reduced myogenic tone, without altering cardiovascular function or cardiac histology at 9 weeks. Importantly, cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7)–treated mice had reduced cardiac capillary density at 3 weeks after MI but not after 9 weeks. Finally, cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7) decreased tube formation by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7), when given early after MI, recruits progenitor cells but does not lead to improved angiogenesis, most likely because it simultaneously exerts antiangiogenic effect in adult endothelial cells. Apparently, optimal treatment with cyclic angiotensin‐(1–7) depends on the time point of onset of application after MI. PMID:25655571

  12. Twenty-Four-Hour Intraocular Pressure Related Changes Following Adjuvant Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty for Normal Tension Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jacky W.Y.; Fu, Lin; Chan, Jonathan C.H.; Lai, Jimmy S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract To investigate intraocular pressure (IOP) related patterns before and after selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) for normal tension glaucoma (NTG). In this prospective cohort study, 18 NTG patients underwent SLT. Success was defined as IOP reduction ≥20% by Goldmann applanation tonometry. 24-hour IOP-related pattern recording with a contact lens sensor (CLS) (SENSIMED Triggerfish®, Sensimed, Switzerland) was done before (baseline) and 1 month after SLT. A cosine function was fitted to the mean CLS patterns for each individual in the SLT success and non-success groups and the amplitude before and after SLT was calculated. Diurnal, nocturnal, and 24-hour CLS pattern local variability was determined for pre- and post-SLT sessions. Cosine amplitude and variability were compared before and after SLT by group using paired t-tests, with α = 0.05. Patients (11 women, 7 men) had a mean age of 65.1 ± 13.7 years. Mean IOP was 15.3 ± 2.2 mm Hg at baseline and was reduced by 17.0% to 12.7 ± 1.8 mm Hg 1 month after SLT (P = 0.001). SLT was successful in 8 patients (44%). The amplitude of the fitted cosine was reduced by 24.6% in the success group, but displayed an amplitude increase of 19.2% post-SLT in the non-success group. Higher diurnal local variability of the CLS pattern was observed after SLT in non-success subjects (P = 0.002), while nocturnal variability showed no significant change. The increase in diurnal variability in the non-success group led to an increase in 24-hour variability in this group (P = 0.001). No change in local variability (diurnal, nocturnal, and 24-hour) was seen in the success group. The IOP-related pattern cosinor amplitude was reduced in NTG patients with a successful SLT treatment whereas the non-success group exhibited an increase of cosine amplitude. Higher diurnal and 24-hour CLS pattern variability was observed in non-success patients 1 month post-SLT. PMID:25501089

  13. Efficacy of Post Exposure Administration of Doxycycline in a Murine Model of Inhalational Melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Gelhaus, H. Carl; Anderson, Michael S.; Fisher, David A.; Flavin, Michael T.; Xu, Ze-Qi; Sanford, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis. Treatment of melioidosis is suboptimal and developing improved melioidosis therapies requires animal models. In this report, we exposed male BALB/c mice to various amounts of aerosolized B. pseudomallei 1026b to determine lethality. After establishing a median lethal dose (LD50) of 2,772 colony forming units (cfu)/animal, we tested the ability of doxycycline administered 6 hours after exposure to a uniformly lethal dose of ~20 LD50 to prevent death and eliminate bacteria from the lung and spleens. Tissue bacterial burdens were examined by PCR analysis. We found that 100% of mice treated with doxycycline survived and B. pseudomallei DNA was not amplified from the lungs or spleens of most surviving mice. We conclude the BALB/c mouse is a useful model of melioidosis. Furthermore, the data generated in this mouse model indicate that doxycycline is likely to be effective in post-exposure prophylaxis of melioidosis. PMID:23359492

  14. High total dose effects on CMOS/SOI technology

    SciTech Connect

    Flament, O.; Dupont-Nivet, E.; Leray, J.L.; Pere, J.F.; Delagnes, E. ); Auberton-Herve, A.J.; Giffard, B. ); Borel, G.; Ouisse, T. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that, CMOS silicon on insulator technology has shown its ability to process hardened components which remain functional after irradiation with a total dose of several tens of Megarads. New tests on elementary transistors and 29101 microprocessor have been made at doses up to 100 Mrad (SiO{sub 2}) and above. Results of irradiation at these total doses are presented for different biases, together with the post-irradiation behavior of the components. All the observations show that new parameters must be taken into account for hardness insurance at a high level of total dose.

  15. Magnetopause characteristics at 0840-1040 hours local time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of three-dimensional energetic particle distributions for 14 consecutive ISEE satellite orbits during magnetopause crossings and close approaches is presented. The data were collected from the Nov. 10 through Dec. 11, 1977, time period and cover local times of 0840 to 1040 hours. It was found that the magnetopause in this period defined by energetic particles can be represented as sharp particles and a well defined boundary for magnetospherically trapped particles for a wide range of magnetospheric activity and magnetosheath field conditions. The magnetopause position, orientation, and velocity were determined for all identified magnetopause crossings and close approaches using the technique of Williams (1979); it was found that the magnetopause is nearly always in motion with velocities ranging from near zero to at least plus or minus 25 km/s. Correlations with published plasma, magnetic field, and plasma wave magnetopause identifications show the energetic particle results to be accurate and an important factor in determining magnetopause characteristics and behavior.

  16. Twelve-hour shift on ITU: a nursing evaluation.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Annette; Dabner, Nichola; Curtis, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the introduction and subsequent evaluation of a 12-h shift system in a large ITU in the northeast of UK. To date, only a small number of studies has evaluated nurses working the 12-h shifts in critical care areas. To evaluate the level of staff satisfaction, data were collected by means of a questionnaire involving 41 nurses, at 3 months following the introduction of the 12-h shifts. The responses from the evaluation advocated the continuation of 12-h shifts with alternative shift patterns for nurses who felt dissatisfied with the current system. Twelve-hour shifts can be seen as a flexible system for nurses working in intensive care and may assist with staff satisfaction and improving nurse recruitment and retention. PMID:12859080

  17. Computational Modeling of NEXT 2000-Hour Wear Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Shane P.

    2004-01-01

    Ion optics computational models are invaluable tools for the design of ion optics systems. In this study, a new computational model developed by an outside vendor for NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is presented. This model is a gun code which has been modified to model the plasma sheaths both upstream and downstream of the ion optics. The model handles multiple species (e.g. singly and doubly-charged ions) and includes a charge-exchange model for erosion estimates. The model uses commercially available solid design and meshing software, allowing high flexibility in ion optics geometric configurations. This computational model is compared to experimental results from the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) 2000-hour wear test, including over-focusing along the edge apertures, pit-and-groove erosion due to charge exchange, and beamlet distortion at the edge of the hole pattern.

  18. 16-hour call duty schedules: the Quebec experience.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Charles; Saad, Nathalie; Carrier, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Since 1 July 2012, as a result of a labour arbitration ruling in the province of Quebec and the subsequent agreement negotiated by the Fédération des médecins résidents du Québec, all 3,400 medical residents training in Quebec have been on a 16-hour duty schedule for in-house calls. This is a major change within medical teaching sites, as well as a professional and educational challenge for physicians-in-training and their supervisors. The Quebec ruling now raises similar issues for all medical residents in Canada because of its legal basis, namely the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. PMID:25559990

  19. 16-hour call duty schedules: the Quebec experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since 1 July 2012, as a result of a labour arbitration ruling in the province of Quebec and the subsequent agreement negotiated by the Fédération des médecins résidents du Québec, all 3,400 medical residents training in Quebec have been on a 16-hour duty schedule for in-house calls. This is a major change within medical teaching sites, as well as a professional and educational challenge for physicians-in-training and their supervisors. The Quebec ruling now raises similar issues for all medical residents in Canada because of its legal basis, namely the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. PMID:25559990

  20. Atypical work hours and metabolic syndrome among police officers.

    PubMed

    Violanti, John M; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Vila, Bryan J

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether atypical work hours are associated with metabolic syndrome among a random sample of 98 police officers. Shift work and overtime data from daily payroll records and reported sleep duration were obtained. Metabolic syndrome was defined as elevated waist circumference and triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, hypertension, and glucose intolerance. Multivariate analysis of variance and analysis of covariance models were used for analyses. Officers working midnight shifts were on average younger and had a slightly higher mean number of metabolic syndrome components. Stratification on sleep duration and overtime revealed significant associations between midnight shifts and the mean number of metabolic syndrome components among officers with less sleep (p = .013) and more overtime (p = .007). Results suggest shorter sleep duration and more overtime combined with midnight shift work may be important contributors to the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19864222