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1

Exterior surface dust lead, interior house dust lead and childhood lead exposure in an urban environment  

SciTech Connect

The impact of urban lead exposure is being examined in a prospective study of several hundred children followed from birth to five years of age. A wide range of social, behavioral, biological and environmental factors are being assessed at approximately one year intervals beginning at birth. Previous analyses on this cohort have indicated a strong relationship between hand lead and hand-to-mouth activity and suggests that this is an important mechanism of inadvertent ingestion of lead in infants and young children. The present analyses was undertaken to examine the joint influence of lead in exterior surface dust and interior lead-containing painted surfaces on lead levels in house dust. In addition the joint influence of exterior and interior surface dust lead on children's hand lead content and blood lead concentration was examined. At 18 months of age 38% of the observed variation in blood lead was accounted for by hand lead and dust lead. Interior paint lead and exterior surface dust lead accounted for 52% of the observed variation in interior surface dust lead concentration. Exterior surface dust lead, obtained from exterior surface scrapings, indirectly influenced blood lead through its impact on interior house dust lead and children's hand lead content, but had no observable direct impact on blood lead. 13 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

Bornschein, R.L.; Succop, P.A.; Krafft, K.M.; Clark, C.S.; Peace, B.; Hammond, P.B.

1986-01-01

2

Evolution of efficient methods to sample lead sources, such as house dust and hand dust, in the homes of children  

SciTech Connect

Efficient sampling methods to recover lead-containing house dust and hand dust have been evolved so that sufficient lead is collected for analysis and to ensure that correlational analyses linking these two parameters to blood lead are not dependent on the efficiency of sampling. Precise collection of loose house dust from a 1-unit area (484 cmS) with a Tygon or stainless steel sampling tube connected to a portable sampling pump (1.2 to 2.5 liters/min) required repetitive sampling (three times). The Tygon tube sampling technique for loose house dust <177 m in diameter was around 72% efficient with respect to dust weight and lead collection. A representative house dust contained 81% of its total weight in this fraction. A single handwipe for applied loose hand dust was not acceptably efficient or precise, and at least three wipes were necessary to achieve recoveries of >80% of the lead applied. House dusts of different particle sizes <246 m adhered equally well to hands. Analysis of lead-containing material usually required at least three digestions/decantations using hot plate or microwave techniques to allow at least 90% of the lead to be recovered. It was recommended that other investigators validate their handwiping, house dust sampling, and digestion techniques to facilitate comparison of results across studies. The final methodology for the Cincinnati longitudinal study was three sampling passes for surface dust using a stainless steel sampling tube; three microwave digestion/decantations for analysis of dust and paint; and three wipes with handwipes with one digestion/decantation for the analysis of six handwipes together.

Que Hee, S.S.; Peace, B.; Clark, C.S.; Boyle, J.R.; Bornschein, R.L.; Hammond, P.B.

1985-10-01

3

The contribution of lead-contaminated house dust and residential soil to children`s blood lead levels  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the US Congress passed the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act, which requires the promulgation of health-based dust lead and soil lead standards for residential dwellings to prevent undue lead exposure in children. Unfortunately, the levels of lead in house dust and soil that are associated with elevated blood lead levels among US children remain poorly defined. This pooled analysis was done to estimate the contributions of lead-contaminated house dust and soil to children`s blood lead levels. The results of this pooled analysis, the most comprehensive existing epidemiologic analysis of childhood lead exposure, confirm that lead-contaminated house dust is the major source of lead exposure for children. These analyses further demonstrate that a strong relationship between interior dust lead loading and children`s blood lead levels persists at dust lead levels considerably below the US Department of Housing and urban Development`s current post-abatement standards and the Environmental Protection Agency`s guidance levels. Finally, these analyses demonstrate that a child`s age, race, mouthing behaviors, and study-site specific factors influence the predicted blood lead level at a given level of exposure. These data can be used to estimate the potential health impact of alternative health-based lead standards for residential sources of lead exposure.

Lanphear, B.P. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Matte, T.D. [New York Academy of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Center for Urban Epidemiologic Studies; Rogers, J. [Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others

1998-10-01

4

Chemical speciation and bioaccessibility of lead in surface soil and house dust, Lavrion urban area, Attiki, Hellas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Lavrion urban area study, Hellas, a five-step sequential extraction method was applied on samples of ‘soil’ (n = 224), affected by long-term mining and metallurgical activities, and house dust (n = 127), for the purpose of studying the potential bioaccessibility of lead and other metals to humans. In this paper, the\\u000a Pb concentrations in soil and house dust samples are discussed, together

Alecos Demetriades; Xiangdong Li; Michael H. Ramsey; Iain Thornton

2010-01-01

5

Lead Speciation in Indoor Dust: A Case Study to Assess Old Paint Contribution in a Canadian Urban House  

SciTech Connect

Residents in older homes may experience increased lead (Pb) exposures due to release of lead from interior paints manufactured in past decades, especially pre-1960s. The objective of the study was to determine the speciation of Pb in settled dust from an urban home built during WWII. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on samples of paint (380-2,920 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) and dust (200-1,000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) collected prior to renovation. All dust samples exhibited a Pb XANES signature similar to that of Pb found in paint. Bulk XANES and micro-XRD identified Pb species commonly found as white paint pigments (Pb oxide, Pb sulfate, and Pb carbonate) as well as rutile, a titanium-based pigment, in the <150 m house dust samples. In the dust fraction <36 {mu}m, half of the Pb was associated with the Fe-oxyhydroxides, suggesting additional contribution of outdoor sources to Pb in the finer dust. These results confirm that old paints still contribute to Pb in the settled dust for this 65-year-old home. The Pb speciation also provided a clearer understanding of the Pb bioaccessibility: Pb carbonate > Pb oxide > Pb sulfate. This study underscores the importance of taking precautions to minimize exposures to Pb in house dust, especially in homes where old paint is exposed due to renovations or deterioration of painted surfaces.

S Beauchemin; L MacLean; P Rasmussen

2011-12-31

6

Lead speciation in indoor dust: a case study to assess old paint contribution in a Canadian urban house  

SciTech Connect

Residents in older homes may experience increased lead (Pb) exposures due to release of lead from interior paints manufactured in past decades, especially pre-1960s. The objective of the study was to determine the speciation of Pb in settled dust from an urban home built during WWII. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on samples of paint (380-2,920 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) and dust (200-1,000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) collected prior to renovation. All dust samples exhibited a Pb XANES signature similar to that of Pb found in paint. Bulk XANES and micro-XRD identified Pb species commonly found as white paint pigments (Pb oxide, Pb sulfate, and Pb carbonate) as well as rutile, a titanium-based pigment, in the <150 {micro}m house dust samples. In the dust fraction <36 {micro}m, half of the Pb was associated with the Fe-oxyhydroxides, suggesting additional contribution of outdoor sources to Pb in the finer dust. These results confirm that old paints still contribute to Pb in the settled dust for this 65-year-old home. The Pb speciation also provided a clearer understanding of the Pb bioaccessibility: Pb carbonate > Pb oxide > Pb sulfate. This study underscores the importance of taking precautions to minimize exposures to Pb in house dust, especially in homes where old paint is exposed due to renovations or deterioration of painted surfaces.

Beauchemin, Suzanne; MacLean, Lachlan C.W.; Rasmussen, Pat E. (Health Canada); (NRC)

2012-10-23

7

Chemical speciation and bioaccessibility of lead in surface soil and house dust, Lavrion urban area, Attiki, Hellas.  

PubMed

In the Lavrion urban area study, Hellas, a five-step sequential extraction method was applied on samples of 'soil' (n = 224), affected by long-term mining and metallurgical activities, and house dust (n = 127), for the purpose of studying the potential bioaccessibility of lead and other metals to humans. In this paper, the Pb concentrations in soil and house dust samples are discussed, together with those in rocks and children's blood. Lead is mainly associated with the carbonate, Fe-Mn oxides and residual fractions in soil and house dust. Considering the very low pH of gastric fluids (1-3), a high amount of metals, present in soil (810-152,000 mg/kg Pb) and house dust (418-18,600 mg/kg Pb), could be potentially bioaccessible. Consequently, children in the neighbourhoods with a large amount of metallurgical processing wastes have high blood-Pb concentrations (5.98-60.49 ?g/100 ml; median 17.83 ?g/100 ml; n = 235). It is concluded that the Lavrion urban and sub-urban environment is extremely hazardous to human health, and the Hellenic State authorities should urgently tackle this health-related hazard in order to improve the living conditions of local residents. PMID:20524052

Demetriades, Alecos; Li, Xiangdong; Ramsey, Michael H; Thornton, Iain

2010-06-04

8

Factors affecting lead, cadmium, and arsenic levels in house dust in a smelter town in eastern Germany  

SciTech Connect

Hettstedt, a city in eastern Germany with a long history of mining and smelting of nonferrous ores, has several industrial sources of heavy metals. The indoor exposure to metals of children (5 to 14 years old) in the Hettstedt area was assessed by measuring the levels of lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in sedimented house dust. Factors which influence the dust loading rate and the surface loading rates of these contaminants in house dust were investigated. The geometric mean of the dust loading rate was 8.9 mg/m[sup 2] day. The geometric means of surface loading rates were 1.14, 0.024, and 0.023 [micro]g/m[sup 2] day for lead, cadmium, and arsenic, respectively. Factors that were significantly associated with surface loading rates included the city area of residence, automobile traffic near home, parent with occupational exposure to heavy metals, type of heating, housing characteristics, whether child's home is damp, number of persons living in the child's home,and parents' education. The most significant of these factors was the city area of residence, which reflects the distance from the metal sources; this factor accounted for about half of the variances explained by the regression models.

Meyer, I.; Heinrich, J. (GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie); Lippold, U. (Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene des Umweltbundesamtes Berlin (Germany))

1999-07-01

9

Lead Speciation in House Dust from Canadian Urban Homes Using EXAFS Micro-XRF and Micro-XRD  

SciTech Connect

X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, micro-X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF), and micro-X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD) were used to determine the speciation of Pb in house dust samples from four Canadian urban homes having elevated Pb concentrations (>1000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}). Linear combination fitting of the XAFS data, supported by {mu}XRF and {mu}XRD, shows that Pb is complexed in a variety of molecular environments, associated with both the inorganic and organic fractions of the dust samples. The inorganic species of lead identified were as follows: Pb metal, Pb carbonate, Pb hydroxyl carbonate, Pb oxide, and Pb adsorbed to iron oxyhydroxides. Pb carbonate and/or Pb hydroxyl carbonate occurred in all four dust samples and accounted for 28 to 75% of total Pb. Pb citrate and Pb bound to humate were the organic species identified. The results of this study demonstrate the ability of XAFS to identify Pb speciation in house dust and show the potential to identify Pb sources from new homes versus older homes. Understanding Pb speciation and how it influences bioaccessibility is important for human health risk assessment and risk management decisions which aim to improve indoor environmental health.

L MacLean; S Beauchemin; P Rasmussen

2011-12-31

10

Airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies and suitability of samplers for airborne microorganisms and dust, which could be used in practical livestock houses. Two studies were performed: 1) Testing impaction and cyclone pre-separators for dust sampling in livestock houses; 2) Determining sampling efficiencies of four bioaerosol samplers for bacteria and virus. Study 1. The overloading problem

Y. Zhao; A. J. A. Aarnink; Jong de M. C. M; P. W. G. Groot Koerkamp

2011-01-01

11

Encapsulation of steel foundry bag house dusts in cement mortar  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of bag house dusts generated by steel foundries when stabilized with Portland cement at high levels of cement addition. The main bag house dust studied was obtained as a byproduct of steel manufacture, at Pacific Steel Limited in Auckland, New Zealand, whereas others were sourced from BHP New Zealand, Masport, and A and G Price foundries. The main examination techniques used in this study were leachate testing, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and compressive strength measurements. The findings showed that all the dusts investigated varied in their composition and physical makeup. Those bag house dusts that contained elevated levels of zinc severely retarded the hydration of cement within the first 2 weeks, but accelerated the strengths at late ages (28 days). The zinc was predominantly in the form of zinc oxide, which, when mixed with cement, produced the complex, calcium zinc hydrate. When cement was doped with zinc oxide, it was also found to display the same type of retardation as was found with the high ZnO bag house dusts. Lead also displayed a slight accelerating phenomena at 28 days, but the retention of lead in stabilized materials, as measured by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, was higher than that for zinc. The Masport, A and G Price, and two BHP New Zealand Steel bag house dusts did not show accelerating characteristics; however, Pacific Steel and the other two BHP New Zealand Steel zinc oxide-containing bag house dusts did.

Hamilton, I.W. [Golden Bay Cement, Whangarei (New Zealand); Sammes, N.M. [Univ. of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand). Dept. of Technology

1999-01-01

12

[Dust emission from chicken and layer houses].  

PubMed

Dust concentration was measured by Laser-monitor in two at a time houses for layers with litter or with cages and in two at a time houses for growing chicken with litter or with cages in the middle of the keeping area, in the outlet opening and in 3, 10, 50 and 100 m distance over a period of 8 weeks in winter, summer and spring/autumn. Dust values have shown only less dynamics between 8 am and 5 pm. Significant positive correlation was found between dust concentration and age of poultry, keeping time resp. in litter housing system but not in cage housing system. Also, it was demonstrated a significant relation between dust concentration inside of poultry house, at the outlet openings and in 3 m distance in the outdoor air. There was no influence evident of indoor dust concentration on the dust value in the environment in more than 3 m distance to the poultry house. It was shown a low dust concentration of 0.1% up to 2.1%--compared to the indoor dust values--in 50 and 100 m distance to outlet ventilation system independent on housing, climatic and topographic factors. PMID:8721302

Schmidt, R; Hoy, S

1996-03-01

13

Ultrasonic Extraction/Anodic Stripping Voltammetry for Determining Lead in Dust: Analyses of Field-Sampled Wipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Knowledge of the amount of lead in settled dust is important in clearance examinations, risk assessments, and related activities wherein decisions are made regarding lead hazards in houses and related buildings. At present, analyses of lead in dust are no...

W. J. Rossiter B. Toman M. E. McKnight I. Emenanjo

2004-01-01

14

Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds.  

PubMed

This study evaluated lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the residential communities adjacent to the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds, the area considered Canada's worst contaminated site. The tar pond remediation policy has been limited to the site and some residential properties. We compared background concentrations in 91 soil samples taken 5-20 km from the coke oven site with those in soil samples from the three communities surrounding the tar ponds: Whitney Pier, Ashby, and North End. These surrounding communities were statistically different from background regarding arsenic, lead, and PAHs. Twenty percent of the background soil samples and 95% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian health-risk-based soil guidelines for arsenic (12 ppm), and 5% of the background samples and 80% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian guidelines for lead (140 ppm). Regarding dust lead and arsenic loading, the results provide no evidence that Whitney Pier is significantly different than Ashby and North End. Children in these communities are predicted to have a 1-15% chance of blood lead > 10 microg/dL. The results suggest that lead and arsenic found in the homes originate outside. The lead content of paint in the homes was not evaluated, but consideration of painted wood at the doorway did not confound the results of the study. The results indicate that the residential environment has been adversely affected by PAHs, lead, and arsenic and should be considered for remediation. PMID:14698928

Lambert, Timothy W; Lane, Stephanie

2004-01-01

15

Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds.  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the residential communities adjacent to the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds, the area considered Canada's worst contaminated site. The tar pond remediation policy has been limited to the site and some residential properties. We compared background concentrations in 91 soil samples taken 5-20 km from the coke oven site with those in soil samples from the three communities surrounding the tar ponds: Whitney Pier, Ashby, and North End. These surrounding communities were statistically different from background regarding arsenic, lead, and PAHs. Twenty percent of the background soil samples and 95% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian health-risk-based soil guidelines for arsenic (12 ppm), and 5% of the background samples and 80% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian guidelines for lead (140 ppm). Regarding dust lead and arsenic loading, the results provide no evidence that Whitney Pier is significantly different than Ashby and North End. Children in these communities are predicted to have a 1-15% chance of blood lead > 10 microg/dL. The results suggest that lead and arsenic found in the homes originate outside. The lead content of paint in the homes was not evaluated, but consideration of painted wood at the doorway did not confound the results of the study. The results indicate that the residential environment has been adversely affected by PAHs, lead, and arsenic and should be considered for remediation.

Lambert, Timothy W; Lane, Stephanie

2004-01-01

16

Children's blood lead and exposure to lead in household dust and water--a basis for an environmental standard for lead in dust.  

PubMed

Good quantitative evidence on the role of lead in household dust as a source of exposure to children has been lacking. A study of 495 children in Edinburgh, Scotland shows a significant relationship between lead in dust vacuumed from the floors of the children's homes and their blood lead levels. A multiple regression analysis incorporating drinking water and household dust estimates that a 1,000 micrograms g-1 increase in dust lead concentration would increase blood lead by 1.9 micrograms dl-1, for a child with the median population blood lead of 10.1 micrograms dl-1. Dust lead concentration is a more useful predictor of blood lead than lead loading. The sanding or blow-lamp stripping of old paint is found to be an important source of the higher household dust lead concentrations. Finally, the dust lead-blood lead relationship is used to derive a standard for lead in house dust, as no such standard exists for this exposure route. PMID:3685951

Laxen, D P; Raab, G M; Fulton, M

1987-10-01

17

Characterization and Immunobiology of House Dust Mite Allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The examination of house dust mite extracts has indicated that over 30 different proteins can induce IgE antibody in patients allergic to the house dust mite. There are however dominant specificities especially the group 1 and 2 allergens which can account for much of the allergenicity of extracts. Of the 19 denominated allergens, the major IgE binding has been reported

Wayne R. Thomas; Wendy-Anne Smith; Belinda J. Hales; Kristina L. Mills; Richard M. O’Brien

2002-01-01

18

Encapsulation of steel foundry bag house dusts in cement mortar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of bag house dusts generated by steel foundries when stabilized with Portland cement at high levels of cement addition. The main bag house dust studied was obtained as a byproduct of steel manufacture, at Pacific Steel Limited in Auckland, New Zealand, whereas others were sourced from BHP New Zealand Steel,

Ian W Hamilton; Nigel M Sammes

1999-01-01

19

House dust in seven Danish offices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12751m2) was processed according

L Mølhave; T Schneider; S. K Kjærgaard; L Larsen; S Norn; O Jørgensen

2000-01-01

20

POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HOUSE DUST AND CLOTHES DRYER LINT  

EPA Science Inventory

Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are now considered ubiquitous and persistent pollutants. Few studies have examined the concentrations of these chemicals in the home and here we report measurements of PBDEs in house dust samples collected from the Washington...

21

Quantification of house dust mite allergens in ambient air.  

PubMed

The house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae are important sources of indoor allergens. In sensitized patients, house dust mites induce and exacerbate diseases like asthma bronchiale, rhinitis, and conjunctivitis. The most significant exposure of persons occurs overnight in bed and to a lesser extent, during the daytime while performing activities like vacuum cleaning or bed making. In general, house dust mite antigens are quantified in samples of reservoir dust of carpets or beds. Yet, assessing allergens in ambient air would better represent human exposures because inhalation is the main route of uptake, and a close correlation between levels of floor and air antigens has not yet been proved. Unfortunately, because of extremely low airborne particle concentrations, analyses are difficult to perform and depend on sophisticated sampling strategies, as well as on sensitive immunometric detection assays. Using monoclonal immunoassays, house dust mite antigens, quantified in undisturbed conditions in ambient air, are found at pg/m3 levels. The disturbance of reservoir dust by vacuum cleaning or bed making increases the airborne allergen levels up to ng/m3 concentrations. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge regarding the analysis of airborne house dust mites in both undisturbed and disturbed ambient air. The advantages and disadvantages of different sampling strategies are outlined. PMID:11354542

Paufler, P; Gebel, T; Dunkelberg, H

22

House dust in seven Danish offices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m 2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000-160.000 CFU g -1 microorganisms and 71.000-90.000 CFU g -1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65-123 CFU 30 g -1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06-7.24 EU g -1 (1.45 ng g -1 to 1.01 ng g -1). Allergens (ng g -1) were from 147-159 (Mite), 395-746 (dog) and 103-330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8-9.8 mg g -1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml -1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5-5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2-1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176-319 ?g g -1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001-1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m -3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26-0.75 mg m -3 in average contained 300-170 CFU m -3. The organic fraction was from 55-70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is estimated to be relatively low. The storage of the bulk dust during the experiment had little effect on the specific biological and chemical composition.

Mølhave, L.; Schneider, T.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Larsen, L.; Norn, S.; Jørgensen, O.

23

Removal of lead oxide dust from air  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work concerns the removal of lead oxide dust from air using granular beds. Theoretical and experimental aspects of the problem have been studied. It has been found that the order of efficiencies of the different packing types used for capturing lead oxide aerosol at velocity range 17-26 cm\\/sec, and column height range 5-20 cm is as follows: rashing rings,

M. O. Abdullah; A. H. Sulaymon; S. H. Sameh

1982-01-01

24

Lead, Arsenic, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil and House Dust in the Communities Surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, Tar Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the residential communities adjacent to the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds, the area considered Canada's worst contaminated site. The tar pond remediation policy has been limited to the site and some residential properties. We compared background concentrations in 91 soil samples taken 5-20 km from the coke oven

Timothy W. Lambert

2003-01-01

25

Characterization of Lipopolysaccharides Present in Settled House Dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFAs) in lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play an important role in determining endotoxin activity, and childhood exposure to endotoxin has recently been associated with reduced risk of atopic diseases. To characterize the 3-OHFAs in house dust (HD), we used gas chromatography-mass spec- trometry to assay 190 HD samples. Dust from beds, bedroom floors, family rooms, and kitchen floors

Ju-Hyeong Park; Bogumila Szponar; Lennart Larsson; Diane R. Gold; Donald K. Milton

2004-01-01

26

Influence of social and environmental factors on dust, lead, hand lead, and blood lead levels in young children  

SciTech Connect

The roles of environmental and behavioral factors in determining blood lead levels were studied in a cohort of young children living in an urban environment. The subjects were observed at 3-month intervals from birth to 24 months of age. Repeated measurements were made of the children's blood lead levels, environmental levels of lead in house dust, and in the dust found on the children's hands. A qualitative rating of the residence and of the socioeconomic status of the family was obtained. Interviews and direct observation of parent and child at home were used to evaluate various aspects of caretaker-child interactions. Data analysis consisted of a comparison of results obtained by (a) simple correlational analysis, (b) multiple regression analysis, and (c) structural equations analysis. The results demonstrated that structural equation modeling offers a useful approach to unraveling the complex interactions present in the data set. In this preliminary analysis, the suspected relationship between the levels of lead in house dust and on hands and the blood lead level was clearly demonstrated. Furthermore, the analyses indicated an important interplay between environmental sources and social factors in the determination of hand lead and blood lead levels in very young children.

Bornschein, R.L.; Succop, P.; Dietrich, K.N.; Clark, C.S.; Que Hee, S.; Hammond, P.B.

1985-10-01

27

Aerial dust concentration in cage-housed, floor-housed, and aviary facilities for laying hens.  

PubMed

Agricultural workers, and pig and poultry farmers in particular, are exposed to airborne contaminants including organic dusts, gases, fungi, bacteria, and endotoxins that can have adverse effects on their respiratory health. To date, data comparing the aerial dust concentrations in the different hen-housing systems used by commercial poultry farmers are scarce. An epidemiological study was conducted in commercial housing facilities for laying hens, half of which were housed in a cage system without litter and the remaining half on an on-floor system with litter. The aims were to measure and compare the ambient dust concentrations in the different housing systems and identify any factors in building design and hen management that could influence the dust burden. An average concentration of respirable ambient dusts (?4 ?m) of 0.37 mg/m(3) (95% CI [0.31-0.42]) was measured in the on-floor system, and this value was higher than average values in the cage system {0.13 mg/m(3) (95% CI [0.11-0.14]) P = 0.01}. The highest dust concentration was observed in aviaries (1.19 mg/m(3) [0.80-1.59]). The type of housing and the presence of litter therefore had a preponderant effect on air quality. Dust concentrations in caged buildings were influenced by cage design and rearing practices, whereas litter management, the age of hens, and temperature control were determining factors for dust levels in on-floor houses. This study underlines the need for information and preventive measures to reduce the exposure of poultry workers to bioaerosols, particularly in alternative systems where high levels of ambient dust were observed. PMID:24135584

Le Bouquin, S; Huneau-Salaün, A; Huonnic, D; Balaine, L; Martin, S; Michel, V

2013-11-01

28

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in House Dust in Beijing, China.  

PubMed

Eleven house dust samples were collected in Beijing to quantify 42 different polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Total PBDEs concentrations ranged from 140 to 1,300 ng g(-1). The dominant PBDEs congener identified was BDE 209, which made up more than 70 % of all PBDEs congeners. Concentrations of PBDEs in Chinese house dust were lower than in other countries. The most polluted areas were electronics shops and households. It is likely that PBDEs exposure is a potential threat for Beijing residents, particularly toddlers. PMID:23995797

Li, K; Fu, S

2013-08-31

29

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in house dust in Singapore.  

PubMed

The use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants in Singapore is not strictly regulated; therefore these compounds can be readily found in furniture, electronic devices, and building materials. This study was the first of its kind to be conducted in Singapore to measure concentrations of PBDEs in house dust. Samples were collected from 31 homes in various locations across the island-state of Singapore, and a total eight PBDEs congeners were measured. PBDEs were detected in all 31 dust samples and the number of BDE congener detected per home ranged between 3 and 8. The most abundant BDE congeners found were BDE 47, 99 and 209, with a median value of 20 ng g(-1) dust, 24 ng g(-1) dust and 1000 ng g(-1) dust, respectively. BDE 209 contributed 88% to the median of all the congeners, and BDE 47 and 99 contributed 1.8% and 3.5%, respectively. Different congener profiles were observed between this and studies conducted elsewhere, which is consistent with the use of different commercial PBDE around the world. No significant correlations between PBDE dust levels and residential characteristics (number of TVs and computers, floor area or flooring material) were observed. The daily intake of PBDEs via the inhalation pathway was estimated. House dust may be regarded as the most important exposure route of PBDEs for children. PMID:16949640

Tan, Jing; Cheng, Si Min; Loganath, Annamalai; Chong, Yap Seng; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

2006-09-01

30

House Dust Endotoxin and Allergic Sensitization in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A higher exposure to endotoxin was hypothesized to contribute to protective effects on atopy development by activating type-1 lower prevalence of allergic sensitization and hay fever in children T-helper cell responses on the other (9). growing up on a farm. We studied the association between house Endotoxins are more or less ubiquitous in the environment dust endotoxin and allergic sensitization.

Ulrike Gehring; Wolfgang Bischof; Barbel Fahlbusch; Heinz-Erich Wichmann; Joachim Heinrich

31

DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING A LEAD DUST MONITORING, OUTREACH AND EDUCATION PROGRAM IN YOUR COMMUNITY/SYRACUSE LEAD DUST PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed a technology transfer document (case-study) for the EMPACT Syracuse Lead Dust Project. The Lead Dust Project is designed to measure the lead dust content in homes and public buildings within the City of Syracuse, NY. The project also contains an educational comp...

32

Innate Immune Responses in House Dust Mite Allergy  

PubMed Central

Sensitizations to house dust mites (HDM) trigger strong exacerbated allergen-induced inflammation of the skin and airways mucosa from atopic subjects resulting in atopic dermatitis as well as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Initially, the Th2-biased HDM allergic response was considered to be mediated only by allergen B- and T-cell epitopes to promote allergen-specific IgE production as well as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 to recruit inflammatory cells. But this general molecular model of HDM allergenicity must be revisited as a growing literature suggests that stimulations of innate immune activation pathways by HDM allergens offer new answers to the following question: what makes an HDM allergen an allergen? Indeed, HDM is a carrier not only for allergenic proteins but also microbial adjuvant compounds, both of which are able to stimulate innate signaling pathways leading to allergy. This paper will describe the multiple ways used by HDM allergens together with microbial compounds to control the initiation of the allergic response through engagement of innate immunity.

Jacquet, Alain

2013-01-01

33

Innate immune responses in house dust mite allergy.  

PubMed

Sensitizations to house dust mites (HDM) trigger strong exacerbated allergen-induced inflammation of the skin and airways mucosa from atopic subjects resulting in atopic dermatitis as well as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Initially, the Th2-biased HDM allergic response was considered to be mediated only by allergen B- and T-cell epitopes to promote allergen-specific IgE production as well as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 to recruit inflammatory cells. But this general molecular model of HDM allergenicity must be revisited as a growing literature suggests that stimulations of innate immune activation pathways by HDM allergens offer new answers to the following question: what makes an HDM allergen an allergen? Indeed, HDM is a carrier not only for allergenic proteins but also microbial adjuvant compounds, both of which are able to stimulate innate signaling pathways leading to allergy. This paper will describe the multiple ways used by HDM allergens together with microbial compounds to control the initiation of the allergic response through engagement of innate immunity. PMID:23724247

Jacquet, Alain

2013-02-28

34

Application of Neutral Electrolyzed Water Spray for Reducing Dust Levels in a Layer Breeding House  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing airborne dust is an essential process for improving hen housing environment. Dust reduction effects of neutral electrolyzed water (pH 8.2) spray were investigated in a commercial tunnel-ventilated layer breeding house during production in Northern China. A multi-point sampler was used to measure airborne dust concentration to study the dust reduction effects and distribution in the house. Compared to the

Weichao Zheng; Baoming Li; Wei Cao; Guoqiang Zhang; Zhanyong Yang

2012-01-01

35

Immunomodulation of Skin Cytokine Secretion by House Dust Mite Extracts  

PubMed Central

Background Skin contact with house dust mites may contribute to atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases. We sought to determine if molecules from house dust mites could influence the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines from epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts grown in a human skin equivalent (HSE) model. Methods HSEs consisting of an epidermis of keratinocytes with stratum corneum over a dermis of fibroblasts in a collagen matrix were challenged with Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus and Euroglyphus maynei mite extracts. Results HSEs secreted interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-8, cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine, transforming growth factor-?, granulocyte/macrophage and macrophage colony-stimulating factors and vascular endothelial cell growth factor in response to at least 1 mite extract. Extracts of different mite species stimulated HSEs to release different cytokines. Therefore, extracts of different species contained different molecules or different concentrations of similar molecules. The cytokine release profiles of cells in the HSEs were not the same as for monocultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Conclusions Molecules from house dust mites are capable of inducing the release of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines from epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Avoiding skin contact with house dust mites would reduce the possibility of mite-induced inflammation in the skin. Therefore, measures to reduce contact with mite molecules such as frequent vacuuming of upholstered furniture and carpets and laundering of clothing and bedding to remove mite molecules and allergens could reduce skin contact with mite molecules and diminish exacerbations of skin inflammation in patients with atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases.

Arlian, Larry G.; Morgan, Marjorie S.

2011-01-01

36

Monitoring and reducing exposure of infants to pollutants in house dust.  

PubMed

The health risks to babies from pollutants in house dust may be 100 times greater than for adults. The young ingest more dust and are up to ten times more vulnerable to such exposures. House dust is the main exposure source for infants to allergens, lead, and PBDEs, as well as a major source of exposure to pesticides, PAHs, Gram-negative bacteria, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, phthalates, phenols, and other EDCs, mutagens, and carcinogens. Median or upper percentile concentrations in house dust of lead and several pesticides and PAHs may exceed health-based standards in North America. Early contact with pollutants among the very young is associated with higher rates of chronic illness such as asthma, loss of intelligence, ADHD, and cancer in children and adults. The potential of infants, who live in areas with soil contaminated by automotive and industrial emissions, can be given more protection by improved home cleaning and hand washing. Babies who live in houses built before 1978 have a prospective need for protection against lead exposures; homes built before 1940 have even higher lead exposure risks. The concentration of pollutants in house dust may be 2-32 times higher than that found in the soil near a house. Reducing infant exposures, at this critical time in their development, may reduce lifetime health costs, improve early learning, and increase adult productivity. Some interventions show a very rapid payback. Two large studies provide evidence that home visits to reduce the exposure of children with poorly controlled asthma triggers may return more than 100% on investment in 1 yr in reduced health costs. The tools provided to families during home visits, designed to reduce dust exposures, included vacuum cleaners with dirt finders and HEPA filtration, allergy control bedding covers, high-quality door mats, and HEPA air filters. Infants receive their highest exposure to pollutants in dust at home, where they spend the most time, and where the family has the most mitigation control. Normal vacuum cleaning allows deep dust to build up in carpets where it can be brought to the surface and become airborne as a result of activity on the carpet. Vacuums with dirt finders allow families to use the three-spot test to monitor deep dust, which can reinforce good cleaning habits. Motivated families that receive home visits from trained outreach workers can monitor and reduce dust exposures by 90% or more in 1 wk. The cost of such visits is low considering the reduction of risks achieved. Improved home cleaning is one of the first results observed among families who receive home visits from MHEs and CHWs. We believe that proven intervention methods can reduce the exposure of infants to pollutants in house dust, while recognizing that much remains to be learned about improving the effectiveness of such methods. PMID:19484587

Roberts, John W; Wallace, Lance A; Camann, David E; Dickey, Philip; Gilbert, Steven G; Lewis, Robert G; Takaro, Tim K

2009-01-01

37

Application of Synchrotron Microprobe Methods to Solid-Phase Speciation of Metals and Metalloids in House Dust  

SciTech Connect

Determination of the source and form of metals in house dust is important to those working to understand human and particularly childhood exposure to metals in residential environments. We report the development of a synchrotron microprobe technique for characterization of multiple metal hosts in house dust. We have applied X-ray fluorescence for chemical characterization and X-ray diffraction for crystal structure identification using microfocused synchrotron X-rays at a less than 10 {micro}m spot size. The technique has been evaluated by application to archived house dust samples containing elevated concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Ba in bedroom dust, and Pb and As in living room dust. The technique was also applied to a sample of soil from the corresponding garden to identify linkages between indoor and outdoor sources of metals. Paint pigments including white lead (hydrocerussite) and lithopone (wurtzite and barite) are the primary source of Pb, Zn, and Ba in bedroom dust, probably related to renovation activity in the home at the time of sampling. The much lower Pb content in the living room dust shows a relationship to the exterior soil and no specific evidence of Pb and Zn from the bedroom paint pigments. The technique was also successful at confirming the presence of chromated copper arsenate treated wood as a source of As in the living room dust. The results of the study have confirmed the utility of this approach in identifying specific metal forms within the dust.

S Walker; H Jamieson; P Rasmussen

2011-12-31

38

Modeling dust-borne odor dynamics in swine housing based on age and size distributions of airborne dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we derive a mathematical model characterizing the adsorption of odor on the surface of airborne dust in swine housing based on the concept of homogeneous surface diffusion of a complete mixing airflow system. The philosophy of the paper is to incorporate the age and size distributions of airborne dust into the diffusion model for evaluating the dust-borne

Chung-Min Liao; Sher Singh

1998-01-01

39

MITE ANTIGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN HOUSE DUST AND THE OCCURRENCE OF WHEEZING IN CHILDREN WITH MITE DUST ALLERGY  

EPA Science Inventory

We studied the relationship between dust mite antigen concentrations in house dust samples and the occurrence and frequency of wheezing in 58 children with dust mite allergy (wheal > 4 mm. mean diameter in response to a prick test with either D-. farinae or D pteronyssinus antige...

40

Reliability of spot test kits for detecting lead in household dust.  

PubMed

There has been a long-standing need for a technique that can provide fast, accurate and precise results regarding the presence of hazardous levels of lead in settled house dust. Several home testing kits are now available. One kit manufactured by Hybrivet (LeadCheck Swabs) is advertised as able to detect lead dust levels that exceed the US Environmental Protection Agency's dust lead standard for floors (40 microg/ft(2)). The purpose of the study was to determine the ability of LeadCheck Swabs to instantly detect lead in dust above EPA's hazard standard. A trained risk assessor collected 200 LeadCheck Swab samples side-by-side with standard dust wipe samples. The result of the LeadCheck Swab (positive (pink or red) or negative (yellow to brown)) was compared with the laboratory results for the corresponding dust wipe (over or under 40 microg/ft(2)). The LeadCheck Swabs produced a false negative rate of 64% (95% confidence interval: 55%, 72%). The likelihood of a swab producing a false negative depended on substrate (painted or non-painted) and surface type (floor or sill). Changing the interpretation rule by classifying all swab colors except yellow as positive yielded lower false negative rates under some test conditions, but still produced high error rates. LeadCheck Swabs do not reliably detect levels of lead in dust above 40 microg/ft(2) using published methods under field conditions. Further research into alternate methodologies and interpretation guidance is needed to determine whether the swabs can be appropriately used by consumers and others to test homes for lead dust hazards. PMID:17434162

Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Dixon, Sherry

2007-04-16

41

Lead from dust and water as exposure sources for children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the Edinburgh Lead Study are used to estimate the respective contributions of water and dust lead to blood lead in 6–9 year old children. Both sources are significantly related to blood lead. An exposure of 100 ?g\\/l in kitchen cold water is estimated to be equivalent to 2700 ?g\\/g of lead in dust. In this population water is

Gillian M. Raab; Duncan P. H. Laxen; Mary Fulton

1987-01-01

42

Variability of house-dust-mite allergen levels within carpets.  

PubMed

Sensitization and exposure to house-dust-mite allergens is an important cause of asthma. Standardized, reliable, and reproducible methods for measuring exposure are essential for the assessment of the relationship between exposure, sensitization, and asthma. This study investigated the variability of the house-dust-mite allergen Der p 1 concentration in reservoir dust collected within whole carpets in living rooms and bedrooms. The carpets of nine bedrooms and 11 living rooms were sampled. Each room was divided into 1 m2 areas measured from wall to wall where the carpet was accessible. Reservoir dust samples were collected by vacuuming each 1 m2 area for 2 min. Der p 1 was assayed by a two-site monoclonal-antibody-based immunometric ELISA. Der p 1 was detectable in the carpets of all nine bedrooms and six of the 11 living rooms. Within these 15 rooms, there was a wide range of Der p 1 levels. The smallest range of allergen within a single room was 0.9 microgram Der p 1/g dust (0.2 and 1.1 micrograms/g; 5.5-fold difference), and the largest was 149.2 micrograms Der p 1/g dust (0.8 and 150 micrograms/g; 192-fold difference). The mean range of allergen levels in the living rooms was 11.5 micrograms Der p 1/g of dust, and the mean coefficient of variation of these rooms was 80.2%, illustrating the huge variation of mite allergen levels within each room. The variation within bedrooms was also large, with a mean coefficient of variation value of 88.7%. The coefficient of variation was significantly lower around soft furnishings or beds (57%) than in the rest of the room (89.3%), with the mean difference being 32% (95% CI 2-63%; P = 0.04). In conclusion, this study has shown that there is a great variation of Der p 1 levels between areas within a room. No consistent pattern of distribution of mite allergen within a room was found. Der p 1 levels in areas around soft furnishings and beds varied less than the levels in the rest of the room. PMID:9689342

Simpson, A; Hassall, R; Custovic, A; Woodcock, A

1998-06-01

43

The prevalence of lead-based paint hazards in U.S. housing.  

PubMed Central

In this study we estimated the number of housing units in the United States with lead-based paint and lead-based paint hazards. We included measurements of lead in intact and deteriorated paint, interior dust, and bare soil. A nationally representative, random sample of 831 housing units was evaluated in a survey between 1998 and 2000; the units and their occupants did not differ significantly from nationwide characteristics. Results indicate that 38 million housing units had lead-based paint, down from the 1990 estimate of 64 million. Twenty-four million had significant lead-based paint hazards. Of those with hazards, 1.2 million units housed low-income families (< 30,000 US dollars/year) with children under 6 years of age. Although 17% of government-supported, low-income housing had hazards, 35% of all low-income housing had hazards. For households with incomes greater than or equal to 30,000 US dollars/year, 19% had hazards. Fourteen percent of all houses had significantly deteriorated lead-based paint, and 16% and 7%, respectively, had dust lead and soil lead levels above current standards of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The prevalence of lead-based paint and hazards increases with age of housing, but most painted surfaces, even in older housing, do not have lead-based paint. Between 2% and 25% of painted building components were coated with lead-based paint. Housing in the Northeast and Midwest had about twice the prevalence of hazards compared with housing in the South and West. The greatest risk occurs in older units with lead-based paint hazards that either will be or are currently occupied by families with children under 6 years of age and are low-income and/or are undergoing renovation or maintenance that disturbs lead-based paint. This study also confirms projections made in 2000 by the President's Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children of the number of houses with lead-based paint hazards. Public- and private-sector resources should be directed to units posing the greatest risk if future lead poisoning is to be prevented.

Jacobs, David E; Clickner, Robert P; Zhou, Joey Y; Viet, Susan M; Marker, David A; Rogers, John W; Zeldin, Darryl C; Broene, Pamela; Friedman, Warren

2002-01-01

44

Analysis of brominated flame retardants in house dust.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to create a robust analytical method to analyse the flame retardants decabromodiphenylether (BDE-209), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) in house dust in order to estimate the degree of contamination of indoor environment. A liquid chromatography method equipped with a UV-detector and electro spray-tandem mass spectrometry was used to achieve this result. Applying an external calibration for BDE-209, an internal calibration for TBBPA, and a standard addition method for HBCD low limits of quantification were obtained. The analytical procedure was carried out under exclusion of UV-light as the target compounds potentially degrade when being exposed to UV-light. Empirical data were obtained in addition to the dust samples to estimate potential influences of apartment characteristics. A weak correlation between the number of electric devices and TBBPA was found. PMID:21724229

Abb, Magdalena; Stahl, Beate; Lorenz, Wilhelm

2011-07-02

45

House dust mite control measures in the treatment of asthma  

PubMed Central

Sensitization to the house dust mite (Dermataphagoides pteronyssinus) (HDM) is the most common risk factor associated with the development of asthma in adults and children. The effectiveness of HDM control measures in the treatment of asthma is not yet proven. The strategies for control for avoidance depend on our understanding of the biology of the HDM. The evidence suggests a favorable effect of transferring allergic asthmatic children to naturally low dust mite environments, such as at altitude or in hospital, but little to suggest that this can be replicated in general practice by simple practical measures such as mattress covers. However, a recent multi-allergen reduction approach has suggested benefits may be achievable. HDM densities tend to be high in warm, humid conditions in the home, which may be modified by external factors, such as ventilation. However, ventilation control to reduce indoor humidity has had inconsistent effects on dust mite levels and asthma. The challenge is to further refine the interventions in large placebo-controlled trials such that clinical outcomes may be more easily demonstrated.

Vallance, Gillian; McSharry, Charles; Wood, Stuart; Thomson, Neil C

2006-01-01

46

Is permanent parasitism reversible?--critical evidence from early evolution of house dust mites.  

PubMed

Long-term specialization may limit the ability of a species to respond to new environmental conditions and lead to a higher likelihood of extinction. For permanent parasites and other symbionts, the most intriguing question is whether these organisms can return to a free-living lifestyle and, thus, escape an evolutionary "dead end." This question is directly related to Dollo's law, which stipulates that a complex trait (such as being free living vs. parasitic) cannot re-evolve again in the same form. Here, we present conclusive evidence that house dust mites, a group of medically important free-living organisms, evolved from permanent parasites of warm-blooded vertebrates. A robust, multigene topology (315 taxa, 8942 nt), ancestral character state reconstruction, and a test for irreversible evolution (Dollo's law) demonstrate that house dust mites have abandoned a parasitic lifestyle, secondarily becoming free living, and then speciated in several habitats. Hence, as exemplified by this model system, highly specialized permanent parasites may drastically de-specialize to the extent of becoming free living and, thus escape from dead-end evolution. Our phylogenetic and historical ecological framework explains the limited cross-reactivity between allergens from the house dust mites and "storage" mites and the ability of the dust mites to inhibit host immune responses. It also provides insights into how ancestral features related to parasitism (frequent ancestral shifts to unrelated hosts, tolerance to lower humidity, and pre-existing enzymes targeting skin and keratinous materials) played a major role in reversal to the free-living state. We propose that parasitic ancestors of pyroglyphids shifted to nests of vertebrates. Later the nest-inhabiting pyroglyphids expanded into human dwellings to become a major source of allergens. PMID:23417682

Klimov, Pavel B; OConnor, Barry

2013-02-15

47

Orchestrating house dust mite-associated allergy in the lung  

PubMed Central

House dust mites (HDM; Dermatophagoides sp.) are one of the commonest aeroallergens worldwide and up to 85% of asthmatics are typically HDM allergic. Allergenicity is associated both with the mites themselves and with ligands derived from mite-associated bacterial and fungal products. Murine models of allergic airways disease for asthma research have recently switched from the use of surrogate allergen ovalbumin together with adjuvant to use of the HDM extract. This has accelerated understanding of how adaptive and innate immunity generate downstream pathology. We review the myriad ways in which HDM allergic responses are orchestrated. Understanding the molecular pathways that elicit HDM-associated pathology is likely to reveal novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

Gregory, Lisa G.; Lloyd, Clare M.

2012-01-01

48

Methodology for Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Other Semivolatile Organic Compounds in House Dust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small field study was conducted to evaluate the role of smokers in the house on the levels of PAH, cotinine, and nicotine present in house dust. Samples were collected from eight houses, using the High Volume Small Surface Sampler (HVS3) to collect carp...

J. C. Chuang P. J. Callahan S. M. Gordon N. K. Wilson R. G. Lewis

1993-01-01

49

Is house-dust nicotine a good surrogate for household smoking?  

PubMed

The literature is inconsistent regarding associations between parental smoking and childhood leukemia, possibly because previous studies used self-reported smoking habits as surrogates for children's true exposures to cigarette smoke. Here, the authors investigated the use of nicotine concentrations in house dust as measures of children's exposure to cigarette smoke in 469 households from the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (1999-2007). House dust was collected by using high-volume surface samplers and household vacuum cleaners and was analyzed for nicotine via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using multivariable linear regression, the authors evaluated the effects of self-reported parental smoking, parental demographics, house characteristics, and other covariates on house-dust nicotine concentrations. They observed that nicotine concentrations in house dust were associated with self-reported smoking for periods of months and years before dust collection. Furthermore, the authors found that the relation between nicotine dust levels and self-reported smoking varied by parental age and socioeconomic status. These findings suggest that house-dust nicotine concentrations reflect long-term exposures to cigarette smoke in the home and that they may be less biased surrogates for children's exposures to cigarette smoke than self-reported smoking habits. PMID:19299402

Whitehead, Todd; Metayer, Catherine; Ward, Mary H; Nishioka, Marcia G; Gunier, Robert; Colt, Joanne S; Reynolds, Peggy; Selvin, Steve; Buffler, Patricia; Rappaport, Stephen M

2009-03-18

50

DISTRIBUTION OF PESTICIDES AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN HOUSE DUST AS A FUNCTION OF PARTICLE SIZE  

EPA Science Inventory

House dust is a repository for environmental pollutants that may accumulate indoors from both internal and external sources over long periods of time. Dust and tracked-in soil accumulate most efficiently in carpets, and the pollutants associated with it may present an exposure...

51

Occurrence of Respiratory Symptoms Resulting from Exposure to House Dust Mites in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of house dust mite (HDM) allergens within homes of three-year-old children, to identify factors responsible for its variation and to test the hypothesis whether the content of HDM allergens exceeding 2 [mu]g/g dust may be regarded as a risk level of sensitization possibly affecting respiratory…

Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Zembala, Marek; Hajto, Barbara; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata; Perera, Frederica P.

2009-01-01

52

72. INTERIOR VIEW, HEAD HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, HALLWAY LEADING TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

72. INTERIOR VIEW, HEAD HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, HALLWAY LEADING TO BLUE OX BAR, LOOKING EAST (ORIGINAL EXTERIOR STONE WALL TO RIGHT) - Timberline Lodge, Timberline Trail, Government Camp, Clackamas County, OR

53

[Use of dust and air as indicators of environmental pollution in areas adjacent to a source of stationary lead emission].  

PubMed

This study measured lead concentrations in both the outdoor air and household dust from houses located around a lead-acid battery repair shop. Such installations are one of the largest sources of lead exposure, since outdated technology is still used, coupled with the lack of strict air-quality control programs. Measurements of the air lead concentration around the repair shop were carried out at 6 points, approximately 25 and 500 m from the shop. Over 50% of the air samples exceeded the limit of 1.5 microg Pb.m-3 (range 0.03 - 183.3 microg Pb.m-3). House dust samples were collected from 6 places in houses located at approximately 25, 50, and 500 m from the repair shop, and the concentration of 1,500 microg Pb.m-2 for lead in house dust was exceeded in 44% of the samples, with results varying from 2.2 to 54,338.9 microg Pb.m-2. PMID:11395788

Quiterio, S L; da Silva, C R; Vaitsman, D S; Martinhon, P T; Moreira, M F; Araújo, U C; Mattos, R C; Santos, L S

54

Microchemical investigations of dust emitted by a lead smelter  

SciTech Connect

Dusts emitted by an important pyrometallurgical lead smelter have been sampled within the pipes of the grilling and furnace working units before and after the filtering systems, respectively. Particle size distribution, elementary analyses, and X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicate PbS, PbSO{sub 4}, PbSO{sub 4}{center_dot}PbO, Pb, ZnS small particles less than 5 {micro}m in size to contribute mainly to the current atmospheric pollution. Although at least 90% of dust are retained on the filters, the amounts of the respirable smaller particles are significantly larger in the current emission. The average chemical speciation was found to be analogous for the dust samples collected before and after the filters. The scanning electron microscopy associated with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and Raman microspectrometry established the morphology and chemical composition at the level of individual particles. A lot of minor compounds were found as small heterogeneous individual particles in the heterogeneous particles of grilling dust. Among the homogeneous particles of furnace dust, amorphous C, {beta}-PbO, PbO-PbCl{sub 2}, FeO, CdS, CdSO{sub 4} were often detected as homogeneous mixtures with the major compounds within the particles.

Sobanska, S.; Ricq, N. [Ecole des Mines de Douai (France). Dept. Chimie et Environnement]|[Univ. de Lille I, Villeneuve d`Ascq (France); Laboudigue, A.; Guillermo, R. [Ecole des Mines de Douai (France). Dept. Chimie et Environnement; Bremard, C.; Laureyns, J.; Merlin, J.C.; Wignacourt, J.P. [Univ. de Lille I, Villeneuve d`Ascq (France)

1999-05-01

55

Relationships between Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in House Dust and Serum  

PubMed Central

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been measured in the home environment and in humans, but studies linking environmental levels to body burdens are limited. This study examines the relationship between PBDE concentrations in house dust and serum from adults residing in these homes. We measured PBDE concentrations in house dust from 50 homes and in serum of male-female couples from 12 of the homes. Detection rates, dust-serum and within-matrix correlations varied by PBDE congener. There was a strong correlation (r = 0.65–0.89, p < 0.05) between dust and serum concentrations of several predominant PBDE congeners (BDE 47, 99 and 100). Dust and serum levels of BDE 153 were not correlated (r < 0.01). The correlation of dust and serum levels of BDE 209 could not be evaluated due to low detection rates of BDE 209 in serum. Serum concentrations of the sum of BDE 47, 99, and 100 were also strongly correlated within couples (r = 0.85, p = 0.0005). This study provides evidence that house dust is a primary exposure pathway of PBDEs and supports the use of dust PBDE concentrations as a marker for exposure to PBDE congeners other than BDE 153.

Johnson, Paula I.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Sjodin, Andreas; Meeker, John D.

2010-01-01

56

Application of neutral electrolyzed water spray for reducing dust levels in a layer breeding house.  

PubMed

Reducing airborne dust is an essential process for improving hen housing environment. Dust reduction effects of neutral electrolyzed water (pH 8.2) spray were investigated in a commercial tunnel-ventilated layer breeding house during production in northern China. A multipoint sampler was used to measure airborne dust concentration to study the dust reduction effects and distribution in the house. Compared with the control treatment (without spray), airborne dust level was reduced 34% in the 3 hr after spraying 216 mL m(-2) neutral electrolyzed water in the breeding house. The dust concentration was significantly higher during the periods of feed distribution (1.13 +/- 0.13 mg m(-3)) and artificial insemination (0.72 +/- 0.13 mg m(-3)) compared with after spray (0.47 +/- 0.09 mg m(-3)) and during lights-off period (0.29 +/- 0.08 mg m(-3)) in the three consecutive testing days (P <0.05). The experimental cage area was divided into four zones along the length of the house, with zone 1 nearest to the evaporative cooling pad and zone 4 nearest to the fans. The air temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, and dust concentration were measured at the sampling points of the four zones in 3 consecutive days and mortality of the birds for the duration of a month were investigated. The results showed that the air temperature, airflow rate, dust concentration, and number of dead birds increase from zone 1 to zone 4 in the tunnel-ventilated layer breeding house. PMID:23210224

Zheng, Weichao; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yang, Zhanyong

2012-11-01

57

Critical factors in assessing exposure to PBDEs via house dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of indoor exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) requires a critical examination of methods that may influence exposure estimates and comparisons between studies. We measured PBDEs in residential dust collected from 20 homes in Boston, MA, to examine 5 key questions: 1) Does the choice of dust exposure metric—e.g., concentration (ng\\/g) or dust loading (ng\\/m2)—affect analysis and results? 2)

Joseph G. Allen; Michael D. McClean; Heather M. Stapleton; Thomas F. Webster

2008-01-01

58

Dust mites population in indoor houses of suspected allergic patients of South assam, India.  

PubMed

Background. In the present study, quality and quantity of indoor dust mites was evaluated at the residence of 150 atopic allergic patients from four different districts of South Assam. Methods. Suspected patients with case history of allergic disease were selected for indoor survey. Dust samples (500?mg) were collected from the selected patient's house and were analyzed using standard methods. Results. About 60% of the selected patients were found suffering from respiratory disorders and rest 40% from skin allergy. The dominant mites recorded from indoor dust samples were Dermatophagoides followed by Blomia, Acarus, and Cheyletus while Caloglyphus was recorded in least number. The distribution of mites on the basis of housing pattern indicates that RCC type of buildings supports maximum dust mite's population followed by Assam type (semi-RCC) buildings, and the lowest count was observed in wooden houses. Environmental factors like temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity are found to determine the indoor mite's population. Severity of allergic attack in some of the typical cases was found to be proportional to the allergen load of mites in the dust samples. Conclusions. The economic status, housing pattern, and local environmental factors determine the diversity and abundance of dust mites in indoor environment. PMID:23724231

Sharma, Dhruba; Dutta, B K; Singh, A B

2011-06-07

59

CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

60

Lead Test  

MedlinePLUS

... dust or lead chips Inhaling dust during a home renovation project on a house built before 1978, especially when ... toys to reduce lead dust contamination Avoid using home remedies that contain ... renovation or repair projects Don’t let children put objects in their ...

61

Elemental composition of airborne dust in the Shale Shaker House during an offshore drilling operation.  

PubMed

During 2 days of an offshore drilling operation in the North Sea, 16 airborne dust samples from the atmosphere of the Shale Shaker House were collected onto filters. During this operation, drilling mud composed of a water slurry of barite (BaSO4) together with minor amounts of additives, among them chrome lignosulphonate and chrome lignite, was circulated between the borehole and the Shale Shaker House. The concentration of airborne dust in the atmosphere was determined and the elemental composition of the particles analysed by both PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) and ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). The total amount of dust collected varied from 0.04 to 1.41 mg m-3 with barium (Ba) as the single most abundant element. The open shale shakers turned out to be the major cause of generation of dust from the solid components of the drilling mud. PMID:1768013

Hansen, A B; Larsen, E; Hansen, L V; Lyngsaae, M; Kunze, H

1991-12-01

62

Organophosphorous pesticide breakdown products in house dust and children's urine.  

PubMed

Human exposure to preformed dialkylphosphates (DAPs) in food or the environment may affect the reliability of DAP urinary metabolites as biomarkers of organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure. We conducted a study to investigate the presence of DAPs in indoor residential environments and their association with children's urinary DAP levels. We collected dust samples from homes in farmworker and urban communities (40 homes total, n=79 samples) and up to two urine samples from resident children ages 3-6 years. We measured six DAPs in all samples and eight DAP-devolving OP pesticides in a subset of dust samples (n=54). DAPs were detected in dust with diethylphosphate (DEP) being the most frequently detected (?60%); detection frequencies for other DAPs were ?50%. DEP dust concentrations did not significantly differ between communities, nor were concentrations significantly correlated with concentrations of chlorpyrifos and diazinon, the most frequently detected diethyl-OP pesticides (Spearman ?=-0.41 to 0.38, P>0.05). Detection of DEP, chlorpyrifos, or diazinon, was not associated with DEP and/or DEP+diethylthiophosphate detection in urine (Kappa coefficients=-0.33 to 0.16). Finally, estimated non-dietary ingestion intake from DEP in dust was found to be ?5% of the dose calculated from DEP levels in urine, suggesting that ingestion of dust is not a significant source of DAPs in urine if they are excreted unchanged. PMID:22781438

Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Bradman, Asa; Smith, Kimberly; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Barr, Dana Boyd; Nishioka, Marcia; Castorina, Rosemary; Hubbard, Alan E; Nicas, Mark; Hammond, S Katharine; McKone, Thomas E; Eskenazi, Brenda

2012-07-11

63

Cross-Antigenicity Between the Scabies Mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, and the House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrated that antigens of the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei (SS) cross-react with antigens of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus(DP). Crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CE) reaction of SS extract with rabbit anti-DP serum resulted in multiple immunoprecipitates. Reciprocal CIE reactions gave similar results. Immunoprecipitates from both reactions bound IgE in the sera of dust-mite – sensitive patients who had no

Larry G. Arlian; Diann L. Vyszenski-Moher; Salva G. Ahmed; Stephen A. Estes

1991-01-01

64

Replicating the cross-sectional distribution of house-dust mite allergen found in carpet  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a view to producing carpets that could be used to determine the ease of particulate aerosolisation during domestic activity, we measured the cross-sectional distribution of dust-mite allergen, Der p 1, produced using American Society for Testing and Materials method (ASTM F608–89) for embedding house dust in carpets with that produced by several alternative protocols. Allergen concentrations produced at different

S. M. Causer; C. Piper; C. L. Shorter; R. D. Lewis

2010-01-01

65

Human exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols, perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate via house dust in Bavaria, Germany.  

PubMed

This study aimed at investigating the presence and distribution of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in house dust to evaluate human exposure to these compounds via dust ingestion. 31 house dust samples were collected from Bavaria, Germany and analyzed for 4:2, 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 FTOH, PFOS and PFOA. PFOA was the dominant compound in 79% of the dust samples, followed by PFOS and 8:2 FTOH, while 4:2 FTOH was not detected in any samples. The total concentration of per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) varied from 32.2 to 2456 ng/g. In addition, the total ingestion rate for PFCs was 0.4-135 ng/d for adults and 5.1-246 ng/d for toddlers, and the highest 8:2 FTOH-based PFOA intake via indoor dust was 0.24 ng/d for adults and 0.44 ng/d for toddlers. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that dust ingestion is a minor pathway for human exposure to these PFCs; the PFC ingestion via indoor dust is generally low, and only under a worst scenario high intakes have to be expected for toddlers. PMID:23220138

Xu, Zhenlan; Fiedler, Stefan; Pfister, Gerd; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Mosch, Christine; Völkel, Wolfgang; Fromme, Hermann; Schramm, Karl-Werner

2012-12-04

66

A survey of spatially distributed exterior dust lead loadings in New York City  

SciTech Connect

This work documents ambient lead dust deposition values (lead loading) for the boroughs of New York City in 2003-2004. Currently, no regulatory standards exist for exterior concentrations of lead in settled dust. This is in contrast to the clearance and risk assessment standards that exist for interior residential dust. The reported potential for neurobehavioral toxicity and adverse cognitive development in children due to lead exposure prompts public health concerns about undocumented lead sources. Such sources may include settled dust of outdoor origin. Dust sampling throughout the five boroughs of NYC was done from the top horizontal portion of pedestrian traffic control signals (PTCS) at selected street intersections along main thoroughfares. The data (n=214 samples) show that lead in dust varies within each borough with Brooklyn having the highest median concentration (730{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), followed in descending order by Staten Island (452{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), the Bronx (382{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), Queens (198{mu}g/ft{sup 2}) and finally, Manhattan (175{mu}g/ft{sup 2}). When compared to the HUD/EPA indoor lead in dust standard of 40{mu}g/ft{sup 2}, our data show that this value is exceeded in 86% of the samples taken. An effort was made to determine the source of the lead in the dust atop of the PTCS. The lead in the dust and the yellow signage paint (which contains lead) were compared using isotopic ratio analysis. Results showed that the lead-based paint chip samples from intact signage did not isotopically match the dust wipe samples taken from the same surface. We know that exterior dust containing lead contributes to interior dust lead loading. Therefore, settled leaded dust in the outdoor environment poses a risk for lead exposure to children living in urban areas, namely, areas with elevated childhood blood lead levels and background lead dust levels from a variety of unidentified sources.

Caravanos, Jack [Hunter College-CUNY, School of Health Sciences (United States); Weiss, Arlene L. [Environmental Medicine Inc., 263 Center Avenue, Westwood, NJ 07675 (United States); School of Medicine, New York University, NY 10016 (United States); Blaise, Marc J. [Hunter College-CUNY, School of Health Sciences (United States); Jaeger, Rudolph J. [Environmental Medicine Inc., 263 Center Avenue, Westwood, NJ 07675 (United States) and School of Medicine, New York University, NY 10016 (United States)]. E-mail: jaegerr@envmed.com

2006-02-15

67

A survey of spatially distributed exterior dust lead loadings in New York City.  

PubMed

This work documents ambient lead dust deposition values (lead loading) for the boroughs of New York City in 2003-2004. Currently, no regulatory standards exist for exterior concentrations of lead in settled dust. This is in contrast to the clearance and risk assessment standards that exist for interior residential dust. The reported potential for neurobehavioral toxicity and adverse cognitive development in children due to lead exposure prompts public health concerns about undocumented lead sources. Such sources may include settled dust of outdoor origin. Dust sampling throughout the five boroughs of NYC was done from the top horizontal portion of pedestrian traffic control signals (PTCS) at selected street intersections along main thoroughfares. The data (n=214 samples) show that lead in dust varies within each borough with Brooklyn having the highest median concentration (730 microg/ft2), followed in descending order by Staten Island (452 microg/ft2), the Bronx (382 microg/ft2), Queens (198 microg/ft2) and finally, Manhattan (175 microg/ft2). When compared to the HUD/EPA indoor lead in dust standard of 40 microg/ft2, our data show that this value is exceeded in 86% of the samples taken. An effort was made to determine the source of the lead in the dust atop of the PTCS. The lead in the dust and the yellow signage paint (which contains lead) were compared using isotopic ratio analysis. Results showed that the lead-based paint chip samples from intact signage did not isotopically match the dust wipe samples taken from the same surface. We know that exterior dust containing lead contributes to interior dust lead loading. Therefore, settled leaded dust in the outdoor environment poses a risk for lead exposure to children living in urban areas, namely, areas with elevated childhood blood lead levels and background lead dust levels from a variety of unidentified sources. PMID:16005864

Caravanos, Jack; Weiss, Arlene L; Blaise, Marc J; Jaeger, Rudolph J

2005-07-11

68

FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF LEAD PAINT ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN RESIDENTIAL HOUSING  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted to demonstrate lead-based paint (LBP) removal from architectural wood components in CO2 unoccupied residential housing using four technologies: granular carbon dioxide (CO2 blasting), pelletized CO2 blasting, encapsulant paint remover, and wet abrasive bl...

69

Lead concentration in Hong Kong roadside dust after reduction of lead level in petrol  

SciTech Connect

Samples of roadside dust were collected from 30 sites in Hong Kong. The total concentrations of 10 metals in the samples were analyzed, and the correlation coefficients among the metal contents and the annual average daily traffic (AADT) in 1986 were determined. Pb was found to have a significant correlation (P less than 0.01) with AADT. No correlation was found between Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn with respect to AADT. A general decrease in the level of Pb in roadside dust in the past few years has been observed since the reduction in the level of lead in petrol.

Chan, G.Y.; Chui, V.W.; Wong, M.H. (Hong Kong Baptist College, Kowloon (Hong Kong))

1989-06-01

70

Exposure to house dust mite allergens and the clinical activity of asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: House dust mite allergens play an important role in inducing IgE-mediated sensitization and the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma. This study investigated the relationship between mite allergen exposure and the clinical activity and severity of asthma. Methods: Nonsmoking adult patients with asthma (n = 53) were randomly recruited from the asthma registry of two large family practitioner

Adnan Custovic; Simon C. O. Taggart; Helen C. Francis; Martin D. Chapman; Ashley Woodcock

1996-01-01

71

Factors influencing the clinical picture and the differential sensitization to house dust mites and storage mites.  

PubMed

Sensitization to house dust mites and storage mites has been studied in a number of papers, but several environmental factors and clinical conditions that differently affect sensitization to these mites are still controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of climatic conditions, occupation and patient age in the differential sensitization to house dust and storage mites, and also to search for possible different symptoms caused by each group of mites. Eighty patients sensitized to mites but not to other inhalant allergens were studied by case history and by skin prick test and serum IgE to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Dermatophagoides farinae, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. Home conditions, including content of the allergens Der p 1, Der f 1, Lep d 2 and Tp, were determined for all patients. Human activities, such as farming or similar occupations, and humidity are conditions for preferential sensitization to storage mites, while we found no difference between living in rural or urban areas. Mean age for the onset of sensitization was 6.7 years for house dust mites and 18.7 years for storage mites. Conjunctivitis was more frequent in patients allergic to storage mites, whereas perioral syndrome (itching of the tongue and swelling of the lips) was only seen in patients sensitized to T. putrescentiae. We concluded that climatic and damp conditions and human activity, but not urban or rural living environments, influence the differential sensitization to house dust mites and storage mites. PMID:11039840

Boquete, M; Carballada, F; Armisen, M; Nieto, A; Martín, S; Polo, F; Carreira, J

72

Ultrasonic Extraction/Anodic Stripping Voltammertry for Determining Lead in Dust: A Laboratory Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previously published laboratory studies have indicated that ultrasonic extraction/anodic stripping voltammetry (UE/ASV) may be suitable for quantitative field analysis of dust wipe samples. Nevertheless, on-site lead extraction and analysis of dust wipes ...

W. J. Rossiter B. Toman M. E. McKnight I. Emenanjo M. B. Anaraki

2004-01-01

73

Analysis of soil and house dust for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Final report, July 1995-January 1996  

SciTech Connect

It has been conjectured that jet turbine exhaust near airplane flight paths may result in significant human exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) arranged access to a household located approximately eight miles from the end of a runway at the Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky Airport, and collected soil, wipe, and dust samples in and around the household. A total of 19 PAH ranging from naphthalene (2-ring) to coronene (7-ring) were measured. The general concentration trend for the 19 PAH is house dust > entryway dust > soil. The house dust samples were colleted inside the household and the entryway dust and soil samples were collected outside. Seven of the target PAH are ranked as probable human carcinogens (B2) in the U.S. EPA`s Integrated Risk Information System. The concentrations of B2 PAH account for roughly half of the concentrations of the sums of 19 PAH in most soil and dust samples but not in wipe samples.

Chuang, J.C.

1996-07-01

74

Lead Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... can become contaminated from household dust or exterior soil. Both are known lead sources. Regularly wet-mop ... of lead. Move play areas away from bare soil and away from the sides of the house . ...

75

Molecular identification of house dust mites and storage mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mites are known causes of allergic diseases. Currently, identification of mites based on morphology is difficult if only one\\u000a mite is isolated from a (dust) sample, or when only one gender is found, or when the specimen is not intact especially with\\u000a the loss of the legs. The purpose of this study was to use polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length

Shew Fung Wong; Ai Ling Chong; Joon Wah Mak; Jessie Tan; Suk Jiun Ling; Tze Ming Ho

76

Urinary Metabolites of Organophosphate Flame Retardants: Temporal Variability and Correlations with House Dust Concentrations  

PubMed Central

Background: A reduction in the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) because of human health concerns may result in an increased use of and human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). Human exposure and health studies of OPFRs are lacking. Objectives: We sought to define the degree of temporal variability in urinary OPFR metabolites in order to inform epidemiologic study design, and to explore a potential primary source of exposure by examining the relationship between OPFRs in house dust and their metabolites in urine. Methods: Nine repeated urine samples were collected from 7 men over the course of 3 months and analyzed for bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP) and diphenyl phosphate (DPP), metabolites of the OPFRs tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP), respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to characterize temporal reliability. Paired house dust and urine samples were collected from 45 men. Results: BDCPP was detected in 91% of urine samples, and DPP in 96%. Urinary BDCPP showed moderate-to-strong temporal reliability (ICC range, 0.55–0.72). ICCs for DPP were lower, but moderately reliable (range, 0.35–0.51). There was a weak [Spearman r (rS) = 0.31] but significant (p = 0.03) correlation between urinary BDCPP and TDCPP concentrations in house dust that strengthened when nondetects (rS = 0.47) were excluded. There was no correlation between uncorrected DPP and TPP measured in house dust (rS < 0.1). Conclusions: Household dust may be an important source of exposure to TDCPP but not TPP. Urinary concentrations of BDCPP and DPP were moderately to highly reliable within individuals over 3 months.

Cooper, Ellen M.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Hauser, Russ

2013-01-01

77

Application of Synchrotron X-ray Techniques for the Determination of Metal Speciation in (House) Dust Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An overview of synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption and scattering techniques for characterizing the speciation of\\u000a metals in complex, heterogeneous samples, such as house dust, is presented. The complementary techniques are demonstrated\\u000a on a house dust sample elevated in Pb (1,670 mg kg?1). The X-ray techniques successfully identified the speciation and sources of Pb in house dust samples, and provided an explanation\\u000a for

Lachlan C. W. MacLean; Suzanne Beauchemin; Pat E. Rasmussen

78

Distribution of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in house dust as a function of particle size.  

PubMed Central

House dust is a repository for environmental pollutants that may accumulate indoors from both internal and external sources over long periods of time. Dust and tracked-in soil accumulate most efficiently in carpets, and the pollutants associated with dust and soil may present an exposure risk to infants and toddlers, who spend significant portions of their time in contact with or in close proximity to the floor and who engage in frequent mouthing activities. The availability of carpet dust for exposure by transfer to the skin or by suspension into the air depends on particle size. In this study, a large sample of residential house dust was obtained from a commercial cleaning service whose clients were homeowners residing in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill (Research Triangle) area of North Carolina. The composite dust was separated into seven size fractions ranging from < 4 to 500 microm in diameter, and each fraction was analyzed for 28 pesticides and 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Over 20% of the fractionated dust sample consisted of particles < 25 microm in diameter. Fourteen pesticides and all 10 of the target PAHs were detected in one or more of the seven size-fractionated samples. Sample concentrations reported range from 0.02 to 22 microg/g; the synthetic pyrethroids cis- and trans-permethrin were the most abundant pesticide residue. The concentrations of nearly all of the target analytes increased gradually with decreasing particle size for the larger particles, then increased dramatically for the two smallest particle sizes (4-25 microm and < 4 microm). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Lewis, R G; Fortune, C R; Willis, R D; Camann, D E; Antley, J T

1999-01-01

79

Development of a simultaneous extraction and cleanup method for pyrethroid pesticides from indoor house dust samples.  

PubMed

An efficient and reliable analytical method was developed for the sensitive and selective quantification of pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs) in house dust samples. The method is based on selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) of the dust-bound PYRs into dichloromethane (DCM) with analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Various adsorbents and combinations of extraction solvents and temperatures were evaluated to achieve a high-throughput sample preparation that eliminates the post-extraction cleanup step. The final method used sulfuric acid-impregnated silica (acid silica) and neutral silica together in the extraction cell with the dust sample to provide both extraction and cleanup simultaneously. The optimal ratio of dust/acid silica/silica was 1:0.8:8. The extraction was performed at 2000 psi, at 100°C with DCM for 5 min in three cycles. Method precision and accuracy were evaluated by the analysis of triplicate aliquots of the dust samples and the samples fortified with the target PYRs. The accuracy measured as the recoveries of the PYRs in the fortified samples ranged from 85% to 120%. The precision measured as the relative standard deviation of replicate samples was within ±25%. The SPLE method was applied to 20 house dust samples collected from households that participated in two field studies regarding exposures to pesticides and other pollutants. Similar concentrations of target PYRs were obtained for the SPLE and a stepwise extraction/cleanup procedure. The SPLE procedure reduces organic solvent consumption and increases the sample throughput when compared with a traditional stepwise extraction and cleanup procedure. This study demonstrates that the SPLE procedure can be applied to complex dust matrices for analysis of PYRs for large scale exposure or environmental monitoring studies. PMID:22938604

Van Emon, Jeanette M; Chuang, Jane C

2012-07-27

80

The innate immune response in house dust mite-induced allergic inflammation.  

PubMed

Hypersensitivity to house dust mite (HDM; Dermatophagoides sp.) allergens is one of the most common allergic responses, affecting up to 85% of asthmatics. Sensitization to indoor allergens is the strongest independent risk factor associated with asthma. Additionally, >50% of children and adolescents with asthma are sensitized to HDM. Although allergen-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells orchestrate the HDM allergic response through induction of IgE directed toward mite allergens, activation of innate immunity also plays a critical role in HDM-induced allergic inflammation. This review highlights the HDM components that lead to activation of the innate immune response. Activation may due to HDM proteases. Proteases may be recognized by protease-activation receptors (PARs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), or C-type lectin receptors (CTRs), or act as a molecular mimic for PAMP activation signaling pathways. Understanding the role of mite allergen-induced innate immunity will facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies that exploit innate immunity receptors and associated signaling pathways for the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:23450108

Wang, Jiu-Yao

2012-10-24

81

Laboratory comparison of vacuum, OSHA, and HUD sampling methods for lead in household dust.  

PubMed

The goals of this project were to evaluate and compare the efficiency and reproducibility of three methods for sampling lead-containing dust in homes. Lead-containing dust was generated in a 1-m3 chamber and uniformly deposited onto surfaces typically found in the home (painted wood, unpainted wood, varnished wood, linoleum, and carpet). Trials with three levels of lead concentrations were performed for each surface. Replicate, side-by-side, surface samples were collected using the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) wipe method, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) wipe method, and a vacuum-filter method. Samples were digested with nitric acid and analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy per National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Method 7105. Recovery for the HUD method was consistently the highest on most surfaces (linoleum, 89.9 to 108.9%; painted wood, 71.2 to 153.7%; unpainted wood, 25.3 to 76.0%; varnished wood, 8.7 to 165.6%). On carpet the vacuum method had a significantly higher recovery (26.2 to 47.8%). For all sampling methods the percent recovery depended on type of surface and lead concentration. The reproducibility of percent recovery for the HUD (pooled coefficient of variation [CV] = 0.22) and OSHA (pooled CV = 0.27) methods was lower than that of the vacuum method (pooled CV = 0.46), though not statistically significant. Reproducibility for all methods did not vary significantly over surface type or lead concentration. Overall, the HUD method yielded the most accurate measurements, with recoveries closest to 100%. It was also more durable than the OSHA method, where Whatman filters were observed to tear. PMID:9183838

Reynolds, S J; Etre, L; Thorne, P S; Whitten, P; Selim, M; Popendorf, W J

1997-06-01

82

Environmental and childhood lead contamination in the proximity of boat-repair yards in southern Thailand--I: pattern and factors related to soil and household dust lead levels.  

PubMed

High blood lead levels have recently been documented in schoolchildren living in communities adjacent to boat-repair yards in southern Thailand. In this study, the spatial pattern of lead contamination of soil and household dust in an area surrounding several boat-repair yards is described, and household factors associated with elevated dust lead are identified. A cross-sectional spatial study was conducted in a coastal residential area within a distance of 2 km from three major boat-repair yards situated on the east coast of peninsular Thailand. Household dust specimens were collected from an undisturbed position in the residences of children, aged 4-14 years, sampled randomly from all children living in the study area. Soil specimens were obtained from the interstices of a square grid, 70 x 70 m2, superimposed on the area. Geographic coordinates of residence and soil sampling positions were recorded and semivariograms and kriging used to contour the spatial distribution of lead in dust and soil. Environmental lead levels were also modeled in terms of direction and minimum distance from a boat-repair yard and, for household dust lead content, in terms of household variables, including occupation of household members in boat-repair work, type of house construction, and general cleanliness. Household dust and soil lead content ranged from 10 to 3025 mg/kg and from 1 to 7700 mg/kg, respectively. The distribution of soil lead peaked at the location of the boat-repair yards, but outside the yards the distribution was generally below 400 mg/kg and irregular. About 24% of household dust lead specimens were equal to or above 400 mg/kg, but showed significant decrease with increasing distance from the boat-repair yards, at rates of between 7% and 14% per 100 m. In houses where a family member was a worker in one of the major boatyards and in houses where occasional repair of small boats was undertaken, household dust lead levels were significantly elevated, by 65% (95% CI: 18-130%) and 31% (95% CI: 5-63%), respectively. Siting of boat-repair yards at a distance from residential areas and measures to reduce the spread of lead-containing dust are recommended to alleviate the problem of elevated household dust lead levels. PMID:16832871

Maharachpong, Nipa; Geater, Alan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

2006-07-01

83

Serum Reagins and Leucocyte Response in Patients with House-dust Mite Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out on 26 patients with respiratory allergy due to the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and on 10 non-allergic control subjects using two in-vitro histamine release tests for assessing immediate-type allergy. The first test was on the patients' serum and assessed reaginic (anaphylactic; possibly IgE) antibodies by passive sensitization of normal human lung tissue. The second test

E. S. K. Assem; Monica K. McAllen

1970-01-01

84

Paradoxical Effects of Rapamycin on Experimental House Dust Mite-Induced Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) modulates immune responses and cellular proliferation. The objective of this study was to assess whether inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin modifies disease severity in two experimental murine models of house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma. In an induction model, rapamycin was administered to BALB\\/c mice coincident with nasal HDM challenges for 3 weeks. In a

Karin Fredriksson; Jill A. Fielhaber; Jonathan K. Lam; Xianglan Yao; Katharine S. Meyer; Karen J. Keeran; Gayle J. Zywicke; Xuan Qu; Zu-Xi Yu; Joel Moss; Arnold S. Kristof; Stewart J. Levine

2012-01-01

85

New house dust collection system and its use in a study of asthma in dust mite sensitive children in Raleigh, North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

A prototype dust collection system, the House Dust Vacuum One (HDVI), was designed for use in a study to investigate the relationship between house dust mite antigen levels and the presence of asthma in dust mite sensitive children. The HDVI was designed for the collection of dust samples from all potentially relevant domestic substrates, with the primary sampling objective being the retrieval at least 100 mg of sample material. During the winter of 1991-92, dust samples were collected from six different microenvironments in the homes of 49 dust mite sensitive children living in the Raleigh, NC metropolitan area. In addition to the standard antigen immunoassay, the performance of the HDVI was assessed by conducting side by side comparison tests using two alternative antigen collection systems. Microenvironmental antigen concentrations were found to be lognormally distributed within the test homes and within each microenvironment. With the relatively large quantity of sample material collected and the ease with which the HDVI was able to collect samples from a wide variety of substrates, the new unit was determined to be well suited for surface dust and dust mite antigen collection studies.

Lindstrom, A.B.; Beck, M.A.; Henry, M.M.; Barnes, D.M.; Henderson, F.W.

1993-01-01

86

Isotopic composition of lead in soils and street dust in the Southeastern administrative district of Moscow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The content and isotope ratios of lead were studied in soils, street dust, and snow sampled in the Southeastern administrative district of Moscow. The relationships between the lead isotope ratios and the content of different lead compounds in soils were revealed. It was shown that isotope ratios for the total lead have low information values upon low levels of lead contamination. The contribution of technogenic lead compounds to the isotopic composition of lead increases in the following sequence: total lead < acid-soluble lead < mobile lead. The effect of emissions from thermal power stations and vehicles’ exhaust on the isotopic composition of lead in the street dust and soils was estimated.

Ladonin, D. V.; Plyaskina, O. V.

2009-01-01

87

Evaluation of possible arrestant-aggregation pheromones in the American house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes (astigmata: Pyroglyphidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We wanted to determine if a chemical substance was responsible for cluster formation by adults of the American house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, which are significant agents of dust allergy in humans. Behavioral responses to an extract of aggregated mites were compared to 30 common mite attractants identified in cuticular lipids, excretory products and mammalian skin in a refined

Emmett V. Glass; Jay A. Yoder; Glen R. Needham

2001-01-01

88

First National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing: survey design and methods for the allergen and endotoxin components.  

PubMed Central

From July 1998 to August 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted the first National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. The purpose of the survey was to assess children's potential household exposure to lead, allergens, and bacterial endotoxins. We surveyed a sample of 831 homes, representing 96 million permanently occupied, noninstitutional housing units that permit resident children. We administered questionnaires to household members, made home observations, and took environmental samples. This article provides general background information on the survey, an overview of the survey design, and a description of the data collection and laboratory methods pertaining to the allergen and endotoxin components. We collected dust samples from a bed, the bedroom floor, a sofa or chair, the living room floor, the kitchen floor, and a basement floor and analyzed them for cockroach allergen Bla g 1, the dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, the cat allergen Fel d 1, the dog allergen Can f 1, the rodent allergens Rat n 1 and mouse urinary protein, allergens of the fungus Alternaria alternata, and endotoxin. This article provides the essential context for subsequent reports that will describe the prevalence of allergens and endotoxin in U.S. households, their distribution by various housing characteristics, and their associations with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis.

Vojta, Patrick J; Friedman, Warren; Marker, David A; Clickner, Robert; Rogers, John W; Viet, Susan M; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

2002-01-01

89

Assessing the potential for lead release from road dusts and soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead release from several soil and road dust samples -- obtained from various locations in the London Borough of Greenwich -- has been investigated as a function of acid and chloride addition. The work shows that lead retention in dust samples is primarily dependent upon buffer capacity, which in turn appears to be related to carbonate content. The continuing addition

Consuello Serrano-Belles; Stephen Leharne

1997-01-01

90

Serum PBDEs in a North Carolina Toddler Cohort: Associations with Handwipes, House Dust, and Socioeconomic Variables  

PubMed Central

Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Objectives: We used handwipes to estimate exposure to PBDEs in house dust among toddlers and examined sex, age, breast-feeding, race, and parents’ education as predictors of serum PBDEs. Methods: Eighty-three children from 12 to 36 months of age were enrolled in North Carolina between May 2009 and November 2010. Blood, handwipe, and house dust samples were collected and analyzed for PBDEs. A questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data. Results: PBDEs were detected in all serum samples (geometric mean for ?pentaBDE in serum was 43.3 ng/g lipid), 98% of the handwipe samples, and 100% of the dust samples. Serum ?pentaBDEs were significantly correlated with both handwipe and house dust ?pentaBDE levels, but were more strongly associated with handwipe levels (r = 0.57; p < 0.001 vs. r = 0.35; p < 0.01). Multivariate model estimates revealed that handwipe levels, child’s sex, child’s age, and father’s education accounted for 39% of the variation in serum ?BDE3 levels (sum of BDEs 47, 99, and 100). In contrast, age, handwipe levels, and breast-feeding duration explained 39% of the variation in serum BDE 153. Conclusions: Our study suggests that hand-to-mouth activity may be a significant source of exposure to PBDEs. Furthermore, age, socioeconomic status, and breast-feeding were significant predictors of exposure, but associations varied by congener. Specifically, serum ?BDE3 was inversely associated with socioeconomic status, whereas serum BDE-153 was positively associated with duration of breast-feeding and mother’s education.

Eagle, Sarah; Sjodin, Andreas; Webster, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

91

Characterization of lead, chromium, and cadmium in dust emitted from municipal solid waste incineration plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dust is emitted from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). Volatile toxic heavy metals are abundant in smaller dust particles and influence the toxicity of particulate matter such as fine particles <2.5 ?m (PM2.5). However, little is known about the properties of these metals in fine dust particles. Therefore, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy was used to investigate the chemical states of lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) in MSWI dust collected for nine particle size fractions at the inlet of the dust collector and the stacks of two MSWI plants. XAFS spectroscopy of the dust in the inlet of the dust collectors showed that finer dust contained predominantly Pb as PbCl2 with some PbSiO3, coarser dust consisted of Cr forms, including more toxic Cr(VI) species, and all dust contained CdCl2. Although the dust collector removed almost all of the Pb, trace amounts of PbCl2 remained in the stack gas after passing through the dust collector.

Shiota, K.; Imai, G.; Oshita, K.; Takaoka, M.

2013-04-01

92

Comparison of techniques to reduce residential lead dust on carpet and upholstery: the new jersey assessment of cleaning techniques trial.  

PubMed Central

High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum cleaners are recommended by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development for cleaning lead-contaminated house dust. We performed a randomized field study to determine whether a conventional (non-HEPA) vacuum cleaner could achieve cleaning results comparable with those of a HEPA vacuum cleaner. We compared the lead loading reductions of these two vacuum cleaners in a total of 127 New Jersey homes of lead-exposed children. We used wet towelettes and a vacuum sampler to collect lead dust from carpets and upholstery before and after vacuum cleaning. The vacuum sampling data showed that the HEPA and non-HEPA vacuum cleaners resulted in 54.7% (p = 0.006) and 36.4% (p = 0.020) reductions in lead loading, respectively, when used on soiled carpets, although the overall difference in lead loading reduction between the two vacuum cleaners was not statistically significant (p = 0.293). The wipe sampling data did not show any significant lead loading reduction for either of the vacuum cleaners, suggesting that both vacuum cleaners fail to clean the surfaces of carpet effectively, considering that wipe sampling media simulate surface contact. On upholstery, the wipe sampling data showed a significant reduction in lead loading for the non-HEPA vacuum cleaner (22.2%, p = 0.047). Even with the significant reduction, the postcleaning lead loadings on upholstery were similar to those on carpets. The similar lead loading results for carpets and upholstery indicate that soiled upholstery may be as important a source of childhood lead exposure as carpets.

Yiin, Lih-Ming; Rhoads, George G; Rich, David Q; Zhang, Junfeng; Bai, Zhipeng; Adgate, John L; Ashley, Peter J; Lioy, Paul J

2002-01-01

93

Levels of phthalate esters in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children in Nanjing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the levels and possible determinants of phthalate esters (PEs) in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children, dust was collected from 215 urban houses in Nanjing, China, and 145 outdoor settled dust samples were collected nearby. Six PEs were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All PEs were detected in the dust from approximately 90% of the houses, with the exception of dioctyl phthalate (DOP), which had only a 59% detection rate. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were the most abundant PEs, with geometric means of 110 and 16.4 ?g g-1, respectively, and maximal concentrations 9950 and 2150 ?g g-1. Factor analysis showed that DBP, DEHP and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) might come from the same source and were significantly influenced by the use of solid-wood floor wax. High BBP, DEHP, DOP and total PE levels were associated with indices of dampness, and high DOP was associated with humidifier use. In conclusion, six PEs are ubiquitous in urban settled house dust in Nanjing, China, and both plastic materials and cosmetic and personal care products are important sources. Flooring material, dampness and humidifier use potentially influence house dust PE levels.

Zhang, Qi; Lu, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Sun, Yong-Gang; Zhu, Dong-Mei; Wang, Bing-Ling; Zhao, Ren-Zheng; Zhang, Zheng-Dong

2013-04-01

94

Solubilization of lead from crystal dust in protein solution (pseudointerstitial fluid) and gastric juice.  

PubMed

Since several workers engaged in polishing and engraving crystal articles were found to have higher than average blood levels of lead (560 micrograms/liter, range 80-560 micrograms/liter), we investigated the hypothesis that crystal dust releases lead in the human body. To test the hypothesis, two types of crystal polishing dusts, having different lead contents, were mixed with human serum diluted 1:3 (pseudointerstitial fluid), gastric juice, and phosphate buffer at pH 9. After 14 days of contact, the diluted serum had extracted 0.620% of the lead in the crystal dust (particle size < 20 microns) containing 25.2% lead and 0.425% of that containing 19.9% lead. After 48 hr in gastric juice, 0.235 and 0.556% of the lead was extracted from crystal dusts (unsieved crystal dusts) containing 25.2 and 19.9% lead, respectively. After 28 days in alkaline solution, 0.358 and 0.304% of the lead was extracted respectively from the same two crystal dusts (unsieved crystal dusts). PMID:9339230

Sciarra, G; Sartorelli, P; Aprea, C; Scancarello, G; Strambi, F; Palmi, S; Scarselli, R

1997-01-01

95

Occurrence of chlorinated paraffins in house dust samples from Bavaria, Germany.  

PubMed

Levels and distribution of chlorinated paraffins were studied in randomly taken house dust samples (<63 ?m) from the greater area of Munich, Germany. Quantification of short- (SCCPs, C(10)-C(13)) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs, C(14)-C(16)) were performed using gas chromatography electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS). Concentrations of MCCPs in private household samples varied between 9 ?g/g and 892 ?g/g, and exceeded levels of SCCPs, which were in the range of 4-27 ?g/g. Two dust samples from a public building contained up to 2050 ?g/g SCCPs but no MCCPs. Among MCCPs, chlorinated tetradecanes were major components with a proportion of almost 50%. Among SCCPs, chlorinated dodecanes were usually present at higher concentrations than the congeners of any C10, C11, and C13 chains. The results indicate that particularly MCCPs may be present in relatively high concentrations in house dusts. PMID:23313733

Hilger, B; Fromme, H; Völkel, W; Coelhan, M

2013-01-09

96

40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Lead-Contaminated Dust, and Lead-Contaminated Soil; the EPA Residential Sampling for Lead: Protocols for Dust and Soil Sampling (EPA report number 7474-R-95-001...Lead-Contaminated Dust, and Lead Contaminiated Soil or other equivalent guidelines....

2013-07-01

97

Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: an unrecognized source of PAH to settled house dust.  

PubMed

Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coal-tar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 microg/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 microg/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 microg/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 microg/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. PMID:20063893

Mahler, Barbara J; Metre, Peter C Van; Wilson, Jennifer T; Musgrove, Marylynn; Burbank, Teresa L; Ennis, Thomas E; Bashara, Thomas J

2010-02-01

98

Coal-Tar-Based Parking Lot Sealcoat: An Unrecognized Source of PAH to Settled House Dust  

PubMed Central

Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coal-tar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ?g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ?g/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ?g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ?g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant.

2010-01-01

99

Laboratory Comparison of Vacuum, OSHA, and HUD Sampling Methods for Lead in Household Dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of this project were to evaluate and compare the efficiency and reproducibility of three methods for sampling lead-containing dust in homes. Lead-containing dust was generated in a 1-m3 chamber and uniformly deposited onto surfaces typically found in the home (painted wood, unpainted wood, varnished wood, linoleum, and carpet). Trials with three levels of lead concentrations were performed for

Stephen J. Reynolds; Lois Etre; Peter S. Thorne; Paul Whitten; Mustafa Selim; William J. Popendorf

1997-01-01

100

Reduction of house-dust mite allergen concentrations in carpets by aluminium potassium sulfate dodecahydrate (alum).  

PubMed

Special tools and skilled labor are required to reduce house-dust mite allergens in carpets. The main house-dust mite allergen is Der p 1, a soluble protein found in high abundance in woolen carpets. Current chemical treatment options are either unsafe or ineffective in eradicating Der p 1. Here, we present an effective, safe, and easy application reagent to reduce the allergen levels in carpets. Sixty woolen carpets with Der p 1 concentrations >2 microg/g in fine dust were divided into three homogeneous groups of 20 carpets each, according to their allergen load. We tested alum dissolved in 60 mL of water at doses of 3, 6, and 9 g/m2 against Der p 1 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The test side of the carpets was sprayed with the reagent. The control side was treated with the 60 mL of tap water. Dust particles were collected from a 1-m2 area on each carpet side 24 hours after treatment and were analyzed for Der p 1 content with a monoclonal ELISA. Alum reduced the Der p 1 concentrations by 48.6 +/- 6.2%, 78.8 +/- 7.2%, and 95.2 +/- 3.0% at 3, 6, and 9 g/m2 in the carpets, respectively. Moreover, there were no complaints registered by the residents against the alum applications. Alum, at 9 g/m2 (in a solution at 15%) in water, can be used for decreasing existing Der p 1 concentrations in woolen carpets. PMID:17063663

Sevki, Coskun; Levent, Aydin; Ender, Gulegen; Firdevs, Mor

101

Differences in metal concentration by particle size in house dust and soil.  

PubMed

The majority of particles that adhere to hands are <63 ?m in diameter yet risk assessments for soil remediation are typically based on soil samples sieved to <250 ?m. The objective of our study was to determine if there is a significant difference in metal concentration by particle size in both house dust and soil. We obtained indoor dust and yard soil samples from 10 houses in Tucson, Arizona. All samples were sieved to <63 ?m and 63 to <150 ?m and analyzed for 30 elements via ICP-MS following nitric acid digestion. We conducted t-tests of the log-transformed data to assess for significant differences that were adjusted with a Bonferroni correction to account for multiple comparisons. In house dust, significant differences in concentration were observed for Be, Al, and Mo between particles sizes, with a higher concentration observed in the smaller particle sizes. Significant differences were also determined for Mg, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Ge, Zr, Ag, Ba, and Pb concentration in yard soil samples, with the higher concentration observed in the smaller particles size for each element. The results of this exploratory study indicate that current risk assessment practices for soil remediation may under estimate non-dietary ingestion exposure. This is of particular concern for young children who are more vulnerable to this exposure route due to their high hand mouthing frequencies. Additional studies with a greater number of samples and wider geographic distribution with different climates and soil types should be completed to determine the most relevant sampling practices for risk assessment. PMID:22245917

Beamer, Paloma I; Elish, Christina A; Roe, Denise J; Loh, Miranda M; Layton, David W

2012-01-16

102

Differences in Metal Concentration by Particle Size in House Dust and Soil  

PubMed Central

The majority of particles that adhere to hands are <63 ?m in diameter yet risk assessments for soil remediation are typically based on soil samples sieved to <250 ?m. The objective of our study was to determine if there is a significant difference in metal concentration by particle size in both house dust and soil. We obtained indoor dust and yard soil samples from 10 houses in Tucson, Arizona. All samples were sieved to <63 ?m and 63 to <150 ?m and analyzed for 30 elements via ICP-MS following nitric acid digestion. We conducted t-tests of the log-transformed data to assess for significant differences that were adjusted with a Bonferroni correction to account for multiple comparisons. In house dust significant differences in concentration were observed for Be, Al, and Mo between particles sizes, with a higher concentration observed in the smaller particles size. Significant differences were also determined for Mg, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Ge, Zr, Ag, Ba, and Pb concentration in yard soil samples, with the higher concentration observed in the smaller particles size for each element. The results of this exploratory study indicate that current risk assessment practices for soil remediation may under estimate non-dietary ingestion exposure. This is of particular concern for young children who are more vulnerable to this exposure route due to their high hand mouthing frequencies. Additional studies with a greater number of samples and wider geographic distribution with different climates and soil types should be completed to determine the most relevant sampling practices for risk assessment.

Elish, Christina A.; Roe, Denise J.; Loh, Miranda; Layton, David W.

2013-01-01

103

House Dust Mite Allergy in Korea: The Most Important Inhalant Allergen in Current and Future  

PubMed Central

The house-dust mite (HDM), commonly found in human dwellings, is an important source of inhalant and contact allergens. In this report, the importance of HDM allergy in Korea and the characteristics of allergens from dust mite are reviewed with an emphasis on investigations performed in Korea. In Korea, Dermatophagoides farinae is the dominant species of HDM, followed by D. pteronyssinus. Tyrophagus putrescentiae is also found in Korea, but its role in respiratory allergic disease in Korea is controversial. The relatively low densities of mite populations and concentrations of mite major allergens in dust samples from Korean homes, compared to westernized countries, are thought to reflect not only different climatic conditions, but also cultural differences, such as the use of 'ondol' under-floor heating systems in Korean houses. HDM are found in more than 90% of Korean houses, and the level of exposure to HDM is clinically significant. About 40%-60% of Korean patients suffering from respiratory allergies, and more than 40% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis, are sensitized to HDM. Mite allergens can be summarized according to their inherent auto-adjuvant activities and/or their binding affinities to the adjuvant-like substances: proteolytic enzymes, lipid binding proteins, chitin binding proteins, and allergens not associated with adjuvant-like activity. In general, allergens with a strong adjuvant-like activity or adjuvant-binding activity elicit potent IgE reactivity. In Korea, Der f 2 is the most potent allergen, followed by Der f 1. Immune responses are modulated by the properties of the allergen itself and by the adjuvant-like substances that are concomitantly administered with the antigens. Characterization of allergenic molecules and elucidation of mechanisms by which adjuvant-like molecules modulate allergic reactions, not only in Korea but also worldwide, will provide valuable information on allergic diseases, and are necessary for the development of diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies.

Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Park, Jung-Won

2012-01-01

104

Partitioning of Lead in Urban Street Dust Based on the Particle Size Distribution and Chemical Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to investigate the distribution of lead among the physical fractions and between the various chemical forms of urban street dust. In order to achieve this aim, street dust samples were collected from three major roads with high traffic volume and one minor road with a low traffic density in urban areas of Az

Kamal Ayoub Momani

2006-01-01

105

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF METHOD EVALUATION MATERIALS FOR LEAD IN DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

The procedure used to prepare lead (Pb) in dust method evaluation materials from real-world dusts is described. aterials prepared using this procedure have been found suitable for use as quality control check samples as well as for evaluation of new methods. rocedures described i...

106

419 IGE-mediated Responses Towards Fish Parasite Anisakis, Crab and House Dust Mite in Norwegian Shrimp Allergic Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background The present study investigated to what extent shrimp allergic individuals were IgE-sensitized to anisakis, crab and house dust mite and whether tropomyosin was responsible for IgE cross-reactivity. Methods 29 Individuals with self reported shrimp allergy were recruited by advertisements in local and national news-papers in Norway. Anamnesis was taken, skin prick tests (SPT) were performed and positive responders to shrimp were studied further with basophile activation test (BAT), ImmunoCAP analyses and western blotting. Results Of the 29 persons studied, 10 (34%) had positive SPT against shrimp and house dust mite, 9 (31%) against shrimp tropomyosin and 3 (10%) against anisakis. Individuals with positive SPT to shrimp all showed positive basophilic responses to house dust mite, while 43% responded to shrimp, 25% to anisakis and 36% to crab in BAT. Moreover, SPT, BAT as well as ImmunoCAP analyses showed a positive correlation of IgE-reactivity between anisakis and shrimp, house dust mite and crab. Immunoblot studies indicated that these responses are not completely explained by cross-reactivity towards tropomyosin. Conclusions The current study indicates a positive correlation between IgE-mediated reactions to shrimp, anisakis, house dust mite and crab, which may not be completely explained by cross-reactivity against tropomyosin.

Dooper, Maaike; Myrset, Heidi; Egaas, Eliann; van Do, Thien; Florvaag, Erik

2012-01-01

107

How to minimize iron loss while decontaminating converter dust from lead.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to decontaminate a converter flue dust from lead while minimizing the iron loss from the dust matrix. A physicochemical method based on a leaching cascade was applied to remove lead impurities with HCl. Finally, the lead-rich wastes generated at the end of the operations were further treated in order to meet the standards of waste disposal sites. The results show that lead could be removed from the dust with efficiencies of better than 90%. However, some iron was lost in these operations. It was noticed that under optimum conditions 8.5 g of iron would be lost as leachate per each gram of removed lead. It was also noticed that the lead-treated dust was more concentrated in iron and had less calcium. A number of parameters that could affect the amount of iron loss, such as acid dose, exposure time and temperature, were identified and the extent of the effects are presented. It was concluded that the lead content in the flue dust could practically be lowered to any level. It was also concluded that the difference between the solubility of lead chloride in cold and hot water, as well as the affinity of certain ligands such as Cl- and OH- to form stable complexes with lead ions, played a key role in this study. The lead-containing complexes in the leachate were identified to be predominantly PbCl3- and PbCl+. PMID:22439558

Moussavi, Mohsen; Fathikalajahi, Jamshid; Khalili, Fariba

2011-12-01

108

Exposure assessment to airborne endotoxin, dust, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in open style swine houses.  

PubMed

Information is limited for the exposure levels of airborne hazardous substances in swine feed buildings that are not completely enclosed. Open-style breeding, growing and finishing swine houses in six farms in subtropical Taiwan were studied for the airborne concentrations of endotoxin, dust, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The air in the farrowing and nursery stalls as partially enclosed was also simultaneously evaluated. Three selected gases and airborne dusts were quantified respectively by using Drager diffusion tubes and a filter-weighing method. Endotoxin was analyzed by the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Average concentration of airborne total endotoxin among piggeries was between 36.8 and 298 EU/m(3), while that for respirable endotoxin was 14.1-129 EU/m(3). Mean concentration of total dust was between 0.15 and 0.34 mg/m(3), with average level of respirable dust of 0.14 mg/m(3). The respective concentrations of NH3, CO2 and H2S were less than 5 ppm, 600-895 ppm and less than 0.2 ppm. Airborne concentrations of total dust and endotoxin in the nursery house were higher than in the other types of swine houses. The finishing house presented the highest exposure risk to NH3, CO2 and H2S. Employees working in the finishing stalls were also exposed to the highest airborne levels of respirable endotoxin and dust. On the other hand, the air of the breeding units was the least contaminated in terms of airborne endotoxin, dust, NH3, CO2 and H2S. The airborne concentrations of substances measured in the present study were all lower than most of published studies conducted in mainly enclosed swine buildings. Distinct characteristics, including maintaining swine houses in an open status and frequent spraying water inside the stalls, significantly reduce accumulation of gases and airborne particulates. PMID:11513795

Chang, C W; Chung, H; Huang, C F; Su, H J

2001-08-01

109

Analysis of pesticides and PCBs in waste wood and house dust.  

PubMed

The use of the pesticides - DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) and lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) - and of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) has been limited or forbidden for several decades. Nevertheless, due to their persistence and bioaccumulative potentials they are still ubiquitous in the environment. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine analytical methods to analyse the pesticides lindane and DDT, its metabolites DDD (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene), and PCBs in waste wood and house dust. An ultrasonic extraction was performed followed by a sample clean up by filtration or silica gel column. The prepared samples were measured by GC/MS. Quantification through internal standard calibration delivered low limits of detection. Specific amounts of the target compounds were detected in all analysed dust samples. The comparison of the contamination between dust samples of eastern Germany (former German Democratic Republic - GDR) and western Germany partly revealed significant differences of the contamination levels. Furthermore, it was examined whether older wooden material might cause a constant volatilisation of pesticides in apartments. Waste wood samples of different contamination categories were analysed. Apparently, these samples are potentially responsible for a constant DDX (?(DDT, DDD, DDE)) and lindane volatilisation, but not for PCBs. PMID:20709354

Abb, M; Breuer, J V; Zeitz, C; Lorenz, W

2010-08-14

110

Brominated flame retardants and other polyhalogenated compounds in indoor air and dust from two houses in Japan.  

PubMed

This study analyzed polyhalogenated compounds (PHCs) such as brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor air and dust samples from two modern homes in Japan. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) in exhaust and indoor air of two houses were detected at 10(2)-10(3)pgm(-3) order, which were well above those in outdoor air. For dust samples, the detected polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furan concentrations resembled values found in our past study. Interestingly, compared to PBDE concentrations, two orders of magnitude higher concentration (13000 ng g(-1)) was observed for hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in a dust sample from one house. Based on the calculation of air/dust partition ratio values (Kad), low Kad values (log Kad dust ingestion. Results of X-ray fluorescence analysis show high bromine concentrations in curtain and roll screen samples possessing a high product loading factor. Furthermore, a preliminary estimation was made of the likely magnitude of inhabitants' exposure to PHCs via inhalation and dust ingestion in the two houses. PMID:19361833

Takigami, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Go; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi

2009-04-09

111

A Controlled Challenge Study on Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) in House Dust and the Immune Response in Human Nasal Mucosa of Allergic Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have yet addressed the effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in house dust on human nasal mucosa. Objectives We investigated the effects of house dust containing DEHP on nasal mucosa of healthy and house dust mite (HDM)–allergic subjects in a short-term exposure setting. Methods We challenged 16 healthy and 16 HDM-allergic subjects for 3 hr with house dust at a concentration of 300 ?g/m3 containing either low (0.41 mg/g) or high (2.09 mg/g) levels of DEHP. Exposure to filtered air served as control. After exposure, we measured proteins and performed a DNA microarray analysis. Results Nasal exposure to house dust with low or high DEHP had no effect on symptom scores. Healthy subjects had almost no response to inhaled dust, but HDM-allergic subjects showed varied responses: DEHPlow house dust increased eosinophil cationic protein, granulocyte-colony–stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin (IL)-5, and IL-6, whereas DEHPhigh house dust decreased G-CSF and IL-6. Furthermore, in healthy subjects, DEHP concentration resulted in 10 differentially expressed genes, whereas 16 genes were differentially expressed in HDM-allergic subjects, among them anti-Müllerian hormone, which was significantly up-regulated after exposure to DEHPhigh house dust compared with exposure to DEHPlow house dust, and fibroblast growth factor 9, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-?1, which were down-regulated. Conclusions Short-term exposure to house dust with high concentrations of DEHP has attenuating effects on human nasal immune response in HDM-allergic subjects, concerning both gene expression and cytokines.

Deutschle, Tom; Reiter, Rudolf; Butte, Werner; Heinzow, Birger; Keck, Tilman; Riechelmann, Herbert

2008-01-01

112

An Investigation of Homes with High Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and\\/or Dioxin-Like PCBs in House Dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study, the 29 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls that have World Health Organization consensus toxic equivalency factors were measured in house dust from 764 homes using a population-based sampling design over selected regions in five Michigan counties. Twenty homes had a total toxic equivalency in house

Alfred Franzblau; Lynn Zwica; Kristine Knutson; Qixuan Chen; Shih-Yuan Lee; Biling Hong; Peter Adriaems; Avery Demond; David Garabrant; Brenda Gillespie; James Lepkowski; William Luksemburg; Martha Maier; Tim Towey

2009-01-01

113

Comparison of Lead Species in Household Dust Wipes, Soil, and Airborne Particulate Matter in El Paso, Texas, by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the interplay of indoor and outdoor sources of lead in an urban setting is one foundation in establishing risk for lead exposure in children in our cities. A household may be the source for lead contamination due to the deterioration of interior lead-based paint, or a sink if lead particles are tracked or blown into the home from such potential ambient sources as yard soil or urban street dust. In addressing this issue, X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) presents the opportunity to directly and quantitatively speciate lead at low concentrations in bulk samples. We performed XAS analyses on dust wipes from window sills or floors from 8 houses that exceeded Federal standards for lead in dust. We entered these data into a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) that also included El Paso environmental samples: lead-based paints, soils, and airborne particulate matter. A simple two-component mixing system accounted for more than 95% of the variance of this data set. Paint and lead oxide appear to be the principal components, with all the samples falling in a compositional range from pure paint to 75% paint, 25% lead oxide. Note that several different lead compounds are possible constituents of a given lead-based paint. The paints spread from one end out along perhaps a fifth of the range of the compositional axis, followed closely, but not overlapped, by the soil samples, which covered the remainder of the compositional range. Two of the dust wipes plotted within the paint range, and the remaining 6 dust wipes plotted randomly through the soil range. Samples of airborne particulate matter plotted in both the paint and soil ranges. These observations suggest that the lead on most of the dust wipes originated outside the house, probably from deteriorated exterior lead-based paint deposited in adjacent yards. This paint mixed with lead oxide present in the soil and entered the houses by the airborne route. The probable source of the oxide in the soil is former airborne deposition of automobile exhaust from leaded gasoline (lead halides quickly react to form oxide). The dust wipes that fall within the compositional range of the paints may have originated from deterioration of interior paint. The XAS findings are consistent with our tests of several hundred houses in El Paso: most of the wipes that exceeded Federal lead standards came from houses in the oldest neighborhoods of the city, where lead paint is still present. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy experiments were conducted at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on beam lines 7-3 and 10-2. Spectra were collected at the Pb L-III absorption edge in fluorescence mode using a 13-element or a 30-element Ge solid-state detector. This publication was made possible by grant numbers 1RO1-ES11367 and 1 S11 ES013339-01A1 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH.

Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J.; Amaya, M. A.

2006-12-01

114

Low-flow, long-term air sampling under normal domestic activity to measure house dust mite and cockroach allergens.  

PubMed

Successful applications of air sampling for the quantification of exposure to indoor allergens have been reported, but its efficiency is still controversial. We evaluated whether the low-flow, long-term air sampling in normal domestic activity conditions can quantify the exposure of house dust mites (HDM) and cockroaches (CR) allergens or not. Airborne Der f 1 and Bla g 1 were captured with a personal air sampler in 25 bedrooms during normal domestic activity. Quantification of the major allergens in the reservoir dust and the extraction of the air sampler filters were done with two-site ELISA kits. Airborne Der f 1 was measured above the threshold level of detection in 15 houses (60%). Detection rate of airborne Der f 1 was significantly higher in those houses where D. farinae was microscopically found in the reservoir dusts (76.5% vs. 25%, chi 2 = 6.0, p = 0.014). Airborne Der f 1 was more frequently detected in the houses with higher Der f 1 (> or = 10 micrograms/g dust) in bedding reservoir dust than the other group (91% vs. 35.7%, chi 2 = 7.819, p = 0.005), and the median value of airborne Der f 1 was also significantly higher in that group (14.0 pg/m3 vs. below detection limit, p = 0.002). Airborne Der f 1 was significantly correlated with Der f 1 in bedding reservoir dust (r = 0.591, p < 0.01). Airborne Bla g 1 was measured with ELISA in 16 houses (64%), and it was more frequently detected in the houses where the CRs were captured by adhesive traps (91% vs. 57%, chi 2 = 3,484, p = 0.06). The median concentration of Bla g 1 in the filter was also higher in the houses with captured CRs (0.12 vs. 0.05 mU/m3, p = 0.06), but the level of Bla g 1 did not correlate with that of the bedding dusts or the floor dusts of kitchen. These results suggested that airborne HDM or CR allergens could be measured by low-flow, long-term air sampling, and that it might be one of appropriate modalities for evaluating personal exposure to HDM and CR allergens. PMID:12926189

Park, Jung Won; Kim, Cheol Woo; Kang, Dae Bong; Lee, In Young; Choi, Soo Young; Yong, Tai-Soon; Shin, Dong Cheon; Kim, Kyu Earn; Hong, Chein-Soo

2002-01-01

115

COST ESTIMATES OF USING THREE LEAD-BASED PAINT ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGIES ON RESIDENTIAL HOUSING  

EPA Science Inventory

Elevated blood lead levels in children of the US due to exposure to flaking lead-based paint continues to be an important health concern. Approximately 57M housing units, which represent 75% of all privately owned and occupied housing built before 1980 in the US are contaminated ...

116

Lead (Pb) in old Antarctic ice: Some from dust, some from other sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently published data on amounts and isotopic compositions of lead (Pb) and on amounts of mineral dust in pre-industrial Antarctic ice can be further interpreted by means of simple calculations. These show that two distinct types of Pb were provided by the atmosphere to the continent in varying proportions during Pleistocene and Holocene time. One type of Pb is that contained in the mineral lattices of dust. It has non-radiogenic isotopic proportions. The other type of Pb is not associated with dust minerals, is more radiogenic, and is consistent with an origin in emissions from ocean island volcanoes worldwide, or from some Antarctic volcanoes.

Hinkley, Todd

2007-04-01

117

Bioavailability of Arsenic in Soil and House Dust Impacted by Smelter Activities Following Oral Administration in Cynomolgus Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioavailability of Arsenic in Soil and House Dust Impacted by Smelter Activities Following Oral Administration in Cynomolgus Monkeys. Freeman, G. B., Schoof, R. A., Ruby, M. V., Davis, A. O., Dill, J. A., Liao, S. C., Lapin, C. A., and Bergstrom, P. D. (1995). Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 28, 215-222.This study was conducted to determine the extent of arsenic (As) absorption

G. B. Freeman; R. A. Schoof; M. V. Ruby; A. O. Davis; J. A. Dill; S. C. Liao; C. A. Lapin; P. D. Bergstrom

1995-01-01

118

Depigmented and Polymerised House Dust Mite Allergoid: Allergen Content, Induction of IgG4 and Clinical Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Polymerised allergenic extracts (allergoids) are commonly used in allergen immunotherapy. Clinical efficacy and safety of these extracts have been demonstrated. Recently, allergen sequences have been identified by mass spectrometry in depigmented and polymerised (Dpg-Pol) extracts. The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence of allergens in Dpg-Pol extracts of house dust mite and to analyze the immunological

M. T. Gallego; V. Iraola; M. Himly; D. S. Robinson; C. Badiola; J. C. García-Robaina; P. Briza; J. Carnés

2010-01-01

119

Characterization of a Very High Density Lipoprotein Allergen, Dpt 4, from the House Dust Mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allergen Dpt 4 from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was shown to be a lipoprotein as judged by its Sudan black B staining properties. Ultracentrifugal studies confirmed this finding and showed that Dpt 4 was polydisperse, although the majority of the allergen belonged to a very high density lipoprotein class. Physicochemical studies using gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed

G. A. Stewart; A. Butcher; K. J. Turner

1983-01-01

120

Comparison of the Allergic Responses Induced by PeniciIlium chrysogenum and House Dust Mite Extracts in a Mouse Model  

EPA Science Inventory

A report by the Institute of Medicine suggested that more research is needed to better understand mold effects on allergic disease, particularly asthma development. We compared the ability of the fungal Penicillium chrysogenum (PCE) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to induce al...

121

Effect of Floorcovering Construction on Content and Vertical Distribution of House Dust Mite Allergen, Der p I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic floorcoverings often contain appreciable quantities of particulate pollutants, such as house dust mite allergen, Der p I. Exposure to Der p I is a risk factor for the development of mite sensitization and asthma. We investigated whether carpet construction was related to the Der p I content in normal use, and its vertical distribution. We hoped to inform development

Simon Causer; Caroline Shorter; Jason Sercombe

2006-01-01

122

Molecular Determinants for Antibody Binding on Group 1 House Dust Mite Allergens  

SciTech Connect

House dust mites produce potent allergens, Der p 1 and Der f 1, that cause allergic sensitization and asthma. Der p 1 and Der f 1 are cysteine proteases that elicit IgE responses in 80% of mite-allergic subjects and have proinflammatory properties. Their antigenic structure is unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of natural Der p 1 and Der f 1 in complex with a monoclonal antibody, 4C1, which binds to a unique cross-reactive epitope on both allergens associated with IgE recognition. The 4C1 epitope is formed by almost identical amino acid sequences and contact residues. Mutations of the contact residues abrogate mAb 4C1 binding and reduce IgE antibody binding. These surface-exposed residues are molecular targets that can be exploited for development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Pomés, Anna; Glesner, Jill; Vailes, Lisa D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Heymann, Peter W.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Minor, Wladek; Chapman, Martin D. (INDOOR Bio.); (UV); (UVHS)

2012-07-11

123

Dose of house dust mite antigen (P1) inhaled by infants aged one month  

SciTech Connect

A survey of the habitats occupied by 12 infants of one month of age revealed that approximately 10% of their day was spent in conditions of potential exposure to the major (P1) allergen of the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. A respiratory pump which reproduced the minute ventilation of an infant was placed in representative infant habitats. The P1 allergen trapped by the filter in this pump was measured as an estimate of infants' allergen intake. Detectable P1 intake was only present when there was active air disturbance (bed making and vacuuming). The average P1 intake was approximately 3 ng P1/24 hours. Comparison of this P1 intake with that which sensitizes in other situations suggests that it is usually inadequate to sensitize infants.

Carswell, F.; Clark, J.; Robinson, P.; Platts-Mills, T.A.

1983-11-01

124

Pesticides in house dust from urban and farmworker households in California: an observational measurement study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies report that residential use of pesticides in low-income homes is common because of poor housing conditions and pest infestations; however, exposure data on contemporary-use pesticides in low-income households is limited. We conducted a study in low-income homes from urban and agricultural communities to: characterize and compare house dust levels of agricultural and residential-use pesticides; evaluate the correlation of pesticide concentrations in samples collected several days apart; examine whether concentrations of pesticides phased-out for residential uses, but still used in agriculture (i.e., chlorpyrifos and diazinon) have declined in homes in the agricultural community; and estimate resident children's pesticide exposures via inadvertent dust ingestion. Methods In 2006, we collected up to two dust samples 5-8 days apart from each of 13 urban homes in Oakland, California and 15 farmworker homes in Salinas, California, an agricultural community (54 samples total). We measured 22 insecticides including organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diazinon-oxon, malathion, methidathion, methyl parathion, phorate, and tetrachlorvinphos) and pyrethroids (allethrin-two isomers, bifenthrin, cypermethrin-four isomers, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, imiprothrin, permethrin-two isomers, prallethrin, and sumithrin), one phthalate herbicide (chlorthal-dimethyl), one dicarboximide fungicide (iprodione), and one pesticide synergist (piperonyl butoxide). Results More than half of the households reported applying pesticides indoors. Analytes frequently detected in both locations included chlorpyrifos, diazinon, permethrin, allethrin, cypermethrin, and piperonyl butoxide; no differences in concentrations or loadings were observed between locations for these analytes. Chlorthal-dimethyl was detected solely in farmworker homes, suggesting contamination due to regional agricultural use. Concentrations in samples collected 5-8 days apart in the same home were strongly correlated for the majority of the frequently detected analytes (Spearman ? = 0.70-1.00, p < 0.01). Additionally, diazinon and chlorpyrifos concentrations in Salinas farmworker homes were 40-80% lower than concentrations reported in samples from Salinas farmworker homes studied between 2000-2002, suggesting a temporal reduction after their residential phase-out. Finally, estimated non-dietary pesticide intake for resident children did not exceed current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) recommended chronic reference doses (RfDs). Conclusion Low-income children are potentially exposed to a mixture of pesticides as a result of poorer housing quality. Historical or current pesticide use indoors is likely to contribute to ongoing exposures. Agricultural pesticide use may also contribute to additional exposures to some pesticides in rural areas. Although children's non-dietary intake did not exceed U.S. EPA RfDs for select pesticides, this does not ensure that children are free of any health risks as RfDs have their own limitations, and the children may be exposed indoors via other pathways. The frequent pesticide use reported and high detection of several home-use pesticides in house dust suggests that families would benefit from integrated pest management strategies to control pests and minimize current and future exposures.

2011-01-01

125

Molecular Determinants for Antibody Binding on Group 1 House Dust Mite Allergens*  

PubMed Central

House dust mites produce potent allergens, Der p 1 and Der f 1, that cause allergic sensitization and asthma. Der p 1 and Der f 1 are cysteine proteases that elicit IgE responses in 80% of mite-allergic subjects and have proinflammatory properties. Their antigenic structure is unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of natural Der p 1 and Der f 1 in complex with a monoclonal antibody, 4C1, which binds to a unique cross-reactive epitope on both allergens associated with IgE recognition. The 4C1 epitope is formed by almost identical amino acid sequences and contact residues. Mutations of the contact residues abrogate mAb 4C1 binding and reduce IgE antibody binding. These surface-exposed residues are molecular targets that can be exploited for development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Pomes, Anna; Glesner, Jill; Vailes, Lisa D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Heymann, Peter W.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.; Minor, Wladek; Chapman, Martin D.

2012-01-01

126

Field Evaluation and Comparison of Five Methods of Sampling Lead Dust on Carpets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five methods of sampling lead-contaminated dust on carpets were evaluated and compared in 33 New Jersey homes of children with elevated blood lead levels. The five sampling methods were (1) wipe, (2) adhesive label, (3) C18 sheet, (4) vacuum, and (5) hand rinse. Samples were collected side by side on the same carpets within the homes. Among the five methods

Zhipeng Bai; Lih-Ming Yiin; David Q. Rich; John L. Adgate; Peter J. Ashley; Paul J. Lioy; George G. Rhoads; Junfeng Zhang

2003-01-01

127

Dustborne Alternaria alternata antigens in U.S. homes: Results from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing  

PubMed Central

Background: Alternaria alternata is one of the most common fungi associated with allergic disease. However, Alternaria exposure in indoor environments is not well characterized. Objective: The primary goals of this study were to examine the prevalence of Alternaria exposure and identify independent predictors of Alternaria antigen concentrations in U.S. homes. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. A nationally representative sample of 831 housing units in 75 different locations throughout the U.S. completed the survey. Information on housing and household characteristics was obtained by questionnaire and environmental assessments. Concentrations of Alternaria antigens in dust collected from various indoor sites were assessed with a polyclonal anti-Alternaria antibody assay. Results: Alternaria antigens were detected in most (95-99%) of the dust samples. The geometric mean concentration, reflecting the average Alternaria concentration in homes, was 4.88 ?g/g (SE=0.13 ?g/g). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the age of the housing unit, geographic region, urbanization, poverty, family race, observed mold and moisture problems, use of dehumidifier, and presence of cats and dogs were independent predictors of Alternaria antigen concentrations. Less frequent cleaning and smoking indoors also contributed to higher Alternaria antigen levels in homes. Conclusion: Exposure to Alternaria alternata antigens in U.S. homes is common. Antigen levels in homes are not only influenced by regional factors but also by residential characteristics. Preventing mold and moisture problems, avoiding smoking indoors, and regular household cleaning may help reduce exposure to Alternaria antigens indoors.

Salo, Paivi M.; Yin, Ming; Arbes, Samuel J.; Cohn, Richard D.; Sever, Michelle; Muilenberg, Michael; Burge, Harriet A.; London, Stephanie J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

2005-01-01

128

Skin-associated Bacillus, staphylococcal and micrococcal species from the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and bacteriolytic enzymes.  

PubMed

Dust mites produce bacteriolytic enzymes, one of which belongs to the NlpC/P60 superfamily comprising bacterial and fungal proteins. Whether this enzyme is derived from the mite or from mite-associated microbes is unclear. To this end, the bacteriology of mites per se, and carpet and mattress dust from a group of asthmatic children and their parents was investigated. Dust from parents' and children's mattresses yielded significantly more colony forming units compared with dust from their corresponding carpets. Zymography demonstrated some dusts contained bacteriolytic enzymes, and in nine of the twelve dust samples from three of five houses examined, a prominent bacteriolytic band was obtained that corresponded to the mite band, although in one home, other lytic bands were detected. Fifty bacterial isolates were obtained from surface-sterilised, commercially obtained Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. 16S rRNA, tuf and rpoB gene sequencing of nine Gram-positive isolates identified them as Bacillus cereus, B. licheniformis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, S. capitis and Micrococcus luteus, known human skin commensals. 16S rRNA sequence homologies of four of the nine isolates identified as B. licheniformis formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster. All species secreted lytic enzymes during culture although the lytic profiles obtained differed between the rods and the cocci, and none of the bands detected corresponded to those observed in dust or mites. In conclusion, mites harbour a variety of bacterial species often associated with human skin and house dusts contain bacteriolytic enzymes that may be mite-derived. The identification of a novel cluster of B. licheniformis isolates suggests an ecological adaptation to laboratory-reared D. pteronyssinus. It remains to be determined whether the previously described mite-associated 14 K lytic enzyme is derived from a microbial source. PMID:23783892

Tang, Vivian H; Chang, Barbara J; Srinivasan, Ambuja; Mathaba, Leslie T; Harnett, Gerald B; Stewart, Geoffrey A

2013-06-20

129

The contribution of housing renovation to children's blood lead levels: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Routine renovation of older housing is a risk factor for childhood lead poisoning, but the contribution to children’s blood lead levels is poorly defined for children with lower exposure levels. Methods We examined a prospective cohort of 276 children followed from 6 to 24 months of age. We conducted surveys of renovation activities and residential lead hazards and obtained blood lead level (B-Pb) every six months. We analyzed B-Pb in a repeated measures design using a mixed effects linear model. Results Parent reported interior renovation ranged from 11 to 25% of housing units at the four, 6-month periods. In multivariable analysis, children whose housing underwent interior renovation had a 12% higher mean B-Pb by two years of age compared with children whose housing units were not renovated (p?lead sample was associated with higher B-Pb (p-value for trend <0.01); compared to children in non-renovated housing, children whose housing units underwent renovation in the prior month had a 17% higher mean B-Pb at two years of age, whereas children whose housing renovation occurred in the prior 2–6 months had an 8% higher mean B-Pb. We also found an association between higher paint lead loading, measured using an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) based paint lead index, and child B-Pb (p?=?0.02); for every 10 mg/cm2 increase in paint lead loading index there was a 7.5% higher mean childhood B-Pb. Conclusions In an analysis of data collected before the recent changes to Environmental Protection Agency’s Lead, Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule, routine interior housing renovation was associated with a modest increase in children’s B-Pb. These results are important for the provision of clinical advice, for housing and public health professionals, and for policymakers.

2013-01-01

130

Health and housing collaboration at LAST: the Philadelphia Lead Abatement Strike Team.  

PubMed Central

The Lead Abatement Strike Team (LAST) was developed in 2002 by the Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH) in response to community concern about management of children with elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs). Fourteen hundred backlog properties (housing at least one child with EBLLs) were identified through inspection as having housing-based lead hazards for which no satisfactory environmental remediation (control of lead hazards) had been achieved. In the first two years of LAST, 834 new housing cases also were identified. The heightened awareness of this problem, sparked in part by community advocacy efforts, led to the appropriation of 1.5 million dollars for environmental remediation. A collaborative group of health, housing, and other officials was convened. Enforcement for remediation of properties with lead hazards was strengthened with the development of the Lead Court, a special judicial court devoted exclusively to hearing cases where owners had violated local lead poisoning prevention laws. Identifying a group of Pennsylvania-certified lead abatement contractors, expanding the health department's abatement team, creating temporary relocation capacity, and providing funding for basic housing system repair work were crucial to obtaining rapid remediation of homes. In the first two years of the LAST program, 1,037 properties (both backlog and new properties) that housed 1,476 children were remediated, representing a significant increase in remediation capacity.

Campbell, Carla; Himmelsbach, Robert; Palermo, Peter; Tobin, Richard

2005-01-01

131

IN-HOUSE CORROSION RESEARCH EMPHASIZING LEAD, COPPER AND IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead and copper are directly regulated via the "Lead and Copper Rule;" however, water suppliers must balance all water treatment processes in order to simultaneously comply with all regulations. Specific research needs for copper and lead chemistry still exist, as applications o...

132

Lead exposure in young children from dust and soil in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed Central

A survey of metals in United Kingdom dusts and soils has confirmed widespread lead contamination with a geometric mean value for lead in surface (0-5 cm) garden soils of 266 micrograms/g and in housedusts of 561 micrograms/g (excluding old mining areas). A subsequent detailed survey of 97 householders in Birmingham with 2-year-old children showed dust lead loading in the home environment to be an important predictor of blood lead concentrations in young children, when both variables fell within the normal range for the U.K. The total estimated lead uptake by the young child was 36 micrograms/day of which 1 microgram was by inhalation and 35 micrograms by ingestion.

Thornton, I; Davies, D J; Watt, J M; Quinn, M J

1990-01-01

133

Lead Speciation in the Dusts Emitted from Non-Ferrous Metallurgy Processes.  

PubMed

The paper presents results for the speciation analysis of lead in dusts derived from dedusting of technological gasses from metallurgical processes of non-ferrous metals with different elementary content, made in accordance with two equal sequential extractions. Analytical procedure A provided possibilities for determination of fraction of Pb(2+), metallic lead and fraction containing mainly lead sulfides. The second procedure (procedure B) was sequential extraction in accordance with Tessier. The results obtained in accordance with procedure A indicate that, regardless of the dust origin, the dominant group of Pb compounds is composed of lead salts which are soluble under alkaline conditions or lead compounds that form plumbites in the reaction with NaOH. PMID:21743754

Czaplicka, Marianna; Buzek, Lucja

2010-09-23

134

A Pilot Study of the Measurement and Control of Deep Dust, Surface Dust, and Lead in 10 Old Carpets Using the 3Spot Test While Vacuuming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study measured and examined the relationship between surface dust, deep dust, lead (Pb), and the 3-spot test during vacuuming of carpets. The 3-spot test measures the total time in seconds for the indicator light on a Hoover vacuum with dirt detector (HVDD) to turn from red to green on three spots 3 feet apart at least 4 feet

J. W. Roberts; G. Glass; L. Mickelson

2004-01-01

135

Laboratory calibration measurements of a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate cosmic dust detector at low velocities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cosmic dust monitor for use onboard a spacecraft is currently being developed using a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate element (PZT). Its characteristics of the PZT sensor is studied by ground-based laboratory impact experiments using hypervelocity particles supplied by a Van de Graaff accelerator. The output signals obtained from the sensor just after the impact appeared to have a waveform

S. Takechi; K. Nogami; T. Miyachi; M. Fujii; N. Hasebe; T. Iwai; S. Sasaki; H. Ohashi; H. Shibata; E. Grün; R. Srama; N. Okada

2009-01-01

136

A major house dust mite allergen disrupts the immunoglobulin E network by selectively cleaving CD23: innate protection by antiproteases  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a chronic life-threatening disease of worldwide importance. Although allergic asthma and related atopic conditions correlate strongly with immune sensitization to house dust mites, it is unclear why antigens from mites provoke such powerful allergic immune responses. We have characterized the protease activity of Der p I, the group I protease allergen of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and here report that it cleaves the low-affinity immunoglobulin (Ig) E Fc receptor (CD23) from the surface of human B lymphocytes. Der p I selectively cleaves CD23 and has no effect on the expression of any other B cell surface molecules tested. We speculate that this loss of cell surface CD23 from IgE-secreting B cells may promote and enhance IgE immune responses by ablating an important feedback inhibitory mechanism that normally limits IgE synthesis. Furthermore, since soluble CD23 is reported to promote IgE production, fragments of CD23 released by Der p I may directly enhance the synthesis of IgE. alpha 1-Antiprotease, a pulmonary antiprotease, is also shown to inhibit the cleavage of CD23 by Der p I. This may be significant in the etiopathogenesis of asthma, because other indoor pollutants associated with asthma are known to potently inhibit this antiprotease. These data suggest that the proteolytic activity of Der p I, the group I allergen of the house dust mite D. pteronyssinus, is mechanistically linked to the potent allergenicity of house dust mites. Furthermore, inhibition of Der p I by alpha 1-antiprotease suggests a mechanism by which confounding factors, such as tobacco smoke, may act as a risk factor for allergic asthma.

1995-01-01

137

Predictors of group 5 grass-pollen allergens in settled house dust: comparison between pollination and nonpollination seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Some sensitive pollen-allergic patients may experience perennial symptoms, and for these patients it is vitally important to know the concentration of grass-pollen allergens in their homes. The main objective of this study was to detect predictors associated with high grass allergen concentration in settled house dust during and outside the grass pollination season. Methods: We detected group 5 grass-pollen

B. Fahlbusch; D. Hornung; J. Heinrich; L. Jager

2001-01-01

138

Selective allergy to lobster in a case of primary sensitization to house dust mites.  

PubMed

Allergy to only 1 kind of seafood is uncommon. We report a case of selective allergy to lobster. We studied a 30-year-old man who suffered generalized urticaria, facial erythema, and pharyngeal pruritus after eating lobster. He had a more than 10-year history of mild persistent asthma and sensitization to house dust mites. The study was performed by skin prick test, and prick-prick test, oral food challenge, specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E determinations by CAP (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden) and ADVIA-Centaur (ALK-Abelló, Madrid, Spain), and IgE-immunoblotting. The patient's serum recognized 2 allergens of around 198 kDa and 2 allergens of around 65 kDa from the lobster extract, allergens of around 15, 90, and 120 kDa from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract, and allergens of around 15 and 65 kDa from Dermatophagoides farinae extract. Serum did not recognize purified shrimp tropomyosin. Immunoblot-inhibition assay results indicated cross-reactivity between lobster and mite allergens. This is the first report of selective allergy to lobster. PMID:19862942

Iparraguirre, A; Rodríguez-Pérez, R; Juste, S; Ledesma, A; Moneo, I; Caballero, M L

2009-01-01

139

Epidermal growth factor receptor signalling contributes to house dust mite-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction.  

PubMed

Impaired airway epithelial barrier function has emerged as a key factor in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. We aimed to discern the involvement of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in allergen-induced epithelial barrier impairment, as we previously observed that house dust mite (HDM) signals through EGFR. We investigated the junctional integrity of human bronchial epithelial cells using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing and immunofluorescent staining. HDM induced a rapid, transient fall in epithelial resistance, concomitant with delocalisation of E-cadherin and zona occludens (ZO)-1, and proteolytic cleavage of the latter. EGFR inhibition by AG1478 reduced the HDM-triggered decrease in epithelial resistance and improved restoration of epithelial junctions. Similarly, AG1478 increased epithelial barrier recovery upon electroporation-induced injury, although it delayed the migration phase of the wound healing response. HDM-promoted redistribution of E-cadherin was mediated via EGFR-dependent activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, while the concomitant ZO-1 degradation was PAR-2/EGFR-independent. Importantly, the fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-? prolonged HDM-induced EGFR phosphorylation and inhibited ligand-induced EGFR internalisation/degradation, which resulted in sustained E-cadherin and ZO-1 redistribution. Thus, allergen-induced, PAR-2/EGFR-mediated signalling decreases epithelial resistance and promotes junction disassembly. The TGF-?-enhanced EGFR signalling may be an important contributor to barrier dysfunction and increased epithelial vulnerability in response to HDM. PMID:20351035

Heijink, I H; van Oosterhout, A; Kapus, A

2010-03-29

140

Allergen immunotherapy for house dust mite: clinical efficacy and immunological mechanisms in allergic rhinitis and asthma.  

PubMed

Introduction: There is an increasing prevalence of atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma with house dust mite (HDM) being the common allergen that is highly associated with allergic rhinitis and asthma. Allergen avoidance and pharmacotherapy are part of treatment but it has proved difficult to change the course of HDM-related allergic diseases. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been in use for the past century and has been shown to be effective in the treatment of allergic respiratory disease. Areas covered: This review exclusively focuses on HDM-AIT and discusses the differences in clinical efficacy and safety, long-term effect after discontinuation and immunological changes observed in both HDM-subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and HDM-sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma in both pediatric and adult populations. Expert opinion: The majority of studies involved small numbers of patients, variable doses of major allergens and are of variable quality. There is good evidence for HDM-SCIT efficacy and its long-term effect in adults and children, whereas at the present time, evidence for HDM-SLIT is unconvincing, particularly in children. In carefully selected patients, HDM-SCIT is effective and safe. More definitive trials are needed before HDM-SLIT can be recommended in routine practice for rhinitis and/or asthma. PMID:24099116

Eifan, Aarif O; Calderon, Moises A; Durham, Stephen R

2013-10-08

141

[Breeding control and immobilizing effects of wood microingredients on house dust mites].  

PubMed

The possible effects of essential oils as wood microingredients on house dust mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were investigated. 1. Whether small pieces of 5 types of wood had any control effect on mite breeding was studied. Mite breeding using only normal feed was compared with breeding using feed mixed with small pieces of wood. In addition, mite breeding using feed mixed with small pieces of wood with no essential oil was studied. 2. Effects of 6 different wood essential oils in immobilizing mites were studied with regard to respired and contact toxicities. 3. The immobilizing effects of 10 ingredients in Hinoki oil were also specifically studied with regard to contact toxicity. The results of the 3 experiments were as follows: 1) It was confirmed that the small pieces of Hinoki, cedar, pine and Lauan had control effects on mite breeding. However, the small pieces of spruce did not demonstrate an effect. Woods which had no essential oils had reduced or no breeding control effects. 2) It was confirmed that the 6 different wood essential oils had mite immobilizing effects associated with respired and contact toxicities. Rosewood oil, White Pine oil and Taiwan Hinoki oil had strong immobilizing effects. Hinoki oil, however, had only a weak effect. 3) Among the 10 ingredients of Hinoki oil, specifically Linalool, Geranyl acetate and alpha-Terpineol had strong mite immobilizing effects. PMID:7949285

Ando, Y

1994-08-01

142

House dust mite extract downregulates C/EBP? in asthmatic bronchial smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

Reduced translation of CEBPA mRNA has been associated with increased proliferation of bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) cells of asthma patients. Here, we assessed the effect of house dust mite (HDM) extracts on the cell proliferation ([(3)H]-thymidine incorporation), inflammation (interleukin (IL)-6 release) and upstream translation regulatory proteins of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)? in human BSM cells of healthy controls and asthmatic patients. HDM extract significantly increased IL-6 protein and proliferation of BSM cells of asthma patients only. HDM extract reduced the C/EBP? expression in BSM cells of asthma patients, which coincided with significantly increased levels of calreticulin (CRT) protein, an inhibitor of CEBPA mRNA translation. HDM extract elicited both protease-dependent and -independent responses, which were mediated via protease-activated receptor (PAR)2 and CRT, respectively. In conclusion, HDM extract reduced CEBPA mRNA translation, specifically in asthmatic BSM cells, and 1) upregulated CRT, 2) activated PAR2, and increased 3) IL-6 expression and 4) the proliferation of asthmatic BSM cells. Hence, HDM exposure contributes to inflammation and remodelling by a nonimmune cell-mediated mechanism via a direct interaction with BSM cells. These findings may potentially explain several pathological features of this disease, in particular BSM cell hyperplasia. PMID:21109558

Miglino, N; Roth, M; Tamm, M; Borger, P

2010-11-25

143

After the PBDE phase-out: a broad suite of flame retardants in repeat house dust samples from California.  

PubMed

Higher house dust levels of PBDE flame retardants (FRs) have been reported in California than other parts of the world, due to the state's furniture flammability standard. However, changing levels of these and other FRs have not been evaluated following the 2004 U.S. phase-out of PentaBDE and OctaBDE. We analyzed dust collected in 16 California homes in 2006 and again in 2011 for 62 FRs and organohalogens, which represents the broadest investigation of FRs in homes. Fifty-five compounds were detected in at least one sample; 41 in at least 50% of samples. Concentrations of chlorinated OPFRs, including two (TCEP and TDCIPP) listed as carcinogens under California's Proposition 65, were found up to 0.01% in dust, higher than previously reported in the U.S. In 75% of the homes, we detected TDBPP, or brominated "Tris," which was banned in children's sleepwear because of carcinogenicity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on TDBPP in house dust. Concentrations of Firemaster 550 components (EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP, and TPHP) were higher in 2011 than 2006, consistent with its use as a PentaBDE replacement. Results highlight the evolving nature of FR exposures and suggest that manufacturers continue to use hazardous chemicals and replace chemicals of concern with chemicals with uncharacterized toxicity. PMID:23185960

Dodson, Robin E; Perovich, Laura J; Covaci, Adrian; Van den Eede, Nele; Ionas, Alin C; Dirtu, Alin C; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

2012-11-28

144

After the PBDE Phase-Out: A Broad Suite of Flame Retardants in Repeat House Dust Samples from California  

PubMed Central

Higher house dust levels of PBDE flame retardants (FRs) have been reported in California than other parts of the world, due to the state’s furniture flammability standard. However, changing levels of these and other FRs have not been evaluated following the 2004 U.S. phase-out of PentaBDE and OctaBDE. We analyzed dust collected in 16 California homes in 2006 and again in 2011 for 62 FRs and organohalogens, which represents the broadest investigation of FRs in homes. Fifty-five compounds were detected in at least one sample; 41 in at least 50% of samples. Concentrations of chlorinated OPFRs, including two (TCEP and TDCIPP) listed as carcinogens under California’s Proposition 65, were found up to 0.01% in dust, higher than previously reported in the U.S. In 75% of the homes, we detected TDBPP, or brominated “Tris,” which was banned in children’s sleepwear because of carcinogenicity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on TDBPP in house dust. Concentrations of Firemaster 550 components (EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP, and TPHP) were higher in 2011 than 2006, consistent with its use as a PentaBDE replacement. Results highlight the evolving nature of FR exposures and suggest that manufacturers continue to use hazardous chemicals and replace chemicals of concern with chemicals with uncharacterized toxicity.

2012-01-01

145

Molecular Basis of Arthropod Cross-Reactivity: IgE-Binding Cross-Reactive Epitopes of Shrimp, House Dust Mite and Cockroach Tropomyosins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Shrimp may cross-react with other crustaceans and mollusks and nonedible arthropods such as insects (cockroach and chironomids), arachnids (house dust mites) and even nematodes. Since the muscle protein tropomyosin has been implicated as a possible cross-reacting allergen, this study characterized the IgE-binding epitopes in shrimp tropomyosin, Pen a 1, that cross-react with other allergenic invertebrate tropomyosins in house dust

Rosalia Ayuso; Gerald Reese; Susan Leong-Kee; Matthew Plante; Samuel B. Lehrer

2002-01-01

146

NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTION OF NEUTRAL PESTICIDES AND PAHS FROM HOUSE DUST AND SOIL (L11)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures to be used for the extraction of pesticides and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from house dust and soil. This procedure also describes the splitting of dust and soil samples for metal extractions for shipment to Emo...

147

NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF HOUSE DUST SAMPLES FOR METAL, PESTICIDE, AND PAH ANALYSIS (F04)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for collecting house dust samples. Dust from the floor was collected using a high-volume, small surface sampler (HVS3). Half of the sample was analyzed for metal content, and half was analyzed for pesticides and PAHs. Keywo...

148

IN-HOUSE COPPER AND LEAD SOLUBILITY/CORROSION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding and predicting metal release from pipes of all sizes and types from the treatment plant to the consumer?s tap is critical, specifically for regulatory compliance with the Lead and Copper Rule, as well as the performance, corrosion morphology, and longevity of infras...

149

IgE cross-reactivity between house dust mite allergens and Ascaris lumbricoides antigens  

PubMed Central

Background Common antigens between intestinal parasites and environmental allergens may play a role in the modulation of allergic immune responses. There is a growing interest in investigating cross-reactivity between common helminths and dust mites affecting humans, particularly in the tropics. Objective This study examined the cross-reactivity between the human roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) and three house dust mite (HDM) species. Methods Specific serum IgE levels to HDM species Blomia tropicalis (Bt), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), and Dermatophagoides farinae (Df ); and Al extracts among allergic (n=100) and ascariasis (n=60) subjects were measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IgE-reactive components of HDM and Al extracts were detected through Western-Blot Analysis. Cross-reactivity between HDMs and Al was determined by ELISA inhibition using HDM and Al-specific sera from allergic (n=15) and ascariasis (n=15) subjects. The IgE-binding capacity of a recombinant paramyosin peptide (Blo t 11-fD) to allergic (n=50) and ascariasis (n=50) subjects' sera were likewise determined. Results Among allergic subjects, 70% exhibited Al-specific positive IgE-reactivity, while 20-28% of ascariasis subjects demonstrated HDM-specific positive IgE-reactivity. Multiple IgE-reactive components of HDM allergens (14-240 kDa) and Al antigens (15-250 kDa) were detected, indicating multi-allergen sensitization among the subjects tested. Al antigens can inhibit up to 92% of HDM-specific IgE-reactivity among allergic subjects, while up to 54% of Al-specific IgE-reactivity among ascariasis subjects was inhibited by HDM allergens. Positive rBlo t 11-fD-specific IgE reactivity was observed in 80% of the allergic subjects and 46% of the ascariasis subjects. Conclusions This study showed the presence of multiple cross-reactive antigens in HDM and Al extracts. Identification of these molecules may provide basis for designing novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The potential role of paramyosin as a specific cross-reactive allergen present in HDMs and Al has been shown.

Cauyan, Gil A.; Ramos, John Donnie A.

2012-01-01

150

Depression of alveolar macrophage hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion release by mineral dusts: Correlation with antimony, lead, and arsenic contents  

SciTech Connect

Activated rabbit alveolar macrophages were incubated with airborne dusts from four West German sites (1 to 200 micrograms/10(6) cells) and waste incinerator fly ash fractions (50 to 500 micrograms/10(6) cells). Quartz dust DQ 12 (5 to 200 micrograms/10(6) cells) and Fe2O3 (0.05 to 50 micrograms/10(6) cells) were used as control dusts. The zymosan-stimulated hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion release of the macrophages were not affected significantly by Fe2O3. All other investigated dusts decreased the two cell functions which were correlated negatively with surfaces, particle numbers, and antimony, lead, and arsenic contents of the dusts. The influence of heavy metal antagonisms and dust surfaces on dust toxicity against alveolar macrophages is discussed.

Gulyas, H.; Labedzka, M.; Gercken, G. (Univ. of Hamburg (Germany, F.R.))

1990-04-01

151

IL-25 drives remodelling in allergic airways disease induced by house dust mite  

PubMed Central

Background Overexpression of the transforming growth factor ? family signalling molecule smad2 in the airway epithelium provokes enhanced allergen-induced airway remodelling in mice, concomitant with elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-25. Objective We investigated whether IL-25 plays an active role in driving this airway remodelling. Methods Anti-IL-25 antibody was given to mice exposed to either inhaled house dust mite (HDM) alone, or in conjunction with an adenoviral smad2 vector which promotes an enhanced remodelling phenotype. Results Blocking IL-25 in allergen-exposed mice resulted in a moderate reduction in pulmonary eosinophilia and levels of T helper type 2 associated cytokines, IL-5 and IL-13. In addition, IL-25 neutralisation abrogated peribronchial collagen deposition, airway smooth muscle hyperplasia and airway hyperreactivity in control mice exposed to HDM and smad2-overexpressing mice. IL-25 was shown to act directly on human fibroblasts to induce collagen secretion. Recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells to the lung and subsequent neovascularisation was also IL-25 dependent, demonstrating a direct role for IL-25 during angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, the secretion of innate epithelial derived cytokines IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) was completely ablated. Conclusions In addition to modulating acute inflammation, we now demonstrate a role for IL-25 in orchestrating airway remodelling. IL-25 also drives IL-33 and TSLP production in the lung. These data delineate a wider role for IL-25 in mediating structural changes to the lung following allergen exposure and implicate IL-25 as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of airway remodelling in asthma.

Gregory, Lisa G; Jones, Carla P; Walker, Simone A; Sawant, Devika; Gowers, Kate H C; Campbell, Gaynor A; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Lloyd, Clare M

2013-01-01

152

Paradoxical Effects of Rapamycin on Experimental House Dust Mite-Induced Asthma  

PubMed Central

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) modulates immune responses and cellular proliferation. The objective of this study was to assess whether inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin modifies disease severity in two experimental murine models of house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma. In an induction model, rapamycin was administered to BALB/c mice coincident with nasal HDM challenges for 3 weeks. In a treatment model, nasal HDM challenges were performed for 6 weeks and rapamycin treatment was administered during weeks 4 through 6. In the induction model, rapamycin significantly attenuated airway inflammation, airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and goblet cell hyperplasia. In contrast, treatment of established HDM-induced asthma with rapamycin exacerbated AHR and airway inflammation, whereas goblet cell hyperplasia was not modified. Phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein, which is downstream of mTORC1, was increased after 3 weeks, but not 6 weeks of HDM-challenge. Rapamycin reduced S6 phosphorylation in HDM-challenged mice in both the induction and treatment models. Thus, the paradoxical effects of rapamycin on asthma severity paralleled the activation of mTOR signaling. Lastly, mediastinal lymph node re-stimulation experiments showed that treatment of rapamycin-naive T cells with ex vivo rapamycin decreased antigen-specific Th2 cytokine production, whereas prior exposure to in vivo rapamycin rendered T cells refractory to the suppressive effects of ex vivo rapamycin. We conclude that rapamycin had paradoxical effects on the pathogenesis of experimental HDM-induced asthma. Thus, consistent with the context-dependent effects of rapamycin on inflammation, the timing of mTOR inhibition may be an important determinant of efficacy and toxicity in HDM-induced asthma.

Fredriksson, Karin; Yao, Xianglan; Meyer, Katharine S.; Keeran, Karen J.; Zywicke, Gayle J.; Qu, Xuan; Yu, Zu-Xi; Moss, Joel; Kristof, Arnold S.; Levine, Stewart J.

2012-01-01

153

The Effects of Storage Conditions on the Stability of House Dust Mite Extracts  

PubMed Central

Purpose Allergen extracts from the house dust mite (HDM, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) are widely utilized for diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. It is known that allergen extracts degrade and lose potency when stored over time. Methods This study aimed to determine the optimal conditions for stability of allergen extracts. This study was undertaken to investigate the optimal storage conditions for HDM extracts, the effects of adding 0.03% human serum albumin (HSA) and 50% glycerol were evaluated at -20?, 4?, and room temperature (RT). Changes in protein and group 1 major allergen (Der p 1) concentration, as well as allergenicity were measured over a 1 year period using the Bradford assay, two-site ELISA, and ELISA inhibition. Results Protein concentrations decreased by 86%, 51%, and 6% at RT, 4?, and -20?, respectively, when stored in distilled water. Overall allergenicity remained high (89.9%) when the extracts was reconstituted in 50% glycerol solution, and was 93.1% when reconstituted in 50% glycerol and 0.03% HSA at RT. Allergenicity was decreased to 36.6% and 33.3%, however, reconstitution in DW or 0.03% HSA solution at RT, respectively. Allergenicity was remained high as 92.0%-97.0% when stored at 4? regardless of the buffer conditions. Conclusions Storage temperature is the most important factor in preserving allergenicity of HDM extracts, which is ideal at 4?. The addition of 50% glycerol to the storage buffer was also found to play an important role in increasing the shelf-life of HDM extracts at RT.

Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Choi, Soo-Young; Han, In-Soo; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Joo-Shil; Hong, Chein-Soo

2013-01-01

154

Evaluation of four sampling methods for determining exposure of children to lead-contaminated household dust  

SciTech Connect

Childhood exposure to lead has been demonstrated to result in health effects and lead-contaminated household dust is a primary exposure source. There is a need to establish reliable methods for sampling surfaces to determine levels of lead contamination. Three vacuums (HVS3, GS80, and MVM) and one wipe method were evaluated for the collection of household floor dust under field sampling conditions within a Superfund site and demographically similar control area. Side-by-side floor samples were taken from three locations within 41 randomly selected households between August and September 1995: a child's bedroom, primary play area, and primary entrance. Analysis was performed to assess the relative collection performance of each sampler, spatial distribution of lead within a household, and correlation of lead loading with observed blood lead level, and to determine if discrete or composites samples were more predictive of blood lead levels. Approximately 90% of the floor surfaces were carpeted. The rank order of sampling methods from greatest to lowest collection efficiency was HVS3 > G80 > wipe > MVM. The HVS3 had the highest level of precision (CV = 0.05), with the GS80 and wipe precisions 0.48 and 0.053, respectively.

Sterling, D.A.; Roegner, K.C.; Lewis, R.D.; Luke, D.A. (Saint Louis Univ. School of Public Health, MO (United States). Div. of Environmental and Occupational Health); Wilder, L.C. (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Assessment and Consultation); Burchette, S.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States))

1999-08-01

155

Dechlorane Plus in house dust from E-waste recycling and urban areas in South China: sources, degradation, and human exposure.  

PubMed

Dechlorane Plus (DP) was measured in house dust from e-waste recycling and from urban and rural areas of South China, with geometric mean concentrations of 604, 14.5, and 2.89 ng/g, respectively. Dechlorane Plus in house dust in the e-waste area originated from e-waste recycling activities, whereas household appliances served as a major source of DP in urban house dust. The isomer ratios (f(anti) ) of DP in most dust samples from the e-waste area were significantly lower than those in the urban and rural dust samples and the commercial mixture. Several [-1Cl?+?H] and [-2Cl?+?2H] dechloro-DPs were identified in house dust from the e-waste area, and an a-Cl(11) DP was qualified with concentrations of <55.1 ng/g. Photolytic degradation experiments were conducted by exposing anti-DP, syn-DP, and commercial DP solutions to ultraviolet (UV) light. The slight difference in isomeric half-life derived by photodegradation, as well as the lower f(anti) values in the e-waste combusted residue, suggest a significant influence of isomer-specific thermal degradation of DP during e-waste burning on isomer composition in house dust in the e-waste area. The average estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of DP via house dust ranged from 0.06 to 30.2 ng/d for adults and 0.14 to 121 ng/d for toddlers in the studied area. The average EDIs of a-Cl(11) DP for adults and toddlers in the e-waste area were 0.07 and 0.18 ng/d, respectively. PMID:21647944

Wang, Jing; Tian, Mi; Chen, She-Jun; Zheng, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; An, Tai-Cheng; Mai, Bi-Xian

2011-09-01

156

Concentration of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium in 63-?m house dust fraction as a method to predict hidden moisture damage in homes  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative measurements of mould enrichment of indoor air or house dust might be suitable surrogates to evaluate present but hidden moisture damage. Our intent was to develop a house-dust monitoring method to detect hidden moisture damage excluding the influence of outdoor air, accumulated old dust, and dust swirled up from room surfaces. Methods Based on standardized measurement of mould spores in the 63-?m fraction of house dust yielded by carpets, the background concentrations were determined and compared to simultaneously obtained colony numbers and total spore numbers of the indoor air in 80 non-mouldy living areas during summer and winter periods. Additionally, sampling with a vacuum-cleaner or manual sieve was compared to sampling with a filter holder or sieving machine, and the evaluative power of an established two-step assessment model (lower and upper limits) was compared to that of a one-step model (one limit) in order to derive concentration limits for mould load in house dust. Results Comparison with existing evaluation procedures proved the developed method to be the most reliable means of evaluating hidden moisture damage, yielding the lowest false-positive results (specificity 98.7%). Background measurements and measurements in 14 mouldy rooms show that even by evaluating just the indicator genera in summer and winter, a relatively certain assessment of mould infestation is possible. Conclusion A one-step evaluation is finally possible for house dust. The house-dust evaluation method is based on analysis of the indicator genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium spp., which depend on the total fungal count. Inclusion of further moisture indicators currently appears questionable, because of outdoor air influence and the paucity of measurements.

Baudisch, Christoph; Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel

2009-01-01

157

House Dust Collection Efficiency of the High Volume Small Surface Sampler on Worn Carpets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High Volume Small Surface Sampler (HVS3) is a dust-sampling vacuum that allows for set airflow and back pressure during sampling, increasing precision. Total dust collection efficiency of the HVS3 has been evaluated only on new carpets—not worn carpets. We performed a factorial study to assess the impact of carpet wear, dust deposition level, carpet type, and relative humidity during

Erik Svendsen; Peter Thorne; Patrick OShaughnessy; Dale Zimmerman; Stephen Reynolds

2006-01-01

158

Summary and Assessment of Published Information on Determining Lead Exposures and Mitigating Lead Hazards Associated with Dust and Soil in Residential Carpets, Furniture, and Forced Air Ducts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the findings of a literature review on information concerning lead in dust within residential carpets, furniture (including upholstery and window treatments), and forced air ducts. Research areas include: (1) determining amounts of le...

1997-01-01

159

Lead in housing paints: an exposure source still not taken seriously for children lead poisoning in China.  

PubMed

After prohibitions on lead gasoline additives, which have proved to be a public health accomplishment world wide, many countries focus on other exposure source of children lead poisoning. Removing lead from paints is one of the important measures. Although there have been regulatory limits on lead in paints in China, evidence reported in this article indicates that lead-based paints were very common in new paints available for housing and in existing residential paints. Twenty-nine of 58 new paint samples (50%) had lead content equal to or exceeding 600 ppm, including 14 (24%) equal to or exceeding 5000 ppm. The highest sample contained 153,000 ppm lead, about 15% of the paint weight. Thirty-two new paints (55%) contained "soluble" lead exceeding 90 ppm, the current lead limit on paints in China. Of the existing paints, 16 of 28 samples of existing paint (57%) collected from 24 kindergartens and primary schools had lead concentrations equal to or exceeding 600 ppm, including six samples (21%) equal to or exceeding 5000 ppm. The highest concentration sample contained 51,800 ppm lead, accounting for 5.2% of the paint weight. It has been shown in many areas that paint lead is a major exposure source for lead poisoning in children. This is particularly true after the phasing out of lead from gasoline. Effective limitation on lead content in new paint, and lead hazard control measures directed towards existing paint, could reduce children blood lead levels (BLLs). There has been a lead standard for paints in China since 1986 and a stricter limit was introduced in recent years. Governments should take it seriously and enforce regulations, commit a long-term challenge to eliminate paint lead as it is the threat to current and the next generation. PMID:18976991

Lin, G Z; Peng, R F; Chen, Q; Wu, Z G; Du, L

2008-10-31

160

Supercritical fluid extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from house dust with supercritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a).  

PubMed

The extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from SRM 2585 (Organic Contaminants in House Dust) was investigated using supercritical fluid R134a as an extraction solvent. Three methods of dust extraction were studied: (1) extraction of dry dust, (2) extraction of dry dust dispersed on Ottawa sand and (3) extraction of dust wet with dichloromethane. For each of the three sample preparation methods, extracts at three temperatures (110, 150, and 200 degrees C) above the critical temperature of R134a were performed. Eight PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, 100, -153, -154, -183, and -209) in the SFE extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography negative-ion atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/NI-APPI/MS/MS). The optimum extraction of PBDEs from house dust using supercritical R134a is obtained when the dust is pre-wet with dichloromethane prior to extraction to swell the dust. For all sample preparation methods, higher temperatures afforded higher percent recoveries of the eight PBDE congeners. Only a combination of high-temperature (200 degrees C) and pre-wetting the dust with dichloromethane produced high recovery of the environmentally important, fully brominated PBDE congener, BDE-209. PMID:20006061

Calvosa, Frank C; Lagalante, Anthony F

2010-01-15

161

Dust detector using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate with current-to-voltage converting amplifier for functional advancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the concept of a dust monitor using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics with a large detection area. Its potential as a dust detector is experimentally demonstrated. The dust monitor has a small volume compared to an impact ionization detector with the same detection area, due to the PZT sensor. The PZT sensor, as a traditional device for the in-situ observation of hypervelocity dust particles, has been used for momentum measurement. The hypervelocity impact signals of PZT sensors are typically read by charge-sensitive amplifiers. Instead, we suggest a new method that a current-to-voltage converting amplifier is useful for interpreting the impact signal of a PZT sensor arising from dust particles down to 0.5 ?m in radius. We propose that datasets of dust impacts can be obtained with a higher statistical accuracy, if the new method is applied to instruments on forthcoming interplanetary-space-cruising spacecrafts.

Kobayashi, M.; Miyachi, T.; Hattori, M.; Sugita, S.; Takechi, S.; Okada, N.

2013-03-01

162

40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities §...

2009-07-01

163

40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities §...

2010-07-01

164

Determination of synthetic musk compounds in indoor house dust by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new method for the simultaneous determination of 11 synthetic musks and one fragrance compound in house dust was developed. The nitro musks included musk ketone (MK, 4-tert-butyl-3,5-dinitro-2,6-dimethylacetophenone), musk xylene (MX, 1-tert-butyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene), musk ambrette (1-tert-butyl-2-methoxy-4-methyl-3,5-dinitrobenzene) and musk moskene (1,1,3,3,5-pentamethyl-4,6-dinitroindane). The polycyclic musk compounds were 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-(?)-2-benzopyran (HHCB), 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN), 4-acetyl-1,1-dimethyl-6-tert-butylindane, 6-acetyl-1,1,2,3,3,5-hexamethylindane, 5-acetyl-1,1,2,6-tetramethyl-3-isopropylindane, 6,7-dihydro-1,1,2,3,3-pentamethyl-4(5H)-indanon. The one macrocyclic musk was 1,4-dioxacycloheptadecane-5,17-dione. The bicyclic hydrocarbon fragrance compound (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethylnaphthalen-2yl)ethan-1-one (OTNE) and HHCB-lactone (4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-1H,3H,4H,6H,7H, 8H-indeno[5,6-c]pyran-1-one), a degradation product of HHCB, were also analysed. NIST SRM 2781 (domestic sludge) and SRM 2585 (organic contaminants in house dust) were analysed for these target compounds. The method was applied for the analysis of 49 paired samples collected using two vacuum sampling methods: a sample of fresh or "active" dust (FD) collected using a Pullman-Holt vacuum sampler, and a household dust (HD) sample taken from the participants' vacuum cleaners. Method detection limits and recoveries ranged from 12 to 48 ng/g and 54 to 117 %, respectively. AHTN, HHCB, OTNE and HHCB-lactone were detected in all samples, with median concentrations of 552, 676, 252 and 453 ng/g for FD samples, respectively; and 405, 992, 212 and 492 ng/g for HD samples, respectively. MX and MK were detected with high frequencies but with much lower concentrations. The two sampling methods produced comparable results for the target analytes. Widely scattered concentration levels were observed for target analytes from this set of 49 house dust samples, suggesting a wide variability in Canadian household exposure to synthetic musks. PMID:22684881

Kubwabo, Cariton; Fan, Xinghua; Rasmussen, Pat E; Wu, Fang

2012-06-09

165

Lead in United Kingdom soils and dusts in relation to environmental standards and guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations of lead in British soils are frequently elevated due to both natural and man-made sources. A long history of mining and smelting has resulted in extensive metal pollution in specific areas. These extend to some 6000 sq km of agricultural land and include some small towns and villages. In these geochemical hot-spot areas lead passes in limited amounts into the food chain resulting in moderate elevations in blood lead concentrations in both grazing livestock and in children living in the old mining communities. There are no reported adverse effects on the health of livestock or the human population. A national survey of metals in dusts and soils in urban areas of Britain has shown elevated concentrations of lead in a significant proportion of households particularly those sampled in London. The results of this survey are compared with national standards and guidelines. 22 references, 3 tables.

Thornton, I.

1986-01-01

166

Cycling of Lead Through Soil, Air, and Household Dust in El Paso, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elimination of leaded gasoline in the US is associated with a dramatic overall decrease in ambient lead in the environment and blood lead levels in our population. However, Pb is such a potent neurotoxin for children during the formative growth years that legislation for additional reduction of airborne lead levels is under consideration. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of a suite of samples of local (El Paso) soil, airborne particulate matter, and household dust reveals that lead humate is the dominant Pb species in these diverse environmental materials. Lead humate is a stable complex of Pb with the humus component of soil, a product of interaction between the humus and such introduced contaminant lead species as lead oxide, lead sulfate, etc. Because lead humate forms only in soil, we conclude that the source of the majority of the lead in El Paso's airborne particulate matter and household dust is local soils. Analysis of lead isotopes in selected samples is consistent with this conclusion. Re-entrainment of low-density (relative to most Pb species) humus soil particles is the apparent pathway from soil to air. Deposition of airborne particulate matter and pedal traction are the presumed mechanisms for transfer to household interiors. Reduction of airborne lead in El Paso by reducing input from its dominant local source may require extensive soil remediation, a tedious and expensive prospect. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy experiments were conducted at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on beam lines 7-3, 10-2, and 11-2. Spectra were collected at the Pb L-III absorption edge in fluorescence mode using a 13-element or a 30-element Ge solid-state detector. This publication was made possible by grant numbers 1RO1-ES11367 and 1 S11 ES013339-04 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH. Partial travel support provided by SSRL-DOE- UTEP Gateway Program.

Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J.; Amaya, M. A.

2008-12-01

167

Evaluation of dust exposure to truck drivers following the lead haul truck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haul trucks have the potential to generate large amounts of respirable dust. This respirable dust has been shown to be a health hazard to personnel, especially if it has a high silica content. Lack of dust sampling data from haul trucks prompted the completion of a study to quantify respirable dust concentrations. These field studies were conducted measuring instantaneous respirable

W. R. Reed; J. A. Organiscak

168

EFFECTS OF AERIAL AMMONIA, HYDROGEN SULFIDE AND SWINE-HOUSE DUST ON RATE OF GAIN AND RESPIRATORY-TRACT STRUCTURE IN SWINE 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and swine-house dust at continuous aerial levels as high as or higher than those normally encountered in enclosed swine-finishing houses had little or no effect on rate of body-weight gain and respira- tory-tract structure of 92 healthy pigs in seven trials. The trials were of 17 to 109 days' duration, involved air pollutants alone and in

Stanley E. Curtis; Clyde R. Anderson; Joseph Simon; Aldon H. Jensen; Donald L. Day; Keith W. Kelley

169

Quantification of Ergosterol and 3Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Settled House Dust by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Comparison with Fungal Culture and Determination of Endotoxin by a Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids, chemical markers for fungal biomass and the endotoxin of gram- negative bacteria, respectively, may be useful in studies of health effects of organic dusts, including domestic house dust. This paper reports a method for the combined determination of ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in a single dust sample and a comparison of these chemical biomarkers

ANITA SARAF; LENNART LARSSON; HARRIET BURGE; DONALD MILTON

170

Contextualizing state housing programs in Latin America: evidence from leading housing agencies in Brazil, Ecuador, and Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The policy literature offers many valid criticisms of government housing programs, but does not adequately trace housing-agency failures to their causes in the broader political and economic contexts of peripheral capitalist countries. The literature especially lacks an understanding of the role of interests within the state which benefit from housing programs in their current distorted form. In response to these

T Kiak

1993-01-01

171

QUANTITATIVE PCR ANALYSIS OF HOUSE DUST CAN REVEAL ABNORMAL MOLD CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Indoor mold populations were measured in the dust of homes in Cleveland and Cincinnati, OH, by quantitative PCR (QPCR) and, in Cincinnati, also by culturing. QPCR assays for 82 species (or groups of species) were used to identify and quantify indoor mold populations in moldy home...

172

Lead-based paint: Interim guidelines for hazard identification and abatement in public and Indian housing  

SciTech Connect

The interim Guidelines provide information on the need for and appropriate methods of identifying and abating lead-based paint (LBP) in the Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD's) Public and Indian Housing program. It should be noted that these are interim Guidelines and are subject to change as new information becomes available. All requirements for Public Housing Authorities (PHAs) are considered to apply to Indian Housing Authorities (IHAs), except where specifically excluded by statute. Thus, these Guidelines apply to PHAs and IHAs inclusively. These Guidelines have been prepared by a panel of distinguished experts in the field of LBP and are an outgrowth of the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) effort, which developed the first draft of these guidelines under contract to HUD. These Guidelines represent the first national compilation of technical protocols, practices, and procedures on testing, abatement, worker protection, clean-up, and disposal of LBP in residential structures. These Guidelines should be used in conjunction with the requirements of any State or local codes and regulations which may apply to the specific project under consideration.

Not Available

1990-09-01

173

NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--ANALYSIS OF HOUSE DUST FOR ARSENIC (RTI/ACS-AP-209-121)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this protocol is to provide guidelines for the analysis of wipes that were used in Lioy-Wainman-Weisel (LWW) surface samplers to collect house dust for arsenic (As). This method involves the extraction of the analyte from wipe samples using 50% ultra-pure nitric ac...

174

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS OF SOIL OR HOUSE DUST SAMPLES USING CHLORPYRIFOS ELISA SAMPLES (BCO-L-1.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

This abstract is included for completeness of documentation, but this SOP was not used in the study. The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for analyzing both Stage II and Stage III soil and vacuum-cleaner collected house dust samples, and Stage III air samples u...

175

Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Induce a House Dust Mite-Specific Th2 Allergic Inflammation in the Lung of Humanized SCID Mice: Involvement of CCR7  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rodents, airway dendritic cells (DCs) capture inhaled Ag, undergo maturation, and migrate to the draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) to initiate the Ag-specific T cell response. However, the role of human DCs in the pathogenesis of the Th2 cell- mediated disease asthma remains to be clarified. Here, by using SCID mice engrafted with T cells from either house dust

Hamida Hammad; Bart N. Lambrecht; Pierre Pochard; Philippe Gosset

176

Eighteen-month outcomes of house dust mite avoidance and dietary fatty acid modification in the childhood asthma prevention study (CAPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Observational studies have linked house dust mite (HDM) exposure and dietary fatty acid intake with asthma in childhood. However, definitive evidence of their role in the etiology of asthma requires a randomized controlled trial. Objective: We hypothesized that the incidence of asthma and allergy in high-risk children would be reduced by avoidance of HDM allergens, supplementation with omega-3 fatty

Seema Mihrshahi; Jennifer K. Peat; Guy B. Marks; Craig M. Mellis; Euan R. Tovey; Karen Webb; Warwick J. Britton; Stephen R. Leeder

2003-01-01

177

High-Level Expression in Mammalian Cells of Recombinant House Dust Mite Allergen ProDer p 1 with Optimized Codon Usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The major house dust mite allergen Der p 1 is associated with allergic diseases such as asthma. Production of recombinant Der p 1 was previously attempted, but with limited success. The present study describes the expression of recombinant (rec) ProDer p 1, a recombinant precursor form of Der p 1, in CHO cells. Methods: As optimization of the codon

Marc Massaer; Pasqualina Mazzu; Michèle Haumont; Mauro Magi; Véronique Daminet; Alex Bollen; Alain Jacquet

2001-01-01

178

Comparisons of seasonal fungal prevalence in indoor and outdoor air and in house dusts of dwellings in one Northeast American county1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi cause allergies and many other adverse health effects. In this study, we characterized the nature and seasonal variation of fungi inside and outside homes in the Greater New Haven, Connecticut area. Three indoor air samples (in the living room, bedroom, and basement) and one outdoor sample were collected by the Burkard portable air sampler. House dust samples were collected

PING REN; THOMAS M JANKUN; BRIAN P LEADERER

1999-01-01

179

Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite Are Compared in a Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding allergenicity and asthma development is limited. We compared the ability of fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to induce allergic responses in BALB/c mice. The extracts were administered by intratracheal aspiration at doubling doses (2.5–80??g protein) 4X over a four-week period. Three days after the last exposure, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. The extracts' relative allergenicity was evaluated based on response robustness (lowest significant dose response compared to control (0??g)). MACA induced a more robust serum total IgE response than HDM. However, in the antigen-specific IgE assay, a similar dose of both MACA and HDM was required to achieve the same response level. Our data suggest a threshold dose of MACA for allergy induction and that M. anisopliae may be similar to HDM in allergy induction potential.

Ward, Marsha D. W.; Chung, Yong Joo; Copeland, Lisa B.; Doerfler, Donald L.

2011-01-01

180

5A, an Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptide, Attenuates the Induction of House Dust Mite-induced Asthma  

PubMed Central

New treatment approaches are needed for patients with asthma. Apolipoprotein A–I (apoA-I), the major structural protein of high density lipoproteins, mediates reverse cholesterol transport and also has atheroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we hypothesized that an apolipoprotein A–I mimetic peptide might be effective at inhibiting asthmatic airway inflammation. A 5A peptide, which is a synthetic, bi-helical apoA-I mimetic, was administered to wild-type A/J mice via osmotic mini-pump prior to the induction of house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma. HDM-challenged mice that received the 5A apoA-I mimetic peptide had significant reductions in the number of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid eosinophils, lymphocytes and neutrophils, as well as in histopathological evidence of airway inflammation. The reduction in airway inflammation was mediated by a reduction in expression of Th2- and Th17-type cytokines, as well as in chemokines that promote T cell and eosinophil chemotaxis, including CCL7, CCL17, CCL11 and CCL24. Furthermore, the 5A apoA-I mimetic peptide inhibited the alternative activation of pulmonary macrophages in the lungs of HDM-challenged mice. The 5A apoA-I mimetic peptide also abrogated the development of airway hyperreactivity and reduced several key features of airway remodeling, including goblet cell hyperplasia and the expression of collagen genes (Col1a1 and Col3a1). Our results demonstrate that the 5A apoA-I mimetic peptide attenuates the development of airway inflammation and airway hyperreactivity in an experimental murine model of house dust mite-induced asthma. These data support the conclusion that strategies utilizing apoA-I mimetic peptides, such as 5A, might be developed further as a possible new treatment approach for asthma.

Yao, Xianglan; Dai, Ciulian; Fredriksson, Karin; Dagur, Pradeep K.; McCoy, J. Philip; Qu, Xuan; Yu, Zu-Xi; Keeran, Karen J.; Zywicke, Gayle J.; Amar, Marcelo J. A.; Remaley, Alan T.; Levine, Stewart J.

2010-01-01

181

Estimating the impact parameters of cosmic dust particles using a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cosmic dust detector for installation on a satellite is currently being developed using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT), which can possess both functions of the collector and the transducer. The characteristics of the PZT detector have been studied by bombarding it with hypervelocity particles supplied by a Van de Graaff accelerator. The front surface of the detector used in this study was covered with a white paint to reduce any increase in the temperature due to the solar radiation. There was a linear relationship between the rise time of the signal produced by the detector and the particle's velocities, which were above 10 km/s on impact. This implies that individual particle velocities on impact can be inferred through the empirical formula derived from the data obtained from the PZT detector.

Takechi, S.; Miyachi, T.; Fujii, M.; Hasebe, N.; Nogami, K.; Ohashi, H.; Sasaki, S.; Shibata, H.; Iwai, T.; Grün, E.; Srama, R.; Okada, N.

2009-02-01

182

24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements...ACTIVITIES General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements...housing activities under NAHASDA? Yes, lead-based paint requirements apply...

2013-04-01

183

Airborne Lead, Dust, and Asbestos-like Fibers in Mechanical Street Cleaner Environments and an Evaluation of Some Contributory Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposures of mechanical street sweeper operators to lead, asbestos, and dust were determined, and an evaluation of the factors contributing to the level of exposure was conducted. Factors evaluated included rain, frequency of sweeping, traffic volume, and age of the dwellings in the sweeping areas. Sampling was conducted during the months of July through September. Sweeping routes were categorized according

Patrick Bohan; Vicki Hertzberg; William Burg; Scott Clark

1991-01-01

184

Poverty Status and IQ Gains from Revising the Dust Lead Hazard Standards: A Method for Evaluating Environmental Justice Implications?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to outline a method for evaluating the Environmental Justice (EJ) implications of revising the dust lead hazard standards for floors. For simplicity this paper only addresses populations as defined by poverty status, but the methods described can be applied to evaluate distributional implications by race, ethnicity, and populations defined according to alternative income categories.

Matthew LaPenta

2010-01-01

185

DEVELOPMENT OF A FIELD TEST METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF LEAD IN PAINT, AND PAINT-CONTAMINATED DUST AND SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

A rapid, simple, inexpensive, and relatively accurate field test method for the determination of lead (Pb) in paints, dusts, and soils has been developed. The method involves the ultrasonic leaching of 0.19 - 0.5g of the sample in 5 mL of 25% (v/v) nitric acid for 30 minutes foll...

186

Origin and patterns of distribution of trace elements in street dust: Unleaded petrol and urban lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elemental composition, patterns of distribution and possible sources of street dust are not common to all urban environments, but vary according to the peculiarities of each city. The common features and dissimilarities in the origin and nature of street dust were investigated through a series of studies in two widely different cities, Madrid (Spain) and Oslo (Norway), between 1990

Eduardo de Miguel; Juan F. Llamas; Enrique Chacón; Torunn Berg; Steinar Larssen; Oddvar Røyset; Marit Vadset

1997-01-01

187

MHC class II-restricted presentation of the major house dust mite allergen Der p 1 Is GILT-dependent: implications for allergic asthma.  

PubMed

Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is known to reduce disulfide bonds present in proteins internalized by antigen presenting cells, facilitating optimal processing and presentation of peptides on Major Histocompatibility Complex class II molecules, as well as the subsequent activation of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. Here, we show that GILT is required for class II-restricted processing and presentation of immunodominant epitopes from the major house dust mite allergen Der p 1. In the absence of GILT, CD4-positive T cell responses to Der p 1 are significantly reduced, resulting in mitigated allergic airway inflammation in response to Der p 1 and house dust mite extracts in a murine model of asthma. PMID:23326313

West, Laura Ciaccia; Grotzke, Jeff E; Cresswell, Peter

2013-01-11

188

MHC Class II-Restricted Presentation of the Major House Dust Mite Allergen Der p 1 Is GILT-Dependent: Implications for Allergic Asthma  

PubMed Central

Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is known to reduce disulfide bonds present in proteins internalized by antigen presenting cells, facilitating optimal processing and presentation of peptides on Major Histocompatibility Complex class II molecules, as well as the subsequent activation of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. Here, we show that GILT is required for class II-restricted processing and presentation of immunodominant epitopes from the major house dust mite allergen Der p 1. In the absence of GILT, CD4-positive T cell responses to Der p 1 are significantly reduced, resulting in mitigated allergic airway inflammation in response to Der p 1 and house dust mite extracts in a murine model of asthma.

West, Laura Ciaccia; Grotzke, Jeff E.; Cresswell, Peter

2013-01-01

189

A Recombinant Group 1 House Dust Mite Allergen, rDer f 1, with Biological Activities Similar to Those of the Native Allergen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum IgE directed against Der f 1, a protease found in the feces of Dermatophagoides farinae, correlates well with allergic sensitization to house dust mite in humans and is a risk factor for developing asthma. Native Der f 1 (nDer f 1) is produced as a pre-pro form and processed to an ?25-kDa mature form. We have expressed recombinant forms

Elaine A. Best; Kim E. Stedman; Cynthia M. Bozic; Shirley Wu Hunter; Lisa Vailes; Martin D. Chapman; Catherine A. McCall; Martin J. McDermott

2000-01-01

190

Immunization of rabbits with nematode Ascaris lumbricoides antigens induces antibodies cross-reactive to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae antigens.  

PubMed

There are controversial reports on the relationship between helminthic infection and allergic diseases. Although IgE cross-reactivity between nematode Ascaris antigens and house dust-mite allergens in allergic patients have been reported, whether Ascaris or the mite is the primary sensitizer remains unknown. Here we found that immunization of naïve animals with Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) antigens induced production of antibodies cross-reactive to mite antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae (Df). Sera from Bangladeshi children showed IgE reactivity to Ascaris and mite extracts. IgG from rabbits immunized with Al extract exhibited reactivity to Df antigens. Treatment of the anti-Al antibody with Df antigen-coupled beads eliminated the reactivity to Df antigens. In immunoblot analysis, an approximately 100-kDa Df band was the most reactive to anti-Al IgG. The present study is the first step towards the establishment of animal models to study the relationship between Ascaris infection and mite-induced allergic diseases. PMID:23291773

Nakazawa, Takuya; Khan, Al Fazal; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Takai, Toshiro; Zaman, Khalequz; Yunus, Md; Takeuchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Kazuo

2013-01-07

191

Tropomyosin or not tropomyosin, what is the relevant allergen in house dust mite and snail cross allergies?  

PubMed

Since tropomyosin is cross reactive in many arthropods, it was assumed that this highly conserved protein could be responsible for cross reactions in house dust mite (HDM) allergic patients who experienced adverse reactions after crustacean and mollusc ingestion. Here we report two clinical cases where the role of tropomyosin is a matter of debate. In the first case, the clinical history, as well as the results of in vivo and in vitro investigations, are in favour of a shrimp allergy without any snail allergy in a patient sensitized to HDM. In the second, the clinical history and the cutaneous tests are in favour of an allergy to snails without any allergy to shrimps in a patient suffering from HDM allergies. The clinical presentation is different in shrimp and snail allergies. In shrimp allergy, symptoms are mainly urticaria or angio-oedema. In snail allergies, adverse reactions are especially severe asthma. Shrimp tropomyosin is a dominant allergen in crustaceans whereas has a much less prominent role in HDM sensitization. Cross reactivities between HDM and snails have been confirmed by inhibition experiments. However, tropomyosin appears to be a minor allergen or even is not involved in snail allergy. It is necessary to clarify the allergens shared between HDMI and snails. The effects of HDM immunotherapy in snail allergy are questioned. Knowledge of taxonomy can contribute to more precise evaluation of cross reactivities between crustaceans and molluscs. PMID:20355359

Bessot, J C; Metz-Favre, C; Rame, J M; De Blay, F; Pauli, G

2010-02-01

192

House-dust mite allergen and ozone exposure decreases histamine H3 receptors in the brainstem respiratory nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Allergic airway diseases in children are a common and a growing health problem. Changes in the central nervous system (CNS) have been implicated in contributing to some of the symptoms. We hypothesized that airway allergic diseases are associated with altered histamine H3 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus, where lung/airway and nasal sensory afferents terminate, respectively. Immunohistochemistry for histamine H3 receptors was performed on brainstem sections containing the NTS and the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus from 6- and 12-month-old rhesus monkeys who had been exposed for 5 months to house dust mite allergen (HDMA) + O{sub 3} or to filtered air (FA). While histamine H3 receptors were found exclusively in astrocytes in the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus, they were localized to both neuronal terminals and processes in the NTS. HDMA + O{sub 3} exposure significantly decreased histamine H3 receptor immunoreactivity in the NTS at 6 months and in the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus at 12 months of age. In conclusion, exposing young primates to HDMA + O{sub 3} changed histamine H3 receptor expression in CNS pathways involving lung and nasal afferent nerves in an age-related manner. Histamine H3 receptors may be a therapeutic target for allergic asthma and rhinitis in children.

Sekizawa, Shin-ichi, E-mail: ssekizawa@ucdavis.ed [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, GBSF Rm. 3617, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Bechtold, Andrea G.; Tham, Rick C. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, GBSF Rm. 3617, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Kott, Kayleen S. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, GBSF Rm. 3617, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Hyde, Dallas M. [School of Medicine, California National Primate Research Center, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Joad, Jesse P. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Bonham, Ann C. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, GBSF Rm. 3617, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States)

2010-09-15

193

77 FR 16796 - Lead Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Activities in Target Housing and Child-Occupied Facilities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...activities in target housing and child-occupied facilities under...means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless...abatements in target housing or child-occupied facilities or if...with disabilities (unless any child under age 6 resides or is...

2012-03-22

194

Evaluation of the level of house dust mite allergens, Der p 1 and Der f 1 in Iranian homes, a nationwide study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Exposure to house dust mites (HDMs) is a major risk factor for the development of allergic symptoms. HDMs are worldwide in distribution. Assessing these allergens in each area is a critical step in evaluating the risk of sensitisation and controlling allergic symptoms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the level of major HDMs, Der p 1 and Der f 1, in various parts of Iran. METHODS: In 2009, 257 dust samples were obtained from living rooms' carpets in seven cities throughout Iran with different geoclimatic conditions. The level of Der p 1 and Der f 1 was measured by commercial ELISA. RESULTS: Detectable level of Der p 1 and Der f 1 levels were only found in Gorgan and Sari, two cities near the Caspian Sea with moderate temperatures and high relative humidity. In both of these cities, Der f 1 was more frequent than Der p 1 (100% vs. 85%) and was found to be at a higher level than Der p 1 (geometric mean 3128 vs. 439ng/g dust, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The results of this study confirm that house dust mites in Iran are restricted to the Caspian Sea coastal areas, and in other parts, due to seasonal variations of temperature and humidity mites are not able to grow well and therefore are not an important risk factor for sensitisation and respiratory allergies. PMID:23485047

Fereidouni, M; Fereidouni, F; Hadian, M; Nourani Hasankiadeh, Sh; Mazandarani, M; Ziaee, M

2013-02-25

195

The correlations between heavy metals in residential indoor dust and outdoor street dust in Bahrain  

SciTech Connect

The lead, zinc, cadmium, chromium, and nickel contents in both indoor house dust and outdoor street dust from 76 sites in Bahrain were determined by ICP-ES. The results showed widespread heavy metal contamination, especially lead, with an overall mean value in house dust for Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Ni of 517, 202, 1.9, 11, and 10, respectively. The mean values in street dust were 742, 67, 1.5, 9.6, and 12 mg/kg, respectively. The major source of metals in street dust was automobile exhaust. The major source of heavy metals indoors was also from automobile dust, i.e., lead and nickel. With respect to zinc, cadmium, and chromium, indoor sources were more important than outdoor sources. The distribution of lead both indoors and outdoors in Bahrain showed high levels of contamination occurring generally in the north and northeastern part where traffic is concentrated. The levels of these toxic metals found in indoor house dust may be a significant source of exposure, especially for children.

Madany, I.M. (Arabian Gulf Univ. (Bahrain)); Akhter, M.S.; Al Jowder, O.A. (Univ. of Bahrain (Bahrain))

1994-01-01

196

House dust mite allergen Der f 2 induces interleukin-13 expression by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway.  

PubMed

House dust mites (HDMs) are a common cause of allergic asthma. The group 2 allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae, Der f 2, is one of the major HDM allergens. Elevated Der f 2 immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels are observed in most of the allergic patients. Interleukin-13 (IL-13), a gene associated with asthma pathology, was induced by Der f 2 in BEAS-2B human airway epithelial cells; however, the signaling pathways associated with Der f 2 are not fully understood. In this study, we identified a role of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, a well-known potential target for anti-asthma drugs, in the IL-13 induction by Der f 2. First, Der f 2 activated the PI3K/Akt pathway, which subsequently activated the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway and induced IL-13 expression in BEAS-2B cells. Treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 abolished Der f 2-induced activation of Akt and NF-?B and the expression of IL-13. Furthermore, Der f 2-induced activation of the PI3K/Akt and NF-?B pathways, expression of IL-13, and the blockade of these effects with a PI3K inhibitor were confirmed in the lungs of mice that were intranasally exposed to Der f 2. Taken together, these results indicate that the PI3K/Akt pathway regulates Der f 2-induced IL-13 expression via activation of the NF-?B pathway. PMID:23564227

Ro, Eun Ji; Cha, Pu-Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Cho, Yong-Hee; Park, Jung-Won; Han, Joong-Soo; Choi, Kang-Yell

2013-05-01

197

Proteins and endotoxin in house dust mite extracts modulate cytokine secretion and gene expression by dermal fibroblasts.  

PubMed

House dust mite extracts used for diagnostic tests and immunotherapy contain bioreactive molecules including proteins and endotoxin. These extracts can influence the cytokine secretion and adhesion molecule expression by cells in the skin and lung airways. The aim of this study was to determine the role of proteins and endotoxin in mite extracts in modulating gene expression and cytokine secretion by human dermal fibroblasts. Cultured normal human dermal fibroblasts were stimulated with whole mite extracts, mite extracts boiled to denature proteins, or mite extracts treated with polymyxin B to inactivate lipopolysaccharide. Gene expression and secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined after 6 h of stimulation. Whole Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus and Euroglyphus maynei extracts induced dose-dependent IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. In addition, D. farinae and E. maynei induced secretion of MCP-1. Dermatophagoides farinae and E. maynei also induced parallel cytokine gene expression. Cells stimulated with boiled D. farinae extract showed moderate to marked reductions in IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. In contrast, boiled D. pteronyssinus and E. maynei extracts induced equal or greater cytokine secretions than untreated extracts. The stimulating properties were reduced for all three extracts following treatment with polymyxin B. Our data suggest that both endotoxin and proteins in mite extracts modulate the secretion of cytokines by dermal fibroblasts. The biological activities of D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and E. maynei extracts are not equivalent. There appears to be a lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in some mite extracts. PMID:23640713

Rockwood, Jananie; Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G

2013-05-03

198

Innate Immune Response of Alveolar Macrophage to House Dust Mite Allergen Is Mediated through TLR2/-4 Co-Activation.  

PubMed

House dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p), is one of the major allergens responsible for allergic asthma. However, the putative receptors involved in the signalization of Der p to the innate immune cells are still poorly defined as well as the impact of their activation on the outcome of the allergen-induced cell response. We previously reported that the HDM activation of mouse alveolar macrophages (AM) involves the TLR4/CD14 cell surface receptor complex. Here using a TLR ligand screening essay, we demonstrate that HDM protein extract engages the TLR2, in addition to the TLR4, in engineered TLR-transfected HEK cells but also in the MH-S mouse alveolar macrophage cell line model. Moreover we found that the concomitant recruitment of the MH-S cell's TLR2 and TLR4 receptors by the HDM extract activates the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway and leads to the secretion of the NF-?B regulated pro-inflammatory factors NO and TNF-?. However unlike with the canonical TLR4 ligand (i.e. the bacterial LPS) mobilization of TLR4 by the HDM extract induces a reduced production of the IL-12 pro-inflammatory cytokine and fails to trigger the expression of the T-bet transcription factor. Finally we demonstrated that HDM extract down-regulates LPS induced IL-12 and T-bet expression through a TLR2 dependent mechanism. Therefore, we propose that the simultaneous engagement of the TLR2 and TLR4 receptors by the HDM extract results in a cross regulated original activation pattern of the AM which may contribute to the Th2 polarization of the allergen-induced immune response. The deciphering of these cross-regulation networks is of prime importance to open the way for original therapeutic strategies taking advantage of these receptors and their associated signaling pathways to treat allergic asthma. PMID:24098413

Liu, Chia-Fang; Drocourt, Daniel; Puzo, Germain; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Riviere, Michel

2013-10-01

199

Innate Immune Response of Alveolar Macrophage to House Dust Mite Allergen Is Mediated through TLR2/-4 Co-Activation  

PubMed Central

House dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p), is one of the major allergens responsible for allergic asthma. However, the putative receptors involved in the signalization of Der p to the innate immune cells are still poorly defined as well as the impact of their activation on the outcome of the allergen-induced cell response. We previously reported that the HDM activation of mouse alveolar macrophages (AM) involves the TLR4/CD14 cell surface receptor complex. Here using a TLR ligand screening essay, we demonstrate that HDM protein extract engages the TLR2, in addition to the TLR4, in engineered TLR-transfected HEK cells but also in the MH-S mouse alveolar macrophage cell line model. Moreover we found that the concomitant recruitment of the MH-S cell’s TLR2 and TLR4 receptors by the HDM extract activates the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway and leads to the secretion of the NF-?B regulated pro-inflammatory factors NO and TNF-?. However unlike with the canonical TLR4 ligand (i.e. the bacterial LPS) mobilization of TLR4 by the HDM extract induces a reduced production of the IL-12 pro-inflammatory cytokine and fails to trigger the expression of the T-bet transcription factor. Finally we demonstrated that HDM extract down-regulates LPS induced IL-12 and T-bet expression through a TLR2 dependent mechanism. Therefore, we propose that the simultaneous engagement of the TLR2 and TLR4 receptors by the HDM extract results in a cross regulated original activation pattern of the AM which may contribute to the Th2 polarization of the allergen-induced immune response. The deciphering of these cross-regulation networks is of prime importance to open the way for original therapeutic strategies taking advantage of these receptors and their associated signaling pathways to treat allergic asthma.

Liu, Chia-Fang; Drocourt, Daniel; Puzo, Germain; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Riviere, Michel

2013-01-01

200

Environmental and childhood lead contamination in the proximity of boat-repair yards in southern Thailand—I: Pattern and factors related to soil and household dust lead levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

High blood lead levels have recently been documented in schoolchildren living in communities adjacent to boat-repair yards in southern Thailand. In this study, the spatial pattern of lead contamination of soil and household dust in an area surrounding several boat-repair yards is described, and household factors associated with elevated dust lead are identified. A cross-sectional spatial study was conducted in

Nipa Maharachpong; Alan Geater; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong

2006-01-01

201

Lead and zinc in roadside dust from a suburb in Athens, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greek roadside dusts were analysed for total Pb and Zn content. Ratios of Pb\\/Zn concentrations, compared to natural background levels, showed an average six fold enrichment factor, because of elevated Pb concentrations. Higher ratios were located along main traffic roads surrounding a smaller ratio area less frequented by urban traffic.

S. Rapsomanikis; O. Donard

1985-01-01

202

Impact of dust filter installation in ironworks and construction on brownfield area on the toxic metal concentration in street and house dust (Celje, Slovenia).  

PubMed

This article presents the impact of the ecological investment in ironworks (dust filter installation) and construction works at a highly contaminated brownfield site on the chemical composition of household dust (HD) and street sediment (SS) in Celje, Slovenia. The evaluation is based on two sampling campaigns: the first was undertaken 1 month before the ecological investment became operational and the second 3 years later. The results show that dust filter installations reduced the content of Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, W and Zn on average by 58% in HD and by 51% in SS. No reduction was observed at sampling points in the upwind direction from the ironworks. By contrast, the impact of the construction works on the highly contaminated brownfield site was detected by a significant increase (on average by 37%) of elements connected to the brownfield contamination in SS. Such increase was not detected in HD. PMID:22535428

Zibret, Gorazd

2011-10-04

203

Use of ultramolecular potencies of allergen to treat asthmatic people allergic to house dust mite: double blind randomised controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the efficacy of homoeopathic immunotherapy on lung function and respiratory symptoms in asthmatic people allergic to house dust mite. Design Double blind randomised controlled trial. Setting 38 general practices in Hampshire and Dorset. Participants 242 people with asthma and positive results to skin prick test for house dust mite; 202 completed clinic based assessments, and 186 completed diary based assessments. Intervention After a four week baseline assessment, participants were randomised to receive oral homoeopathic immunotherapy or placebo and then assessed over 16 weeks with three clinic visits and diary assessments every other week. Outcome measure Clinic based assessments: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), quality of life, and mood. Diary based assessments: morning and evening peak expiratory flow, visual analogue scale of severity of asthma, quality of life, and daily mood. Results There was no difference in most outcomes between placebo and homoeopathic immunotherapy. There was a different pattern of change over the trial for three of the diary assessments: morning peak expiratory flow (P=0.025), visual analogue scale (P=0.017), and mood (P=0.035). At week three there was significant deterioration for visual analogue scale (P=0.047) and mood (P=0.013) in the homoeopathic immunotherapy group compared with the placebo group. Any improvement in participants' asthma was independent of belief in complementary medicine. Conclusion Homoeopathic immunotherapy is not effective in the treatment of patients with asthma. The different patterns of change between homoeopathic immunotherapy and placebo over the course of the study are unexplained. What is already known on this topicHomoeopathic remedies probably have an effect that is greater than placeboSome of the better quality homoeopathic studies involve homoeopathic doses of allergens used to treat allergic diseaseWhat this study addsIn this study homoeopathic remedies were no better than placebo in the treatment of asthmatic patients who are allergic to house dust mite

Lewith, G T; Watkins, A D; Hyland, M E; Shaw, S; Broomfield, J A; Dolan, G; Holgate, S T

2002-01-01

204

The complete mitochondrial genome of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart): a novel gene arrangement among arthropods  

PubMed Central

Background The apparent scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks). This subclass encompasses over 48,000 species and forms the largest group within the Arachnida. Although mitochondrial genomes are widely utilised for phylogenetic and population genetic studies, only 20 mitochondrial genomes of Acari have been determined, of which only one belongs to the diverse order of the Sarcoptiformes. In this study, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, the most important member of this largely neglected group. Results The mitochondrial genome of D. pteronyssinus is a circular DNA molecule of 14,203 bp. It contains the complete set of 37 genes (13 protein coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes), usually present in metazoan mitochondrial genomes. The mitochondrial gene order differs considerably from that of other Acari mitochondrial genomes. Compared to the mitochondrial genome of Limulus polyphemus, considered as the ancestral arthropod pattern, only 11 of the 38 gene boundaries are conserved. The majority strand has a 72.6% AT-content but a GC-skew of 0.194. This skew is the reverse of that normally observed for typical animal mitochondrial genomes. A microsatellite was detected in a large non-coding region (286 bp), which probably functions as the control region. Almost all tRNA genes lack a T-arm, provoking the formation of canonical cloverleaf tRNA-structures, and both rRNA genes are considerably reduced in size. Finally, the genomic sequence was used to perform a phylogenetic study. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis clustered D. pteronyssinus with Steganacarus magnus, forming a sistergroup of the Trombidiformes. Conclusion Although the mitochondrial genome of D. pteronyssinus shares different features with previously characterised Acari mitochondrial genomes, it is unique in many ways. Gene order is extremely rearranged and represents a new pattern within the Acari. Both tRNAs and rRNAs are truncated, corroborating the theory of the functional co-evolution of these molecules. Furthermore, the strong and reversed GC- and AT-skews suggest the inversion of the control region as an evolutionary event. Finally, phylogenetic analysis using concatenated mt gene sequences succeeded in recovering Acari relationships concordant with traditional views of phylogeny of Acari.

Dermauw, Wannes; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vanholme, Bartel; Tirry, Luc

2009-01-01

205

Association of house dust mite-specific IgE with asthma control, medications and household pets  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence is conflicting regarding the effectiveness of creating a low-allergen environment or reducing allergen exposure to control asthma exacerbations. Objective This study determined the association of house dust mite (HDM)-specific IgE levels with asthma symptom control, selected medications, family history of allergic disease, and exposure to second-hand smoke and household pets. Methods Serum samples from 102 doctor-diagnosed allergic asthma patients and 100 non-atopic controls were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the HDM species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), and Blomia tropicalis (Bt) allergens. Point-biserial correlation coefficient, Pearson R correlation, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association of HDM-specific IgE levels with the abovementioned variables. Results Of the 102 cases, 38.24%, 47.06%, and 33.33% were sensitized to Bt, Df, and Dp, respectively. Sensitized patients showed greater probability [Bt (OR = 1.21), Df (OR = 1.14), and Dp (OR = 1.35)] to manifest symptoms than those who were not. Obtained p-values [Bt (p = 0.73), Df (p = 0.83), and Dp (p = 0.59)], however, proved that HDM-specific IgE levels had no significant contribution in predicting or explaining occurrence of asthma symptoms. Bt- and Df-specific IgEs showed moderately weak but significant relationship with bambuterol HCl and expectorant, respectively. Patients currently on said medications registered higher HDM-specific IgE levels than those who were not. No significant correlation between IgE levels and family history of allergic disease or with exposure to second-hand smoke was seen. Dp-specific IgE levels of patients exposed to household pets were significantly lower compared to those without exposure. Conclusion This study proves that sensitization to Bt, Df, and Dp allergens is not significantly associated with asthma symptoms and control. Although cases were shown to be sensitized to HDMs, their current medications were at least effective in controlling their asthma symptoms.

Ramos, John Donnie A.

2011-01-01

206

Development, application, and results of routine monitoring of Marek's disease virus in broiler house dust using real-time quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

Results are presented from four studies between 2002 and 2011 into the feasibility of routinely monitoring Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1) in broiler house dust using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) measurement. Study 1 on two farms showed that detection of MDV-1 occurred earlier on average in dust samples tested using qPCR than standard PCR and in spleen samples from five birds per shed assayed for MDV-1 by qPCR or standard PCR. DNA quality following extraction from dust had no effect on detection of MDV-1. Study 2 demonstrated that herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) and MDV serotype 2 (MDV-2) in addition to MDV-1 could be readily amplified from commercial farm dust samples, often in mixtures. MDV-2 was detected in 11 of 20 samples despite the absence of vaccination with this serotype. Study 3 investigated the reproducibility and sensitivity of the qPCR test and the presence of inhibitors in the samples. Samples extracted and amplified in triplicate showed a high level of reproducibility except at very low levels of virus near the limit of detection. Mixing of samples prior to extraction provided results consistent with the proportions in the mixture. Tests for inhibition showed that if the template contained DNA in the range 0.5-20 ng/microl no inhibition of the reaction was detectable. The sensitivity of the tests in terms of viral copy number (VCN) per milligram of dust was calculated to be in the range 24-600 VCN/mg for MDV-1, 48-1200 VCN/mg for MDV-2, and 182-4560 VCN/mg for HVT. In study 4 the results of 1976 commercial tests carried out for one company were analyzed. Overall 23.1% of samples were positive for MDV-1, 26.1% in unvaccinated and 16.4% in vaccinated chickens. There was marked regional and temporal variation in the proportion of positive samples and the MDV-1 load. The tests were useful in formulating Marek's disease vaccination strategies. The number of samples submitted has increased recently, as has the incidence of positive samples. These studies provide strong evidence that detection and quantitation of MDV-1, HVT, and MDV-2 in poultry house dust using qPCR is robust, sensitive, reproducible, and meaningful, both biologically and commercially. Tactical vaccination based on monitoring of MDV-1 rather than routine vaccination may reduce selection pressure for increased virulence in MDV-1. PMID:23901774

Walkden-Brown, Stephen W; Islam, A F Aminul; Groves, Peter J; Rubite, Ambrosio; Sharpe, Sue M; Burgess, Susan K

2013-06-01

207

Paint as a source of recontamination of houses in urban environments and its role in maintaining elevated blood leads in children.  

PubMed

A detailed lead isotopic and scanning electron microscope investigation of particulates from three houses in urban Sydney, previously decontaminated by their owners, has shown that they have been recontaminated over varying periods, as short as 6 months. The source of recontamination is lead paint from adjoining dwellings whose paint is thoroughly deteriorated, as well as from unknown sources. In one house, the external to internal lead loading was > 10:1. The pathway for the lead paint contaminants is both airborne and mechanical transport into the houses. Recontamination of houses provides an explanation for the maintenance of elevated blood lead levels in the children residing in these houses. Recontamination can be a major urban problem applicable in any community which used leaded paints on dwellings in the past. It is a matter of concern for families with young children and couples, especially women who are, or intend to become, pregnant. PMID:7725084

Gulson, B L; Davis, J J; Bawden-Smith, J

1995-03-30

208

In-House Software Development: What Project Management Practices Lead to Success?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project management is an important part of software development, both for organizations that rely on third-party software development and for those whose software is developed primarily in-house. Moreover, quantitative survey-based research regarding software development's early, nontechnical aspects is lacking. To help provide a project management perspective for managers responsible for in-house software development, we conducted a survey in an attempt

June M. Verner; William M. Evanco

2005-01-01

209

Lead poisoning as possible cause of deaths at the Swedish House at Kapp Thordsen, Spitsbergen, winter 1872-3  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate cause of death in 17 sealers who died in the Swedish house in Kapp Thordsen, Spitsbergen, during the winter of 1872-3. Design Analysis of skeletal samples from one sealer’s grave. Setting Field trip to Spitsbergen to exhume skeletal remains. Subjects One of 17 sailors who died in 1872-3. Results No objective signs of scurvy were found. The concentration of lead in the bone samples was 102.05 µg/g. Conclusions The high concentrations of lead indicate that this man died from lead poisoning, probably from food tins. The absence of macroscopic signs of scurvy supports this theory.

2009-01-01

210

Cycling of Lead Through Soil, Air, and Household Dust in El Paso, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elimination of leaded gasoline in the US is associated with a dramatic overall decrease in ambient lead in the environment and blood lead levels in our population. However, Pb is such a potent neurotoxin for children during the formative growth years that legislation for additional reduction of airborne lead levels is under consideration. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of a suite of

N. E. Pingitore; J. Clague; M. A. Amaya

2008-01-01

211

Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, calcium, iron, manganese and chromium (VI) levels in Nigeria and United States of America cement dust.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at investigating the relative abundance of heavy metals in cement dust from different cement dust factories in order to predict their possible roles in the severity of cement dust toxicity. The concentrations of total mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and chromium (VI) (Cr (VI)) levels in cement dust and clinker samples from Nigeria and cement dust sample from the United States of America (USA) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAAS), while Zn and Ca were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), and Cr (VI) by colorimetric method. Total Cu, Ni and Mn were significantly higher in cement dust sample from USA (p<0.05), also, both total Cr and Cr (VI) were 5.4-26 folds higher in USA cement dust compared with Nigeria cement dust or clinker (p<0.001). Total Cd was higher in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05 and p<0.001), respectively. Mercury was more in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05), while Pb was only significantly higher in clinker from Nigeria (p<0.001). These results show that cement dust contain mixture of metals that are known human carcinogens and also have been implicated in other debilitating health conditions. Additionally, it revealed that metal content concentrations are factory dependent. This study appears to indicate the need for additional human studies relating the toxicity of these metals and their health impacts on cement factory workers. PMID:23261125

Ogunbileje, J O; Sadagoparamanujam, V-M; Anetor, J I; Farombi, E O; Akinosun, O M; Okorodudu, A O

2012-12-21

212

In vivo clonal dominance and limited T-cell receptor usage in human CD4+ T-cell recognition of house dust mite allergens.  

PubMed Central

Sensitivity to house dust mite antigens in atopic individuals is a major cause of allergic diseases, ranging from asthma to rhinitis and dermatitis. We have studied the T-cell receptor (TCR) usage of house-dust-mite-specific CD4+ T-cell clones isolated from an atopic individual, by using the anchored polymerase chain reaction, and have analyzed the peripheral TCR repertoire of the same individual. Several T-cell clones had identified TCRs at the sequence level, despite the fact that they had been independently isolated, in some cases, in different years. These data suggest the presence in vivo of long-lived T-cell clones. We have also shown that junctional sequences identical to these clones are present in peripheral blood T cells taken 6 years after the isolation of the T-cell clones. The analysis of TCR genes used by the panel of clones reveals oligoclonality, with the variable (V) region gene segments V alpha 8 and V beta 3 being dominant, although there is minimal conservation of junctional sequences. The results have implications for understanding the TCR recognition of an environmental aeroallergen and the life span of T-cell clones in vivo during a chronic immune response. Images Fig. 2

Wedderburn, L R; O'Hehir, R E; Hewitt, C R; Lamb, J R; Owen, M J

1993-01-01

213

Use of quadrupole GC-MS and ion trap GC-MS-MS for determining 3-hydroxy fatty acids in settled house dust: relation to endotoxin activity.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using a quadrupole instrument and GC-tandem MS (GC-MS-MS) using an ion trap instrument were applied to determine 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) with 10-18 carbon chain lengths, specific components of the endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria, in 30 house dust samples. The two methods provided similar detection sensitivity for methyl ester/trimethylsilyl derivatives of the 3-OH FAs and allowed these acids to be distinguished from co-eluting 2-OH FA derivatives. The correlation coefficients between endotoxin activity (Limulus test) and the combined amounts of 3-OH C10, 3-OH C12, and 3-OH C14 were 0.60 and 0.61 when using GC-MS and GC-MS-MS, respectively. The superior selectivity of GC-MS-MS was illustrated in analyses of sub-milligram amounts of dust, where the chromatograms achieved by GC-MS were difficult to interpret due to a high background and several closely eluting compounds. GC-MS-MS is therefore preferable to GC-MS for determining 3-OH FAs in minute (sub-milligram) amounts of dust. PMID:11529095

Saraf, A; Park, J H; Milton, D K; Larsson, L

1999-04-01

214

Addressing Lead-Based Paint Hazards During Renovation, Remodeling, and Rehabilitation in Federally Owned and Assisted Housing. Instructor Manual for Use in HUD-Sponsored Lead-Safe Work Practices Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is the instructor's manual for a U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) training course that reflects the requirements of HUD's Lead Safe Housing Rule and is designed to provide training contractors with information regarding containment, minimization, and cleanup of lead hazards during activities that disturb…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

215

Comparative assessment of human exposure to phthalate esters from house dust in China and the United States.  

PubMed

Because of volatilization and leaching from their application in consumer and personal care products, phthalate esters are ubiquitous contaminants in the indoor environment. In this study, we measured concentrations and profiles of 9 phthalate esters in indoor dust samples collected from six cities in China (n = 75). For comparison, we also analyzed samples collected from Albany, New York, USA (n = 33). The results indicated that concentrations, except for dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and profiles of phthalate esters varied significantly between the two countries. Concentrations of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-hexyl phthalate (DNHP), and benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP) were 5 to 10 times higher in dust samples collected from Albany than those from the Chinese cities. In contrast, concentrations of di-iso-butyl phthalate (DIBP) in dust samples from Albany were 5 times lower than those from the Chinese cities. We estimated the daily intake (DI) of phthalate esters through the routes of dust ingestion and dermal dust absorption. The extent of contribution of indoor dust to human exposures varied, depending on the type of phthalate esters. The contribution of dust to DEHP exposure was 2-5% and 10-58% of the estimated total DIs in China and the USA, respectively. On the basis of the estimates of total DIs of phthalates, extrapolated from urinary metabolite concentrations, the contributions of inhalation, dermal absorption, and dietary intake to total DIs were estimated. The results indicated that dietary intake is the main source of exposure to DEHP (especially in China), whereas dermal exposure was a major source for DEP. This is the first study to elucidate sources of human exposure to phthalates among the general population in China. PMID:21434628

Guo, Ying; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2011-03-24

216

The lead isotopic composition of dust in the vicinity of a uranium mine in northern Australia and its use for radiation dose assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne lead isotope ratios were measured via Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry in samples from the vicinity of Ranger uranium mine in northern Australia. Dust deposited on leaves of Acacia spp. was washed off and analysed to gain a geographical snapshot of lead isotope ratios in the region. Aerosols were also collected on Teflon filters that were changed monthly over one

Andreas Bollhöfer; Russell Honeybun; Kevin Rosman; Paul Martin

2006-01-01

217

Development and field trial of a household surface lead loading rate sampling device in a lead-contaminated community of southern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new dust-collecting device was developed to assess surface lead loading rates in houses in communities contaminated with\\u000a lead oxide dust used for caulking in nearby boat-repair yards. The device consists of two small glass sheets with total area\\u000a of 1,200 cm2 placed in two plastic trays suspended from the ceiling in the house for 3 months before wiping and sending the

Orrapan Untimanon; Alan Geater; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong; Somkiat Thoumsang; Pia K. Verkasalo; Wiyada Saetia

2010-01-01

218

OUTREACH TO MANUFACTURERS OF LEAD TEST KITS  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead test kits offer a potentially rapid, inexpensive, and simple to use technique for the analysis of low levels of lead in paint, soil, and house dust. n order to assess the feasibility of homeowners and contractors using test kits as an indicator of the need for or success of ...

219

INVESTIGATION OF THE DECLINE OF THE NUMBER OF HOUSING UNITS WITH LEAD-BASED PAINT - DISCONTINUED DUE TO LACK OF FUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

This project was discontinued on October 1, 2004 due to lack of funds. The product of this activity was a draft report that investigated the decline in the number of housing units with lead-based paint. In the early 1990s, the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (H...

220

Production-scale purification of the recombinant major house dust mite allergen Der f 2 mutant C8/119S.  

PubMed

A WHO position paper states that allergen immunotherapy is an effective treatment for allergic diseases, and well characterized allergens should be used in immunotherapy. The house dust mite is a major cause of allergic disease. However, the biological activity of the mite extracts currently used cannot be clearly determined, since these extracts contain various impurities. The use of recombinant allergens can avoid this problem. However, there remains a risk of contamination by other impurities, such as host cell-derived proteins (HCPs). Advanced purification techniques are thus required to remove these contaminants. C8/119S is a mutant of the major house dust mite allergen Der f 2, and is expressed and accumulated as an inclusion body in Escherichia coli. The C8/119S was refolded and purified through three column chromatography steps. Using this method, we could obtain about 2g of the purified C8/119S in one purification batch. This amount is equivalent to 100,000 of the maintenance doses required for immunotherapy based on the WHO position paper. The purity of the C8/119S was 99% or more. The antigenicity of HCPs in the C8/119S was examined by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assays. When the C8/119S was administered at 40 ?g/kg, no local anaphylaxis was observed. C8/119S was thus highly purified with an extremely low level of impurities, and our procedure was shown to be an effective advanced production-scale purification process for this Der f 2 mutant. In this study, we established an advanced purification processes for C8/119S, then characterized the purified C8/119S and evaluated its purity. PMID:20547344

Koyanagi, Satoshi; Murakami, Toshio; Maeda, Toshihiro; Kawatsu, Kenjirou; Okamura, Hiroshi; Oda, Yoshiaki; Miyatsu, Yoshinobu; Sugawara, Keishin; Mizokami, Hiroshi

2010-06-12

221

Sequence polymorphisms of Der f 1, Der p 1, Der f 2 and Der p 2 from Korean house dust mite isolates.  

PubMed

Amino acid sequence variations have possible influences on the allergenicity of allergens and may be important factors in allergen standardization. This study was undertaken to investigate the sequence polymorphisms of group 1 and 2 allergens from Korean isolates of the house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. cDNA sequences encoding group 1 and 2 allergens were amplified by RT-PCR and compared the deduced amino acid sequences. Der f 1.0101, which appeared in 64.0 % of the 50 sequences analyzed, was found to be predominant. Among the Der p 1 sequences, Der p 1.0102 and 1.0105 were predominant (58 %). Among the Der f 2 sequences, Der f 2.0102 (40.7 %) and a new variant with Gly at position 42 (27.8 %) were predominant. The deduced amino acid sequences of 60 Der p 2 clones were examined, and 28 variants with 1-5 amino acid substitutions were found. Interestingly, all of the Der p 2 sequences had Thr instead of Lys at position 49. Two variants (Leu40, Thr49, and Asn114 (26.6 %); Val40, Thr49, and Asn114 (20.0 %)) were found to be the most predominant forms of Der p 2. Der p 1 has a high rate of sporadic substitutions and the group 2 allergens show a more regular pattern with orderly associations of amino acid substitutions. Der f 1 and Der p 2 from Korean mite isolates have unique amino acid sequence polymorphisms. These findings provide important data for house dust mite allergen standardization. PMID:22535483

Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Lee, In-Yong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Joo-Shil; Hong, Chein-Soo; Park, Jung-Won

2012-04-26

222

A novel in situ method for sampling urban soil dust: particle size distribution, trace metal concentrations, and stable lead isotopes.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel in situ sampling method was utilized to investigate the concentrations of trace metals and Pb isotope compositions among different particle size fractions in soil dust, bulk surface soil, and corresponding road dust samples collected within an urban environment. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility of using soil dust samples to determine trace metal contamination and potential risks in urban areas in comparison with related bulk surface soil and road dust. The results of total metal loadings and Pb isotope ratios revealed that soil dust is more sensitive than bulk surface soil to anthropogenic contamination in urban areas. The new in situ method is effective at collecting different particle size fractions of soil dust from the surface of urban soils, and that soil dust is a critical indicator of anthropogenic contamination and potential human exposure in urban settings. PMID:23466731

Bi, Xiangyang; Liang, Siyuan; Li, Xiangdong

2013-03-06

223

42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...temperature approximately 25 °C. (c) The test suspension in the test chamber will not be less than 15 nor...generated by impinging an oxygen-gas flame on molten lead. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each...

2011-10-01

224

42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...temperature approximately 25 °C. (c) The test suspension in the test chamber will not be less than 15 nor...generated by impinging an oxygen-gas flame on molten lead. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each...

2012-10-01

225

INVESTIGATION OF LEAD TEST KITS FOR ANALYSIS OF PAINT, DUST, AND SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

A study of commercial lead test kits available as of fall, 1990, was performed. he intent was to perform an initial study of the general behavior and responsiveness of all kits to the same but limited number of test parameters and materials. he manufacturers' instructions provide...

226

Position-Dependent Behavior of Piezoelectric Lead--Zirconate--Titanate Cosmic Dust Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A possible position dependence of the signal amplitudes generated by a piezoelectric lead--zirconate--titanate (PZT) detector was studied by bombarding the PZT element with hypervelocity microparticles. The detector was equipped with a set of asymmetrically arranged electrodes. The characteristic features of the element were analyzed using the amplitudes of the fundamental resonant component caused by collisions. As a result, the sensitivity of the element measured with direct collisions onto the collector was found to be one order of magnitude greater than that in the external area of the collector.

Hattori, Maki; Kobayashi, Masanori; Miyachi, Takashi; Takechi, Seiji; Okudaira, Osamu; Iwai, Takeo; Sugita, Seiji

2012-09-01

227

The Association between Asthma and Allergic Symptoms in Children and Phthalates in House Dust: A Nested Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Global phthalate ester production has increased from very low levels at the end of World War II to approximately 3.5 million metric tons/year. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential associations between persistent allergic symptoms in children, which have increased markedly in developed countries over the past three decades, and the concentration of phthalates in dust collected from their homes. This investigation is a case–control study nested within a cohort of 10,852 children. From the cohort, we selected 198 cases with persistent allergic symptoms and 202 controls without allergic symptoms. A clinical and a technical team investigated each child and her or his environment. We found higher median concentrations of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) in dust among cases than among controls (0.15 vs. 0.12 mg/g dust). Analyzing the case group by symptoms showed that BBzP was associated with rhinitis (p = 0.001) and eczema (p = 0.001), whereas di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was associated with asthma (p = 0.022). Furthermore, dose–response relationships for these associations are supported by trend analyses. This study shows that phthalates, within the range of what is normally found in indoor environments, are associated with allergic symptoms in children. We believe that the different associations of symptoms for the three major phthalates—BBzP, DEHP, and di-n-butyl phthalate—can be explained by a combination of chemical physical properties and toxicologic potential. Given the phthalate exposures of children worldwide, the results from this study of Swedish children have global implications.

Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Weschler, Charles J.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Lundgren, Bjorn; Hasselgren, Mikael; Hagerhed-Engman, Linda

2004-01-01

228

Retrofit wall system for insulation and lead encasement in older multi-family housing.  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an approach to modernization or rehabilitation of buildings with uninsulated masonry walls that have lead-based paint hazards or deteriorated plaster walls. The approach provides a solution to lead contamination on the walls, increased energy efficiency and comfort improvements associated with better insulated building envelopes. The system sheaths or replaces damaged or contaminated walls with a tight, well-insulated, durable interior surface. The costs of this system are estimated to be less than those of other insulated wall systems. Modeling of the impact of this system shows significant improvement in energy performance. The energy savings over the life of this durable system contribute to significantly offset the often-times sizeable cost of lead hazard remediation.

Wendt, R. L.

1998-08-11

229

Can Serum-Specific IgE/Total IgE Ratio Predict Clinical Response to Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy in Children Monosensitized to House Dust Mite?  

PubMed Central

Background. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is one of the important regimens for the treatment of allergic diseases. Predictive tests for the clinical response to SIT are limited. In this study we aimed to evaluate whether specific IgE/total IgE levels can predict clinical improvement in monosensitized patients to house dust mite treated with immunotherapy. Patients and Methods. We analyzed 32 patients who had undergone 2 years of SIT. Serum t-IgE and s-IgE levels, and serum s-IgE/t-IgE ratios were calculated and tested for correlation with clinical response to SIT. Asthma symptom score (ASS), rhinitis symptom score (RSS), pulmonary functions and visual analogue scales (VAS) were evaluated at the beginning and after 2 years. Results. There were 17 boys and 15 girls with the mean age of 10.78 ± 3.03 years. The mean serum house dust mite s-IgE level was 128.62 ± 142.61?kU/L, t-IgE 608.90 ± 529.98?IU/mL, and s-IgE/t-IgE ratio 33.83 ± 53.18. Before immunotherapy, ASS was 6.23 ± 1.63, RSS; 8.20 ± 1.88, VAS; 7.38 ± 2.01, FEV1 (%); 89.14 ± 8.48, PEF (%); 88.93 ± 13.57, and after 2 years, these values were determined as 1.90 ± 1.10, 3.05 ± 1.39, 1.35 ± 1.24, 97.6 ± 11.26, and 97.0 ± 11.55, respectively. s-IgE/t-IgE ratio was correlated with change in RSS (r = ?0.392, P = 0.08) and VAS (r = ?0.367, P = 0.05). Conclusion. Although SIT is very effective treatment, all patients do not benefit from treatment. We assumed that s-IgE/t-IgE ratio would be useful to predict the clinical response to SIT.

Karakoc, Gulbin Bingol; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Alt?ntas, Derya Ufuk; Kendirli, Seval Guneser

2012-01-01

230

Encasing lead hazards and adding energy efficiency in low-income housing  

SciTech Connect

Field research has confirmed that the lower the incremental (marginal) cost of producing an outcome, the more likely that production will occur. In residential building rehabilitation the economic truth suggests that energy efficiency is likely to become part of the scope of work of a project when the additional cost of conservation measures are relatively small, i.e., comparing gut rehab to moderate rehab, replacement of a furnace with an energy efficient model, and low-cost solutions to address lead poisoning hazards. Energy efficiency must fit into the overall needs and opportunities of a building retrofit. If little is being done to the building, then few measures can be expected to be justified. If much must be done, however, the opportunities for conservation are likely to be great. An example of this is the composite wall system described, therein, that was developed to address the problem of lead poisoning hazards on wall surfaces while adding a tight, well-insulated, and strong interior surface to perimeter walls at the lowest possible cost.

Cavallo, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Wendt, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-03-01

231

A Randomized, Community-Based Trial of Home Visiting to Reduce Blood Lead Levels in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to measure the effectiveness of intensive case management to reduce blood lead levels (BLLs) in children. Lead poisoning remains a common, preventable pediatric condition despite advances in reducing children's BLLs in the United States. Substantial evidence implicates lead paint- contaminated house dust as the most common high-dose source of lead in chil- dren's

Mary Jean Brown; Pat McLaine; Sherry Dixon; Peter Simon

2010-01-01

232

Systemic administration of an Fcgamma-Fc(epsilon)-fusion protein in house dust mite sensitive nonhuman primates.  

PubMed

Crosslinking Fc(epsilon)RI and FcgammaRIIB receptors inhibits mast cell and basophil activation, decreasing mediator release. In this study, a fusion protein incorporating human Fcgamma and Fc(epsilon) domains, hGE2, was shown to inhibit degranulation of human mast cells and basophils, and to exhibit efficacy in a nonhuman primate model of allergic asthma. hGE2 increased the provocative concentration of dust mite aeroallergen that induced an early phase asthmatic response. The treatment effect lasted up to 4 weeks and was associated with reduction in the number of circulating basophils and decreased expression of Fc(epsilon)RI on repopulating basophils. Repeat hGE2 dosing induced production of serum antibodies against human Fcgamma and Fc(epsilon) domains and acute anaphylaxis-like reactions. Immune serum induced histamine release from human IgE or hGE2-treated cord blood-derived mast cells and basophils in vitro. These results indicate that repeat administration with hGE2 induced an antibody response to the human molecule that resulted in activation rather than inhibition of allergic responses. PMID:18583194

Van Scott, Michael R; Mertsching, Elisabeth; Negrou, Ella; Miles, Jeremy; Stallings, Howard W; Graff, Candace; Kehry, Marilyn R

2008-06-25

233

Lead Sampling Technician Training Course. Trainer Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents a model curriculum for use by trainers presenting training course in assessing and reporting dust and debris from deteriorated lead-based paint. The course, which was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is intended for use with housing quality standard inspectors, rehabilitation specialists, home…

ICF, Inc., Washington, DC.

234

Therapeutic efficacy of AM156, a novel prostanoid DP2 receptor antagonist, in murine models of allergic rhinitis and house dust mite-induced pulmonary inflammation.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) is derived from arachidonic acid and binds with high affinity to the G protein coupled receptors prostanoid DP(1) and DP(2). Interaction with DP(2) results in cell chemotaxis, eosinophil degranulation, eosinophil shape change, adhesion molecule upregulation and Th2 cytokine production. In allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma PGD(2) is released from mast cells in response to allergen challenge and may trigger symptoms such as sneezing, rhinorrhea, pruritus, mucus hypersecretion and pulmonary inflammation. In Japan, ramatroban, a dual prostanoid DP(2)/prostanoid TP receptor antagonist, is marketed for allergic rhinitis while selective DP(2) antagonists are currently under investigation as therapeutics for asthma and allergic rhinitis. In the studies described herein, we investigated the efficacy of AM156, a novel selective prostanoid DP(2) receptor antagonist, in murine models of allergic rhinitis and asthma. AM156 inhibited sneezing and nasal rubs in a model of allergic rhinitis. AM156 inhibited pulmonary inflammation and mucus hypersecretion induced by chronic inhalation of house dust mite. These results suggest that selective prostanoid DP(2) receptor antagonists such as AM156 may provide beneficial effects for the clinical treatment of diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. PMID:20447387

Stebbins, Karin J; Broadhead, Alex R; Correa, Lucia D; Scott, Jill M; Truong, Yen P; Stearns, Brian A; Hutchinson, John H; Prasit, Peppi; Evans, Jilly F; Lorrain, Daniel S

2010-05-04

235

Resident CD11b+Ly6C? Lung Dendritic Cells Are Responsible for Allergic Airway Sensitization to House Dust Mite in Mice  

PubMed Central

Conventional dendritic cells (DCs) are considered to be the prime initiators of airway allergy. Yet, it remains unclear whether specific DC subsets are preferentially involved in allergic airway sensitization. Here, we systematically assessed the respective pro-allergic potential of individually sorted lung DC subsets isolated from house dust mite antigen (HDM)-treated donor mice, following transfer to naïve recipients. Transfer of lung CD11c+CD11b+ DCs, but not CD11c+CD11b?CD103+ DCs, was sufficient to prime airway allergy. The CD11c+CD11b+ DC subpopulation was composed of CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C+ inflammatory monocyte-derived cells, whose numbers increase in the lungs following HDM exposure, and of CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C? DCs, which remain stable. Counterintuitively, only CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C? DCs, and not CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C+ DCs, were able to convey antigen to the lymph nodes and induce adaptive T cell responses and subsequent airway allergy. Our results thus support that lung resident non-inflammatory CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C? DCs are the essential inducers of allergic airway sensitization to the common aeroallergen HDM in mice.

Marichal, Thomas; Toussaint, Marie; Cataldo, Didier; Drion, Pierre-Vincent; Lekeux, Pierre

2012-01-01

236

The distribution of lead between sea salt, dust, and lead-rich aerosols in the mid South Pacific Easterlies at American Samoa  

SciTech Connect

Aerosols in the South Pacific Easterlies have been sampled at American Samoa with a cascade impactor and analyzed for Pb, Ba, K, Ca, Sr, and Rb by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using ultraclean procedures. Some 84% of the Pb was found in fine ({le}0.5 {mu}m) aerosols which were collected on the backup filter with an efficiency of only 33%. Sea salt and eroded terrestrial material (dust) containing 6% and < 1% respectively, of the Pb (sea salt indexed by the metals K, Ca, Sr, and Rb and dust indexed by Ba) were collected on early stages of the impactor, although 65% of the dust, because of its larger size, was lost to surfaces of the rain shelter before reaching the impactor. The remaining 10% of the Pb was associated with plant leaf waxes of continental origin which produced Pb and Ba peaks on stage 4 (0.5 {mu}m) of the impactor.

Rosman, K.J.R.; Patterson, C.C.; Settle, D.M. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (United States))

1990-03-20

237

Dust to Dust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dust around us is composed of bits of detritus of all manner of things, but it is mostly bits of human skin. This radio broadcast explores the universe through tiny dust particles and discovers what it can tell us about our past as well as our future. The broadcast discusses dust from ice cores that reveal the climate record and the cosmic dust that Earth is gathering every day. There is also explanation of the microscopic composition of the dust around us and the damage dust can do to museum exhibits, especially when the dust interacts with the moisture in the atmosphere. The broadcast is 28 minutes in length.

238

Clinical evaluation of the effect of anti-allergic mattress covers in patients with moderate to severe asthma and house dust mite allergy: a randomised double blind placebo controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background: The use of anti-allergic mattress covers in patients with asthma can result in a large reduction in the level of house dust mite allergen in dust samples. Apart from a reduction in histamine induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness, there are few data on the effect of mattress covers on clinical efficacy and quality of life in patients with moderate to severe asthma. Methods: Thirty patients with asthma and house dust mite allergy were studied in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study. Before and after using anti-allergic covers for 1 year, dust was collected from the mattresses to determine concentrations of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1), and bronchial hyperresponsiveness and quality of life were measured. The patients scored their symptoms (lungs and nose), morning and evening peak flow values, and rescue medication for 14 days before and after the intervention period. Results: There was a significant reduction in the concentration of Der p 1 in the dust collected from the mattresses in the actively treated group after 1 year compared with before treatment; no change was found in the placebo group. In both the actively treated and placebo groups there was no significant improvement in PC20 histamine. Quality of life improved similarly in both groups. The symptom score of the lower airways did not significantly change in either group. A significant decrease in nasal symptom score was seen in the actively treated group compared with before treatment, but there was no significant difference between the groups. No changes in morning and evening peak flow values, peak flow variability, nor in the use of rescue medication were found in either group. Conclusion: The use of anti-allergic mattress covers results in significant reductions in Der p 1 concentrations in carpet-free bedrooms. However, in patients with moderate to severe asthma, airways hyperresponsiveness and clinical parameters are not affected by this effective allergen avoidance.

Rijssenbeek-Nouwe..., L; Oosting, A; de Bruin-Weller, M S; Bregman, I; de Monchy, J G R; Postma, D

2002-01-01

239

Cell-surface Accumulation of Flock House Virus-derived Peptide Leads to Efficient Internalization via Macropinocytosis  

PubMed Central

Arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat (48–60) and oligoarginines, have been applied as carriers for delivery of cargo molecules, because of their capacity to internalize into cells and penetrate biological membranes. Despite the fact that they have been extensively studied, the factors required for the efficient internalization of CPPs are still unclear. In this report, we evaluated the internalization efficiencies of seven CPPs derived from DNA/RNA-binding peptides, and discovered that a peptide derived from the flock house virus (FHV) coat protein was internalized most efficiently into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1), HeLa, and Jurkat cells. Comparison of the factors facilitating the internalization with those of the Tat peptide revealed that the FHV peptide induces macropinocytosis much more efficiently than the Tat peptide, which leads to its high cellular uptake efficiency. Additionally, the strong adsorption of the FHV peptide on cell membranes via glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) was shown to be a key factor for induction of macropinocytosis, and these steps were successfully monitored by live imaging of the peptide internalization into cells in relation to the actin organization. The remarkable methods of FHV peptide internalization thus highlighted the critical factors for internalizations of the arginine-rich CPPs.

Nakase, Ikuhiko; Hirose, Hisaaki; Tanaka, Gen; Tadokoro, Akiko; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Takeuchi, Toshihide; Futaki, Shiroh

2009-01-01

240

Improved tRNA prediction in the American house dust mite reveals widespread occurrence of extremely short minimal tRNAs in acariform mites  

PubMed Central

Background Atypical tRNAs are functional minimal tRNAs, lacking either the D- or T-arm. They are significantly shorter than typical cloverleaf tRNAs. Widespread occurrence of atypical tRNAs was first demonstrated for secernentean nematodes and later in various arachnids. Evidence started to accumulate that tRNAs of certain acariform mites are even shorter than the minimal tRNAs of nematodes, raising the possibility that tRNAs lacking both D- and T-arms might exist in these organisms. The presence of cloverleaf tRNAs in acariform mites, particularly in the house dust mite genus Dermatophagoides, is still disputed. Results Mitochondrial tRNAs of Dermatophagoides farinae are minimal, atypical tRNAs lacking either the T- or D-arm. The size (49-62, 54.4 ± 2.86 nt) is significantly (p = 0.019) smaller than in Caenorhabditis elegans (53-63, 56.3 ± 2.30 nt), a model minimal tRNA taxon. The shortest tRNA (49 nt) in Dermatophagoides is approaching the length of the shortest known tRNAs (45-49 nt) described in other acariform mites. The D-arm is absent in these tRNAs, and the inferred T-stem is small (2-3 bp) and thermodynamically unstable, suggesting that it may not exist in reality. The discriminator nucleotide is probably not encoded and is added postranscriptionally in many Dermatophagoides tRNAs. Conclusions Mitochondrial tRNAs of acariform mites are largely atypical, non-cloverleaf tRNAs. Among them, the shortest known tRNAs with no D-arm and a short and unstable T-arm can be inferred. While our study confirmed seven tRNAs in Dermatophagoides by limited EST data, further experimental evidence is needed to demonstrate extremely small and unusual tRNAs in acariform mites.

2009-01-01

241

Neutralization of TSLP Inhibits Airway Remodeling in a Murine Model of Allergic Asthma Induced by Chronic Exposure to House Dust Mite  

PubMed Central

Chronic allergic asthma is characterized by Th2-typed inflammation, and contributes to airway remodeling and the deterioration of lung function. However, the initiating factor that links airway inflammation to remodeling is unknown. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelium-derived cytokine, can strongly activate lung dendritic cells (DCs) through the TSLP-TSLPR and OX40L-OX40 signaling pathways to promote Th2 differentiation. To determine whether TSLP is the underlying trigger of airway remodeling in chronic allergen-induced asthma, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice by intranasal administration of house dust mite (HDM) extracts for up to 5 consecutive weeks. We showed that repeated respiratory exposure to HDM caused significant airway eosinophilic inflammation, peribronchial collagen deposition, goblet cell hyperplasia, and airway hyperreactivity (AHR) to methacholine. These effects were accompanied with a salient Th2 response that was characterized by the upregulation of Th2-typed cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13, as well as the transcription factor GATA-3. Moreover, the levels of TSLP and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) were also increased in the airway. We further demonstrated, using the chronic HDM-induced asthma model, that the inhibition of Th2 responses via neutralization of TSLP with an anti-TSLP mAb reversed airway inflammation, prevented structural alterations, and decreased AHR to methacholine and TGF-?1 level. These results suggest that TSLP plays a pivotal role in the initiation and persistence of airway inflammation and remodeling in the context of chronic allergic asthma.

Chen, Zhuang-Gui; Zhang, Tian-Tuo; Li, Hong-Tao; Chen, Fen-Hua; Zou, Xiao-Ling; Ji, Jing-Zhi; Chen, Hong

2013-01-01

242

Absence of Toll-IL-1 Receptor 8/Single Immunoglobulin IL-1 Receptor-Related Molecule Reduces House Dust Mite-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice.  

PubMed

Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease predominately associated with the activation of CD4(+) T helper Type 2 (Th2) cells. Innate pattern recognition receptors are widely acknowledged to shape the adaptive immune response. For example, the activation of airway epithelial Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is necessary for the generation of house dust mite (HDM)-specific Th2 responses and the development of asthma in mice. Here we sought to determine whether the absence of Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-8, a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling that is highly expressed in airway epithelial cells, would exacerbate HDM-induced asthma in a murine model. We found that Th2 but not Th1 or Th17 cytokine expression was significantly reduced in the lung and draining lymph nodes in HDM-sensitized/challenged TIR8 gene-deleted mice. Mucus-producing goblet cells, HDM-specific IgG1, and airway hyperreactivity were also significantly reduced in HDM-exposed, TIR8-deficient mice. Consistent with the attenuated Th2 response, eotaxin-2/CCL24 expression and airway and peribronchial eosinophils were significantly reduced in the absence of TIR8. In contrast, IL-17A-responsive chemokines and neutrophil numbers were unaffected. Similar findings were obtained for cockroach allergen. HDM sensitization alone up-regulated the expression of IL-1F5, a putative TIR8 ligand and inducer of IL-4. Of note, innate IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-33 cytokine expression was reduced during HDM sensitization in the absence of TIR8, as was the recruitment of conventional dendritic cells and basophils to the draining lymph nodes. Our findings suggest that TIR8 enhances the development of HDM-induced innate and adaptive Th2, but not Th1 or Th17 type immunity. PMID:23614768

Barry, Jessica; Loh, Zhixuan; Collison, Adam; Mazzone, Stuart; Lalwani, Amit; Zhang, Vivian; Davidson, Sophia; Wybacz, Elisha; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto; Mattes, Joerg; Foster, Paul S; Phipps, Simon

2013-09-01

243

Identification of trace metal pollution in urban dust from kindergartens using magnetic, geochemical and lead isotopic analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, magnetic measurements were combined with geochemical analysis and stable Pb isotopic ratios to reveal the distribution and origination of trace metal pollutants in kindergarten dusts from a typical urban environment of Wuhan, central China. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) of magnetic properties was more prominent than those of individual metals. The magnetic susceptibility (MS) and trace metals (Zn, Pb, and Cu) in this study together with published results from other Chinese cities formed a liner relationship, suggesting that metal contaminants in Chinese urban areas had similar MS to metal ratios, which could be used as an indicator for identification of pollution sources between Chinese cities and the other Asian cities. Stable Pb isotopic ratios (1.1125–1.1734 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.4457–2.4679 for 208Pb/207Pb) in the urban dusts from Wuhan were characterized by higher 208Pb component in comparison with those from other Chinese cities. This result combined with principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that metal pollutants in the dusts were derived from industrial activities and coal combustion, whereas the traffic emissions were no longer a predominant pollution source in urban environment. Our study demonstrated that environmental magnetic methods could not only reveal the overall situation of trace metal contamination, but also prove evidence in the identification of pollution sources.

Zhu, Zongmin; Sun, Guangyi; Bi, Xiangyang; Li, Zhonggen; Yu, Genhua

2013-10-01

244

Worst-case aerosol testing parameters: III. Initial penetration of charged and neutralized lead fume and silica dust aerosols through clean, unloaded respirator filters  

SciTech Connect

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) tests and certifies respirator filter media according to Title 30, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 11 (30 CFR 11). Subpart K of those regulations specifies that a silica dust test, silica mist test, and/or lead fume test will be used to test and certify dust and mist; and dust, fume, and mist particulate air-purifying respirator filter media. NIOSH studies have shown that an aerosol particle of a certain size can be identified as the most penetrating particle (''worst case'') size. Commercial filter media of various types have been studied and the filter's performance against a worst-case sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol evaluated. This investigation was done to complement those previous studies by determining how one manufacturer's particulate filters performed against the existing certification aerosol challenges as compared with the worst-case size DOP and NaCl aerosols. Only initial penetration values were determined, and no loading effects were considered. Both neutralized (Boltzman charge distribution) and unneutralized aerosols were used in order to assess the contribution of charging. The results show the dramatic effect of particle size on filter efficiency, and they show that the present methods are not as sensitive as the worst-case aerosol method.

Moyer, E.S.; Stevens, G.A.

1989-05-01

245

Children and lead: new findings and concerns  

SciTech Connect

An editorial dealing with lead in the environment and its health risks to children is presented. Young children are particularly vulnerable to lead exposure. Through hand-to-mouth activities, such as thumb sucking, nail biting, or eating with dirty hands, lead in house dust and garden soil readily enters their bodies. Children with pica are exposed to more lead because they eat such items as paint chips, broken plaster, and dirt. Moreover, intestinal lead absorption is greater in children than in adults. The author recommends a concerted effort to reduce undue lead absorption in children. (JMT)

Lin-Fu, J.S.

1982-09-02

246

Furnace dust recovery process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for removing lead oxide which forms a leachable contaminant from zinc oxide in recovered waste dust. The process includes the steps of: heating the waste dust in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature which is sufficient to form lead oxide vapors; separating the lead oxide vapors from the fluid or sinter mass in the oxidizing atmosphere which mass includes zinc oxide; solidifying the lead oxide vapors; and recovering the solidified lead oxide vapors.

Bricmont, F.H.

1987-06-16

247

Speciation study of lead and manganese in roadside dusts from major roads in Ile-Ife, South Western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A speciation study of Pb and Mn in roadside dust along major roads in Ile-Ife, South Western Nigeria, was investigated. Pb and Mn values obtained by total digestion ranged from 22.23 ± 3.52 to 43.48 ± 3.05 ?g\\/g and 35.93±0.15 to 83.76 ± 0.06 ?g\\/g, respectively. The results of speciation analysis of Pb and Mn in the samples showed that the mean levels of these metals in the

A. O. Ogunfowokan; J. A. O. Oyekunle; L. M. Durosinmi; A. I. Akinjokun; O. D. Gabriel

2009-01-01

248

Chemical concentrations of pollutant lead aerosols, terrestrial dusts and sea salts in Greenland and Antarctic snow strata  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we report analyses of lead in annual ice layers from the interior of northern Greenland and in annual layers of ice from the interior of the Antarctic continent. We show that lead concentrations increase from 0.200 Pb\\/kg ice today in north pole ice sheets, the sharpest rise occurring after 1940, and that the levels of lead in

M. Murozumi; Tsaihwa J. Chow; C. Patterson

1969-01-01

249

Effect of inhaled dust mite allergen on regional particle deposition and mucociliary clearance in allergic asthmatics.  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND: Acute exacerbations in allergic asthmatics may lead to impaired ability to clear mucus from the airways, a key factor in asthma morbidity. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhaled house dust mite challenge on the regional depositi...

250

Effect of inhaled dust mite allergen on regional particle deposition and mucociliary clearance in allergic asthmatics**  

EPA Science Inventory

Background Acute exacerbations in allergic asthmatics may lead to impaired ability to clear mucus from the airways, a key factor in asthma morbidity. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhaled house dust mite challenge on the regional deposition of...

251

Distribution of Chlorphyrifos in Air, Carpeting, and Dust and Its Reemission from Carpeting Following the Use of Total Release Aerosols in an Indoor Air Quality Test House.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper gives results of experiments to explore the relationships between the insecticide chlorpyrifos and its distribution into carpet, carpet dust, and reemission into air. Two total release aerosols containing 0.5% chlorpyrifos were applied in the li...

M. A. Mason L. S. Sheldon Z. Guo D. M. Stout

2000-01-01

252

Lead  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Guidance for Industry: Lead in Candy Likely To Be Consumed Frequently by Small Children: Recommended Maximum Level and Enforcement ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/metals

253

Development and field trial of a household surface lead loading rate sampling device in a lead-contaminated community of southern Thailand.  

PubMed

A new dust-collecting device was developed to assess surface lead loading rates in houses in communities contaminated with lead oxide dust used for caulking in nearby boat-repair yards. The device consists of two small glass sheets with total area of 1,200 cm(2) placed in two plastic trays suspended from the ceiling in the house for 3 months before wiping and sending the dust specimen for determination of lead content using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. After a pilot trial in four households, further data were collected from 43 matched pairs of boat-caulkers' and neighboring control households. All devices were retained in the house for 3 months without any complaint. Static measurements of lead dust levels were also assessed in all households. The values significantly discriminated high from low lead exposure households (p = 0.015) and provided good correlations with floor lead loading (Spearman rank correlation coefficient, r = 0.39 to 0.62) and dust lead content (r = 0.53 to 0.64). This sampling method is an alternative to others which consume more household space or require a longer collection period. PMID:19415518

Untimanon, Orrapan; Geater, Alan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Thoumsang, Somkiat; Verkasalo, Pia K; Saetia, Wiyada

2009-05-05

254

Dust in pig buildings.  

PubMed

It is well documented in the international scientific literature that airborne dust in pig houses can cause serious health problems for humans as well as for animals. Extensive research has been carried out in different countries during the last few decades to improve the scientific understanding of air quality issues related to intensive animal production. Research and review papers were presented at the international symposium on Dust Control in Animal Production Facilities, held in Denmark in 1999. Different techniques have been used in order to reduce dust burdens in pig confinement buildings, but up to date only the procedure of spraying oil or a mixture of oil and water has contributed to reducing the indoor dust concentrations significantly. This article summarizes the current level of understanding of dust issues in intensive animal production buildings, mainly on the basis of papers presented at the above-mentioned symposium. PMID:11217691

Pedersen, S; Nonnenmann, M; Rautiainen, R; Demmers, T G; Banhazi, T; Lyngbye, M

2000-11-01

255

Visceral botulism at dairy farms in Schleswig Holstein, Germany: prevalence of Clostridium botulinum in feces of cows, in animal feeds, in feces of the farmers, and in house dust.  

PubMed

From 41 dairy farms in Schleswig Holstein, Germany, 196 fecal specimens of diseased cows, 77 fecal specimens of farmers and family members from 26 of these farms, 35 animal feed specimens and 7 house dust specimens were investigated for Clostridium botulinum and its antigens, respectively. Four of the humans under study (one child, 8 month, and three adults) showed symptoms of infant/visceral botulism. Specimens were cultivated in reinforced clostridial medium (RCM). C. botulinum antigens were detected by ELISA. The aim of the study was to obtain information on the relationship of detected C. botulinum toxin-types in cows, in the feces of attending humans, and in the immediate environment. The results revealed that C. botulinum toxin-types were different for cows and humans. Toxin-type A was dominant in cow feces while type E was found in humans. Type E was also present in some animal feed specimens. Conversely, toxin-type A was prevalent in the house dust of farms. It may be assumed that the feeds were the source of human colonization with C. botulinum. PMID:22200452

Krüger, Monika; Große-Herrenthey, Anke; Schrödl, Wieland; Gerlach, Achim; Rodloff, Arne

2011-12-21

256

PARAOCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES TO LEAD AND TIN CARRIED BY ELECTRIC-CABLE SPLICERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that electric-cable splicers contaminate their homes with lead and tin, nine splicers were matched with nine of their neighbors. House dust samples were collected in two areas within each home: a laundry room\\/dirty clothes area, and a composite sample from other areas in the house. Samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence for lead and

Richard D. Rinehart; Yukio Yanagisawa

1993-01-01

257

Measurement of nicotine in household dust  

SciTech Connect

An analytical method of measuring nicotine in house dust was optimized and associations among three secondhand smoking exposure markers were evaluated, i.e., nicotine concentrations of both house dust and indoor air, and the self-reported number of cigarettes smoked daily in a household. We obtained seven house dust samples from self-reported nonsmoking homes and 30 samples from smoking homes along with the information on indoor air nicotine concentrations and the number of cigarettes smoked daily from an asthma cohort study conducted by the Johns Hopkins Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment. House dust nicotine was analyzed by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Using our optimized method, the median concentration of nicotine in the dust of self-reported nonsmoking homes was 11.7 ng/mg while that of smoking homes was 43.4 ng/mg. We found a substantially positive association (r=0.67, P<0.0001) between house dust nicotine concentrations and the numbers of cigarettes smoked daily. Optimized analytical methods showed a feasibility to detect nicotine in house dust. Our results indicated that the measurement of nicotine in house dust can be used potentially as a marker of longer term SHS exposure.

Kim, Sungroul [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Institute for Global Tobacco Control, 627 N. Washington Street, 2nd Floor Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)], E-mail: srkim@jhsph.edu; Aung, Ther; Berkeley, Emily [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Diette, Gregory B. [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Breysse, Patrick N. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

2008-11-15

258

House dust mite and cockroach exposure are strong risk factors for positive allergy skin test responses in the Childhood Asthma Management Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Children with asthma have a high prevalence of environmental allergies, especially to indoor allergens. The relationships of exposure to indoor allergens (dust mites, cat, dog, cockroach, and molds) and other host factors to allergy sensitization have not been evaluated simultaneously in a large cohort. Objectives: We studied 1041 children aged 5 to 12 years with mild-to-moderate asthma to determine

Karen Huss; N. Franklin Adkinson; Peyton A. Eggleston; Christopher Dawson; Mark L. Van Natta; Robert G. Hamilton

2001-01-01

259

THE DISTRIBUTION OF CHLORPYRIFOSIN AIR, CARPETING, AND DUST AND ITS REEMISSION FROM CARPETING FOLLOWING THE USE OF TOTAL RELEASE AEROSOLS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY TEST HOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of experiments to explore the relationships between the insecticide chlorpyrifos and its distribution into carpet., carpet dust, and reemission into air. Two total release aerosols containing 0.5% chlorpyrifos were applied in the living room and den of EP...

260

EVALUATION OF PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETER FOR MEASUREMENT OF LEAD IN PAINT, SOIL AND DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Three widely used commercially available portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometers were evaluated for precision and accuracy of measurement of lead in paint. ncluded were two direct reading instruments and one spectrum analyzer. est materials were prepared by spiking oil-based an...

261

About Dust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from Wayne's Word provides basic information about dust storms, including how they are formed and the problems they cause. Recent dust storms in New South Wales, Australia, are described. Several photos of dust storms are included.

2010-06-29

262

Lead in drinking water and human blood lead levels in the United States.  

PubMed

Lead is a pervasive environmental contaminant. The adverse health effects of lead exposure in children and adults are well documented, and no safe blood lead threshold in children has been identified. Lead can be ingested from various sources, including lead paint and house dust contaminated by lead paint, as well as soil, drinking water, and food. The concentration of lead, total amount of lead consumed, and duration of lead exposure influence the severity of health effects. Because lead accumulates in the body, all sources of lead should be controlled or eliminated to prevent childhood lead poisoning. Beginning in the 1970s, lead concentrations in air, tap water, food, dust, and soil began to be substantially reduced, resulting in significantly reduced blood lead levels (BLLs) in children throughout the United States. However, children are still being exposed to lead, and many of these children live in housing built before the 1978 ban on lead-based residential paint. These homes might contain lead paint hazards, as well as drinking water service lines made from lead, lead solder, or plumbing materials that contain lead. Adequate corrosion control reduces the leaching of lead plumbing components or solder into drinking water. The majority of public water utilities are in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) of 1991. However, some children are still exposed to lead in drinking water. EPA is reviewing LCR, and additional changes to the rule are expected that will further protect public health. Childhood lead poisoning prevention programs should be made aware of the results of local public water system lead monitoring measurement under LCR and consider drinking water as a potential cause of increased BLLs, especially when other sources of lead exposure are not identified. PMID:22874873

Brown, Mary Jean; Margolis, Stephen

2012-08-10

263

Influence of a Polyimide Surface Layer on the Piezoelectric Response of Lead--Zirconate--Titanate Cosmic Dust Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of a thermal reflector on the sensitivity of a lead--zirconate--titanate element is studied by bombarding the element with hypervelocity microparticles. The reflector is a 60-?m-thick layer made of polyimide resin that coats the surface of the element. By applying the fast Fourier transform method to data analysis, impact information is obtained through the fundamental resonant component. As a result, the sensitivity of the element is considerably reduced by the reflector. In addition, it is found that the sensitivity is substantially position-independent.

Hattori, Maki; Kobayashi, Masanori; Miyachi, Takashi; Takechi, Seiji; Okudaira, Osamu; Iwai, Takeo; Okada, Nagaya; Sugita, Seiji

2013-02-01

264

76 FR 12106 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA is providing notice, opportunity for public comment and opportunity for a public hearing on whether...it in order to advance the success of the lead poisoning prevention...program, after notice and opportunity for corrective action,...

2011-03-04

265

Multiple metal contamination from house paints: consequences of power sanding and paint scraping in New Orleans.  

PubMed Central

Power sanding exterior paint is a common practice during repainting of old houses in New Orleans, Louisiana, that triggers lead poisoning and releases more than Pb. In this study we quantified the Pb, zinc, cadmium, manganese, nickel, copper, cobalt, chromium, and vanadium in exterior paint samples collected from New Orleans homes (n = 31). We used interior dust wipes to compare two exterior house-painting projects. House 1 was measured in response to the plight of a family after a paint contractor power sanded all exterior paint from the weatherboards. The Pb content (approximately 130,000 microg Pb/g) was first realized when the family pet died; the children were hospitalized, the family was displaced, and cleanup costs were high. To determine the quantity of dust generated by power sanding and the benefits of reducing Pb-contaminated dust, we tested a case study house (house 2) for Pb (approximately 90,000 microg/g) before the project was started; the house was then dry scraped and the paint chips were collected. Although the hazards of Pb-based paints are well known, there are other problems as well, because other toxic metals exist in old paints. If house 2 had been power sanded to bare wood like house 1, the repainting project would have released as dust about 7.4 kg Pb, 3.5 kg Zn, 9.7 g Cd, 14.8 g Cu, 8.8 g Mn, 1.5 g Ni, 5.4 g Co, 2.4 g Cr, and 0.3 g V. The total tolerable daily intake (TTDI) for a child under 6 years of age is 6 microg Pb from all sources. Converting 7.4 kg Pb to this scale is vexing--more than 1 billion (10(9)) times the TTDI. Also for perspective, the one-time release of 7.4 x 10(9) microg of Pb dust from sanding compares to 50 x 10(9) microg of Pb dust emitted annually per 0.1 mile (0.16 km) from street traffic during the peak use of leaded gasoline. In this paper, we broaden the discussion to include an array of metals in paint and underscore the need and possibilities for curtailing the release of metal dust.

Mielke, H W; Powell, E T; Shah, A; Gonzales, C R; Mielke, P W

2001-01-01

266

Migration of contaminated soil and airborne particulates to indoor dust.  

PubMed

We have developed a modeling and measurement framework for assessing transport of contaminated soils and airborne particulates into a residence, their subsequent distribution indoors via resuspension and deposition processes, and removal by cleaning and building exhalation of suspended particles. The model explicitly accounts for the formation of house dust as a mixture of organic matter (OM) such as shed skin cells and organic fibers, soil tracked-in on footwear, and particulate matter (PM) derived from the infiltration of outdoor air. We derived formulas for use with measurements of inorganic contaminants, crustal tracers, OM, and PM to quantify selected transport parameters. Application of the model to residences in the U.S. Midwest indicates that As in ambient air can account for nearly 60% of the As input to floor dust, with soil track-in representing the remainder. Historic data on Pb contamination in Sacramento, CA, were used to reconstruct sources of Pb in indoor dust, showing that airborne Pb was likely the dominant source in the early 1980s. However, as airborne Pb levels declined due to the phase-out of leaded gasoline, soil resuspension and track-in eventually became the primary sources of Pb in house dust. PMID:19924944

Layton, David W; Beamer, Paloma I

2009-11-01

267

Migration of Contaminated Soil and Airborne Particulates to Indoor Dust  

PubMed Central

We have developed a modeling and measurement framework for assessing transport of contaminated soils and airborne particulates into a residence, their subsequent distribution indoors via resuspension and deposition processes, and removal by cleaning and building exhalation of suspended particles. The model explicitly accounts for the formation of house dust as a mixture of organic matter (OM) such as shed skin cells and organic fibers, soil tracked-in on footwear, and particulate matter (PM) derived from the infiltration of outdoor air. We derived formulas for use with measurements of inorganic contaminants, crustal tracers, OM, and PM to quantify selected transport parameters. Application of the model to residences in the U.S. Midwest indicates that As in ambient air can account for nearly 60% of the As input to floor dust, with soil track-in representing the remainder. Historic data on Pb contamination in Sacramento, CA, was used to reconstruct sources of Pb in indoor dust, showing that airborne Pb was likely the dominant source in the early 1980s. However, as airborne Pb levels declined due to the phase out of leaded gasoline, soil resuspension and track-in eventually became the primary sources of Pb in house dust.

Layton, David W.; Beamer, Paloma I.

2009-01-01

268

Environmental and potential human health legacies of non-industrial sources of lead in a Canadian urban landscape – the case study of St John's, Newfoundland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residential soil and house dust were collected in St John's to assess the levels of lead exposure and potential human health risk. Although St John's does not have an identified, major point source for lead, nor is it a heavily industrialized or populated city, 51% of all analysed soil samples (n = 1231) exceeded the Canadian Council of Ministers of

Trevor Bell; Stacy Campbell; David G. E. Liverman; David Allison; Paul Sylvester

2010-01-01

269

Selecting baghouse dust collectors  

SciTech Connect

A thorough analysis of the dust to be captured and determination of specific application requirements are necessary when designing a baghouse collection system. Independent consultants specializing in pollution control equipment and manufacturers with experience in several types of collectors are possible sources of assistance. These experts typically have testing facilities to analyze the dust characteristics. This final article of a two-part series on baghouse design and selection concentrates on application considerations created by the type of dust handled, selecting the best filtration media, selecting the best filtration media, and determining the air-to-cloth (A/C) ratio. The first article discussed bag sizing and cleaning methods and housing and hopper designs.

Moore, S.; Rubak, J.; Jolin, M. [Farr Co., El Segundo, CA (United States)]|[Farr Co., Laval, Quebec (Canada)

1997-04-01

270

The effect of house dust mite sensitization on lung size and airway caliber in symptomatic and nonsymptomatic preadolescent children: a community-based study in Poland.  

PubMed Central

There are conflicting reports on the effects of atopy on lung function. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of house mite (HM) atopy on lung function in subsamples of 12-year-old symptomatic and nonsymptomatic preadolescent children taken from the community sample. An additional objective of this study was to identify possible environmental determinants of HM skin reaction. We obtained questionnaire data on respiratory symptoms and skin-prick tests and performed spirometry on a subsample of 311 children of a birth cohort of children who have been followed over 3 years. Multivariate regression analysis showed progressive decrement of lung function indices (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, and forced expiratory flow, midexpiratory phase) with increasing degree of HM atopy reflected by the skin reaction to HM allergens. The apparent association between the level of HM atopy and the lung function indices was highly significant in symptomatic individuals but insignificant in nonsymptomatic subjects. HM sensitization was significantly associated with mother's atopy. It occurred predominantly in boys and was related to the use of coal or gas for house heating. The effect of allergen sensitization on lung size and airway caliber confined to symptomatic subjects may reflect the inflammatory status of bronchial airways in the symptomatic subjects.

Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Jedrychowska-Bianchi, Iwona; Mroz, Elzbieta

2002-01-01

271

Dust Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust particles, like photons, are born at remote sites in space and time, and carry from there information that may not be accessible to direct investigation. In stellar winds of evolved stars, new dust is formed and is injected into interstellar space. Young stardust is mixed with old heavily-processed diffuse interstellar dust, and is subject to passing supernova shocks and

E. Grün

2002-01-01

272

The translational repressor T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) is a key modulator of Th2 and Th17 responses driving pulmonary inflammation induced by exposure to house dust mite.  

PubMed

T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) is a translational repressor that dampens the production of proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes. In this study we investigated the role of TIA-1 in a mouse model of pulmonary inflammation induced by exposure to the allergenic extract (Df) of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. When intranasally challenged with a low dose of Df, mice lacking TIA-1 protein (Tia-1(-/-)) showed more severe airway and tissue eosinophilia, infiltration of lung bronchovascular bundles, and goblet cell metaplasia than wild-type littermates. Tia-1(-/-) mice also had higher levels of Df-specific IgE and IgG(1) in serum and ex vivo restimulated Tia-1(-/-) lymph node cells and splenocytes transcribed and released more Th2/Th17 cytokines. To evaluate the site of action of TIA-1, we studied the response to Df in bone marrow chimeras. These experiments revealed that TIA-1 acts on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells to dampen pulmonary inflammation. Our results identify TIA-1 as a negative regulator of allergen-mediated pulmonary inflammation in vivo. Thus, TIA-1 might be an important player in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. PMID:22525013

Simarro, Maria; Giannattasio, Giorgio; Xing, Wei; Lundequist, Emma-Maria; Stewart, Samantha; Stevens, Richard L; Orduña, Antonio; Boyce, Joshua A; Anderson, Paul J

2012-04-15

273

Lead in the Japanese living environment.  

PubMed

Lead has long been known to be a neurotoxic heavy metal, particularly in the context of occupational health. However, its adverse effect on the cognitive development of children at lower exposure levels has only recently received attention. Although the exposure level of contemporary Japanese children is among the lowest in the world, it is desirable to reduce exposure as much as reasonably possible due to the absence of a threshold of exposure for adverse effects. In this review, information on lead levels in milieus of our proximate environment, such as the atmosphere, drinking water, soil, house dust, diet and others, of contemporary Japan was compiled with the aim of updating our knowledge on lead distribution. Monitoring data demonstrates that lead concentrations in the atmosphere and lead intake from food consumption have decreased substantially from the 1970s. Lead was hardly detectable in tap water in a recent nation-wide monitoring survey. To the contrary, elevated lead concentrations were detected in surface soil and house dust in one of the studies on daily exposure to lead from all potential sources, and both of these sources were regarded by the authors as significant contributors of lead exposure to general Japanese children. A similar study indicated that diet is the sole major source of lead for Japanese children. A significant difference was present in the estimated dietary lead intake levels in different studies, resulting in significant discrepancies in the current knowledge on lead in our environment. Further studies are warranted to identify the major source(s) of lead exposure in Japanese children in order to establish an effective countermeasure to reduce lead exposure to children. PMID:22528209

Yoshinaga, Jun

2012-04-19

274

Environmental Lead after Hurricane Katrina: Implications for Future Populations  

PubMed Central

Background: As a result of Hurricane Katrina, > 100,000 homes were destroyed or damaged and a significant amount of sediment was deposited throughout the city of New Orleans, Louisiana. Researchers have identified the potential for increased lead hazards from environmental lead contamination of soils. Objectives: We assessed the distribution of residential soil and dust lead 2 years poststorm and compared soil lead before and after the storm. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in New Orleans in which households were selected by stratified random sampling. A standard residential questionnaire was administered, and lead testing was performed for both the interior and exterior of homes. Logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors of interior and exterior lead levels in excess of allowable levels. Results: One hundred nine households were enrolled; 61% had at least one lead measurement above federal standards. Of homes with bare soil, 47% had elevated lead and 27% had levels exceeding 1,200 ppm. Housing age was associated with soil lead, and housing age and soil lead were associated with interior lead. Race, income, and ownership status were not significantly associated with either interior or exterior lead levels. The median soil lead level of 560 ppm was significantly higher than the median level of samples collected before Hurricane Katrina. Conclusions: The high prevalence (61%) of lead above recommended levels in soil and dust samples in and around residences raises concern about potential health risks to the New Orleans population, most notably children. Steps should be taken to mitigate the risk of exposure to lead-contaminated soil and dust. Further research is needed to quantify the possible contribution of reconstruction activities to environmental lead levels.

Iqbal, Shahed; Perry, Sara; Arroyave, Whitney; Rice, Janet C.

2011-01-01

275

Captured dust in planetary magnetospheres  

SciTech Connect

Interplanetary and interstellar dust particles acquire a positive charge in the solar wind and can be strongly influenced by the Lorentz force as they pass through planetary magnetospheres. There, the charge on the particles changes rapidly when they pass through different plasma environments. This can lead to exchange of energy and angular momentum with the magnetosphere. Here we describe the discovery of captured grains in Jupiter's magnetosphere by the Galileo dust detector and numerical simulations of the captured dust ring.

Colwell, Joshua E.; Horanyi, Mihaly [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309-0392 (United States); Gruen, Eberhard [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

1998-10-21

276

Lead exposure assessment from study near a lead-acid battery factory in China.  

PubMed

The production of lead-acid battery in China covered about one-third of the world total output and there are more than 2000 lead-acid battery factories. They may cause the major environment lead pollution. Blood lead levels of several hundreds of residents were over 100 ?g/L due to the waste discharges from a lead-acid battery factory in Heyuan, Guangdong province. This study aimed to find out the environmental lead sources, the human lead exposure pathways, and the amplitudes from a lead-acid battery factory. The study results showed that lead levels in soil, dust, tree leaves and human blood declined with the distances increased from the production site. Twenty nine of 32 participants had blood lead levels of over 100 ?g/L with an exceptional high value of 639 ?g/L for one child. This result suggested that the lead-acid battery production from this factory has caused the elevated lead levels in its neighboring environment and residents. Dust intake was the dominant exposure pathway for humans (over 90%). The lead levels found in adult and toddler (6.19 and 50.1 ?g/kg/d, respectively) in the polluted area were far higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 25 ?g/kg body weight (translated into 3.5 ?g/kg/d), which was established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee. Blood lead levels within the family members were strongly correlated with the house dust lead levels. Our results in this study suggested that further studies in this area should be performed to assess human exposure and relevant human health risks from living close to lead-acid battery factories. PMID:22578522

Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; Liu, Ming; Huang, Yumei; Fan, Ruifang; Su, Yanhua; Hu, Guocheng; Peng, Xiaowu; Peng, Xiaochun

2012-05-12

277

Dust World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The increasing importance of understanding dust and its role in the Earth system is driving new research and an analysis of past data. This website offers research on the impact of dust forcings on the Earth system from dust storms. Analysis of dust from a whole Earth perspective incorporates connections and interconnections of dust in the atmospheres as well as how to mitigate the increase and severity of dust storms. This resource is sponsored by the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), a NASA, NSF and NOAA-supported program implemented by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) to improve the quality of geoscience instruction for pre-service and in-service K-12 teachers.

2011-02-23

278

Implications of different residential lead standards on children's blood lead levels in France: Predictions based on a national cross-sectional survey.  

PubMed

Despite the dramatic reductions in children's blood lead levels (BLLs), there is considerable evidence that low-level lead exposure is associated with intellectual deficits and behavioral problems, without apparent threshold. There are limited data, however, about the contribution of residential sources of lead to contemporary children's blood lead levels. The aim of this study is to calculate the contributions of residential sources of lead to assess the potential impact of setting new standards for lead levels in residential dust, soil and water. We enrolled 484 French children aged from 6 months to 6 years, and collected data on social, housing and individual characteristics. Lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples (water, soils, and dusts) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using a multivariate generalized additive model accounting for the sampling design and the sampling weights. We found that exceedingly low concentrations of lead in dust, soil and water were significant predictors of children's BLLs, after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Lead-contaminated floor dust was the main source of lead in blood. BLLs (GM: 14?g/L) increased by 65%, 13%, 25%, and 5% when lead content in floor dust, loose soil, hard soil and water increased from their 25th percentile to their 95th percentile, respectively. We also observed that the steepest increase in BLLs occurred at the lowest levels of lead-contaminated floor dust, which indicates that lead contamination should be kept as low as possible. Impact of different possible standards on children's BLLs was also tabulated and indicated that unless standards are set low, they will only benefit a small proportion of children who have the highest exposures. PMID:23528234

Oulhote, Youssef; Tertre, Alain Le; Etchevers, Anne; Bot, Barbara Le; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Mandin, Corinne; Le Strat, Yann; Lanphear, Bruce; Glorennec, Philippe

2013-03-13

279

Paraoccupational exposures to lead and tin carried by electric-cable splicers.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that electric-cable splicers contaminate their homes with lead and tin, nine splicers were matched with nine of their neighbors. House dust samples were collected in two areas within each home: a laundry room/dirty clothes area, and a composite sample from other areas in the house. Samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence for lead and tin (tin is a tracer to the occupational source of lead). The difference in the geometric mean lead concentrations in the laundry areas between the splicers' and neighbors' homes (1021 ppm and 390 ppm) was statistically significant (p < 0.025). The difference in concentrations from the other areas of the house (585 ppm and 329 ppm) was also significant (p < 0.05). Tin concentrations in house dust were very different between the two groups (p < 0.0005), suggesting that electric-cable splicers were contaminating their homes with lead and tin from work. Recommendations are included to prevent paraoccupational lead exposures by eliminating the pathways into the home. Another recommendation suggests that blood-lead levels be screened in children under the age of seven who live with electric-cable splicers. PMID:8237792

Rinehart, R D; Yanagisawa, Y

1993-10-01

280

Paraoccupational exposures to lead and tin carried by electric-cable splicers  

SciTech Connect

To test the hypothesis that electric-cable splicers contaminate their homes with lead and tin, nine splicers were matched with nine of their neighbors. House dust samples were collected in two areas within each home: a laundry room/dirty clothes area, and a composite sample from other areas in the house. Samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence for lead and tin (tin is a tracer to the occupational source of lead). The difference in the geometric mean lead concentrations in the laundry areas between the splicers' and neighbors' homes (1021 ppm and 390 ppm) was statistically significant (p < 0.025). The difference in concentrations from the other areas of the house (585 ppm and 329 ppm) was also significant (p < 0.05). Tin concentrations in house dust were very different between the two groups (p < 0.0005), suggesting that electric-cable splicers were contaminating their homes with lead and tin from work. Recommendations are included to prevent paraoccupational lead exposures by eliminating the pathways into the home. Another recommendation suggests that blood-lead levels be screened in children under the age of seven who live with electric-cable splicers.

Rinehart, R.D.; Yanagisawa, Y. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))

1993-10-01

281

Atmospheric Dust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Millions of tons of dust are lifted from deserts annually, suspended in the atmosphere, and released to fall on the oceans, but scientists are a long way from understanding the impact of atmospheric dust on the climate and weather systems of Earth or on marine organisms. This radio broadcast explains how the nitrogen, phosphorus and iron released from dust boosts the growth of phytoplankton, which also soak up carbon dioxide and release more gases into the atmosphere. Better monitoring and more sophisticated sensors are giving us a more accurate picture of the dust in the atmosphere; the broadcast reports on investigations of dust from ice cores and on computer simulations of the connections between dust and climate. But the unpredictable nature of dust events makes it extremely difficult to determine their impact on the natural systems of Earth. There are discussions with geographers, oceanographers, environmentalists and climate modelers about atmospheric dust, one of the least understood and most contradictory components of the atmosphere. The broadcast is 28 minutes in length.

282

Planetary Magnetosphere Probed by Charged Dust Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ and remote sensing observations combined with theoretical and numerical modeling greatly advanced our understanding planetary magnetospheres. Dust is an integral component of the Saturnian and Jovian magnetospheres where it can act as a source/sink of plasma particles (dust particles are an effective source for plasma species like O2, OH, etc. through sputtering of ice particles, for example); its distribution is shaped by electrodynamic forces coupled radiation pressure, plasma, and neutral drag, for example. The complex interaction can lead to unusual dust dynamics, including the transport, capture, and ejection of dust grains. The study of the temporal and spatial evolution of fine dust within or outside the magnetosphere thus provides a unique way to combine data from a large number of observations: plasma, plasma wave, dust, and magnetic field measurements. The dust detectors on board the Galileo and Cassini spacecrafts lead to major discoveries, including the jovian dust stream originating from Io or the in-situ sampling and analysis of the plumes of Enceladus. Recent advancement in dust detector technology enables accurate measurement of the dust trajectory and elemental composition that can greatly enhance the understanding of dust magnetorspheric interaction and indentify the source of the dust with high precision. The capabilities of a modern dust detector thus can provide support for the upcoming Europa Jupiter System Mission.

Sternovsky, Z.; Horanyi, M.; Gruen, E.; Srama, R.; Auer, S.; Kempf, S.; Krueger, H.

2010-12-01

283

Dust World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dust storms can vary from regional phenomena to global phenomena. Satellite and ground studies reinforce the idea that major dust storms can have a global reach and their impact wide ranging. In this module, resources and data are available to assist students to analyze and support their investigation on the impacts of China dust events on the Earth system. This resource is sponsored by the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), a NASA, NSF and NOAA-supported program implemented by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) to improve the quality of geoscience instruction for pre-service and in-service K-12 teachers.

2010-02-23

284

Skin lead contamination of family members of boat-caulkers in southern Thailand.  

PubMed

Powdered lead oxide (Pb(3)O(4)) is used in the wooden-boat repair industry as a constituent of the caulking material. This study compared skin lead of household members of caulkers' and control homes, and examined the relationship of household member's skin lead with household floor lead loading (FLL) and dust lead content (DLC). FLL and DLC were measured in 67 caulkers' houses and 46 nearby houses with no known lead exposure. In each household, wipe specimens of skin lead were obtained from one selected family member. Hand lead loading (HdLL) and foot lead loading (FtLL) were significantly higher in family members of caulkers than controls (geometric mean 64.4 vs. 36.2 ?g m(-2); p = 0.002 and 77.8 vs 43.8 ?g m(-2); p = 0.002, respectively). This pattern mirrored FLL and DLC, which were also higher in caulkers' than in control houses (geometric mean 109.9 vs. 40.1 ?g m(-2); p<0.001 and 434.8 vs 80.8 ?g g(-1); p<0.001, respectively). Multiple linear regression modelling revealed FLL to be a better predictor than DLC for HdLL in all age groups and for FtLL in adult family members. In conclusion, skin lead levels are elevated in family members living in a lead-exposed worker's house and are related to the levels of household lead contamination. PMID:20823635

Untimanon, Orrapan; Geater, Alan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Saetia, Wiyada; Utapan, Sutida

2010-09-01

285

Dust transport in photoelectron layers and the formation of dust ponds on Eros  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the electrostatic transport of charged dust in the photoelectron layer over the dayside surface of an asteroid. Micron-sized dust particles may be levitated above the surface in the photoelectron layer. Horizontal transport within the layer can then lead to net deposition of dust into shadowed regions where the electric field due to the photoelectron layer disappears. We apply

Joshua E. Colwell; Amanda A. S. Gulbis; Mihály Horányi; Scott Robertson

2005-01-01

286

[Biological effect of wood dust].  

PubMed

The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis. PMID:8231799

Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Doma?ska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mo?ocznik, A

1993-01-01

287

Lead isotopes as a supplementary tool in the routine evaluation of household lead hazards.  

PubMed Central

The advent of magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) allows rapid, accurate, and precise measurement of lead isotopes in environmental and biological samples at a lower cost than traditional methods. This may increase the feasibility of including lead isotope measurements as a routine tool to identify household sources of lead exposure to children. Here, we present three household case studies to illustrate how lead hazard evaluations by an environmental specialist could be supplemented with routine lead isotope analyses of potential lead sources and blood. Sampling for lead isotopes was undertaken following the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development regulatory guidelines for the evaluation of lead hazards in housing, and with the consideration of minimizing the additional costs associated with lead isotope measurements. The range of isotopic ratios within a single residence was large enough to allow the characterization of different lead sources, particularly when both major (e.g., (207)Pb/(206)Pb) and minor (e.g., (206)Pb/(204)Pb) isotope ratios were considered. These cases illustrate the utility of the lead isotope method to identify main source(s) of lead exposure to the child; discard unlikely sources of exposure to the child; point to sources of lead to dust; and substantiate or refine the environmental assessment based exclusively on lead concentrations and loadings. Thus, a more effective evaluation of household lead hazards would likely benefit from considering a) lead concentrations and loadings in and around the household environment; b) all isotopic ratios of potential lead sources within that environment; and c) information about behavioral habits, as well as an evaluation of viable pathways of exposure to the child.

Gwiazda, R H; Smith, D R

2000-01-01

288

Steelworks dust -- From waste to product  

SciTech Connect

Scrap-borne zinc and lead are enriched in the electric arc furnace dusts. Its Pb/Zn content of over 20% renders the dumping of this dust impossible in many countries, for both statutory and financial reasons. The Waelz process is the only reliable large-scale method for processing such dusts. 45% of the total electric furnace dusts occurring throughout Europe are being processed in Waelz plants with several operating in the US. The dust is treated in a rotary kiln where it is heated to approximately 1,200 C. Lead and zinc are volatilized under reducing conditions and collected as fine dust from the off-gas by cooling. The Waelz oxide recovered in the off-gas filters contains approximately 55% Zn and up to 10% Pb, and is ideal feedstock for the Imperial Smelting furnace for lead/zinc recovery. The remaining slag is inert and unleachable so that it can be used as a building aggregate.

Strohmeier, G. [Lurgi Metallurgie GmbH, Frankfurt (Germany); Bonestell, J.E. [Lurgi Corp., Charlotte, NC (United States)

1995-07-01

289

Dust Studies in DIII-D Tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of submicron dust using Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers and video data of micron to sub-millimeter sized dust on DIII-D tokamak have provided the first data of dust sources and transport during tokamak discharges. During normal operation on DIII-D dust observation rates are low, a few events per discharge or less. The net carbon content of the dust corresponds to a carbon atom density a few orders of magnitude below the core impurity density. Statistical analysis of Mie data collected over months of operation reveal correlation of increased dust rate with increased heating power and impulsive wall loading due to edge localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions. Generation of significant amounts of dust by disruptions is confirmed by the camera data. However, dust production by disruptions alone is insufficient to account for estimated in-vessel dust inventory in DIII-D. After an extended entry vent, thousands of dust particles are observed by cameras in the first 2-3 plasma discharges. Individual particles moving at velocities up to ~300 m/s, breakup of larger particles into pieces, and collisions of particles with walls are observed. After ~70 discharges, dust levels are reduced to a few events per discharge. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark modeling, milligram amounts of micron-sized carbon dust have been injected into DIII-D discharges, leading to the core carbon density increase by a factor of 2-3. Following injection, dust trajectories in the divertor are mostly in the toroidal direction, consistent with the ion drag force. Dust from the injection is observed in the outboard midplane by a fast framing camera. The observed trajectories and velocities of the dust particles are in qualitative agreement with modeling by the 3D DustT code.

Rudakov, D. L.; West, W. P.; Groth, M.; Yu, J. H.; Boedo, J. A.; Bray, B. D.; Brooks, N. H.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Hollmann, E. M.; Hyatt, A. W.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Smirnov, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Wong, C. P. C.

2008-09-01

290

Dust Studies in DIII-D Tokamak  

SciTech Connect

Studies of submicron dust using Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers and video data of micron to sub-millimeter sized dust on DIII-D tokamak have provided the first data of dust sources and transport during tokamak discharges. During normal operation on DIII-D dust observation rates are low, a few events per discharge or less. The net carbon content of the dust corresponds to a carbon atom density a few orders of magnitude below the core impurity density. Statistical analysis of Mie data collected over months of operation reveal correlation of increased dust rate with increased heating power and impulsive wall loading due to edge localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions. Generation of significant amounts of dust by disruptions is confirmed by the camera data. However, dust production by disruptions alone is insufficient to account for estimated in-vessel dust inventory in DIII-D. After an extended entry vent, thousands of dust particles are observed by cameras in the first 2-3 plasma discharges. Individual particles moving at velocities up to {approx}300 m/s, breakup of larger particles into pieces, and collisions of particles with walls are observed. After {approx}70 discharges, dust levels are reduced to a few events per discharge. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark modeling, milligram amounts of micron-sized carbon dust have been injected into DIII-D discharges, leading to the core carbon density increase by a factor of 2-3. Following injection, dust trajectories in the divertor are mostly in the toroidal direction, consistent with the ion drag force. Dust from the injection is observed in the outboard midplane by a fast framing camera. The observed trajectories and velocities of the dust particles are in qualitative agreement with modeling by the 3D DustT code.

Rudakov, D L; West, W P; Groth, M; Yu, J H; Boedo, J A; Bray, B D; Brooks, N H; Fenstermacher, M E; Hollmann, E M; Hyatt, A W; Krasheninnikov, S I; Lasnier, C J; Moyer, R A; Pigarov, A Y; Smirnov, R; Solomon, W M; Wong, C C

2008-04-15

291

Dust Studies in DIII-D Tokamak  

SciTech Connect

Studies of submicron dust using Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers and video data of micron to sub-millimeter sized dust on DIII-D tokamak have provided the first data of dust sources and transport during tokamak discharges. During normal operation on DIII-D dust observation rates are low, a few events per discharge or less. The net carbon content of the dust corresponds to a carbon atom density a few orders of magnitude below the core impurity density. Statistical analysis of Mie data collected over months of operation reveal correlation of increased dust rate with increased heating power and impulsive wall loading due to edge localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions. Generation of significant amounts of dust by disruptions is confirmed by the camera data. However, dust production by disruptions alone is insufficient to account for estimated in-vessel dust inventory in DIII-D. After an extended entry vent, thousands of dust particles are observed by cameras in the first 2-3 plasma discharges. Individual particles moving at velocities up to {approx}300 m/s, breakup of larger particles into pieces, and collisions of particles with walls are observed. After {approx}70 discharges, dust levels are reduced to a few events per discharge. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark modeling, milligram amounts of micron-sized carbon dust have been injected into DIII-D discharges, leading to the core carbon density increase by a factor of 2-3. Following injection, dust trajectories in the divertor are mostly in the toroidal direction, consistent with the ion drag force. Dust from the injection is observed in the outboard midplane by a fast framing camera. The observed trajectories and velocities of the dust particles are in qualitative agreement with modeling by the 3D DustT code.

Rudakov, D. L.; Yu, J. H.; Boedo, J. A.; Hollmann, E. M.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Moyer, R. A.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Smirnov, R. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); West, W. P.; Bray, B. D.; Brooks, N. H.; Hyatt, A. W.; Wong, C. P. C. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Groth, M.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Solomon, W. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2008-09-07

292

Rapid Lead Screening Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Lead poisoning in children typically results from drinking water from corroding plumbing, and inhaling or ingesting dust from deteriorating lead-based paint. Symptoms of lead poisoning include headaches, stomach cramps, fatigue, memory loss, high blood pressure, and seizures. Lead poisoning ...

293

FIELD EVALUATION OF A HIGH VOLUME SURFACE SAMPLER FOR PESTICIDES IN FLOOR DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

House dust and the poullutants carried with it are potentially important contributors to total exposure through the pathways of ingestion, inhalation, and skin penetration, especially for small children. esticides may be one of the more important contaminants of house dust. his r...

294

Determination of numbers of lead-exposed American children as a function of lead source: Integrated summary of a report to the US Congress on childhood lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

In 1986, the U.S. Congress (Section 118(f), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)) directed the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to provide to it a quantitative assessment of the contributions of various sources of lead to childhood exposure. We provided both a quantitative response to the mandate and a critique of low-level lead sources for U.S. population segments. We also present here an integrated assessment of major and low-level lead sources. Significant sources of lead in childhood exposure include lead in paint, dust, soil, and drinking water. Approximately 6 million U.S. children less than 7 years old reside in the oldest housing, with highest exposure risk due to leaded paint. About 2 million in deteriorated units are at particularly high risk for exposure with ca. 1.2 million children in oldest, deteriorated housing estimated to have blood lead (PbB) levels above 15 micrograms/dl. Soil and dust lead are potential sources of exposure for 6-12 million children. Residential tap water lead is a measurable source for ca. 3.8 million children, of whom the U.S. EPA estimates ca. 240,000 have water-specific exposures at toxic levels. Leaded gasoline combustion mainly in past years has produced, and will continue to produce into the 1990s, significant numbers of exposed children with toxicologically elevated PbBs. For 1990, 1.25 million children will have their PbBs fall below 15 micrograms/dl. Food lead can cause significant exposure in certain cases.36 references.

Mushak, P.; Crocetti, A.F. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

1989-12-01

295

Predicting turning points in the housing market  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identify leading indicators of changes in the housing market and compare their performance in predicting turning points. Being able to predict turning points is of importance to the home building industry, homeowners, and makers of housing policy. Our leading indicators include the Wells Fargo\\/NAHB Housing Market Index, two of its forward looking components, and an index of consumer sentiment

Roberto M. Croce; Donald R. Haurin

2009-01-01

296

Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... can become contaminated from household dust or exterior soil. Both are known lead sources. Regularly wet-mop ... top sash. Prevent children from playing in bare soil; if possible, provide them with sandboxes. Parents should ...

297

BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF PBDES ADMINISTERED TO RATS IN HOUSEHOLD DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Household dust has recently been implicated as a source of PBDE exposure. This study investigated the bioavailability of PBDEs in house dust administered through the diet as compared to PBDEs in oil via the diet. PBDEs in household dust were just as bioavailabl...

298

Airborne Dust Concentrations in Livestock Buildings and the Effect of Feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent legislation has focused attention on dust problems in livestock housing. The adverse effects of dust on man and animals have been reported by many researchers and are now widely acknowledged. Research has concentrated on methods of removing dust from the livestock environment by methods such as filtration, ventilation, sweeping floors or spraying oil and water. These methods have proved

C. C. Pearson; T. J. Sharples

1995-01-01

299

Performance of dust allergen carpet samplers in controlled laboratory studies.  

PubMed

Allergens and other pollutants in house dust are collected using a variety of dust samplers that are assumed to operate similarly. This factorial design study compared sampler performance under controlled environmental conditions. House dust with known particle sizes (212-90, 90-45, and <45??m) and allergen concentrations were sampled from new carpet squares with varying denier, pile height and pile densities. Dust mass and allergen recovery for total dust mites (Der p 1 and Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1) and cockroach allergen (Bla g 1) were assessed using the Eureka Mighty Mite (EURK), the High Volume Small Surface Sampler (HVS), or the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) method. Allergen concentrations were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and dust mass results were corrected for carpet fiber shedding. Samplers were compared by exploring mass collection efficiency (CE=fiber corrected dust mass/applied dust mass) and concentration ratio (CR=allergen concentration in collected sample/allergen concentration in test dust). Test dust allergen concentrations varied by particle size fraction due to varying laboratory performance over time. The EURK and HVS samplers had CEs of 41-63% in the small and medium particle size fractions, and collected less than 20% of the available dust from the large size fraction. The AIHA CE ranged from 10% to 17% in the medium and small particle size fractions, but collected little dust in the largest particle size fraction. The AIHA and HVS samplers were more likely to acquire more representative and less variable allergen CRs compared with the EURK method. Health studies that use allergen concentration as an exposure metric need to consider the implications of sampler performance when interpreting links to health outcomes and development of health-based standards for allergens in house dust. PMID:23281430

Adgate, John L; Banerjee, Sudipto; Wang, Mei; McKenzie, Lisa M; Hwang, Jooyeon; Ja Cho, Sook; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

2013-01-02

300

Contributions of Paint and Soil to Pb in Household Dust Wipes: An XAS Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speciation of Pb by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicated that Pb compounds associated with lead-based paint accounted for perhaps half of the Pb in 24 household dust wipes collected in El Paso, Texas. Soil-derived, sorbed Pb, likely Pb-humate, was also a major Pb species in many of the dust wipes. Household dust wipes are a standard technique for evaluating health risks of Pb to children, particularly toddlers, in public and private housing. The level of Pb in the wipes does not, however, indicate whether the source of the Pb is the house itself (peeling or powdering interior or exterior paint) or external, from contaminated soil or airborne particulate matter brought into the house by wind or foot traction. Understanding the origin of Pb in household dust is important in remediation: cover the old paint or remove the yard soil. XAS speciation can assist in understanding the source of Pb in household dust. The presence of significant Pb-humate requires a soil source, and suggests the need for soil remediation. Such species of Pb as hydrocerussite, lead sulfate, lead silicate, and lead chromate can be presumed to be components of lead-based paint. These may represent interior and/or exterior paint and thus do not uniquely identify the locus of the Pb source(s). Pb L-III edge XAFS data were collected on beam lines 7-3, 10-2, and 11-2 at SSRL at typical conditions of 3 GeV field and 80-200 mA current, using Si(220) water- or liquid-nitrogen-cooled monochromator crystals. Data were collected at ambient temperature in fluorescence mode using a 13- or 30-element Ge detector with a Se 3 or 6 filter and Soller slits to reduce scattered radiation. This publication was made possible by grant numbers 1RO1-ES11367 and 1 S11 ES013339-01A1 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH. Portions of this research were carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, a national user facility operated by Stanford University on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J. W.; Amaya, M. A.

2010-12-01

301

Theory of charged dust clouds: Equilibrium  

SciTech Connect

Gravitational equilibria of low density dust clouds imbedded in plasma background are studied. These are a new class of astrophysical objects, in which the electric field in quasineutral plasma balances the self-gravity of the dust. Heuristic arguments based on the total potential energy of a uniform dust ball are given for the existence of stable equilibrium and the mass limit for the maximum dust mass M{sub AS}, which can be supported against its self-gravity. The gravitational collapse is initiated by the destabilization of the fundamental radial mode as the mass of the dust cloud M{sub D}{yields}M{sub AS}. The physics of the mass limit is similar to the Chandrasekhar's mass limit for compact objects. One parameter family of spherically symmetric, static solutions of radius R ({approx_equal}0.1 AU) and the total mass of the dust cloud M{sub D} ({approx_equal}10{sup 19} g), for given central dust density, are constructed. A finite flux of photoelectrons is shown to decrease R and M{sub D}. Two-dimensional rotating dust disk equilibrium, characterized by a sharp and diffuse boundary, is also constructed. These dust equilibria (spherical clouds, rotating disks), which are predicted to be within the interstellar clouds, could be relevant for planet formation, as they provide locations where a significant quantity of dust can be stably trapped. The accretion and coagulation interaction between these trapped dust grains may lead to planet formation.

Avinash, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi - 7 (India)

2007-01-15

302

Status and Future of Dust Storm Forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, increased attention has been given to the large amounts of airborne dust derived from the deserts and desertified areas of the world and transported over scales ranging from local to global. This dust can have positive and negative impacts on human activities and the environment, including modifying cloud formation, fertilizing the ocean, degrading air quality, reducing visibility, transporting pathogens, and inducing respiratory problems. The atmospheric radiative forcing by the dust has implications for global climate change and presently is one of the largest unknowns in climate models. These uncertainties have lead to much of the funding for research into the sources, properties, and fate of atmospheric dust. As a result of advances in numerical weather prediction over the past decades and the recent climate research, we are now in a position to produce operational dust storm forecasts. International organizations and national agencies are developing programs for dust forecasting. The approaches and applications of dust detection and forecasting are as varied as the nations that are developing the models. The basic components of a dust forecasting system include atmospheric forcing, dust production, and dust microphysics. The forecasting applications include air and auto traffic safety, shipping, health, national security, climate and weather. This presentation will summarize the methods of dust storm forecasting and illustrate the various applications. The major remaining uncertainties (e.g. sources and initialization) will be discussed as well as approaches for solving those problems.

Westphal, D. L.

2002-12-01

303

Interstellar Dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the interstellar medium of the Milky Way, certain elements -- e.g., Mg,\\u000aSi, Al, Ca, Ti, Fe -- reside predominantly in interstellar dust grains. These\\u000agrains absorb, scatter, and emit electromagnetic radiation, heat the\\u000ainterstellar medium by photoelectric emission, play a role in the ionization\\u000abalance of the gas, and catalyze the formation of molecules, particularly H2. I\\u000areview

B. T. Draine

2003-01-01

304

Housing '70.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report was prepared by the Ada Development Council under a comprehensive planning grant from the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, to meet the following needs: To provide a profile of the housing market in Ada County and to identify c...

1970-01-01

305

Clay Houses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.|

Pedro, Cathy

2011-01-01

306

Battery housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention comprises a battery housing suitable for holding a battery which may generate a dangerously high level of internal pressure. The housing includes a receptacle having a vent passage covered by a rupture disc, the rupture disc in turn covered by a diffuser head having a longitudinal bore therein extending from the rupture disc to a blind end,

1985-01-01

307

Solar House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students work in teams to design and build a model of a solar house after researching several websites. Students will discover that a solar house takes advantage of solar energy to minimize the use of traditional energy sources and can include design elements that take advantage of the sun's rays to light and heat the house, to heat water, and to set up a favorable flow of air. They also learn that many solar houses contain a solar mass that will absorb the heat during the day and release it slowly at night and a passive solar house will also take into account the angle of the sun's rays, to maximize heating during the winter and shade during the summer. This site contains all of the specifications for planning, building, and testing the model and a rubric for grading the project.

Van Norden, Wendy

308

Addressing Lead-Based Paint Hazards During Renovation, Remodeling, and Rehabilitation in Federally Owned and Assisted Housing. Student Manual for Use in HUD-Sponsored Lead-Safe Work Practices Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This student manual comprises the United States Environmental Protection Agency's model renovation training course designed for renovation, remodeling, and painting contractors. It provides information regarding the containment, minimization, and cleanup of lead hazards during activities that disturb lead painted surfaces. Introductory material…

Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

309

An Advanced Dust Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dust telescope is a combination of a dust trajectory sensor together with an analyzer for the chemical composition of dust particles in space. Dust particles' trajectories are determined by the measurement of the electric signals that are induced when a charged grain flies through a position sensitive electrode system. The objective of the trajectory sensor is to measure dust

E. Grün; R. Srama; M. Rachev; A. Srowig; D. Harris; T. Conlon; S. Auer

2003-01-01

310

U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTION OF SOIL/HOUSE DUST SAMPLES FOR GC/MS ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDES AND PAH (BCO-L-28.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe procedures for extracting and preparing a dust or soil sample for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of pesticides and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This procedure was followed to ensure consistent data retriev...

311

Jovian Dust Streams Revisited - Cassini Dust Detector At Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both, the dust detectors on board the Galileo spacecraft and the Ulysses spacecraft recorded within about 1 AU from Jupiter, periodic bursts of dust impacts, with periods of about 28 days, originating from the Jovian system. Furthermore, time- frequency analysis of impact data recorded by the Galileo instrument inside the Jovian system revealed that the dust streams are also modulated with harmonics of Jupiter's orbital period. This indicates that the stream particles are strongly interacting with the inclined Jovian magnetic field. Current theoretical models of the grain- field interaction lead to grain speeds of about 300 km/s and grain sizes of about 10 nm. Stream particles were also recorded by the dust instrument on board of the Cassini spacecraft when Cassini was approaching Jupiter in 2000. Although the Cassini dust instrument is in many aspects superior to its progenitors the measurements were strongly affected by the fixed instrument mounting. First data analysis indicates that the Cassini instrument observed dust streams moving through the instrument field of view on very short time scales. Furthermore, we will present evidence that the instru- ment recorded 2 streams at the same time having different angles with respect to the Jovian line of sight. Such effects are most likely caused by the interaction of the grains with the interplanetary magnetic field.

Kempf, S.; Srama, R.; Gün, E.; Krüger, H.; Burton, M.; Cda Team

312

Dust Dynamics Near Planetary Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of a lunar "horizon glow" by several Surveyor spacecraft in the 1960s opened the study of the dynamics of charged dust particles near planetary surfaces. The surfaces of the Moon and other airless planetary bodies in the solar system (asteroids, and other moons) are directly exposed to the solar wind and ionizing solar ultraviolet radiation, resulting in a time-dependent electric surface potential. Because these same objects are also exposed to bombardment by micrometeoroids, the surfaces are usually characterized by a power-law size distribution of dust that extends to sub-micron-sized particles. Individual particles can acquire a charge different from their surroundings leading to electrostatic levitation. Once levitated, particles may simply return to the surface on nearly ballistic trajectories, escape entirely from the moon or asteroid if the initial velocity is large, or in some cases be stably levitated for extended periods of time. All three outcomes have observable consequences. Furthermore, the behavior of charged dust near the surface has practical implications for planned future manned and unmanned activities on the lunar surface. Charged dust particles also act as sensitive probes of the near-surface plasma environment. Recent numerical modeling of dust levitation and transport show that charged micron-sized dust is likely to accumulate in topographic lows such as craters, providing a mechanism for the creation of dust "ponds" observed on the asteroid 433 Eros. Such deposition can occur when particles are supported by the photoelectron sheath above the dayside and drift over shadowed regions of craters where the surface potential is much smaller. Earlier studies of the lunar horizon glow are consistent with those particles being on simple ballistic trajectories following electrostatic launching from the surface. Smaller particles may be accelerated from the lunar surface to high altitudes consistent with observations of high altitude streams observed by Apollo astronauts and potentially also by the Clementine spacecraft. In addition to the Surveyor images of lunar horizon glow and the high altitude streamer measurements, the Apollo 17 Lunar Ejecta and Meteorite surface package detected signals consistent with the impact of relatively slow-moving dust particles that may have been charged dust electrostatically levitated from the surface. There is renewed interest in this near-surface dust environment with plans to return robotic landers and astronauts to the lunar surface. No Apollo-era instruments were specifically designed to detect or measure dust levitated off the lunar surface. One new experiment under study is the Autonomous Lunar Dust Observer (ALDO). ALDO is a high-sensitivity scanning lidar (laser radar) that autonomously maps and records its 3-D dust environment. Flexibility of programmable scan pattern enables ALDO to characterize the dust context in and around experiment sites. Repeated shallow angle scans in a vertical plane enable high vertical resolution studies of dust levitation near the ground. Single elevation angle sector or full azimuth scans enable large-area statistical surveys of the frequency and size of ejecta plumes from micrometeoroid impacts, and vertical or fixed-angle stares enable very high sensitivity dust profiles to extended ranges. It is estimated that backscatter from dust concentrations as low as 1/cm3 can be measured. The concept is equally applicable to surface and atmospheric studies of other airless bodies.

Colwell, Joshua; Hughes, Anna; Grund, Chris

313

Silicosis and other Dust Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The public today is no longer mystified when the they hear silicosis mentionod; however, it is frequently spokon of as 'the new disease'. As a matter of fact, diseases due to dust and to lead are the oldest known occupational diseases. We find references ...

A. E. Russell

2001-01-01

314

Study of dust haze in arid zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regularities in the effect of dust haze on the thermal regime of the air surface layer are revealed by examining air-temperature measurement data obtained at the Dushanbe, Termez, Bairam-Ali, Repetek, and Kurgan-Tyube meteorological stations. We find that the sharp decrease in daily air temperature and the slight increase in night temperature until the 1990s under strong dust storms leads to decreased temperatures in the air surface layer. Later, dust hazes of 3 to 8 days are more frequently observed with a pulsating change in the horizontal range of visibility. Depending on their power, these hazes lead to either heating or cooling of the atmospheric surface layer.

Abdullaev, S. F.; Maslov, V. A.; Nazarov, B. I.

2013-05-01

315

Metal dusting  

SciTech Connect

This workshop was held soon after the September 11th incident under a climate of sorrow and uncertainty among the people of the world, in particular the Workshop participants and their host organizations. With considerable help from the partiicpants, the Workshop was conducted as planed and we had excellent participation in spite of the circumstances. A good fraction of the attendees in the Workshop were from abroad and from several industries, indicating the importance and relevance of the subject for the chemical process industry. Degradation of structural metallic alloys by metal dusting has been an issue for over 40 years in the chemical, petrochemical, syngas, and iron ore reduction plants. However, the fundamental scientific reasons for the degradation of complex alloys in high carbon activity environments are not clear. one of the major parameters of importance is the variation in gas chemistry in both the laboratory experiments and in the plant-service environments. the industry has questioned the applicability of the laboratory test data, obtained in low steam environments, in assessment and life prediction for the materials in plant service where the environments contain 25-35% steam. Several other variables such as system pressure, gas flow velocity, incubation time, alloy chemistry, surface finish, and weldments, were also identified in the literature as to having an effect on the initiatino and propagation of metal dusting attack. It is the purpose of this Workshop to establish a forum in which the researchers from scientific and industrial laboratories, alloy manufacturers, end users, and research and development sponsors can exchange information, discuss different points of view, prioritize the issues, and to elaborate on the trends in industry for the future. We believe that we accomplished these goals successfully and sincerely thank the participants for their contributions.

Edited by K. Natesan

2004-01-01

316

Mars dust removal technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars atmosphere contains a significant load of suspended dust. Settling of atmospheric dust onto the surface of the solar array is potentially a lifetime limiting factor for a power system on any Mars mission. For long-term operation of arrays on Mars, it may be necessary to develop techniques to remove deposited dust. Dust is expected to adhere to the

Geoffrey A. Landis

1997-01-01

317

Simulating the Effects of Intergalactic Gray Dust.  

PubMed

Using a high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, we present a method to constrain extinction due to intergalactic gray dust based on the observed magnitudes of distant Type Ia supernovae. We apply several simple prescriptions to relate the intergalactic dust density to the gas density in the simulation, thereby obtaining dust extinctions that may be directly compared with the observed distribution of supernova magnitudes. Our analysis is sensitive to the spatial distribution of gray dust but is not dependent on its intrinsic properties, such as its opacity or grain size. We present an application of our technique to the supernova data of Perlmutter et al., who find that their high-redshift sample is approximately 0.2 mag fainter than the expectation for a nonaccelerating, low-density universe. We find that for gray dust to be responsible, it must be distributed quite smoothly (e.g., tracing intergalactic gas). More realistic dust distributions, such as dust tracing the metal density, are inconsistent with observations at the 1.5-2 sigma level. Upcoming observations and improved modeling of the dust distribution should lead to stronger constraints on intergalactic gray dust extinction. PMID:10813663

Croft; Davé; Hernquist; Katz

2000-05-10

318

Sputtering of glass dust grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust grains in space are exposed to energetic ions, electrons and UV irradiation. Impact of energetic ions can lead to sputtering of the grain, consequently resulting in grain destruction during long-term exposures. For the presented study we chose spherical SiO2 grains with diameter in the range of 1 micron as a representative of silicate-type space dust. Our experimental set-up enables us to catch and to store single dust grain which can be sputtered by the ion beam. The mass of the grain is measured after each sputtering session and we can judge the sputtering efficiency from temporal changes of the mass. Our results suggest that the mass change is around 1.5% per 3-hour bombardment of 1.1 keV Ar ions which corresponds to the yield of the order of unity. The measurements on glass grains are compared wit previous measurements on gold grains.

Vysinka, Marek; Vaverka, Jakub; Pavlu, Jiri; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek

2013-04-01

319

Metal concentrations and distribution in the household, stairs and entryway dust of some Egyptian homes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Household, stairs and entryway dust samples were collected from 16 houses distributed across Greater Cairo by using vacuum cleaner and sweeping methods during summer season of 2009. Lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) were measured in different dust particle sizes: <38 ?m, >38-45 ?m and >45-63 ?m. The highest average concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Cu, and Cr in different particle sizes were found in entryway followed by household and stairs. Al, Fe and Zn concentrations followed the pattern of entryway > stairs > household. Pb, Ni, Cd, Zn, Co and Cr were found in significantly (p < 0.01) higher concentrations in dust of the small particle size (<38 ?m), whereas Al, Fe and Cu were detected in significantly (p < 0.01) higher concentrations in dust of the large particle size (>45-63 ?m). The average concentrations of the individual metals in dust of the small particle size (<38 ?m) were 268, 196.4 and 254.49 ?g gm-1 for Pb, 49.6, 43.5 and 46.66 ?g gm-1 for Ni, 2.86, 2.15 and 2.71 ?g gm-1 for Cd, 4340, 3796 and 2602 ?g gm-1 for Al, 2860, 2200 and 2004 ?g gm-1 for Fe, 209.25, 152.3 and 103.26 ?g gm-1 for Zn, 4.1, 2.88 and 1.96 ?g gm-1 for Co, 85.99, 74.06 and 83.17 ?g gm-1 for Cr and 168.2, 156.5 and 122.02 ?g gm-1 for Cu in entryway, stairs and household, respectively. The mean concentrations of Cu and Pb in the entryway, stairs and household dust exceeded the maximum permissible limit 100 ?g gm-1 for Cu and Pb in soil. The highest concentrations of Pb, Cd, Co and Ni were found in urban areas, Al and Fe in the residential areas, and Cu, Zn and Cr in the residential near to industrial area. Significant positive correlation (p < 0.001) were found between the metal concentrations in household and entryway dust, indicating that the metals in household dust may be derived from outdoor sources in addition to dust generated within the house itself. The contribution of anthropogenic sources, especially traffic emission, to metal levels in household, entryway and stairs dust was reflected by the high values of enrichment factors for Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu and Ni and Cr in fine dust particle compared to the average crustal composition. Insignificant positive correlation coefficients were found between the concentrations of Pb and other metals in household dust. However, the correlation coefficients between the concentrations of Cd, Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe were statistically significant.

Hassan, Salwa Kamal Mohamed

2012-07-01

320

Open House  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the US housing market collapsed in 2008, so did the dreams of many middle- and lower-class Americans. Florida, California, Nevada, and Arizona were hit particularly hard, and not by a force of nature, but by the abstract and invisible hand of the market. Prior to the collapse, the movement of global capital seemed like a distant reality to most

Jack Stenner; Patrick LeMieux

2011-01-01

321

House trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preferred mode of living in the U.S. is the single-family home. With energy no longer cheap and abundant, many are discovering themselves hostage to a dwelling they find difficult to afford. Housing's share of the family budget rose from 27% in 1950 to 31% in 1973. Rapid increases in the price of fuel oil No. 2, natural gas, and

C. Meeks; E. Ouderkerk

2009-01-01

322

Housing Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building specifications for birdhouses (nesting boxes) are given for 11 species (chickadee, titmouse, nuthatch, Carolina wren, house wren, downy woodpecker, hairy woodpecker, flicker, bluebird, screech owl, and wood duck) including length, width, depth, entrance diameter, and height above the ground. Pointers for construction, materials, and…

Schmalz, Georgann

1985-01-01

323

House Arrest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overcrowded correctional systems transfer thousands of prison inmates to community-based correctional programs - some to residential centers and most others to nonresidential programs. This study compared 63 community treatment center residents with 156 house arrestees in tems of their characteristics and their rates of success\\/failure both during the program and for one year after release from the program. The

Harjit S. Sandhu; Richard A Dodder; Minu Mathur

1993-01-01

324

Seasonal influences on childhood lead exposure.  

PubMed Central

We conducted a study to examine seasonal changes in residential dust lead content and its relationship to blood lead in preschool children. We collected blood and dust samples (floors, windowsills, and carpets) to assess lead exposure. The geometric mean blood lead concentrations are 10.77 and 7.66 microg/dL for the defined hot and cold periods, respectively (p < 0.05). Lead loading (milligrams per square meter) is the measure derived from floor and windowsill wipe samples that is most correlated with blood lead concentration, whereas lead concentration (micrograms per gram) is the best variable derived from carpet vacuum samples. The variation of dust lead levels for these three dust variables (floor lead loading, windowsill lead loading, and carpet lead concentration) are consistent with the variation of blood lead levels, showing the highest levels in the hottest months of the year, June, July, and August. The regression analysis, including the three representative dust variables in the equations to predict blood lead concentration, suggests that the seasonality of blood lead levels in children is related to the seasonal distributions of dust lead in the home. In addition, the outdoor activity patterns indicate that children are likely to contact high leaded street dust or soil during longer outdoor play periods in summer. Consequently, our results show that children appear to receive the highest dust lead exposure indoors and outdoors during the summer, when they have the highest blood lead levels. We conclude that at least some of the seasonal variation in blood lead levels in children is probably due to increased exposure to lead in dust and soil. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Yiin, L M; Rhoads, G G; Lioy, P J

2000-01-01

325

Poverty, Housing Deprivation and Housing Assistance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines three aspects of the relationship between the permanence of poverty and the housing situation of poor households: whether permanent poverty is a good predictor of housing deprivation; the relation between permanency of housing deprivat...

S. Newman R. Struyk D. Manson

1982-01-01

326

Lead control  

SciTech Connect

Lead has been known to affect children's brains for at least 80 years, but regulation has lagged far behind the science, primarily because of the unrelenting activity of the lead industry and its spokespersons. The result was that we did not pass a Lead Paint Poisoning Prevention Act in this country until 1971. Recoiling from a new spate of lawsuits the lead industry is once again attacking the data base that drew the federal government to certify that blood lead concentrations above 10 micrograms per deciliter ({mu}g/dl) are neurotoxic. The Public Health Service, having recognized that childhood lead poisoning is one of the most serious problems for the children in the US and that it is an eradicable disease, has drafted a Strategic Plan that, if implemented, will begin the process of breaking the exposure link by getting lead out of the environment before it finds its way into children's brains. It now appears that the White House has decided that increased federal participation will not take place. This would be a tragedy and cannot be allowed to happen without a complete discussion of the costs to our society.

Needleman, H.L. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1991-10-25

327

Experiments on Injection of Dust Jets into Plasma  

SciTech Connect

Experimental technique for studying the injection of dust jets into plasma of a glow discharge in air based on a needle injector is developed. The velocity and flight time of a dust jet is measured under different initial conditions by laser method. Imprints of dust jets on adhesive films are obtained. It is shown that the propagation of 20-{mu}m dust grains in plasma is accompanied by self-contraction instability along and across the discharge, which leads to the dust agglomeration.

Dubinov, Alexander E.; Lvov, Igor L.; Sadovoi, Sergey A.; Selemir, Victor D.; Vyalykh, Dmitry V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - VNIIEF, 607188, Sarov, pr. Mira, 37 (Russian Federation)

2005-10-31

328

There is No Housing Bubble  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no evidence of a housing “bubble” in the United States and housing demand should stay strong for years to come. Three major factors lead to this conclusion. First, the 77 million baby boomers are approaching the peak home ownership ages of 65-75 (over 83.0 percent versus a national average in 2004 of 69.0 percent). Second, immigrants, a growing

James F. Smith

2005-01-01

329

Allergies, asthma, and dust  

MedlinePLUS

... particles of pollen, mold, fibers from clothing and fabrics, and detergents. All of these can also trigger ... collect as much dust. Dust particles collect in fabrics and carpets. If you can, get rid of ...

330

Second-order dust acoustic wave theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A second-order perturbation theory for non-dispersive, undamped dust acoustic waves is presented. The analysis leads to a second-order wave equation with source terms consisting of (nonlinear) products of first-order terms. The nonlinear effects included in this analysis might be useful in explaining the non-sinusoidal waveforms that are observed with large-amplitude, self-excited dust acoustic waves.

Merlino, Robert L.

2012-03-01

331

Dust Storms Threaten Snowpacks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Public Radio story follows Thomas Painter, a scientist with the National Snow and Ice Data Center at the University of Colorado, as he researches the effects of dust on the Colorado Rockies snow pack. The story discusses how dust acts as a catalyst to melting snow, where the dust comes from, and explains some of the environmental and economic repercussions of widespread premature melting. The site also features links to other NPR dust- and drought-related articles.

Harris, Richard; Npr

332

Local house price developments and housing supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In this paper, we identify the relationship between (local) housing supply and (local) house price developments, especially in The Netherlands. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – We measure the influence of new building on house prices by comparing areas designated for concentrated new building (main Dutch cities) with areas where no large housing projects are developed. On the basis of classical economic

Paul De Vries; Peter Boelhouwer

2005-01-01

333

Spatial Dependence, Housing Submarkets, and House Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the impacts of alternative models of spatial dependence on the accuracy of house price predictions in a mass appraisal context. Explicit modeling of spatial dependence is characterized as a more fluid approach to defining housing submarkets. This approach allows the relevant “submarket” to vary from house to house and for transactions involving other dwellings in each submarket

Steven C. Bourassa; Eva Cantoni; Martin Hoesli

2005-01-01

334

Dust in the Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Space is seeming less and less like empty space as new discoveries and reexaminations fill in the gaps. And, ingenuity and technology, like the Spitzer Space Telescope, is allowing examination of the far reaches of the Milky Way and beyond. Even dust is getting its due, but not the dust everyone is familiar with. People seldom consider the dust

Hemenway, Mary Kay; Armosky, Brad J.

2004-01-01

335

Interstellar Dust Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstellar grains traversing the inner planetary system have been identified by the Ulysses dust detector. Space dust detectors on other missions confirmed this finding. Analysis of the Stardust collectors is under way to search for and analyze such exotic grains. Interstellar dust particles can be detected and analyzed in the near-Earth space environment. New instrumentation has been developed to determine

Zoltan Sternovsky; E. Gruen; M. Horanyi; K. Drake; A. Collette; S. Kempf; R. Srama; F. Postberg; H. Krueger; S. Auer

2010-01-01

336

Fugitive Dust: Nonpoint Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fugitive dust is a relatively new term for an old problem. Simply put, fugitive dust is a type of nonpoint source air pollution — small airborne particles that do not originate from a specific point such as a gravel quarry or grain mill. Fugitive dust originates in small quantities over large areas. Significant sources include unpaved roads, agricultural cropland and

John H. Ferguson; H. Willard Downs; Donald L. Pfost

337

Cotton Dust Analyzer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus for sampling dust from lint cotton is disclosed. Air is blown through a known sample of lint cotton positioned in a holding fixture to remove the dust. A suction means is provided to move and direct the dust removed from the lint cotton sampl...

J. D. Anderson R. V. Baker

1978-01-01

338

The effect of fluticasone on the airway inflammatory response to organic dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fluticasone on the airway inflammatory response to organic dust. A. Ek, L. Palmberg, K. Larsson. #ERS Journals Ltd 2004. ABSTRACT: Exposure to organic dust in a swine house causes acute airway inflammation and increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an inhaled glucocorticoid, fluticasone propionate, alters the

A. Ek; L. Palmberg; K. Larsson

2004-01-01

339

Living on the Lunar Surface: Determining the Health Effects of Exposure to Respirable Lunar Dusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA formed the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG) to determine the toxicological effects of lunar dust. This interdisciplinary group is comprised of leading experts in space toxicology, lunar geology, space medicine and biomedical research.

Khan-Mayberry, N. N.

2008-07-01

340

Mineral Dust and Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Working Group on Dust and Climate Joint INQUA/QUEST Workshop; Villefranche-sur-Mer, France, 19-22 October 2008; Mineral aerosol (referred to here as “dust”) is an active climate and paleoclimate system component that may significantly influence the radiative properties of the atmosphere, as well as ocean and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, through processes such as iron fertilization. The integrative, cross-cutting examination of the role and significance of dust provides the rationale for the Dust Indicators and Records of Terrestrial and Marine Paleoenvironments (DIRTMAP) working group sponsored by the International Union of Quaternary Research and the Natural Environment Research Council's Quantifying and Understanding the Earth System (QUEST) program. The working group aims to initiate coordinated progress to improve the representation of dust properties in dust cycle models, with particular focus on dust mineralogy, such as the concentrations of iron oxides and oxyhydroxides as either nanoparticles or mineral coatings, and particle size distribution. These two sets of factors are potentially significant in assessing the effects of dust on both radiative forcing and biogeochemical cycling. The working group also aims to improve model simulation of dust source regions, the episodic nature of dust emissions, and amounts of dust deposition over the continents.

Maher, Barbara A.; Harrison, Sandy P.

2009-04-01

341

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

342

Faculty Housing Assistance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some of the creative financing programs currently used to provide faculty housing assistance in California and elsewhere in the United States are described. Generally, the programs fall into one of four categories: rental housing, owner housing, mortgage assistance, and housing stipends. Institutions with a comprehensive housing program often…

Fink, Ira

1982-01-01

343

Fair Housing and Latinos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Latinos need the protection of the proposed Fair Housing Amendments of 1987 and the active support of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to overcome housing discrimination. Latinos are both disproportionately poor and inadequately housed, but low income alone cannot fully explain the poor housing conditions under which many…

Cubillos, Herminia L.

344

Housing, Design, and Furnishings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains teacher's materials for a six-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on housing, design, and furnishings. The units cover: (1) the societal aspects of housing (including the relationship between housing and the economy, population trends, and culture-related housing characteristics); (2) family housing

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

345

Happy Birthday White House!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An integrated elementary teaching package offers interesting facts about presidents and the White House. Cross-curricular activities focus on architecture, presidential birthplaces, portraits, communications, science, technology, touring the White House, children in the White House, a day in the life of the White House, and a White House birthday…

Dillon, Doris; And Others

1992-01-01

346

Transport of microorganisms to Israel during Saharan dust events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust storms are serious meteorological events that affect the East Mediterranean region, primarily during the spring season.\\u000a The physical and chemical nature of dust storms, their origin, and the meteorological conditions leading to the generation\\u000a of storms have been fully documented, but knowledge on their biological content is almost nonexistent. Four dust events that\\u000a occurred in the period 2004–2005 were

Pnina Schlesinger; Yaacov Mamane; Isabella Grishkan

2006-01-01

347

Dust acoustic waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust grains, or solid particles of ?m to sub-?m sizes, are observed in various low-temperature laboratory plasmas such as process plasmas and dust plasma crystals. The massive dust grains are generally highly charged, and it has been shown within the context of standard plasma theory that their presence can lead to new low-frequency modes such as dust acoustic waves. In certain laboratory plasmas, however, the dust may be strongly coupled, as characterized by the condition ?d=Q2d exp(-d/?D)/dTd>=1, where Qd is the dust charge, d is the intergrain spacing, Td is the dust thermal energy, and ?D is the plasma screening length. This paper investigates the dispersion relation for dust acoustic waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma comprised of strongly coupled negatively charged dust grains, and weakly correlated classical ions and electrons. The dust grains are assumed to interact via a (screened Coulomb) Yukawa potential. The strongly coupled gas phase (liquid phase) is considered, and a quasilocalized charge approximation scheme is used, generalized to take into account electron and/or ion screening of the dust grains. The scheme relates the small-k dispersion to the total correlation energy of the system, which is obtained from the results of published numerical simulations. Some effects of collisions of charged particles with neutrals are taken into account. Applications to laboratory dusty plasmas are discussed.

Rosenberg, M.; Kalman, G.

1997-12-01

348

2D models for dust-driven AGB star winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New axisymmetric (2D) models for dust-driven winds of C-stars are presented which include hydrodynamics with radiation pressure on dust, equilibrium chemistry and time-dependent dust formation with coupled grey Monte Carlo radiative transfer. Considering the simplest case without stellar pulsation (hydrostatic inner boundary condition) these models reveal a more complex picture of the dust formation and wind acceleration than earlier published spherically symmetric (1D) models. The so-called exterior ?-mechanism causes radial oscillations with short phases of active dust formation between longer phases without appreciable dust formation, just like in the 1D models. However, in 2D geometry, the oscillations can be out-of-phase at different places above the stellar atmosphere which results in the formation of dust arcs or smaller caps that only occupy a certain fraction of the total solid angle. These dust structures are accelerated outward by radiation pressure, expanding radially and tangentially like mushroom clouds, while dust-poor matter is falling back towards the star at other places. A highly dynamical and turbulent dust formation zone is created in this way, which again leads to inhomogeneous dust production. Further away from the star, flow instabilities (e.g. Rayleigh-Taylor) have time to fragment the outward moving arcs and shells to produce numerous small-scale cloud-like sub-structures.

Woitke, P.

2006-06-01

349

Superinsulated houses  

SciTech Connect

Superinsulation is a direct response to the fast-rising cost of home heating. Of the many kinds of responses, superinsulation is proving to be the simplest and most cost-effective. Until the oil embargo of 1973 there was little interest in saving heat. When the oil shortage arrived and fuel costs doubled and redoubled, many architects responded, at first, by invoking solar energy. They examined the designs of existing solar-heated houses and proposed a great variety of new designs, most of which appeared - to the uninitiated - to have great promise. Most of the early designs were of the active type; some were of the passive type; a few were of the hybrid design.

Shurcliff, W.A.

1986-01-01

350

On dust emissions from the jovian system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As described by Gruen et al., the dust impact detector on the Ulysses spacecraft detected a totally unexpected series of dust streams in the outer solar system near the orbit of Jupiter. Five considerations lead us to believe that the dust streams emanate from the jovian system itself: the dust streams only occur within about 1 AU of the jovian system, with the strongest stream being the one closest to Jupiter (about 550 RJ away); the direction from which they arrive is never far from the line-of-sight direction to Jupiter; the time period between streams is about 28 (+/- 3) days; the impact velocities are very high--mostly around 40 km/s; and we can think of no cometary, asteroidal, or interstellar source that could give rise to the above four phenomena (such streams have never before been detected).

Zook, H. A.; Gruen, E.; Baguhl, M.; Balogh, A.; Bame, S. J.; Fechtig, H.; Forsyth, R.; Hanner, M. S.; Horanyi, M.; Kissel, J.

1993-03-01

351

Haul road dust control  

SciTech Connect

A field study was conducted to measure dust from haul trucks at a limestone quarry and a coal preparation plant waste hauling operation. The study found that primarily wind, distance and road treatment conditions notably affected the dust concentrations at locations next to, 50 ft from, and 100 ft away from the unpaved haulage road. Airborne dust measured along the unpaved haul road showed that high concentrations of fugitive dust can be generated with these concentrations rapidly decreasing to nearly background levels within 100 ft of the road. Instantaneous respirable dust measurements illustrated that the trucks generate a real-time dust cloud that has a peak concentration with a time-related decay rate as the dust moves past the sampling locations. The respirable dust concentrations and peak levels were notably diminished as the dust cloud was transported, diluted, and diffused by the wind over the 100 ft distance from the road. Individual truck concentrations and peak levels measured next to the dry road surface test section were quite variable and dependent on wind conditions, particularly wind direction, with respect to reaching the sampling location. The vast majority of the fugitive airborne dust generated from unpaved and untreated haulage roads was non-respirable. 6 figs.

Reed, W.R.; Organiscak, J.A. [NIOSH-PRL, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2007-10-15

352

Personal Dust Exposures at a Food Processing Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was performed to quantify personal dust exposures at a food processing facility. A review of the literature shows very little exposure information in the food processing industry. The processing area consisted of a series of four rooms, connected by a closed-loop ventilation system, housed within a larger warehouse-type facility. Workers were exposed to various fruit and vegetable

Steven E. Lacey; Lorraine M. Conroy; John E. Franke; Richard A. Wadden; Donald R. Hedeker; Linda S. Forst

2006-01-01

353

Dust control research for SEI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study, at NASA Johnson Space Center, of dust control requirements for surface habitats has focused on identification of the dust problem, identifying dust control techniques and dust control technology areas requiring research development. This research was performed for the Surface Habitats and Construction (SHAC) technology area. Dust control consists of two problems: (1) how to keep it out of the habitat; and (2) once the habitat or airlock is contaminated with dust, how to collect it. This paper describes the dust environment, the Apollo experience and dust control methods used, future EVA operational considerations, and dust control concepts for surface habitats.

Kennedy, Kriss J.; Harris, Jeffrey R.

354

Dust reference frame in quantum cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a formulation of quantum cosmology with pressureless dust and arbitrary additional matter fields. The system has the property that its Hamiltonian constraint is linear in the dust momentum. This feature provides a natural time gauge, leading to a physical Hamiltonian that is not a square root. Quantization leads to a Schrödinger equation for which unitary evolution is directly linked to geodesic completeness. Our approach simplifies the analysis of both Wheeler-deWitt and loop quantum cosmology (LQC) models and significantly broadens the applicability of the latter. This is demonstrated for arbitrary scalar field potential and cosmological constant in LQC.

Husain, Viqar; Paw?owski, Tomasz

2011-11-01

355

Mars Dust Counter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to unveil the presence and characteristics of Martian dust ring\\/torus, Mars Dust Counter (MDC) is aboard ISAS's spacecraft PLANET-B, which will be launched in 1998 summer and investigate the upper atmosphere and surrounding environment of Mars between 1999 and 2001. MDC PLANET-B is an improved version of impact-ionization dust detectors aboard HITEN and BREMSAT. It weighs only 730

E. Igenbergs; S. Sasaki; R. Münzenmayer; H. Ohashi; G. Färber; F. Fischer; A. Fujiwara; A. Glasmachers; E. Grün; Y. Hamabe; H. Iglseder; D. Klinge; H. Miyamoto; T. Mukai; W. Naumann; K. Nogami; G. Schwehm; H. Svedhem; K. Yamakoshi

1998-01-01

356

Dust-induced instability in a rotating plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of immobile dust on stability of a magnetized rotating plasma is analyzed. In the presence of dust, a term containing an electric field appears in the one-fluid equation of plasma motion. This electric field leads to an instability of the magnetized rotating plasma called the dust-induced rotational instability (DRI). The DRI is related to the charge imbalance between plasma ions and electrons introduced by the presence of charged dust. In contrast to the well-known magnetorotational instability requiring the decreasing radial profile of the plasma rotation frequency, the DRI can appear for an increasing rotation frequency profile.

Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Vladimirov, S. V.; Lominadze, J. G.; Tsypin, V. S.; Churikov, A. P.; Erokhin, N. N.; Galva~O, R. M. O.

2008-01-01

357

ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS OF LEAD BURDENS IN CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead burdens in children were studied in relation to exposure to lead from soil and from automobile traffic in Charleston, SC. Preschool aged black children exposed to a variety of soil leads and traffic volumes were recruited in a house-to-house survey. Data regarding soil, traf...

358

Validation of a new method for directional dust monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fugitive dust from industrial sites is problematic to quantify and can be associated with nuisance complaints. Despite significant limitations, the British Standard 1747 Part 5 (BS 1747:5) directional dust gauge remains preferred for monitoring fugitive dust flux on site boundaries. An alternative directional dust gauge, DustScan, was developed at the University of Leeds, UK, and uses cylindrical adhesive 'sticky pads' to sample dust in flux. With this sampler, dust capture is measured as soiling, as opposed to mass, with the BS 1747:5 sampler. An Aerosol Test Tunnel (ATT) was developed to evaluate the performance of the DustScan sampler. Atmospheric turbulence was simulated using a coarse grid generator and maintained as rough-wall channel flow by roughness elements fixed to its floor and roof of the ATT. A polydisperse test dust was introduced upwind to form a cloud at the sampler. DustScan directional dust gauges were repeatedly exposed to aliquots of test dust at wind speeds of 2-10 m s-1 in the ATT. Dust soiling levels either side of the gauge's centreline (relative to the incident direction) were compared to demonstrate that the DustScan sampler is directionally accurate. Much lower proportions of antithetic sampling (dust catch on the downwind face of the gauge) occurred than for the BS 1747:5 sampler. The sampled particle size selection was related to the ratio of particle stop distance (s) to sampler diameter (D) ratio, s/D, showing that the particle size cut point fell with increasing wind speeds. A preliminary assessment of collection efficiency (CE) was made by determining dust mass after controlled ignition of selected sticky pad samples. Although dust saturation of the sticky pads can lead to sample loss over prolonged exposure periods, this loss is relatively small over the 1-2 week intervals established as appropriate for the DustScan sampler. This need for shorter sampling intervals is considered to outweigh the convenience of the longer exposure time but significantly poorer dust sampling characteristics of the BS 1747:5 sampler.

Datson, Hugh; Hall, David; Birch, Bill

2012-04-01

359

Lagrangian-Eulerian Micromotion and Wave Heating in Nonlinear Self-Excited Dust-Acoustic Waves  

SciTech Connect

We investigate particle-wave microdynamics in the large amplitude self-excited dust acoustic wave at the discrete level through direct visualization. The wave field induces dust oscillations which in turn sustain wave propagation. In the regular wave with increasing wave amplitude, dust-wave interaction with uncertain temporary crest trapping and dust-dust interaction lead to the transition from cyclic to disordered dust motion associated with the liquid to the gas transition, and anisotropic non-Gaussian heating. In the irregular wave, particle trough-trapping is also observed, and the heating is nearly Gaussian and less anisotropic.

Liao, C.-T.; Teng, L.-W.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Io, C.-W.; I Lin [Department of Physics and Center for Complex Systems, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan 32001 (China)

2008-05-09

360

Lagrangian-Eulerian Micromotion and Wave Heating in Nonlinear Self-Excited Dust-Acoustic Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate particle-wave microdynamics in the large amplitude self-excited dust acoustic wave at the discrete level through direct visualization. The wave field induces dust oscillations which in turn sustain wave propagation. In the regular wave with increasing wave amplitude, dust-wave interaction with uncertain temporary crest trapping and dust-dust interaction lead to the transition from cyclic to disordered dust motion associated with the liquid to the gas transition, and anisotropic non-Gaussian heating. In the irregular wave, particle trough-trapping is also observed, and the heating is nearly Gaussian and less anisotropic.

Liao, Chen-Ting; Teng, Lee-Wen; Tsai, Chen-Yu; Io, Chong-Wai; I, Lin

2008-05-01

361

Oxidant Enhancement in Martian Dust Devils and Storms: Storm Electric Fields and Electron Dissociative Attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Laboratory studies, numerical simulations, and desert field tests indicate that aeolian dust transport can generate atmospheric electricity via contact electrification or “triboelectricity.” Inconvective structures such as dust devils and dust storms, grain stratification leads to macro- scopic charge separations and gives rise to an overall electric dipole moment in the aeolian feature, similar in nature to the dipolar electric

Gregory T. Delory; William M. Farrell; Sushil K. Atreya; Nilton O. Renno; Ah-San Wong; Steven A. Cummer; Davis D. Sentman; John R. Marshall; Scot C. R. Rafkin; David C. Catling

2006-01-01

362

Interaction of dust particles in a plasma with an external source of gas ionization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of two dust particles in no equilibrium plasma at elevated pressures has been studied. An asymptotic theory of screening, which leads to a two-exponential dependence of the dust particle potential on distance with different shielding lengths, is used to determine the electrostatic energy of the system of charges associated with the two dust particles. The dependence of the

Andrey Starostin; Anatoly Filippov; Alexander Pal; Anatoly Zagorodny

2008-01-01

363

Temperature dependence of a PZT piezoelectric sensor for Mercury Dust Monitor up to 150 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been developing a cosmic dust detector for BepiColombo Mercury exploration mission, called Mercury Dust Monitor (MDM). The MDM uses piezoelectric sensors made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics for estimation of dust flux and momentum of incident particles. The PZT sensors of MDM, installed on the surface of a side panel of the MMO without a sunshade, will

Takeo Iwai

2008-01-01

364

Housing Submarkets in Istanbul  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the hypothesis that in a segmented housing market, housing price structure is different in each segment and whole market area price structure does not reflect a realistic housing price structure effectively. Submarket existence is tested in order to average household income in neighbourhoods in the Istanbul housing market. Whether the consequential variations in prices in each segment

Elif Alkay

2008-01-01

365

Dust resuspension without saltation  

PubMed Central

Wind resuspension (or entrainment) provides a source of dust and contaminants for the atmosphere. Conventional wind erosion models parameterize dust resuspension flux with a threshold velocity or with a horizontal abrasion flux; in the absence of abrasion the models assume dust flux is transient only. Our experiments with an uncrusted, fine material at relative humidities exceeding 40% show a long-term steady dust flux in the absence of abrasion, which fits the approximate form: Fd = 3.6(u*)3, where Fd is the dust flux (in ?g/m2 s), and u* is the friction velocity (in m/s). These fluxes are generally too small to be significant sources of dust in most models of dust emission. However, they provide a potential route to transport contaminants into the atmosphere. In addition, dust release is substantial during the initial transient phase. Comparison with field data suggests that the particle friction Reynolds number may prove a better parameter than u* for correlating fluxes and understanding the potential for abrasion.

Loosmore, Gwen A.; Hunt, James R.

2010-01-01

366

Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to

Shawn Knutson; Nancy Holloway

2010-01-01

367

Combustible dust tests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

368

PRELIMINARY SMART DUST MOTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Smart Dust team is attempting to build millimeter scale sensing and communication platforms composing a distributed sensor network [1] that can monitor environmental conditions in both military and commercial applications. These networks will consist of hundreds to thousands of dust motes and a few interrogating transceivers. The motes will be built from integrated circuit and micromachining processes (figure 1)

Brett Warneke; Bryan Atwood; Kristofer S. J. Pister

2000-01-01

369

Dust storms in Turkmenistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust storms are a phenomenon particularly common to the arid and semi-arid regions of Turkmenistan. The aridity of the climate, vast areas of sandy, solonchak and clayey deserts, sparse vegetation cover, and strong winds all favor the formation of dust storms. Long-term (60 years) data from 56 meteorological stations was analysed for the study of spatial distribution, frequency, seasonality and

L. Orlovsky; N. Orlovsky; A. Durdyev

2005-01-01

370

Dust in Planetary Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The workshop 'Dust in Planetary Systems' was held in Kauai'i\\/Hawaii from September 26 to 30, 2005, following the tradition of holding meetings in the field of Interplanetary Dust Research at regular intervals of a few years. The series of meetings started in Honolulu, Hawaii (USA) in 1967, followed by Heidelberg (Germany) in 1975, Ottawa (Canada) in 1979, Marseilles (France) in

H. Krueger; A. Graps

2007-01-01

371

Supernova Dust Factories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of interstellar dust in galaxies is poorly understood, particularly the relative contribution from supernovae. We present infrared and submillimeter photometry and spectroscopy from the Herschel Space Observatory of the Galactic remnants Tycho, Kepler and the Crab Nebula, taken as part of the Mass Loss from Evolved StarS program (MESS). Although we detect small amounts of dust surrounding Tycho and Kepler (the remnants of Type Ia supernovae), we show this is due to swept-up interstellar and circumstellar material respectively. The lack of dust grains in the ejecta suggests that Type Ia remnants do not produce substantial quantities of iron-rich dust grains and has important consequences for the ‘missing’ iron mass observed in ejecta. After carefully subtracting the synchrotron and line emission from the Crab, the remaining far-infrared continuum originates from 0.1-0.2 solar masses of dust. These observations suggest that the Crab Nebula has condensed most of the relevant refractory elements into dust and that these grains appear well set to survive their journey into the interstellar medium. In summary, our Herschel observations show that significantly less dust forms in the ejecta of Type Ia supernovae than in the remnants of core-collapse explosions, placing stringent constraints on the environments in which dust and molecules can form.

Gomez, Haley; Consortium, MESS; LCOGT

2013-01-01

372

Political Science as the Missing Link in Housing Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The academic discipline of political science has a comparatively modest position in the field of housing studies. This article first confirms this by analysing the output of leading housing journals, measured in quantitative terms. Then five possible explanations to this situation are discussed. (1) Housing provision is implemented on the local level, while political science studies the national and international

Bo Bengtsson

2009-01-01

373

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor dust and human hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, settled workplace dust ( n = 55) from commercial offices, secondary schools, shopping malls, hospitals, electronic factories and manufacturing plants in Hong Kong and settled home dust ( n = 23) from Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou, around the Pearl River Delta were collected. Chemical analyses showed that the total PBDEs in workplace dust ranged from 397 to 40,236 ng g -1, with the dust samples from electronic factories having the highest levels (2122-40,236 ng g -1), and dust from homes ranging from 685 to 18,385 ng g -1. The most abundant BDE congeners found were BDE-209 in both workplace dust and home dust, followed by BDE-99 and BDE-47. No significant correlations were observed between total PBDE concentrations in home dust and the age or the house ( p > 0.05), concentrations of BDE-99 + BDE-47 and the number of furniture containing foam ( p > 0.05), and concentrations of BDE-209 and the number of electronic appliances ( p > 0.05). BDE-47, -99, -100 and -183 were found in most of the hair samples collected from occupants of these homes with BDE-47 being the dominant congener (0.86-5.24 ng g -1). The BDE-183 concentration in home dust was significantly correlated with that in human hair ( r = 0.55, p < 0.05, n = 18). Risk assessment indicated that daily intake of PBDEs for children via non-dietary ingestion of dust (101-404 ng day -1) was higher than that via food consumption (77-190 ng day -1).

Kang, Yuan; Wang, Hong Sheng; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

2011-05-01

374

beta-(1,3)-Glucan exposure assessment by passive airborne dust sampling and new sensitive immunoassays.  

PubMed

Associations between house dust-associated beta-(1,3)-glucan exposure and airway inflammatory reactions have been reported, while such exposures in early childhood have been suggested to protect against asthma and wheezing. Most epidemiological studies have used reservoir dust samples and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for beta-(1,3)-glucan exposure assessment. The objective of this study was to develop inexpensive but highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays to measure airborne beta-(1,3)-glucans in low-exposure environments, like homes. Specificities of available anti-beta-(1,3)-glucan antibodies were defined by direct and inhibition experiments. Three suitable antibody combinations were selected for sandwich EIAs. beta-(1,3)-Glucans in passive airborne dust collected with an electrostatic dust fall collector (EDC) and floor dust from seven homes were measured with the three EIAs. Floor dust samples were additionally analyzed in the inhibition EIA. The sandwich EIAs were sensitive enough for airborne glucan measurement and showed different specificities for commercial glucans, while the beta-(1,3)-glucan levels in house dust samples correlated strongly. The feasibility of measuring glucans in airborne dust with the recently introduced EDC method was further investigated by selecting the most suitable of the three EIAs to measure and compare beta-(1,3)-glucan levels in the EDC and in floor and actively collected airborne dust samples of the previously performed EDC validation study. The EDC beta-(1,3)-glucan levels correlated moderately with beta-(1,3)-glucans in actively collected airborne dust and floor dust samples, while the glucan levels in the airborne dust and floor dust samples did not correlate. The combination of the newly developed beta-(1,3)-glucan sandwich EIA with EDC sampling now allows assessment in large-scale population studies of exposure to airborne beta-(1,3)-glucans in homes or other low-exposure environments. PMID:20038709

Noss, Ilka; Wouters, Inge M; Bezemer, Gillina; Metwali, Nervana; Sander, Ingrid; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Heederik, Dick J J; Thorne, Peter S; Doekes, Gert

2009-12-28

375

?-(1,3)-Glucan Exposure Assessment by Passive Airborne Dust Sampling and New Sensitive Immunoassays?  

PubMed Central

Associations between house dust-associated ?-(1,3)-glucan exposure and airway inflammatory reactions have been reported, while such exposures in early childhood have been suggested to protect against asthma and wheezing. Most epidemiological studies have used reservoir dust samples and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for ?-(1,3)-glucan exposure assessment. The objective of this study was to develop inexpensive but highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays to measure airborne ?-(1,3)-glucans in low-exposure environments, like homes. Specificities of available anti-?-(1,3)-glucan antibodies were defined by direct and inhibition experiments. Three suitable antibody combinations were selected for sandwich EIAs. ?-(1,3)-Glucans in passive airborne dust collected with an electrostatic dust fall collector (EDC) and floor dust from seven homes were measured with the three EIAs. Floor dust samples were additionally analyzed in the inhibition EIA. The sandwich EIAs were sensitive enough for airborne glucan measurement and showed different specificities for commercial glucans, while the ?-(1,3)-glucan levels in house dust samples correlated strongly. The feasibility of measuring glucans in airborne dust with the recently introduced EDC method was further investigated by selecting the most suitable of the three EIAs to measure and compare ?-(1,3)-glucan levels in the EDC and in floor and actively collected airborne dust samples of the previously performed EDC validation study. The EDC ?-(1,3)-glucan levels correlated moderately with ?-(1,3)-glucans in actively collected airborne dust and floor dust samples, while the glucan levels in the airborne dust and floor dust samples did not correlate. The combination of the newly developed ?-(1,3)-glucan sandwich EIA with EDC sampling now allows assessment in large-scale population studies of exposure to airborne ?-(1,3)-glucans in homes or other low-exposure environments.

Noss, Ilka; Wouters, Inge M.; Bezemer, Gillina; Metwali, Nervana; Sander, Ingrid; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Heederik, Dick J. J.; Thorne, Peter S.; Doekes, Gert

2010-01-01

376

The Matador field project on convective plumes and dust devils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research suggests that mineral dust play an important role in the earth's climate, not only by altering the atmospheric radiation budget, but also by affecting cloud microphysics and optical properties. Moreover, dust can act as a catalyst for reactive gas species in the atmosphere and can influence photochemical processes. Many studies have shown that, on a micrometeorological scale, dust sourcing is sensitive to a large number of factors such as soil composition, soil moisture, vegetation cover, topography, and weather. Dusty convective plumes and dust devils are frequently observed over terrestrial deserts and are ubiquitous features of the Martian landscape. We show evidence that these convective systems play an important role in the vertical transport of mineral dust and heat, both on earth and on Mars. We also show that charge separation within terrestrial dust devils produce electric fields in excess of 50 kV/m. Electric fields produced by Martian dust devils probably ionize its thin atmosphere and might alter its chemistry. Thus, Martian dust devils are not only important sources of atmospheric dust, but are also potentially harmful to spacecraft Landers. Our group has been leading a field program to understand the electrification of dust devils and the contribution of convective plumes and dust devils to the vertical transport of heat and dust. Our results show that dust devils produce heat fluxes that are about two orders of magnitude larger than the background ambient flux. Indeed, they suggest that coherent convective plumes do a large fraction of the vertical heat transport in regions of intense convection. We discuss our theoretical framework, measurement techniques, and summarize our most important results.

Renno, N. O.; Smith, P. H.; Hartogensis, O. K.; de Bruin, H.; Carswell, A. I.; Delory, G.; Burose, D.; Watts, C.; Bluestein, H. B.

2003-04-01

377

Dust from Jupiter's magnetosphere  

SciTech Connect

In Jupiter's magnetosphere the dynamics of micron sized and smaller charged dust particles is strongly influenced, if not dominated, by electromagnetic forces acting simultaneously with gravity, drag and radiation pressure. Dust particles traversing various regimes adjust their electrostatic charges as dictated by the changing plasma conditions and in fact they are 'active electrostatic probes' continuously adjusting their surface potential towards the local equilibrium value. The fields and particles environment of Jupiter uniquely shapes the size and the spatial distribution of these dust grains. Studies of the motion of charged dust particles connect a number of observations that are often thought to be unrelated. Here we summarize our current modeling efforts aimed to understand the Galileo dust measurements in the Jovian magnetosphere.

Horanyi, Mihaly [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0392 (United States)

1998-10-21

378

Sensitivity of the dust cycle in a Chemistry-GCM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral dust is an important part of the atmospheric aerosol. The export of Saharan dust across the Atlantic Ocean to the South American continent is known to be an important source of nutrition to the rain forest and the sea. Dust mobilisation in deserts and long-range transport occurs in episodic events and is strongly influenced by synoptic-scale flow patterns. The scientific understanding of these processes, the resulting global dust distribution and the climate impact is still low. In this study, the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy (EMAC) is used to simulate the mineral dust cycle. We performed free-running 5-year time slice simulations and nudged experiments for selected dust emission episodes. Two different dust emission schemes and four different horizontal resolutions have been used for investigating their influence on the entire dust cycle. The horizontal resolutions T42 (~312 km), T63 (~208 km), T85 (~155 km) and T106 (~125 km) are explored. Independent of the horizontal resolution the "Balkanski" dust emission scheme simulates global maxima of the dust emissions and the dust column mass in the north-western part of India. Various observations indicate that in reality the maximum lies over the Sahara Desert. The "Tegen" dust emission scheme shows a much more realistic distribution. For all horizontal resolutions both schemes simulate dust emissions, total dust load and a dust life time within the range of the 15 GCMs participating in the AEROCOM-project (Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models). However, in T42 and T63 the northward transport of dust is too strong leading to unrealistic high column masses in high northern latitudes. The transport and subsequently the global dust distribution in T85 and T106 is much more sensible. The dust emission (total load) is 28 % (16 %) higher in T106 as in T85 which is traced back to higher wind velocities in T106. In addition to these climatological investigations, the event-specific experiments will be evaluated in detail using various observational data sets.

Gläser, G.; Kerkweg, A.; Wernli, H.

2010-09-01

379

Mudball: Surface dust and Snowball Earth deglaciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent modeling results have raised doubts about the ability to deglaciate from a global glaciation at atmospheric carbon dioxide levels that are realistic for a Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth. Here we argue that over the lifetime of a Snowball event, ice dynamics should lead to the development of a layer of continental and volcanic dust at the ice surface in the

Dorian S. Abbot; Raymond T. Pierrehumbert

2010-01-01

380

75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FR-5376-N-01] Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-...

2010-01-26

381

Risk assessment of human exposure to bioaccessible phthalate esters via indoor dust around the Pearl River Delta.  

PubMed

There is limited information on the bioaccessible fractions of phthalate esters in indoor dust in order to estimate human exposure. In the present study, workplace dust and settled house dust samples from Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou, the three major cities scattered around the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were collected. Chemical analyses showed that the phthalates in workplace dust ranged from 144 to 1810 ?g/g, with dust from shopping malls containing the highest level, and in home dust ranged from 181 to 9240 ?g/g. The most abundant phthalate ester found was bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in both workplace dust and home dust, followed by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-iso-butyl phthalate (DIBP). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) indicated that indoor dust around PRD showed similar phthalate esters patterns of composition. A significant correlation was observed between total phthalate esters concentrations in home dust and the number of year of house construction (p < 0.05). The oral bioaccessibility of phthalate esters in indoor dust ranged from 10.2% (DEHP) to 32% (DMP). Risk assessment indicated that the dominant exposure routes varied in different phthalate esters exposure profiles and the dermal contact exposure pathway was identified as an important route for indoor DEHP exposure. PMID:22794303

Kang, Yuan; Man, Yu Bon; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

2012-07-25

382

Secondary dust density waves excited by nonlinear dust acoustic waves  

SciTech Connect

Secondary dust density waves were observed in conjunction with high amplitude (n{sub d}/n{sub d0}>2) dust acoustic waves (DAW) that were spontaneously excited in a dc glow discharge dusty plasma in the moderately coupled, {Gamma}{approx}1, state. The high amplitude dust acoustic waves produced large dust particle oscillations, displacements, and trapping. Secondary dust density waves were excited in the wave troughs of the high amplitude DAWs. The waveforms, amplitudes, wavelengths, and wave speeds of the primary DAWs and the secondary waves were measured. A dust-dust streaming instability is discussed as a possible mechanism for the production of the secondary waves.

Heinrich, J. R.; Kim, S.-H.; Meyer, J. K.; Merlino, R. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Rosenberg, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

2012-08-15

383

Pesticides in dust from homes in an agricultural area.  

PubMed

We collected indoor dust samples from homes in the Salinas Valley of California. Of 22 pesticides measured in 504 samples, permethrins and the organophosphate chlorpyrifos were present in highest amounts. In multivariate Tobit regression models among samples from 197 separate residences, reported agricultural uses of chlorpyrifos, a herbicide (2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA)), and a fungicide (iprodione) on agricultural fields were significantly (p < 0.01) associated, with 83%, 19%, and 49% increases, respectively, in dust concentrations for each kg applied per day, near participant homes, in the month or season prior to sample collection. However, agricultural use of diazinon, which was 2.2 times that of chlorpyrifos, and of permethrin were not significantly associated with dust levels. Other variables independently associated with dust levels included temperature and rainfall, farmworkers storing work shoes in the home, storing a diazinon product in the home, housing density, having a home less clean, and having an air conditioner. Permethrins, chlorpyrifos, DCPA, and iprodione have either a log octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) greater than 4.0, a very low vapor pressure, or both. Health risk assessments for pesticides that have these properties may need to include evaluation of exposures to house dust. PMID:19943644

Harnly, Martha E; Bradman, Asa; Nishioka, Marcia; McKone, Thomas E; Smith, Daniel; McLaughlin, Robert; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Castorina, Rosemary; Eskenazi, Brenda

2009-12-01

384

Mite fauna of dust from passenger trains in Glasgow.  

PubMed

The mite fauna of dust from cloth-covered seats of four passenger trains and bedding from a British Rail linen store in Glasgow was investigated; 22 samples containing 4488 mg of dust from a total surface area of 5.5 m2 were taken. Sixteen samples were positive for mites and 33 specimens belonging to 10 species were found. The most common species were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart), Glycyphagus domesticus (De Geer), G. destructor (Schrank) and Euroglyphus maynei (Cooreman). The species composition bore considerable resemblance to that of house dust (although the density of mites was far lower) and the mites have probably been transported from homes via clothing and pets. Only five intact specimens, which may have been alive at the time of sampling, were found. The dust from trains consisted mostly of particles of soot. Very few skin scales, the food source of house dust mites, were detected. The small numbers of intact mites found and the absence of an identifiable food source make it unlikely that permanent populations of mites survive in upholstered seats on trains. PMID:3556435

Colloff, M J

1987-02-01

385

Dust Devil Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dust devil is a rotating updraft, with coherent structures ranging from small (H/D ˜ 5m/1m) to large (H/D ˜ 1000 m/10 m). Common in west Texas and Arizona, dust devils are formed unstable stratification of the air by solar heating over a sandy floor. Unstable gravity waves grow exponentially in the low density, hot air, rising into the upper layer of stably stratified atmosphere creating the large, 3D vortex. Dust devils are common on Mars. On Earth radio noise and electrical fields greater than 100kV/m are inferred [Kok J. F., N. O. Renno (2006), Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19S10]. Dust devils pick up small dirt and dust particles. The whirling charged dust particles (30 -50 microns) create a magnetic field that fluctuates between 3 and 30 times each second. The electric fields created assist the vortices in lifting materials off the ground and into the atmosphere. We use the theory and simulation tools of fusion plasma physics to describe dust devils. The Grad-Shafranov equation governs the vorticity dynamics and gives a solution for steady axisymmetric flows. The high core velocity is limited by the vortex model with viscous dissipation. The Reynolds number is not large, so these structures are well represented with super computers, in contrast to collisionless plasmas. 1mm Research supported by NIFS, Japan and the NSF through ATM-0638480 at UT Austin.

Horton, W.; Miura, H.

2008-11-01

386

The health impact of environmental pollutants: a special focus on lead exposure in South Africa.  

PubMed

Studies have shown blood lead levels of some children in South Africa at levels of health concern. New studies show even relatively low lead levels to have detrimental effects on cognitive function in young children. Large numbers of South African inner-city and other children have been shown to have unacceptably high blood lead levels. Studies indicate that blood lead levels of children living in South Africa's urban areas are higher than those of children in most developed countries, including Great Britain, Europe, and the United States. Although data and reported studies are very sparse, mean blood lead levels of approximately 15 microg/dl have been reported in children. Elevated blood lead levels were associated with socioeconomic status and housing conditions. Key environmental risk factors for elevated blood levels were contaminated soil and dust in the urban environment, and the still large number of automobiles using leaded gasoline. In view of emerging evidence linking lead at increasingly lower levels to adverse effects in children, the South African government is taking actions to reduce lead exposure among vulnerable groups. Currently, South Africa has no national lead surveillance program. The government, therefore, has developed international and regional partnerships to prevent and address the problem of lead exposure. PMID:12971686

Harper, Carolyn C; Mathee, Angela; von Schirnding, Yasmin; De Rosa, Christopher T; Falk, Henry

2003-08-01

387

Forecasting Martian Dust Devils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there have been at least two broad surveys of dust devil activity over various regions of Mars (Balme et al., 2003) (Fisher et al., 2005). The results of these surveys provide useful constraints for designing and testing new schemes for forecasting Martian dust devils, in particular their number density and size at a given place and time. This endeavor would be useful both for future spacecraft operations and improved dust cycle simulation within Martian general circulation models. At present, the predominant scheme for dust devil forecasting is based on Renno et al. (1998), which as presently applied only gives a relative measure of the maximum incidence of dust devils in a given area based on thermodynamic considerations and predictions of their wind velocities etc. In this study, the Mars implementation of the Planetary Weather Research and Forecasting Model (planetWRF) and the results of the surveys are used to demonstrate that dust devil formation is likely more mechanically than thermodynamically controlled. As an alternative, we propose the existence of one or multiple "nucleation criteria” for dust devil formation that can be combined with the well-known size-duration relation for terrestrial dust devils (Sinclair, 1966) in order to forecast number density. We use planetWRF output and survey data to evaluate various nucleation criteria based on: (1) inhibition of convection by near-surface mechanical turbulence (Deardorff, 1972); (2) inhibition or enhancement of convection by mesoscale to synoptic scale wind systems; and (3) the possibility of the dust devil's rotation inhibiting its own convective support within the near-surface superadiabatic layer. This work is supported in part by NASA. The numerical simulations for this research were performed on Caltech's CITerra cluster.

Heavens, Nicholas G.; Richardson, M. I.; Newman, C. E.

2006-09-01

388

LEAD EXPOSURES IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans consume lead by inhaling air, drinking beverages, eating food and ingesting dust. The natural source of this lead is primarily soil. Anthropogenic sources are lead in gasoline, fossil fuels and industrial products and processes. Lead is ubiquitous in the human environment,...

389

STARDUST WILD 2 DUST MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During its passage through the coma of comet 81P\\/Wild 2 in January 2004 to collect dust particles for return to the Earth, instruments on Stardust made extensive measurements of the dust coma environment. The inner coma was characterized by many narrow jets, imaged by the Navigation Camera. Dust fluxes measured by the Dust Flux Monitor Instrument (DFMI) revealed a highly

B. C. Clark; Z. Sekanina; P. Tsou; D. E. Brownlee

2007-01-01

390

Dust storms: recent developments.  

PubMed

Dust storms have a number of impacts upon the environment including radiative forcing, and biogeochemical cycling. They transport material over many thousands of kilometres. They also have a range of impacts on humans, not least on human health. In recent years the identification of source areas for dust storms has been an important area or research, with the Sahara (especially Bodélé) and western China being recognised as the strongest sources globally. Another major development has been the recognition of the degree to which dust storm activity has varied at a range of time scales, millennial, century, decadal, annual and seasonal. PMID:18783869

Goudie, Andrew S

2008-09-09

391

Blood lead--tooth lead relationship among Boston children  

SciTech Connect

The amount of lead in deciduous teeth has been used extensively as a marker for infant lead exposure and body burden. Elevated tooth lead levels have been seen in children who had lead poisoning. Also, on a population wide basis tooth lead levels appear to vary according to housing status and presumably lead exposure. This exposure index has been applied using varying techniques in Denmark, and the United Kingdom. Because of the neurotoxicity of lead, the tooth lead levels of retarded and normal children have been compared. Most recently, in research of lead and child development, tooth lead levels have been used as markers of past lead exposure. Despite the widespread use of tooth lead values, very little is known about the exact time course of lead deposition in tooth from blood. This report compares blood lead levels at different ages to tooth lead levels in a group of Boston children.

Rabinowitz, M.B.; Leviton, A.; Bellinger, D.C. (Children's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

1989-10-01

392

Recycling of electric-arc-furnace dust  

SciTech Connect

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is one of the largest solid waste streams produced by steel mills, and is classified as a waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Successful recycle of the valuable metals (iron, zinc, and lead) present in the dust will result in resource conservation while simultaneously reducing the disposal problems. Technical feasibility of a novel recycling method based on using hydrogen as the reductant was established under this project through laboratory experiments. Sponge iron produced was low in zinc, cadmium, and lead to permit its recycle, and nontoxic to permit its safe disposal as an alternative to recycling. Zinc oxide was analyzed to contain 50% to 58% zinc by weight, and can be marketed for recovering zinc and lead. A prototype system was designed to process 2.5 tons per day (600 tons/year) of EAF dust, and a preliminary economic analysis was conducted. The cost of processing dust by this recycling method was estimated to be comparable to or lower than existing methods, even at such low capacities.

Sresty, G.C.

1990-05-01

393

Lead pollution in urban and rural Saudi Arabian children  

SciTech Connect

In the last two decades, vehicular traffic increased spectacularly in Saudi Arabia, from 243,000 registered motor vehicles in 1973 to over 5 million at present. All these vehicles use leaded gasoline, one of the major sources of lead contamination in the ambient air and dusts in the cities. To evaluate the impact of this high level of environmental lead, scalp hair of 200 school boys, aged 6-8 years, from each of the two cities (Makkah in the western region and Riyadh in the central region) and two Village Groups (one around Makkah city and the other around Riyadh city) were analyzed in this study for lead concentrations. Makkah is one of the oldest and most densely populated cities with congested housing and narrow winding streets. Riyadh on the other hand is the newly developing, planned capital city of Saudi Arabia. The Village Groups were chosen so as to reflect a control environment away from heavy traffic and industrial activity. The usefulness of hair as an important biopsy material for environmental pollution studies has been demonstrated in a large number of studies. Effect of lead on the central nervous system of the children may result in mental retardation and even death in case of acute encephalopathy.

Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, P.; Kutbi, I.I. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia))

1989-11-01

394

Adhesion of Lunar Dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

Walton, Otis R.

2007-04-01

395

Dust That's Worth Keeping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Images taken of interstellar space often display a colorful canvas of portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Dispersed throughout the images are interstellar clouds of dust and gas--remnants ejected from stars and supernovae over billions and billions ...

A. Hazi

2006-01-01

396

Dust Bowl Tale 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Kansas State University presents a 1940 interview with Mrs. Flora Robertson talking about dust storms in Oklahoma. The MP3 audio format interview concludes with an original poem, "I came to Oklahoma before it was a state."

Usda; Unit, Kansas S.

397

Laboratory Astrophysics of Dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared spectroscopy is the best astronomical tool for studying the composition of cosmic dust. Thanks to the Herschel satellite, dust properties from the FIR to mm wavelength range will be sampled in different astrophysical environments. In the laboratory, the study of the temperature and structural dependence of FIR absorption of cosmic dust analogs including agglomeration is essential to interpret observational spectra. For crystalline materials, FIR single phonon bands are temperature dependent due to the anharmonicity of the vibrational potentials. This strong temperature dependence of the FIR bands' positions can be used as a thermometer of the dust temperature. In amorphous material, the FIR absorption is dominated by disorder-induced single phonon processes and in the submillimeter and millimeter range by highly temperature-dependent low energy processes, e.g. tunneling transitions in two-level systems. The effect of these processes on the FIR absorptivity in amorphous silicates will be demonstrated.

Jäger, C.; Mutschke, H.; Henning, T.

2011-11-01

398

91. LOCKS CONTROL HOUSE & CRANE MACHINERY HOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

91. LOCKS -- CONTROL HOUSE & CRANE MACHINERY HOUSE -- UPPER WEST WALL-- PLANS, ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS & VENT PLAN M-L 27 70/19. Lock and Dam No. 27 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

399

Quantification of group 5 grass pollen allergens in house dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background It is widely known and accepted that grass pollen is a major outdoor cause of hay fever. However, it is of virtual importance for grass pollen allergic patients with symptoms all the year round to know the concentration of grass pollen allergens in their homes. Objective The main objective of this study was to quantify the amount of

B. Fahlbusch; D. Hornung; J. Heinrich; H.-M. Dahse; L. JAger

2000-01-01

400

Lead poisoning from metallic teapots traditionally used by North African populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When children are found in Brussels with high blood lead level (PbB), over 200 ?g/l, the LICB conducts an environmental study to determine the source of lead responsible for the intoxication. The study consists in filling a risk questionnaire, followed by a family interview and an investigation of the housing. Standard samples of lead sources are collected (dust, paint chips and water). If this first investigation is negative, further investigations are carried out. In one particular case of lead intoxication, which concerned in a family of Moroccan origin, no standard source could be identified. Our case study finally concluded that tea infusions prepared in a traditional North-African metallic teapot had caused lead poisoning. This investigation began with a single intoxication case of a young child (age 18 months, PbB 495 ?g/l). However, it quickly appeared that 18 other members of his family had also been contaminated (PbB 3 ranged from 155 to 455 ?g/l). Faced with this relative unknown lead hazard, the LICB decided to collect and analyse the leachability and content in lead of this kind of vessel (8 teapots from different origin were tested). The lead contents measured in the metallic teapots ranged from 3.2% to 84%. The lead concentrations found in brewed tea varied from 230 to 5070 ?g/l in function of the lead teapot content and of number of daily preparation.

Petit, D.; Claeys, F.; Sykes, C.; Noefnet, Y.

2003-05-01

401

The Galileo Dust Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galileo Dust Detector is intended to provide direct observations of dust grains with masses between 10 exp -19 and 10 exp -9 kg in interplanetary space and in the Jovian system, to investigate their physical and dynamical properties as functions of the distances to the sun, to Jupiter and to its satellites, and to study its interaction with the Galilean satellites and the Jovian magnetosphere. The investigation is performed with an instrument that measures the mass, speed, flight direction and electric charge of individual dust particles. It is a multicoincidence detector with a mass sensitivity 1 000 000 times higher than that of previous in situ experiments which measured dust in the outer solar system. The instrument weighs 4.2 kg, consumes 2.4 W, and has a normal data transmission rate of 24 bits/s in nominal spacecraft tracking mode. On December 29, 1989 the instrument was switched-on. After the instrument had been configured to flight conditions cruise science data collection started immediately. In the period to May 18, 1990 at least 168 dust impacts have been recorded. For 81 of these dust grains masses and impact speeds have been determined. First flux values are given.

Gruen, Eberhard; Fechtig, Hugo; Hanner, Martha S.; Kissel, Jochen; Lindblad, Bertil-Anders; Linkert, Dietmar; Maas, Dieter; Morfill, Gregor E.; Zook, Herbert A.

1992-05-01

402

Student-Initiated Housing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes a report that describes housing where student groups lease, purchase, or even develop their own living quarters. Considers the birth of the movement, federal student housing programs, and a view to future programs. (Author/DN)

Feild, Robert M.

1973-01-01

403

Healthy Housing Inspection Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Healthy Housing Inspection Manual completes the foundation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Healthy Homes Initiative. The manual reflects the ongoing commitment of both CDC and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Develo...

2008-01-01

404

Lead Exposure Reduction Act of 1992. Report together with Additional and Dissenting Views To Accompany 5730 (Including Cost Estimate of the Congressional Budget Office.) Part 1 [and] Part 2. House of Representatives, 102d Congress, 2d Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This two-part report deals with the Lead Exposure Reduction Act of 1992 (H.R. 5730), an amendment to the Toxic Substances Control Act and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The amendment is intended to lead to the reduction of levels of lead in the environment and to lower the degree of childhood exposure to lead. The bill provides for a…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

405

Insulator for laser housing  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member.

Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

1992-01-01

406

Insulator for laser housing  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member. 3 figs.

Duncan, D.B.

1992-12-29

407

Characterisation of atmospheric deposited particles during a dust storm in urban areas of Eastern Australia.  

PubMed

The characteristics of dust particles deposited during the 2009 dust storm in the Gold Coast and Brisbane regions of Australia are discussed in this paper. The study outcomes provide important knowledge in relation to the potential impacts of dust storm related pollution on ecosystem health in the context that the frequency of dust storms is predicted to increase due to anthropogenic desert surface modifications and climate change impacts. The investigated dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to the environment with an increased amount of total suspended solids, compared to dry deposition under ambient conditions. Although the dust storm passed over forested areas, the organic carbon content in the dust was relatively low. The primary metals present in the dust storm deposition were aluminium, iron and manganese, which are common soil minerals in Australia. The dust storm deposition did not contain significant loads of nickel, cadmium, copper and lead, which are commonly present in the urban environment. Furthermore, the comparison between the ambient and dust storm chromium and zinc loads suggested that these metals were contributed to the dust storm by local anthropogenic sources. The potential ecosystem health impacts of the 2009 dust storm include, increased fine solids deposition on ground surfaces resulting in an enhanced capacity to adsorb toxic pollutants as well as increased aluminium, iron and manganese loads. In contrast, the ecosystem health impacts related to organic carbon and other metals from dust storm atmospheric deposition are not considered to be significant. PMID:23712117

Gunawardena, Janaka; Ziyath, Abdul M; Bostrom, Thor E; Bekessy, Lambert K; Ayoko, Godwin A; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

2013-05-25

408

Dust absorption over the ``Great Indian Desert'' inferred using ground-based and satellite remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral dust is the single largest contributor of natural aerosols over land. Dust aerosols exhibit high variability in their radiative effects because their composition varies locally. This arises because of the regional distinctiveness of the soil characteristics as well as the accumulation of other aerosol species, such as black carbon, on dust while airborne. To accurately estimate the climate impact of dust, spatial and temporal distribution of its radiative properties are essential. However, this is poorly understood over many regions of the world, including the Indian region. In this paper, infrared (IR) radiance (10.5-12.5 ?m) acquired from METEOSAT-5 satellite (˜5-km resolution) is used to retrieve dust aerosol characteristics over the "Great Indian Desert" and adjacent regions. The infrared radiance depression on account of the presence of dust in the atmosphere has been used as an index of dust load, called the Infrared Difference Dust Index (IDDI). Simultaneous, ground-based spectral optical depths estimated at visible and near-infrared wavelengths (using a multiwavelength solar radiometer) are used along with the IDDI to infer the dust absorption. The inferred single scattering albedo of dust was in the range of 0.88-0.94. We infer that dust over the Indian desert is of more absorbing nature (compared with African dust). Seasonally, the absorption is least in summer and most in winter. The large dust absorption leads to lower atmospheric warming of 0.7-1.2 K day-1.

Moorthy, K. Krishna; Babu, S. Suresh; Satheesh, S. K.; Srinivasan, J.; Dutt, C. B. S.

2007-05-01

409

An environmental nuisance: odor concentrated and transported by dust.  

PubMed

Intensive swine production generates odorous emissions which flow from the buildings housing the animals. High ventilation rates bring in fresh air, remove heat and moisture and enhance pork productivity. Numerous compounds contribute to the uniquely offensive odors from swine facilities, including fatty acids, amines, aromatics and sulfur compounds. Dust particles, which originate predominantly from feces and feed, can adsorb and concentrate odorants in swine facilities. In addition, organic particles can decay and generate odorous compounds. Odorants can exist in much higher concentrations in the dust particles than in equivalent volumes of air. Thus, inhalation of odorous dust and deposition of the dust particles in the mucus overlying the olfactory mucosa are likely responsible for some odor-related complaints by swine farm neighbors. Accurate prediction of odor transport and dispersion downwind from swine farms may require models of dust dispersion and correlation between dust and odorant levels. Unfortunately, many approaches to estimating odor impact currently incorporate filtering of air to remove particulate matter before sensing by humans or electronic sensors. Accelerated progress in understanding this and other 'real world' odor control problems will require methodological innovations that allow quantification of odor in response to air streams containing vapor and particulate phases. PMID:11287391

Bottcher, R W

2001-03-01

410

Universal Design in Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Universal design in housing is a growing and beneficial concept. It is subtle in its differences from barrier-free, accessible, and industry standard housing. Accessibility standards and codes have not mandated universal design and do not apply to most housing. Universal design exceeds their minimum specifications for accessible design and results in homes that are usable by and marketable to almost

Ronald L. Mace

1998-01-01

411

Fertilizing the Amazon and equatorial Atlantic with West African dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric mineral dust plays a vital role in Earth's climate and biogeochemical cycles. The Bodélé Depression in Chad has been identified as the single biggest source of atmospheric mineral dust on Earth. Dust eroded from the Bodélé is blown across the Atlantic Ocean towards South America. The mineral dust contains micronutrients such as Fe and P that have the potential to act as a fertilizer, increasing primary productivity in the Amazon rain forest as well as the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, and thus leading to N2 fixation and CO2 drawdown. We present the results of chemical analysis of 28 dust samples collected from the source area, which indicate that up to 6.5 Tg of Fe and 0.12 Tg of P are exported from the Bodélé Depression every year. This suggests that the Bodélé may be a more significant micronutrient supplier than previously proposed.

Bristow, Charlie S.; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Chappell, Adrian

2010-07-01

412

Processing electric arc furnace dust into saleable chemical products  

SciTech Connect

The modern steel industry uses electric arc furnace (EAF) technology to manufacture steel. A major drawback of this technology is the production of EAF dust, which is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The annual disposal of approximately 0.65 million tons of EAF dust in the United States and Canada is an expensive, unresolved problem for the steel industry. EAF dust byproducts are generated during the manufacturing process by a variety of mechanisms. The dust consists of various metals (e.g., zinc, lead, cadmium) that occur as vapors at 1,600{degrees}C (EAF hearth temperature); these vapors are condensed and collected in a baghouse. The production of one ton of steel will generate approximately 25 pounds of EAF dust as a byproduct, which is currently disposed of in landfills.

NONE

1998-04-01

413

Housing and Health: Time Again for Public Health Action  

PubMed Central

Poor housing conditions are associated with a wide range of health conditions, including respiratory infections, asthma, lead poisoning, injuries, and mental health. Addressing housing issues offers public health practitioners an opportunity to address an important social determinant of health. Public health has long been involved in housing issues. In the 19th century, health officials targeted poor sanitation, crowding, and inadequate ventilation to reduce infectious diseases as well as fire hazards to decrease injuries. Today, public health departments can employ multiple strategies to improve housing, such as developing and enforcing housing guidelines and codes, implementing “Healthy Homes” programs to improve indoor environmental quality, assessing housing conditions, and advocating for healthy, affordable housing. Now is the time for public health to create healthier homes by confronting substandard housing.

Krieger, James; Higgins, Donna L.

2002-01-01

414

Continuing Housing Element, Attalla, Alabama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is a continuation of the Initial Minimum Housing Element for the City of Attalla published in June 1970. This Continuing Housing Element reviews the past housing element and re-evaluates the housing situation in Attalla. (Author)

1971-01-01

415

Social Housing Policy in Belgium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the aspects of public housing with emphasis on encouraging low-income groups to buy houses, building more houses for middle income groups, instituting a national housing fund, fighting against slums.

1970-01-01

416

Dust measurements in tokamaks (invited)  

SciTech Connect

Dust production and accumulation present potential safety and operational issues for the ITER. Dust diagnostics can be divided into two groups: diagnostics of dust on surfaces and diagnostics of dust in plasma. Diagnostics from both groups are employed in contemporary tokamaks; new diagnostics suitable for ITER are also being developed and tested. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g., between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In the DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering is able to resolve particles between 0.16 and 1.6 {mu}m in diameter; using these data the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in two-dimension with a single camera or three-dimension using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is challenging. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, precharacterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase in carbon line (CI, CII, C{sub 2} dimer) and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics.

Rudakov, D. L.; Yu, J. H.; Boedo, J. A.; Hollmann, E. M.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Moyer, R. A.; Muller, S. H.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rosenberg, M.; Smirnov, R. D. [University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); West, W. P.; Boivin, R. L.; Bray, B. D.; Brooks, N. H.; Hyatt, A. W.; Wong, C. P. C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Roquemore, A. L.; Skinner, C. H.; Solomon, W. M. [Princeton