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1

Relevancy of human exposure via house dust to the contaminants lead and asbestos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present report addresses the issues whether house dust is likely to\\u000acontribute substantially to the exposure of humans, in particular for the\\u000acontaminants lead and asbestos. House dust consists for 30-70% of soil\\u000amaterial, indicating that contaminated soil can lead to contaminated\\u000ahouse dust. It is concluded that exposure to lead via house dust should\\u000abe included in risk

Oomen AG; Lijzen JPA

2007-01-01

2

Seasonal variations of lead concentration and loading rates in residential house dust in northern Idaho.  

PubMed

Although lead hazards to humans have been known since ancient times and many regulatory actions and lead risk reductions have been achieved over the past century, lead contamination and exposure remain significant problems worldwide. The focus of this study was to investigate whether residential house dust lead concentrations and lead and dust loading rates in non-contaminated or "background" communities in northern Idaho are significantly affected by seasonal variations. House dust samples were obtained from 34 houses in five towns of northern Idaho from March to November 1999. There was evidence of significant seasonality of lead concentration in house dust in some towns, but no evidence in other towns. Because of the high variability between the towns and small sample sizes, it was difficult to make firm conclusions about seasonal patterns observed in house dust lead levels. A linear relationship between precipitation rates and dust loading rates was detected. PMID:16442226

Petrosyan, Varduhi; von Braun, Margrit C; Spalinger, Susan M; von Lindern, Ian H

2006-04-30

3

LEAD PAINT DISCLOSURE Housing built before 1978 may contain lead-based paint. Lead from paint, paint chips, and dust  

E-print Network

LEAD PAINT DISCLOSURE Housing built before 1978 may contain lead-based paint. Lead from paint, paint chips, and dust can pose health hazards if not taken care of properly. Lead exposure is especially the presence of known lead-based paint and lead-based paint hazards in the dwelling. Tenants must also receive

Royer, Dana

4

Lead and Other Heavy Metals in Dust Fall from Single-Family Housing Demolition  

PubMed Central

Objective We measured lead and other heavy metals in dust during older housing demolition and effectiveness of dust suppression. Methods We used American Public Housing Association Method 502 and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Methods SW3050B and SW6020 at 97 single-family housing demolition events with intermittent (or no) use of water to suppress dust at perimeter, non-perimeter, and locations without demolition, with nested mixed modeling and tobit modeling with left censoring. Results The geometric mean (GM) lead dust fall during demolition was 6.01 micrograms of lead per square foot per hour (?g Pb/ft2/hour). GM lead dust fall was 14.18 ?g Pb/ft2/hour without dust suppression, but declined to 5.48 ?g Pb/ft2/hour (p=0.057) when buildings and debris were wetted. Significant predictors included distance, wind direction, and main street location. At 400 feet, lead dust fall was not significantly different from background. GM lead concentration at demolition (2,406 parts per million [ppm]) was significantly greater than background (GM=579 ppm, p=0.05). Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, and manganese demolition dust fall was significantly higher than background (p<0.001). Demolition of approximately 400 old housing units elsewhere with more dust suppression was only 0.25 ?g Pb/ft2/hour. Conclusions Lead dust suppression is feasible and important in single-family housing demolition where distances between houses are smaller and community exposures are higher. Neighbor notification should be expanded to at least 400 feet away from single-family housing demolition, not just adjacent properties. Further research is needed on effects of distance, potential water contamination, occupational exposures, and water application. PMID:24179257

Cali, Salvatore; Welch, Alison; Catalin, Bogdan; Dixon, Sherry L.; Evens, Anne; Mucha, Amy P.; Vahl, Nicole; Erdal, Serap; Bartlett, John

2013-01-01

5

The contribution of lead-contaminated house dust and residential soil to children`s blood lead levels  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the US Congress passed the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act, which requires the promulgation of health-based dust lead and soil lead standards for residential dwellings to prevent undue lead exposure in children. Unfortunately, the levels of lead in house dust and soil that are associated with elevated blood lead levels among US children remain poorly defined. This pooled analysis was done to estimate the contributions of lead-contaminated house dust and soil to children`s blood lead levels. The results of this pooled analysis, the most comprehensive existing epidemiologic analysis of childhood lead exposure, confirm that lead-contaminated house dust is the major source of lead exposure for children. These analyses further demonstrate that a strong relationship between interior dust lead loading and children`s blood lead levels persists at dust lead levels considerably below the US Department of Housing and urban Development`s current post-abatement standards and the Environmental Protection Agency`s guidance levels. Finally, these analyses demonstrate that a child`s age, race, mouthing behaviors, and study-site specific factors influence the predicted blood lead level at a given level of exposure. These data can be used to estimate the potential health impact of alternative health-based lead standards for residential sources of lead exposure.

Lanphear, B.P. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Matte, T.D. [New York Academy of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Center for Urban Epidemiologic Studies] [New York Academy of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Center for Urban Epidemiologic Studies; Rogers, J. [Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others] [Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); and others

1998-10-01

6

A study of urban housing demolitions as sources of lead in ambient dust: demolition practices and exterior dust fall.  

PubMed Central

Demolition of older housing for urban redevelopment purposes benefits communities by removing housing with lead paint and dust hazards and by creating spaces for lead paint-free housing and other community resources. This study was conducted to assess changes, if any, in ambient dust lead levels associated with demolition of blocks of older lead-containing row houses in Baltimore, Maryland (USA). In this article we present results based on dust-fall samples collected from fixed locations within 10 m of three demolition sites. In subsequent reports we will describe dust lead changes on streets, sidewalks, and residential floors within 100 m of the demolition sites. Geometric mean (GM) lead dust-fall rate increased by > 40-fold during demolition to 410 micro g Pb/m2/hr (2,700 micro g Pb/m2 per typical work day) and by > 6-fold during debris removal to 61 micro g Pb/m2/hr (440 micro g Pb/m2 per typical work day). Lead concentrations in dust fall also increased during demolition (GM, 2,600 mg/kg) and debris removal (GM, 1,500 mg/kg) compared with baseline (GM, 950 mg/kg). In the absence of dust-fall standards, the results were compared with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) dust-lead surface loading standard for interior residential floors (40 micro g/ft2, equivalent to 431 micro g/m2); daily lead dust fall during demolition exceeded the U.S. EPA floor standard by 6-fold on average and as much as 81-fold on an individual sample basis. Dust fall is of public health concern because it settles on surfaces and becomes a pathway of ambient lead exposure and a potential pathway of residential exposure via tracking and blowing of exterior dust. The findings highlight the need to minimize demolition lead deposition and to educate urban planners, contractors, health agencies, and the public about lead and other community concerns so that society can maximize the benefits of future demolition activities nationwide. PMID:12842778

Farfel, Mark R; Orlova, Anna O; Lees, Peter S J; Rohde, Charles; Ashley, Peter J; Chisolm, J Julian

2003-01-01

7

A study of urban housing demolitions as sources of lead in ambient dust: demolition practices and exterior dust fall.  

PubMed

Demolition of older housing for urban redevelopment purposes benefits communities by removing housing with lead paint and dust hazards and by creating spaces for lead paint-free housing and other community resources. This study was conducted to assess changes, if any, in ambient dust lead levels associated with demolition of blocks of older lead-containing row houses in Baltimore, Maryland (USA). In this article we present results based on dust-fall samples collected from fixed locations within 10 m of three demolition sites. In subsequent reports we will describe dust lead changes on streets, sidewalks, and residential floors within 100 m of the demolition sites. Geometric mean (GM) lead dust-fall rate increased by > 40-fold during demolition to 410 micro g Pb/m2/hr (2,700 micro g Pb/m2 per typical work day) and by > 6-fold during debris removal to 61 micro g Pb/m2/hr (440 micro g Pb/m2 per typical work day). Lead concentrations in dust fall also increased during demolition (GM, 2,600 mg/kg) and debris removal (GM, 1,500 mg/kg) compared with baseline (GM, 950 mg/kg). In the absence of dust-fall standards, the results were compared with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) dust-lead surface loading standard for interior residential floors (40 micro g/ft2, equivalent to 431 micro g/m2); daily lead dust fall during demolition exceeded the U.S. EPA floor standard by 6-fold on average and as much as 81-fold on an individual sample basis. Dust fall is of public health concern because it settles on surfaces and becomes a pathway of ambient lead exposure and a potential pathway of residential exposure via tracking and blowing of exterior dust. The findings highlight the need to minimize demolition lead deposition and to educate urban planners, contractors, health agencies, and the public about lead and other community concerns so that society can maximize the benefits of future demolition activities nationwide. PMID:12842778

Farfel, Mark R; Orlova, Anna O; Lees, Peter S J; Rohde, Charles; Ashley, Peter J; Chisolm, J Julian

2003-07-01

8

Assessment of in vitro lead bioaccessibility in house dust and its relationship to in vivo lead relative bioavailability.  

PubMed

House dust samples containing 25-738 mg of Pb kg(-1) from 15 cities in China were assessed for in vitro Pb bioaccessibility and in vivo Pb relative bioavailability. On the basis of stable Pb isotope ratios, the Pb in dust samples mainly originated from coal combustion. Lead bioaccessibility was determined using gastric (GP) and intestinal phase (IP) of solubility bioaccessibility research consortium (SBRC), in vitro gastrointestinal (IVG), Deutsches Institut für Normunge.V. (DIN), and physiologically based extraction test methods (PBET), while Pb relative bioavailability (RBA) was determined using a mouse blood model. Lead bioaccessibility in 24 house dust samples varied significantly (23-99%) depending on the methods. Values from the IP were considerably lower than those from the GP because of the co-precipitation of Pb with iron and re-adsorption onto the dust matrix. The SBRC assay with lower GP pH produced higher Pb bioaccessibility because of enhanced Pb dissolution. When compared to mouse blood data using 12 dust samples (29-60%), SBRC-GP and DIN-GP data were correlated with Pb RBA with r(2) values of 0.68 and 0.85 and intercepts 3.15 and 17.4, respectively. Overall, SBRC-GP had potential to predict Pb RBA in dust samples. However, our data suggested that more research is needed to develop a valid in vitro method for predicting Pb RBA in house dust. PMID:24968149

Li, Hong-Bo; Cui, Xin-Yi; Li, Kan; Li, Jie; Juhasz, Albert L; Ma, Lena Q

2014-08-01

9

House dust as possible route of environmental exposure to cadmium and lead in the adult general population  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated soil particles and food are established routes of exposure. We investigated the relations between biomarkers of exposure to cadmium and lead, and the metal loading rates in house dust in the adult residents of an area with a soil cadmium concentration of >=3mg/kg (n=268) and a reference area (n=205). We determined the metal concentrations in house dust allowed to settle for 3 months in Petri dishes placed in the participants' bedrooms. The continuously distributed vegetable index was the first principal component derived from the metal concentrations in six different vegetables. The biomarkers of exposure (blood cadmium 9.2 vs. 6.2nmol/L; 24-h urinary cadmium 10.5 vs. 7.0nmol; blood lead 0.31 vs. 0.24{mu}mol/L), the loading rates of cadmium and lead in house dust (0.29 vs. 0.12 and 7.52 vs. 3.62ng/cm{sup 2}/92 days), and the vegetable indexes (0.31 vs. -0.44 and 0.13 vs. -0.29 standardized units) were significantly higher in the contaminated area. A two-fold increase in the metal loading rate in house dust was associated with increases (P<0.001) in blood cadmium (+2.3%), 24-h urinary cadmium (+3.0%), and blood lead (+2.0%), independent of the vegetable index and other covariates. The estimated effect sizes on the biomarkers of internal exposure were three times greater for house dust than vegetables. In conclusion, in the adult population, house dust is potentially an important route of exposure to heavy metals in areas with contaminated soils, and should be incorporated in the assessment of health risks.

Hogervorst, Janneke [Centrum voor Milieukunde, Limburgs Universitair Centrum, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Plusquin, Michelle [Studiecooerdinatiecentrum, Departement Hart-en Vaatziekten, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium); Vangronsveld, Jaco [Centrum voor Milieukunde, Limburgs Universitair Centrum, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Nawrot, Tim [Studiecooerdinatiecentrum, Departement Hart-en Vaatziekten, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium); Cuypers, Ann [Centrum voor Milieukunde, Limburgs Universitair Centrum, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Hecke, Etienne [Onderzoeksgroep voor Sociale en Economische Geografie, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium); Roels, Harry A. [Unite de Toxicologie Industrielle et de Medecine du Travail, Universite catholique de Louvain, Bruxelles (Belgium); Carleer, Robert [Centrum voor Milieukunde, Limburgs Universitair Centrum, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Staessen, Jan A. [Studiecooerdinatiecentrum, Departement Hart-en Vaatziekten, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)]. E-mail: jan.staessen@med.kuleuven.be

2007-01-15

10

Lead Speciation in Indoor Dust: A Case Study to Assess Old Paint Contribution in a Canadian Urban House  

SciTech Connect

Residents in older homes may experience increased lead (Pb) exposures due to release of lead from interior paints manufactured in past decades, especially pre-1960s. The objective of the study was to determine the speciation of Pb in settled dust from an urban home built during WWII. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on samples of paint (380-2,920 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) and dust (200-1,000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) collected prior to renovation. All dust samples exhibited a Pb XANES signature similar to that of Pb found in paint. Bulk XANES and micro-XRD identified Pb species commonly found as white paint pigments (Pb oxide, Pb sulfate, and Pb carbonate) as well as rutile, a titanium-based pigment, in the <150 m house dust samples. In the dust fraction <36 {mu}m, half of the Pb was associated with the Fe-oxyhydroxides, suggesting additional contribution of outdoor sources to Pb in the finer dust. These results confirm that old paints still contribute to Pb in the settled dust for this 65-year-old home. The Pb speciation also provided a clearer understanding of the Pb bioaccessibility: Pb carbonate > Pb oxide > Pb sulfate. This study underscores the importance of taking precautions to minimize exposures to Pb in house dust, especially in homes where old paint is exposed due to renovations or deterioration of painted surfaces.

S Beauchemin; L MacLean; P Rasmussen

2011-12-31

11

Lead speciation in indoor dust: a case study to assess old paint contribution in a Canadian urban house  

SciTech Connect

Residents in older homes may experience increased lead (Pb) exposures due to release of lead from interior paints manufactured in past decades, especially pre-1960s. The objective of the study was to determine the speciation of Pb in settled dust from an urban home built during WWII. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on samples of paint (380-2,920 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) and dust (200-1,000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) collected prior to renovation. All dust samples exhibited a Pb XANES signature similar to that of Pb found in paint. Bulk XANES and micro-XRD identified Pb species commonly found as white paint pigments (Pb oxide, Pb sulfate, and Pb carbonate) as well as rutile, a titanium-based pigment, in the <150 {micro}m house dust samples. In the dust fraction <36 {micro}m, half of the Pb was associated with the Fe-oxyhydroxides, suggesting additional contribution of outdoor sources to Pb in the finer dust. These results confirm that old paints still contribute to Pb in the settled dust for this 65-year-old home. The Pb speciation also provided a clearer understanding of the Pb bioaccessibility: Pb carbonate > Pb oxide > Pb sulfate. This study underscores the importance of taking precautions to minimize exposures to Pb in house dust, especially in homes where old paint is exposed due to renovations or deterioration of painted surfaces.

Beauchemin, Suzanne; MacLean, Lachlan C.W.; Rasmussen, Pat E. (Health Canada); (NRC)

2012-10-23

12

Garden soil and house dust as exposure media for lead uptake in the mining village of Stratoni, Greece.  

PubMed

The relationships between two exposure media, garden soil and house dust, were studied for Pb uptake in Stratoni village in northern Greece, an industrial area of mining and processing of sulphide ore. Lead data for the two media were assessed in terms of total and bioaccessible content, measurement and geochemical variability, and mineralogical composition. It was found that total Pb was enriched in house dust samples by a factor of 2 on average. Total Pb concentration in soil samples had a maximum of 2,040 mg/kg and reached a maximum of 7,000 mg/kg in house dust samples. The estimated variability due to measurement uncertainty was dominated by the sampling process, and the proportion of sampling variance was greater for soil samples, indicating a higher degree of Pb heterogeneity in soil on the given spatial scale of sampling strata. Although the same general spatial trend was observed for both sampling media with decreasing Pb concentration by increasing distance from the ore-processing plant, Pb in dust samples displayed the highest concentrations within a 300-600-m zone from the ore-processing facility. The significant differences which were observed in Pb speciation between the studied media were explained by differences in mineralogical composition of outdoor soil and indoor dust. Lead-enriched Fe and Mn oxides predominated in soil samples while fine galena grains (<10-20 ?m diameter) were the major Pb-bearing phase in dust samples. The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model was used to predict the risk of elevated blood lead levels in children of Stratoni. Model prediction indicated an average probability of 61 % for blood-Pb to exceed 10 ?g/dl. The results underline the importance of house dust in risk assessment and highlight the effect of outdoor and indoor conditions on the fate of Pb in the particular environment of Stratoni. PMID:24292695

Argyraki, Ariadne

2014-08-01

13

Factors affecting lead, cadmium, and arsenic levels in house dust in a smelter town in eastern Germany  

SciTech Connect

Hettstedt, a city in eastern Germany with a long history of mining and smelting of nonferrous ores, has several industrial sources of heavy metals. The indoor exposure to metals of children (5 to 14 years old) in the Hettstedt area was assessed by measuring the levels of lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in sedimented house dust. Factors which influence the dust loading rate and the surface loading rates of these contaminants in house dust were investigated. The geometric mean of the dust loading rate was 8.9 mg/m[sup 2] day. The geometric means of surface loading rates were 1.14, 0.024, and 0.023 [micro]g/m[sup 2] day for lead, cadmium, and arsenic, respectively. Factors that were significantly associated with surface loading rates included the city area of residence, automobile traffic near home, parent with occupational exposure to heavy metals, type of heating, housing characteristics, whether child's home is damp, number of persons living in the child's home,and parents' education. The most significant of these factors was the city area of residence, which reflects the distance from the metal sources; this factor accounted for about half of the variances explained by the regression models.

Meyer, I.; Heinrich, J. (GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie); Lippold, U. (Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene des Umweltbundesamtes Berlin (Germany))

1999-07-01

14

Lead Speciation in House Dust from Canadian Urban Homes Using EXAFS Micro-XRF and Micro-XRD  

SciTech Connect

X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, micro-X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF), and micro-X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD) were used to determine the speciation of Pb in house dust samples from four Canadian urban homes having elevated Pb concentrations (>1000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}). Linear combination fitting of the XAFS data, supported by {mu}XRF and {mu}XRD, shows that Pb is complexed in a variety of molecular environments, associated with both the inorganic and organic fractions of the dust samples. The inorganic species of lead identified were as follows: Pb metal, Pb carbonate, Pb hydroxyl carbonate, Pb oxide, and Pb adsorbed to iron oxyhydroxides. Pb carbonate and/or Pb hydroxyl carbonate occurred in all four dust samples and accounted for 28 to 75% of total Pb. Pb citrate and Pb bound to humate were the organic species identified. The results of this study demonstrate the ability of XAFS to identify Pb speciation in house dust and show the potential to identify Pb sources from new homes versus older homes. Understanding Pb speciation and how it influences bioaccessibility is important for human health risk assessment and risk management decisions which aim to improve indoor environmental health.

L MacLean; S Beauchemin; P Rasmussen

2011-12-31

15

Selecting a lead hazard control strategy based on dust lead loading and housing condition: II. Application of Housing Assessment Tool (HAT) modeling results.  

PubMed

In Part I in this issue, modeling was used to identify a Housing Assessment Tool (HAT) that can be used to predict relative intervention effectiveness for a range of intervention intensities and baseline dust lead loadings in occupied dwellings. The HAT predicts one year post-intervention floor and windowsill loadings and the probability that these loadings will exceed current federal lead hazard standards. This article illustrates the field application of the HAT, helping practitioners determine the minimum intervention intensity needed to reach "acceptable" one year post-intervention levels, with acceptability defined based on specific project needs, local needs, regulations, and resource constraints. The HAT is used to classify a dwelling's baseline condition as good or poor. If the average number of interior non-intact painted surfaces per room is >/=2, then the dwelling is rated as poor. If exterior windows/doors are deteriorated and the average number of exterior non-intact painted surfaces per building side is >/=5, then the dwelling is rated as poor. If neither of these conditions is true, then the dwelling's HAT rating is good. The HAT rating is then combined with baseline average floor loading to help select the treatment intensity. For example, if the baseline floor loading is 100 mug/ft(2) (1,075 mug/m(2) and the HAT rating is poor, the probability that the one-year floor loading exceeds the federal standard of 40 mug/ft(2) (430 mug/m(2) is 27% for a high-intensity strategy (i.e., window lead abatement with other treatments) but is 54% for a lower-intensity strategy (i.e., cleaning and spot painting). If the HAT rating is good, the probability that the one-year floor loading exceeds 40 mug/ft(2) is approximately the same for low- and high-intensity strategies (18% for window lead abatement with other treatments compared with 16% for cleaning and spot painting). Lead hazard control practitioners can use this information to make empirically based judgments about the treatment intensity needed to ensure that one year post-intervention loadings remain below federal standards. PMID:18569521

Breysse, Jill; Dixon, Sherry; Wilson, Jonathan; Kawecki, Carol; Green, Rodney; Phoenix, Janet; Galke, Warren; Clark, Scott

2008-08-01

16

Phthalates in house dust.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to generate a fast analytical method to determine the five phthalates benzylbutylphthalate (BBP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), di-isodecylphthalate (DIDP), and di-isononylphthalate (DINP) in house dust. To achieve this liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was used for measurement. The risk of lab- and cross-contamination was nearly eliminated completely as a very short and fast sample preparation including a sieving step and an ultrasonic extraction for the analytes from the dust samples was used. Quantification through internal standard calibration resulted in low limits of determination (DEHP 4 mg kg(-1) to DBP 14 mg kg(-1)). A potential interaction between the analytes DIDP and DINP during chromatographic measurement could be excluded while performing a two level factorial design. Furthermore it was examined to what extend carpet and plastic materials respectively have influence on the total amount of phthalates in dust. It could be shown that apartments in which a minimum of both of these sources appeared revealed the lowest total amount of sum of phthalates in dust (median 362 mg kg(-1)). PMID:19446334

Abb, M; Heinrich, T; Sorkau, E; Lorenz, W

2009-08-01

17

Lead and other elements in house dust of Japanese residences--source of lead and health risks due to metal exposure.  

PubMed

The levels of 25 elements in house dust collected from 100 general Japanese residences were measured. Factor analysis was applied on the multi-element data to explore source of Pb (median concentration 49.1 mg/kg) in house dust. Six factors were extracted and Pb was found to have great loading on the fifth factor with Sb and Sn, suggesting solder (Sn), and plastic and metals (Sb) may be the sources of Pb in the house dust of Japanese residences. No significant loading was found on soil-related factors indicating non-significant contribution of Pb in track-in soil. Seven heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn) were found in house dust at >10 times more condensed than crustal abundance. Health risk of these elements to children via the ingestion of house dust was estimated based on the comparison with tolerable daily intake and found to be non-significant for most of the elements. PMID:24682073

Yoshinaga, Jun; Yamasaki, Kumiko; Yonemura, Ayumi; Ishibashi, Yuri; Kaido, Takaya; Mizuno, Kodai; Takagi, Mai; Tanaka, Atsushi

2014-06-01

18

Allergies to House Dust Mites  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... reactions in some people. Pollen, house dust mites, mold, and animal dander are examples of allergens. In ... because it traps moisture and promotes mite and mold growth. Hardwood or linoleum floors are preferable for ...

19

Lead speciation in indoor dust: a case study to assess old paint contribution in a Canadian urban house  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residents in older homes may experience increased lead (Pb) exposures due to release of lead from interior paints manufactured\\u000a in past decades, especially pre-1960s. The objective of the study was to determine the speciation of Pb in settled dust from\\u000a an urban home built during WWII. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were\\u000a performed on samples

Suzanne BeaucheminLachlan; Lachlan C. W. MacLean; Pat E. Rasmussen

2011-01-01

20

CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN HOUSE DUST: OCCURRENCES AND SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead (Pb), and other metals accumulate in home soil and house dust. xposure of infants and toddlers to Pb by dust may be greater than other pathways. any pollutants found in carpet dust are protected from degradation and accum...

21

Source contributions of lead in residential floor dust and within-home variability of dust lead loading.  

PubMed

Evidence of the impact of exposure to low levels of lead on children's health is increasing. Residential floor dust is the assumed origin of lead exposure by young children. In this study, we estimate the contribution of different lead sources to household interior floor dust contamination. We also estimate the within-home variability of interior floor dust lead loadings. A multilevel model was developed based on data collected in a French survey in 2008-2009 (484 housing units, 1834 rooms). Missing data were handled by multiple imputation using chained equations. The intra-home correlation between interior floor Log dust lead loadings was approximately 0.6. Dust lead from the landing of an apartment, mostly originating outside the building, was the major contributor to interior floor dust lead. Secondary contributors included the lead-based paint on exterior railings, track-in of the exterior soil of the children's play area into the dwelling, smoking inside the home, demolition of nearby old buildings and sites of pollution in the vicinity. Interior lead-based paint contaminated interior floor dust only in old and non-renovated dwellings. To reduce interior floor dust lead levels in the general population of dwellings, common areas should be maintained, and track-in from the outside should be limited as much as possible. PMID:24184749

Lucas, Jean-Paul; Bellanger, Lise; Le Strat, Yann; Le Tertre, Alain; Glorennec, Philippe; Le Bot, Barbara; Etchevers, Anne; Mandin, Corinne; Sébille, Véronique

2014-02-01

22

A Comparison of the Lead Particle Content of Indoor Dust before and after a Lead Paint Abatement: A New Source of Lead Recontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lead particle content of floor dust in a housing unit scheduled for interior lead paint hazard removal was characterised microscopically to identify the contributing source(s) of the lead. It was hypothesised that elevated levels of lead in the dust resulted from the deterioration of the lead-based paint on the indoor surfaces. The question of lead particle source attribution was

A. Hunt; J. Hawkins; E. Gilligan; S. Bhatia

1998-01-01

23

Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds.  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the residential communities adjacent to the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds, the area considered Canada's worst contaminated site. The tar pond remediation policy has been limited to the site and some residential properties. We compared background concentrations in 91 soil samples taken 5-20 km from the coke oven site with those in soil samples from the three communities surrounding the tar ponds: Whitney Pier, Ashby, and North End. These surrounding communities were statistically different from background regarding arsenic, lead, and PAHs. Twenty percent of the background soil samples and 95% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian health-risk-based soil guidelines for arsenic (12 ppm), and 5% of the background samples and 80% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian guidelines for lead (140 ppm). Regarding dust lead and arsenic loading, the results provide no evidence that Whitney Pier is significantly different than Ashby and North End. Children in these communities are predicted to have a 1-15% chance of blood lead > 10 microg/dL. The results suggest that lead and arsenic found in the homes originate outside. The lead content of paint in the homes was not evaluated, but consideration of painted wood at the doorway did not confound the results of the study. The results indicate that the residential environment has been adversely affected by PAHs, lead, and arsenic and should be considered for remediation. PMID:14698928

Lambert, Timothy W; Lane, Stephanie

2004-01-01

24

Genotoxicity of Organic Extracts of House Dust from Shanxi, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor combustion of solid fuel such as coal may generate respirable particles containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that may adhere to settled dust. Dust might therefore present a major source of PAH exposure in humans. This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of PAH mixtures extracted from house dust samples. Four dust samples (E1–4) were collected from

Ziad Naufal; Guo-dong Zhou; Thomas McDonald; Zhiwen Li; Zhu Li; K. C. Donnelly

2007-01-01

25

The Melbourne House Dust Mite Study: Eliminating house dust mites in the domestic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hypersensitivity to house dust mite allergens is associated with increased asthma morbidity. Asthma severity appears to be related to the degree of mite allergen exposure. Short-term studies suggest that complete avoidance reduces disease severity. Objective: The study was designed to assess the effect of different mattress covers and floor coverings on mite allergen concentrations in the homes of mite-sensitive

David J. Hill; Philip J. Thompson; Geoffrey A. Stewart; John B. Carlin; Terence M. Nolan; Andrew S. Kemp; Clifford S. Hosking

1997-01-01

26

Determinants of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in house dust  

PubMed Central

Estimation of human exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often desired for the epidemiological studies of cancer. One way to obtain information about indoor levels of PAHs is to measure these chemicals in house dust. In this study, we evaluated the predictive value of self-reported and geographic data for estimating measured levels of nine PAHs in house dust from 583 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS). Using multivariable linear regression models, we evaluated the effects on house-dust PAH concentrations from the following covariates: residential heating sources, smoking habits, house characteristics, and outdoor emission sources. House dust was collected from 2001 to 2007, usingboth high-volume surface samplers and household vacuum cleaners, and was analyzed for nine PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All nine PAHs were detected in more than 93% of dust samples, with median concentrations ranging from 14 to 94 ng/g dust. Statistically significant effects on PAH concentrations in house dust were found for gas heating, outdoor PAH concentrations, and residence age. Yet, the optimal regression model only explained 15% of the variation in PAH levels in house dust. As self-reported data and outdoor PAH sources were only marginally predictive of observed PAH levels, we recommend that PAH concentrations be measured directly in dust samples for use in epidemiological studies. PMID:20040932

WHITEHEAD, TODD; METAYER, CATHERINE; GUNIER, ROBERT B.; WARD, MARY H.; NISHIOKA, MARCIA G.; BUFFLER, PATRICIA; RAPPAPORT, STEPHEN M.

2010-01-01

27

PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS IN ARCHIVED HOUSE-DUST SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Archived house-dust samples were analyzed for 13 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Results show that PFCs are found in house-dust samples, and the data are log-normally distributed. PFOS/PFOA were present in 94.6% and 96.4% of the samples respectively. Concentrations ranged fro...

28

House dust mite allergy: environment evaluation and disease prevention.  

PubMed

There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can be used to detect their presence, such as the use of floating methods, monoclonal antibodies, and nanostructured biosensor. SM could be identified in the storage room, mainly in contaminated food such as mushrooms and corn starch. In HDM-sensitive subjects and mice that were challenged with HDM or SM after sensitization, these mites could up-regulate IgE levels, T helper 2 associated cytokine production and airway hypersensitivity. Different age groups of subjects were sensitized by different species of mites. More subjects above 70 years were sensitized by SM and more subjects below the age of 40 years were sensitized to HDM. Different allergenic components of dust mite extracts, such as Der p 1, Der p 2, could activate innate immunity through activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and then lead to allergic inflammation. The best modality to treat HDM allergy is immunomodulation through Treg cells and IgA production. In the recent years, many studies indicated probiotics could increase IgA secretion and the number of Treg cells. However, some studies conducted in adults have contradictory effects in reducing allergic symptoms. Therefore, probiotics confer inconclusive benefits on the allergic symptoms. PMID:25379484

Yu, Sheng-Jie; Liao, En-Chih; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

2014-10-01

29

House dust mite allergy: environment evaluation and disease prevention  

PubMed Central

There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can be used to detect their presence, such as the use of floating methods, monoclonal antibodies, and nanostructured biosensor. SM could be identified in the storage room, mainly in contaminated food such as mushrooms and corn starch. In HDM-sensitive subjects and mice that were challenged with HDM or SM after sensitization, these mites could up-regulate IgE levels, T helper 2 associated cytokine production and airway hypersensitivity. Different age groups of subjects were sensitized by different species of mites. More subjects above 70 years were sensitized by SM and more subjects below the age of 40 years were sensitized to HDM. Different allergenic components of dust mite extracts, such as Der p 1, Der p 2, could activate innate immunity through activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and then lead to allergic inflammation. The best modality to treat HDM allergy is immunomodulation through Treg cells and IgA production. In the recent years, many studies indicated probiotics could increase IgA secretion and the number of Treg cells. However, some studies conducted in adults have contradictory effects in reducing allergic symptoms. Therefore, probiotics confer inconclusive benefits on the allergic symptoms. PMID:25379484

Yu, Sheng-Jie; Liao, En-Chih

2014-01-01

30

Distribution of inorganic elements of poultry house dust.  

PubMed

Distribution of inorganic elements was measured in poultry house dust from five types of poultry houses during either winter, spring, or summer. With varied environmental conditions at the time of sampling, the levels of calcium, sodium, iron, zinc, magnesium, and aluminum were higher than the other elements found in dust samples from the five types of poultry houses. The most abundant element in poultry house dust was calcium. The level of this element samples from the mechanically ventilated house used for research purposes corresponded closely to the level found in the feed fed at sampling time. High zinc levels in layer houses may be attributed to either the abrasive actions of feathers and feet of layers against the galvanized wire cages on the high zinc content in feathers. The ash content of dust from the five types of poultry houses ranged from .31 to 3.54%. Air particulate counts for particles ranging in size from .5 to 10 micro meter were much higher in the layer house used for commercial purposes (ranged from 34.9 to 66.3 X 10(6) /m3) than in the layer houses used for research purposes (ranged from 5.8 to 9.8 X 10(6)/m3) than the level during summer (66.3 X 10(6)/m3). The commercial broiler house was dustier than the commercial layer house during the summer. PMID:7322966

Nakaue, H S; Koelliker, J K; Buhler, D R; Arscott, G H

1981-07-01

31

POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HOUSE DUST AND CLOTHES DRYER LINT  

EPA Science Inventory

Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are now considered ubiquitous and persistent pollutants. Few studies have examined the concentrations of these chemicals in the home and here we report measurements of PBDEs in house dust samples collected from the Washington...

32

Residential dust lead loading immediately after intervention in the HUD lead hazard control grant program.  

PubMed

At the conclusion of most lead hazard control interventions in federally assisted housing built before 1978, a certified clearance examiner must verify that the lead hazard control work was completed as specified and that the area is safe for residents, a process referred to as clearance. This study explores the experience of 14 grantees participating in the Evaluation of the HUD Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Grant Program in passing clearance. The study also considers how preintervention lead levels (interior dust and paint), building condition/characteristics, and the scope of work influenced initial clearance dust lead loadings and clearance rates. At the initial clearance inspection, 80% of the 2682 dwellings achieved grantee-specific clearance standards on windowsills, window troughs (500 microg/ft2 and 800 microg/ft2, respectively), and floors (80, 100, or 200 microg/ft2 depending on state/local regulations at the dates of clearance in the mid-1990s), with individual grantee success rates ranging from 63 to 100%. Dwellings that failed initial clearance required an average of 1.13 retests to clear. The high level of success at clearance demonstrates that following methods for work site containment, lead hazard control, and cleaning similar to those recommended in the HUD Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint in Housing is effective. The most common lead hazard control intervention was window abatement accompanied by the repair or abatement of all other deteriorated lead-based paint (56% of dwellings). An additional 5% of dwellings were fully abated, 29% had lower intensity interventions. Interventions including window replacement are recommended to reduce dust lead loading on windowsills and troughs at clearance, but lower level interventions such as full paint stabilization are just as good at reducing floor dust lead loadings. Whatever lead hazard control activities are selected, the condition of the surfaces of interest should be in good condition at clearance. PMID:15673092

Dixon, Sherry L; Wilson, Jonathan W; Succop, Paul A; Chen, Mei; Galke, Warren A; Menrath, William; Clark, C Scott

2004-11-01

33

House dust in seven Danish offices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m 2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000-160.000 CFU g -1 microorganisms and 71.000-90.000 CFU g -1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65-123 CFU 30 g -1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06-7.24 EU g -1 (1.45 ng g -1 to 1.01 ng g -1). Allergens (ng g -1) were from 147-159 (Mite), 395-746 (dog) and 103-330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8-9.8 mg g -1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml -1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5-5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2-1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176-319 ?g g -1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001-1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m -3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26-0.75 mg m -3 in average contained 300-170 CFU m -3. The organic fraction was from 55-70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is estimated to be relatively low. The storage of the bulk dust during the experiment had little effect on the specific biological and chemical composition.

Mřlhave, L.; Schneider, T.; Kjćrgaard, S. K.; Larsen, L.; Norn, S.; Jřrgensen, O.

34

Aerial dust concentration in cage-housed, floor-housed, and aviary facilities for laying hens.  

PubMed

Agricultural workers, and pig and poultry farmers in particular, are exposed to airborne contaminants including organic dusts, gases, fungi, bacteria, and endotoxins that can have adverse effects on their respiratory health. To date, data comparing the aerial dust concentrations in the different hen-housing systems used by commercial poultry farmers are scarce. An epidemiological study was conducted in commercial housing facilities for laying hens, half of which were housed in a cage system without litter and the remaining half on an on-floor system with litter. The aims were to measure and compare the ambient dust concentrations in the different housing systems and identify any factors in building design and hen management that could influence the dust burden. An average concentration of respirable ambient dusts (?4 ?m) of 0.37 mg/m(3) (95% CI [0.31-0.42]) was measured in the on-floor system, and this value was higher than average values in the cage system {0.13 mg/m(3) (95% CI [0.11-0.14]) P = 0.01}. The highest dust concentration was observed in aviaries (1.19 mg/m(3) [0.80-1.59]). The type of housing and the presence of litter therefore had a preponderant effect on air quality. Dust concentrations in caged buildings were influenced by cage design and rearing practices, whereas litter management, the age of hens, and temperature control were determining factors for dust levels in on-floor houses. This study underlines the need for information and preventive measures to reduce the exposure of poultry workers to bioaerosols, particularly in alternative systems where high levels of ambient dust were observed. PMID:24135584

Le Bouquin, S; Huneau-Salaün, A; Huonnic, D; Balaine, L; Martin, S; Michel, V

2013-11-01

35

Enzymatic activity of allergenic house dust and storage mite extracts.  

PubMed

Proteases are involved in the pathogenicity of allergy, increasing epithelial permeability and acting as adjuvants. Enzymatic activity is therefore important for the allergenicity of an extract and also affects its stability and safety. However, the enzymatic activity of extracts is not usually evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of the most allergenic mite extracts and to investigate their allergenic properties. Extracts from nine allergenic mite species (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, Euroglyphus maynei, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Glycyphagus domesticus (DeGeer), Acarus siro L., Chortoglyphus arcuatus, and Blomia tropicalis) were characterized. Protein and allergen profiles were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western-blot, respectively. Gelatinolytic activity was evaluated with a zymogram and the activity of other enzymes (cysteine, serine proteases, and esterases) was evaluated individually or with the API-ZYM system. The main differences in protease activity were found between house dust mites and storage mites. House dust mites presented higher cysteine protease activity while storage mites presented higher serine protease activity. These differences are in line with their trophic specialization. A wide range of different activities was found in all the extracts analyzed, reflecting the fact that the extracts preserve the activity of many enzymes, this being necessary for a correct diagnosis. However, enzymes may act as adjuvants and, therefore, could lead to undesirable effects in immunotherapies, making this activity not suitable for treatment products. Modified extracts with lower enzymatic activity could be more appropriate for immunotherapy. PMID:23427664

Morales, Maria; Iraola, Víctor; Leonor, Jose R; Carnés, Jerónimo

2013-01-01

36

Characterization of Lipopolysaccharides Present in Settled House Dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFAs) in lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play an important role in determining endotoxin activity, and childhood exposure to endotoxin has recently been associated with reduced risk of atopic diseases. To characterize the 3-OHFAs in house dust (HD), we used gas chromatography-mass spec- trometry to assay 190 HD samples. Dust from beds, bedroom floors, family rooms, and kitchen floors

Ju-Hyeong Park; Bogumila Szponar; Lennart Larsson; Diane R. Gold; Donald K. Milton

2004-01-01

37

Zinc in house dust: speciation, bioaccessibility, and impact of humidity.  

PubMed

Indoor exposures to metals arise from a wide variety of indoor and outdoor sources. This study investigates the impact of humid indoor conditions on the bioaccessibility of Zn in dust, and the transformation of Zn species during weathering. House dust samples were subjected to an oxygenated, highly humid atmosphere in a closed chamber for 4 to 5 months. Zinc bioaccessibility before and after the experiment was determined using a simulated gastric acid extraction. Bulk and micro X-ray absorption structure (XAS) spectroscopy was used to speciate Zn in dust. Exposure to humid conditions led to a significant increase in Zn bioaccessibility in all samples, which was due to a redistribution of Zn from inorganic forms toward the organic pools such as Zn adsorbed on humates. ZnO readily dissolved under humid conditions, whereas ZnS persisted in the dust. Elevated humidity in indoor microenvironments may sustain higher Zn bioaccessibility in settled dust compared to drier conditions, and part of this change may be related to fungal growth in humid dust. These results help to explain the greater bioaccessibility of certain metals in house dust compared to soils. PMID:25041107

Beauchemin, Suzanne; Rasmussen, Pat E; MacKinnon, Ted; Chénier, Marc; Boros, Kristina

2014-08-19

38

House dust mite allergen levels in University student  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To quantify the levels of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p1) in different university student accommodation in Dunedin, and to assess relationships with housing characteristics and housekeeping practices. Methods Dwellings (n=178) were randomly selected from a database of first year university students in Dunedin. Dust samples were collected from both bed and the bedroom floor by standardised procedures. Der p1 levels

WM McRae; JO Cowan; GP Herbison; RW Siebers; J Crane; CS Wong

39

The mutagenic hazards of settled house dust: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the large proportion of time people spend indoors, the potential health risks posed by chemical contaminants in the indoor environment are of concern. Research suggests that settled house dust (SHD) may be a significant source for indoor exposure to hazardous substances including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Here, we summarize the literature on the mutagenic hazards of SHD and the

Rebecca M. Maertens; Jennifer Bailey; Paul A. White

2004-01-01

40

Estimating outdoor and indoor dust lead levels from accidental bridge repair containment releases  

SciTech Connect

A 1998 New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluated the proposed removal of deteriorated lead paint from NYCDOT-owned bridges. The EIS health risk assessment quantified the potential impact of particulate releases on blood lead levels among members of the public living and working near affected bridges. The risk assessment consisted of a fate and transport component and an exposure-dose component. The fate and transport component, modeled using the EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model, calculated the impact of paint removal activities on ambient air lead concentrations and dust lead deposition rates. The exposure-dose component, modeled using EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model, the Bowers et al. Adult Lead model, and the O'Flaherty lead model, calculated the impact of additional lead in air, street dust, interior house dust, and soil on blood lead levels, a conventional measure of body lead burden. The analysis was complicated because the ISC3 model provides a dust lead deposition rate ({micro}g/m{sup 2}-day), while the IEUBK, Bowers et al., and O'Flaherty models demand as input specification of dust lead concentrations ({micro}g lead per g dust). This paper describes a model developed for the EIS that quantifies long term average dust lead concentrations associated with typical bridge containment releases, and short term dust lead concentration spikes following worst case release events associated with bridge repair containment structure failures. The model reflects the influence of both lead and other debris associated with bridge repair activities, the contribution of background debris to street dust, and the impact of rainfall on removal of both lead and other material from the street dust reservoir.

Cohen, J.T.; Conway, R.F.

1999-07-01

41

Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels  

SciTech Connect

Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ?15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI ?0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=?0.003, 95% CI ?0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ?15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10 µg/dL. • High precision lead isotopic ratios in blood, house dust wipes, soil, water, paint. • Associations for isotopic measures of blood and dust, blood and soil, blood and paint. • Regressions gave significance for isotopic measures of blood/dust and dust/soil.

Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia) [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia) [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)] [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

2013-10-15

42

Innate Immune Responses in House Dust Mite Allergy  

PubMed Central

Sensitizations to house dust mites (HDM) trigger strong exacerbated allergen-induced inflammation of the skin and airways mucosa from atopic subjects resulting in atopic dermatitis as well as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Initially, the Th2-biased HDM allergic response was considered to be mediated only by allergen B- and T-cell epitopes to promote allergen-specific IgE production as well as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 to recruit inflammatory cells. But this general molecular model of HDM allergenicity must be revisited as a growing literature suggests that stimulations of innate immune activation pathways by HDM allergens offer new answers to the following question: what makes an HDM allergen an allergen? Indeed, HDM is a carrier not only for allergenic proteins but also microbial adjuvant compounds, both of which are able to stimulate innate signaling pathways leading to allergy. This paper will describe the multiple ways used by HDM allergens together with microbial compounds to control the initiation of the allergic response through engagement of innate immunity. PMID:23724247

Jacquet, Alain

2013-01-01

43

The prevalence of lead-based paint hazards in U.S. housing.  

PubMed Central

In this study we estimated the number of housing units in the United States with lead-based paint and lead-based paint hazards. We included measurements of lead in intact and deteriorated paint, interior dust, and bare soil. A nationally representative, random sample of 831 housing units was evaluated in a survey between 1998 and 2000; the units and their occupants did not differ significantly from nationwide characteristics. Results indicate that 38 million housing units had lead-based paint, down from the 1990 estimate of 64 million. Twenty-four million had significant lead-based paint hazards. Of those with hazards, 1.2 million units housed low-income families (< 30,000 US dollars/year) with children under 6 years of age. Although 17% of government-supported, low-income housing had hazards, 35% of all low-income housing had hazards. For households with incomes greater than or equal to 30,000 US dollars/year, 19% had hazards. Fourteen percent of all houses had significantly deteriorated lead-based paint, and 16% and 7%, respectively, had dust lead and soil lead levels above current standards of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The prevalence of lead-based paint and hazards increases with age of housing, but most painted surfaces, even in older housing, do not have lead-based paint. Between 2% and 25% of painted building components were coated with lead-based paint. Housing in the Northeast and Midwest had about twice the prevalence of hazards compared with housing in the South and West. The greatest risk occurs in older units with lead-based paint hazards that either will be or are currently occupied by families with children under 6 years of age and are low-income and/or are undergoing renovation or maintenance that disturbs lead-based paint. This study also confirms projections made in 2000 by the President's Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children of the number of houses with lead-based paint hazards. Public- and private-sector resources should be directed to units posing the greatest risk if future lead poisoning is to be prevented. PMID:12361941

Jacobs, David E; Clickner, Robert P; Zhou, Joey Y; Viet, Susan M; Marker, David A; Rogers, John W; Zeldin, Darryl C; Broene, Pamela; Friedman, Warren

2002-01-01

44

Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men  

PubMed Central

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octaand deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. PMID:23333513

Johnson, Paula I.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Hauser, Russ; Meeker, John D.

2013-01-01

45

Application of Synchrotron Microprobe Methods to Solid-Phase Speciation of Metals and Metalloids in House Dust  

SciTech Connect

Determination of the source and form of metals in house dust is important to those working to understand human and particularly childhood exposure to metals in residential environments. We report the development of a synchrotron microprobe technique for characterization of multiple metal hosts in house dust. We have applied X-ray fluorescence for chemical characterization and X-ray diffraction for crystal structure identification using microfocused synchrotron X-rays at a less than 10 {micro}m spot size. The technique has been evaluated by application to archived house dust samples containing elevated concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Ba in bedroom dust, and Pb and As in living room dust. The technique was also applied to a sample of soil from the corresponding garden to identify linkages between indoor and outdoor sources of metals. Paint pigments including white lead (hydrocerussite) and lithopone (wurtzite and barite) are the primary source of Pb, Zn, and Ba in bedroom dust, probably related to renovation activity in the home at the time of sampling. The much lower Pb content in the living room dust shows a relationship to the exterior soil and no specific evidence of Pb and Zn from the bedroom paint pigments. The technique was also successful at confirming the presence of chromated copper arsenate treated wood as a source of As in the living room dust. The results of the study have confirmed the utility of this approach in identifying specific metal forms within the dust.

S Walker; H Jamieson; P Rasmussen

2011-12-31

46

Flame retardant associations between children's handwipes and house dust.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), flame retardants (FRs) have been ubiquitously detected at high concentrations in indoor environments; however, with their recent phase-out, more attention is being focused on measurements of exposure to alternative FRs such as organophosphate FRs (OPFRs). In our previous research, we found that PBDE residues measured on children's handwipes were a strong predictor of serum PBDE levels. Here we build upon this research to examine longitudinal changes in PBDEs in indoor dust and children's handwipes, and explore the associations between handwipes and dust for alternative FRs. Children from our previous study were re-contacted after approximately two years and new samples of indoor dust and handwipes were collected. PBDE dust-levels were significantly correlated between two different sampling rounds separated by two years; however, PBDE levels in handwipes were not correlated, perhaps suggesting that the sources of PBDEs remained relatively constant in the home, but that behavioral differences in children are changing with age and influencing handwipe levels. OPFRs [i.e. tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP)], 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB, also known as TBB), di(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP, also known as TBPH), and 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were also ubiquitously detected in house dust samples and geometric mean levels were similar to PBDE levels, or higher in the case of the OPFRs. Significant associations between handwipes and house dust were observed for these alternative FRs, particularly for EH-TBB (rs=0.54; p<0.001). Increasing house dust levels and age were associated with higher levels of FRs in handwipes, and high hand washing frequency (>5 times d(-1)) was associated with lower FR levels in handwipes. Overall these data suggest that exposure to these alternative FRs will be similar to PBDE exposure, and the influence of hand-to-mouth behavior in children's exposure needs to be further examined to better estimate exposure potential. PMID:24485814

Stapleton, Heather M; Misenheimer, John; Hoffman, Kate; Webster, Thomas F

2014-12-01

47

An aerobiological perspective of dust in cage-housed and floor-housed poultry operations  

PubMed Central

The Canadian poultry production industry contributes nearly $10 billion to the Canadian economy and employs nearly 50,000 workers. However, modern poultry facilities are highly contaminated with airborne dust. Although there are many bioaerosols in the poultry barn environment, endotoxin is typically attributed with the negative respiratory symptoms observed in workers. These adverse respiratory symptoms have a higher prevalence in poultry workers compared to workers from other animal confinement buildings. Workers in cage-housed operations compared to floor-housed facilities report a higher prevalence of some respiratory symptoms. We review the current state of knowledge on airborne dust in poultry barns and respiratory dysfunction in poultry workers while highlighting the areas that need further investigation. Our review focuses on the aerobiological pathway of poultry dust including the source and aerosolization of dust and worker exposure and response. Further understanding of the source and aerosolization of dust in poultry operations will aid in the development of management practices to reduce worker exposure and response. PMID:19515256

Just, Natasha; Duchaine, Caroline; Singh, Baljit

2009-01-01

48

MITE ANTIGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN HOUSE DUST AND THE OCCURRENCE OF WHEEZING IN CHILDREN WITH MITE DUST ALLERGY  

EPA Science Inventory

We studied the relationship between dust mite antigen concentrations in house dust samples and the occurrence and frequency of wheezing in 58 children with dust mite allergy (wheal > 4 mm. mean diameter in response to a prick test with either D-. farinae or D pteronyssinus antige...

49

Present situation of house dust mites in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

House dust mites are common inhalant allergens, which can precipitate atopic disease episodes. The present study revealed presence of four mites. These are Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, Acheles gracilis and Ornithonyssus bacoti. Population densities of different live adult mites were investigated in different house habitats. In urban houses, pyroglyphid mites were the predominant in bedrooms and D. farinae was the most abundant. A. gracilis was more abundant in living rooms followed by D. farinae then D. pteronyssinus. A. gracilis was the most prevalent in kitchens. While in rural houses, O. bacoti was the most abundant species followed by pyroglyphid mites. Since Dermatophagoides species and A. gracilis were present in numbers high enough to allow their ecological consideration, their seasonal abundance in urban bed-rooms was investigated and revealed that both D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus have two peaks of abundance, one slightly higher in spring and the second in autumn. A. gracilis has two peaks but the higher occurred in autumn and the second in spring. PMID:16605105

El-Shazly, Atef M; El-Beshbishi, Samar N; Azab, Manar S; El-Nahas, Hala A; Soliman, Mohamed E; Fouad, Mahmoud A H; Monib, Mohammad El-Salahy M M

2006-04-01

50

Achieving dust lead clearance standards after lead hazard control projects: An evaluation of the HUD-recommended cleaning procedure and an abbreviated alternative  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD's) Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing strongly recommend that after lead hazard control interventions all walls, ceiling, floors, and other horizontal surfaces be cleaned using a three-step process to reduce lead-contaminated dust and debris. The three steps are: an initial vacuuming using a machine equipped with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter (HEPA vacuum), wet wash with a lead cleaner, and a final HEPA vacuum. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two cleaning protocols: (1) the HUD-recommended three-step procedure, and (2) an abbreviated two-step cleaning procedure that omits the final HEPA vacuum. Cleaning procedures were evaluated in 27 dwelling units that had undergone significant lead hazard control interventions likely to produce lead dust. Dust lead samples were collected on floors and in window sills and troughs prior to the lead control hazard intervention, after the wet wash step of the cleaning procedure, and after completion of the second HEPA vacuuming. The results of the study demonstrate that dust lead surface loading on smooth and cleanable surfaces following the three-step and two-step cleaning procedures can achieve 1995 federal guidance dust clearance levels and levels substantially lower. Although the dust lead clearance rates before and after the second HEPA vacuum were the same, the time saved by omitting the second HEPA is small relative to the other elements of the cleaning process.

Dixon, S. (National Center for Lead-Safe Housing, Columbia, MD (United States)); Tohn, E. (ERT Associates, Montpelier, VT (United States)); Rupp, R. (Vermont Housing and Conservation Board, Chevy Chase, MD (United States)); Clark, S. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health)

1999-05-01

51

A NEW HOUSE DUST COLLECTION SYSTEM AND ITS USE IN A STUDY OF ASTHMA IN DUST MITE SENSITIVE CHILDREN IN RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA  

EPA Science Inventory

A prototype dust collection system, the House Dust Vacuum One (HDVI), was designed for use in a study to investigate the relationship between house dust mite antigen levels and the presence of asthma in dust mite sensitive children. The HDVI was designed for the collection of dus...

52

A User Manual Utah's Leading Advocate For Quality Rental Housing  

E-print Network

A User Manual Utah's Leading Advocate For Quality Rental Housing 448 East 6400 South Suite 460 Murray , Utah 84107 801-506-0204 Fax 801-484-8649 www.uaahq.org #12;#12;Without quality rental housing the economy of Utah would not be able to grow and there would not be as many options for people to live

Hart, Gus

53

Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around the world  

E-print Network

of a worldwide survey of the indoor mycobiota, dust was collected from nine countries. Analyses of dust samplesAspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around serve as alternative identification markers. Key words: Environmental metagenomics, Indoor moulds

Amend, Anthony S.

54

35. BOILER HOUSE, TRACK FOR COAL CARS LEADING TO COAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. BOILER HOUSE, TRACK FOR COAL CARS LEADING TO COAL TOWER No. 2 (NOTE: SKYLIGHT ABOVE; COAL CARS IN FAR BACKGROUND) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

55

39. BOILER HOUSE, COAL CONVEYOR LEADING FROM COAL TOWER No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. BOILER HOUSE, COAL CONVEYOR LEADING FROM COAL TOWER No. 1 (WEST) (NOTE: COAL CARS No. 9 & 5 IN BACKGROUND) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

56

Characterization of Brominated Flame Retardants in House Dust and Their Role as Non-Dietary Source for Human in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study determined the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and compared them with the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in house dust and other environmental media from Indonesia, aiming at characterization of these compounds in house dust and the role of house dust as a human non-dietary exposure. PBDEs and HBCDs were detected in all

Agus SUDARYANTO; Tomohiko ISOBE; Go SUZUKI; Iwan Eka SETIAWAN; Muhammad ILYAS; Adi Slamet RIYADI; Shin TAKAHASHI; Shinsuke TANABE

57

Impact of soil and dust lead on children's blood lead on Children's blood lead in contaminated areas of Sweden  

SciTech Connect

The impact of lead in soil and dust on blood lead concentrations in young children and the risk of health effects were investigated in an urban and a mining areas of Sweden. Blood, soil, and indoor dust, as well as information on lead-exposure factors, were collected. The blood lead concentrations (total range = 9--77 {micro}g/l) the authors measured indicated a low risk for lead-induced health effects. Lead in soil and in dust had little effect on blood lead concentrations, given the present conditions and present concentration range--especially in the mining area. Urban children had significantly higher blood lead concentrations that children in the mining area, despite higher concentrations of lead in soil in the mining area. In the urban children, blood lead concentrations were influenced by parental smoking and lead in dust at day-care centers.

Berglund, M.; Lind, B.; Soerensen, S.; Vahter, M.

2000-04-01

58

Polychlorinated biphenyls in house dust and yard soil near a Superfund site  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust and yard soil at 34 homes surrounding New Bedford Harbor during dredging of highly contaminated harbor sediments. PCBs can volatilize from sediments and seawater and subsequently deposit on surrounding soil, resulting in potential exposures for nearby residents. House dust was collected from carpet, while yard soil was collected from the main entryway to evaluate whether PCBs might be tracked indoors. All samples were analyzed for 65 PCB congeners to evaluate the relative importance of the harbor and indoor sources for human exposure. PCB concentrations in house dust were about 10 times higher than yard soil concentrations, although similar congener patterns were detected in these two media. Yard soil concentrations in neighborhoods closest to the harbor were significantly higher than those in comparison neighborhoods, while house dust concentrations did not different significantly between these two locales, PCB concentrations in house dust were correlated with those in indoor air, but house dust and yard soil concentrations were not correlated, suggesting that track-in may not be the only source of PCBs in house dust.

Vorhees, D.J.; Altshul, L.M. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)] [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Cullen, A.C. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)] [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1999-07-01

59

Lead Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... to lead: through deteriorating paint, household dust, bare soil, air, drinking water, food, ceramics, home remedies, hair ... can contaminate household dust as well as bare soil around the house, where children may play. In ...

60

CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS  

EPA Science Inventory

In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

61

DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC LAWN- APPLIED PESTICIDES IN HOUSE DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Many pesticides have been developed for residential outdoor application, particularly for lawn care. Residues from these applications may be tracked into the home, where they become incorporated with house dust and persist for long periods of time. Consequently, potential human...

62

METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND OTHER SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN HOUSE DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Analytical methods were validated to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other semivolatile organic compounds in house dust. e also examined the storage stability of three potential markers (solanesol, nicotine, and continine) for particulate-phase environmental ...

63

Prevention of House Dust Mite Induced Allergic Airways Disease in Mice through Immune Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Allergic airways disease is a consequence of a Th2 response to an allergen leading to a series of manifestations such as production of allergen-specific IgE, inflammatory infiltrates in the airways, and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR). Several strategies have been reported for tolerance induction to allergens leading to protection from allergic airways disease. We now show that CD4 blockade at the time of house dust mite sensitization induces antigen-specific tolerance in mice. Tolerance induction is robust enough to be effective in pre-sensitized animals, even in those where AHR was pre-established. Tolerant mice are protected from airways eosinophilia, Th2 lung infiltration, and AHR. Furthermore, anti-CD4 treated mice remain immune competent to mount immune responses, including Th2, to unrelated antigens. Our findings, therefore, describe a strategy for tolerance induction potentially applicable to other immunogenic proteins besides allergens. PMID:21818308

Agua-Doce, Ana; Graca, Luis

2011-01-01

64

DISTRIBUTION OF PESTICIDES AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN HOUSE DUST AS A FUNCTION OF PARTICLE SIZE  

EPA Science Inventory

House dust is a repository for environmental pollutants that may accumulate indoors from both internal and external sources over long periods of time. Dust and tracked-in soil accumulate most efficiently in carpets, and the pollutants associated with it may present an exposure...

65

Occurrence of Respiratory Symptoms Resulting from Exposure to House Dust Mites in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of house dust mite (HDM) allergens within homes of three-year-old children, to identify factors responsible for its variation and to test the hypothesis whether the content of HDM allergens exceeding 2 [mu]g/g dust may be regarded as a risk level of sensitization possibly affecting respiratory…

Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Zembala, Marek; Hajto, Barbara; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata; Perera, Frederica P.

2009-01-01

66

Achieving dust lead clearance standards after lead hazard control projects: an evaluation of the HUD-recommended cleaning procedure and an abbreviated alternative.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD's) Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing strongly recommend that after lead hazard control interventions all walls, ceilings, floors, and other horizontal surfaces be cleaned using a three-step process to reduce lead-contaminated dust and debris. The three steps are: an initial vacuuming using a machine equipped with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter (HEPA vacuum), wet wash with a lead cleaner, and a final HEPA vacuum. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two cleaning protocols: (1) the HUD-recommended three-step procedure, and (2) an abbreviated two-step cleaning procedure that omits the final HEPA vacuum. Cleaning procedures were evaluated in 27 dwelling units that had undergone significant lead hazard control interventions likely to produce lead dust. Dust lead samples were collected on floors and in window sills and troughs prior to the lead control hazard intervention, after the wet wash step of the cleaning procedure, and after completion of the second HEPA vacuuming. The results of the study demonstrate that dust lead surface loading on smooth and cleanable surfaces following the three-step and two-step cleaning procedures can achieve 1995 federal guidance dust clearance levels and levels substantially lower. Although the dust lead clearance rates before and after the second HEPA vacuum were the same, the time saved by omitting the second HEPA is small relative to the other elements of the cleaning process. PMID:10446486

Dixon, S; Tohn, E; Rupp, R; Clark, S

1999-05-01

67

Lead in residential soil and dust in a mining and smelting district in northern Armenia: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This pilot study of sources of lead exposure in residential settings was conducted in a mining and smelting district in northern Armenia. Samples of exterior soil and dust and interior house dust were collected in and around apartment buildings in Alaverdi where the country's largest polymetallic smelter is located, and in nearby mining towns of Aghtala and Shamlugh. The NITON XL-723 Multi-Element XRF analyzer was used for lead testing. Lead levels in samples from Alaverdi were higher than those in Shamlugh and Aghtala. In all three towns, the highest lead levels were found in loose exterior dust samples, and lead concentrations in yard soil were higher than those in garden soil. Many soil samples (34%) and the majority of loose dust samples (77%) in Alaverdi exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency standard of 400 mg/kg for bare soil in children's play areas. In addition, 36% of floor dust samples from apartments in Alaverdi exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency standard of 40 microg/ft(2) for lead loading in residential floor dust. The Armenian Ministry of Health and other interested agencies are being informed about the findings of the study so that they can consider and develop educational and preventive programs including blood lead screening among sensitive populations. PMID:15016598

Petrosyan, Varduhi; Orlova, Anna; Dunlap, Charles E; Babayan, Emil; Farfel, Mark; Von Braun, Margrit

2004-03-01

68

Removal of lead contaminated dusts from hard surfaces.  

PubMed

Government guidelines have widely recommended trisodium phosphate (TSP) or "lead-specific" cleaning detergents for removal of lead-contaminated dust (LCD) from hard surfaces, such as floors and window areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if low-phosphate, non-lead-specific cleaners could be used to efficiently remove LCD from 3 types of surfaces (vinyl flooring, wood, and wallpaper). Laboratory methods were developed and validated for simulating the doping, embedding, and sponge cleaning of the 3 surface types with 4 categories of cleaners: lead-specific detergents, nonionic cleaners, anionic cleaners, and trisodium phosphate (TSP). Vinyl flooring and wood were worn using artificial means. Materials were ashed, followed by ultrasound extraction, and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). One-way analysis of variance approach was used to evaluate the surface and detergent effects. Surface type was found to be a significant factor in removal of lead (p < 0.001). Vinyl flooring cleaned better than wallpaper by over 14% and wood cleaned better than wallpaper by 13%. There was no difference between the cleaning action of vinyl flooring and wood. No evidence was found to support the use of TSP or lead-specific detergents over all-purpose cleaning detergents for removal of lead-contaminated dusts. No-phosphate, non-lead-specific detergents are effective in sponge cleaning of lead-contaminated hard surfaces and childhood lead prevention programs should consider recommending all-purpose household detergents for removal of lead-contaminated dust after appropriate vacuuming. PMID:16468407

Lewis, Roger D; Condoor, Sridhar; Batek, Joe; Ong, Kee Hean; Backer, Denis; Sterling, David; Siria, Jeff; Chen, John J; Ashley, Peter

2006-01-15

69

Application of neutral electrolyzed water spray for reducing dust levels in a layer breeding house.  

PubMed

Reducing airborne dust is an essential process for improving hen housing environment. Dust reduction effects of neutral electrolyzed water (pH 8.2) spray were investigated in a commercial tunnel-ventilated layer breeding house during production in northern China. A multipoint sampler was used to measure airborne dust concentration to study the dust reduction effects and distribution in the house. Compared with the control treatment (without spray), airborne dust level was reduced 34% in the 3 hr after spraying 216 mL m(-2) neutral electrolyzed water in the breeding house. The dust concentration was significantly higher during the periods of feed distribution (1.13 +/- 0.13 mg m(-3)) and artificial insemination (0.72 +/- 0.13 mg m(-3)) compared with after spray (0.47 +/- 0.09 mg m(-3)) and during lights-off period (0.29 +/- 0.08 mg m(-3)) in the three consecutive testing days (P <0.05). The experimental cage area was divided into four zones along the length of the house, with zone 1 nearest to the evaporative cooling pad and zone 4 nearest to the fans. The air temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, and dust concentration were measured at the sampling points of the four zones in 3 consecutive days and mortality of the birds for the duration of a month were investigated. The results showed that the air temperature, airflow rate, dust concentration, and number of dead birds increase from zone 1 to zone 4 in the tunnel-ventilated layer breeding house. PMID:23210224

Zheng, Weichao; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yang, Zhanyong

2012-11-01

70

Rhinovirus exacerbates house-dust-mite induced lung disease in adult mice.  

PubMed

Human rhinovirus is a key viral trigger for asthma exacerbations. To date, murine studies investigating rhinovirus-induced exacerbation of allergic airways disease have employed systemic sensitisation/intranasal challenge with ovalbumin. In this study, we combined human-rhinovirus infection with a clinically relevant mouse model of aero-allergen exposure using house-dust-mite in an attempt to more accurately understand the links between human-rhinovirus infection and exacerbations of asthma. Adult BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to low-dose house-dust-mite (or vehicle) daily for 10 days. On day 9, mice were inoculated with human-rhinovirus-1B (or UV-inactivated human-rhinovirus-1B). Forty-eight hours after inoculation, we assessed bronchoalveolar cellular inflammation, levels of relevant cytokines/serum antibodies, lung function and responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. House-dust-mite exposure did not result in a classical TH2-driven response, but was more representative of noneosinophilic asthma. However, there were significant effects of house-dust-mite exposure on most of the parameters measured including increased cellular inflammation (primarily macrophages and neutrophils), increased total IgE and house-dust-mite-specific IgG1 and increased responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. There were limited effects of human-rhinovirus-1B infection alone, and the combination of the two insults resulted in additive increases in neutrophil levels and lung parenchymal responses to methacholine (tissue elastance). We conclude that acute rhinovirus infection exacerbates house-dust-mite-induced lung disease in adult mice. The similarity of our results using the naturally occurring allergen house-dust-mite, to previous studies using ovalbumin, suggests that the exacerbation of allergic airways disease by rhinovirus infection could act via multiple or conserved mechanisms. PMID:24632596

Phan, Jennifer A; Kicic, Anthony; Berry, Luke J; Fernandes, Lynette B; Zosky, Graeme R; Sly, Peter D; Larcombe, Alexander N

2014-01-01

71

Rhinovirus Exacerbates House-Dust-Mite Induced Lung Disease in Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

Human rhinovirus is a key viral trigger for asthma exacerbations. To date, murine studies investigating rhinovirus-induced exacerbation of allergic airways disease have employed systemic sensitisation/intranasal challenge with ovalbumin. In this study, we combined human-rhinovirus infection with a clinically relevant mouse model of aero-allergen exposure using house-dust-mite in an attempt to more accurately understand the links between human-rhinovirus infection and exacerbations of asthma. Adult BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to low-dose house-dust-mite (or vehicle) daily for 10 days. On day 9, mice were inoculated with human-rhinovirus-1B (or UV-inactivated human-rhinovirus-1B). Forty-eight hours after inoculation, we assessed bronchoalveolar cellular inflammation, levels of relevant cytokines/serum antibodies, lung function and responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. House-dust-mite exposure did not result in a classical TH2-driven response, but was more representative of noneosinophilic asthma. However, there were significant effects of house-dust-mite exposure on most of the parameters measured including increased cellular inflammation (primarily macrophages and neutrophils), increased total IgE and house-dust-mite-specific IgG1 and increased responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. There were limited effects of human-rhinovirus-1B infection alone, and the combination of the two insults resulted in additive increases in neutrophil levels and lung parenchymal responses to methacholine (tissue elastance). We conclude that acute rhinovirus infection exacerbates house-dust-mite-induced lung disease in adult mice. The similarity of our results using the naturally occurring allergen house-dust-mite, to previous studies using ovalbumin, suggests that the exacerbation of allergic airways disease by rhinovirus infection could act via multiple or conserved mechanisms. PMID:24632596

Phan, Jennifer A.; Kicic, Anthony; Berry, Luke J.; Fernandes, Lynette B.; Zosky, Graeme R.; Sly, Peter D.; Larcombe, Alexander N.

2014-01-01

72

Effectiveness of lead-hazard control interventions on dust lead loadings: findings from the evaluation of the HUD Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Grant Program.  

PubMed

From 1994 to 1999, the Evaluation of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Grant Program studied the intervention experiences of over 2800 homes in 11 states in the USA. Each interior intervention was categorized as (in order of increasing intensity) (a) cleaning/spot painting; (b) complete repainting; (c) complete repainting plus window treatments; (d) window abatement plus treatments to other components; (e) abatement of all lead-based paint hazards; or (f) abatement of all lead-based paint. Complete dust testing and environmental data were available for 1034 and 278 dwellings through 12 and 36 months postintervention, respectively. Strategies ranging from complete repainting to window abatement plus other treatments reduced geometric mean preintervention windowsill and floor dust lead loadings up to 36 months postintervention (reductions for complete repainting, from 16 to 5 microg/ft2 on floors and 182 to 88 microg/ft2 on sills; for window abatement plus other treatments, 27-8 microg/ft2 on floors and 570-124 microg/ft2 on sills). Full abatement reduced windowsill and floor loadings from baseline to 12 months postintervention [95-6 microg/ft2 on floors and 518-30 microg/ft2 on sills (data were not available for this strategy at 36 months)]. Window lead-hazard abatement was the most effective measure to reduce dust lead loadings on windows, but this treatment would need to be performed in conjunction with treatments to floors as well as exterior and soil treatments for the most effective control of dust lead on floors. PMID:15910785

Dixon, Sherry L; Wilson, Jonathan W; Scott Clark, C; Galke, Warren A; Succop, Paul A; Chen, Mei

2005-07-01

73

Relationships between Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in House Dust and Serum  

PubMed Central

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been measured in the home environment and in humans, but studies linking environmental levels to body burdens are limited. This study examines the relationship between PBDE concentrations in house dust and serum from adults residing in these homes. We measured PBDE concentrations in house dust from 50 homes and in serum of male-female couples from 12 of the homes. Detection rates, dust-serum and within-matrix correlations varied by PBDE congener. There was a strong correlation (r = 0.65–0.89, p < 0.05) between dust and serum concentrations of several predominant PBDE congeners (BDE 47, 99 and 100). Dust and serum levels of BDE 153 were not correlated (r < 0.01). The correlation of dust and serum levels of BDE 209 could not be evaluated due to low detection rates of BDE 209 in serum. Serum concentrations of the sum of BDE 47, 99, and 100 were also strongly correlated within couples (r = 0.85, p = 0.0005). This study provides evidence that house dust is a primary exposure pathway of PBDEs and supports the use of dust PBDE concentrations as a marker for exposure to PBDE congeners other than BDE 153. PMID:20521814

Johnson, Paula I.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Sjodin, Andreas; Meeker, John D.

2010-01-01

74

Do new wipe materials outperform traditional lead dust cleaning methods?  

PubMed

Government guidelines have traditionally recommended the use of wet mopping, sponging, or vacuuming for removal of lead-contaminated dust from hard surfaces in homes. The emergence of new technologies, such as the electrostatic dry cloth and wet disposable clothes used on mopheads, for removal of dust provides an opportunity to evaluate their ability to remove lead compared with more established methods. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative differences exist between two new and two older methods for removal of lead-contaminated dust (LCD) from three wood surfaces that were characterized by different roughness or texture. Standard leaded dust, <75 ?m, was deposited by gravity onto the wood specimens. Specimens were cleaned using an automated device. Electrostatic dry cloths (dry Swiffer), wet Swiffer cloths, paper shop towels with non-ionic detergent, and vacuuming were used for cleaning LCD from the specimens. Lead analysis was by anodic stripping voltammetry. After the cleaning study was conducted, a study of the coefficient of friction was performed for each wipe material. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the surface and cleaning methods. There were significant interactions between cleaning method and surface types, p = 0.007. Cleaning method was found be a significant factor in removal of lead, p <0.001, indicating that effectiveness of each cleaning methods is different. However, cleaning was not affected by types of surfaces. The coefficient of friction, significantly different among the three wipes, is likely to influence the cleaning action. Cleaning method appears to be more important than texture in LCD removal from hard surfaces. There are some small but important factors in cleaning LCD from hard surfaces, including the limits of a Swiffer mop to conform to curved surfaces and the efficiency of the wetted shop towel and vacuuming for cleaning all surface textures. The mean percentage reduction in lead dust achieved by the traditional methods (vacuuming and wet wiping) was greater and more consistent compared to the new methods (electrostatic dry cloth and wet Swiffer mop). Vacuuming and wet wiping achieved lead reductions of 92% ± 4% and 91%, ± 4%, respectively, while the electrostatic dry cloth and wet Swiffer mops achieved lead reductions of only 89 ± 8% and  81 ± 17%, respectively. PMID:22746281

Lewis, Roger D; Ong, Kee Hean; Emo, Brett; Kennedy, Jason; Brown, Christopher A; Condoor, Sridhar; Thummalakunta, Laxmi

2012-01-01

75

Common antigenic determinants in extracts of house dust and dermatophagoides species  

PubMed Central

Antisera were prepared in rabbits by injection in Freund's adjuvant of extracts from a number of species of mite. Antigenic relationships were examined by geldiffusion precipitation tests. At least one, and probably two antigens were found to be common to the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and the related species Dermatophagoidesfarinae. These antigens were not detected in mites of the three other genera examined. The presence of common antigens to Dermatophagoides species would explain the high sensitivity to Dermatophagoides farinae reported among individuals sensitive to house dust. During the examination of four antisera to house dust made in rabbits, one was found to contain a precipitin to Dermatophagoides spp. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4097808

Dasgupta, A.; Cunliffe, A. C.

1970-01-01

76

Elemental composition of airborne dust in the Shale Shaker House during an offshore drilling operation.  

PubMed

During 2 days of an offshore drilling operation in the North Sea, 16 airborne dust samples from the atmosphere of the Shale Shaker House were collected onto filters. During this operation, drilling mud composed of a water slurry of barite (BaSO4) together with minor amounts of additives, among them chrome lignosulphonate and chrome lignite, was circulated between the borehole and the Shale Shaker House. The concentration of airborne dust in the atmosphere was determined and the elemental composition of the particles analysed by both PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) and ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). The total amount of dust collected varied from 0.04 to 1.41 mg m-3 with barium (Ba) as the single most abundant element. The open shale shakers turned out to be the major cause of generation of dust from the solid components of the drilling mud. PMID:1768013

Hansen, A B; Larsen, E; Hansen, L V; Lyngsaae, M; Kunze, H

1991-12-01

77

Investigating a novel flame retardant known as V6: measurements in baby products, house dust, and car dust.  

PubMed

With the phase-out of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants, the use of new and alternate flame retardants has been increasing. 2,2-bis(chloromethyl)propane-1,3-diyltetrakis(2-chloroethyl) bisphosphate, known as V6, is a flame retardant applied to polyurethane foam commonly found in furniture and automobile foam. However, to the authors' knowledge, no research has been conducted on V6 levels in the environment. The intention of this study was to measure the concentration of V6 in foam collected from baby products where it was recently detected and measure levels in dust samples collected from homes and automobiles in the Boston, MA area. To accomplish this, a pure V6 commercial standard was purchased from a Chinese manufacturer and purified (>98%). An analytical method to measure V6 in dust samples using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) was developed. Extraction was conducted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and extracts were purified using an ENVI-Florisil SPE column (500 mg, 3 mL). V6 was measured in foam samples collected from baby products with a concentration ranging from 24,500,000 to 59,500,000 ng/g of foam (n = 12, average ± sd: 46,500,000 ± 12,000,000 ng/g; i.e., on average, 4.6% of the foam mass was V6). V6 was also detected in 19 of 20 car dust samples and 14 of 20 house dust samples analyzed. The concentration of V6 in the house dust ranged from <5 ng/g to 1110 ng/g with a median of 12.5 ng/g, and <5 ng/g to 6160 ng/g in the car dust with a median of 103.0 ng/g. Concentrations in car dust were significantly higher than in the house dust potentially indicating higher use of V6 in automobiles compared to products found in the home. Furthermore, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), a known carcinogen, was found in the V6 commercial mixture (14% by weight) as an impurity and was consistently detected with V6 in the foam samples analyzed. A significant correlation was also observed between V6 and TCEP in the dust samples suggesting that the use of V6 is a significant source of TCEP in the indoor environment. PMID:23565680

Fang, Mingliang; Webster, Thomas F; Gooden, David; Cooper, Ellen M; McClean, Michael D; Carignan, Courtney; Makey, Colleen; Stapleton, Heather M

2013-05-01

78

A survey of spatially distributed exterior dust lead loadings in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work documents ambient lead dust deposition values (lead loading) for the boroughs of New York City in 2003–2004. Currently, no regulatory standards exist for exterior concentrations of lead in settled dust. This is in contrast to the clearance and risk assessment standards that exist for interior residential dust. The reported potential for neurobehavioral toxicity and adverse cognitive development in

Jack Caravanos; Arlene L. Weiss; Marc J. Blaise; Rudolph J.. Jaeger

2006-01-01

79

Organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) and plasticizers in house and car dust and the influence of electronic equipment.  

PubMed

All nine PFRs studied were detected in house and car dust from the Netherlands with the exception of tris(butyl) phosphate (TNBP) and tris(isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP) in car dust. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP, median 22 ?g g(-1)) was dominant in house dust collected around and on electronics followed by tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP, median 1.3 ?g g(-1)), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP, median 1.3 ?g g(-1)) and tris(phenyl) phosphate (TPHP, median 0.8 ?g g(-1)). Levels of TPHP and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP, also known as TCP) in house dust on electronics were significantly higher than in house dust collected around electronics, suggesting that electronic equipment has limited contribution to the PFR levels in house dust, with the exception of TPHP and TMPP. Car dust was dominated by tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) with the highest levels found in dust collected from the car seats (1100 ?g g(-1)). The mean TDCIPP and TCIPP levels observed in car dust were significantly higher than the levels observed in dust collected around electronics. Significantly higher mean TMPP levels in dust taken from car seats were found compared to dust collected around the equipment (p<0.05). This is probably influenced by the use of TDCIPP, TCIPP in polyurethane foam (car seats) and the use of TMPP as plasticizer in car interiors. Worldwide four PFR patterns were observed in house dust. The PFR pattern in the Netherlands of TDCIPP, TMPP, TCEP, TCIPP and TPHP in house dust is comparable to the pattern found in six other countries, which may point to identical sources of these PFRs in the indoor environment. However, the PFR levels between the countries and within countries showed high variation. PMID:24703013

Brandsma, Sicco H; de Boer, Jacob; van Velzen, Martin J M; Leonards, Pim E G

2014-12-01

80

A survey of spatially distributed exterior dust lead loadings in New York City  

SciTech Connect

This work documents ambient lead dust deposition values (lead loading) for the boroughs of New York City in 2003-2004. Currently, no regulatory standards exist for exterior concentrations of lead in settled dust. This is in contrast to the clearance and risk assessment standards that exist for interior residential dust. The reported potential for neurobehavioral toxicity and adverse cognitive development in children due to lead exposure prompts public health concerns about undocumented lead sources. Such sources may include settled dust of outdoor origin. Dust sampling throughout the five boroughs of NYC was done from the top horizontal portion of pedestrian traffic control signals (PTCS) at selected street intersections along main thoroughfares. The data (n=214 samples) show that lead in dust varies within each borough with Brooklyn having the highest median concentration (730{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), followed in descending order by Staten Island (452{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), the Bronx (382{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), Queens (198{mu}g/ft{sup 2}) and finally, Manhattan (175{mu}g/ft{sup 2}). When compared to the HUD/EPA indoor lead in dust standard of 40{mu}g/ft{sup 2}, our data show that this value is exceeded in 86% of the samples taken. An effort was made to determine the source of the lead in the dust atop of the PTCS. The lead in the dust and the yellow signage paint (which contains lead) were compared using isotopic ratio analysis. Results showed that the lead-based paint chip samples from intact signage did not isotopically match the dust wipe samples taken from the same surface. We know that exterior dust containing lead contributes to interior dust lead loading. Therefore, settled leaded dust in the outdoor environment poses a risk for lead exposure to children living in urban areas, namely, areas with elevated childhood blood lead levels and background lead dust levels from a variety of unidentified sources.

Caravanos, Jack [Hunter College-CUNY, School of Health Sciences (United States); Weiss, Arlene L. [Environmental Medicine Inc., 263 Center Avenue, Westwood, NJ 07675 (United States); School of Medicine, New York University, NY 10016 (United States); Blaise, Marc J. [Hunter College-CUNY, School of Health Sciences (United States); Jaeger, Rudolph J. [Environmental Medicine Inc., 263 Center Avenue, Westwood, NJ 07675 (United States) and School of Medicine, New York University, NY 10016 (United States)]. E-mail: jaegerr@envmed.com

2006-02-15

81

The impact of drinking water, indoor dust and paint on blood lead levels of children aged 1-5 years in Montréal (Québec, Canada).  

PubMed

Lead is neurotoxic at very low dose and there is a need to better characterize the impact of domestic sources of lead on the biological exposure of young children. A cross-sectional survey evaluated the contribution of drinking water, house dust and paint to blood lead levels (BLLs) of young children living in old boroughs of Montréal (Canada). Three hundred and six children aged 1 to 5 years and currently drinking tap water participated in the study. For each participant, residential lead was measured in kitchen tap water, floor dust, windowsill dust and house paint and a venous blood sample was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between elevated BLL in the children (? 75th percentile) and indoor lead contamination by means of odds ratios (OR) using 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was an association between BLL ?75th percentile (1.78??g/dL) and water lead when the mean water concentration was >3.3??g/L: adjusted OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.1-10.2). Windowsill dust loading >14.1??g/ft(2) was also associated with BLL ?1.78??g/dL: adjusted OR=3.2 (95% CI: 1.3-7.8). Despite relatively low BLLs, tap water and house dust lead contribute to an increase of BLLs in exposed young children. PMID:23361441

Levallois, Patrick; St-Laurent, Julie; Gauvin, Denis; Courteau, Marilčne; Prévost, Michčle; Campagna, Céline; Lemieux, France; Nour, Shokoufeh; D'Amour, Monique; Rasmussen, Pat E

2014-01-01

82

The impact of drinking water, indoor dust and paint on blood lead levels of children aged 1–5 years in Montréal (Québec, Canada)  

PubMed Central

Lead is neurotoxic at very low dose and there is a need to better characterize the impact of domestic sources of lead on the biological exposure of young children. A cross-sectional survey evaluated the contribution of drinking water, house dust and paint to blood lead levels (BLLs) of young children living in old boroughs of Montréal (Canada). Three hundred and six children aged 1 to 5 years and currently drinking tap water participated in the study. For each participant, residential lead was measured in kitchen tap water, floor dust, windowsill dust and house paint and a venous blood sample was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between elevated BLL in the children (? 75th percentile) and indoor lead contamination by means of odds ratios (OR) using 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was an association between BLL ?75th percentile (1.78??g/dL) and water lead when the mean water concentration was >3.3??g/L: adjusted OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.1–10.2). Windowsill dust loading >14.1??g/ft2 was also associated with BLL ?1.78??g/dL: adjusted OR=3.2 (95% CI: 1.3–7.8). Despite relatively low BLLs, tap water and house dust lead contribute to an increase of BLLs in exposed young children. PMID:23361441

Levallois, Patrick; St-Laurent, Julie; Gauvin, Denis; Courteau, Marilčne; Prévost, Michčle; Campagna, Céline; Lemieux, France; Nour, Shokoufeh; D'Amour, Monique; Rasmussen, Pat E

2014-01-01

83

Pyrethroids in house dust from the homes of farm worker families in the MICASA study  

E-print Network

: Pyrethroids House dust Farm worker Pesticide inventory Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern.018), a potentially useful predictor of pesticide exposure in farm worker family homes. Further research is warranted, particularly for pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially

Hammock, Bruce D.

84

DIESEL AND CARBON PARTICLES ENHANCE HOUSE DUST MITE-INDUCED PULMONARY HYPERSENSITIVITY IN BROWN NORWAY RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Diesel and Carbon Particles Enhance House Dust Mite-Induced Pulmonary Hypersensitivity in Brown Norway Rats. P. Singh1, M.J. Daniels2, D. Winsett2, J. Richards2, K. Crissman2, M. Madden2 and M.I. Gilmour2. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC and 2 USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. Ep...

85

Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. Objective: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of HDM allergen levels, thereby reducing the need for asthma medication in children with

Susanne Halken; Arne Hřst; Ulla Niklassen; Lars G. Hansen; Frank Nielsen; Sřren Pedersen; Ole Řsterballe; Chris Veggerby; Lars K. Poulsen

2003-01-01

86

Selective Allergy to Lobster in a Case of Primary Sensitization to House Dust Mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Allergy to only 1 kind of seafood is uncommon. We report a case of selective allergy to lobster. We studied a 30-year-old man who suffered generalized urticaria, facial erythema, and pharyngeal pruritus after eating lobster. He had a more than 10-year history of mild persistent asthma and sensitization to house dust mites. The study was performed by skin

A Iparraguirre; R Rodríguez-Pérez; S Juste; A Ledesma; I Moneo; ML Caballero

87

Man’s best friend? The effect of pet ownership on house dust microbial communities  

PubMed Central

Capsule Summary Pet-ownership, which has been shown to be protective against allergic disease development, is associated with increased house dust bacterial diversity and fewer fungal species, suggesting a potentially microbial-based mechanism for this protective effect. PMID:20633927

Fujimura, Kei E.; Johnson, Christine C.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Cox, Michael J.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Zoratti, Edward M.; Woodcroft, Kimberley J.; Bobbitt, Kevin R.; Wegienka, Ganesa; Boushey, Homer A.; Lynch, Susan V.

2010-01-01

88

Residual Oil Fly Ash Exposure Enhances Allergic Sensitization to House Dust Mite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have shown an association between elevated levels of particulate matter air pollution and increased morbidity and hospital visits in asthmatics. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a primary combustion particle containing sulfate and metals such as vanadium, nickel, and iron. In this study the effect of ROFA on sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) was examined in a

Amy L. Lambert; Wumin Dong; Darrell W. Winsett; MaryJane K. Selgrade; M. Ian Gilmour

1999-01-01

89

Exposure to house dust mite allergens and the clinical activity of asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: House dust mite allergens play an important role in inducing IgE-mediated sensitization and the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma. This study investigated the relationship between mite allergen exposure and the clinical activity and severity of asthma. Methods: Nonsmoking adult patients with asthma (n = 53) were randomly recruited from the asthma registry of two large family practitioner

Adnan Custovic; Simon C. O. Taggart; Helen C. Francis; Martin D. Chapman; Ashley Woodcock

1996-01-01

90

ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND HOUSE DUST FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

EPA Science Inventory

It has been conjectured that jet turbine exhaust near airplane flight paths may result in significant human exposure to PAH. The fallout from the aerosol plume could be introduced into the residence directly as drafts through the interior of the house or through accumulation of ...

91

42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.  

...2014-10-01 false Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum...APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint...Masks § 84.1146 Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators;...

2014-10-01

92

42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum...APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint...Masks § 84.1146 Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators;...

2012-10-01

93

42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum...APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint...Masks § 84.1146 Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators;...

2013-10-01

94

42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1146 Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Three...

2010-10-01

95

42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1146 Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Three...

2011-10-01

96

First National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing: survey design and methods for the allergen and endotoxin components.  

PubMed Central

From July 1998 to August 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted the first National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. The purpose of the survey was to assess children's potential household exposure to lead, allergens, and bacterial endotoxins. We surveyed a sample of 831 homes, representing 96 million permanently occupied, noninstitutional housing units that permit resident children. We administered questionnaires to household members, made home observations, and took environmental samples. This article provides general background information on the survey, an overview of the survey design, and a description of the data collection and laboratory methods pertaining to the allergen and endotoxin components. We collected dust samples from a bed, the bedroom floor, a sofa or chair, the living room floor, the kitchen floor, and a basement floor and analyzed them for cockroach allergen Bla g 1, the dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, the cat allergen Fel d 1, the dog allergen Can f 1, the rodent allergens Rat n 1 and mouse urinary protein, allergens of the fungus Alternaria alternata, and endotoxin. This article provides the essential context for subsequent reports that will describe the prevalence of allergens and endotoxin in U.S. households, their distribution by various housing characteristics, and their associations with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. PMID:12003758

Vojta, Patrick J; Friedman, Warren; Marker, David A; Clickner, Robert; Rogers, John W; Viet, Susan M; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

2002-01-01

97

Urinary Metabolites of Organophosphate Flame Retardants: Temporal Variability and Correlations with House Dust Concentrations  

PubMed Central

Background: A reduction in the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) because of human health concerns may result in an increased use of and human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). Human exposure and health studies of OPFRs are lacking. Objectives: We sought to define the degree of temporal variability in urinary OPFR metabolites in order to inform epidemiologic study design, and to explore a potential primary source of exposure by examining the relationship between OPFRs in house dust and their metabolites in urine. Methods: Nine repeated urine samples were collected from 7 men over the course of 3 months and analyzed for bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP) and diphenyl phosphate (DPP), metabolites of the OPFRs tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP), respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to characterize temporal reliability. Paired house dust and urine samples were collected from 45 men. Results: BDCPP was detected in 91% of urine samples, and DPP in 96%. Urinary BDCPP showed moderate-to-strong temporal reliability (ICC range, 0.55–0.72). ICCs for DPP were lower, but moderately reliable (range, 0.35–0.51). There was a weak [Spearman r (rS) = 0.31] but significant (p = 0.03) correlation between urinary BDCPP and TDCPP concentrations in house dust that strengthened when nondetects (rS = 0.47) were excluded. There was no correlation between uncorrected DPP and TPP measured in house dust (rS < 0.1). Conclusions: Household dust may be an important source of exposure to TDCPP but not TPP. Urinary concentrations of BDCPP and DPP were moderately to highly reliable within individuals over 3 months. PMID:23461877

Cooper, Ellen M.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Hauser, Russ

2013-01-01

98

Immunotherapy for house dust mite sensitivity: where are the knowledge gaps?  

PubMed

House dust mites (HDMs) are found in the environments where human habitation exists. Their density is dependent on environmental relative humidity; therefore, higher populations are present in areas of the world with higher humidity levels, e.g., coastal areas and tropics. To date, 24 HDM allergens have been identified. Many of these represent digestive enzymes since HDM feces are the major source of allergen exposure. IgE- medicated sensitization to HDM allergens is an important factor in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases since it is the most common aeroallergen detected by skin testing or in vitro IgE assays. Sensitization to HDM allergens often occurs early in life and appears to play an important role in the progression from allergic rhinitis to asthma (the so-called Allergic March) in children. HDM sensitization is also associated with asthma across all age groups. Efforts to control environmental exposure to HDM allergens have often proven to be unsuccessful. While medications can improve symptoms, only immunotherapy currently provides disease-modifying effects in allergic rhinitis and asthma. Several systemic reviews and meta-analysis indicate that both subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma for HDM sensitivity. In this report, we review recent studies and the evidence for the use of HDM SCIT and SLIT. Fundamental gaps in knowledge are identified which could lead to improved approaches to HDM allergy. PMID:25354663

Biagtan, Mark; Viswanathan, Ravi; Bush, Robert K

2014-12-01

99

The Innate Immune Response in House Dust Mite-Induced Allergic Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Hypersensitivity to house dust mite (HDM; Dermatophagoides sp.) allergens is one of the most common allergic responses, affecting up to 85% of asthmatics. Sensitization to indoor allergens is the strongest independent risk factor associated with asthma. Additionally, >50% of children and adolescents with asthma are sensitized to HDM. Although allergen-specific CD4+ Th2 cells orchestrate the HDM allergic response through induction of IgE directed toward mite allergens, activation of innate immunity also plays a critical role in HDM-induced allergic inflammation. This review highlights the HDM components that lead to activation of the innate immune response. Activation may due to HDM proteases. Proteases may be recognized by protease-activation receptors (PARs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), or C-type lectin receptors (CTRs), or act as a molecular mimic for PAMP activation signaling pathways. Understanding the role of mite allergen-induced innate immunity will facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies that exploit innate immunity receptors and associated signaling pathways for the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:23450108

2013-01-01

100

Pyrethroids in house dust from the homes of farm worker families in the MICASA study.  

PubMed

Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly for pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families, who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields and are faced with poor housing conditions, potentially causing high pest infestation and pesticide use. We investigate levels of pyrethroids in the house dust of farm worker family homes in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA, within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pesticide use data and levels of pyrethroid pesticides in indoor dust collected in 2009 as measured by questionnaires and a GC/MS analysis of the pyrethroids cis- and trans-permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and resmethrin in single dust samples collected from 55 households. Cis- and trans-permethrin had the highest detection frequencies at 67%, with median concentrations of 244 and 172ng/g dust, respectively. Cypermethrin was detected in 52% of the homes and had a median concentration of 186ng/g dust. Esfenvalerate, resmethrin and deltamethrin were detected in less than half the samples. We compared the pyrethroid concentrations found in our study to other studies looking at both rural and urban homes and daycares. Lower detection frequencies and/or lower median concentrations of cis- and trans-permethrin and cypermethrin were observed in our study as compared to those studies. However, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and resmethrin were detected more frequently in the house dust from our study than in the other studies. Because households whose children had higher urinary pyrethroid metabolite levels were more likely to be analyzed in this study, a positive bias in our estimates of household pyrethroid levels may be expected. A positive association was observed with reported outdoor pesticide use and cypermethrin levels found in the indoor dust samples (rs=0.28, p=0.0450). There was also a positive association seen with summed pyrethroid levels in house dust and the results of a pesticide inventory conducted by field staff (rs=0.32, p=0.018), a potentially useful predictor of pesticide exposure in farm worker family homes. Further research is warranted to fully investigate the utility of such a measure. PMID:24096042

Trunnelle, Kelly J; Bennett, Deborah H; Tancredi, Daniel J; Gee, Shirley J; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E; Hammock, Bruce D; Schenker, Marc B

2013-11-01

101

Pyrethroids in house dust from the homes of farm worker families in the MICASA study  

PubMed Central

Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly for pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families, who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields and are faced with poor housing conditions, potentially causing high pest infestation and pesticide use. We investigate levels of pyrethroids in the house dust of farm worker family homes in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA, within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pesticide use data and levels of pyrethroid pesticides in indoor dust collected in 2009 as measured by questionnaires and a GC/MS analysis of the pyrethroids cis- and trans-permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and resmethrin in single dust samples collected from 55 households. Cis- and trans-permethrin had the highest detection frequencies at 67%, with median concentrations of 244 and 172 ng/g dust, respectively. Cypermethrin was detected in 52% of the homes and had a median concentration of 186 ng/g dust. Esfenvalerate, resmethrin and deltamethrin were detected in less than half the samples. We compared the pyrethroid concentrations found in our study to other studies looking at both rural and urban homes and daycares. Lower detection frequencies and/or lower median concentrations of cis- and trans-permethrin and cypermethrin were observed in our study as compared to those studies. However, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and resmethrin were detected more frequently in the house dust from our study than in the other studies. Because households whose children had higher urinary pyrethroid metabolite levels were more likely to be analyzed in this study, a positive bias in our estimates of household pyrethroid levels may be expected. A positive association was observed with reported outdoor pesticide use and cypermethrin levels found in the indoor dust samples (rs = 0.28, p = 0.0450). There was also a positive association seen with summed pyrethroid levels in house dust and the results of a pesticide inventory conducted by field staff (rs = 0.32, p = 0.018), a potentially useful predictor of pesticide exposure in farm worker family homes. Further research is warranted to fully investigate the utility of such a measure. PMID:24096042

Trunnelle, Kelly J.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Gee, Shirley J.; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T.; Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Schenker, Marc B.

2014-01-01

102

Detection of organophosphate flame retardants in furniture foam and U.S. house dust.  

PubMed

Restrictions on the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have resulted in the increased use of alternate flame retardant chemicals to meet flammability standards. However, it has been difficult to determine which chemical formulations are currently being used in high volumes to meet flammability standards since the use of flame retardant formulations in consumer products is not transparent (i.e., not provided to customers). To investigate chemicals being used as replacements for PentaBDE in polyurethane foam, we analyzed foam samples from 26 different pieces of furniture purchased in the United States primarily between 2003 and 2009. Samples included foam from couches, chairs, mattress pads, pillows, and, in one case, foam from a sound-proofing system of a laboratory-grade dust sieve, and were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Fifteen of the foam samples contained the flame retardanttris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP; 1-5% by weight), four samples contained tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP; 0.5 -22% by weight), one sample contained brominated chemicals found in a new flame retardant mixture called Firemaster 550 (4.2% by weight), and one foam sample collected from a futon likely purchased prior to 2004 contained PentaBDE (0.5% by weight). Due to the high frequency of detection of the chlorinated phosphate compounds in furniture foam,we analyzed extracts from 50 house dust samples collected between 2002 and 2007 in the Boston, MA area for TDCPP, TCPP, and another high volume use organophosphate-based flame retardant used in foam, triphenylphosphate (TPP). Detection frequencies for TDCPP and TPP in the dust samples were > 96% and were log normally distributed, similar to observations for PBDEs. TCPP was positively detected in dust in only 24% of the samples, but detection was significantly limited by a coelution problem. The geometric mean concentrations for TCPP, TDCPP, and TPP in house dust were 570, 1890, and 7360 ng/g, respectively, and maximum values detected in dust were 5490, 56,080 and 1,798,000 ng/g, respectively. These data suggest that levels of these organophosphate flame retardants are comparable, or in some cases greater than, levels of PBDEs in house dust. The high prevalence of these chemicals in foam and the high concentrations measured in dust (as high as 1.8 mg/g) warrant further studies to evaluate potential health effects from dust exposure, particularly for children. PMID:19848166

Stapleton, Heather M; Klosterhaus, Susan; Eagle, Sarah; Fuh, Jennifer; Meeker, John D; Blum, Arlene; Webster, Thomas F

2009-10-01

103

Detection of Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Furniture Foam and US House Dust  

PubMed Central

Restrictions on the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have resulted in the increased use of alternate flame retardant chemicals to meet flammability standards. However, it has been difficult to determine which chemical formulations are currently being used in high volumes to meet flammability standards since the use of flame retardant formulations in consumer products is not transparent (i.e. not provided to customers). To investigate chemicals being used as replacements for PentaBDE in polyurethane foam, we analyzed foam samples from 26 different pieces of furniture purchased in the United States primarily between 2003 and 2009 using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Samples included foam from couches, chairs, mattress pads, pillows, and, in one case, foam from a sound proofing system of a laboratory grade dust sieve. Fifteen of the foam samples contained the flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP; 1–5% by weight), four samples contained tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP; 0.5 –2.2 % by weight), one sample contained brominated chemicals found in a new flame retardant mixture called Firemaster 550 (4.2% by weight), and one foam sample collected from a futon likely purchased prior to 2004 contained PentaBDE (0.5% by weight). Due to the high frequency of detection of the chlorinated phosphate compounds in furniture foam, we analyzed extracts from 50 house dust samples collected between 2002 and 2007 in the Boston, MA area for TDCPP, TCPP, and another high volume use organophosphate-based flame retardant used in foam, triphenylphosphate (TPP). Detection frequencies for TDCPP and TPP in the dust samples were >96% and were log normally distributed, similar to observations for PBDEs. TCPP was positively detected in dust in only 24% of the samples, but detection was significantly limited by a co-elution problem. The geometric mean concentrations for TCPP, TDCPP and TPP in house dust were 570, 1890, and 7360 ng/g, respectively, and maximum values detected in dust were 5490, 56,080 and 1,798,000 ng/g, respectively. These data suggest that levels of these organophosphate flame retardants are comparable, or in some cases, greater than, levels of PBDEs in house dust. The high prevalence of these chemicals in foam and the high concentrations measured in dust (as high as 1.8 mg/g), warrant further studies to evaluate potential health effects from dust exposure, particularly for children. PMID:19848166

Stapleton, Heather M.; Klosterhaus, Susan; Eagle, Sarah; Fuh, Jennifer; Meeker, John D.; Blum, Arlene; Webster, Thomas F.

2009-01-01

104

Dot immunobinding assay for detection of mite antigens in house-dust samples.  

PubMed

A new test was developed specifically to detect mite antigens in house-dust. It uses a nitrocellulose dipstick spotted with specific antimite antibodies that act as a capture matrix; the same antibodies act as a detecting reagent when conjugated with colloidal dye particles. Aclotest is a 1-step assay, where a spotted dipstick is placed in a tube containing the detecting reagent and the house-dust sample. No instrumentation or previous extraction procedure of the sample is required, and the test response is visible as a colored spot, after 1 h incubation. The sensitivity and specificity of the new test were compared with those of Acarex and Der p1/Der f1 ELISA tests. PMID:9538574

Mistrello, G; Gentili, M; Roncarolo, D; Antoniotti, P; Ottoboni, F; Falagiani, P

1998-03-01

105

First report on sensitization to allergens of a house dust mite, Suidasia pontifica (Acari: Saproglyphidae).  

PubMed

A species of house dust mite, Suidasia pontifica, was recently shown to produce allergens affecting man. The species may be as important as other allergen producing mite in sensitization and causing allergic symptoms in Malaysians. Surveys conducted demonstrated that 80% of the houses surveyed were positive for this mite with densities ranged from 2 to 50 mites per gram of dust. Colonies of the species has been successfully established and materials from those colonies have been used to produce extracts for studies on sensitization to the mites. A total of 85 suspected allergic rhinitis patients were tested and 74.1% demonstrated positive reactions. Extract of this mite should be considered for routine diagnostic testing and possible immunotherapy. PMID:11414419

Mariana, A; Ho, T M; Gendeh, B S; Iskandar, H; Zainuldin-Taib, M

2000-12-01

106

The correlations between heavy metals in residential indoor dust and outdoor street dust in Bahrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lead, zinc, cadmium, chromium, and nickel contents in both indoor house dust and outdoor street dust from 76 sites in Bahrain were determined by ICP-ES. The results showed widespread heavy metal contamination, especially lead, with an overall mean value in house dust for Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Ni of 517, 202, 1.9, 11, and 10, respectively. The mean

I. M. Madany; M. S. Akhter; O. A. Al Jowder

1994-01-01

107

Rasamsonia pulvericola sp. nov., isolated from house dust.  

PubMed

In the course of a global survey of the indoor mycobiota, we sampled and analysed settled dust from 87 buildings from 14 countries, using both a modified dilution-to-extinction method and 454-pyrosequencing. Rasamsonia is a recently established genus including thermotolerant or thermophilic species, five of which have been isolated from humans, including the emerging pathogen R. argillacea. A new species, R. pulvericola, was recovered from one residence in Songkhla, Thailand, and is morphologically characterised and compared phylogenetically with other members of the genus. Rasamsonia pulvericola forms a clade with R. brevistipitata and shares morphological characters such as usually biverticillate and never terverticillate conidiophores, and subglobose to ellipsoidal conidia. It has a lower maximum growth temperature and is the first mesophilic species added to the genus. The ITS sequence of R. pulvericola was not detected in the 454-pyrosequencing data for Thailand or other countries, but a similar ITS sequence was detected in Micronesia, probably representing another undescribed Rasamsonia species. PMID:24563833

Tanney, Joey B; Seifert, Keith A

2013-12-01

108

House dust mites and their sensitivity to wood oils and volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, perennial rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis caused by the house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, which are dominant species in homes, have recently become serious health problems. Reducing the number of and exposure to\\u000a mites and mite allergens are the most important factors in preventing allergic diseases. Recently, the effects of essential\\u000a oils

Yasushi Hiramatsu; Satoshi Shida; Yoshifumi Miyazaki

2008-01-01

109

Vineyard snail allergy possibly induced by sensitization to house-dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus).  

PubMed

A female patient experienced a severe allergic reaction after consumption of vineyard snails. The patient proved to be sensitized to house-dust mite (HDM) and demonstrated a positive skin test and specific IgE to snail (Eobania vermiculata, Lofarma). The snail RAST was > 80% inhibited by HDM, whereas the mite RAST was < 10% inhibited by snail extract. This is possibly another example of food allergy related to primary sensitization by an aeroallergen. PMID:7573833

De Maat-Bleeker, F; Akkerdaas, J H; van Ree, R; Aalberse, R C

1995-05-01

110

House-dust mite (Pyroglyphidae) populations in mattresses, and their control by electric blankets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reduction in house-dust-mite populations of 19–84% in beds in regular use could be achieved by heating the mattresses with electric blankets, when the beds were not being slept on. The effect of the heating treatment on the temperature and relative humidity inside the mattress is discussed. Housedust mites in the heated portions of the mattress migrated deeper inside the

R. de Boer; L. P. S. van der Geest

1990-01-01

111

Molecular identification of house dust mites and storage mites.  

PubMed

Mites are known causes of allergic diseases. Currently, identification of mites based on morphology is difficult if only one mite is isolated from a (dust) sample, or when only one gender is found, or when the specimen is not intact especially with the loss of the legs. The purpose of this study was to use polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the ITS2 gene, to complement the morphological data for the identification of mites to the species level. For this, six species were cultured: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Aleuroglyphus ovatus and Glycycometus malaysiensis. Genomic DNA of the mites was extracted, quantified, amplified and digested individually with restriction enzymes. Hinf I and Ple I differentiated the restriction patterns of D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. Bfa I and Alu I enzymes differentiated B. tropicalis and G. malaysiensis. Ple I enzyme was useful for the differentiation between T. putrescentiae and A. ovatus. Bfa I was useful for the differentiation of G. malaysiensis from the rest of the species. In conclusion, different species of mites can be differentiated using PCR-RFLP of ITS2 region. With the established PCR-RFLP method in this study, identification of these mites to the species level is possible even if complete and intact adult specimens of both sexes are not available. As no study to date has reported PCR-RFLP method for the identification of domestic mites, the established method should be validated for the identification of other species of mites that were not included in this study. PMID:21468750

Wong, Shew Fung; Chong, Ai Ling; Mak, Joon Wah; Tan, Jessie; Ling, Suk Jiun; Ho, Tze Ming

2011-10-01

112

Effect of hinoki ( Chamaecyparis obtusa ) wood-wool in tatami mat on the activity of house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To suppress the activity of house dust mites in tatami mats, where they tend to breed, a tatami mat consisting of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtuse) wood-wool was prepared. The suppressive effect of hinoki wood-wool on house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) was then measured. To investigate the effective period of the wood-wool on the mites, 5-day exposure tests were conducted\\u000a every few

Yasushi Hiramatsu; Naoyuki Matsui; Tatsuro Ohira; Yasunori Imai; Yoshifumi Miyazaki

2006-01-01

113

Linking PBDEs in house dust to consumer products using X-ray fluorescence.  

PubMed

The indoor environment is an important source of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of fire retardants used in many household products. Previous attempts to link PBDE concentrations in house dust to consumer products have been hampered by the inability to determine the presence of PBDEs in otherwise similar products. We used a portable X-rayfluorescence (XRF) analyzer to nondestructively quantify bromine concentrations in consumer goods. In the validation phase, XRF-measured bromine was highly correlated with GC/MS-measured bromine for furniture foam and plastic from electronics (n = 29, r = 0.93, p < 0.0001). In the field study phase, the XRF-measured bromine in room furniture was associated with pentaBDE concentrations in room dust in the bedroom (r = 0.68, p = 0.001) and main living area (r = 0.51, p = 0.02). We also found an association between XRF-measured bromine levels in electronics and decaBDE levels in dust, largely driven by the high levels in televisions (r = 0.64, p = 0.003 for bedrooms). For the main living area, predicting decaBDE in dust improved when we included an interaction effect between the bromine content of televisions and the number of persons in the house (p < 0.005), a potential surrogate for television usage. PMID:18589991

Allen, Joseph G; McClean, Michael D; Stapleton, Heather M; Webster, Thomas F

2008-06-01

114

Spetial and temporal distribution of house dust mite (Astigmata:Pyroglyphidae) allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1 in Barbadian homes.  

PubMed

House features contribute to house dust mite abundance and, therefore, exposure to mite allergens. Our study assessed the hypothesis that modernization of the domestic environment in a tropical setting may lead to a level of allergen from the house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart) and D. farinae Hughes that previously has been defined clinically as at risk for people who suffer from allergic disease. Allergen (Der p 1 and Der f 1) levels were measured at 4 sites (mattress, bedroom floor, living room floor, and furniture) in 17 houses in Barbados during dry and rainy seasons. Der p 1(17 of 17 homes) at all 4 sites did not vary significantly from the dry to rainy season. Allergen levels varied according to site, and were highest in living room furniture in both seasons (geometric mean 40.37 and 64.17 micrograms/g, respectively). Concentration of Der p 1 allergens were higher in concrete than in wood or mixed concrete and wood houses. Der f 1(9 of 17 homes) levels were lower than Der p 1 by 1/1,000 (both seasons). Results indicate that season is less important in regard to levels of Der p 1 than house construction and confirm other studies that implicate D. pteronyssinus as a more abundant source of allergen than D. farinae in this tropical setting. PMID:9103765

Barnes, K C; Fernández-Caldas, E; Trudeau, W L; Milne, D E; Brenner, R J

1997-03-01

115

New house dust collection system and its use in a study of asthma in dust mite sensitive children in Raleigh, North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

A prototype dust collection system, the House Dust Vacuum One (HDVI), was designed for use in a study to investigate the relationship between house dust mite antigen levels and the presence of asthma in dust mite sensitive children. The HDVI was designed for the collection of dust samples from all potentially relevant domestic substrates, with the primary sampling objective being the retrieval at least 100 mg of sample material. During the winter of 1991-92, dust samples were collected from six different microenvironments in the homes of 49 dust mite sensitive children living in the Raleigh, NC metropolitan area. In addition to the standard antigen immunoassay, the performance of the HDVI was assessed by conducting side by side comparison tests using two alternative antigen collection systems. Microenvironmental antigen concentrations were found to be lognormally distributed within the test homes and within each microenvironment. With the relatively large quantity of sample material collected and the ease with which the HDVI was able to collect samples from a wide variety of substrates, the new unit was determined to be well suited for surface dust and dust mite antigen collection studies.

Lindstrom, A.B.; Beck, M.A.; Henry, M.M.; Barnes, D.M.; Henderson, F.W.

1993-01-01

116

Assessment of cleaning to control lead dust in homes of children with moderate lead poisoning: treatment of lead-exposed children trial.  

PubMed Central

In this article we describe the assessment and control of lead dust exposure in the Treatment of Lead-exposed Children (TLC) Trial, a clinical trial of the effects of oral chelation on developmental end points in urban children with moderately elevated blood lead levels. To reduce potential lead exposure from settled dust or deteriorated paint during the drug treatment phase of the trial, the homes of 765 (98%) of the randomized children (both active and placebo drug treatment groups) were professionally cleaned. Lead dust measurements were made in a sample of 213 homes before and after cleaning. Geometric mean dust lead loadings before cleaning were 43, 29, 308, and 707 micro g/ft2 in the kitchen floor, playroom floor, playroom windowsill, and playroom window well samples respectively. Following cleaning, floor dust lead loadings were reduced on average 32% for paired floor samples (p < 0.0001), 66% for windowsills (p < 0.0001), and 93% for window wells (p < 0.0001). Cleaning was most effective for 146 homes with precleaning dust lead levels above the recommended clearance levels, with average reductions of 44%, 74%, and 93% for floors (p < 0.0001), windowsills (p < 0.0001), and window wells (p < 0.0001), respectively. Despite these substantial reductions in dust lead loadings, a single professional cleaning did not reduce the lead loadings of all dust samples to levels below current federal standards for lead in residential dust. Attainment of dust levels below current standards will require more intensive cleaning and lead hazard reduction strategies. PMID:12460817

Ettinger, Adrienne S; Bornschein, Robert L; Farfel, Mark; Campbell, Carla; Ragan, N Beth; Rhoads, George G; Brophy, Merrill; Wilkens, Sherry; Dockery, Douglas W

2002-01-01

117

Assessment of cleaning to control lead dust in homes of children with moderate lead poisoning: treatment of lead-exposed children trial.  

PubMed

In this article we describe the assessment and control of lead dust exposure in the Treatment of Lead-exposed Children (TLC) Trial, a clinical trial of the effects of oral chelation on developmental end points in urban children with moderately elevated blood lead levels. To reduce potential lead exposure from settled dust or deteriorated paint during the drug treatment phase of the trial, the homes of 765 (98%) of the randomized children (both active and placebo drug treatment groups) were professionally cleaned. Lead dust measurements were made in a sample of 213 homes before and after cleaning. Geometric mean dust lead loadings before cleaning were 43, 29, 308, and 707 micro g/ft2 in the kitchen floor, playroom floor, playroom windowsill, and playroom window well samples respectively. Following cleaning, floor dust lead loadings were reduced on average 32% for paired floor samples (p < 0.0001), 66% for windowsills (p < 0.0001), and 93% for window wells (p < 0.0001). Cleaning was most effective for 146 homes with precleaning dust lead levels above the recommended clearance levels, with average reductions of 44%, 74%, and 93% for floors (p < 0.0001), windowsills (p < 0.0001), and window wells (p < 0.0001), respectively. Despite these substantial reductions in dust lead loadings, a single professional cleaning did not reduce the lead loadings of all dust samples to levels below current federal standards for lead in residential dust. Attainment of dust levels below current standards will require more intensive cleaning and lead hazard reduction strategies. PMID:12460817

Ettinger, Adrienne S; Bornschein, Robert L; Farfel, Mark; Campbell, Carla; Ragan, N Beth; Rhoads, George G; Brophy, Merrill; Wilkens, Sherry; Dockery, Douglas W

2002-12-01

118

Serum PBDEs in a North Carolina Toddler Cohort: Associations with Handwipes, House Dust, and Socioeconomic Variables  

PubMed Central

Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Objectives: We used handwipes to estimate exposure to PBDEs in house dust among toddlers and examined sex, age, breast-feeding, race, and parents’ education as predictors of serum PBDEs. Methods: Eighty-three children from 12 to 36 months of age were enrolled in North Carolina between May 2009 and November 2010. Blood, handwipe, and house dust samples were collected and analyzed for PBDEs. A questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data. Results: PBDEs were detected in all serum samples (geometric mean for ?pentaBDE in serum was 43.3 ng/g lipid), 98% of the handwipe samples, and 100% of the dust samples. Serum ?pentaBDEs were significantly correlated with both handwipe and house dust ?pentaBDE levels, but were more strongly associated with handwipe levels (r = 0.57; p < 0.001 vs. r = 0.35; p < 0.01). Multivariate model estimates revealed that handwipe levels, child’s sex, child’s age, and father’s education accounted for 39% of the variation in serum ?BDE3 levels (sum of BDEs 47, 99, and 100). In contrast, age, handwipe levels, and breast-feeding duration explained 39% of the variation in serum BDE 153. Conclusions: Our study suggests that hand-to-mouth activity may be a significant source of exposure to PBDEs. Furthermore, age, socioeconomic status, and breast-feeding were significant predictors of exposure, but associations varied by congener. Specifically, serum ?BDE3 was inversely associated with socioeconomic status, whereas serum BDE-153 was positively associated with duration of breast-feeding and mother’s education. PMID:22763040

Eagle, Sarah; Sjödin, Andreas; Webster, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

119

Detection and intake assessment of organophosphate flame retardants in house dust in Japanese dwellings.  

PubMed

The demand for phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) has recently increased as an alternative to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE). PFRs have been detected in house dust, but little is known about the concentrations of PFRs in private homes and the effects on human health. We measured the levels of 10 PFRs in indoor floor dust and upper surface dust from 128 Japanese dwellings of families with children in elementary school. The median (min-max) concentrations (?g/g) of PFRs were as follows: tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), 30.88 (<0.61-936.65); tris(2-chloro-iso-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), 0.74 (<0.56-392.52); and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), 0.87 (<0.80-23.35). These values exceeded 50% detection rates, and the rates are median over the LOD in floor dust. The concentrations (?g/g) of TBOEP 26.55 (<0.61-1933.24), TCIPP 2.23 (<0.56-621.23), TPHP 3.13 (<0.80-27.47), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) 1.17 (<0.65-92.22), and tributyl phosphate (TNBP) 0.74 (<0.36-60.64) exceeded 50% detection rates in the upper surface dust. A significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between the concentrations of TCIPP and TBOEP was shown in floor dust and upper surface dust (n=48). Estimated median and 95th percentile daily intake was calculated for toddlers and elementary school children and was compared with reference dose values (RfD) from the literature. For TBOEP, the estimated 95th percentile intake from floor dust was 14% of RfD for toddlers and 4% for school children. The estimated intake from upper surface dust was somewhat lower. Estimated median intake of TBOEP and median intake for the other PFRs were less than 1% of the RfD. TBOEP, TCIPP and TPHP were the main PFRs in the dust. The median levels of PFRs are well below the RfD values. PMID:24531310

Tajima, Shuji; Araki, Atsuko; Kawai, Toshio; Tsuboi, Tazuru; Ait Bamai, Yu; Yoshioka, Eiji; Kanazawa, Ayako; Cong, Shi; Kishi, Reiko

2014-04-15

120

Levels of phthalate esters in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children in Nanjing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the levels and possible determinants of phthalate esters (PEs) in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children, dust was collected from 215 urban houses in Nanjing, China, and 145 outdoor settled dust samples were collected nearby. Six PEs were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All PEs were detected in the dust from approximately 90% of the houses, with the exception of dioctyl phthalate (DOP), which had only a 59% detection rate. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were the most abundant PEs, with geometric means of 110 and 16.4 ?g g-1, respectively, and maximal concentrations 9950 and 2150 ?g g-1. Factor analysis showed that DBP, DEHP and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) might come from the same source and were significantly influenced by the use of solid-wood floor wax. High BBP, DEHP, DOP and total PE levels were associated with indices of dampness, and high DOP was associated with humidifier use. In conclusion, six PEs are ubiquitous in urban settled house dust in Nanjing, China, and both plastic materials and cosmetic and personal care products are important sources. Flooring material, dampness and humidifier use potentially influence house dust PE levels.

Zhang, Qi; Lu, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Sun, Yong-Gang; Zhu, Dong-Mei; Wang, Bing-Ling; Zhao, Ren-Zheng; Zhang, Zheng-Dong

2013-04-01

121

COST ESTIMATES OF USING THREE LEAD-BASED PAINT ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGIES ON RESIDENTIAL HOUSING  

EPA Science Inventory

Elevated blood lead levels in children of the US due to exposure to flaking lead-based paint continues to be an important health concern. Approximately 57M housing units, which represent 75% of all privately owned and occupied housing built before 1980 in the US are contaminated ...

122

Effects of physical interventions on house dust mite allergen levels in carpet, bed, and upholstery dust in low-income, urban homes.  

PubMed Central

House dust mite allergen exposure is a postulated risk factor for allergic sensitization, asthma development, and asthma morbidity; however, practical and effective methods to mitigate these allergens from low-income, urban home environments remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of physical interventions to mitigate house dust mite allergens in this setting. Homes with high levels of house dust mite allergen (Der f 1 + Der p 1 > or = 10 microg/g dust by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in the bed, bedroom carpet, and/or upholstered furniture were enrolled in the study. Carpets and upholstered furniture were subjected to a single treatment of either dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming (carpet only) or intensive vacuuming alone. Bed interventions consisted of complete encasement of the mattress, box spring, and pillows plus either weekly professional or in-home laundering of nonencased bedding. Dust samples were collected at baseline and again at 3 days (carpet and upholstery only) and 2, 4, and 8 weeks posttreatment. We compared pretreatment mean allergen concentrations and loads to posttreatment values and performed between-group analyses after adjusting for differences in the pretreatment means. Both dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming and vacuuming alone resulted in a significant reduction in carpet house dust mite allergen concentration and load (p < 0.05). Levels approached pretreatment values by 4 weeks posttreatment in the intensive vacuuming group, whereas steam cleaning plus vacuuming effected a decrease that persisted for up to 8 weeks. Significant decreases in bed house dust mite allergen concentration and load were obtained in response to encasement and either professional or in-home laundering (p < 0.001). Between-group analysis revealed significantly less postintervention house dust mite allergen load in professionally laundered compared to home-laundered beds (p < 0.05). Intensive vacuuming and dry steam cleaning both caused a significant reduction in allergen concentration and load in upholstered furniture samples (p < 0.005). Based on these data, we conclude that physical interventions offer practical, effective means of reducing house dust mite allergen levels in low-income, urban home environments. PMID:11564617

Vojta, P J; Randels, S P; Stout, J; Muilenberg, M; Burge, H A; Lynn, H; Mitchell, H; O'Connor, G T; Zeldin, D C

2001-01-01

123

Monitoring Indoor Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants: Hand Wipes and House Dust  

PubMed Central

Background: Organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) are becoming popular replacements for the phased-out polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixtures, and they are now commonly detected in indoor environments. However, little is known about human exposure to PFRs because they cannot be easily measured in blood or serum. Objectives: To investigate relationships between the home environment and internal exposure, we assessed associations between two PFRs, tris(1,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), in paired hand wipe and dust samples and concentrations of their metabolites in urine samples (n = 53). We also assessed short-term variation in urinary metabolite concentrations (n = 11 participants; n = 49 samples). Methods: Adult volunteers in North Carolina, USA, completed questionnaires and provided urine, hand wipe, and household dust samples. PFRs and PBDEs were measured in hand wipes and dust, and bis(1,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), metabolites of TDCIPP and TPHP, were measured in urine. Results: TDCIPP and TPHP were detected frequently in hand wipes and dust (> 86.8%), with geometric mean concentrations exceeding those of PBDEs. Unlike PBDEs, dust TDCIPP and TPHP levels were not associated with hand wipes. However, hand wipe levels were associated with urinary metabolites. Participants with the highest hand wipe TPHP mass, for instance, had DPHP levels 2.42 times those of participants with the lowest levels (95% CI: 1.23, 4.77). Women had higher levels of DPHP, but not BDCIPP. BDCIPP and DPHP concentrations were moderately to strongly reliable over 5 consecutive days (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.81 and 0.51, respectively). Conclusions: PFR exposures are widespread, and hand-to-mouth contact or dermal absorption may be important pathways of exposure. Citation: Hoffman K, Garantziotis S, Birnbaum LS, Stapleton HM. 2015. Monitoring indoor exposure to organophosphate flame retardants: hand wipes and house dust. Environ Health Perspect 123:160–165;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408669 PMID:25343780

Hoffman, Kate; Garantziotis, Stavros; Birnbaum, Linda S.

2014-01-01

124

Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of PAH to settled house dust  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coaltar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ??g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ??g/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ??g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ??g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Musgrove, M.; Burbank, T.L.; Ennis, T.E.; Bashara, T.J.

2010-01-01

125

Coal-Tar-Based Parking Lot Sealcoat: An Unrecognized Source of PAH to Settled House Dust  

PubMed Central

Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coal-tar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ?g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ?g/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ?g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ?g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. PMID:20063893

2010-01-01

126

House Dust Mite Allergy in Korea: The Most Important Inhalant Allergen in Current and Future  

PubMed Central

The house-dust mite (HDM), commonly found in human dwellings, is an important source of inhalant and contact allergens. In this report, the importance of HDM allergy in Korea and the characteristics of allergens from dust mite are reviewed with an emphasis on investigations performed in Korea. In Korea, Dermatophagoides farinae is the dominant species of HDM, followed by D. pteronyssinus. Tyrophagus putrescentiae is also found in Korea, but its role in respiratory allergic disease in Korea is controversial. The relatively low densities of mite populations and concentrations of mite major allergens in dust samples from Korean homes, compared to westernized countries, are thought to reflect not only different climatic conditions, but also cultural differences, such as the use of 'ondol' under-floor heating systems in Korean houses. HDM are found in more than 90% of Korean houses, and the level of exposure to HDM is clinically significant. About 40%-60% of Korean patients suffering from respiratory allergies, and more than 40% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis, are sensitized to HDM. Mite allergens can be summarized according to their inherent auto-adjuvant activities and/or their binding affinities to the adjuvant-like substances: proteolytic enzymes, lipid binding proteins, chitin binding proteins, and allergens not associated with adjuvant-like activity. In general, allergens with a strong adjuvant-like activity or adjuvant-binding activity elicit potent IgE reactivity. In Korea, Der f 2 is the most potent allergen, followed by Der f 1. Immune responses are modulated by the properties of the allergen itself and by the adjuvant-like substances that are concomitantly administered with the antigens. Characterization of allergenic molecules and elucidation of mechanisms by which adjuvant-like molecules modulate allergic reactions, not only in Korea but also worldwide, will provide valuable information on allergic diseases, and are necessary for the development of diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23115727

Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Park, Jung-Won

2012-01-01

127

House dust mite allergy in Korea: the most important inhalant allergen in current and future.  

PubMed

The house-dust mite (HDM), commonly found in human dwellings, is an important source of inhalant and contact allergens. In this report, the importance of HDM allergy in Korea and the characteristics of allergens from dust mite are reviewed with an emphasis on investigations performed in Korea. In Korea, Dermatophagoides farinae is the dominant species of HDM, followed by D. pteronyssinus. Tyrophagus putrescentiae is also found in Korea, but its role in respiratory allergic disease in Korea is controversial. The relatively low densities of mite populations and concentrations of mite major allergens in dust samples from Korean homes, compared to westernized countries, are thought to reflect not only different climatic conditions, but also cultural differences, such as the use of 'ondol' under-floor heating systems in Korean houses. HDM are found in more than 90% of Korean houses, and the level of exposure to HDM is clinically significant. About 40%-60% of Korean patients suffering from respiratory allergies, and more than 40% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis, are sensitized to HDM. Mite allergens can be summarized according to their inherent auto-adjuvant activities and/or their binding affinities to the adjuvant-like substances: proteolytic enzymes, lipid binding proteins, chitin binding proteins, and allergens not associated with adjuvant-like activity. In general, allergens with a strong adjuvant-like activity or adjuvant-binding activity elicit potent IgE reactivity. In Korea, Der f 2 is the most potent allergen, followed by Der f 1. Immune responses are modulated by the properties of the allergen itself and by the adjuvant-like substances that are concomitantly administered with the antigens. Characterization of allergenic molecules and elucidation of mechanisms by which adjuvant-like molecules modulate allergic reactions, not only in Korea but also worldwide, will provide valuable information on allergic diseases, and are necessary for the development of diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23115727

Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Park, Jung-Won; Hong, Chein-Soo

2012-11-01

128

Differences in Metal Concentration by Particle Size in House Dust and Soil  

PubMed Central

The majority of particles that adhere to hands are <63 ?m in diameter yet risk assessments for soil remediation are typically based on soil samples sieved to <250 ?m. The objective of our study was to determine if there is a significant difference in metal concentration by particle size in both house dust and soil. We obtained indoor dust and yard soil samples from 10 houses in Tucson, Arizona. All samples were sieved to <63 ?m and 63 to <150 ?m and analyzed for 30 elements via ICP-MS following nitric acid digestion. We conducted t-tests of the log-transformed data to assess for significant differences that were adjusted with a Bonferroni correction to account for multiple comparisons. In house dust significant differences in concentration were observed for Be, Al, and Mo between particles sizes, with a higher concentration observed in the smaller particles size. Significant differences were also determined for Mg, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Ge, Zr, Ag, Ba, and Pb concentration in yard soil samples, with the higher concentration observed in the smaller particles size for each element. The results of this exploratory study indicate that current risk assessment practices for soil remediation may under estimate non-dietary ingestion exposure. This is of particular concern for young children who are more vulnerable to this exposure route due to their high hand mouthing frequencies. Additional studies with a greater number of samples and wider geographic distribution with different climates and soil types should be completed to determine the most relevant sampling practices for risk assessment. PMID:22245917

Elish, Christina A.; Roe, Denise J.; Loh, Miranda; Layton, David W.

2013-01-01

129

Assessment of cross-reactivity among five species of house dust and storage mites.  

PubMed

In vitro cross-reactivity among two house dust (Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus) and three storage (Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Lepidoglyphus destructor) mites was examined in 20 mite-sensitive dogs with natural occurring atopic dermatitis (group A), 13 high-IgE beagles experimentally sensitized to D. farinae (group B), and five healthy beagles (group C). Intradermal testing (IDT) and serology for allergen-specific IgE demonstrated that co-sensitization for all possible pairs of the five mites was generally 45% or higher among group A dogs. In the same dogs, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay cross-inhibition results indicated that each one of D. farinae, A. siro and T. putrescentiae was a strong inhibitor of all the remaining mites, whereas D. pteronyssinus was a strong inhibitor of L. destructor. A high number of positive IDT and serology test results for D. pteronyssinus, A. siro, T. putrescentiae and L. destructor were recorded among group B dogs. No conclusive evidence of exposure to these mites was found upon analysis of dust samples from their environment and their food for the presence of mites and guanine. Also, the number of positive test results was generally higher among group B than among group C dogs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay cross-inhibition revealed that D. farinae was a strong inhibitor of D. pteronyssinus, A. siro and T. putrescentiae. Collectively, these results demonstrated extensive in vitro cross-reactivity among house dust and/or storage mites that can explain false-positive results upon testing of dust mite-sensitive dogs with atopic dermatitis. PMID:18336423

Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Marsella, Rosanna; Lee, Kenneth W; Esch, Robert E; Farmaki, Rania; Koutinas, Alexander F

2008-04-01

130

Characterizing the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR?) Ligand Binding Potential of Several Major Flame Retardants, Their Metabolites, and Chemical Mixtures in House Dust  

PubMed Central

Background: Accumulating evidence has shown that some environmental contaminants can alter adipogenesis and act as obesogens. Many of these contaminants act via the activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) nuclear receptor. Objectives: Our goal was to determine the PPAR? ligand binding potency of several major flame retardants, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), halogenated phenols and bisphenols, and their metabolites. Ligand binding activity of indoor dust and its bioactivated extracts were also investigated. Methods: We used a commercially available fluorescence polarization ligand binding assay to investigate the binding potency of flame retardants and dust extracts to human PPAR? ligand-binding domain. Rosiglitazone was used as a positive control. Results: Most of the tested compounds exhibited dose-dependent binding to PPAR?. Mono(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate, halogenated bisphenols and phenols, and hydroxylated PBDEs were found to be potent PPAR? ligands. The most potent compound was 3-OH-BDE-47, with an IC50 (concentration required to reduce effect by 50%) of 0.24 ?M. The extent of halogenation and the position of the hydroxyl group strongly affected binding. In the dust samples, 21 of the 24 samples tested showed significant binding potency at a concentration of 3 mg dust equivalent (DEQ)/mL. A 3–16% increase in PPAR? binding potency was observed following bioactivation of the dust using rat hepatic S9 fractions. Conclusion: Our results suggest that several flame retardants are potential PPAR? ligands and that metabolism may lead to increased binding affinity. The PPAR? binding activity of house dust extracts at levels comparable to human exposure warrants further studies into agonistic or antagonistic activities and their potential health effects. Citation: Fang M, Webster TF, Ferguson PL, Stapleton HM. 2015. Characterizing the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR?) ligand binding potential of several major flame retardants, their metabolites, and chemical mixtures in house dust. Environ Health Perspect 123:166–172;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408522 PMID:25314719

Fang, Mingliang; Webster, Thomas F.; Ferguson, P. Lee

2014-01-01

131

Beta(1-->3)-glucan in house dust of German homes: housing characteristics, occupant behavior, and relations with endotoxins, allergens, and molds.  

PubMed Central

beta(1-->3)-Glucans are potent proinflammatory agents that have been suggested to play a role in indoor-related respiratory health effects. The aim of this study was to assess whether beta(1-->3)-glucan concentrations in house dust are correlated with levels of endotoxins, allergens, and culturable mold spore counts in house dust. Further, the associations of beta(1-->3)-glucan with housing characteristics and occupant behavior were assessed. beta(1-->3)-Glucan was measured in settled house dust from living room floors of 395 homes of two German cities, Erfurt and Hamburg, with a specific enzyme immunoassay. Concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to 19,013 microg/m(2) (22,588 microg/g dust). Concentrations per square meter were found to be correlated with endotoxins, mite and cat allergens, and culturable mold spores. Correlations were weaker when concentrations were expressed per gram of dust, indicating that variance in concentrations of all factors is largely determined by the amount of dust sampled. Associations between beta(1-->3)-glucan, housing characteristics, and occupant behavior were found for concentrations per square meter but not for concentrations per gram of dust. The following characteristics were associated with a significant increase in beta(1-->3)-glucan levels: carpets in the living room [means ratio (MR) = 1.9-2.1], keeping a dog inside (MR = 1.4), use of the home by four or more persons (MR = 1.4), use of the living room for > 180 hr/week (MR = 2.1), lower frequency of vacuum cleaning (MR = 1.6-3.0) and dust cleaning (MR = 1.2 and 1.4, respectively), and presence of mold spots during the past 12 months (MR = 1.4). We conclude that that the amount of dust sampled can be used as a proxy for hygiene and that beta(1-->3)-glucan concentrations per square meter are related to the amount of dust sampled. PMID:11266323

Gehring, U; Douwes, J; Doekes, G; Koch, A; Bischof, W; Fahlbusch, B; Richter, K; Wichmann, H E; Heinrich, J

2001-01-01

132

Evaluation of HEPA vacuum cleaning and dry steam cleaning in reducing levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and house dust mite allergens in carpets  

PubMed Central

Dry steam cleaning, which has gained recent attention as an effective method to reduce house dust mite (HDM) allergen concentration and loading in carpets, was evaluated in this study for its efficacy in lowering levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as HDM allergens. Fifty urban homes with wail-to-wall carpets, mostly low-income and with known lead contamination, were studied in 2003 and 2004. Two carpet-cleaning interventions were compared: Repeated HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air filtered) vacuuming alone and repeated HEPA vacuuming supplemented with dry steam cleaning. Vacuum samples were collected to measure carpet loading of dust and contaminants immediately before and after cleaning. Paired comparisons were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the cleaning protocols in reducing the levels of PAHs and HDM allergens in carpets. The results indicated that both cleaning methods substantially reduced the loading of PAHs and HDM allergens as well as dust in carpets (p < 0.0001). The reductions in loading of dust (64.4%), PAHs (69.1%), and HDM allergens (85.5%), by dry steam cleaning plus repetitive HEPA vacuuming were larger than the reductions by regular HEPA vacuuming alone: dust (55.5%), PAHs (58.6%), and HDM allergens (80.8%), although the difference was statistically significant only for dust and PAHs. We conclude that intensive HEPA vacuum cleaning substantially reduced the loading of PAHs and HDM allergens in carpets in these urban homes and that dry steam cleaning added modestly to cleaning effectiveness. PMID:19137159

Yu, Chang Ho; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Rhoads, George G.

2014-01-01

133

Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... can become contaminated from household dust or exterior soil. Both are known lead sources. Regularly wet-mop ... entering the house to prevent bringing lead-contaminated soil in from outside. Prevent children from playing in ...

134

Exposure to house dust phthalates in relation to asthma and allergies in both children and adults.  

PubMed

Although an association between exposure to phthalates in house dust and childhood asthma or allergies has been reported in recent years, there have been no reports of these associations focusing on both adults and children. We aimed to investigate the relationships between phthalate levels in Japanese dwellings and the prevalence of asthma and allergies in both children and adult inhabitants in a cross-sectional study. The levels of seven phthalates in floor dust and multi-surface dust in 156 single-family homes were measured. According to a self-reported questionnaire, the prevalence of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis in the 2 years preceding the study was 4.7%, 18.6%, 7.6%, and 10.3%, respectively. After evaluating the interaction effects of age and exposure categories with generalized liner mixed models, interaction effects were obtained for DiNP and bronchial asthma in adults (Pinteraction=0.028) and for DMP and allergic rhinitis in children (Pinteraction=0.015). Although not statistically significant, children had higher ORs of allergic rhinitis for DiNP, allergic conjunctivitis for DEHP, and atopic dermatitis for DiBP and BBzP than adults, and liner associations were observed (Ptrend<0.05). On the other hand, adults had a higher OR for atopic dermatitis and DEHP compared to children. No significant associations were found in phthalates levels collected from multi-surfaces. This study suggests that the levels of DMP, DEHP, DiBP, and BBzP in floor dust were associated with the prevalence of allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis in children, and children are more vulnerable to phthalate exposure via household floor dust than are adults. The results from this study were shown by cross-sectional nature of the analyses and elaborate assessments for metabolism of phthalates were not considered. Further studies are needed to advance our understanding of phthalate toxicity. PMID:24704966

Ait Bamai, Yu; Shibata, Eiji; Saito, Ikue; Araki, Atsuko; Kanazawa, Ayako; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Nakayama, Kunio; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Takigawa, Tomoko; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Chikara, Hisao; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kishi, Reiko

2014-07-01

135

The Effectiveness of Acupuncture Compared to Loratadine in Patients Allergic to House Dust Mites  

PubMed Central

Background. The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture and its impact on the immune system in comparison to loratadine in the treatment of persistent allergic rhinitis caused by house dust mites. Methods. In this study, 24 patients suffering from persistent allergic rhinitis induced by house dust mites were treated either with acupuncture (n = 15) or with loratadine (n = 9). The evaluation of the data was based on the subjective and the objective rhinoconjunctivitis symptom scores, specific and total IgE, and interleukins (IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-?) as markers for the activity of Th1 or Th2 cells. Results. The treatments with acupuncture as well as with loratadine were considered effective in the patients' subjective assessment, whereby the effect of the acupuncture tended to be assessed as more persistent after the end of treatment. A change in the specific or the total IgE was not detectable in either group. The interleukin profile showed the tendency of an increasing IL-10 value in the acupuncture group. The results of the study show that the effectiveness of acupuncture is comparable to that of loratadine. Conclusion. Acupuncture is a clinically effective form of therapy in the treatment of patients suffering from persistent allergic rhinitis. The results indicate the probability of an immunomodulatory effect. PMID:24995021

Hauswald, Bettina; Dill, Christina; Boxberger, Jürgen; Kuhlisch, Eberhard; Zahnert, Thomas; Yarin, Yury M.

2014-01-01

136

Respiratory allergy caused by house dust mites: What do we really know?  

PubMed

The house dust mite (HDM) is a major perennial allergen source and a significant cause of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. However, awareness of the condition remains generally low. This review assesses the links between exposure to HDM, development of the allergic response, and pathologic consequences in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We investigate the epidemiology of HDM allergy to explore the interaction between mites and human subjects at the population, individual, and molecular levels. Core and recent publications were identified by using "house dust mite" as a key search term to evaluate the current knowledge of HDM epidemiology and pathophysiology. Prevalence data for HDM allergen sensitization vary from 65 to 130 million persons in the general population worldwide to as many as 50% among asthmatic patients. Heterogeneity of populations, terminology, and end points in the literature confound estimates, indicating the need for greater standardization in epidemiologic research. Exposure to allergens depends on multiple ecological strata, including climate and mite microhabitats within the domestic environment, with the latter providing opportunity for intervention measures to reduce allergen load. Inhaled mite aeroallergens are unusually virulent: they are able to activate both the adaptive and innate immune responses, potentially offering new avenues for intervention. The role of HDM allergens is crucial in the development of allergic rhinitis and asthma, but the translation of silent sensitization into symptomatic disease is still incompletely understood. Improved understanding of HDMs, their allergens, and their microhabitats will enable development of more effective outcomes for patients with HDM allergy. PMID:25457152

Calderón, Moisés A; Linneberg, Allan; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; De Blay, Frédéric; Hernandez Fernandez de Rojas, Dolores; Virchow, Johann Christian; Demoly, Pascal

2014-11-22

137

Exposure assessment to airborne endotoxin, dust, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in open style swine houses.  

PubMed

Information is limited for the exposure levels of airborne hazardous substances in swine feed buildings that are not completely enclosed. Open-style breeding, growing and finishing swine houses in six farms in subtropical Taiwan were studied for the airborne concentrations of endotoxin, dust, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The air in the farrowing and nursery stalls as partially enclosed was also simultaneously evaluated. Three selected gases and airborne dusts were quantified respectively by using Drager diffusion tubes and a filter-weighing method. Endotoxin was analyzed by the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Average concentration of airborne total endotoxin among piggeries was between 36.8 and 298 EU/m(3), while that for respirable endotoxin was 14.1-129 EU/m(3). Mean concentration of total dust was between 0.15 and 0.34 mg/m(3), with average level of respirable dust of 0.14 mg/m(3). The respective concentrations of NH3, CO2 and H2S were less than 5 ppm, 600-895 ppm and less than 0.2 ppm. Airborne concentrations of total dust and endotoxin in the nursery house were higher than in the other types of swine houses. The finishing house presented the highest exposure risk to NH3, CO2 and H2S. Employees working in the finishing stalls were also exposed to the highest airborne levels of respirable endotoxin and dust. On the other hand, the air of the breeding units was the least contaminated in terms of airborne endotoxin, dust, NH3, CO2 and H2S. The airborne concentrations of substances measured in the present study were all lower than most of published studies conducted in mainly enclosed swine buildings. Distinct characteristics, including maintaining swine houses in an open status and frequent spraying water inside the stalls, significantly reduce accumulation of gases and airborne particulates. PMID:11513795

Chang, C W; Chung, H; Huang, C F; Su, H J

2001-08-01

138

Dustborne Alternaria alternata antigens in U.S. homes: Results from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing  

PubMed Central

Background: Alternaria alternata is one of the most common fungi associated with allergic disease. However, Alternaria exposure in indoor environments is not well characterized. Objective: The primary goals of this study were to examine the prevalence of Alternaria exposure and identify independent predictors of Alternaria antigen concentrations in U.S. homes. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. A nationally representative sample of 831 housing units in 75 different locations throughout the U.S. completed the survey. Information on housing and household characteristics was obtained by questionnaire and environmental assessments. Concentrations of Alternaria antigens in dust collected from various indoor sites were assessed with a polyclonal anti-Alternaria antibody assay. Results: Alternaria antigens were detected in most (95-99%) of the dust samples. The geometric mean concentration, reflecting the average Alternaria concentration in homes, was 4.88 ?g/g (SE=0.13 ?g/g). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the age of the housing unit, geographic region, urbanization, poverty, family race, observed mold and moisture problems, use of dehumidifier, and presence of cats and dogs were independent predictors of Alternaria antigen concentrations. Less frequent cleaning and smoking indoors also contributed to higher Alternaria antigen levels in homes. Conclusion: Exposure to Alternaria alternata antigens in U.S. homes is common. Antigen levels in homes are not only influenced by regional factors but also by residential characteristics. Preventing mold and moisture problems, avoiding smoking indoors, and regular household cleaning may help reduce exposure to Alternaria antigens indoors. PMID:16159634

Salo, Päivi M.; Yin, Ming; Arbes, Samuel J.; Cohn, Richard D.; Sever, Michelle; Muilenberg, Michael; Burge, Harriet A.; London, Stephanie J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

2005-01-01

139

Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in house dust and residential soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and carcinogenic PAH (C-PAH) were evaluated. The testing procedures were refined for application to screening PAH and C-PAH in house dust and soil samples for human exposure studies. The overall method precision expressed as percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) of triplicate real world dust and soil samples

Jane C Chuang; Mary A Pollard; Ying-Liang Chou; Ronald G Menton; Nancy K Wilson

1998-01-01

140

Brominated flame retardants and other polyhalogenated compounds in indoor air and dust from two houses in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed polyhalogenated compounds (PHCs) such as brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor air and dust samples from two modern homes in Japan. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) in exhaust and indoor air of two houses were detected at 102–103pgm?3 order, which were well above those in outdoor air. For dust samples, the detected polybrominated diphenyl

Hidetaka Takigami; Go Suzuki; Yasuhiro Hirai; Shin-ichi Sakai

2009-01-01

141

IN-HOUSE CORROSION RESEARCH EMPHASIZING LEAD, COPPER AND IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead and copper are directly regulated via the "Lead and Copper Rule;" however, water suppliers must balance all water treatment processes in order to simultaneously comply with all regulations. Specific research needs for copper and lead chemistry still exist, as applications o...

142

Testing Your Home for Lead in Paint, Dust, and Soil  

MedlinePLUS

... once used in plumbing and lead leaked into drinking water. Water testing is not routinely conducted by certified ... testing for lead in water, call the EPA Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791 . What About ...

143

Utilizing Pyrosequencing and Quantitative PCR to Characterize Fungal Populations among House Dust Samples  

PubMed Central

Molecular techniques are replacing culturing and counting methods in quantifying indoor fungal contamination. Pyrosequencing offers the possibility of identifying unexpected indoor fungi. In this study, 50 house dust samples were collected from homes in the Yakima Valley, WA. Each sample was analyzed by quantitative PCR (QPCR) for 36 common fungi and by fungal tag-encoded flexible (FLX) amplicon pyrosequencing (fTEFAP) for these and additional fungi. Only 24 of the samples yielded amplified results using fTEFAP but QPCR successfully amplified all 50 samples. Over 450 fungal species were detected by fTEFAP but most were rare. Twenty-two fungi were found by fTEFAP to occur with at least an average of ? 0.5% relative occurrence. Many of these fungi seem to be associated with plants, soil or human skin. Combining fTEFAP and QPCR can enhance studies of fungal contamination in homes. PMID:22767010

Nonnenmann, Matthew W.; Coronado, Gloria; Thompson, Beti; Griffith, William C.; Hanson, John Delton; Vesper, Stephen; Faustman, Elaine M.

2014-01-01

144

Pesticides in house dust from urban and farmworker households in California: an observational measurement study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies report that residential use of pesticides in low-income homes is common because of poor housing conditions and pest infestations; however, exposure data on contemporary-use pesticides in low-income households is limited. We conducted a study in low-income homes from urban and agricultural communities to: characterize and compare house dust levels of agricultural and residential-use pesticides; evaluate the correlation of pesticide concentrations in samples collected several days apart; examine whether concentrations of pesticides phased-out for residential uses, but still used in agriculture (i.e., chlorpyrifos and diazinon) have declined in homes in the agricultural community; and estimate resident children's pesticide exposures via inadvertent dust ingestion. Methods In 2006, we collected up to two dust samples 5-8 days apart from each of 13 urban homes in Oakland, California and 15 farmworker homes in Salinas, California, an agricultural community (54 samples total). We measured 22 insecticides including organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diazinon-oxon, malathion, methidathion, methyl parathion, phorate, and tetrachlorvinphos) and pyrethroids (allethrin-two isomers, bifenthrin, cypermethrin-four isomers, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, imiprothrin, permethrin-two isomers, prallethrin, and sumithrin), one phthalate herbicide (chlorthal-dimethyl), one dicarboximide fungicide (iprodione), and one pesticide synergist (piperonyl butoxide). Results More than half of the households reported applying pesticides indoors. Analytes frequently detected in both locations included chlorpyrifos, diazinon, permethrin, allethrin, cypermethrin, and piperonyl butoxide; no differences in concentrations or loadings were observed between locations for these analytes. Chlorthal-dimethyl was detected solely in farmworker homes, suggesting contamination due to regional agricultural use. Concentrations in samples collected 5-8 days apart in the same home were strongly correlated for the majority of the frequently detected analytes (Spearman ? = 0.70-1.00, p < 0.01). Additionally, diazinon and chlorpyrifos concentrations in Salinas farmworker homes were 40-80% lower than concentrations reported in samples from Salinas farmworker homes studied between 2000-2002, suggesting a temporal reduction after their residential phase-out. Finally, estimated non-dietary pesticide intake for resident children did not exceed current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) recommended chronic reference doses (RfDs). Conclusion Low-income children are potentially exposed to a mixture of pesticides as a result of poorer housing quality. Historical or current pesticide use indoors is likely to contribute to ongoing exposures. Agricultural pesticide use may also contribute to additional exposures to some pesticides in rural areas. Although children's non-dietary intake did not exceed U.S. EPA RfDs for select pesticides, this does not ensure that children are free of any health risks as RfDs have their own limitations, and the children may be exposed indoors via other pathways. The frequent pesticide use reported and high detection of several home-use pesticides in house dust suggests that families would benefit from integrated pest management strategies to control pests and minimize current and future exposures. PMID:21410986

2011-01-01

145

Progress in the development of specific immunotherapies for house dust mite allergies.  

PubMed

Allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to treat patients exposed and co-sensitized to the two common house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae. Based on seroepidemiological studies and a detailed characterization of mite allergens, an optimal immunotherapeutic product should associate extracts from the two Dermatophagoides species, and include both bodies and fecal particles. Both subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapies performed with aqueous mite extracts are safe and efficacious in children and adults with mite-induced rhinitis and/or asthma. Double-blind placebo-controlled studies are conducted to further document the efficacy of immunotherapeutic products, with promising results that were obtained already with sublingual tablets. Current developments of second-generation products relying upon recombinant allergens and peptides are reviewed. PMID:25187166

Moingeon, Philippe

2014-12-01

146

Molecular Determinants for Antibody Binding on Group 1 House Dust Mite Allergens  

SciTech Connect

House dust mites produce potent allergens, Der p 1 and Der f 1, that cause allergic sensitization and asthma. Der p 1 and Der f 1 are cysteine proteases that elicit IgE responses in 80% of mite-allergic subjects and have proinflammatory properties. Their antigenic structure is unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of natural Der p 1 and Der f 1 in complex with a monoclonal antibody, 4C1, which binds to a unique cross-reactive epitope on both allergens associated with IgE recognition. The 4C1 epitope is formed by almost identical amino acid sequences and contact residues. Mutations of the contact residues abrogate mAb 4C1 binding and reduce IgE antibody binding. These surface-exposed residues are molecular targets that can be exploited for development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Pomés, Anna; Glesner, Jill; Vailes, Lisa D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Heymann, Peter W.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Minor, Wladek; Chapman, Martin D. (INDOOR Bio.); (UV); (UVHS)

2012-07-11

147

Use of fluorinated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and simplified cleanup for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in house dust  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple, cost-effective method is described for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house dust using pressurized fluid extraction, cleanup with modified silica solid phase extraction tubes, and fluorinated internal standards. There are 14 PBDE congeners inc...

148

Comparison of the Allergic Responses Induced by PeniciIlium chrysogenum and House Dust Mite Extracts in a Mouse Model  

EPA Science Inventory

A report by the Institute of Medicine suggested that more research is needed to better understand mold effects on allergic disease, particularly asthma development. We compared the ability of the fungal Penicillium chrysogenum (PCE) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to induce al...

149

Acaricidal activities against house dust mites of spearmint oil and its constituents.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activities of spearmint oil and carvone derivatives against house dust mites using contact and fumigant toxicity bioassays to replace benzyl benzoate as a synthetic acaricide. Based on the LD50 values, the contact toxicity bioassay revealed that dihydrocarvone (0.95 and 0.88?µg/cm2) was 7.7 and 6.8 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (7.33 and 6.01?µg/cm2) against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, respectively, followed by carvone (3.78 and 3.23?µg/cm2), spearmint oil (5.16 and 4.64?µg/cm2), carveol (6.00 and 5.80?µg/cm2), and dihydrocarveol (8.23 and 7.10?µg/cm2). Results of the fumigant toxicity bioassay showed that dihydrocarvone (2.73 and 2.16?µg/cm2) was approximately 4.0 and 4.8 times more effective than benzyl benzoate (11.00 and 10.27?µg/cm2), followed by carvone (6.63 and 5.78?µg/cm2), carveol (7.58 and 7.24?µg/cm2), spearmint oil (9.55 and 8.10?µg/cm2), and dihydrocarveol (9.79 and 8.14?µg/cm2). Taken together, spearmint oil and carvone derivatives are a likely viable alternative to synthetic acaricides for managing house dust mites. PMID:24488719

Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Sung-Eun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2014-02-01

150

House Dust Concentrations of Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Relation to Hormone Levels and Semen Quality Parameters  

PubMed Central

Background Organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP), are commonly used as additive flame retardants and plasticizers in a wide range of materials. Although widespread human exposure to OP flame retardants is likely, there is a lack of human and animal data on potential health effects. Objective We explored relationships of TDCPP and TPP concentrations in house dust with hormone levels and semen quality parameters. Methods We analyzed house dust from 50 men recruited through a U.S. infertility clinic for TDCPP and TPP. Relationships with reproductive and thyroid hormone levels, as well as semen quality parameters, were assessed using crude and multivariable linear regression. Results TDCPP and TPP were detected in 96% and 98% of samples, respectively, with widely varying concentrations up to 1.8 mg/g. In models adjusted for age and body mass index, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in TDCPP was associated with a 3% [95% confidence interval (CI), ?5% to ?1%) decline in free thyroxine and a 17% (95% CI, 4–32%) increase in prolactin. There was a suggestive inverse association between TDCPP and free androgen index that became less evident in adjusted models. In the adjusted models, an IQR increase in TPP was associated with a 10% (95% CI, 2–19%) increase in prolactin and a 19% (95% CI, ?30% to ?5%) decrease in sperm concentration. Conclusion OP flame retardants may be associated with altered hormone levels and decreased semen quality in men. More research on sources and levels of human exposure to OP flame retardants and associated health outcomes are needed. PMID:20194068

Meeker, John D.; Stapleton, Heather M.

2010-01-01

151

Effectiveness of education for control of house dust mites and cockroaches in Seoul, Korea  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the efficacy of health education in reducing indoor arthropod allergens in Seoul. The mite control measures comprised the use of mite-proof mattress and pillow coverings, regular washing of potentially infested materials, maintenance of a low humidity, removal of carpets, and frequent vacuum cleaning. Cockroach control measures included trapping, application of insecticides, and protecting food. Of 201 homes enrolled in October 1999, 63 volunteers were included in a 2-year follow-up survey between April 2000 and January 2002. Before intervention, the density of mites/g of dust varied greatly; 27.1/g in children's bedding, 20/g in adult bedding, 7.2/g on the floors of children's bedrooms, 6.8/g in sofas, 5.9/g on the floors of adult's bedrooms, 3.9/g on living room floors, 3.7/g in carpets, and 1.9 mites/g on kitchen floors. The predominant mite species and house percentages infested were; Dermatophagoides farinae 93%, D. pteronyssinus 9%, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae 8%. Comparing 1999 and 2001 infestations, before and after 25 mo of education, mite abundance was reduced by 98%, from 23.7 to 0.57 mites/g of dust. In 1999, cockroaches were detected in 62% homes: 36% Blattella germanica and 35% Periplaneta spp., including 9% double infestations of B. germanica and P. americana. Following intervention, cockroach infestation rates decreased to 22% of houses in 2000 and 23% in 2001. We conclude that continuous and repetitive health education resulted in the effective control of domestic arthropods. PMID:16514286

Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Lee, In-Yong; Lee, Jongweon; Ree, Han-Il; Hong, Chein-Soo

2006-01-01

152

Lead (Pb) in old Antarctic ice: Some from dust, some from other sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recently published data on amounts and isotopic compositions of lead (Pb) and on amounts of mineral dust in pre-industrial Antarctic ice can be further interpreted by means of simple calculations. These show that two distinct types of Pb were provided by the atmosphere to the continent in varying proportions during Pleistocene and Holocene time. One type of Pb is that contained in the mineral lattices of dust. It has non-radiogenic isotopic proportions. The other type of Pb is not associated with dust minerals, is more radiogenic, and is consistent with an origin in emissions from ocean island volcanoes worldwide, or from some Antarctic volcanoes.

Hinkley, T.

2007-01-01

153

IN-HOUSE COPPER AND LEAD SOLUBILITY/CORROSION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding and predicting metal release from pipes of all sizes and types from the treatment plant to the consumer?s tap is critical, specifically for regulatory compliance with the Lead and Copper Rule, as well as the performance, corrosion morphology, and longevity of infras...

154

[Assessing lead cancerogenic effects affecting printing house workers].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the level of risk of occupational cancer among compositors exposed to inorganic lead. A total of 216 men and 423 women were included in the cohort and followed up from 1 January 1979 to 31 December 1993. There were 2759 person-years among males and 6050 person-years among females. Among men, employed as compositors, there was a significantly elevated mortality from pancreas cancer. We have found two deaths from kidney cancer occurred exclusively among women-compositors with exposure 20 years or more yielding significantly increased SMR of 10.0. PMID:12298412

Il'icheva, S A; Bul'bulian, M A; Zaridze, D G

2002-01-01

155

Tracing geogenic and anthropogenic sources in urban dusts: Insights from lead isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracing the source of metals in the environment is critical to understanding their pollution level and fate. Geologic materials are an important source of airborne particulate matter, but the contribution of contaminated soil to concentrations of Pb in airborne dust is not yet widely documented. To examine the potential significance of this mechanism, surface soil samples were collected, as well as wind-transported dust trapped at 1 and 2 m height at seven different locations including residential, industrial, high-traffic and rural sites. Samples of dust deposited on roofs from 24 schools were also obtained and analyzed for Pb isotope ratios. Spatial distribution of Pb of airborne and sedimented dust suggests a process dominated by re-suspension/sedimentation, which was controlled by erosion, traffic and topography of the urban area. Anthropogenic lead input in the city grades outward the urban zone toward geogenic values. Our results shows that Pb-isotopic signatures of leaded gasoline are imprinted in dust sedimented on roofs. Considering that leaded-gasoline has not been in use in Mexico since two decades ago, this signature shows not only a Pb-legacy in soil, but also a re-suspension process affecting air column below 3 m in height. The combination of the 207Pb/206Pb data of the surrounding rocks and urban dust, reveal three well-defined zones with remarkable anthropogenic influence, which correspond to the oldest urban sectors. This work highlights the importance of spatial characterization of metals in particles suspended below a height of 3 m of the airborne column, a fact that should be considered to identify exposure paths to humans and the potential risks. Lead isotope signatures allowed the identification of geogenic and anthropogenic emission sources for dust, a matter that deserves consideration in the efforts to control airborne metal emissions.

Del Rio-Salas, R.; Ruiz, J.; De la O-Villanueva, M.; Valencia-Moreno, M.; Moreno-Rodríguez, V.; Gómez-Alvarez, A.; Grijalva, T.; Mendivil, H.; Paz-Moreno, F.; Meza-Figueroa, D.

2012-12-01

156

House dust bioactivities predict skin prick test reactivity for children with high risk of allergy  

PubMed Central

Background Although evidence suggests that ambient exposures to endotoxin and other immunostimulants during early life influence allergic risk, efforts to understand this host-environment relationship have been hampered by a paucity of relevant assays. Objectives These investigations determined whether parameters of house dust extract (HDE) bioactivity were predictive of allergen skin prick test (SPT) reactivity for infants at high risk of allergy participating in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS). Methods We conducted a nested case-control study, selecting 99 CCAAPS children who had positive SPT results to at least 1 aeroallergen at age 3 years and 101 subjects with negative SPT results. HDEs were prepared from dust samples collected from the subjects' homes at age 1 year. Murine splenocytes and bone marrow–derived dendritic cells were incubated with HDEs, and supernatant cytokine concentrations were determined by means of ELISA. Alternatively, bone marrow–derived dendritic cells were preincubated with HDEs, and then LPS-induced IL-6 responses were assessed. HDE endotoxin levels were determined by using the limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Results HDEs derived from the homes of children with positive (cases) and negative (control subjects) SPT results had similar bioactivities. However, when cases were considered in isolation, HDEs with higher levels of bioactivity were significantly associated with children who had lower numbers of positive SPT results. Analogous statistical analyses did not identify any association between HDE endotoxin levels and the aeroallergen sensitization profiles of children included in this study. Conclusion HDE immunostimulatory activities predicted the aeroallergen sensitization status of CCAAPS subjects better than HDE endotoxin levels. These results provide the first published evidence that HDE bioassays have clinical relevance in predicting atopic risk. PMID:22385634

Kim, Haejin; Tse, Kevin; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Reponen, Tiina; LeMasters, Grace; Lummus, Zana; Horner, Anthony A.

2013-01-01

157

Lead in housing paints: an exposure source still not taken seriously for children lead poisoning in China.  

PubMed

After prohibitions on lead gasoline additives, which have proved to be a public health accomplishment world wide, many countries focus on other exposure source of children lead poisoning. Removing lead from paints is one of the important measures. Although there have been regulatory limits on lead in paints in China, evidence reported in this article indicates that lead-based paints were very common in new paints available for housing and in existing residential paints. Twenty-nine of 58 new paint samples (50%) had lead content equal to or exceeding 600 ppm, including 14 (24%) equal to or exceeding 5000 ppm. The highest sample contained 153,000 ppm lead, about 15% of the paint weight. Thirty-two new paints (55%) contained "soluble" lead exceeding 90 ppm, the current lead limit on paints in China. Of the existing paints, 16 of 28 samples of existing paint (57%) collected from 24 kindergartens and primary schools had lead concentrations equal to or exceeding 600 ppm, including six samples (21%) equal to or exceeding 5000 ppm. The highest concentration sample contained 51,800 ppm lead, accounting for 5.2% of the paint weight. It has been shown in many areas that paint lead is a major exposure source for lead poisoning in children. This is particularly true after the phasing out of lead from gasoline. Effective limitation on lead content in new paint, and lead hazard control measures directed towards existing paint, could reduce children blood lead levels (BLLs). There has been a lead standard for paints in China since 1986 and a stricter limit was introduced in recent years. Governments should take it seriously and enforce regulations, commit a long-term challenge to eliminate paint lead as it is the threat to current and the next generation. PMID:18976991

Lin, G Z; Peng, R F; Chen, Q; Wu, Z G; Du, L

2009-01-01

158

Relative exposure of children to lead from dust and drinking water.  

PubMed

The Blackpool, Wyre and Fylde Health Authority, in the North West of England, could be described as a "low-level lead exposure area." Primary sources of lead exposure are atmospheric fallout (both indoors and outdoors) and potable water consumption. Deciduous teeth were collected from children living in this area as were water samples and outdoor dust samples. Both total lead concentrations and 206Pb:207Pb ratios were determined for a defined subset of teeth. Significant differences in the total lead concentrations were found for teeth collected from children resident in different targeted areas (i.e., Blackpool, Fleetwood, and Garstang). No significant differences were found between the total lead concentrations or the 206Pb:207Pb ratios from dust and water samples in these areas. Examination of the 206Pb:207Pb ratios for dust, water, and teeth obtained from each area separately revealed differing patterns of exposure to lead. Determination of 206Pb:207Pb ratios, in addition to total lead concentrations, enabled the differences in sources of exposure to be identified in these communities. The authors conclude that isotopic analyses are an important aspect of community survey work, and these analyses can be helpful in accurately targeting intervention strategies aimed at reducing exposure to lead. PMID:8250590

Alexander, L M; Heaven, A; Delves, H T; Moreton, J; Trenouth, M J

1993-01-01

159

Importance of house dust and storage mites in canine atopic dermatitis in the geographic region of Galicia, Spain.  

PubMed

Sensitisation to mites is frequent in atopic dogs. The main mite genus involved in canine atopic dermatitis is Dermatophagoides. The importance of storage mite allergens in dogs has been controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitisation rates against storage mites (Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and house dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus) in atopic dogs from Galicia, a highly humid and temperate region of Spain, using a FcepsilonRIalpha-based immunoglobulin E (IgE) in vitro test. The study was performed on 95 dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis and presenting detectable specific serum IgE levels: 91.6% of the dogs tested positive for storage mites, whereas sensitisation to house dust mites was detected in 87.4%. These results indicate the importance of storage mites in this specific geographic area. PMID:18669243

Goicoa, Ana; Espino, Luciano; Rodriguez, Isabel; Puigdemont, Anna; Brazis, Pilar; Rejas, Juan

2008-06-01

160

Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)  

PubMed Central

The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC 50 of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC 50 values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove, matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids, cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus. PMID:17111463

Saad, El-Zemity; Hussien, Rezk; Saher, Farok; Ahmed, Zaitoon

2006-01-01

161

Orchestration of an uncommon maturation cascade of the house dust mite protease allergen quartet.  

PubMed

In more than 20% of the world population, sensitization to house dust mite allergens triggers typical allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Amongst the 23 mite allergen groups hitherto identified, group 1 is cysteine proteases belonging to the papain-like family whereas groups 3, 6, and 9 are serine proteases displaying trypsin, chymotrypsin, and collagenolytic activities, respectively. While these proteases are more likely to be involved in the mite digestive system, they also play critical roles in the initiation and in the chronicity of the allergic response notably through the activation of innate immune pathways. All these allergenic proteases are expressed in mite as inactive precursor form. Until recently, the exact mechanisms of their maturation into active proteases remained to be fully elucidated. Recent breakthroughs in the understanding of the activation mechanisms of mite allergenic protease precursors have highlighted an uncommon and unique maturation pathway orchestrated by group 1 proteases that tightly regulates the proteolytic activities of groups 1, 3, 6, and 9 through complex intra- or inter-molecular mechanisms. This review presents and discusses the currently available knowledge of the activation mechanisms of group 1, 3, 6, and 9 allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus laying special emphasis on their localization, regulation, and interconnection. PMID:24744761

Dumez, Marie-Eve; Herman, Julie; Campizi, Vincenzo; Galleni, Moreno; Jacquet, Alain; Chevigné, Andy

2014-01-01

162

House Dust Mite Induced Lung Inflammation Does Not Alter Circulating Vitamin D Levels  

PubMed Central

Low circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with chronic lung diseases such as asthma. However, it is unclear whether vitamin D is involved in disease pathogenesis or is modified by the inflammation associated with the disease process. We hypothesized that allergic inflammation decreases the level of circulating 25(OH)D and tested this using a mice model of house dust mite (HDM) induced allergic airway inflammation. Cellular influx was measured in bronchoalvelar lavage (BAL) fluid, and allergic sensitization and 25(OH)D levels were measured in serum. Exposure to HDM caused a robust inflammatory response in the lung that was enhanced by prior influenza infection. These responses were not associated with any change in circulating levels of 25(OH)D. These data suggest that alterations in circulating 25(OH)D levels induced by Th-2 driven inflammation are unlikely to explain the cross-sectional epidemiological association between vitamin D deficiency and asthma. PMID:25391140

Chen, Ling; Perks, Kara L.; Stick, Stephen M.; Kicic, Anthony; Larcombe, Alexander N.; Zosky, Graeme

2014-01-01

163

A milestone in house dust-mite-allergen immunotherapy: the new sublingual tablet S-524101 (actair).  

PubMed

Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy has long been used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and/or asthma and its efficacy has been confirmed. However, due to the discomfort of injections and the risk of severe adverse reactions, alternative routes of allergen administration have emerged. Delivery of allergens through the mucosal route had been proposed and investigated thoroughly, confirming the sublingual route to be the most efficacious. Later, the efficacy and safety of this route have been documented by numerous controlled trials both for house dust mite (HDM) and pollens. Recently, sublingual orodispersable grass pollen allergen tablets were in use followed by the newly developed HDM allergen tablets with satisfactory clinical results: Moreover, very recently 1 year of HDM tablet treatment was demonstrated to exert its clinical efficacy 1 year after discontinuation of tablet IT. The persistence of efficacy after only 1 year of treatment is a new and promising era. Currently, Sublingual Immunotherapy is the most easily administered and safe treatment option until more immunogenic, less allergenic and more efficient allergen extracts are developed. PMID:25345538

Bahceciler, Nerin N; Babayigit Hocaoglu, Arzu; Galip, Nilufer

2014-12-01

164

Double blind trial of ionisers in children with asthma sensitive to the house dust mite.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--Manufacturers of ionisers claim many benefits from the use of their devices, including the relief of asthma. Particles removed from the air are likely to include airborne allergens, so ionisers may achieve an effect by reducing the allergen load. METHODS--The effect of ionisers on airborne concentrations of house dust mite allergen Der p I was investigated in a double blind, crossover, placebo controlled trial in the homes of 20 children with allergic asthma. Subjects recorded their peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) twice daily and completed a daily symptom score and treatment schedule on a diary card for two six week periods, one with an active ioniser and the other with a placed ioniser (randomly allocated) used in the living room and the bedroom. RESULTS--Airborne Der p I concentrations fell significantly during the active period compared with the placebo period, but there was no significant change in PEFR, symptom scores, or treatment usage. There was an increase in night time cough which almost reached significance during the active period. CONCLUSIONS--This study indicates that the use of ionisers cannot be recommended in the homes of asthmatic subjects to improve their symptoms. The significant reduction of airborne allergen concentrations may be of use as part of a multidevice allergen avoidance regimen, but the increase in night time cough requires further study. PMID:8511730

Warner, J A; Marchant, J L; Warner, J O

1993-01-01

165

Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Results Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites. PMID:23569794

Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

2011-01-01

166

Inhaled house dust mite induces pulmonary T helper 2 cytokine production  

PubMed Central

Background Inhaled house dust mite (HDM) results in T-helper (TH) 2 type pathology in unsensitized mice, in conjunction with airway hyperreactivity and airway remodelling. However, the pulmonary cytokine and chemokine profile has not been reported. Methods We have performed a time course analysis of the characteristic molecular mediators and cellular influx in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung in order to define the pulmonary inflammatory response to inhaled HDM extract. Mice were exposed five times a week to soluble HDM extract for 3 weeks. Lung function was measured in groups of mice at intervals following the final HDM challenge. Recruitment of inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediator production was then assessed in BAL and lungs of individual mice. Results We found that Th2 cytokines were significantly increased in BAL and lung after HDM challenge from as early as 2 h post-final challenge. The levels of cytokines and chemokines correlated with the influx of eosinophils and Th2 cells to the different compartments of the lung. However, the production of key cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 preceded the increase in airways resistance. Conclusion Inhaled HDM challenge induces a classical Th2 inflammatory mediator profile in the BAL and lung. These data are important for studies determining the efficacy of novel treatment strategies for allergic airways disease. PMID:19545261

Gregory, L. G.; Causton, B.; Murdoch, J. R.; Mathie, S. A.; O’Donnell, V.; Thomas, C. P.; Priest, F. M.; Quint, D. J.; Lloyd, C. M.

2012-01-01

167

Orchestration of an Uncommon Maturation Cascade of the House Dust Mite Protease Allergen Quartet  

PubMed Central

In more than 20% of the world population, sensitization to house dust mite allergens triggers typical allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Amongst the 23 mite allergen groups hitherto identified, group 1 is cysteine proteases belonging to the papain-like family whereas groups 3, 6, and 9 are serine proteases displaying trypsin, chymotrypsin, and collagenolytic activities, respectively. While these proteases are more likely to be involved in the mite digestive system, they also play critical roles in the initiation and in the chronicity of the allergic response notably through the activation of innate immune pathways. All these allergenic proteases are expressed in mite as inactive precursor form. Until recently, the exact mechanisms of their maturation into active proteases remained to be fully elucidated. Recent breakthroughs in the understanding of the activation mechanisms of mite allergenic protease precursors have highlighted an uncommon and unique maturation pathway orchestrated by group 1 proteases that tightly regulates the proteolytic activities of groups 1, 3, 6, and 9 through complex intra- or inter-molecular mechanisms. This review presents and discusses the currently available knowledge of the activation mechanisms of group 1, 3, 6, and 9 allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus laying special emphasis on their localization, regulation, and interconnection. PMID:24744761

Dumez, Marie-Eve; Herman, Julie; Campizi, Vincenzo; Galleni, Moreno; Jacquet, Alain; Chevigné, Andy

2014-01-01

168

Exposure assessment of organophosphorus and organobromine flame retardants via indoor dust from elementary schools and domestic houses.  

PubMed

To assess the exposure of flame retardants (FRs) for school-children, organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) and organobromine flame retardants (BFRs) were determined in the indoor dust samples collected from elementary schools and domestic houses in Japan in 2009 and 2010. PFRs were detected in all the dust samples analyzed and the highest concentration of total PFRs was thousand-fold higher than that of BFRs. Among the PFRs, tris(butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBOEP) showed the highest concentration with a median (med.) of 270000ngg(-1) dry weight (3700-5500000ngg(-1) dry weight), followed by tris(methylphenyl)phosphate (TMPPs)>triphenyl phosphate (TPHP)=tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCIPP)=tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCIPP)=tris(2chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP)>ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP). Significantly higher concentrations of TBOEP, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), TPHP, TMPPs, and total-PFRs were found in dust samples from elementary schools than from domestic houses. It might be due to that higher concentrations of TBOEP (as leveling agent) were detected from the floor polisher/wax products collected in those elementary schools. On the other hand, significantly higher concentrations of TCEP, TCIPPs, and total chloroalkyl-PFRs were found in domestic houses than in elementary schools. Exposure assessments of PFRs via indoor dust from elementary schools and domestic houses were conducted by calculating the hazard quotient (HQ). Among PFRs, HQs for TBOEP exceeded 1 (higher than reference dose: RfD) and its highest value was 1.9. To reduce the intake of TBOEP by school-children, it is recommended that the use of floor polisher/wax containing TBOEP be reduced in schools. PMID:25532762

Mizouchi, Shigekazu; Ichiba, Masayoshi; Takigami, Hidetaka; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Miyajima, Toru; Kodama, Hiroki; Someya, Takashi; Ueno, Daisuke

2015-03-01

169

A major house dust mite allergen disrupts the immunoglobulin E network by selectively cleaving CD23: innate protection by antiproteases  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a chronic life-threatening disease of worldwide importance. Although allergic asthma and related atopic conditions correlate strongly with immune sensitization to house dust mites, it is unclear why antigens from mites provoke such powerful allergic immune responses. We have characterized the protease activity of Der p I, the group I protease allergen of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and here report that it cleaves the low-affinity immunoglobulin (Ig) E Fc receptor (CD23) from the surface of human B lymphocytes. Der p I selectively cleaves CD23 and has no effect on the expression of any other B cell surface molecules tested. We speculate that this loss of cell surface CD23 from IgE-secreting B cells may promote and enhance IgE immune responses by ablating an important feedback inhibitory mechanism that normally limits IgE synthesis. Furthermore, since soluble CD23 is reported to promote IgE production, fragments of CD23 released by Der p I may directly enhance the synthesis of IgE. alpha 1-Antiprotease, a pulmonary antiprotease, is also shown to inhibit the cleavage of CD23 by Der p I. This may be significant in the etiopathogenesis of asthma, because other indoor pollutants associated with asthma are known to potently inhibit this antiprotease. These data suggest that the proteolytic activity of Der p I, the group I allergen of the house dust mite D. pteronyssinus, is mechanistically linked to the potent allergenicity of house dust mites. Furthermore, inhibition of Der p I by alpha 1-antiprotease suggests a mechanism by which confounding factors, such as tobacco smoke, may act as a risk factor for allergic asthma. PMID:7595223

1995-01-01

170

Childhood lead poisoning in Massachusetts communities: its association with sociodemographic and housing characteristics.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between communities' sociodemographic and housing characteristics and incidence of lead poisoning. METHODS. This was a population-based correlational study of 238,275 Massachusetts children from birth through 4 years of age who were screened for lead poisoning in 1991-1992. A logistic regression model was developed with the community as the unit of analysis, the case identification rate for lead poisoning (newly identified children with venous blood lead > or = 25 micrograms/dL per 1000 children) as the dependent variable, and US census variables as independent variables. RESULTS. A significant independent relationship with the community case identification rate of lead poisoning was found for seven variables: median per capita income, percentage of housing built before 1950, percentage of the population who were Black, percentage of children screened, and a "poverty index." Rates of iron deficiency and percentage of Hispanics were not associated with the case identification rate of lead poisoning. CONCLUSIONS. Massachusetts communities' incidence of lead poisoning is correlated with sociodemographic and housing characteristics. In states similar to Massachusetts and without screening data, this model may help target screening programs. PMID:7702117

Sargent, J D; Brown, M J; Freeman, J L; Bailey, A; Goodman, D; Freeman, D H

1995-01-01

171

Molecular Basis of Arthropod Cross-Reactivity: IgE-Binding Cross-Reactive Epitopes of Shrimp, House Dust Mite and Cockroach Tropomyosins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Shrimp may cross-react with other crustaceans and mollusks and nonedible arthropods such as insects (cockroach and chironomids), arachnids (house dust mites) and even nematodes. Since the muscle protein tropomyosin has been implicated as a possible cross-reacting allergen, this study characterized the IgE-binding epitopes in shrimp tropomyosin, Pen a 1, that cross-react with other allergenic invertebrate tropomyosins in house dust

Rosalia Ayuso; Gerald Reese; Susan Leong-Kee; Matthew Plante; Samuel B. Lehrer

2002-01-01

172

The Indoor Level of House Dust Mite Allergen Is Associated with Severity of Atopic Dermatitis in Children  

PubMed Central

We attempted to investigate the correlation between the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) in children and the indoor level of house dust mite (HDM) allergens. Ninety-five patients (31.1 ± 19.5 months of age) with AD were enrolled in this study, and serum specific IgE against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae was measured. The severity of AD was assessed using the visual analogue scale on the same day of house dust collection. Living rooms and mattresses where the child usually slept were vacuumed for 2 minutes and concentrations of Der f 1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The skin symptoms were more severe in patients with Der f 1 concentrations in living room > 2 µg/g dust than ? 2 µg/g dust (P = 0.018). This difference was noted in AD patients without sensitization to HDM (P = 0.004), but not in patients with sensitization. There was no difference in symptom severity according to Der f 1 concentrations in mattresses (P = 0.062). The severity of skin symptoms is associated with indoor concentrations of HDM in children with AD, and it is likely to act as nonspecific irritants as well as allergens in AD skin lesions. PMID:23341715

Kim, Jihyun; Lee, Sangwoon; Woo, Sook-young; Han, Youngshin; Lee, Jung Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Lim, In-Seok; Choi, Eung-Sang; Choi, Byoung-Whi; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lee, Sang-Il

2013-01-01

173

House dust exposure mediates gut microbiome Lactobacillus enrichment and airway immune defense against allergens and virus infection  

PubMed Central

Exposure to dogs in early infancy has been shown to reduce the risk of childhood allergic disease development, and dog ownership is associated with a distinct house dust microbial exposure. Here, we demonstrate, using murine models, that exposure of mice to dog-associated house dust protects against ovalbumin or cockroach allergen-mediated airway pathology. Protected animals exhibited significant reduction in the total number of airway T cells, down-regulation of Th2-related airway responses, as well as mucin secretion. Following dog-associated dust exposure, the cecal microbiome of protected animals was extensively restructured with significant enrichment of, amongst others, Lactobacillus johnsonii. Supplementation of wild-type animals with L. johnsonii protected them against both airway allergen challenge or infection with respiratory syncytial virus. L. johnsonii-mediated protection was associated with significant reductions in the total number and proportion of activated CD11c+/CD11b+ and CD11c+/CD8+ cells, as well as significantly reduced airway Th2 cytokine expression. Our results reveal that exposure to dog-associated household dust results in protection against airway allergen challenge and a distinct gastrointestinal microbiome composition. Moreover, the study identifies L. johnsonii as a pivotal species within the gastrointestinal tract capable of influencing adaptive immunity at remote mucosal surfaces in a manner that is protective against a variety of respiratory insults. PMID:24344318

Fujimura, Kei E.; Demoor, Tine; Rauch, Marcus; Faruqi, Ali A.; Jang, Sihyug; Johnson, Christine C.; Boushey, Homer A.; Zoratti, Edward; Ownby, Dennis; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Lynch, Susan V.

2014-01-01

174

Reactivity to intradermal injections of extracts of house dust and housedust mite in healthy dogs and dogs suspected of being atopic.  

PubMed

Fifty dogs underwent intradermal allergy testing with housedust mite and house dust extracts, using concentrations recommended by the manufacturer. Twelve dogs (group I) were healthy dogs obtained from a pound; 12 dogs (group II) were healthy, privately owned dogs; 15 dogs (group III) were suspected of being atopic and had had multiple positive reactions to intradermal injections of allergens of specific trees, weeds, grasses, or molds; and 11 dogs (group IV) were suspected of being atopic, but only had had positive reactions to intradermal injections of housedust mite, house dust, and flea antigen extracts. Use of the concentrations of housedust mite and house dust extracts currently recommended for intradermal allergy testing resulted in false-positive reactions in 14 of 24 (58%) and 12 of 24 (50%) healthy dogs tested, respectively. Differences in number of dogs with positive reactions or grade of reaction to housedust mite or house dust allergens were not detected between groups of healthy dogs (groups I vs II), between groups of suspected atopic dogs (groups III vs IV), or between healthy dogs and dogs suspected of being atopic (groups I and II vs III and IV). Therefore, clinical importance of positive results of intradermal allergy testing of house dust or housedust mite allergens was equivocal for dogs suspected of being atopic. Threshold concentrations for intradermal allergy testing were determined in 24 healthy dogs (group I and II) by intradermal administration of 5 dilutions each of housedust mite extract and house dust extract.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7759333

Codner, E C; Tinker, M K

1995-03-15

175

Hexavalent chromium in house dust — A comparison between an area with historic contamination from chromate production and background locations  

PubMed Central

In contrast to Cr+ 3, Cr+ 6 is carcinogenic and allergenic. Although Cr+ 6 can occur naturally, it is thought that most soil Cr+ 6 is anthropogenic, however, the extent of Cr+ 6 in the background environment is unknown. Cr+ 6-containing chromite ore processing residue (COPR) from chromate manufacture was deposited in numerous locations in Jersey City (JC), New Jersey. In the 1990’s, significantly elevated concentrations of total Cr (Cr+ 6+Cr+ 3) were found in house dust near COPR sites. We undertook a follow-up study to determine ongoing COPR exposure. We compared Cr+6 in house dust in JC to selected background communities with no known sources of Cr+ 6. Samples were collected from living areas, basements and window wells. Cr+6 was detected in dust from all JC and background houses. In the JC homes, the mean (±SD) Cr+ 6 concentration for all samples was 3.9±7.0 ?g/g (range: non-detect–90.4 ?g/g), and the mean Cr+ 6 loading was 5.8±15.7 ?g/m2 (range: non-detect–196.4 ?g/m2). In background homes, the mean Cr+ 6 concentrations of all samples was 4.6±7.8 ? ?g/g, (range, 0.05–56.6 ?g/g). The mean loading was 10.0±27.9 ?g/m2 (range, 0.22–169.3 ?g/m2). There was no significant difference between Cr+ 6 dust concentrations in Jersey City and background locations. Stratification by sample location within houses and sampling method gave similar results. Samples exceeding 20 ?g/g were obtained only from single wood surfaces in different homes. Lower concentrations in window well samples suggests transport from outside is not the major source of indoor Cr+ 6. Landscaping and groundcover may influence indoor Cr+6. There appears to be a widespread low level background of Cr+ 6 that is not elevated in Jersey City homes despite its historic COPR contamination. It is possible that house dust, in general, is a source of Cr+ 6 exposure with potential implications for persistence of chromium allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:20692023

Stern, Alan H.; Yu, Chang Ho; Black, Kathleen; Lin, Lin; Lioy, Paul J.; Gochfeld, Michael; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina)

2014-01-01

176

IgE cross-reactivity between house dust mite allergens and Ascaris lumbricoides antigens  

PubMed Central

Background Common antigens between intestinal parasites and environmental allergens may play a role in the modulation of allergic immune responses. There is a growing interest in investigating cross-reactivity between common helminths and dust mites affecting humans, particularly in the tropics. Objective This study examined the cross-reactivity between the human roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) and three house dust mite (HDM) species. Methods Specific serum IgE levels to HDM species Blomia tropicalis (Bt), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), and Dermatophagoides farinae (Df ); and Al extracts among allergic (n=100) and ascariasis (n=60) subjects were measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IgE-reactive components of HDM and Al extracts were detected through Western-Blot Analysis. Cross-reactivity between HDMs and Al was determined by ELISA inhibition using HDM and Al-specific sera from allergic (n=15) and ascariasis (n=15) subjects. The IgE-binding capacity of a recombinant paramyosin peptide (Blo t 11-fD) to allergic (n=50) and ascariasis (n=50) subjects' sera were likewise determined. Results Among allergic subjects, 70% exhibited Al-specific positive IgE-reactivity, while 20-28% of ascariasis subjects demonstrated HDM-specific positive IgE-reactivity. Multiple IgE-reactive components of HDM allergens (14-240 kDa) and Al antigens (15-250 kDa) were detected, indicating multi-allergen sensitization among the subjects tested. Al antigens can inhibit up to 92% of HDM-specific IgE-reactivity among allergic subjects, while up to 54% of Al-specific IgE-reactivity among ascariasis subjects was inhibited by HDM allergens. Positive rBlo t 11-fD-specific IgE reactivity was observed in 80% of the allergic subjects and 46% of the ascariasis subjects. Conclusions This study showed the presence of multiple cross-reactive antigens in HDM and Al extracts. Identification of these molecules may provide basis for designing novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The potential role of paramyosin as a specific cross-reactive allergen present in HDMs and Al has been shown. PMID:22348205

Cauyan, Gil A.; Ramos, John Donnie A.

2012-01-01

177

Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A major source of environmental lead, particularly in urban areas, has been from the combustion of leaded petrol. Street dust has previously been used to assess urban lead contamination, and the dust itself can also be a potential source of lead ingestion, particularly to children. The progressive reduction of lead in petrol, in recent years, would be expected to have been reflected in a reduction of lead in urban dust. We have tested this hypothesis by repeating an earlier survey of Manchester street dust and carrying out a comparable survey in Paris. Samples were collected from streets and parks, lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid and determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead isotope ratios were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Manchester show that lead concentrations have fallen by about 40% (street dust averages, 941 micrograms g-1 (ppm) in 1975 down to 569 ppm in 1997). In Paris, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between types of street (not seen in Manchester). Additionally, lead levels in parks were much lower than in Manchester. Samples collected under the Eiffel Tower had very high concentrations and lead isotope ratios showed that this was unlikely to be fallout from motor vehicles but could be due to the paint used on the tower. Isotope ratios measurements also revealed that lead additives used in France and the UK come from different sources. PMID:9581021

Nageotte, S M; Day, J P

1998-01-01

178

The association between state housing policy and lead poisoning in children.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effect of an active program of household lead paint hazard abatement, applied over 22 years, on childhood lead poisoning in Massachusetts. METHODS: A small areas analysis was used to compare screening blood lead levels of children in Worcester County, Mass (n = 27,590), with those in Providence County, RI (n = 19,071). Data were collapsed according to census tract. RESULTS: The percentage of children with lead poisoning (blood lead level > or = 20 micrograms/dL [Pe20]) was, on average, 3 times higher in Providence County census tracts (3.2% vs 0.9% in Worcester County census tracts, P < .0001), despite similar percentages of pre-1950s housing in both counties. The ratio of Pe20 in Providence vs Worcester County census tracts was 2.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.8, 2.7), after adjustment for differences in housing, sociodemographic, and screening characteristics. This estimate was robust to alternative regression methods and sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Massachusetts policy, which requires lead paint abatement of children's homes and places liability for lead paint poisoning on property owners, may have substantially reduced childhood lead poisoning in that state. PMID:10553390

Sargent, J D; Dalton, M; Demidenko, E; Simon, P; Klein, R Z

1999-01-01

179

Cognitive Factors Mediate Placebo Responses in Patients with House Dust Mite Allergy  

PubMed Central

Background Placebo effects have been reported in type I allergic reactions. However the neuropsychological mechanisms steering placebo responses in allergies are largely unknown. The study analyzed whether and to what extend a conditioned placebo response is affecting type I allergic reactions and whether this response can be reproduced at multiple occasions. Methods 62 patients with house dust mite allergy were randomly allocated to either a conditioned (n?=?25), sham-conditioned (n?=?25) or natural history (n?=?12) group. During the learning phase (acquisition), patients in the conditioned group received the H1-receptor antagonist desloratadine (5mg) (unconditioned stimulus/US) together with a novel tasting gustatory stimulus (conditioned stimulus/CS). Patients in the sham-conditioned control group received the CS together with a placebo pill. After a wash out time of 9 days patients in the conditioned and sham-conditioned group received placebo pills together with the CS during evocation. Allergic responses documented by wheal size after skin prick test and symptom scores after nasal provocation were analyzed at baseline, after last desloratadine treatment and after the 1st and 5th CS re-exposure. Results Both conditioned and sham-conditioned patients showed significantly decreased wheal sizes after the 1st CS-evocation and significantly decreased symptom scores after the 1st as well as after the 5th evocation compared to the natural history control group. Conclusions These results indicate that placebo responses in type I allergy are not primarily mediated by learning processes, but seemed to be induced by cognitive factors such as patients’ expectation, with these effects not restricted to a single evocation. PMID:24260254

Benson, Sven; Rueckert, Annika; Hillen, Uwe; Schadendorf, Dirk; Schedlowski, Manfred

2013-01-01

180

Epigenetic Alterations by DNA Methylation in House Dust Mite–Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness  

PubMed Central

Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic lung diseases, affecting 235 million individuals around the world, with its related morbidity and mortality increasing steadily over the last 20 years. Exposure to the environmental allergen, house dust mite (HDM), results in airway inflammation with a variable degree of airway obstruction. Although there has been much experimental work in the past using HDM challenge models to understand mechanistic details in allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), there has been no study on reprogramming of lung or airways mediated through epigenetic mechanisms in response to an acute HDM exposure. Male mice, 6 weeks of age, were administrated HDM extracts or saline at Days 1, 14, and 21. Exposure of mice to HDM extracts caused significant airway inflammation and increased AHR. These HDM-challenged mice also exhibited a change in global DNA methylation as compared with saline-exposed (control) mice. Next, by employing methylation-sensitive restriction fingerprinting, we identified a set of genes, showing aberrant methylation status, associated with the HDM-induced AHR. These candidate genes are known to be involved in cAMP signaling (pde4 d), Akt-signaling (akt1 s1), ion transport (tm6 sf1, pom121l2, and slc8a3), and fatty acid metabolism (acsl3). Slc8a3 and acsl3 were down-regulated, whereas pde4 d, akt1 s1, tm6 sf1, and pom121l2 were up-regulated in the mice exposed to HDM. Hence, our results suggest that HDM exposure induces a series of aberrant methylated genes that are potentially important for the development of allergic AHR. PMID:23526225

Shang, Yan; Das, Sandhya; Rabold, Richard; Sham, James S. K.; Mitzner, Wayne

2013-01-01

181

Sensitivity to Five Types of House Dust Mite in a Group of Allergic Egyptian Children  

PubMed Central

Background: The published data on house dust mite (HDM) sensitization from Egypt are scanty. We sought to investigate the sensitization to five different types of HDM among a group of allergic children in a trial to outline the most frequent sensitizing strains in the Cairo Province. Methods: We consecutively enrolled 100 asthmatic patients, aged 1–7 years, of whom 22 had concomitant skin allergy. Skin prick testing was performed using allergen extracts of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Acarus siro. Results: Twenty-four patients (24%) were sensitized to one or more strains of HDM. Sensitization to one strain was revealed in 12% of the studied sample, while sensitization to two or three strains was detected in 8% and 4% respectively. Twelve percent of the enrolled children were sensitive to D. pteronyssinus, 11% to D. farinae, 7% to L. destructor, 6% to T. putrescentiae, and 4% to A. siro. Eight out of the 12 (66%) children sensitive to one strain had mild intermittent asthma, while five out of eight (62.5%) sensitive to two strains had moderate persistent asthma. All children sensitized to three strains of HDM had persistent rather than intermittent asthma. HDM sensitization did not correlate significantly to the history of sun exposure, bed mattresses and pillows, living in farms, or exposure to stored grains. The co-existence of atopic dermatitis tended to have a higher rate of HDM sensitization. Conclusion: D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae represent the most common sensitizing strains in the studied sample. Wider-scale population-based studies are needed to assess the prevalence of HDM allergy and its clinical correlates in our country. PMID:25276487

El-Sayed, Shereen; Abdul-Rahman, Nahla

2014-01-01

182

Sensitivity to Five Types of House Dust Mite in a Group of Allergic Egyptian Children.  

PubMed

Background: The published data on house dust mite (HDM) sensitization from Egypt are scanty. We sought to investigate the sensitization to five different types of HDM among a group of allergic children in a trial to outline the most frequent sensitizing strains in the Cairo Province. Methods: We consecutively enrolled 100 asthmatic patients, aged 1-7 years, of whom 22 had concomitant skin allergy. Skin prick testing was performed using allergen extracts of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Acarus siro. Results: Twenty-four patients (24%) were sensitized to one or more strains of HDM. Sensitization to one strain was revealed in 12% of the studied sample, while sensitization to two or three strains was detected in 8% and 4% respectively. Twelve percent of the enrolled children were sensitive to D. pteronyssinus, 11% to D. farinae, 7% to L. destructor, 6% to T. putrescentiae, and 4% to A. siro. Eight out of the 12 (66%) children sensitive to one strain had mild intermittent asthma, while five out of eight (62.5%) sensitive to two strains had moderate persistent asthma. All children sensitized to three strains of HDM had persistent rather than intermittent asthma. HDM sensitization did not correlate significantly to the history of sun exposure, bed mattresses and pillows, living in farms, or exposure to stored grains. The co-existence of atopic dermatitis tended to have a higher rate of HDM sensitization. Conclusion: D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae represent the most common sensitizing strains in the studied sample. Wider-scale population-based studies are needed to assess the prevalence of HDM allergy and its clinical correlates in our country. PMID:25276487

Hossny, Elham; El-Sayed, Shereen; Abdul-Rahman, Nahla

2014-09-01

183

Gene expression in the skin of dogs sensitized to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae.  

PubMed

Atopic dermatitis is a multifactorial allergic skin disease in humans and dogs. Genetic predisposition, immunologic hyperreactivity, a defective skin barrier, and environmental factors play a role in its pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression in the skin of dogs sensitized to house dust mite antigens. Skin biopsy samples were collected from six sensitized and six nonsensitized Beagle dogs before and 6 hr and 24 hr after challenge using skin patches with allergen or saline as a negative control. Transcriptome analysis was performed by the use of DNA microarrays and expression of selected genes was validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Expression data were compared between groups (unpaired design). After 24 hr, 597 differentially expressed genes were detected, 361 with higher and 226 with lower mRNA concentrations in allergen-treated skin of sensitized dogs compared with their saline-treated skin and compared with the control specimens. Functional annotation clustering and pathway- and co-citation analysis showed that the genes with increased expression were involved in inflammation, wound healing, and immune response. In contrast, genes with decreased expression in sensitized dogs were associated with differentiation and barrier function of the skin. Because the sensitized dogs did not show differences in the untreated skin compared with controls, inflammation after allergen patch test probably led to a decrease in the expression of genes important for barrier formation. Our results further confirm the similar pathophysiology of human and canine atopic dermatitis and revealed genes previously not known to be involved in canine atopic dermatitis. PMID:25098772

Schamber, Paz; Schwab-Richards, Rachel; Bauersachs, Stefan; Mueller, Ralf S

2014-10-01

184

The effectiveness of a home cleaning intervention strategy in reducing potential dust and lead exposures.  

PubMed

The changes in dust loading, lead loading and lead concentration, determined from vacuum samples and wipe samples collected during the Childhood Lead Exposure Assessment and Reduction Study (CLEARS) were analyzed to determine the efficacy of the cleaning protocol in homes of children found to have moderate lead poisoning, e.g. levels between 10-20 micrograms/dL. The samples were collected at least twice, and in 65 homes three times, during the course of a year long intervention in homes where half were randomized into a group which received a standardized Lead Intervention program for lead reduction, and the other homes only received an Accident Intervention program. The homes with lead burdened children were located in Hudson County, New Jersey (primarily in Jersey City), and were referred to the CLEARS by a number of private and public sources. Each home had wipe sampling conducted with the LWW Sampler (patented), and vacuum sampling was completed using a device described by Wang et al. in Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. The results were compared in two ways: (1) between the two intervention groups, and (2) over the time course of the intervention period. When compared to the values seen in the first visit vacuum sampling results showed statistically significant decreases in lead loading and dust loading by the third sampling visit for the Lead Intervention homes. Substantial reductions in lead loading and dust loading were also seen when the Lead Intervention values were compared to values obtained in the Accident Intervention homes over the course of the year long intervention. The wipe sampling results for the 65 homes with three visits found no significant reductions in dust loading and lead loading among any of the room surfaces sampled in the Accident Intervention homes. There were 75% and 50% reductions observed on the window sills and on the bedroom floors of the homes which participated in the Lead Intervention. The levels in the living room and the kitchen showed very little change in loadings. This appeared to be due to the fact these rooms were near a background or baseline value of 0.3 g/cm2 and 0.12 mg/cm2 for dust loading and lead, respectively. This was substantiated by the window sills and bedroom wipe sampling results since each surface approached these values by the third visit. Significant reductions in lead concentrations found in the wipe samples from the intervention homes appeared to be related to the absence of historically active sources of lead in these homes, rather than elimination of current sources. The results of the micro-environmental sampling program in CLEARS indicated that a year long cleaning protocol can significantly decrease lead levels in rugs and on other exposed surfaces. This will reduce the potential for exposure to lead among the occupants, especially children, that come in contact with such surfaces. PMID:9470102

Lioy, P J; Yiin, L M; Adgate, J; Weisel, C; Rhoads, G G

1998-01-01

185

Concentrations of the domestic house dust mite allergen Der p I after treatment with solidified benzyl benzoate (Acarosan) or liquid nitrogen.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Various methods of killing the house dust mite to reduce exposure to allergen are being promoted even though complete data on their effects on allergen concentrations are not available. A study was designed to measure the concentrations of the main house dust mite allergen Der pI in homes treated with either solidified benzyl benzoate (Acarosan) or liquid nitrogen. METHODS: Der pI concentrations were measured in dust collected from mattresses, bedroom carpets, and living room carpets in 10 houses treated with Acarosan and 10 houses treated with liquid nitrogen. Samples were collected before the treatment (in July 1990) and three and six months afterwards (October 1990 and January 1991). Forty untreated houses were concurrently sampled as controls. RESULTS: Der pI concentrations were similar in the three groups at baseline. No significant fall was seen in either of the two treated groups three or six months after treatment. Concentrations in the control houses increased significantly--twofold to threefold in dust sampled from mattresses and bedroom carpets between baseline and October 1990. This increase was not seen in either of the treated groups of houses, but there was no significant difference in the Derp pI concentrations in these houses and the control houses from any site at any time point. CONCLUSIONS: Neither Acarosan nor liquid nitrogen reduced the concentrations of Der pI for as long as six months after application. A small effect was probably present as the rise seen in control houses in the three month samples was not found in the treated houses. This effect, however, is likely to be of little clinical importance and also to be transient as the trend was lost by six months. PMID:8434346

Kalra, S; Crank, P; Hepworth, J; Pickering, C A; Woodcock, A A

1993-01-01

186

Simultaneous determination of thirteen organophosphate esters in settled indoor house dust and a comparison between two sampling techniques.  

PubMed

An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 13 organophosphate esters (OPEs) in house dust was developed. The method is based on solvent extraction by sonication, sample cleanup by solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysis by gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/PCI-MS/MS). Method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.03 to 0.43 ?g/g and recoveries from 60% to 118%. The inter- and intra-day variations ranged from 3% to 23%. The method was applied to dust samples collected using two vacuum sampling techniques from 134 urban Canadian homes: a sample of fresh or "active" dust (FD) collected by technicians and a composite sample taken from the household vacuum cleaner (HD). Results show that the two sampling methods (i.e., FD vs HD) provided comparable results. Tributoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPhP), tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(dichloro-isopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tricresyl phosphate (TCrP), and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP) were detected in the majority of samples. The most predominant OPE was TBEP, with median concentrations of 31.9 ?g/g and 22.8 ?g/g in FD and HD samples, respectively, 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than other OPEs. The method was also applied to the analysis of OPEs in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (NIST SRM 2585, organic contaminants in house dust). The results from SRM 2585 may contribute to the certification of OPE concentration values in this SRM. PMID:24462133

Fan, Xinghua; Kubwabo, Cariton; Rasmussen, Pat E; Wu, Fang

2014-09-01

187

Sublingual allergoid immunotherapy: a new 4-day induction phase in patients allergic to house dust mites.  

PubMed

Sublingual immunotherapy with monomeric allergoid (allergoid SLIT), given according to the standard scheme, has proved effective and safe in many clinical trials. However, its build-up phase requires a long time ranging from 16 days to 14 weeks. This study therefore investigated whether, with a four-day up-dosing, the same benefit could be achieved in a shorter time. Thirty rhinitic and/or asthmatic patients (16 M and 14 F, mean age 36+/-8.2 years) allergic to house dust mites (HDM) with or without other sensitizations were randomized to allergoid SLIT or standard drug therapy. The build-up phase lasted four days. The first day the patients took a 300 AU tablet, the second day two 300 AU tablets, the third day three 300 AU tablets and the fourth day four 300 AU tablets. The total amount taken during the up-dosing was 3000 AU. Patients were then treated for 12 months at the dosage of 2000 AU/week (total amount of allergen: 104,000 AU/year). The symptom score and drug consumption were recorded from November to February on monthly diary cards. At baseline and after 12 months a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to rate the patients? well-being. Skin prick test reactivity was evaluated before and after the 12-month treatment in both groups using 10 mg/mL histamine as reference. VAS scores rose significantly (about 45%) in both groups in comparison to baseline (p=0.001). In addition, there was a significantly greater reduction of the global symptoms score (about 52%) - but not in drug consumption - in the SLIT group in comparison to controls (p=0.0004). The SLIT group showed a highly significant reduction (about 39%) in skin prick test reactivity (p=0.000003) while the control group remained unchanged (p=0.5226). No severe adverse events were observed. Even with this short four-day up-dosing, the allergoid SLIT proves to be safe. In addition, it is already effective in patients allergic to HDM after 12 months, and significantly reduces allergen-specific skin reactivity. PMID:20646350

D'Anneo, R W; Bruno, M E; Falagiani, P

2010-01-01

188

Treatment of Patients with Refractory Atopic Dermatitis Sensitized to House Dust Mites by Using Sublingual Allergen Immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Even though atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases, its treatment remains a challenge in clinical practice, with most approaches limited to symptomatic, unspecific anti-inflammatory, or immunosuppressive treatments. Many studies have shown AD to have multiple causes that activate complex immunological and inflammatory pathways. However, aeroallergens, and especially the house dust mite (HDM), play a relevant role in the elicitation or exacerbation of eczematous lesions in many AD patients. Accordingly, allergen-specific immunotherapy has been used in AD patients with the aim of redirecting inappropriate immune responses. Here, we report three cases of refractory AD sensitized to HDM who were treated with sublingual immunotherapy.

Choi, Joon-Seok; Ryu, Ha-Ryeong; Yoon, Cheol-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Baek, Jin-Ok; Roh, Joo-Young

2015-01-01

189

Chamber studies on mass-transfer of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di- n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from emission sources into house dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a number of phthalates and especially for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), surprisingly high house dust concentrations are reported in the literature. Therefore, the uptake of the most prominent compounds DEHP and di- n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from plasticized indoor materials into house dust samples of different organic content has been experimentally determined. The experiments have been performed within 45 days which is sufficient for the more volatile phthalate (DnBP) to reach equilibrium conditions. DnBP reaches considerably higher concentrations in the chamber air compared to real room measurements and, thus, also elevated dust concentrations. In contrast, the mass transfer of DEHP in the dust via the gas phase was significantly lower. However, small chamber experiments showed elevated mass transfer of DEHP in case of direct contact between emission source and sink. This aspect is experimentally determined using an plasticized PVC polymer with and without direct contact to house dust. A transfer into the dust could be observed in dependence of the initial concentration in the material. However, the results do not allow the differentiation between the two uptake mechanisms via capillary forces and contact to the material's boundary layer. The results illustrate that the reasons for elevated DEHP concentrations in dust indoors can be traced back to direct contact of source and sink, abrasion from the source, and transport via airborne particles.

Schripp, Tobias; Fauck, Christian; Salthammer, Tunga

2010-08-01

190

A new exposure metric for traffic-related air pollution? An analysis of determinants of hopanes in settled indoor house dust  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) can adversely impact health but epidemiologic studies are limited in their abilities to assess long-term exposures and incorporate variability in indoor pollutant infiltration. Methods In order to examine settled house dust levels of hopanes, engine lubricating oil byproducts found in vehicle exhaust, as a novel TRAP exposure measure, dust samples were collected from 171 homes in five Canadian cities and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. To evaluate source contributions, the relative abundance of the highest concentration hopane monomer in house dust was compared to that in outdoor air. Geographic variables related to TRAP emissions and outdoor NO2 concentrations from city-specific TRAP land use regression (LUR) models were calculated at each georeferenced residence location and assessed as predictors of variability in dust hopanes. Results Hopanes relative abundance in house dust and ambient air were significantly correlated (Pearson’s r=0.48, p<0.05), suggesting that dust hopanes likely result from traffic emissions. The proportion of variance in dust hopanes concentrations explained by LUR NO2 was less than 10% in Vancouver, Winnipeg and Toronto while the correlations in Edmonton and Windsor explained 20 to 40% of the variance. Modeling with household factors such as air conditioning and shoe removal along with geographic predictors related to TRAP generally increased the proportion of explained variability (10-80%) in measured indoor hopanes dust levels. Conclusions Hopanes can consistently be detected in house dust and may be a useful tracer of TRAP exposure if determinants of their spatiotemporal variability are well-characterized, and when home-specific factors are considered. PMID:23782977

2013-01-01

191

A side-by-side comparison of three allergen sampling methods in settled house dust.  

PubMed

Understanding allergen exposure and potential relationships with asthma requires allergen sampling methods, but methods have yet to be standardized. We compared allergen measurements from dust collected from 200 households with asthmatics and conducted a side-by-side vacuum sampling of settled dust in each home's kitchen, living room and subject's bedroom by three methods (EMM, HVS4 and AIHA). Each sample was analyzed for dust mite, cockroach, mouse, rat, cat and dog allergens. The number of samples with sufficient dust mass for allergen analysis was significantly higher for Eureka Mighty Mite (EMM) and high volume small surface sampler (HVS4) compared with American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) in all rooms and surfaces tested (all P<0.05). The allergen concentration (weight of allergen divided by total weight of dust sampled) measured by the EMM and HVS4 methods was higher than that measured by the AIHA. Allergen loadings (weight of allergen divided by surface area sampled) were significantly higher for HVS4 than for AIHA and EMM. Cockroach and rat allergens were rarely detected via any method. The EMM method is most likely to collect sufficient dust from surfaces in the home and is relatively practical and easy. The AIHA and HVS4 methods suffer from insufficient dust collection and/or difficulty in use. PMID:24802556

Sandel, Megan; Murphy, Johnna S; Dixon, Sherry L; Adgate, John L; Chew, Ginger L; Dorevitch, Samuel; Jacobs, David E

2014-11-01

192

Cycling of Lead Through Soil, Air, and Household Dust in El Paso, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elimination of leaded gasoline in the US is associated with a dramatic overall decrease in ambient lead in the environment and blood lead levels in our population. However, Pb is such a potent neurotoxin for children during the formative growth years that legislation for additional reduction of airborne lead levels is under consideration. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of a suite of samples of local (El Paso) soil, airborne particulate matter, and household dust reveals that lead humate is the dominant Pb species in these diverse environmental materials. Lead humate is a stable complex of Pb with the humus component of soil, a product of interaction between the humus and such introduced contaminant lead species as lead oxide, lead sulfate, etc. Because lead humate forms only in soil, we conclude that the source of the majority of the lead in El Paso's airborne particulate matter and household dust is local soils. Analysis of lead isotopes in selected samples is consistent with this conclusion. Re-entrainment of low-density (relative to most Pb species) humus soil particles is the apparent pathway from soil to air. Deposition of airborne particulate matter and pedal traction are the presumed mechanisms for transfer to household interiors. Reduction of airborne lead in El Paso by reducing input from its dominant local source may require extensive soil remediation, a tedious and expensive prospect. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy experiments were conducted at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on beam lines 7-3, 10-2, and 11-2. Spectra were collected at the Pb L-III absorption edge in fluorescence mode using a 13-element or a 30-element Ge solid-state detector. This publication was made possible by grant numbers 1RO1-ES11367 and 1 S11 ES013339-04 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH. Partial travel support provided by SSRL-DOE- UTEP Gateway Program.

Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J.; Amaya, M. A.

2008-12-01

193

Potential for Atmospheric-Driven Lead Paint Degradation in the South  

E-print Network

in house dust and soil is one of the leading environmental risks to the health of childreninthe granules to hands in surface contact or for deposition in house dust and soil. This study uses identifiesphotochemicaloxidantgasesascontributorstogreater lead release from indoor painted surfaces in urban areas. Introduction Childhood lead exposure can

Dabdub, Donald

194

[Polychlorinated biphenyls in house dust at an e-waste site and urban site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China: sources and human exposure and health risks].  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust from an e-waste site and urban site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China. The PCB concentrations in house dust at the e-waste site ranged from 12.4 to 87 765 ng x g(-1), with an average of 10 167 ng x g(-1). There was no significant difference in the PCB concentrations between indoor and outdoor dust. The PCB homologue pattern was dominated by tri-, penta-, hexa-, and tetra-CBs, which was not similar to that in Chinese technical PCB product. There was also no significant difference in the PCB compositions between indoor and outdoor dust. PCB sources in house dust at the e-waste site were apportioned by chemical mass balance (CMB) model. The results showed that the PCBs were derived primarily from Aroclor 1262 (36.7% ), Aroclor 1254 (26.7%), Aroclor 1242 (21.4%), and Aroclor 1248 (18.5%). The daily exposure doses were 42, 17, and 2.9 ng x (kg x d)(-1) for toddlers, children/adolescents, and adults in the e-waste area, respectively. Risk assessment indicated that the hazard quotients were higher than 1 for toddlers and children/adolescents indicating adverse effects for them. The lifetime average excess carcinogenic risk for population in the e-waste area was 4.5 x 10(-5), within the acceptable range of U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The mean concentrations of PCBs in house dust in Guangzhou was 48.7 ng x g(-1). The low PCB level is consistent with the fact that technical PCBs were not widely used in China in the past. The risks of exposure to PCBs via house dust in Guangzhou are very low. PMID:25338381

Zhu, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, She-Jun; Ding, Nan; Wang, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

2014-08-01

195

77 FR 16796 - Lead Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Activities in Target Housing and Child-Occupied Facilities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Activities in Target Housing and Child-Occupied Facilities; State...activities in target housing and child-occupied facilities under...cindy@epa.gov, or mail your computer disk to the address identified...abatements in target housing or child-occupied facilities or...

2012-03-22

196

24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...activities under NAHASDA? Yes, lead-based paint requirements apply to housing...

2013-04-01

197

24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...activities under NAHASDA? Yes, lead-based paint requirements apply to housing...

2011-04-01

198

24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...activities under NAHASDA? Yes, lead-based paint requirements apply to housing...

2012-04-01

199

24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...activities under NAHASDA? Yes, lead-based paint requirements apply to housing...

2010-04-01

200

24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...  

...2014-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...activities under NAHASDA? Yes, lead-based paint requirements apply to housing...

2014-04-01

201

Levels of non-polybrominated diphenyl ether brominated flame retardants in residential house dust samples and fire station dust samples in California.  

PubMed

Eleven novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were analyzed in dust samples from California homes as a part of the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS) and from the living quarters of California fire stations as a part of the Firefighter Occupational Exposure (FOX) study using high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The eleven NBFRs were ?- and ?-1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (?- and ?-DBE-DBCH), 2-bromoallyl 2,3,6-tribromophenylether (BATE), pentabromotoluene (PBT), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), 2,3-dibromopropyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-DBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP), and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE). Six of the seven NBFRs that are produced in relatively small quantities (i.e., ?-, ?-DBE-DBCH, BATE, PBEB, PBT, TBP-DBPE) were measured close to or below the limit of quantitation (0.64ng/g) in both the NCCLS and FOX samples, and the seventh, HBB, was measured at median concentrations of 1.85ng/g and 9.40ng/g in the NCCLS and FOX samples, respectively. The remaining four NBFRs, EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP, BTBPE, and DBDPE, are produced in higher quantities, and were detected at median concentrations of 337ng/g, 186ng/g, 22.3ng/g, and 82.8ng/g, respectively in the NCCLS samples, and at median concentrations of 2687ng/g, 2076ng/g, 28.4ng/g, and 161ng/g, respectively, in the FOX samples. Concentrations of NBFRs in the NCCLS and FOX dust samples were several times lower than concentrations of PBDEs previously measured in the same samples. Concentrations of NBFRs in the NCCLS and FOX dust samples were generally comparable to concentrations of NBFRs in other studies of house dust from the US and Canada. PMID:25261858

Brown, F Reber; Whitehead, Todd P; Park, June-Soo; Metayer, Catherine; Petreas, Myrto X

2014-11-01

202

Real-time PCR detection of environmental mycobacteria in house dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysing the number and species of microbes in indoor dust is needed for assessment of human exposure to microbes in dwellings. Environmental mycobacteria are common heterotrophic bacteria in both natural and man-made environments and potential inducers of human immune system. Culture of mycobacteria from samples rich with other microbes is difficult due to the slow growth rate of mycobacteria and

Eila Torvinen; Pirjo Torkko

2010-01-01

203

House Dust Endotoxin and Wheeze in the First Year of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined endotoxin exposure and wheezing episodes during the first year of life in a birth cohort of 499 infants with one or both parents having a history of asthma or allergy. We measured endotoxin in settled dust from the baby's bed, bedroom floor, family room, and kitchen floor within the first 3 mo after birth. The primary outcomes were

JU-HYEONG PARK; DIANE R. GOLD; DONNA L. SPIEGELMAN; HARRIET A. BURGE; DONALD K. MILTON

2001-01-01

204

Exposure to herbicides in house dust and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

We examine the association between exposure to herbicides and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Dust samples were collected from homes of 269 ALL cases and 333 healthy controls (<8 years of age at diagnosis/reference date and residing in same home since diagnosis/reference date) in California, using a high-volume surface sampler or household vacuum bags. Amounts of agricultural or professional herbicides (alachlor, metolachlor, bromoxynil, bromoxynil octanoate, pebulate, butylate, prometryn, simazine, ethalfluralin, and pendimethalin) and residential herbicides (cyanazine, trifluralin, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), mecoprop, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), chlorthal, and dicamba) were measured. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Models included the herbicide of interest, age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, year and season of dust sampling, neighborhood type, and residence type. The risk of childhood ALL was associated with dust levels of chlorthal; compared to homes with no detections, ORs for the first, second, and third tertiles were 1.49 (95% CI: 0.82-2.72), 1.49 (95% CI: 0.83-2.67), and 1.57 (95% CI: 0.90-2.73), respectively (P-value for linear trend=0.05). The magnitude of this association appeared to be higher in the presence of alachlor. No other herbicides were identified as risk factors of childhood ALL. The data suggest that home dust levels of chlorthal, and possibly alachlor, are associated with increased risks of childhood ALL. PMID:23321862

Metayer, Catherine; Colt, Joanne S; Buffler, Patricia A; Reed, Helen D; Selvin, Steve; Crouse, Vonda; Ward, Mary H

2013-07-01

205

Quantification of Ergosterol and 3Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Settled House Dust by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Comparison with Fungal Culture and Determination of Endotoxin by a Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids, chemical markers for fungal biomass and the endotoxin of gram- negative bacteria, respectively, may be useful in studies of health effects of organic dusts, including domestic house dust. This paper reports a method for the combined determination of ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in a single dust sample and a comparison of these chemical biomarkers

ANITA SARAF; LENNART LARSSON; HARRIET BURGE; DONALD MILTON

206

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS OF SOIL OR HOUSE DUST SAMPLES USING CHLORPYRIFOS ELISA SAMPLES (BCO-L-1.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

This abstract is included for completeness of documentation, but this SOP was not used in the study. The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for analyzing both Stage II and Stage III soil and vacuum-cleaner collected house dust samples, and Stage III air samples u...

207

CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMEDIATE AND LATE PHASE AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE CHALLENGE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS AND CORRELATIONS AMONG PHYSIOLOGICAL MEDIATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMEDIATE AND LATE PHASE AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE CHALLENGE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS AND CORRELATIONS AMONG PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MEDIATORS (P. SinghI, D.W. Winsett2, M.J. Daniels2, J. Richards2, K. Crissman2, D.L. Doerfler2 and M.I. Gilmour2, 1NCSU, Ra...

208

NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--ANALYSIS OF HOUSE DUST FOR ARSENIC (RTI/ACS-AP-209-121)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this protocol is to provide guidelines for the analysis of wipes that were used in Lioy-Wainman-Weisel (LWW) surface samplers to collect house dust for arsenic (As). This method involves the extraction of the analyte from wipe samples using 50% ultra-pure nitric ac...

209

Eighteen-month outcomes of house dust mite avoidance and dietary fatty acid modification in the childhood asthma prevention study (CAPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Observational studies have linked house dust mite (HDM) exposure and dietary fatty acid intake with asthma in childhood. However, definitive evidence of their role in the etiology of asthma requires a randomized controlled trial. Objective: We hypothesized that the incidence of asthma and allergy in high-risk children would be reduced by avoidance of HDM allergens, supplementation with omega-3 fatty

Seema Mihrshahi; Jennifer K. Peat; Guy B. Marks; Craig M. Mellis; Euan R. Tovey; Karen Webb; Warwick J. Britton; Stephen R. Leeder

2003-01-01

210

Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), as evidenced by data from a duplicate diet study, indoor air, house dust, and biomonitoring in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are used as flame retardants in a wide variety of products. As part of the Integrated Exposure Assessment Survey (INES), this study aimed to characterize the exposure of an adult German population using duplicate diet samples, which were collected daily over seven consecutive days, and indoor air and house dust measurements. Our study population consisted of

Hermann Fromme; Wolfgang Körner; Nabil Shahin; Antonia Wanner; Michael Albrecht; Sigrun Boehmer; Harun Parlar; Richard Mayer; Bernhard Liebl; Gabriele Bolte

2009-01-01

211

Fungal extracellular polysaccharides in house dust as a marker for exposure to fungi: Relations with culturable fungi, reported home dampness, and respiratory symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between indoor fungal growth and respiratory symptoms. However, in only a few studies was fungal exposure actually measured. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the measurement by enzyme immunoassay of extracellular polysaccharides of Aspergillus and Penicillium species (EPS-Asp\\/Pen ) in house dust as a marker for fungal exposure and to

Jeroen Douwes; Betty van der Sluis; Gert Doekes; Frans van Leusden; Luc Wijnands; Rob van Strien; Arnoud Verhoeff; Bert Brunekreef

1999-01-01

212

Effect of cosensitization with buckwheat flour extract on the production of house dust mite-specific IgE.  

PubMed

There are studies reporting food sensitization in infancy increases the risk of sensitization to inhalants later in life. We performed a study to evaluate whether cosensitization with buckwheat (BW) has an effect on the production of house dust mite-IgE. C3H/HeJ mice (4 weeks, female) were sensitized with house dust mite (HDM)/Al (OH)(3), intraperitoneally on day 0, followed by 4 intranasal sensitizations (on days 14, 15, 16, and 21). Group 1 was cosensitized intragastrically with BW/cholera toxin (CT) (on days 0, 1, 2, 7, and 18) during sensitization with HDM, group 2 was cosensitized intragastrically with CT only (on days 0, 1, 2, 7, and 18), and group 3 was used as controls. HDM- and BW-IgE and antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were evaluated. In Group 1, BW-IgE levels were highest at week 4, and the HDM-IgE at week 3 (98.45+/-64.37 ng/mL and 169.86+/-55.54 ng/mL, respectively). In Group 2, HDM-IgE levels reached a peak at week 3, remarkably higher (810.52+/-233.29 ng/mL) compared to those of Group 1 (169.86+/-55.54 ng/mL). The interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-beta in the HDM-stimulated culture supernatants of splenocytes were not significantly different among groups. We postulate that the cosensitization with BW may down-regulate the specific IgE response to HDM. PMID:17449923

Shin, Youn Ho; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Oh, Sejo; Lee, Kyung Eun; Yong, Tae Soon; Park, Jung Won; Hong, Chein Soo; Kim, Kyu Earn; Lee, Soo Young

2007-04-01

213

Effect of Cosensitization with Buckwheat Flour Extract on the Production of House Dust Mite-specific IgE  

PubMed Central

There are studies reporting food sensitization in infancy increases the risk of sensitization to inhalants later in life. We performed a study to evaluate whether cosensitization with buckwheat (BW) has an effect on the production of house dust mite-IgE. C3H/HeJ mice (4 weeks, female) were sensitized with house dust mite (HDM)/Al (OH)3, intraperitoneally on day 0, followed by 4 intranasal sensitizations (on days 14, 15, 16, and 21). Group 1 was cosensitized intragastrically with BW/cholera toxin (CT) (on days 0, 1, 2, 7, and 18) during sensitization with HDM, group 2 was cosensitized intragastrically with CT only (on days 0, 1, 2, 7, and 18), and group 3 was used as controls. HDM- and BW-IgE and antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were evaluated. In Group 1, BW-IgE levels were highest at week 4, and the HDM-IgE at week 3 (98.45±64.37 ng/mL and 169.86±55.54 ng/mL, respectively). In Group 2, HDM-IgE levels reached a peak at week 3, remarkably higher (810.52±233.29 ng/mL) compared to those of Group 1 (169.86±55.54 ng/mL). The interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-? in the HDM-stimulated culture supernatants of splenocytes were not significantly different among groups. We postulate that the cosensitization with BW may down-regulate the specific IgE response to HDM. PMID:17449923

Shin, Youn Ho; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Oh, Sejo; Lee, Kyung Eun; Yong, Tae Soon; Park, Jung Won; Hong, Chein Soo; Kim, Kyu-Earn

2007-01-01

214

Acaricidal activities of major constituents of essential oil of Juniperus chinensis leaves against house dust and stored food mites.  

PubMed

The acaricidal activities of major constituents from the oil of Juniperus chinensis (var. globosa) leaves were compared with those of DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) by using impregnated fabric disk bioassay against Dermatophagoides spp. and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. Toxicity varied with doses as well as chemical composition. The 50% lethal doses (LD50) of J. chinensis oil against Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and T. putrescentiae were 21.60, 19.89, and 38.10 microg/cm2, respectively. The active constituent was purified using silica gel chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The acaricidal component was identified as bomyl acetate through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR, 1H-13C shift correlation spectrum-NMR, and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer-NMR. The LD50 of bornyl acetate (2.94 microg/cm2) against D. farinae was significantly lower than those of DEET (37.13 microg/cm2) and alpha-eudesmol (29.72 microg/cm2). Similar results were observed when bomyl acetate and alpha-eudesmol were tested against D. pteronyssinus and T. putrescentiae. The lower LD50 of bornyl acetate indicates that it may be responsible for the major acaricidal activity against house dust and stored food mites, even though it constitutes only 19.5% of J. chinensis oil. Overall, these findings indicated that bornyl acetate and c-eudesmol have potential for use as control agents against house dust and stored food mites. PMID:19722401

Lee, Chi-Hoon; Park, Joon-Moh; Song, Ha-Yun; Jeong, Eun-Young; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2009-08-01

215

Exposure of healthy volunteers to swine house dust increases formation of leukotrienes, prostaglandin D2, and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Acute exposure of healthy subjects to swine house dust causes increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine but no acute bronchoconstriction. The role of cysteinyl leukotrienes and mast cells in increased bronchial responsiveness is unclear.?METHODS—Ten non-asthmatic subjects were exposed to swine dust for three hours while weighing pigs in a piggery. Urine was collected prior to and for up to 12 hours after entering the piggery and at the same times five days before and the day after exposure. As indices of whole body leukotriene production and mast cell activation, urinary levels of leukotriene E4 (LTE4) and 9?,11?-PGF2, the earliest appearing urinary metabolite of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), were measured. Bronchial responsiveness to methacholine was determined five days before and the day after the exposure.?RESULTS—Methacholine PD20FEV1 decreased from 1.32 mg (95% CI 0.22 to 10.25) before exposure to 0.38 mg (95% CI 0.11 to 1.3) after exposure (p<0.01). Associated with the increase in bronchial responsiveness there was a significant mean difference between post- and pre-challenge levels of LTE4 (difference 38.5 ng/mmol creatinine (95% CI 17.2to 59.8); p<0.01) and 9?,11?-PGF2 (difference 69 ng/mmol creatinine (95% CI 3.7 to 134.3); p<0.05) on the day of exposure to swine dust. Swine dust exposure induced a 24-fold increase in the total cell number and a 12-fold increase in IL-8 levels in the nasal lavage fluid. The levels of LTB4 and LTE4 in nasal lavage fluid following exposure also increased 5.5-fold and 2-fold, respectively.?CONCLUSIONS—The findings of this study indicate that cysteinyl leukotrienes and other mast cell mediators contribute to the development of increased bronchial responsiveness following inhalation of organic swine dust.?? PMID:10195076

O'Sullivan, S.; Dahlen, S.; Larsson, K.; Larsson, B.; Malmberg, P.; Kumlin, M.; Palmberg, L.

1998-01-01

216

Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in settled house dust from urban dwellings with resident preschool-aged children in nanjing, china.  

PubMed

We investigated the levels and possible determinants of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the settled house-dust (SHD) of urban dwellings with resident preschool-aged children in Nanjing, China. The possible neurodevelopmental effects of house-dust PBDEs were also explored. SHD was collected from 216 urban houses. Levels of 8 PBDEs were measured by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The Child Behavior Checklist and the Gesell Development Inventory were used to evaluate the child's development. BDE47, BDE99, BDE153, BDE18, and BDE209 were detected in the SHD of >90 % of houses, of which BDE209 predominated. Most PBDEs were found at significantly greater levels in indoor than in outdoor dust (P < 0.05). Levels of BDE28 and BDE154 in houses with solid-wood floors were significantly greater than those in houses with plywood floors (P < 0.05). BDE154 levels in houses with wallpaper were significantly greater than those without wallpaper (P < 0.05). Greater BDE47 concentrations were found in houses with less natural ventilation time (linear trend P < 0.05). After dichotomization at the geometric mean concentration, BDE209 and total BDEs showed significant risks for depressed behavior problems and lower personal social developmental quotients (DQs); BDE99 and BDE153 indicated a risk for lower personal social DQs. In conclusion, PBDEs (especially BDE209) are ubiquitous in urban SHD in Nanjing residences. Natural ventilation and floor materials potentially influence PBDE levels in SHD. The potential adverse effect of postnatal exposure to PBDEs on the behavior and neurodevelopment of preschool-age children requires follow-up in larger studies. PMID:25034333

Wang, Bing-Ling; Pang, Shu-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Li, Xi-Ling; Sun, Yong-Gang; Lu, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Qi

2015-01-01

217

Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around the world.  

PubMed

As part of a worldwide survey of the indoor mycobiota, dust was collected from nine countries. Analyses of dust samples included the culture-dependent dilution-to-extinction method and the culture-independent 454-pyrosequencing. Of the 7?904 isolates, 2?717 isolates were identified as belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces. The aim of this study was to identify isolates to species level and describe the new species found. Secondly, we wanted to create a reliable reference sequence database to be used for next-generation sequencing projects. Isolates represented 59 Aspergillus species, including eight undescribed species, 49 Penicillium species of which seven were undescribed and 18 Talaromyces species including three described here as new. In total, 568 ITS barcodes were generated, and 391 ?-tubulin and 507 calmodulin sequences, which serve as alternative identification markers. PMID:25492981

Visagie, C M; Hirooka, Y; Tanney, J B; Whitfield, E; Mwange, K; Meijer, M; Amend, A S; Seifert, K A; Samson, R A

2014-06-01

218

Keratinophilic fungi inhabiting floor dusts of student houses at the South Valley University in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratinophilic fungi include true fungi that vigorously degrade keratin as well as a number of important human pathogenic\\u000a dermatophytes. We identified 41 species and one variety belonging to 19 genera in 50 floor dust samples following culture\\u000a on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar medium at 28°C. Dermatophytes and closely related fungi were represented by six species—Aphanoascus fulvescens, Aphanoascus sp., Arthroderma cuniculi, Chrysosporium

Thanaa A. Maghraby; Youssuf A. M. H. Gherbawy; Mohamed A. Hussein

2008-01-01

219

Risk assessment of non-dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via house PM2.5, TSP and dust and the implications from human hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the cancer risk due to non-dietary PAHs exposure in home environment (inhalation and ingestion), exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of PM2.5, total suspend particles (TSP) and dust in homes at two urban centers of Pearl River Delta were assessed. House PM2.5 bound PAHs in Guangzhou (GZ) ranged from 10.0 to 61.9 ng m-3 and 0.72 to 8.15 ng m-3 in Hong Kong (HK). PAH profiles found in PM2.5, TSP and dust were different than that in hair (dominated by Nap and Phe). Pyr and Flu in house dust significantly correlated with that in hair (r = 0.69; 0.55, p < 0.05) but no correlation was found between PAHs in hair and PM2.5. High correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.97/0.95, p < 0.01) were noted between dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (DBA) and Toxicity Equivalent Concentrations (TEQs) of dust and PM2.5. The lung cancer risks based on PM2.5 bound PAHs exposure in houses of GZ (10-5-10-4) were significantly higher than those of HK (10-6-10-5), which were also significantly higher than the cancer risks associated with house dust intake (10-7-10-5) in GZ. PAHs exposure via non-dietary route (PM2.5 and dust) was found to be 1-3 times higher than fish consumption for children and contributed to 52-76% of total PAHs intake for children and 24-50% for adults in GZ.

Wang, Wei; Huang, Min-juan; Chan, Chuen-Yu; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

2013-07-01

220

Inhibition of T cell and antibody responses to house dust mite allergen by inhalation of the dominant T cell epitope in naive and sensitized mice  

PubMed Central

Antigen-specific CD4+ T cells play an important role in the allergic immune response to house dust mite (HDM) allergens in humans. The group 1 allergen of Dermatophagoides spp. is a major target antigen in both B and T cell recognition of HDM. In vitro studies have shown that the presentation of peptides to human T cells under appropriate conditions may lead to a state of specific nonresponsiveness. Therefore, to determine if peptides are able to modulate the function of allergen- reactive T cells in vivo, we have used a murine model of T cell recognition of the HDM allergen Der p 1. The results demonstrate that inhalation of low concentrations of peptide containing the major T cell epitope of Der p 1 (residues 111-139), induces tolerance in naive C57BL/6J mice such that they become profoundly unresponsive to an immunogenic challenge with the intact allergen. When restimulated in vitro with antigen, lymph node T cells isolated from tolerant mice secrete very low levels of interleukin 2, proliferative poorly, and are unable to provide cognate help to stimulate specific antibody production. Furthermore, intranasal peptide therapy was able to inhibit an ongoing immune response to the allergen in mice and this has potential implications in the development of allergen-based immunotherapy. PMID:8228823

1993-01-01

221

Fifty Years of British Housing Policy: Leaving or Leading the Welfare State?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to develop a new perspective on the housing–welfare state relationship in Britain. Housing is conventionally seen as part of the post-war welfare state, but as different from other core services because of the persistence of a large market sector. Housing is also seen as having been targeted for change in the post-1975 restructuring of the welfare state,

Peter Malpass

2004-01-01

222

Fifty Years of British Housing Policy: Leaving or Leading the Welfare State?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to develop a new perspective on the housing-welfare state relationship in Britain. Housing is conventionally seen as part of the post-war welfare state, but as different from other core services because of the persistence of a large market sector. Housing is also seen as having been targeted for change in the post-1975 restructuring of the welfare state,

Peter Malpass

2001-01-01

223

Citywide distribution of lead and other element in soils and indoor dusts in Syracuse, NY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn in soils and indoor dusts in urban Syracuse, NY have been investigated at different levels of spatial aggregation. The concentrations of these elements of interest (EOI) in 3566 soil samples were mapped across the city to investigate variations in concentration potentially associated with specific city locations. Indoor floor dust loadings for the EOI

A. Hunt; D. L. Johnson; D. A. Griffith; S. Zitoon

224

House-dust mite allergen and ozone exposure decreases histamine H3 receptors in the brainstem respiratory nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Allergic airway diseases in children are a common and a growing health problem. Changes in the central nervous system (CNS) have been implicated in contributing to some of the symptoms. We hypothesized that airway allergic diseases are associated with altered histamine H3 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus, where lung/airway and nasal sensory afferents terminate, respectively. Immunohistochemistry for histamine H3 receptors was performed on brainstem sections containing the NTS and the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus from 6- and 12-month-old rhesus monkeys who had been exposed for 5 months to house dust mite allergen (HDMA) + O{sub 3} or to filtered air (FA). While histamine H3 receptors were found exclusively in astrocytes in the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus, they were localized to both neuronal terminals and processes in the NTS. HDMA + O{sub 3} exposure significantly decreased histamine H3 receptor immunoreactivity in the NTS at 6 months and in the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus at 12 months of age. In conclusion, exposing young primates to HDMA + O{sub 3} changed histamine H3 receptor expression in CNS pathways involving lung and nasal afferent nerves in an age-related manner. Histamine H3 receptors may be a therapeutic target for allergic asthma and rhinitis in children.

Sekizawa, Shin-ichi, E-mail: ssekizawa@ucdavis.ed [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, GBSF Rm. 3617, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Bechtold, Andrea G.; Tham, Rick C. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, GBSF Rm. 3617, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Kott, Kayleen S. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, GBSF Rm. 3617, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Hyde, Dallas M. [School of Medicine, California National Primate Research Center, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Joad, Jesse P. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Bonham, Ann C. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, GBSF Rm. 3617, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States)

2010-09-15

225

A GM-CSF/IL-33 pathway facilitates allergic airway responses to sub-threshold house dust mite exposure.  

PubMed

Allergic asthma is a chronic immune-inflammatory disease of the airways. Despite aeroallergen exposure being universal, allergic asthma affects only a fraction of individuals. This is likely related, at least in part, to the extent of allergen exposure. Regarding house dust mite (HDM), we previously identified the threshold required to elicit allergic responses in BALB/c mice. Here, we investigated the impact of an initial immune perturbation on the response to sub-threshold HDM exposure. We show that transient GM-CSF expression in the lung facilitated robust eosinophilic inflammation, long-lasting antigen-specific Th2 responses, mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness. This was associated with increased IL-33 levels and activated CD11b(+) DCs expressing OX40L. GM-CSF-driven allergic responses were significantly blunted in IL-33-deficient mice. IL-33 was localized on alveolar type II cells and in vitro stimulation of human epithelial cells with GM-CSF enhanced intracellular IL-33 independently of IL-1?. Likewise, GM-CSF administration in vivo resulted in increased levels of IL-33 but not IL-1?. These findings suggest that exposures to environmental agents associated with GM-CSF production, including airway infections and pollutants, may decrease the threshold of allergen responsiveness and, hence, increase the susceptibility to develop allergic asthma through a GM-CSF/IL-33/OX40L pathway. PMID:24551140

Llop-Guevara, Alba; Chu, Derek K; Walker, Tina D; Goncharova, Susanna; Fattouh, Ramzi; Silver, Jonathan S; Moore, Cheryl Lynn; Xie, Juliana L; O'Byrne, Paul M; Coyle, Anthony J; Kolbeck, Roland; Humbles, Alison A; Stämpfli, Martin R; Jordana, Manel

2014-01-01

226

Group 10 allergens (tropomyosins) from house-dust mites may cause covariation of sensitization to allergens from other invertebrates  

PubMed Central

Group 10 allergens (tropomyosins) have been assumed to be a major cause of cross-reactivity between house-dust mites (HDMs) and other invertebrates. Despite all of the published data regarding the epidemiology, percent IgE binding and level of sensitization in the population, the role of tropomyosin as a cross-reactive allergen in patients with multiple allergy syndrome still remains to be elucidated. Homology between amino acid sequences reported in allergen databases of selected invertebrate tropomyosins was determined with Der f 10 as the reference allergen. The 66.9 and 54.4% identities were found with selected crustacean and insect species, respectively, whereas only 20.4% identity was seen with mollusks. A similar analysis was performed using reported B-cell IgE-binding epitopes from Met e1 (shrimp allergen) and Bla g7 (cockroach allergen) with other invertebrate tropomyosins. The percent identity in linear sequences was higher than 35% in mites, crustaceans, and cockroaches. The polar and hydrophobic regions in these groups were highly conserved. These findings suggest that tropomyosin may be a major cause of covariation of sensitization between HDMs, crustaceans, and some species of insects and mollusks. PMID:23342293

Inam, Muhammad; Ismail, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Farhana Riaz

2012-01-01

227

Der p 11 Is a Major Allergen for House Dust Mite-Allergic Patients Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis.  

PubMed

House dust mites (HDMs) belong to the most potent indoor allergen sources worldwide and are associated with allergic manifestations in the respiratory tract and the skin. Here we studied the importance of the high-molecular-weight group 11 allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 11) in HDM allergy. Sequence analysis showed that Der p 11 has high homology to paramyosins from mites, ticks, and other invertebrates. A synthetic gene coding for Der p 11 was expressed in Escherichia coli and rDer p 11 purified to homogeneity as folded, alpha-helical protein as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Using antibodies raised against rDer p 11 and immunogold electron microscopy, the allergen was localized in the muscle beneath the skin of mite bodies but not in feces. IgE reactivity of rDer p 11 was tested with sera from HDM-allergic patients from Europe and Africa in radioallergosorbent test-based dot-blot assays. Interestingly, we found that Der p 11 is a major allergen for patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD), whereas it is only a minor allergen for patients suffering from respiratory forms of HDM allergy. Thus, rDer p 11 might be a useful serological marker allergen for the identification of a subgroup of HDM-allergic patients suffering from HDM-associated AD. PMID:24999597

Banerjee, Srinita; Resch, Yvonne; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Blatt, Katharina; Novak, Natalija; Wickman, Magnus; van Hage, Marianne; Ferrara, Rosetta; Mari, Adriano; Purohit, Ashok; Pauli, Gabrielle; Sibanda, Elopy N; Ndlovu, Portia; Thomas, Wayne R; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Tacke, Sebastian; Malkus, Ursula; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

2015-01-01

228

Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Der f 2, a Potent Allergen Derived from the House Dust Mite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although a number of allergens have been identified and isolated, the underlying molecular basis for the potent immune response is poorly understood. House dust mites (Dermatophugoides sp.) are particularly ubiquitous contributors to atopy in developed countries. The rhinitis, dermatitis, and asthma associated with allergic reactions to these arthropods are often caused by relatively small (125-129 amino acids) mite proteins of unclear biological function. Der f 2, a major allergen from the mite Dermatophagoides farinae, has been recombinantly expressed and characterized. The Der f 2 protein has been crystallized in our laboratory and a native data set collected at a synchrotron source. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group I422 with unit cell parameters of a = 95.2 Angstroms, b = 95.2 Angstroms, and c = 103.3 Angstroms. An essentially complete (97.2%) data set has been collected to 2.4 Angstroms. Attempts to solve the crystal structure of Der f 2 by molecular replacement using the available NMR coordinates for either Der f 2 or Der p 2 (the homologous protein from D. pterovssinus) failed to reveal a creditable solution.

Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Takai, Toshiro; Okumura, Yasushi; Scott, David L.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

229

Interference in foraging behaviour of European and American house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) by catmint, Nepeta cataria (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

The European and American house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae, have a huge impact upon human health worldwide due to being the most important indoor trigger of atopic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Preceding studies have shown that the behavioural response of house dust mites towards volatile chemicals from food sources can be assessed using a Y-tube olfactometer assay. In the current study, we used this assay to investigate, for the first time, the ability of the essential oil of the catmint plant, Nepeta cataria (Lamiaceae), known to repel other ectoparasites affecting human and animal health, to interfere with the attraction of D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae towards a standard food source (fish flakes). Two distinct chemotypes (A and B), enriched in the iridoid compounds (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone and (4aS,7S,7aS)-nepetalactone, and the sesquiterpene (E)-(1R,9S)-caryophyllene, were used. Initial assays with a hexane extract of fish flakes (FF extract) confirmed attraction of mites to this positive control (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 for D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively), but when presented in combination with either N. cataria chemotype, tested across a range of doses (10, 1, 0.1 and 0.01 ?g), decreasing attraction of mites to their food source was observed as the dose augmented. Our study shows that N. cataria, enriched in iridoid nepetalactones and (E)-(1R,9S)-caryophyllene, exhibits potent repellent activity for house dust mites, and has the potential for deployment in control programmes based on interference with normal house dust mite behaviour. PMID:22382713

Khan, M A; Jones, I; Loza-Reyes, E; Cameron, M M; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A

2012-05-01

230

Clinical evaluation of the effect of anti-allergic mattress covers in patients with moderate to severe asthma and house dust mite allergy: a randomised double blind placebo controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The use of anti-allergic mattress covers in patients with asthma can result in a large reduction in the level of house dust mite allergen in dust samples. Apart from a reduction in histamine induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness, there are few data on the effect of mattress covers on clinical efficacy and quality of life in patients with moderate to severe

L H M Rijssenbeek-Nouwens; A J Oosting; M S de Bruin-Weller; I Bregman; J G R de Monchy; D S Postma

2002-01-01

231

Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of sublingual immunotherapy in children with house dust mite allergy in primary care: study design and recruitment  

PubMed Central

Background For respiratory allergic disorders in children, sublingual immunotherapy has been developed as an alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Sublingual immunotherapy is more convenient, has a good safety profile and might be an attractive option for use in primary care. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was designed to establish the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergen compared to placebo treatment in 6 to18-year-old children with allergic rhinitis and a proven house dust mite allergy in primary care. Described here are the methodology, recruitment phases, and main characteristics of the recruited children. Methods Recruitment took place in September to December of 2005 and 2006. General practitioners (in south-west Netherlands) selected children who had ever been diagnosed with allergic rhinitis. Children and parents could respond to a postal invitation. Children who responded positively were screened by telephone using a nasal symptom score. After this screening, an inclusion visit took place during which a blood sample was taken for the RAST test. Results A total of 226 general practitioners invited almost 6000 children: of these, 51% was male and 40% <12 years of age. The target sample size was 256 children; 251 patients were finally included. The most frequent reasons given for not participating were: absence or mildness of symptoms, absence of house dust mite allergy, and being allergic to grass pollen or tree pollen only. Asthma symptoms were reported by 37% of the children. Of the enrolled children, 71% was sensitized to both house dust mite and grass pollen. Roughly similar proportions of children were diagnosed as being sensitized to one, two, three or four common inhalant allergens. Conclusion Our study was designed in accordance with recent recommendations for research on establishing the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy; 98% of the target sample size was achieved. This study is expected to provide useful information on sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergen in primary care. The results on efficacy and safety are expected to be available by 2010. Trial registration the trial is registered as ISRCTN91141483 (Dutch Trial Register) PMID:18937864

de Bot, Cindy MA; Moed, Heleen; Berger, Marjolein Y; Röder, Esther; de Groot, Hans; de Jongste, Johan C; van Wijk, Roy Gerth; Wouden, Johannes C van der

2008-01-01

232

In-House Software Development: What Project Management Practices Lead to Success?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project management is an important part of software development, both for organizations that rely on third-party software development and for those whose software is developed primarily in-house. Moreover, quantitative survey-based research regarding software development's early, nontechnical aspects is lacking. To help provide a project management perspective for managers responsible for in-house software development, we conducted a survey in an attempt

June M. Verner; William M. Evanco

2005-01-01

233

Dioxin-related compounds in house dust from New York State: occurrence, in vitro toxic evaluation and implications for indoor exposure.  

PubMed

This study analysed sulphuric-acid-treated extracts of house dust from New York State with DR-CALUX assay and HRGC-HRMS to elucidate the total dioxin-like (DL) activities, the occurrence of various dioxin-related compounds (DRCs), including PBDD/Fs, and their toxic contribution. The DL activities were 30-8000, median 210 pg CALUX-TEQ/g. PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were detected with a large variation in concentrations (0.12-80, 0.33-150, 0.46-35, medians 1.7, 2.1 and 5.6 ng/g, respectively) and profiles, indicating the existence of multiple contamination sources in homes. PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs and DL-PCBs with known potency theoretically contributed <1%-130%, <1%-21% and <1%-6.8%, respectively, of the measured CALUX-TEQs. These results and those from DR-CALUX assays with fractionated dust extracts indicated that a substantial portion of the CALUX-TEQs could be caused by unknown dust contaminants. Considering that the DRC intake from indoor dust ingestion can be significant, identification of unknown DL contaminants in indoor dust is necessary. PMID:23838483

Tue, Nguyen Minh; Suzuki, Go; Takahashi, Shin; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Takigami, Hidetaka; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2013-10-01

234

Allergic airway diseases in a tropical urban environment are driven by dominant mono-specific sensitization against house dust mites  

PubMed Central

Background Southeast Asian populations are increasingly affected by allergic airway diseases. Etiology and specific causes, however, are still unknown. The aim of this study is therefore to identify allergens and risk factors for the high prevalence of allergic airway disease in the tropical urban environment. Methods Symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, and allergic dermatitis were recorded in two independent cohorts of 576 and 7373 ethnic Chinese individuals living in Singapore. Reactivity against common allergens was determined by skin prick tests (SPT); specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) titers against 12 common allergens, as well as total serum IgE (tIgE), were measured in the smaller cohort. Results Immunoglobulin E sensitization was almost exclusively directed against house dust mite (HDM) allergens. More than 80% of individuals were HDM-sIgE positive. Of these, less than 30% also had sIgE for other allergens, and similarly, few of the HDM-sIgE-negative individuals reacted to other allergens. Titers for HDM-sIgE were 8–30 times higher than other non-HDM allergen titers and correlated directly with total serum tIgE levels. Migrants from nontropical countries typically arrived with low or undetectable HDM-sIgE but developed substantial titers in a time-dependent fashion. Importantly, prolonged stay in Singapore also resulted in the manifestation of AR and asthma symptoms, contributing to some of the highest national prevalence rates worldwide. Conclusion In a tropical urban environment, the allergic response is dominated by a single allergen class. The mono-specific IgE sensitization against HDM translates into increased prevalence of allergic airway diseases, which now impact a large proportion of the population in Singapore. PMID:24456108

Andiappan, A K; Puan, K J; Lee, B; Nardin, A; Poidinger, M; Connolly, J; Chew, F T; Wang, D Y; Rotzschke, O

2014-01-01

235

Acaricidal toxicities of 1-hydroxynaphthalene from Scutellaria barbata and its derivatives against house dust and storage mites.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Scutellaria barbata was extracted using a steam distillation and then evaluated via fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. The acaricidal toxicities of 1-hydroxynaphthalene from S. barbata oil and its derivatives were determined and compared with those of benzyl benzoate. Based on the LD50 values of 1-hydroxynaphthalene derivatives against D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and T. putrescentiae, obtained using a fumigant toxicity bioassay, the acaricidal activity of 1-hydroxynaphthalene (2.11, 2.37, and 4.50 µg/cm2) was 4.76, 6.00, and 2.68 times higher than that of benzyl benzoate (10.05, 9.50, and 12.50 µg/cm2) in the corresponding order, which was followed by that of 2-hydroxynaphthalene (9.50, 9.00, and 11.50 µg/cm2). On the contact toxicity bioassay, the acaricidal activity of 1-hydroxynaphthalene (0.79, 0.92, and 2.50 µg/cm2) was 9.49, 6.52, and 3.76 times higher than that of benzyl benzoate (7.50, 6.00, and 9.41 µg/cm2), which was followed by that of 2-hydroxynaphthalene (4.21, 4.80, and 6.50 µg/cm2). In conclusion, our results indicate that S. barbata oil and 1-hydroxynaphthalene derivatives might be effective natural agents for the management of house dust and storage mites. PMID:23757178

Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2013-07-01

236

Resveratrol attenuates HMGB1 signaling and inflammation in house dust mite-induced atopic dermatitis in mice.  

PubMed

Resveratrol is a polyphenol abundantly found in red grape skin and is effective against antiaging and anti-inflammation associated with immune responses. In this study, we have investigated the effect of resveratrol on skin lesion, high mobility group box (HMGB)1 and inflammation pathway in an atopic dermatitis (AD) mouse model. AD-like lesion was induced by the application of house dust mite extract to the dorsal skin of NC/Nga mouse. After AD induction, resveratrol (20 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered daily for 2 weeks. We evaluated dermatitis severity, histopathological changes, serum levels of T helper (Th) cytokines (interferon (IFN)?, interleukin (IL)-4) and changes in protein expression by Western blotting for HMGB1, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), toll like receptor (TLR)4, nuclear factor (NF)?B, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, cyclooxygenase (COX)2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)?, IL-1?, IL-2R? and other inflammatory markers in the skin of AD mice. Treatment of resveratrol inhibited the development of the AD-like skin lesions. Histological analysis showed that resveratrol inhibited hypertrophy, intracellular edema, mast cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment down-regulated HMGB1, RAGE, p-NF?B, p-PI3K, p-ERK1/2, COX2, TNF?, IL-1?, IL-2R?, IFN? and IL-4. Considering all these findings together, the HMGB1 pathway might be a potential therapeutic target in skin inflammation, and resveratrol treatment could have beneficial effects on AD by modulating the HMGB1 protein expression. PMID:25466270

Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Sreedhar, Remya; Afrin, Rejina; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nomoto, Mayumi; Miyashita, Shizuka; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Kenichi

2014-12-01

237

Intranasal capsaicin is lacking therapeutic effect in perennial allergic rhinitis to house dust mite. A placebo-controlled study.  

PubMed

In a recent placebo-controlled study we demonstrated that capsaicin is an efficacious substance in the treatment of non-allergic non-infectious rhinitis. In this study the therapeutic effect lasted more than 9 months. This effect was not based on modulation of inflammation. To evaluate the effect of repeated application of capsaicin to patients with a nasal allergy to house dust mites (HDM), using the same treatment protocol as recently introduced in the treatment of non-allergic patients. Twenty-six patients with rhinitis, 15 females and 11 males (range: 20-46 years; mean 30.5), allergic to HDM were treated with either capsaicin or placebo in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design. Nasal reactivity to HDM expressed as nasal symptoms, albumin and leukotriene levels in nasal lavage fluid and responsiveness to histamine, assessed as symptoms before and 6 weeks after treatment, were used to compare both treatment groups. In addition, visual analogue scales and rhinitis quality of life (RQL) assessment before, 6 weeks after and 3 months after treatment were used as outcome variables. No significant effect of capsaicin on nasal challenge tests with HDM (nasal symptoms, albumin and leukotriene levels), on VAS or RQL outcome 6 weeks or 3 month's after treatment, was demonstrated. Capsaicin did have a small effect on the area of the curve (AUC) of histamine dose response curves (P = 0.03). Desensitization with capsaicin in doses sufficient to control symptoms in patients with severe non-allergic rhinitis is lacking therapeutic effect in perennial allergic rhinitis. PMID:11122219

Gerth Van Wijk, R; Terreehorst, I T; Mulder, P G; Garrelds, I M; Blom, H M; Popering, S

2000-12-01

238

Regulation of constitutive neutrophil apoptosis due to house dust mite allergen in normal and allergic rhinitis subjects.  

PubMed

House dust mite (HDM) is a primary allergen in allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. Neutrophil apoptosis is associated with allergic diseases and innate immunity to infection. The present study examined how HDM affects constitutive neutrophil apoptosis in normal and AR subjects. Total IgE increased in AR subjects when compared to normal subjects, and patients with AR were HDM-specific IgE positive (+), which is specific IgE to Dermatophagoides pteronissinus and Dermatophagoides farinae. In normal and AR subjects, neutrophil apoptosis was inhibited by extract of Dermatophagoides pteronissinus (DP), but not by extract of Dermatophagoides farina (DF). Aprotinin (serine protease inhibitor) and E64 (cysteine protease inhibitor) have no effect on neutrophil apoptosis due to DP. The anti-apoptotic effect of DP was blocked by TLR4i, an inhibitor of TLR4, rottlerin, an inhibitor of PKC?, PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK, and BAY-11-7085, an inhibitor of NF-?B. DP induced PKC?, ERK, and NF-?B activation in a time-dependent manner. DP inhibited the cleavage of procaspase 3 and procaspase 9. The expression of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and CCL2 increased in the supernatant collected from the normal and AR neutrophils after DP treatment and the supernatant inhibited the apoptosis of normal and AR neutrophils. In summary, DP has anti-apoptotic effects on neutrophils of normal and AR subjects through the TLR4/PKC?/ERK/NF-?B pathway, and this finding may contribute to solution of the pathogenic mechanism of allergic diseases triggered by DP. PMID:25243400

Kim, Eun Hye; Lee, Ji-Sook; Lee, Na Rae; Baek, Seung Yeop; Kim, Eun Jeong; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, In Sik

2014-01-01

239

Regulation of Constitutive Neutrophil Apoptosis Due to House Dust Mite Allergen in Normal and Allergic Rhinitis Subjects  

PubMed Central

House dust mite (HDM) is a primary allergen in allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. Neutrophil apoptosis is associated with allergic diseases and innate immunity to infection. The present study examined how HDM affects constitutive neutrophil apoptosis in normal and AR subjects. Total IgE increased in AR subjects when compared to normal subjects, and patients with AR were HDM-specific IgE positive (+), which is specific IgE to Dermatophagoides pteronissinus and Dermatophagoides farinae. In normal and AR subjects, neutrophil apoptosis was inhibited by extract of Dermatophagoides pteronissinus (DP), but not by extract of Dermatophagoides farina (DF). Aprotinin (serine protease inhibitor) and E64 (cysteine protease inhibitor) have no effect on neutrophil apoptosis due to DP. The anti-apoptotic effect of DP was blocked by TLR4i, an inhibitor of TLR4, rottlerin, an inhibitor of PKC?, PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK, and BAY-11-7085, an inhibitor of NF-?B. DP induced PKC?, ERK, and NF-?B activation in a time-dependent manner. DP inhibited the cleavage of procaspase 3 and procaspase 9. The expression of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and CCL2 increased in the supernatant collected from the normal and AR neutrophils after DP treatment and the supernatant inhibited the apoptosis of normal and AR neutrophils. In summary, DP has anti-apoptotic effects on neutrophils of normal and AR subjects through the TLR4/PKC?/ERK/NF-?B pathway, and this finding may contribute to solution of the pathogenic mechanism of allergic diseases triggered by DP. PMID:25243400

Kim, Eun Hye; Lee, Ji-Sook; Lee, Na Rae; Baek, Seung Yeop; Kim, Eun Jeong; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, In Sik

2014-01-01

240

Addressing Lead-Based Paint Hazards During Renovation, Remodeling, and Rehabilitation in Federally Owned and Assisted Housing. Instructor Manual for Use in HUD-Sponsored Lead-Safe Work Practices Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the instructor's manual for a U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) training course that reflects the requirements of HUD's Lead Safe Housing Rule and is designed to provide training contractors with information regarding containment, minimization, and cleanup of lead hazards during activities that disturb…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

241

Evaluating the bioaccessibility of flame retardants in house dust using an in vitro tenax bead-assisted sorptive physiologically based method.  

PubMed

Exposure to house dust is a significant source of exposure to flame retardant chemicals (FRs), particularly in the US. Given the high exposure there is a need to understand the bioaccessibility of FRs from dust. In this study, Tenax beads (TA) encapsulated within a stainless steel insert were used as an adsorption sink to estimate the dynamic absorption of a suite of FRs commonly detected in indoor dust samples (n = 17), and from a few polyurethane foam samples for comparison. Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) had the highest estimated bioaccessibility (?80%) compared to brominated compounds (e.g., PBDEs), and values generally decreased with increasing Log Kow, with <30% bioaccessibility measured for BDE209. These measurements were in very close agreement with reported PBDE bioavailability measures from an in vivo rat exposure study using indoor dust. The bioaccessibility of very hydrophobic FRs (Log Kow > 6) in foam was much less than that in house dust, and increasing bioaccessibility was observed with decreasing particle size. In addition, we examined the stability of more labile FRs containing ester groups (e.g., OPFRs and 2-ethylhexyl-tetrabromo-benzoate (EH-TBB)) in a mock-digestive fluid matrix. No significant changes in the OPFR concentrations were observed in this fluid; however, EH-TBB was found to readily hydrolyze to tetrabromobenzoic acid (TBBA) in the intestinal fluid in the presence of lipases. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the bioaccessibility and stability of FRs following ingestion varies by chemical and sample matrix and thus should be considered in exposure assessments. PMID:25330458

Fang, Mingliang; Stapleton, Heather M

2014-11-18

242

Innate Immune Response of Alveolar Macrophage to House Dust Mite Allergen Is Mediated through TLR2/-4 Co-Activation  

PubMed Central

House dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p), is one of the major allergens responsible for allergic asthma. However, the putative receptors involved in the signalization of Der p to the innate immune cells are still poorly defined as well as the impact of their activation on the outcome of the allergen-induced cell response. We previously reported that the HDM activation of mouse alveolar macrophages (AM) involves the TLR4/CD14 cell surface receptor complex. Here using a TLR ligand screening essay, we demonstrate that HDM protein extract engages the TLR2, in addition to the TLR4, in engineered TLR-transfected HEK cells but also in the MH-S mouse alveolar macrophage cell line model. Moreover we found that the concomitant recruitment of the MH-S cell’s TLR2 and TLR4 receptors by the HDM extract activates the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway and leads to the secretion of the NF-?B regulated pro-inflammatory factors NO and TNF-?. However unlike with the canonical TLR4 ligand (i.e. the bacterial LPS) mobilization of TLR4 by the HDM extract induces a reduced production of the IL-12 pro-inflammatory cytokine and fails to trigger the expression of the T-bet transcription factor. Finally we demonstrated that HDM extract down-regulates LPS induced IL-12 and T-bet expression through a TLR2 dependent mechanism. Therefore, we propose that the simultaneous engagement of the TLR2 and TLR4 receptors by the HDM extract results in a cross regulated original activation pattern of the AM which may contribute to the Th2 polarization of the allergen-induced immune response. The deciphering of these cross-regulation networks is of prime importance to open the way for original therapeutic strategies taking advantage of these receptors and their associated signaling pathways to treat allergic asthma. PMID:24098413

Liu, Chia-Fang; Drocourt, Daniel; Puzo, Germain; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Riviere, Michel

2013-01-01

243

Unravelling the skin barrier: a new paradigm for atopic dermatitis and house dust mites.  

PubMed

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease caused by complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors. In human beings, impairment of the skin barrier is demonstrated and thought to be responsible for enhanced penetration of allergens and increased risk for allergic sensitization. Once inflammation is triggered, further impairment of the skin barrier occurs, leading to self-perpetuating cycles of sensitizations. Canine AD appears to share many similarities with the human counterpart, clinically and immunologically. It is hypothesized that a primary defect of skin barrier function also exists in subsets of atopic dogs (e.g. in an experimental model using high IgE-producing beagles), particularly in young dogs, and in sites predisposed to the development of lesions. This impairment is present in clinically normal skin, worsens with development of lesions and can be quantified by measurement of transepidermal water loss. Therefore, the distribution of lesions in AD may be linked to a primary skin barrier defect in those sites and not simply due to contact with allergens, and increased susceptibility to penetration of allergen may exist early in life. Ultrastructurally, transmission electron microscopy reveals that clinically normal skin in atopic dogs has abnormalities in lamellar body secretion and extracellular lamellar bilayer structure when compared with normal dogs. Development of lesions worsens these changes (e.g. widening of intercellular spaces, release of lamellar bodies, and disorganization of lipid lamellae). It is proposed that the paradigm of canine AD as primarily due to immunologic aberration ('inside/outside') should be shifted to include a primary defect in barrier function ('outside/inside'). PMID:20178491

Marsella, Rosanna; Samuelson, Don

2009-10-01

244

The correlations between heavy metals in residential indoor dust and outdoor street dust in Bahrain  

SciTech Connect

The lead, zinc, cadmium, chromium, and nickel contents in both indoor house dust and outdoor street dust from 76 sites in Bahrain were determined by ICP-ES. The results showed widespread heavy metal contamination, especially lead, with an overall mean value in house dust for Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Ni of 517, 202, 1.9, 11, and 10, respectively. The mean values in street dust were 742, 67, 1.5, 9.6, and 12 mg/kg, respectively. The major source of metals in street dust was automobile exhaust. The major source of heavy metals indoors was also from automobile dust, i.e., lead and nickel. With respect to zinc, cadmium, and chromium, indoor sources were more important than outdoor sources. The distribution of lead both indoors and outdoors in Bahrain showed high levels of contamination occurring generally in the north and northeastern part where traffic is concentrated. The levels of these toxic metals found in indoor house dust may be a significant source of exposure, especially for children.

Madany, I.M. (Arabian Gulf Univ. (Bahrain)); Akhter, M.S.; Al Jowder, O.A. (Univ. of Bahrain (Bahrain))

1994-01-01

245

Direct radiative effect of mineral dust and volcanic aerosols in a simple aerosol climate model  

E-print Network

to the green- house effect. However, the current net direct radiative effect of dust is unclear because. This reduced shortwave usually dominates the increased longwave, lead- ing to a net cooling of the column. Over

Shell, Karen M.

246

Evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in matched cat sera and house dust samples: investigation of a potential link between PBDEs and spontaneous feline hyperthyroidism.  

PubMed

The cause of feline hyperthyroidism (FH), a common endocrinopathy of domestic cats, is unknown. A potential association between exposure to environmental contaminants polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and FH was investigated. The median serum level for the sum of congeners BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-153, BDE-154 and BDE-183 (?5) in hyperthyroid and euthyroid cats was 82 and 174 ng g(-1)lw respectively with no significant difference in PBDE levels or profiles between groups. Overall, the median (min to max) concentration of PBDEs in cat serum (n=65) was 118 ng g(-1)lw (5-5260 ng g(-1)lw), which is approximately 10 times higher than that observed in the Australian human population. Furthermore, congener composition in feline serum samples was dominated by congener BDE-99, followed by BDE-47 then BDE-153 which differs from results of human biomonitoring. There was no correlation between PBDE levels in feline serum samples and matched house dust samples (n=25). However the similarity of BDE-47/99 ratio in each matrix suggests dust is likely the dominant exposure. Calculation of the daily exposure dose via dust ingestion for cats equated to a mean of 33 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) (0.2-150 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1)). Differences in exposure estimates for Australian and US cats, based on dust ingestion alone, are consistent with the observed differences in body burdens. Our results do not support a role for PBDE exposure in the aetiopathogenesis of FH. PMID:25460634

Chow, K; Hearn, L K; Zuber, M; Beatty, J A; Mueller, J F; Barrs, V R

2015-01-01

247

Determinants of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in house dust samples from four areas of the United States.  

PubMed

Determinants of levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in dust in U.S. homes are not well characterized. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the relationship between concentrations of PCDD/F in house dust and residential proximity to known sources, including industrial facilities and traffic. Samples from vacuum bag dust from homes of 40 residents of Detroit, Los Angeles, Seattle, or Iowa who participated in a population-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma conducted in 1998-2000 were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry for 7 PCDD and 10 PCDF congeners considered toxic by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Locations of 10 types of PCDD/F-emitting facilities were obtained from the EPA; however only 4 types were located near study homes (non-hazardous waste cement kilns, coal-fired power plants, sewage sludge incinerators, and medical waste incinerators). Relationships between concentrations of each PCDD/F and proximity to industrial facilities, freight routes, and major roads were evaluated using separate multivariate regression models for each congener. The median (inter-quartile range [IQR]) toxic equivalence (TEQ) concentration of these congeners in the house dust was 20.3 pg/g (IQR=14.3, 32.7). Homes within 3 or 5 km of a cement kiln had 2 to 9-fold higher concentrations of 5 PCDD and 5 PCDF (p<0.1 in each model). Proximity to freight routes and major roads was associated with elevated concentrations of 1 PCDD and 8 PCDF. Higher concentrations of certain PCDD/F in homes near cement kilns, freight routes, and major roads suggest that these outdoor sources are contributing to indoor environmental exposures. Further study of the contribution of these sources and other facility types to total PCDD/F exposure in a larger number of homes is warranted. PMID:22832089

Deziel, N C; Nuckols, J R; Colt, J S; De Roos, A J; Pronk, A; Gourley, C; Severson, R K; Cozen, W; Cerhan, J R; Hartge, P; Ward, M H

2012-09-01

248

The complete mitochondrial genome of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart): a novel gene arrangement among arthropods  

PubMed Central

Background The apparent scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks). This subclass encompasses over 48,000 species and forms the largest group within the Arachnida. Although mitochondrial genomes are widely utilised for phylogenetic and population genetic studies, only 20 mitochondrial genomes of Acari have been determined, of which only one belongs to the diverse order of the Sarcoptiformes. In this study, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, the most important member of this largely neglected group. Results The mitochondrial genome of D. pteronyssinus is a circular DNA molecule of 14,203 bp. It contains the complete set of 37 genes (13 protein coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes), usually present in metazoan mitochondrial genomes. The mitochondrial gene order differs considerably from that of other Acari mitochondrial genomes. Compared to the mitochondrial genome of Limulus polyphemus, considered as the ancestral arthropod pattern, only 11 of the 38 gene boundaries are conserved. The majority strand has a 72.6% AT-content but a GC-skew of 0.194. This skew is the reverse of that normally observed for typical animal mitochondrial genomes. A microsatellite was detected in a large non-coding region (286 bp), which probably functions as the control region. Almost all tRNA genes lack a T-arm, provoking the formation of canonical cloverleaf tRNA-structures, and both rRNA genes are considerably reduced in size. Finally, the genomic sequence was used to perform a phylogenetic study. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis clustered D. pteronyssinus with Steganacarus magnus, forming a sistergroup of the Trombidiformes. Conclusion Although the mitochondrial genome of D. pteronyssinus shares different features with previously characterised Acari mitochondrial genomes, it is unique in many ways. Gene order is extremely rearranged and represents a new pattern within the Acari. Both tRNAs and rRNAs are truncated, corroborating the theory of the functional co-evolution of these molecules. Furthermore, the strong and reversed GC- and AT-skews suggest the inversion of the control region as an evolutionary event. Finally, phylogenetic analysis using concatenated mt gene sequences succeeded in recovering Acari relationships concordant with traditional views of phylogeny of Acari. PMID:19284646

Dermauw, Wannes; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vanholme, Bartel; Tirry, Luc

2009-01-01

249

Open-label parallel dose tolerability study of three subcutaneous immunotherapy regimens in house dust mite allergic patients  

PubMed Central

Background The current maintenance dose (10,000 AUeq/monthly) of a subcutaneous allergoid for house dust mite (HDM) immunotherapy has previously shown significant clinical efficacy in patients with HDM induced allergic rhinitis or rhinoconjunctivitis. In order to comply with the 2009 EMA guidelines on immunotherapy products, a study was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability and short-term treatment effects of up-dosing regimens with high doses (up to 40,000 AUeq) of allergoid HDM immunotherapy. Methods In total 48 patients with HDM-allergic rhinitis or rhinoconjunctivitis (29 M/19 F; 18–53 years) were included and enrolled into one of three up-dosing regimens (1:4:4): 1) a regular regimen with up-dosing to 40,000 AUeq followed by two maintenance doses (total duration 17 weeks), 2) an intermediate regimen (14 weeks) or 3) a fast regimen (11 weeks). Safety and tolerability were evaluated by monitoring of early and late local reactions and systemic reactions. In addition, short-term effects were assessed by conjunctival provocation test (CPT) and levels of serum allergen-specific IgE, IgG and IgG4. Results Thirty-nine patients completed the study according to protocol. No early local reactions occurred. Late local reactions (LLR) were observed in 12% of the injections. In total, 31 systemic reactions, all grade 1, were reported of which two needed oral antihistamine treatment. No grade 2 or higher systemic reactions were observed. Six patients (15%) did not reach the highest dose due to LLR and/or systemic reactions needing antihistamines (20% in the regular regimen, 16% in the intermediate regimen and 13% in the fast regimen). At the end of the study, an improvement in the CPT was observed in 82.1% of patients, indirectly indicating an early treatment effect at the current dose and higher doses. In addition, IgG4 immunoglobulin levels were significantly increased in all groups following treatment. Conclusions In this open-label study, allergoid HDM immunotherapy in doses up to 40,000 AUeq was generally well tolerated and no clinically relevant safety issues were identified. In the safety aspects of the three up-dosing regimens no clinically relevant differences were encountered. Therefore, these dose ranges and up-dosing regimens can be safely included in future dose-finding efficacy studies. PMID:23657148

2013-01-01

250

Road Dust Lead (Pb) in Two Neighborhoods of Urban Atlanta, (GA, USA)  

PubMed Central

Road dust continues to be a major potential reservoir of Pb in the urban environment, and an important potential component of child Pb exposure. This study presents ICP-AES analyses of metals in 72 samples of road dust (<250 µm) collected in the urban core of Atlanta, Georgia. In the Downtown area, median Pb concentrations are ~63 mg/kg Pb, with high values of 278 mg/kg. For comparison, median Pb values in a nearby residential neighborhood (also in the urban core) were ~93 mg/kg, with a high of 972 mg/kg. Geospatial variability is high, with significant variation observed over tens to hundreds of meters. Spearman Rank Correlation tests suggest that Pb and other metals (Cu, Ni, V, Zn) are associated with iron and manganese oxide phases in the residential area, as reported in other cities. However, Pb in the Downtown area is not correlated with the others, suggesting a difference in source or transport history. Given these complexities and the expected differences between road dust and soil Pb, future efforts to assess exposure risk should therefore be based on spatially distributed sampling at very high spatial resolution. PMID:22829787

Deocampo, Daniel M.; Reed, Jack; Kalenuik, Alexander P.

2012-01-01

251

Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control  

MedlinePLUS

... Helpful Resources The National Lead Information Center (NLIC) Document Distribution AboutInfo About Lead About Radon About Asthma About Allergies About Carbon Monoxide About Home Safety About Integrated Pest Management Download Nuance PDF Reader to view PDF files ...

252

House dust mite potentiates capsaicin-evoked Ca2+ transients in mouse pulmonary sensory neurons via activation of protease-activated receptor-2  

PubMed Central

House dust mite (HDM) is a major source of allergen in house dust and has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether HDM can modulate the sensitivity of pulmonary sensory neurons, and if so, to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Fura-2 based ratiometric Ca2+ imaging was carried out to determine the effect of HDM extract on the capsaicin-evoked Ca2+ transient in mouse vagal pulmonary sensory neurons. Pretreatment with HDM (50 ?g/ml, 5 min) significantly enhanced the Ca2+ transient evoked by capsaicin in these neurons isolated from wildtype mice. This potentiating effect of HDM was not antagonized by E-64, a selective cysteine protease inhibitor, but was completely prevented by AEBSF, a specific serine protease inhibitor. In addition, the potentiating effect of HDM on capsaicin-evoked Ca2+ transient was absent in the pulmonary sensory neurons isolated from protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) knockout mice. Further, the sensitizing effect of HDM was completely abolished by U73122, a PLC inhibitor, or chelerythrine, a PKC inhibitor. In summary, our results demonstrate that HDM, mainly through its serine protease activity, potentiates capsaicin-evoked Ca2+ transient in mouse pulmonary sensory neurons via the activation of PAR2 and PLC-PKC intracellular transduction cascade. PMID:22125310

Gu, Qihai; Lee, Lu-Yuan

2011-01-01

253

Retrofit wall system for insulation and lead encasement in older multi-family housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to modernization or rehabilitation of buildings with uninsulated masonry walls that have lead-based paint hazards or deteriorated plaster walls. The approach provides a solution to lead contamination on the walls, increased energy efficiency and comfort improvements associated with better insulated building envelopes. The system sheaths or replaces damaged or contaminated walls with a tight, well-insulated,

Wendt

1998-01-01

254

Blood lead levels among rural Thai children exposed to lead-acid batteries from solar energy conversion systems.  

PubMed

We evaluate blood lead levels among Thai children to determine if exposure to lead-acid batteries is associated with elevated blood lead levels (EBLL). We screened 254 children aged 1-14 years old from 2 rural Thai villages for blood lead levels. We also screened 18 of 92 houses in these 2 villages for the presence of environmental lead. The overall prevalence of EBLL (> or = 10 microg/dl) was 43.3% and the mean lead level among study subjects was 9.8 +/- 5.1 microg/dl. The blood lead levels significantly decreased with increasing age. Fifty point eight percent of children who lived in a house with vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL while 23.3% of children who lived in a house without vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between the presence of vented lead-acid batteries and EBLL, after adjusting for other variables. Forty-two point nine percent of house floor dust samples collected near the batteries had elevated lead levels, 7.1% of house floor dust samples collected from other areas in the house had elevated lead levels and 0% of the house floor dust samples collected in houses without vented lead-acid batteries had elevated lead levels. In the sampled houses with vented lead-acid batteries, lead contamination was found in the drinking-water kept in household containers, but not in the tap water or other village sources of water. Improper care and placement of vented lead-acid batteries can result in lead contamination in the home environment causing EBLL in exposed children. PMID:24450246

Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Sanreun, Cherd

2013-11-01

255

Sources of halogenated brominated retardants in house dust in an industrial city in southern China and associated human exposure.  

PubMed

Halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) are a class of ubiquitous pollutants in the environment and attract increasing attention. In the present study, HFR concentrations were measured in indoor and outdoor dust in an important industrial city (Dongguan) in southern China, in which their presence and associated human exposure are unknown. The HFRs were dominated by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), with mean concentrations of 2365 and 2441 ng/g in the indoor dust, respectively, which were 2-3 order of magnitude higher the concentrations of other HFRs. However elevated tri- to hepta-BDE concentrations (869 ng/g) were found in Houjie Town, a furniture manufacturing center. The mean indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of HFR concentrations in the dust were all larger than one (1.55-16.4), suggesting the importance of indoors sources for HFRs in indoor dust in this industrial city. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the correlations among the HFRs in the indoor dust probably revealed differences in their commercial applications, while most HFRs in the outdoor dust have similar sources except for phased-out BDE47 and 99. The compositions of lower brominated PBDEs varied among the towns, probably due to their different sources or influence of photo-degradation. Nevertheless, the similar composition of highly brominated congeners indicated little photo-degradation encountered in the ambient environment. The non-cancer risk associated with indoor dust ingestion is low for the general population in Dongguan, but some children in the furniture manufacturing center have significantly high risk of exposure to banned PBDEs. PMID:25282276

Chen, She-Jun; Ding, Nan; Zhu, Zhi-Cheng; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

2014-11-01

256

OUTREACH TO MANUFACTURERS OF LEAD TEST KITS  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead test kits offer a potentially rapid, inexpensive, and simple to use technique for the analysis of low levels of lead in paint, soil, and house dust. n order to assess the feasibility of homeowners and contractors using test kits as an indicator of the need for or success of ...

257

Retrofit wall system for insulation and lead encasement in older multi-family housing.  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an approach to modernization or rehabilitation of buildings with uninsulated masonry walls that have lead-based paint hazards or deteriorated plaster walls. The approach provides a solution to lead contamination on the walls, increased energy efficiency and comfort improvements associated with better insulated building envelopes. The system sheaths or replaces damaged or contaminated walls with a tight, well-insulated, durable interior surface. The costs of this system are estimated to be less than those of other insulated wall systems. Modeling of the impact of this system shows significant improvement in energy performance. The energy savings over the life of this durable system contribute to significantly offset the often-times sizeable cost of lead hazard remediation.

Wendt, R. L.

1998-08-11

258

[Effect of vacuum cleaning of room floors and bed clothes of patients on house dust mites counts and clinical scores of atopic dermatitis. A double blind control trial].  

PubMed

By a randomized double blind control trial we studied the effect of vacuum cleaning of room floors, mattresses and quilts for twelve months on clinical symptoms and laboratory data of atopic dermatitis patients. All patients used the identical new vacuum cleaners. Thirty patients (3-12 years of age) with relatively stable skin conditions were randomly allocated to either of the following two groups. In the monitor group we visited patient's home every three weeks and mite specialists cleaned drastically the room floors, mattresses and quilts and the patient continued to clean in the same way in-between. In the control group we visited similarly but the cleaning was made insufficiently which was also followed by the patient. But, at 2 occasions (the first and the last visits), cleaning was made drastically also in the control group. Thus the mite numbers were counted precisely at the start and the end of the experiment both in the monitor and control groups. Each patient was seen every six weeks by the same doctor and estimated of his symptoms using our unique scoring system (Fig. 1). At the start and the end of the study, total IgE and specific IgE antibodies to house dust mites in the serum were evaluated. The monitor group showed a tendency to count smaller number of mites than the control group after a year, when there was a significant difference only in quilts. However, a statistically significant decrease in the mite counts was observed only in room floors and not in mattresses and quilts both in the monitor and control groups (Fig. 2). Clinical scores after a year significantly improved only in the monitor group and not in the control group (Fig. 3). Serum IgE value and specific antibody titer to house dust mites were not changed significantly after the trial in both groups. As a conclusion, vacuum cleaning of the patient's room improved the clinical symptoms of atopic dermatitis but this could not be related to the reduction of house dust mite number. PMID:9404089

Endo, K; Fukuzumi, T; Adachi, J; Kojima, M; Aoki, T; Yoshida, M; Morita, K; Nari, T; Tsujino, M

1997-10-01

259

Decreased Mitochondrial DNA Content in Association with Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in House Dust during Wintertime: From a Population Enquiry to Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants that are formed in combustion processes. At the cellular level, exposure to PAHs causes oxidative stress and/or some of it congeners bind to DNA, which may interact with mitochondrial function. However, the influence of these pollutants on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content remains largely unknown. We determined whether indoor exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage as represented by blood mtDNA content. Blood mtDNA content (ratio mitochondrial/nuclear DNA copy number) was determined by real-time qPCR in 46 persons, both in winter and summer. Indoor PAH exposure was estimated by measuring PAHs in sedimented house dust, including 6 volatile PAHs and 8 non-volatile PAHs. Biomarkers of oxidative stress at the level of DNA and lipid peroxidation were measured. In addition to the epidemiologic enquiry, we exposed human TK6 cells during 24 h at various concentrations (range: 0 to 500 µM) of benzo(a)pyrene and determined mtDNA content. Mean blood mtDNA content averaged (±SD) 0.95±0.185. The median PAH content amounted 554.1 ng/g dust (25th–75th percentile: 390.7–767.3) and 1385ng/g dust (25th–75th percentile: 1000–1980) in winter for volatile and non-volatile PAHs respectively. Independent for gender, age, BMI and the consumption of grilled meat or fish, blood mtDNA content decreased by 9.85% (95% CI: ?15.16 to ?4.2; p?=?0.002) for each doubling of non-volatile PAH content in the house dust in winter. The corresponding estimate for volatile PAHs was ?7.3% (95% CI: ?13.71 to ?0.42; p?=?0.04). Measurements of oxidative stress were not correlated with PAH exposure. During summer months no association was found between mtDNA content and PAH concentration. The ability of benzo(a)pyrene (range 0 µM to 500 µM) to lower mtDNA content was confirmed in vitro in human TK6 cells. Based on these findings, mtDNA content can be a target of PAH toxicity in humans. PMID:23658810

Pieters, Nicky; Koppen, Gudrun; Smeets, Karen; Napierska, Dorota; Plusquin, Michelle; De Prins, Sofie; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Nelen, Vera; Cox, Bianca; Cuypers, Ann; Hoet, Peter; Schoeters, Greet; Nawrot, Tim S.

2013-01-01

260

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MONITORING METHODS FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN HOUSE DUST AND TRACK-IN SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The analytical methods were developed for the determination of PAH and PCBs in the dust and soil based on sonication with hexane and 10% ether/hexane, respectively, and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). uantitative recoveries of spiked perdeuterated PAH an...

261

Sequence analysis of cDNA coding for a major house dust mite allergen, Der p 1. Homology with cysteine proteases  

PubMed Central

A cDNA clone coding for Der p 1, a major allergen from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, has been sequenced. It codes for a 222 residue mature protein with a derived molecular weight of 25,371 and contains 1 potential N-glycosylation site. In addition, the cDNA appears to code for a 13 residue proregion, and an incomplete signal peptide. The deduced sequence shows a high degree of homology with animal and plant cysteine proteases, particularly in the region of the contact residues making up the active site. Southern analysis of genomic DNA indicates that the allergen is coded by a noncontiguous gene. These data will now facilitate epitope mapping studies. PMID:3335830

1988-01-01

262

1 http://www.e1.greatlakes.com/fr/products/jsp/firemaster_550.jsp. 2 Stapleton et al.2008.Alternate and New Brominated Flame Retardants Detected in US House Dust.  

E-print Network

.2008.Alternate and New Brominated Flame Retardants Detected in US House Dust. 10th Annual Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants,Victoria,BC,Canada. 3 Andersson,P.L.; Oberg,K.; Orn,U.,2006.Chemical characterization of brominated flame retardants and identification of structurally representative compounds

263

Monoclonal antibodies to recombinant Der p 2, a major house dust mite allergen: specificity, epitope analysis and development of two-site capture ELISA  

PubMed Central

House dust mite allergens have been well established as sensitizing agents that are important in the induction of allergic diseases. In order to analyze epitopes of the allergen and to develop a quantitative method of the allergen exposure, monoclonal antibodies against a recombinant Der p 2 (rDer p 2), one of the major allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, were produced. Four monoclonal antibodies produced were species-specific and did not cross-react to the D. farinae crude extract. Two of the monoclonal antibodies were found to be IgG1 and the others were IgM. For the analysis of epitopes, a Der p 2 cDNA encoding 126 amino acids (aa) was dissected into three fragments with several overlapping peptides, A (aa residues 1-49), B (44-93), and C fragment (84-126). Three monoclonal antibodies showed reactivities to the recombinant B fragment and to the full-length rDer p 2, but one monoclonal antibody reacted only with the full-length rDer p 2. Two-site capture ELISA was developed using two different monoclonal antibodies for quantitating Der p 2 in house dust. The sensitivity limit was 4 ng/ml with rDer p 2 and 8 µg/ml with the D. pteronyssinus crude extract. The result suggested that the assay using monoclonal antibodies against rDer p 2 could be useful for the environmental studies and for the standardization of mite allergen extracts. PMID:10507224

Lee, Sang-Mi; Park, Gab-Man; Lee, In-Yong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Oh, Sang-Hwan; Park, Jung-Won; Hong, Chein-Soo

1999-01-01

264

Biological activity of recombinant Der p 2, Der p 5 and Der p 7 allergens of the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.  

PubMed

Der p 2, Der p 5 and Der p 7 are three allergens of the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus that have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with glutathione-S-transferase (GST). We showed that these recombinant allergens produced immediate hypersensitivity skin-test reactions in 70, 60 and 52% respectively of a group of mite-sensitive allergic patients who were strongly positive to whole mite extract (WME). Comparable positivities were found for serum levels of specific IgE antibody against these allergens, as measured by the radioallergosorbant test (RAST). Overall, for the group of allergic patients that we evaluated, the serum IgE antibody concentrations against Der p 2, 5 and 7 were calculated to represent about one third, one quarter and one fifth respectively of the levels measured against the WME. However, for some patients the activity determined against the separate allergens was far higher than that detected against the WME, thus indicating that the concentration of these can be limiting in the WME. We found no significant correlations between the RAST levels against Derp 2 and either Derp 5 or 7, and RAST-inhibition tests indicated a lack of cross-reactivity between Der p 2 and the other two allergens. In contrast, the RAST results revealed the existence of a significant immunological relationship between Der p 5 and 7. Although a certain degree of reactivity against the GST fusion partner was found in the allergic patients studied, this was not a significant influence in determining the positivity against the recombinant allergens. These results confirm the in vivo biological activity of recombinant Der p 2, 5 and 7, and indicate that whilst Der p 2 is undoubtedly a major mite allergen, both Der p 5 and 7 make important contributions toward the overall allergenic activity of house-dust mites. PMID:9303332

Lynch, N R; Thomas, W R; Garcia, N M; Di Prisco, M C; Puccio, F A; L'opez, R I; Hazell, L A; Shen, H D; Lin, K L; Chua, K Y

1997-09-01

265

Safety, tolerability, and impact on allergic inflammation of autologous E.coli autovaccine in the treatment of house dust mite asthma - a prospective open clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Asthma is increasing worldwide and results from a complex immunological interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Autovaccination with E. coli induces a strong TH-1 immune response, thus offering an option for the treatment of allergic diseases. Methods Prospective open trial on safety, tolerability, and impact on allergic inflammation of an autologous E.coli autovaccine in intermittent or mild persistent house dust mite asthma. Determination of exhaled nitric monoxide (eNO) before and after bronchial mite challenge initially and after nine months of autovaccination. Results In nine subjects and a total of 306 injections, we observed 101 episodes of local erythema (33.3%; median of maximal diameter 2.5 cm), 95 episodes of local swelling (31.1%; median of maximal diameter 3 cm), and 27 episodes of local pain (8.8%). Four subjects reported itching at the injection site with a total of 30 episodes (9.8%). Median eNO increase after autovaccination was significantly smaller (from 27.3 to 33.8 ppb; p = 0.334) compared to initial values (from 32.6 to 42.2 ppb; p = 0.046) (p = 0.034). We observed no serious adverse events. All organ functions (inclusive electrocardiogramm) and laboratory testing of the blood (clinical chemistry, hematology) and the urine (screening test, ?-microglobuline) were within normal limits. Vital signs undulated within the physiological variability. Conclusion The administration of autologous autovacine for the treatment of house dust mite asthma resulted in a reduction of the eNO increase upon bronchial mite challenge. In nine subjects and 306 injections, only a few mild local reactions and no systemic severe adverse events were observed. Trial registration EudraCT Nr. 2005-005534-12 ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT00677209 PMID:21639872

2011-01-01

266

The Association between Asthma and Allergic Symptoms in Children and Phthalates in House Dust: A Nested Case–Control Study  

PubMed Central

Global phthalate ester production has increased from very low levels at the end of World War II to approximately 3.5 million metric tons/year. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential associations between persistent allergic symptoms in children, which have increased markedly in developed countries over the past three decades, and the concentration of phthalates in dust collected from their homes. This investigation is a case–control study nested within a cohort of 10,852 children. From the cohort, we selected 198 cases with persistent allergic symptoms and 202 controls without allergic symptoms. A clinical and a technical team investigated each child and her or his environment. We found higher median concentrations of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) in dust among cases than among controls (0.15 vs. 0.12 mg/g dust). Analyzing the case group by symptoms showed that BBzP was associated with rhinitis (p = 0.001) and eczema (p = 0.001), whereas di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was associated with asthma (p = 0.022). Furthermore, dose–response relationships for these associations are supported by trend analyses. This study shows that phthalates, within the range of what is normally found in indoor environments, are associated with allergic symptoms in children. We believe that the different associations of symptoms for the three major phthalates—BBzP, DEHP, and di-n-butyl phthalate—can be explained by a combination of chemical physical properties and toxicologic potential. Given the phthalate exposures of children worldwide, the results from this study of Swedish children have global implications. PMID:15471731

Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Weschler, Charles J.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Lundgren, Björn; Hasselgren, Mikael; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda

2004-01-01

267

The lead isotopic composition of dust in the vicinity of a uranium mine in northern Australia and its use for radiation dose assessment.  

PubMed

Airborne lead isotope ratios were measured via Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry in samples from the vicinity of Ranger uranium mine in northern Australia. Dust deposited on leaves of Acacia spp. was washed off and analysed to gain a geographical snapshot of lead isotope ratios in the region. Aerosols were also collected on Teflon filters that were changed monthly over one seasonal cycle using a low volume diaphragm pump. Lead isotope ratios in dust deposited on leaves overestimate the relative amount of mine origin airborne lead, most likely due to a difference of the size distribution of particles collected on leaves and true aerosol size distribution. Seasonal measurements show that the annual average mine contribution to airborne lead concentrations in Jabiru East, approximately 2.5 km northwest of the mine, amounted to 13%, with distinct differences between the wet and dry season. The relative contribution of mine origin lead deposited on leaves in the dry season drops to less than 1% at a distance of 12.5 km from the mine along the major wind direction. An approach is outlined, in which lead isotope ratios are used to estimate the effective radiation dose received from the inhalation of mine origin radioactivity trapped in or on dust. Using the data from our study, this dose has been calculated to be approximately 2 microSv year(-1) for people living and working in the area. PMID:16388836

Bollhöfer, Andreas; Honeybun, Russell; Rosman, Kevin; Martin, Paul

2006-08-01

268

PREPARATION OF LEAD-CONTAINING PAINT AND DUST METHOD EVALUATION MATERIALS AND VERIFICATION OF THE PREPARATION PROTOCOL BY ROUND-ROBIN ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Protocols for preparing method evaluation materials from real-world lead-containing paints and dusts were developed. he materials were evaluated in a round-robin using five combinations of extraction methods/quantitation techniques (hot-plate and microwave extractions/atomic abso...

269

Reconsideration of methods and standards: Digestion of diaper wipes and use of matrix-matched calibration standards for dust lead analysis  

SciTech Connect

Diaper wipes are widely used for sampling residential dust for lead analysis. A thicker type of diaper wipe was incompletely digested and had low recoveries of lead on stock solution spikes using existing protocols. A modified protocol was applied to various quality control samples prepared with thicker diaper wipes in 134 batches of field samples. Modifications included a larger reagent volume, more concentrated acid, 3 h on the hot plate, and squeezing wipe residues during filtration. Seventeen batches were reanalyzed using matrix-matched standards. Acceptable lead recoveries were obtained for stock solution spikes (88%) and spikes prepared with leaded dust-SRM 2582 (88%), SRM 2589 (96%), and CRMO 14-050 (99%). Matrix-matched calibration standards increased mean lead recoveries by an additional 8%. Their protocol may provide a basis for a standard operational procedure for wipe digestion and analysis. Differences in estimates of dust lead loadings attributable to the type of wipe and to sample preparation and calibration procedures have implications for risk assessment, clearance testing, and comparability of laboratory data. Reconsideration of current protocols for wipe materials, wipe digestion, and judging laboratory performance is warranted.

Orlova, A.O.; Losh, L.N.; Bannon, D.I.; Lees, P.S.J.; Chisolm, J.J. Jr.; Farfel, M.R.

1999-12-15

270

Lead Sampling Technician Training Course. Trainer Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a model curriculum for use by trainers presenting training course in assessing and reporting dust and debris from deteriorated lead-based paint. The course, which was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is intended for use with housing quality standard inspectors, rehabilitation specialists, home…

ICF, Inc., Washington, DC.

271

Comparison of home lead dust reduction techniques on hard surfaces: the New Jersey assessment of cleaning techniques trial.  

PubMed

High efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) vacuums, which collect particles > 0.3 micro m, and trisodium phosphate (TSP), a detergent claimed to selectively remove lead, have been included in the HUD Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead Based Paint Hazards in Housing without systematic validation of their effectiveness. At the time the study was initiated, both HEPA vacuums and TSP were relatively expensive, they were not readily found in urban retail centers, and there were environmental concerns about the use and disposal of high-phosphate detergents. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted in urban high-risk homes in northern New Jersey to determine whether a more readily available and less expensive low-phosphate, non-TSP detergent and non-HEPA vacuum could perform as well as TSP and a HEPA vacuum in a cleaning protocol. Homes were randomized to one of three cleaning methods: TSP/HEPA vacuum, TSP/non-HEPA vacuum, or non-TSP/non-HEPA vacuum. Change in log-transformed lead loading was used in mixed models to compare the efficacy of the three cleaning techniques separately for uncarpeted floors, window sills, and window troughs. After we adjusted for baseline lead loading, the non-HEPA vacuum produced larger reductions on hard floors [19%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3-38%], but the HEPA vacuum produced larger reductions on window sills (22%; 95% CI, 11-32%) and larger reductions on window troughs (16%; 95% CI, -4 to 33%). The non-TSP produced larger reductions on window troughs (21%; 95% CI, -2 to 50%), but TSP produced larger reductions on hard floors (5%; 95% CI, -12 to 19%) and window sills (8%; 95% CI, -5 to 20%). TSP/HEPA produced larger reductions on window sills (28%; 95% CI, 18-37%) and larger reductions on window troughs (2%; 95% CI, -24 to 23%), whereas the non-TSP/non-HEPA method produced larger reductions on hard floors (13%; 95% CI, -5 to 34%). Because neither vacuum nor detergent produced consistent results across surface types, the use of low-phosphate detergents and non-HEPA vacuums in a temporary control measure is supported. PMID:12204823

Rich, David Q; Rhoads, George G; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Zhang, Junfeng; Bai, Zhipeng; Adgate, John L; Ashley, Peter J; Lioy, Paul J

2002-09-01

272

An evaluation of one-time professional cleaning in homes with lead-based paint hazards.  

PubMed

A key challenge in reducing the burden of lead poisoning is to identify cost-effective interventions that minimize lead-based paint hazards. One-time professional cleaning of lead-contaminated dust and debris was conducted in 37 housing units with deteriorated lead-based paint and dust lead hazards. These study units are a subset of a larger cohort of the nearly 3500 housing units enrolled in the Evaluation of the HUD Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Grant Program. Dust lead loading measurements were taken prior to cleaning, immediately after cleaning (i.e., clearance), and six months, one, two, and three years post-intervention. The cleaning intervention significantly reduced dust lead loadings on floors, windowsills, and window troughs immediately following the work. However, these reductions did not persist at six months and one year post-intervention. Six months and one year post-intervention dust lead loadings are not significantly different from the pre-intervention loadings on either bare floors or windowsills. Although window trough lead loadings declined over 50 percent from pre-intervention to one year post-intervention, the loadings rebounded markedly from the geometric mean at clearance of 101 microgram/ft(2) to 5500 microgram/ft(2) at 6 months and 5790 microgram/ft(2) at one-year post-intervention. These results demonstrate that a single professional cleaning of dust and debris without addressing potential sources of lead dust (such as deteriorated lead-based paint) or repeating the cleaning are unlikely to result in significant and sustained reductions in dust lead loadings. More extensive interventions that address deteriorated lead-based paint, although more expensive, are likely to provide longer term reductions in dust lead loadings. Cleaning strategies, however, may be useful in emergency situations to reduce lead dust hazards when paint repair and other lead hazard control activities cannot be done immediately. PMID:12519688

Tohn, Ellen R; Dixon, Sherry L; Wilson, Jonathan W; Galke, Warren A; Clark, C Scott

2003-02-01

273

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Der f 2, a potent allergen derived from the house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae).  

PubMed

Although a number of allergens have been identified and isolated, the underlying molecular basis for the potent immune response is poorly understood. House dust mites (Dermatophagoides sp.) are ubiquitous contributors to atopy in developed countries. The rhinitis, dermatitis and asthma associated with allergic reactions to these arthropods are frequently caused by relatively small (125-129 amino acids) mite proteins of unknown biological function. Der f 2, a major allergen from the mite D. farinae, has been recombinantly expressed, characterized and crystallized. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group I4(1)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.2, c = 103.3 A. An essentially complete (97.2%) data set has been collected to 2.4 A at a synchrotron source. Attempts to solve the crystal structure of Der f 2 by molecular replacement using the NMR coordinates for either Der f 2 or Der p 2 (the homologous protein from D. pteronyssinus) failed, but preliminary searches using the crystalline Der p 2 atomic coordinates appear to be promising. PMID:12777769

Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Takai, Toshiro; Okumura, Yasushi; Scott, David L

2003-06-01

274

Resident CD11b+Ly6C? Lung Dendritic Cells Are Responsible for Allergic Airway Sensitization to House Dust Mite in Mice  

PubMed Central

Conventional dendritic cells (DCs) are considered to be the prime initiators of airway allergy. Yet, it remains unclear whether specific DC subsets are preferentially involved in allergic airway sensitization. Here, we systematically assessed the respective pro-allergic potential of individually sorted lung DC subsets isolated from house dust mite antigen (HDM)-treated donor mice, following transfer to naďve recipients. Transfer of lung CD11c+CD11b+ DCs, but not CD11c+CD11b?CD103+ DCs, was sufficient to prime airway allergy. The CD11c+CD11b+ DC subpopulation was composed of CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C+ inflammatory monocyte-derived cells, whose numbers increase in the lungs following HDM exposure, and of CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C? DCs, which remain stable. Counterintuitively, only CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C? DCs, and not CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C+ DCs, were able to convey antigen to the lymph nodes and induce adaptive T cell responses and subsequent airway allergy. Our results thus support that lung resident non-inflammatory CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C? DCs are the essential inducers of allergic airway sensitization to the common aeroallergen HDM in mice. PMID:23300898

Marichal, Thomas; Toussaint, Marie; Cataldo, Didier; Drion, Pierre-Vincent; Lekeux, Pierre

2012-01-01

275

Cloned human T lymphocytes reactive with Dermatophagoides farinae (house dust mite): a comparison of T- and B-cell antigen recognition.  

PubMed Central

In this report, T-cell and B-cell recognition of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae (D. far.) is compared. Nitrocellulose immunoblots of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-fractionated D. far. were added to proliferation assays to map the antigen specificity of cloned human helper T cells and a long-term line induced with D. far. T-cell recognition was of a polypeptide of molecular weight 9000-13,000, that migrates with the serologically defined allergen Der fII (12,500 MW). Since the cloned T cells, unlike the polyclonal response, failed to respond to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pter.), this suggests that they recognize a species-specific epitope. In contrast, analysis of the B-cell response using Western blotting demonstrated that, in addition to Der fII, antibodies reactive with the major allergens Der fI (26,000 MW) and Der fIII (29,000 MW) were present in the serum. Similar specificities were seen in the antibody response to D. pter., and while it has been reported that the B-cell response to D. far. and D. pter. are predominantly cross-reactive, our observations suggest that species-specific CD4-positive T cells are present in the overall cellular response to D. far. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:2448229

O'Hehir, R E; Young, D B; Kay, A B; Lamb, J R

1987-01-01

276

Characterization of T-cell responses to the house dust mite allergen Der p II in mice. Evidence for major and cryptic epitopes.  

PubMed Central

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) congenic strains can be defined as high and low responders to the major house dust mite allergen Der p II on the basis of the ability to sensitize T cells for in vitro lymphokine release. Mice of the H-2b haplotype were high responders, H-2k were intermediate and H-2d low responders. Like responses to other proteins, only a limited number of epitopes could be located by the response of T cells from mice immunized with allergen to a series of overlapping peptides. The epitopes for H-2b mice were 11-35, 78-104 and 105-129, 36-50 and 78-104 for H-2k mice and 36-60 for H-2d. Immunization with the peptides however revealed that spleen-adherent cells were required for lymph node cells to recall responses to the whole protein and in addition that mice could be sensitized by cryptic epitopes defined by peptides 22-50 and 1-20 for H-2b mice. Peptides containing these cryptic epitopes did not normally induce responses in mice primed with the allergen, but when they were used for immunizing they could prime mice for responses to the peptide and the whole allergen. The results both help to define a model for studying the presentation of allergens and have significant implications for peptide-based immunotherapy. PMID:7679663

Hoyne, G F; Callow, M G; Kuo, M C; Thomas, W R

1993-01-01

277

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Der f 2, a potent allergen derived from the house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although a number of allergens have been identified and isolated, the underlying molecular basis for the potent immune response is poorly understood. House dust mites (Dermatophagoides sp.) are ubiquitous contributors to atopy in developed countries. The rhinitis, dermatitis and asthma associated with allergic reactions to these arthropods are frequently caused by relatively small (125-129 amino acids) mite proteins of unknown biological function. Der f 2, a major allergen from the mite D. farinae, has been recombinantly expressed, characterized and crystallized. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group I4(1)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.2, c = 103.3 A. An essentially complete (97.2%) data set has been collected to 2.4 A at a synchrotron source. Attempts to solve the crystal structure of Der f 2 by molecular replacement using the NMR coordinates for either Der f 2 or Der p 2 (the homologous protein from D. pteronyssinus) failed, but preliminary searches using the crystalline Der p 2 atomic coordinates appear to be promising.

Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Takai, Toshiro; Okumura, Yasushi; Scott, David L.

2003-01-01

278

Lead  

MedlinePLUS

LEAD CAS # 7439-92-1 Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine ToxFAQs TM August 2007 This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about lead. For more information, ...

279

Lead and Your Health  

MedlinePLUS

... be found are in lead-based paint, contaminated soil, household dust, drinking water, lead crystal, lead-glazed ... eating or inhaling dust or paint chips. The soil around your home can pick up lead from ...

280

Serum antibody to Sarcoptes scabiei and house dust mite prior to and during infestation with S. scabiei.  

PubMed

In this study, serum antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis (SS), Dermatophagoides farinae (DF), and D. pteronyssinus (DP) were determined in 19 healthy, random-source dogs prior to infestation with scabies then again during a primary infestation, cure and challenge infestation with scabies. Prior to scabies infestation, serum of 11 dogs contained faintly detectable amounts of IgE and/or IgG to proteins in SS extract, probably resulting from sensitization to dust mites that share cross-reactive antigenic epitopes with SS. After becoming infested with scabies, the response to SS antigens became stronger with antibodies appearing to more antigens as the scabies infestation progressed. Three of the newly recognized proteins were 170, 155 and 142/133kD and could be used in a diagnostic test since antibodies to them appeared during the primary infestation. In addition, during the primary infestation, 14 of 15 dogs developed IgE to 1-11 new SS proteins in addition to an increase in IgE binding to those proteins recognized prior to infestation. Overall, the strongest antibody responses (IgE and IgG) were exhibited during cure of the first infestation, when dead mites were still present in the stratum corneum. As expected, the antibody response was strong and rapid during challenge when the infestation self-cured. The immunogenic SS proteins identified by serum antibody binding during challenge, when the hosts self-cured, are candidates for inclusion in a vaccine. These candidate proteins are 200, 185, 170, 155, 142/133, 112, 97, 74, 57, 45/42, 32 and 22kD. Some of the proteins in SS that exhibited new or increased antibody binding during the experiment also had IgE and IgG binding to proteins with similar molecular weights in DF and DP extracts. These results illustrate the difficulties involved in understanding and interpreting serum antibody for developing a serological test for the diagnosis of scabies, isolating relevant SS antigens that could be included in a vaccine for prevention of scabies, and for understanding the immune response mechanism to scabies. PMID:10856817

Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S

2000-07-01

281

Quantities of lead producing health effects in humans: sources and bioavailability.  

PubMed Central

Levels of lead ingestion and inhalation producing increased body burden of lead and clinical toxicity in adults and children are compared with usual levels of exposure. The magnitude of lead exposure from air, water, and food is estimated. Sources of high level exposure to lead are described; urban street dirt, house dust, and paint are particularly common sources of high concentrations of lead. The bioavailability of different lead compounds is reviewed as well as factors affecting susceptibility to lead. PMID:908307

Mahaffey, K R

1977-01-01

282

Establishing an allergic eczema model employing recombinant house dust mite allergens Der p 1 and Der p 2 in BALB/c mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract The major house dust mite allergens Der p 1 and Der p 2 are prevalent inducers of eczema. Der p 1 is a cysteine protease disrupting epithelial barriers, whereas Der p 2 functionally mimics the LPS-binding compound MD-2 within the TLR4 complex. In this work, we tested the percutaneous sensitizing capacity of recombinant (r) Der p 1 and Der p 2 in BALB/c mice. Mice were sensitized by percutaneous application of low (10 ?g/application) and high dose (100 ?g) rDer p 1 or rDer p 2, or with rDer p 1 followed by rDer p 2. Allergen-specific and total IgE antibodies were determined by ELISA. Eczema of BALB/c was classified by the itching score and corresponded to erosions. Infiltrating immune cells were identified by haematoxylin/eosin and Giemsa staining for eosinophils or mast cells, CD3 staining for T lymphocytes. Percutaneous treatments with rDer p 1, but not rDer p 2-induced specific IgG1. However, cotreatment with rDer p 1 led to increase in anti-Der p 2 IgG titres. Both allergens elicited skin erosions because of scratching, thickening of the epidermis, and eosinophil and T-cell infiltration. Our data indicate that recombinant mite allergens in the absence of adjuvant are sufficient for inducing eczema in BALB/c mice. As the enzymatic activity of an allergen might be an important cofactor for specific sensitization via the skin, Der p 1 may act as adjuvant for other allergens too. The presented mouse model is suitable for investigating the mechanisms of allergic eczema. PMID:23163649

Szalai, Krisztina; Kopp, Tamara; Lukschal, Anna; Stremnitzer, Caroline; Wallmann, Julia; Starkl, Philipp; Vander Elst, Luc; Saint-Remy, Jean-Marie; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

2012-01-01

283

Severity of Allergic Airway Disease Due to House Dust Mite Allergen Is Not Increased after Clinical Recovery of Lung Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae in Mice  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with chronic inflammatory lung diseases like bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The existence of a causal link between allergic airway disease and C. pneumoniae is controversial. A mouse model was used to address the question of whether preceding C. pneumoniae lung infection and recovery modifies the outcome of experimental allergic asthma after subsequent sensitization with house dust mite (HDM) allergen. After intranasal infection, BALB/c mice suffered from pneumonia characterized by an increased clinical score, reduction of body weight, histopathology, and a bacterial load in the lungs. After 4 weeks, when infection had almost resolved clinically, HDM allergen sensitization was performed for another 4 weeks. Subsequently, mice were subjected to a methacholine hyperresponsiveness test and sacrificed for further analyses. As expected, after 8 weeks, C. pneumoniae-specific antibodies were detectable only in infected mice and the titer was significantly higher in the C. pneumoniae/HDM allergen-treated group than in the C. pneumoniae/NaCl group. Intriguingly, airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly lower in the C. pneumoniae/HDM allergen-treated group than in the mock/HDM allergen-treated group. We did observe a relationship between experimental asthma and chlamydial infection. Our results demonstrate an influence of sensitization to HDM allergen on the development of a humoral antibacterial response. However, our model demonstrates no increase in the severity of experimental asthma to HDM allergen as a physiological allergen after clinically resolved severe chlamydial lung infection. Our results rather suggest that allergic airway disease and concomitant cellular changes in mice are decreased following C. pneumoniae lung infection in this setting. PMID:23817611

Dutow, Pavel; Lingner, Sandra; Laudeley, Robert; Glage, Silke; Hoymann, Heinz-Gerd; Dittrich, Anna-Maria; Fehlhaber, Beate; Müller, Meike; Braun, Armin

2013-01-01

284

In Vivo and In Vitro Studies of Th17 Response to Specific Immunotherapy in House Dust Mite-Induced Allergic Rhinitis Patients  

PubMed Central

T helper (Th)17 cells have been implicated in the development of allergic rhinitis (AR), but their response to specific immunotherapy (SIT) remains unclear. We investigated the impact of SIT on Th17 response and Th1/Th2 changes in AR patients. Blood samples from AR patients (n?=?20) who were monosensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were collected before the initiation of SIT (SIT-untreated) and after the end of 2-year SIT (SIT-treated) treatment. Twenty healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. In vitro HDM stimulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was also performed. Expression levels of Th17 associated genes were determined in both PBMCs and plasma by PCR and ELISA, while Th17/Th1/Th2/IL10 producing cell proportions were evaluated in PBMCs by flow cytometry. The SIT effect was evaluated by assessing clinical symptoms. mRNA levels of Th17 specific genes (IL17 and RORC) were increased in SIT-untreated AR versus controls, and decreased following SIT treatment. SIT can change the production of Th17 associated genes (reduction of IL17, IL6, and IL23, but increase of IL27) in plasma from AR patients. Th2/Th1 ratio and proportions of Th17 cells were suppressed while IL10 producing CD4+ T cells were elevated after SIT. In vitro HDM challenge presents concordant patterns with in vivo findings: 1) increase of Th2 and Th17 response in AR patients; 2) suppression of IL10 producing CD4+ T cells in SIT-untreated AR but elevation in SIT-treated AR patients. Most importantly, a positive correlation between IL17 mRNA/protein levels and clinical symptom scores was observed. SIT significantly inhibits Th17 mediated inflammation in AR and IL17 may be a useful biomarker for both AR severity and SIT therapeutic effect. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12613000445774 PMID:24647473

Chen, De Hua; Lin, Zhi Bin; Wang, De Yun; Li, Tian Ying

2014-01-01

285

The effects of inhaled corticosteroids on intrinsic responsiveness and histology of airways from infant monkeys exposed to house dust mite allergen and ozone  

SciTech Connect

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are recommended to treat infants with asthma, some with intermittent asthma. We previously showed that exposing infant monkeys to allergen/ozone resulted in asthma-like characteristics of their airways. We evaluated the effects of ICS on histology and intrinsic responsiveness of allergen/ozone-exposed and normal infant primate airways. Infant monkeys were exposed by inhalation to (1) filtered air and saline, (2) house dust mite allergen (HDMA) + ozone and saline, (3) filtered air and ICS (budesonide) or (4) HDMA + ozone and ICS. Allergen/ozone exposures started at 1 month and ICS at 3 months of age. At 6 months of age, methacholine-induced changes in luminal area of airways in proximal and distal lung slices were determined using videomicrometry, followed by histology of the same slices. Proximal airway responsiveness was increased by allergen/ozone and by ICS. Eosinophil profiles were increased by allergen/ozone in both proximal and distal airways, an effect that was decreased by ICS in distal airways. In both allergen/ozone- and air-exposed monkeys, ICS increased the number of alveolar attachments in distal airways, decreased mucin in proximal airways and decreased epithelial volume in both airways. ICS increased smooth muscle in air-exposed animals while decreasing it in allergen/ozone-exposed animals in both airways. In proximal airways, there was a small but significant positive correlation between smooth muscle and airway responsiveness, as well as between alveolar attachments and responsiveness. ICS change morphology and function in normal airways as well as allergen/ozone-exposed airways, suggesting that they should be reserved for infants with active symptoms.

Joad, Jesse P. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)], E-mail: jesse.joad@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu; Kott, Kayleen S.; Bric, John M. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Schelegle, Edward S. [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gershwin, Laurel J. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Plopper, Charles G. [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Peake, Janice L.; Pinkerton, Kent E. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

2008-01-15

286

Lead Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... through deteriorating paint, household dust, bare soil, air, drinking water, food, ceramics, home remedies, hair dyes and other ... an elevated blood lead level can easily result. Drinking water can also sometimes contribute to elevated blood lead ...

287

40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...window sills when the weighted arithmetic mean lead loading for all single surface...the rest of the yard when the arithmetic mean lead concentration from a composite sample (or arithmetic mean of composite samples) of...

2010-07-01

288

40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...window sills when the weighted arithmetic mean lead loading for all single surface...the rest of the yard when the arithmetic mean lead concentration from a composite sample (or arithmetic mean of composite samples) of...

2011-07-01

289

40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...window sills when the weighted arithmetic mean lead loading for all single surface...the rest of the yard when the arithmetic mean lead concentration from a composite sample (or arithmetic mean of composite samples) of...

2013-07-01

290

40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...  

...window sills when the weighted arithmetic mean lead loading for all single surface...the rest of the yard when the arithmetic mean lead concentration from a composite sample (or arithmetic mean of composite samples) of...

2014-07-01

291

40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...window sills when the weighted arithmetic mean lead loading for all single surface...the rest of the yard when the arithmetic mean lead concentration from a composite sample (or arithmetic mean of composite samples) of...

2012-07-01

292

77 FR 70179 - Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Federally Owned Residential Properties and Housing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FR-5603-N-87] Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Federally Owned Residential...Requirements for notification of leadbased paint hazard in federally-owned residential...Proposed: Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Federally Owned...

2012-11-23

293

Group 1 Allergen Genes in Two Species of House Dust Mites, Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae): Direct Sequencing, Characterization and Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Group 1 allergens of Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1) and D. pteronyssinus (Der p 1) dominate overall allergic responses in house dust mite allergy patients. The need for accurate identification and characterization of representative variants of group 1 allergens in any given geographic locality has been emphasized for development of appropriate allergen extracts. Regional amino acid sequence polymorphism has been described but the extent of this polymorphism is not well understood. Such data are completely absent for the USA and many other countries. Most previous studies used cDNA libraries generated by reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR) and/or primers amplifying shorter fragments of this gene. Using novel species-specific primers and direct PCR, we document group 1 allergen gene sequence polymorphism in populations of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus from the USA and Pakistan. We report two novel introns (nt pos 87 and 291) in both species, and the absence of intron 3 in Der p 1. Thirteen silent and one novel non-synonymous mutation (Tryptophan W197 to Arginine R197) were detected in D. farinae. The potential medical significance of the latter mutation is discussed. Two haplotypes of the Der f 1 gene were identified, haplotype 1 (63%) was more frequent than haplotype 2 (18%). Polymorphism in Der f 1 displayed geographical localization, since both haplotypes were present in mite populations from Pakistan whereas haplotype 1 was observed only in the USA. In Der p 1, a silent mutation at nt (aa) position 1011(149) and four non-synonymous mutations at positions 589(50), 935(124), 971(136), 1268(215) were observed. These mutations were reported from many other geographic regions, suggesting that polymorphism in the Der p 1 gene is panmictic. The extent of polymorphism in both genes is substantially lower than that reported previously (0.10–0.16% vs 0.31–0.49%), indicating the need for careful evaluation of potential polymerase errors in studies utilizing RT-PCR. PMID:25494056

Shafique, Rubaba Hamid; Klimov, Pavel B.; Inam, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Farhana Riaz; OConnor, Barry M.

2014-01-01

294

Dust to Dust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dust around us is composed of bits of detritus of all manner of things, but it is mostly bits of human skin. This radio broadcast explores the universe through tiny dust particles and discovers what it can tell us about our past as well as our future. The broadcast discusses dust from ice cores that reveal the climate record and the cosmic dust that Earth is gathering every day. There is also explanation of the microscopic composition of the dust around us and the damage dust can do to museum exhibits, especially when the dust interacts with the moisture in the atmosphere. The broadcast is 28 minutes in length.

295

Chemical concentrations of pollutant lead aerosols, terrestrial dusts and sea salts in Greenland and Antarctic snow strata  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we report analyses of lead in annual ice layers from the interior of northern Greenland and in annual layers of ice from the interior of the Antarctic continent. We show that lead concentrations increase from 0.200 Pb\\/kg ice today in north pole ice sheets, the sharpest rise occurring after 1940, and that the levels of lead in

M. Murozumi; Tsaihwa J. Chow; C. Patterson

1969-01-01

296

A portable x-ray fluorescence instrument for analyzing dust wipe samples for lead: evaluation with field samples.  

PubMed

Dust wipe samples collected in the field were tested by nondestructive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) followed by laboratory analysis with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). Data were analyzed for precision and accuracy of measurement. Replicate samples with the XRF show high precision with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.97 (P<0.0001) and an overall coefficient of variation of 11.6%. Paired comparison indicates no statistical difference (P=0.272) between XRF and FAAS analysis. Paired samples are highly correlated with an R(2) ranging between 0.89 for samples that contain paint chips and 0.93 for samples that do not contain paint chips. The ICC for absolute agreement between XRF and laboratory results was 0.95 (P<0.0001). The relative error over the concentration range of 25 to 14,200 microgram Pb is -12% (95% CI, -18 to -5). The XRF appears to be an excellent method for rapid on-site evaluation of dust wipes for clearance and risk assessment purposes, although there are indications of some confounding when paint chips are present. PMID:10856190

Sterling, D A; Lewis, R D; Luke, D A; Shadel, B N

2000-06-01

297

Multiple Metal Contamination from House Paints: Consequences of Power Sanding and Paint Scraping in New Orleans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power sanding exterior paint is a common practice during repainting of old houses in New Orleans, Louisiana, that triggers lead poisoning and releases more than Pb. In this study we quan- tified the Pb, zinc, cadmium, manganese, nickel, copper, cobalt, chromium, and vanadium in exterior paint samples collected from New Orleans homes (n = 31). We used interior dust wipes

Howard W. Mielke; Eric T. Powell; Aila Shah; Christopher R. Gonzales; Paul W. Mielke

2001-01-01

298

Comprehensive and workable plan for the abatement of lead-based paint in privately owned housing. Report to the Congress  

SciTech Connect

The report proposes a balanced and comprehensive plan designed to overcome the barriers that have inhibited efforts to address the hazards of lead-based paint in the past, and to support State and local governments and the private sector in the difficult but necessary task of reducing these hazards in American homes. The report focuses on lead paint abatement, as mandated by the Congress.

Weitz, S.; Clickner, R.P.; Blackburn, A.; Buches, D.

1991-01-01

299

Occurrence and levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house dust and hair samples from Northern Poland; an assessment of human exposure.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among most ubiquitous compounds to be found in indoor environment and ingestion of household dust is considered an important route of exposure to PBDEs, especially in toddlers and young children. The present work reported concentration levels of PBDE congeners (PBDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183 and -209) in hair and dust samples from selected households from Northern Poland. The concentrations of PBDEs in dust ranged from dust. The estimated exposure to ?PBDEs via ingestion of household dust varied from 21 to 92ngd(-1) in toddlers and from 3.7 to 20ngd(-1) in adults. By comparison of correlation between the concentrations of PBDEs in paired hair and dust samples the present work also investigated the possibility of use of hair for reflecting the actual exposure to PBDEs in humans. Finally the possible uncertainties associated with exposure assessment were investigated in the present study. PMID:24630866

Król, Sylwia; Namie?nik, Jacek; Zabiega?a, Bo?ena

2014-09-01

300

Effect of inhaled dust mite allergen on regional particle deposition and mucociliary clearance in allergic asthmatics**  

EPA Science Inventory

Background Acute exacerbations in allergic asthmatics may lead to impaired ability to clear mucus from the airways, a key factor in asthma morbidity. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhaled house dust mite challenge on the regional deposition of...

301

Dust collector  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a dust collector comprising: (a) a housing having inlet means for receiving air to be cleaned; (b) a plurality of filter units within the housing; (c) a first centrifugal fan arranged for drawing air through the units for removing dust from the air; (d) a plurality of ducts each connected to a corresponding one of the units at one end and to the first fan at the other end to provide passages for air from the units to the first fan, the ducts through a portion of their length being arranged in side-by-side relationship; (e) a second centrifugal fan for providing reverse flow of air through the ducts to the units, the second fan providing a high volume of air at low pressure; (f) a transverse duct connected to the second fan and extending transversely of the portion of the plurality of ducts and adjacent thereto: (g) a plurality of openings providing communication between the transverse duct and each of the plurality of ducts; (i) rotatable means engaging the vanes for sequentially moving the vanes between the first and second positions.

Nelson, R.T.

1986-10-21

302

Lead in drinking water and human blood lead levels in the United States.  

PubMed

Lead is a pervasive environmental contaminant. The adverse health effects of lead exposure in children and adults are well documented, and no safe blood lead threshold in children has been identified. Lead can be ingested from various sources, including lead paint and house dust contaminated by lead paint, as well as soil, drinking water, and food. The concentration of lead, total amount of lead consumed, and duration of lead exposure influence the severity of health effects. Because lead accumulates in the body, all sources of lead should be controlled or eliminated to prevent childhood lead poisoning. Beginning in the 1970s, lead concentrations in air, tap water, food, dust, and soil began to be substantially reduced, resulting in significantly reduced blood lead levels (BLLs) in children throughout the United States. However, children are still being exposed to lead, and many of these children live in housing built before the 1978 ban on lead-based residential paint. These homes might contain lead paint hazards, as well as drinking water service lines made from lead, lead solder, or plumbing materials that contain lead. Adequate corrosion control reduces the leaching of lead plumbing components or solder into drinking water. The majority of public water utilities are in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) of 1991. However, some children are still exposed to lead in drinking water. EPA is reviewing LCR, and additional changes to the rule are expected that will further protect public health. Childhood lead poisoning prevention programs should be made aware of the results of local public water system lead monitoring measurement under LCR and consider drinking water as a potential cause of increased BLLs, especially when other sources of lead exposure are not identified. PMID:22874873

Brown, Mary Jean; Margolis, Stephen

2012-08-10

303

Experimentally increased in ovo testosterone leads to increased plasma bactericidal activity and decreased cutaneous immune response in nestling house wrens.  

PubMed

Maternally derived testosterone in the eggs of birds may benefit nestlings by increasing various aspects of their growth, condition and behavioral development, but these benefits may come at a cost, including suppression of immune responsiveness. Experiments on a variety of species in which in ovo levels of testosterone have been experimentally increased have produced mixed results; some have found increased growth and suppressed immune function of nestlings whereas others have found the opposite. In an attempt to clarify the relationship between in ovo testosterone and nestling size, mass, health state and immune responsiveness, we experimentally increased levels of testosterone in the eggs of house wrens (Troglodytes aedon). We simultaneously determined the size, mass, hematocrit (a measure of health state), cutaneous immune response to phytohaemagglutinin and plasma bactericidal activity of nestlings near the time of fledging. We predicted that nestlings hatching from testosterone-injected eggs would exhibit lower immune responsiveness, but achieve greater mass, size and condition, than nestlings hatching from vehicle-injected control eggs. Instead, we found that nestlings hatching from testosterone-injected eggs had a weaker cutaneous immune response but greater bactericidal activity than those hatching from control eggs. They did not, however, differ significantly in mass, size or hematocrit from controls. These results suggest that experimentally increased in ovo testosterone induced a trade-off between bactericidal activity and the cutaneous immune response. The opposite responses by two different measures of immune function to experimentally increased in ovo testosterone underscore the importance of including multiple immune assays when investigating the potential for trade-offs with the immune system and other physiological functions. PMID:21795576

Clairardin, Sandrine G; Barnett, Craig A; Sakaluk, Scott K; Thompson, Charles F

2011-08-15

304

EVALUATION OF PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETER FOR MEASUREMENT OF LEAD IN PAINT, SOIL AND DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Three widely used commercially available portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometers were evaluated for precision and accuracy of measurement of lead in paint. ncluded were two direct reading instruments and one spectrum analyzer. est materials were prepared by spiking oil-based an...

305

House dust mite and cockroach exposure are strong risk factors for positive allergy skin test responses in the Childhood Asthma Management Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Children with asthma have a high prevalence of environmental allergies, especially to indoor allergens. The relationships of exposure to indoor allergens (dust mites, cat, dog, cockroach, and molds) and other host factors to allergy sensitization have not been evaluated simultaneously in a large cohort. Objectives: We studied 1041 children aged 5 to 12 years with mild-to-moderate asthma to determine

Karen Huss; N. Franklin Adkinson; Peyton A. Eggleston; Christopher Dawson; Mark L. Van Natta; Robert G. Hamilton

2001-01-01

306

Identification of a homologue of a house dust mite allergen in a cDNA library from Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis and evaluation of its vaccine potential in a rabbit/S. scabiei var. canis model.  

PubMed

Sarcoptes scabiei ("itch mite") causes scabies, a disease of considerable human and veterinary significance. Little work has been done at the molecular level because of the difficulty of obtaining mites. We have used mites in skin from the bedding of crusted scabies patients for the construction of a library of 10(5) cDNAs from S. scabiei var. hominis cloned in the vector pGEX4T-2. We describe the isolation by immunoscreening of 2 clones, one of which (Ssagl) is homologous to and cross-reactive with the house dust mite Euroglyphus maynei allergen M-177, an apolipoprotein from hemolymph. Immunohistochemistry revealed that it is located around the internal organs and cuticle of the mite and in eggs. Although it was not found to be protective in a challenge trial, the rabbits did not exhibit typical crust characteristics. This work shows that it is now possible to conduct such challenge trials with cloned scabies antigens. PMID:12556149

Harumal, Pearly; Morgan, Marjorie; Walton, Shelley F; Holt, Deborah C; Rode, Jurgen; Arlian, Larry G; Currie, Bart J; Kemp, David J

2003-01-01

307

Manufacturing improvements in the processing of lead-acid battery plates and reduction in plate dusting with an active-material additive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present-day plate processing offers ample opportunity for improvement within lead-acid battery plants. An inorganic, glass micro-fiber, active-material additive has been found to improve plate processing and lower cost in many of the various operations. This additive allows paste batches to be made with higher moisture contents that improve grid filling and paste texture through higher malleability and reduced resistance to flow. The additive also acts as a bulking agent to extend the plate yield of paste batches, which results in lower cost of active material per plate. Energy consumption and operation throughput in plate making is improved by lower flash-dryer temperatures on the pasting line and by a substantial reduction in curing time. Plates made with the additive have decreased paste pellet friability, which reduces battery assembly scrap. The additive also lowers plate surface dusting that results from handling and thus offers the battery manufacturer the opportunity of lowering lead-in-air emissions within the battery plant. Plates made with the additive have been found to have higher surface area and increased active-material utilization, which can enhance battery performance.

Ferreira, A.; Jordan, J.; Wertz, J.; Zguris, G.

308

Measurement of nicotine in household dust  

SciTech Connect

An analytical method of measuring nicotine in house dust was optimized and associations among three secondhand smoking exposure markers were evaluated, i.e., nicotine concentrations of both house dust and indoor air, and the self-reported number of cigarettes smoked daily in a household. We obtained seven house dust samples from self-reported nonsmoking homes and 30 samples from smoking homes along with the information on indoor air nicotine concentrations and the number of cigarettes smoked daily from an asthma cohort study conducted by the Johns Hopkins Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment. House dust nicotine was analyzed by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Using our optimized method, the median concentration of nicotine in the dust of self-reported nonsmoking homes was 11.7 ng/mg while that of smoking homes was 43.4 ng/mg. We found a substantially positive association (r=0.67, P<0.0001) between house dust nicotine concentrations and the numbers of cigarettes smoked daily. Optimized analytical methods showed a feasibility to detect nicotine in house dust. Our results indicated that the measurement of nicotine in house dust can be used potentially as a marker of longer term SHS exposure.

Kim, Sungroul [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Institute for Global Tobacco Control, 627 N. Washington Street, 2nd Floor Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)], E-mail: srkim@jhsph.edu; Aung, Ther; Berkeley, Emily [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Diette, Gregory B. [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Breysse, Patrick N. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

2008-11-15

309

Interstellar Medium: dust Interstellar dust  

E-print Network

Interstellar Medium: dust Interstellar dust Dust grains (silicate/carbon cores, ice mantles) Sizes of ~0.1 m Effects in the visible domain: extinction, reddening, polarization Dust opacity , = 1-2 Thermal emission: mm, submm, FIR (optically thin) #12;Interstellar dust Dust grains (silicate

Estalella, Robert

310

Multiple metal contamination from house paints: consequences of power sanding and paint scraping in New Orleans.  

PubMed Central

Power sanding exterior paint is a common practice during repainting of old houses in New Orleans, Louisiana, that triggers lead poisoning and releases more than Pb. In this study we quantified the Pb, zinc, cadmium, manganese, nickel, copper, cobalt, chromium, and vanadium in exterior paint samples collected from New Orleans homes (n = 31). We used interior dust wipes to compare two exterior house-painting projects. House 1 was measured in response to the plight of a family after a paint contractor power sanded all exterior paint from the weatherboards. The Pb content (approximately 130,000 microg Pb/g) was first realized when the family pet died; the children were hospitalized, the family was displaced, and cleanup costs were high. To determine the quantity of dust generated by power sanding and the benefits of reducing Pb-contaminated dust, we tested a case study house (house 2) for Pb (approximately 90,000 microg/g) before the project was started; the house was then dry scraped and the paint chips were collected. Although the hazards of Pb-based paints are well known, there are other problems as well, because other toxic metals exist in old paints. If house 2 had been power sanded to bare wood like house 1, the repainting project would have released as dust about 7.4 kg Pb, 3.5 kg Zn, 9.7 g Cd, 14.8 g Cu, 8.8 g Mn, 1.5 g Ni, 5.4 g Co, 2.4 g Cr, and 0.3 g V. The total tolerable daily intake (TTDI) for a child under 6 years of age is 6 microg Pb from all sources. Converting 7.4 kg Pb to this scale is vexing--more than 1 billion (10(9)) times the TTDI. Also for perspective, the one-time release of 7.4 x 10(9) microg of Pb dust from sanding compares to 50 x 10(9) microg of Pb dust emitted annually per 0.1 mile (0.16 km) from street traffic during the peak use of leaded gasoline. In this paper, we broaden the discussion to include an array of metals in paint and underscore the need and possibilities for curtailing the release of metal dust. PMID:11673129

Mielke, H W; Powell, E T; Shah, A; Gonzales, C R; Mielke, P W

2001-01-01

311

A coordinated relocation strategy for enhancing case management of lead poisoned children: outcomes and costs.  

PubMed

Controlling residential lead hazards is critical for case management of lead poisoned children. To attain this goal, permanent relocation of the family is sometimes necessary or advisable for many reasons, including poor housing conditions; extensive lead hazards; lack of abatement resources, landlord compliance and local enforcement capacity; and family eviction. During 1996-1998, the Kennedy Krieger Institute implemented a unique capitated program for case management of Baltimore City children with blood lead concentrations (PbB) >19 microg/dL. The Program provided financial, housing, and social work assistance to facilitate relocation as a means of providing safer housing. Nearly half of the Program families relocated with direct assistance, and 28% relocated on their own. The Program evaluation examined the costs and benefits of relocation. Average relocation cost per child was relatively inexpensive (<1,500 dollars). Average relocation time of 5 months (range <2 months to >12 months) was less than the 8-month average time to complete lead hazard control work in 14 city and state programs funded by U.S. HUD. Relocation was associated with (1) a statistically significant decrease in dust lead loadings on floors, windowsills and window troughs that persisted for one year, and (2) statistically significantly greater decreases in children's PbB compared to children who did not relocate from untreated homes. Children relocated to housing that met current Federal residential dust lead standards had statistically significant decreases in blood lead levels. Visual inspection did not consistently identify relocation houses with dust lead levels below current Federal standards, indicating that dust testing should be an essential component of future programs. This will require additional resources for dust testing and possibly cleaning and repairs but is expected to yield additional benefits for children. The findings support recent U.S. CDC case management recommendations suggesting that permanent relocation to safer housing is a viable means to reduce children's lead exposure. The benefits of relocation notwithstanding, 40% of families moved at least twice. Research is needed to better understand how to expedite relocation and encourage families to remain in safe housing. Relocation does not negate owners' and health authorities' responsibilities to address lead hazards in the child's original house in order to protect future occupants. PMID:16736359

McLaine, Pat; Shields, Wendy; Farfel, Mark; Chisolm, J Julian; Dixon, Sherry

2006-01-01

312

Exposure to Beta-(1,3)-D-Glucan in House Dust at Age 7–10 Is Associated with Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Atopic Asthma by Age 11–14  

PubMed Central

Background Mould exposure has been linked to childhood asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Few studies have assessed beta-(1,3)-d-glucan (beta-glucan), a significant fungal cell wall constituent, in relation to asthma in adolescence. Objective To determine whether house dust-derived beta-glucan exposure at age 7–10 is associated with the development and persistence of atopic and non-atopic asthma, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) by age 11–14. Methods Dust samples were collected from the 1995 Study of Asthma, Genes, and Environment (SAGE) birth cohort. This cohort was derived from Manitoba provincial healthcare administrative records of children high and low risk for asthma. Samples were collected from the homes of 422 children at age 7–10 and analyzed using beta-glucan and endotoxin-specific Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate assays. Asthma, atopy, and BHR status of each child were also assessed at ages 7–10 and 11–14. Results At age 7–10, beta-glucan dust levels in the home were associated with persistent atopic asthma at age 11–14 (OR 1.79 for each unit increase in levels, 95% CI 1.14–2.81), independent of endotoxin exposure, and Alternaria or Cladosporium sensitization. The likelihood of BHR almost doubled with unit increases in dust beta-glucan in asthmatic children. In children without asthma, exposure to high beta-glucan levels at age 7–10 also elevated risk for BHR in adolescence (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.05–2.89). New-onset atopic asthma was twice more likely following high beta-glucan exposure in children without asthma but the association did not reach statistical significance. No associations were evident with concurrent asthma phenotype at age 7–10 or non-atopic asthma at age 11–14. Conclusion These findings implicate home beta-glucan exposure at school-age as a risk factor for persistent atopic asthma and new-onset BHR. The higher prevalence of BHR in urban adolescents may be propagated by this home exposure. PMID:24905346

Maheswaran, Dharini; Zeng, Yiye; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Scott, James; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Becker, Allan B.; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.

2014-01-01

313

Humans and Lead Fishing Sinkers  

MedlinePLUS

... spread far distances. They can cover everything–soil, dust, walls, floors, furniture, clothing, toys, stuffed animals, etc. ... walk, are especially at risk because lead contaminated dust can get on their hands. Lead is then ...

314

Environmental Lead after Hurricane Katrina: Implications for Future Populations  

PubMed Central

Background: As a result of Hurricane Katrina, > 100,000 homes were destroyed or damaged and a significant amount of sediment was deposited throughout the city of New Orleans, Louisiana. Researchers have identified the potential for increased lead hazards from environmental lead contamination of soils. Objectives: We assessed the distribution of residential soil and dust lead 2 years poststorm and compared soil lead before and after the storm. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in New Orleans in which households were selected by stratified random sampling. A standard residential questionnaire was administered, and lead testing was performed for both the interior and exterior of homes. Logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors of interior and exterior lead levels in excess of allowable levels. Results: One hundred nine households were enrolled; 61% had at least one lead measurement above federal standards. Of homes with bare soil, 47% had elevated lead and 27% had levels exceeding 1,200 ppm. Housing age was associated with soil lead, and housing age and soil lead were associated with interior lead. Race, income, and ownership status were not significantly associated with either interior or exterior lead levels. The median soil lead level of 560 ppm was significantly higher than the median level of samples collected before Hurricane Katrina. Conclusions: The high prevalence (61%) of lead above recommended levels in soil and dust samples in and around residences raises concern about potential health risks to the New Orleans population, most notably children. Steps should be taken to mitigate the risk of exposure to lead-contaminated soil and dust. Further research is needed to quantify the possible contribution of reconstruction activities to environmental lead levels. PMID:22052045

Iqbal, Shahed; Perry, Sara; Arroyave, Whitney; Rice, Janet C.

2011-01-01

315

Lead exposure assessment from study near a lead-acid battery factory in China.  

PubMed

The production of lead-acid battery in China covered about one-third of the world total output and there are more than 2000 lead-acid battery factories. They may cause the major environment lead pollution. Blood lead levels of several hundreds of residents were over 100 ?g/L due to the waste discharges from a lead-acid battery factory in Heyuan, Guangdong province. This study aimed to find out the environmental lead sources, the human lead exposure pathways, and the amplitudes from a lead-acid battery factory. The study results showed that lead levels in soil, dust, tree leaves and human blood declined with the distances increased from the production site. Twenty nine of 32 participants had blood lead levels of over 100 ?g/L with an exceptional high value of 639 ?g/L for one child. This result suggested that the lead-acid battery production from this factory has caused the elevated lead levels in its neighboring environment and residents. Dust intake was the dominant exposure pathway for humans (over 90%). The lead levels found in adult and toddler (6.19 and 50.1 ?g/kg/d, respectively) in the polluted area were far higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 25 ?g/kg body weight (translated into 3.5 ?g/kg/d), which was established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee. Blood lead levels within the family members were strongly correlated with the house dust lead levels. Our results in this study suggested that further studies in this area should be performed to assess human exposure and relevant human health risks from living close to lead-acid battery factories. PMID:22578522

Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; Liu, Ming; Huang, Yumei; Fan, Ruifang; Su, Yanhua; Hu, Guocheng; Peng, Xiaowu; Peng, Xiaochun

2012-07-01

316

Health and environmental outcomes of traditional and modified practices for abatement of residential lead-based paint  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated traditional and modified practices for abating lead-based paint in homes of children with blood-lead concentrations (PbB) greater than 1.4 mumol\\/L (greater than 29 micrograms\\/dl). Traditional abatement resulted in acute increases in: (1) lead contaminated house dust (generally 3 to 6-fold over pre-abatement levels, but at abated sites typically 10 to 100-fold); and (2) the PbBs of nearly half

M. R. Farfel; J. J. Jr. Chisolm

1990-01-01

317

Dust-magnetosphere interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many different interactions have been proposed among the magnetospheric particles, fields, and dust grains in the rings of the outer planets. Attention is presently given to the energetic particle absorption signatures obtained by Pioneer 11 and Voyagers 1 and 2, which trace the mass concentrations of particulates in the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. Particulates immersed in the magnetospheric plasma and exposed to solar UV radiation will charge up to a surface potential that depends on the density and electron energy of the plasma, as well as on the concentration of dust particles. Kinetic effects of charged dust particles arise from the interaction with the planetary magnetic field. Electromagnetic effects are noted which lead to the halo of Jupiter's ring, the dust distribution in Saturn's E ring, and the levitated dust in the Saturn B ring spokes.

Gruen, E.; Morfil, G. E.; Mendis, D. A.

1984-01-01

318

Atmospheric Dust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Atmospheric dust storms are common in many of the world's semi-arid and arid regions and can impact local, regional, and even global weather, agriculture, public health, transportation, industry, and ocean health. This module takes a multifaceted approach to studying atmospheric dust storms. The first chapter examines the impacts of dust storms, the physical processes involved in their life cycle, their source regions, and their climatology. The second chapter explores satellite products (notably dust RGBs) and dust models used for dust detection and monitoring, and presents a process for forecasting dust storms. The third and final chapter of the module examines the major types of dust storms: those that are synoptically forced, such as pre- and post-frontal dust storms and those induced by large-scale trade winds; and those caused by mesoscale systems such as downslope winds, gap flow, convection, and inversion downburst storms.

Comet

2012-03-06

319

An evaluation of the effectiveness of lead paint hazard reduction when conducted by homeowners and landlords  

SciTech Connect

This research project was conducted in collaboration with the Iowa Department of Public Health to evaluate whether property owners who follow recommended procedures for lead-based paint removal/repair can do the work safely and effectively. This study included 29 homes where a lead-based paint hazard had been identified and lead-based paint was removed or repaired (hazard reduction). Exposure evaluation included pre-project surface dust wipe sampling, air monitoring during lead-based paint removal, post-project surface dust wipe sampling, and pre- and post-project blood samples from adult study participants. The comparison of surface dust wipe samples taken before and after lead paint hazard reduction was used to evaluate the effectiveness of lead paint hazard reduction. The lead loadings on window sill surfaces in the work area were significantly lower after completion of the project, and the lead-based paint removal did not contaminate the adjoining living area. The proportion of homes with surface dust lead loading exceeding Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) clearance standard was 73% pre-project and 38% post-project. Personal airborne exposures during lead removal activities reinforce the need to respiratory protection and good hygiene. There was no difference in adult pre-/post-blood levels, indicating that participants die remove lead in a safe manner with respect to their own exposures. The results indicate that hazard reduction can be done effectively when recommended procedures for the removal of lead-based paint are followed.

Etre, L.A.; Reynolds, S.J.; Burmeister, L.F.; Whitten, P.S.; Gergely, R.

1999-08-01

320

Indoor Dust Exposure: An Unnoticed Aspect of Involuntary Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nicotine concentration in samples of house dust from the homes of 34 smokers and 38 nonsmokers was analyzed using a gas chromatographic method. A strong positive correlation (r = .65, p < .0001) between the amount smoked and the nicotine concentration in the house dust was found when the results from all homes were analyzed, and a fairly strong

Hans Ole Hein; Poul Suadicani; Peder Skov; Finn Gyntelberg

1991-01-01

321

NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--ANALYSIS OF DUST AND SOIL FOR LEAD, CADMIUM, AND CHROMIUM (RTI/ACS-AP-209-120)  

EPA Science Inventory

This protocol describes methodology and quality control measures used in the analysis of dust wipes, wet wipes, soil, and the rug/mat for metals. The samples were extracted with a 10% or greater concentration of ultra-pure nitric acid and diluted to a final concentration of 2% or...

322

Workshop on Mineral Dust, Boulder CO, June 9-11, 1999 RADIATIVE FORCING BY MINERAL DUST  

E-print Network

Workshop on Mineral Dust, Boulder CO, June 9-11, 1999 RADIATIVE FORCING BY MINERAL DUST Charles S. Zender National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado 1. INTRODUCTION Mineral dust plays. Dust tends to heat the at- mosphere and cool the surface, effects which can lead to regional

Zender, Charles

323

An immunogenetic analysis of the T-cell recognition of the major house dust mite allergen Der p 2: identification of high- and low-responder HLA-DQ alleles and localization of T-cell epitopes.  

PubMed Central

Cellular reactivity to Der p 2, a major allergen of the house dust mite (HDM) Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, was studied in a group of 41 symptomatic HDM sensitive patients, using fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and assays of proliferation. Sixty per cent of the patients responded to Der p2, with reactivities being greater in patients with asthma as one of their clinical manifestations and also in those who had skin-test reactivity to a number of allergens. HLA-DR and -DQ serotyping was undertaken in 39 of the patients and the magnitude of T-cell proliferative responses to Der p 2 were found to be positively associated with DQ7 and negatively associated with DQ2. T-cell determinants within the Der p 2 molecule were identified by assays using a series of overlapping peptides (15- to 19-mers) spanning the entire protein. Fifty-nine per cent of the 41 HDM-sensitive patients responded to one or more of the peptides. All of the peptides were antigenic for at least one of the individuals, indicating the heterogeneity of the human repertoire reactive with Der p 2. There was a substantial variability in the number and location of epitopes recognized by T cells from the different allergic patients, the mean number per patient being 2.3 +/- 1.3 (SD). The most frequently recognized peptide was that spanning residues 111-129, being stimulatory in 66.7%, the other peptides were each recognized by between 8 to 25% of individuals. There was no correlation between the epitope recognized and the presence of particular HLA-DQ antigens. PMID:7490115

O'Brien, R M; Thomas, W R; Nicholson, I; Lamb, J R; Tait, B D

1995-01-01

324

INCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING  

E-print Network

in paint peeling from indoor surfaces is well Jppreciated, lead-based paint on exterior surfaces Jccessible to children may also bit the Dust and dirt may constitute reported in ml~rograms ~er 100 ml whole blood. extertur surfJt:es or by JUto c:missions. Smelter dust may

325

Dust Storm  

article title:  Elevated Dust over the Middle East     View ... on April 11, 2004 (top panels) contrast strongly with the dust storm that swept across Iraq and Saudi Arabia on May 13, 2004 (bottom ... (MISR) depict both the abundance of airborne dust, and its height above the surface. The natural-color views at left ...

2013-04-16

326

ETHAN'S HOUSE GETS HEALTHIER  

E-print Network

2012 Tips page adapted from health educational material from Philadelphia Lead Poisoning Prevention Prevent Lead Poisoning U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Environmental Health #12;Ethan's House Gets Healthier With a Visit from

327

Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently being developed in a collaborative effort between Langley Research Center and Kennedy Space Center. The screens typically consist of spiral shaped conductive traces patterned on high dielectric substrates (i.e. glass, quartz, polyimide film, etc.). Two broad categories of substrate materials are being investigated for the screens. One category consists of transparent substrates (i.e. glass, quartz, sapphire, etc.), and the other non-transparent sub-strates (Kapton, polyimide films, metals, etc.). The transparent screens utilize patterns made from indium tin oxide (ITO), a transparent conductive material, on clear substrates while the non-transparent screens use copper patterns on a transluscent or opaque substrates. Further, the screen is coated with a high dielectric polyimide cover layer to protect the screen pattern. One promising cover layer material that is currently being investigated is Langley Research Center-Soluble Imide (LaRC-SI), a NASA LaRC developed polyimide. Lastly, a top-coat of hard, inorganic material is evaporated onto the cover layer for protection from scratches due to abrasive nature of the dust. Of note, several top-coat materials are under investigation and include: aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, titanium oxide, yttrium oxide, zirconium oxide, and zinc sulfide. The electrostatic dust mitigation screens function when a high voltage (700V or greater) is applied to the screen electrodes, thus creating an electromagnetic wave across the surface of the screen that repels the dust. Lunar dust typically contains a high positive charge; therefore, the screens are charged with a higher positive charge that effectively repels dust from the surface (i.e. like charges repel, unlike charges attract). It is anticipated that full development and maturation of this technology will enable humans to sustain a long term presence on the moon, and other planets where dust may have negative implications.

Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

328

Lead isotopes as a supplementary tool in the routine evaluation of household lead hazards.  

PubMed Central

The advent of magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) allows rapid, accurate, and precise measurement of lead isotopes in environmental and biological samples at a lower cost than traditional methods. This may increase the feasibility of including lead isotope measurements as a routine tool to identify household sources of lead exposure to children. Here, we present three household case studies to illustrate how lead hazard evaluations by an environmental specialist could be supplemented with routine lead isotope analyses of potential lead sources and blood. Sampling for lead isotopes was undertaken following the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development regulatory guidelines for the evaluation of lead hazards in housing, and with the consideration of minimizing the additional costs associated with lead isotope measurements. The range of isotopic ratios within a single residence was large enough to allow the characterization of different lead sources, particularly when both major (e.g., (207)Pb/(206)Pb) and minor (e.g., (206)Pb/(204)Pb) isotope ratios were considered. These cases illustrate the utility of the lead isotope method to identify main source(s) of lead exposure to the child; discard unlikely sources of exposure to the child; point to sources of lead to dust; and substantiate or refine the environmental assessment based exclusively on lead concentrations and loadings. Thus, a more effective evaluation of household lead hazards would likely benefit from considering a) lead concentrations and loadings in and around the household environment; b) all isotopic ratios of potential lead sources within that environment; and c) information about behavioral habits, as well as an evaluation of viable pathways of exposure to the child. PMID:11102302

Gwiazda, R H; Smith, D R

2000-01-01

329

Dust World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The increasing importance of understanding dust and its role in the Earth system is driving new research and an analysis of past data. This website offers research on the impact of dust forcings on the Earth system from dust storms. Analysis of dust from a whole Earth perspective incorporates connections and interconnections of dust in the atmospheres as well as how to mitigate the increase and severity of dust storms. This resource is sponsored by the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), a NASA, NSF and NOAA-supported program implemented by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) to improve the quality of geoscience instruction for pre-service and in-service K-12 teachers.

2011-02-23

330

Protoplanetary Dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Planet formation and protoplanetary dust Daniel Apai and Dante Lauretta; 2. The origins of protoplanetary dust and the formation of accretion disks Hans-Peter Gail and Peter Hope; 3. Evolution of protoplanetary disk structures Fred Ciesla and Cornelius P. Dullemond; 4. Chemical and isotopic evolution of the solar nebula and protoplanetary disks Dmitry Semenov, Subrata Chakraborty and Mark Thiemens; 5. Laboratory studies of simple dust analogs in astrophysical environments John R. Brucato and Joseph A. Nuth III; 6. Dust composition in protoplanetaty dust Michiel Min and George Flynn; 7. Dust particle size evolution Klaus M. Pontoppidan and Adrian J. Brearly; 8. Thermal processing in protoplanetary nebulae Daniel Apai, Harold C. Connolly Jr. and Dante S. Lauretta; 9. The clearing of protoplanetary disks and of the protosolar nebula Ilaira Pascucci and Shogo Tachibana; 10. Accretion of planetesimals and the formation of rocky planets John E. Chambers, David O'Brien and Andrew M. Davis; Appendixes; Glossary; Index.

Apai, D.´niel; Lauretta, Dante S.

2014-02-01

331

Protoplanetary Dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Planet formation and protoplanetary dust Daniel Apai and Dante Lauretta; 2. The origins of protoplanetary dust and the formation of accretion disks Hans-Peter Gail and Peter Hope; 3. Evolution of protoplanetary disk structures Fred Ciesla and Cornelius P. Dullemond; 4. Chemical and isotopic evolution of the solar nebula and protoplanetary disks Dmitry Semenov, Subrata Chakraborty and Mark Thiemens; 5. Laboratory studies of simple dust analogs in astrophysical environments John R. Brucato and Joseph A. Nuth III; 6. Dust composition in protoplanetaty dust Michiel Min and George Flynn; 7. Dust particle size evolution Klaus M. Pontoppidan and Adrian J. Brearly; 8. Thermal processing in protoplanetary nebulae Daniel Apai, Harold C. Connolly Jr. and Dante S. Lauretta; 9. The clearing of protoplanetary disks and of the protosolar nebula Ilaira Pascucci and Shogo Tachibana; 10. Accretion of planetesimals and the formation of rocky planets John E. Chambers, David O'Brien and Andrew M. Davis; Appendixes; Glossary; Index.

Apai, Dániel; Lauretta, Dante S.

2010-01-01

332

Atmospheric dust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the purpose of dust in the atmosphere? On this activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, students read about the need for dust in the atmosphere as an agent for condensation. The addition of dust particles to the atmosphere by airplanes introduces students to the concept of cloud seeding and influencing the chance of rain in an area. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

333

Intergalactic Dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the composition and sizes of intergalactic dust based on the expulsion of interstellar dust from the galactic disk. Interstellar grains in the Galactic disk are modelled as a mixture of amorphous silicate dust and carbonaceous dust consisting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and larger graphitic grains (Li & Draine 2001) with size distributions like those of the Milky Way dust (Weingartner & Draine 2001). We model their dynamic evolution in terms of the collective effects caused by (1) radiative acceleration, (2) gravitational attraction, (3) gas drag, (4) thermal sputtering, and (5) Lorenz force from the galactic magnetic field (Ferrara et al. 1991). Radiation pressure from the stellar disk exerts an upward force on dust grains and may ultimately expel them out of the entire galaxy. Gravitational force from the stellar, dust and gas disk as well as the dark matter halo exerts a downward force. Thermal sputtering erodes all grains to some degree but more efficiently destroys small grains. This, together with the fact that (1) very small grains (with small radiation pressure efficiencies) are not well coupled to starlight; (2) for large grains the radiative force to the gravitational force is approximately inversely proportional to grain size, acts as a size ``filter'' for dust leaking into the intergalactic space. Since the radiation pressure efficiency and the grain destruction rate are sensitive to dust composition, the relative importance of carbon dust compared to silicate dust expelled into the intergalactic space differs from that in the galactic plane. We derive the size distributions of both silicate and carbonaceous dust finally getting into the intergalactic space and obtain an intergalactic extinction curve. The predicted intergalactic infrared emission spectrum is calculated. References: Ferrara, A., Ferrini, F., Franco, J., & Barsella, B. 1991, ApJ, 381, 137 Li, A., & Draine, B.T. 2001, ApJ, 554, 778 Weingartner, J.C., & Draine, B.T. 2001, ApJ, 548, 296

Li, A.

2002-12-01

334

Animal House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to design, build and test a house or toy for an animal. Learners will research a particular animal and design a house or toy that will encourage that animal's specific behaviors. Each house or toy must fit into the animal's cage, support the animal's size and weight, and be constructed of non-toxic materials. Safety note: adult supervision recommended for cutting cardboard boxes.

Museum of Science, Boston

2005-01-01

335

Dust World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning unit, learners examine the causes and impacts of dust transported through the atmosphere. An estimated two billion tons of dust is emitted by the Earth annually. Scientists are becoming increasingly interested in the role dust plays in climate change. Students are asked to conduct an Earth system analysis of dust's impact on weather and climate. Links to NASA remote-sensing data is provided along with detailed instructions, and additional resources and activities. This module was developed to be used in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use.

336

Environmental Health Disparities in Housing  

PubMed Central

The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

2011-01-01

337

AMERICAN HOUSING SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The American Housing Survey (AHS) collects data on the Nation's housing, including apartments, single-family homes, mobile homes, vacant housing units, household characteristics, income, housing and neighborhood quality, housing costs, equipment and fuels, size of housing unit, a...

338

Working Towards Accreditation by the International Standards Organization 15189 Standard: How to Validate an In-house Developed Method an Example of Lead Determination in Whole Blood by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Laboratories working towards accreditation by the International Standards Organization (ISO) 15189 standard are required to demonstrate the validity of their analytical methods. The different guidelines set by various accreditation organizations make it difficult to provide objective evidence that an in-house method is fit for the intended purpose. Besides, the required performance characteristics tests and acceptance criteria are not always detailed. The laboratory must choose the most suitable validation protocol and set the acceptance criteria. Therefore, we propose a validation protocol to evaluate the performance of an in-house method. As an example, we validated the process for the detection and quantification of lead in whole blood by electrothermal absorption spectrometry. The fundamental parameters tested were, selectivity, calibration model, precision, accuracy (and uncertainty of measurement), contamination, stability of the sample, reference interval, and analytical interference. We have developed a protocol that has been applied successfully to quantify lead in whole blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). In particular, our method is selective, linear, accurate, and precise, making it suitable for use in routine diagnostics. PMID:25187889

Ramirez, Jose Manuel; Vest, Philippe; Chianea, Denis; Renard, Christophe

2014-01-01

339

Determination of numbers of lead-exposed American children as a function of lead source: Integrated summary of a report to the US Congress on childhood lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

In 1986, the U.S. Congress (Section 118(f), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)) directed the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to provide to it a quantitative assessment of the contributions of various sources of lead to childhood exposure. We provided both a quantitative response to the mandate and a critique of low-level lead sources for U.S. population segments. We also present here an integrated assessment of major and low-level lead sources. Significant sources of lead in childhood exposure include lead in paint, dust, soil, and drinking water. Approximately 6 million U.S. children less than 7 years old reside in the oldest housing, with highest exposure risk due to leaded paint. About 2 million in deteriorated units are at particularly high risk for exposure with ca. 1.2 million children in oldest, deteriorated housing estimated to have blood lead (PbB) levels above 15 micrograms/dl. Soil and dust lead are potential sources of exposure for 6-12 million children. Residential tap water lead is a measurable source for ca. 3.8 million children, of whom the U.S. EPA estimates ca. 240,000 have water-specific exposures at toxic levels. Leaded gasoline combustion mainly in past years has produced, and will continue to produce into the 1990s, significant numbers of exposed children with toxicologically elevated PbBs. For 1990, 1.25 million children will have their PbBs fall below 15 micrograms/dl. Food lead can cause significant exposure in certain cases.36 references.

Mushak, P.; Crocetti, A.F. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

1989-12-01

340

Addressing Lead-Based Paint Hazards During Renovation, Remodeling, and Rehabilitation in Federally Owned and Assisted Housing. Student Manual for Use in HUD-Sponsored Lead-Safe Work Practices Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student manual comprises the United States Environmental Protection Agency's model renovation training course designed for renovation, remodeling, and painting contractors. It provides information regarding the containment, minimization, and cleanup of lead hazards during activities that disturb lead painted surfaces. Introductory material…

Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

341

Ceiling (attic) dust: a "museum" of contamination and potential hazard.  

PubMed

Ceiling or attic dusts provide an indirect measure of air pollution integrated over varying time periods. We undertook an investigation into the particle-size distributions and sources and exposure pathways of metals in ceiling dusts from 38 houses in the city of Sydney, Australia. The houses ranged in age from 4 to 106 years and were grouped into three settings: industrial, semi-industrial, and non-industrial. The main roof types were terracotta tile (n=23), cement tile (n=8), and corrugated iron (n=4), with two slate and one asbestos. Soils and rocks from the Sydney area were also analyzed to provide "background" values and allow the estimation of enrichment factors. The bulk of the dusts contained particles derived from soil of crustal origin and organic plant material, with an anthropogenic component estimated at up to 25%. Particle sizes from selected dust samples showed a bimodal distribution, and the volumes of fine dusts were 50% <63 microm, 30%<38 microm, and 7%<10 microm; the highest metal concentrations were in the finest fractions. The geometric mean concentrations of important anthropogenic-derived metals from the industrial setting were 17294 microg/g Zn, 1660 microg/g Pb, 111 microg/g Cr, 261 microg/g Cu, and 26 microg/g As. The metals Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn were consistently higher in the industrial settings than in the other settings. Median regression analyses showed that there were significant differences in the urban setting for the metals Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Enrichment factors for metals in the dust from the industrial site houses compared with background soils and rocks from the Sydney area were As, x 5; Cr, x2; Co, x3; Cu, x 12; Pb, x10; Sb, x 26; and Zn, 596. For the three roof types of terracotta tile, cement, and iron, median regression analyses showed that there were no significant effects with respect to age. Median regression analyses for terracotta tile, cement tile, and corrugated iron roofs showed a "roof" effect for Cu and V. Significant correlations (P0.03) were observed between most of the metals As-Cd-Cu-Pb-Sb-Zn, especially from the industrial settings. Pathways of dust exposure in this study are classified as being passive or active based upon the probable route of dust infiltration. Ceiling dusts pose a probable health hazard if the dust is disturbed and allowed to plume within the living areas of a dwelling, thereby exposing the occupants, especially children, to elevated levels of metals and fine particulates. Modeling shows that exposure to the elevated levels of Pb in dust could give rise to blood lead concentrations exceeding current guidelines for the industrial and semi-industrial areas. PMID:16194668

Davis, Jeffrey J; Gulson, Brian L

2005-10-01

342

Clay Houses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

Pedro, Cathy

2011-01-01

343

Solar House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students work in teams to design and build a model of a solar house after researching several websites. Students will discover that a solar house takes advantage of solar energy to minimize the use of traditional energy sources and can include design elements that take advantage of the sun's rays to light and heat the house, to heat water, and to set up a favorable flow of air. They also learn that many solar houses contain a solar mass that will absorb the heat during the day and release it slowly at night and a passive solar house will also take into account the angle of the sun's rays, to maximize heating during the winter and shade during the summer. This site contains all of the specifications for planning, building, and testing the model and a rubric for grading the project.

Wendy Van Norden

344

Where Is Lead Found? Paint in many homes built before 1978 may contain lead.  

E-print Network

Where Is Lead Found? · Paint in many homes built before 1978 may contain lead. · Soil surrounding a home may have lead from exterior paint dust or from leaded gasoline in cars. · Household dust can contain lead from deteriorating lead- based paint or from soil containing lead that is tracked

Liskiewicz, Maciej

345

A comparison of concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds detected in dust samples from various regions of the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Settled house dust can be a source of human exposure to toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through non-dietary ingestion and dermal contact. Information regarding the concentrations of various contaminants in house dust would be useful in estimating the risk associated with exposure to these compounds. This study reports on the surface loading, variability and distribution of PAHs in settled house

Christine Naspinski; Rebecca Lingenfelter; Leslie Cizmas; Ziad Naufal; Ling Yu He; Arif Islamzadeh; Zhiwen Li; Zhu Li; Thomas McDonald; K. C. Donnelly

2008-01-01

346

A multivariate linear regression model for predicting children's blood lead levels based on soil lead levels: A study at four Superfund sites  

SciTech Connect

For the purpose of examining the association between blood lead levels and household-specific soil lead levels, the authors used a multivariate linear regression model to find a slope factor relating soil lead levels to blood lead levels. They used previously collected data from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) multisite lead and cadmium study. The data included in the blood lead measurements of 1,015 children aged 6--71 months, and corresponding household-specific environmental samples. The environmental samples included lead in soil, house dust, interior paint, and tap water. After adjusting for income, education or the parents, presence of a smoker in the household, sex, and dust lead, and using a double log transformation, they found a slope factor of 0.1388 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09--0.19 for the dose-response relationship between the natural log of the soil lead level and the natural log of the blood lead level. The predicted blood lead level corresponding to a soil lead level of 500 mg/kg was 5.99 [micro]g/kg with a 95% prediction interval of 2.08--17.29. Predicted values and their corresponding prediction intervals varied by covariate level. The model shows that increased soil lead level is associated with elevated blood leads in children, but that predictions based on this regression model are subject to high levels of uncertainty and variability.

Lewin, M.D.; Sarasua, S.; Jones, P.A. (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Studies)

1999-07-01

347

Rapid Lead Screening Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Protection Agency (EPA): Lead in Paint, Dust, and Soil Page Last Updated: 06/05/2014 Note: If ... Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top

348

Impact of a More Stringent Blood Lead Level Recommendation for Children (Ages 1-5): Vulnerabilities Related to Housing, Food Security, Vitamins, and Environmental Toxicants  

EPA Science Inventory

The adverse health effects of lead (Pb) exposure in young children are well known. Non-Hispanic black children historically have higher blood Pb levels (BLL) compared to Mexican-Americans and non- Hispanic white children (CDC-MMWR). In the past, BLL tests below 10 µg/dL m...

349

Building Houses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Build a house you can fit inside, using cardboard tubes. Variations of this activity include building for a toy (easier) or building a house the right size for a stuffed animal or a garage for a toy car. Also included is an option to build houses inspired by those around the world (harder). This activity focuses on the understanding of sizes and shapes: Can I fit in this if I stand up? if I sit? Do we have enough cardboard tubes to make a triangular roof? This activity is available as a webpage and a downloadable pdf. Students should have the ability to use scissors and tape well.

2010-01-01

350

21. INTERIOR VIEW OF SIXTH FLOOR OF MILL HOUSE, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. INTERIOR VIEW OF SIXTH FLOOR OF MILL HOUSE, SHOWING BLOWER AT RIGHT AND DUST CONTROL FILTER SYSTEM AT LEFT, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Sperry Corn Elevator Complex, Weber Avenue (North side), West of Edison Street, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

351

House Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this physical sciences activity, learners explore how passive solar design increases energy efficiency. Learners test paperboard models of different building designs to discover how the design affects the amount of heat that enters the house.

Television, Twin C.

2013-01-01

352

Arctic house  

E-print Network

Currently available housing in the Arctic is limited to solutions that have been adapted from designs for less severe climates. This thesis has developed a new manner of residential construction designed specifically for ...

Turkel, Joel A. (Joel Abram), 1969-

1999-01-01

353

From Dust to Protoplanets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, most simulations of planetary accretion have considered a single stage of growth such as dust coagulation, planetesimal formation, or oligarchic growth. However, these stages are likely to take place concurrently in different regions of a protoplanetary disk, and even at the same location in a disk. This can lead to interactions and feedbacks between the various growth stages, altering the outcome. Here I will present results of new simulations that model growth from micrometer-size dust grains up to planetary embryos throughout a protoplanetary disk, including potentially important physical processes such as radial drift,bouncing and fragmentation during collisions, and pebble accretion onto large bodies. I will also discuss the implications for giant-planet formation, dust retention in protoplanetary disks, and meteorite parent body ages and compositions.

Chambers, John E.

2014-11-01

354

Mite and Booklouse Fauna From Vacuumed Dust Samples From Beijing  

PubMed Central

A significant-source of allergens come from house dust that contain particles derived from arthropods, molds, and pet dander. This study evaluated mite and booklouse fauna from vacuumed dust samples in Beijing China (a temperate zone). Our survey was carried out in Beijing in the homes of mite allergic patients who visited our Allergy Department. In total, 38 homes were selected for the collection of dust samples by vacuuming, from December 2008 to January 2010. The flotation method was used to isolate mites from house dust. Permanent slides were prepared for mite specimens and mites were identified and counted under a microscope. In total, 1,798 separate mite and insect specimens were found in 345 dust samples taken from 38 homes. A total of 95 individual Dermatophagoides (D) siboney were detected in 35 dust samples from 19 homes (representing 5.3% of all mite and insect species found in house dust); in addition, this mite was found to co-exist with D. farinae (Hughes, 1961) in 33 dust samples. Our results demonstrated the presence D. siboney that co-existed with D. farinae in house dust in Beijing China (a temperate zone). PMID:24843802

Sun, Jin-Lu; Shen, Lian; Chen, Jun; Yu, Jin-Miao

2014-01-01

355

Dust Catchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to indoor air pollution, learners build take-home dust catchers with wax paper and petroleum jelly. After a set monitoring period, learners conduct representative particle counts using a comparison grid. Learners will also graph the results. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Health Hazards of Lunar Dust" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource includes background information, variation ideas and a handout for learners in both English and Spanish.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Dresden, Judith

2007-01-01

356

Lead in Air  

MedlinePLUS

... scientific evidence, and consulting with the Agency’s independent science advisors, EPA is proposing to retain, without revision, the national ambient air quality standards for lead. Learn more Learn about lead in paint, dust and soil Lead (Pb) is a metal found naturally in ...

357

Partnership for Advancing Technologies in Housing (PATH)  

NSF Publications Database

... Technology Systems Interactions and Whole House Approaches PATH?s mission is to advance technology ... technology arena. Far reaching exploratory research that can lead to breakthrough technologies and ...

358

40 CFR 745.92 - Fees for the accreditation of renovation and dust sampling technician training and the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...renovation and dust sampling technician training and...CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT...renovation and dust sampling technician training and...Renovator or Dust Sampling Technician Course $400...Renovation and Lead-based...

2010-07-01

359

75 FR 69069 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Lead Review Panel  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...documents entitled Approach for Developing Lead Dust Hazard Standards for Residences and Approach for Developing Lead Dust Hazard Standards for Public and Commercial...documents entitled Approach for Developing Lead Dust Hazard Standards for Residences and...

2010-11-10

360

Domestic ventilation rates, indoor humidity and dust mite allergens: are our homes causing the asthma pandemic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with historical changes in domestic ventilation rates, relative humidity and the associated risk of house dust mite colonization. A controlled trial evaluated allergen and water vapour control measures on the level of house dust mite (HDM) Der p1 allergen and indoor humidity, concurrently with changes in lung function in 54 subjects who completed the protocol. Mechanical

S G Howieson; A Lawson; C McSharry; G Morris; E McKenzie; J Jackson

2003-01-01

361

ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND DUST SAMPLES FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA)  

EPA Science Inventory

An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in house dust and soil. Soil and house dust samples were analyzed for PCB by both gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and ELISA methods. A correlati...

362

[Biological effect of wood dust].  

PubMed

The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis. PMID:8231799

Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Doma?ska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mo?ocznik, A

1993-01-01

363

Environmental chemicals mediated the effect of old housing on adult health problems: US NHANES, 2009-2010.  

PubMed

Housing conditions affect occupants continuously, and health interventions have shown a positive association between housing investment or improvement and occupant's health. However, the sources of the housing problems were less understood. Since it was observed that lead dust and chloroanisoles released from housing (materials) as indoor pollutants affected child's health, we now aimed to examine the relationships among built year, environmental chemicals and individual health in adults in a national and population-based setting. Data were retrieved from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2010, including demographics, housing characteristics, self-reported health status, biomarkers and blood and urinary chemical concentrations. Adults aged 20 and above were included for statistical analysis (n?=?5,793). Analysis involved chi-square test, t test, and survey-weighted general linear regression and logistic regression modelling. People who resided in older housing built before 1990 tended to report chronic bronchitis, liver problems, stroke, heart failure, diabetes, asthma and emphysema. Higher values in HDL cholesterol, blood lead and blood cadmium and having positive responses of hepatitis A, B, C and E antibodies among occupants were also observed. Furthermore, higher environmental chemical concentrations related to old housing including urinary cadmium, cobalt, platinum, mercury, 2,5-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol concentrations and mono-cyclohexyl phthalate and mono-isobutyl phthalate metabolites were shown in occupants as well. Older housing (?30 years) seemed to contribute to the amount of environmental chemicals that affected human health. Regular monitoring, upgrading and renovation of housing to remove environmental chemicals and policy to support people in deprived situations against environmental injustice would be needed. PMID:25138559

Shiue, Ivy; Bramley, Glen

2015-01-01

364

Contrasting Immunological Effects of Two Disparate Dusts – Preliminary Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Modern lifestyle and urbanization have been associated with a raised risk for atopic diseases whereas early and long-term exposure to a farm environment confers protection against atopic sensitization. Immunomodulatory potential and microbiological characteristics of settled airborne dust from an urban house and a barn were examined. Methods: Pulmonary inflammation was induced in mice by repeated intranasal administration of dusts.

Harri Alenius; Jaakko Pakarinen; Ossian Saris; Maria A. Andersson; Marina Leino; Kristiina Sirola; Marja-Leena Majuri; Jari Niemelä; Sampsa Matikainen; Henrik Wolff; Leena von Hertzen; Mika Mäkelä; Tari Haahtela; Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen

2009-01-01

365

3. Credit PSR. View looks east (100°) down dust ditch ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Credit PSR. View looks east (100°) down dust ditch near Fourth and B Streets in "the loop." In background are Building 4505, Building 4500 (Control Tower) and Building 4456 (Fire House No. 4). - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Dust Ditch System, Traversing North Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

366

Contributions of Paint and Soil to Pb in Household Dust Wipes: An XAS Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speciation of Pb by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicated that Pb compounds associated with lead-based paint accounted for perhaps half of the Pb in 24 household dust wipes collected in El Paso, Texas. Soil-derived, sorbed Pb, likely Pb-humate, was also a major Pb species in many of the dust wipes. Household dust wipes are a standard technique for evaluating health risks of Pb to children, particularly toddlers, in public and private housing. The level of Pb in the wipes does not, however, indicate whether the source of the Pb is the house itself (peeling or powdering interior or exterior paint) or external, from contaminated soil or airborne particulate matter brought into the house by wind or foot traction. Understanding the origin of Pb in household dust is important in remediation: cover the old paint or remove the yard soil. XAS speciation can assist in understanding the source of Pb in household dust. The presence of significant Pb-humate requires a soil source, and suggests the need for soil remediation. Such species of Pb as hydrocerussite, lead sulfate, lead silicate, and lead chromate can be presumed to be components of lead-based paint. These may represent interior and/or exterior paint and thus do not uniquely identify the locus of the Pb source(s). Pb L-III edge XAFS data were collected on beam lines 7-3, 10-2, and 11-2 at SSRL at typical conditions of 3 GeV field and 80-200 mA current, using Si(220) water- or liquid-nitrogen-cooled monochromator crystals. Data were collected at ambient temperature in fluorescence mode using a 13- or 30-element Ge detector with a Se 3 or 6 filter and Soller slits to reduce scattered radiation. This publication was made possible by grant numbers 1RO1-ES11367 and 1 S11 ES013339-01A1 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH. Portions of this research were carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, a national user facility operated by Stanford University on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J. W.; Amaya, M. A.

2010-12-01

367

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTION OF SOIL/HOUSE DUST FOR GC/MS ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDES (BCO-L-14.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe procedures for extracting and preparing dust or soil samples for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of pesticides. This procedure was followed to ensure consistent data retrieval during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "...

368

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTION OF SOIL AND HOUSE DUST SAMPLES FOR GC/MS ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDE AND PAH (BCO-L-28.0)  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this SOP is to describe procedures for extracting and preparing a dust or soil sample for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This procedure was followed to ensure consistent data retrieval durin...

369

Associations of phthalate concentrations in floor dust and multi-surface dust with the interior materials in Japanese dwellings.  

PubMed

Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in numerous products. However, there has been some concern about the various effects they may have on human health. Thus, household phthalate levels are an important public health issue. While many studies have assessed phthalate levels in house dust, the association of these levels with building characteristics has scarcely been examined. The present study investigated phthalate levels in house dust samples collected from the living areas of homes, and examined associations between these phthalate levels and the interior materials. Dust was collected from two portions of the living area: floor dust from the entire floor surface, and multi-surface dust from objects more than 35 cm above the floor. The levels of seven phthalates were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode. Phthalate levels were higher in multi-surface dust than in floor dust. Among floor dust samples, those from dwellings with compressed wooden flooring had significantly higher levels of di-iso-butyl phthalate compared to those with other floor materials, while polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring was associated with higher di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) levels. Among multi-surface dust samples, higher levels of DEHP and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP) were found in samples from homes with PVC wallpaper than without. The number of PVC interior materials was significantly positively correlated with the levels of DEHP and DINP in multi-surface dust. The phthalate levels in multi-surface dust were associated with the interior surface materials, and those in floor dust were directly related to the flooring materials. Our findings show that when using house dust as an exposure assessment, it is very important to note where the samples were collected from. The present report provides useful information about the association between phthalates and dust inside dwellings, which will assist with establishing public health provisions. PMID:24012901

Ait Bamai, Yu; Araki, Atsuko; Kawai, Toshio; Tsuboi, Tazuru; Saito, Ikue; Yoshioka, Eiji; Kanazawa, Ayako; Tajima, Shuji; Shi, Cong; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kishi, Reiko

2014-01-15

370

Lead contamination in French children's homes and environment.  

PubMed

Lead in homes is a well-known source of childhood lead exposure, which is still of concern due to the health effects of low lead doses. This study aims to describe lead contamination in the homes of children aged 6 months to 6 years in France (without overseas). Between October 2008 and August 2009, 484 housing units were investigated. Lead in tap water and total and leachable lead levels from floor dust, outdoor soils and paint chips were measured. X-ray fluorescence measurements were carried out on non-metallic and metallic substrates. Nationwide results are provided. The indoor floor dust lead (PbD) geometric mean (GM) was 8.8 ?g/m˛ (0.8 ?g/ft˛) and 6.8 ?g/m˛ (0.6 ?g/ft˛) for total and leachable lead respectively; 0.21% of homes had an indoor PbD loading above 430.5 ?g/m˛ (40 ?g/ft˛). The outdoor play area concentration GM was 33.5 mg/kg and 21.7 mg/kg in total and leachable lead respectively; 1.4% of concentrations were higher than or equal to 400 mg/kg. Outdoor floor PbD GM was 44.4 ?g/m˛ (4.1 ?g/ft˛) that was approximately 3.2 times higher than the GM of indoor PbD. Lead-based paint (LBP) was present in 25% of dwellings, LBP on only non-metallic substrates was present in 19% of homes and on metallic substrates in 10% of dwellings. The GM of lead concentrations in tap water was below 1 ?g/L; 58% of concentrations were lower than 1 ?g/L and 2.9% were higher than or equal to 10 ?g/L. The age cut-off for homes with lead would be 1974 for paint and 1993 for indoor floor dust. This study provides, for the first time, a look at the state of lead contamination to which children are exposed in French housing. Moreover, it provides policy makers an estimate of the number of French dwellings sheltering children where abatement should be conducted. PMID:22551852

Lucas, Jean-Paul; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe; Etchevers, Anne; Bretin, Philippe; Douay, Francis; Sébille, Véronique; Bellanger, Lise; Mandin, Corinne

2012-07-01

371

Affordable housing  

SciTech Connect

This book is designed to assist in implementing a housing affordability program by supporting the use of energy efficient mortgages. The information contained in this book can be applied to many aspects of real estate programs which utility companies have developed. Included are: planning material and worksheets; support material that includes presentation scripts, overheads, slides; and fact sheets.

Not Available

1989-01-01

372

Housing Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building specifications for birdhouses (nesting boxes) are given for 11 species (chickadee, titmouse, nuthatch, Carolina wren, house wren, downy woodpecker, hairy woodpecker, flicker, bluebird, screech owl, and wood duck) including length, width, depth, entrance diameter, and height above the ground. Pointers for construction, materials, and…

Schmalz, Georgann

1985-01-01

373

Effect of nonadiabaticity of dust charge variation on dust acoustic waves: generation of dust acoustic shock waves.  

PubMed

The effect of nonadiabaticity of dust charge variation arising due to small nonzero values of tau(ch)/tau(d) has been studied where tau(ch) and tau(d) are the dust charging and dust hydrodynamical time scales on the nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves. Analytical investigation shows that the propagation of a small amplitude wave is governed by a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) Burger equation. Notwithstanding the soliton decay, the "soliton mass" is conserved, but the dissipative term leads to the development of a noise tail. Nonadiabaticity generated dissipative effect causes the generation of a dust acoustic shock wave having oscillatory behavior on the downstream side. Numerical investigations reveal that the propagation of a large amplitude dust acoustic shock wave with dust density enhancement may occur only for Mach numbers lying between a minimum and a maximum value whose dependence on the dusty plasma parameters is presented. PMID:11308955

Gupta, M R; Sarkar, S; Ghosh, S; Debnath, M; Khan, M

2001-04-01

374

Vibrational modes in the dust-plasma crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that vertical vibration of dust grains in a sheath region can lead to a specific low frequency mode of a quasi-two-dimensional dust-plasma crystal. Linear dispersion characteristics of the mode are obtained.

Vladimirov, S. V.; Shevchenko, P. V.; Cramer, N. F.

1997-07-01

375

Dust Studies in DIII-D Tokamak  

SciTech Connect

Studies of submicron dust using Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers and video data of micron to sub-millimeter sized dust on DIII-D tokamak have provided the first data of dust sources and transport during tokamak discharges. During normal operation on DIII-D dust observation rates are low, a few events per discharge or less. The net carbon content of the dust corresponds to a carbon atom density a few orders of magnitude below the core impurity density. Statistical analysis of Mie data collected over months of operation reveal correlation of increased dust rate with increased heating power and impulsive wall loading due to edge localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions. Generation of significant amounts of dust by disruptions is confirmed by the camera data. However, dust production by disruptions alone is insufficient to account for estimated in-vessel dust inventory in DIII-D. After an extended entry vent, thousands of dust particles are observed by cameras in the first 2-3 plasma discharges. Individual particles moving at velocities up to {approx}300 m/s, breakup of larger particles into pieces, and collisions of particles with walls are observed. After {approx}70 discharges, dust levels are reduced to a few events per discharge. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark modeling, milligram amounts of micron-sized carbon dust have been injected into DIII-D discharges, leading to the core carbon density increase by a factor of 2-3. Following injection, dust trajectories in the divertor are mostly in the toroidal direction, consistent with the ion drag force. Dust from the injection is observed in the outboard midplane by a fast framing camera. The observed trajectories and velocities of the dust particles are in qualitative agreement with modeling by the 3D DustT code.

Rudakov, D L; West, W P; Groth, M; Yu, J H; Boedo, J A; Bray, B D; Brooks, N H; Fenstermacher, M E; Hollmann, E M; Hyatt, A W; Krasheninnikov, S I; Lasnier, C J; Moyer, R A; Pigarov, A Y; Smirnov, R; Solomon, W M; Wong, C C

2008-04-15

376

Dust Studies in DIII-D Tokamak  

SciTech Connect

Studies of submicron dust using Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers and video data of micron to sub-millimeter sized dust on DIII-D tokamak have provided the first data of dust sources and transport during tokamak discharges. During normal operation on DIII-D dust observation rates are low, a few events per discharge or less. The net carbon content of the dust corresponds to a carbon atom density a few orders of magnitude below the core impurity density. Statistical analysis of Mie data collected over months of operation reveal correlation of increased dust rate with increased heating power and impulsive wall loading due to edge localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions. Generation of significant amounts of dust by disruptions is confirmed by the camera data. However, dust production by disruptions alone is insufficient to account for estimated in-vessel dust inventory in DIII-D. After an extended entry vent, thousands of dust particles are observed by cameras in the first 2-3 plasma discharges. Individual particles moving at velocities up to {approx}300 m/s, breakup of larger particles into pieces, and collisions of particles with walls are observed. After {approx}70 discharges, dust levels are reduced to a few events per discharge. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark modeling, milligram amounts of micron-sized carbon dust have been injected into DIII-D discharges, leading to the core carbon density increase by a factor of 2-3. Following injection, dust trajectories in the divertor are mostly in the toroidal direction, consistent with the ion drag force. Dust from the injection is observed in the outboard midplane by a fast framing camera. The observed trajectories and velocities of the dust particles are in qualitative agreement with modeling by the 3D DustT code.

Rudakov, D. L.; Yu, J. H.; Boedo, J. A.; Hollmann, E. M.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Moyer, R. A.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Smirnov, R. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); West, W. P.; Bray, B. D.; Brooks, N. H.; Hyatt, A. W.; Wong, C. P. C. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Groth, M.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Solomon, W. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2008-09-07

377

PBDEs in indoor dust in South-Central China: Characteristics and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust samples were collected randomly from 76 houses, 12 offices, 43 outdoor sites, two televisions and two computers in South-Central China. The indoor dust samples were analyzed for the concentrations, congener profiles, and possible sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and compared to similar data obtained for outdoor dusts. The concentrations of ?10PBDEs (the sum of BDE28, 47, 66, 85,

Yumei Huang; Laiguo Chen; Xiaochun Peng; Zhencheng Xu; Zhixiang Ye

2010-01-01

378

Collection of cometary dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rendezvous Missions to Comets lead to low velocities at the nucleus of the comet. The resulting impact velocity of the cometary dust on a target will range between 10 and 400 m/s. The dust particle which impacts on a target can be collected for a subsequent in-situ analysis. The collection efficiency of a target depends in addition to obvious geometrical conditions upon the surface of the target. The surface characteristics can be divided into two groups: ``dirty'' surfaces, covered with silicate or hydrocarbon compounds (for example vacuum grease), ``clean'' surfaces, like gold (with additional sputtering). This paper deals with the experimental and theoretical investigation of the collection efficiency of ``clean'' targets. Laboratory experiments are described which were conducted at the Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Raumfahrttechnik, and the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg. In both experiments an electromagnetic accelerator is used to accelerate different types of dust in vacuum to velocities between 10 and 400 m/s. The target is then examined under the microscope and a secondary ion mass spectrometer (which is a model of the laboratory carried on board of the spacecraft for ``in situ'' analysis). The adhesion of the dust grains at the target is evaluated experimentally in an ultracentrifuge.

Lell, P.; Igenbergs, E.; Kuczera, H.; Pailer, N.

379

Morphological themes of informal housing in Colonias: impacts of sociocultural identity on Webb County housing form  

E-print Network

, kinship role in house construction, and construction phases of self-help house (Turner1972, Spears 1986, Briody 1989, Holston 1991), these factors lead to the third null hypothesis (H3), which states that housing production and builder?s identity have...

Mohamed Kamal El Sayed Ibrahim, Azza

2006-10-30

380

Departure from the housing market: Effects on housing supply in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ageing of the population in Western societies leads to an increasing primary supply of housing in the existing stock. Ever more older households leave the independent housing market. For the Netherlands this process is expected to create a larger primary supply of housing than new construction does by the year 1995. Deaths of single persons living independently are the

Friedel C. Filius; Frans M. Dieleman; Pieter Hooimeyer

1991-01-01

381

Smart Houses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

1987-01-01

382

Housing services Zinfandel Hall  

E-print Network

Housing services Zinfandel Hall (707) 664-2541 Fax: (707) 664-4158 e-mail: ssu.housing@sonoma.edu www.sonoma.edu/housing On-Campus Housing The Residential Community provides comfortable, convenient in the local area. This listing can be found online at www.sonoma.edu/housing, and includes rental houses

Ravikumar, B.

383

Possible influence of dust on hurricane genesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical Cyclones (TCs) belong to the most extreme events in nature. In the past decade, the possible impact of dust on Atlantic hurricanes receives growing interest. As mineral dust is able to absorb incoming solar radiation and therefore warm the surrounding air, the presence of dust can lead to a reduction of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase in atmospheric stability. Furthermore, resulting baroclinic effects and the dry Saharan easterly jet lead to an enhanced vertical shear of the horizontal winds. SST, stability, moisture and vertical wind shear are known to potentially impact hurricane activity. But how Saharan dust influences these prerequisites for hurricane formation is not yet clear. Some dynamical mechanisms induced by the SAL might even strengthen hurricanes. An adequate framework for investigating the possible impact of dust on hurricanes is comparing high resolution simulations (~0.5°x0.5°, 31 vertical levels) with and without radiatively active dust aerosols. To accomplish this task, we are using the general circulation model ECHAM6 coupled to a modified version of the aerosol model HAM, ECHAM6-HAM-Dust. Instead of the five aerosol species HAM normally contains, the modified version takes only insoluble dust into account, but modifies the scavenging parameters in order to have a similar lifetime of dust as in the full ECHAM6-HAM. All remaining aerosols are prescribed. To evaluate the effects of dust on hurricanes, a TC detection and tracking method is applied on the results. ECHAM6-HAM-Dust was used in two configurations, one with radiatively active dust aerosols and one with dust being not radiatively active. For both set-ups, 10 Monte-Carlo simulations of the year 2005 were performed. A statistical method which identifies controlling parameters of hurricane genesis was applied on North Atlantic developing and non-developing disturbances in all simulations, comparing storms in the two sets of simulations. Hereby, dust can be assigned a more influencing role on TC genesis in the simulations with active dust. Despite dust is seeming to have a negative influence on TC genesis, the relative importance of dust compared to the sea surface temperature (SST) cannot be determined thoroughly. This is largely due to a similar pattern of SST and dust off the west coast of Africa, so that possible effects of dust and SST could hardly be separated.

Bretl, Sebastian; Reutter, Philipp; Raible, Christoph C.; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Lohmann, Ulrike

2014-05-01

384

2014 Summer Housing Summer Housing dates  

E-print Network

2014 Summer Housing FACT SHEET Summer Housing dates: May 19, 2014 ­ August 9, 2014 "Rochester Shines in the Summer Time" Please read all of the information thoroughly. Once signed, your housing contract is binding. *We will begin accepting Summer Housing contracts Monday, April 7, 2014 GENERAL

Mahon, Bradford Z.

385

PORTABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEASURING LEADING IN DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

386

Seasonal influences on childhood lead exposure.  

PubMed Central

We conducted a study to examine seasonal changes in residential dust lead content and its relationship to blood lead in preschool children. We collected blood and dust samples (floors, windowsills, and carpets) to assess lead exposure. The geometric mean blood lead concentrations are 10.77 and 7.66 microg/dL for the defined hot and cold periods, respectively (p < 0.05). Lead loading (milligrams per square meter) is the measure derived from floor and windowsill wipe samples that is most correlated with blood lead concentration, whereas lead concentration (micrograms per gram) is the best variable derived from carpet vacuum samples. The variation of dust lead levels for these three dust variables (floor lead loading, windowsill lead loading, and carpet lead concentration) are consistent with the variation of blood lead levels, showing the highest levels in the hottest months of the year, June, July, and August. The regression analysis, including the three representative dust variables in the equations to predict blood lead concentration, suggests that the seasonality of blood lead levels in children is related to the seasonal distributions of dust lead in the home. In addition, the outdoor activity patterns indicate that children are likely to contact high leaded street dust or soil during longer outdoor play periods in summer. Consequently, our results show that children appear to receive the highest dust lead exposure indoors and outdoors during the summer, when they have the highest blood lead levels. We conclude that at least some of the seasonal variation in blood lead levels in children is probably due to increased exposure to lead in dust and soil. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10656860

Yiin, L M; Rhoads, G G; Lioy, P J

2000-01-01

387

Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.

388

Jovian Dust Streams Revisited - Cassini Dust Detector At Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both, the dust detectors on board the Galileo spacecraft and the Ulysses spacecraft recorded within about 1 AU from Jupiter, periodic bursts of dust impacts, with periods of about 28 days, originating from the Jovian system. Furthermore, time- frequency analysis of impact data recorded by the Galileo instrument inside the Jovian system revealed that the dust streams are also modulated with harmonics of Jupiter's orbital period. This indicates that the stream particles are strongly interacting with the inclined Jovian magnetic field. Current theoretical models of the grain- field interaction lead to grain speeds of about 300 km/s and grain sizes of about 10 nm. Stream particles were also recorded by the dust instrument on board of the Cassini spacecraft when Cassini was approaching Jupiter in 2000. Although the Cassini dust instrument is in many aspects superior to its progenitors the measurements were strongly affected by the fixed instrument mounting. First data analysis indicates that the Cassini instrument observed dust streams moving through the instrument field of view on very short time scales. Furthermore, we will present evidence that the instru- ment recorded 2 streams at the same time having different angles with respect to the Jovian line of sight. Such effects are most likely caused by the interaction of the grains with the interplanetary magnetic field.

Kempf, S.; Srama, R.; Gün, E.; Krüger, H.; Burton, M.; Cda Team

389

Middle East Dust  

... only some of the dust over eastern Syria and southeastern Turkey can be discerned. The dust is much more obvious in the center panel, ... 18, 2002 - A large dust plume extends across Syria and Turkey. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

2013-04-16

390

Metal dusting of nickel-containing alloys  

SciTech Connect

Metal dusting is a catastrophic form of carburization which leads to pitting and grooves as the affected metal disintegrates into a mixture of powdery carbon, metallic particles, and possibly oxides and carbides. This high temperature carburization mode is not yet well understood and while relatively infrequent, can be economically disastrous when it does occur in large and complex chemical and petrochemical process streams. References in the literature show that all classes of heat resistant alloys are prone to metal dusting, given the necessary and specific environmental conditions. These same references describe the environments that plague nickel-containing alloys and are used as the basis for postulation on the probable corrosion mechanisms responsible for metal dusting. Using alloy 800 and other nickel-containing alloys and metal dusting atmospheres, an effort is made to examine the steps in the metal dusting process and the temperature ranges over which metal dusting occurs.

Baker, B.A.; Smith, G.D. [Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV (United States)

1998-12-31

391

Inhaled dust and disease  

SciTech Connect

Asbestos is not the only dust with known pathogenic effects: metal, china clay, talc, and cotton are some of the many other sources of hazardous dust. This work provides research on the hazards of inhale dust, describing the progress of knowledge in the field and areas in which future studies are needed. Discussions cover the properties of hazardous dust materials, dust-related diseases and experimental research, related occupational and environmental hazards, epidemiological evidence quantifying the hazards of dust sources, and more.

Holt, P.E.

1988-01-01

392

Housing, Design, and Furnishings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains teacher's materials for a six-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on housing, design, and furnishings. The units cover: (1) the societal aspects of housing (including the relationship between housing and the economy, population trends, and culture-related housing characteristics); (2) family housing

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

393

In-situ dust measurements by a lunar lander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charged dust grains on the lunar surface impact our future exploration of the moon. Serious problems for exploration activities were revealed by the Apollo missions. Dust shows strong adhesion to equipment and clothes and makes breathing difficult within a spacecraft. The micron- and submicron sized grains are embedded in the lunar plasma environment and their physical properties determine their dynamics. The solar wind, UV light and shadows lead to temporal effects in plasma densities and dust grain charging states. The dust populations relevant for the processes on the surface are: interplanetary and interstellar dust, levitated dust and, especially, dust ejecta generated by primary impacts on the surface. A dust instrument on the surface shall distinguish the three populations and characterize their charging state, size, speed and directionality distribution. Dust measurements shall be performed in conjunction with surface plasma and surface electric field characterizations.

Srama, Ralf; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Horanyi, Mihaly; Gruen, Eberhard; Krueger, Harald; Laufer, Rene; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Postberg, Frank; Kempf, Sascha; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Mocker, Anna; Fiege, Katherina; Li, Yanwei

2012-07-01

394

Dust agglomeration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

John Marshall, an investigator at Ames Research Center and a principal investigator in the microgravity fluid physics program, is studying the adhesion and cohesion of particles in order to shed light on how granular systems behave. These systems include everything from giant dust clouds that form planets to tiny compressed pellets, such as the ones you swallow as tablets. This knowledge should help us control the grains, dust, and powders that we encounter or use on a daily basis. Marshall investigated electrostatic charge in microgravity on the first and second U.S. Microgravity Laboratory shuttle missions to see how grains aggregate, or stick together. With gravity's effects eliminated on orbit, Marshall found that the grains of sand that behaved ever so freely on Earth now behaved like flour. They would just glom together in clumps and were quite difficult to disperse. That led to an understanding of the prevalence of the electrostatic forces. The granules wanted to aggregate as little chains, like little hairs, and stack end to end. Some of the chains had 20 or 30 grains. This phenomenon indicated that another force, what Marshall believes to be an electrostatic dipole, was at work.(The diagram on the right emphasizes the aggregating particles in the photo on the left, taken during the USML-2 mission in 1995.)

2000-01-01

395

Lunar Dust 101  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Largely due to rock and soil samples returned during the Apollo program, much has been learned about the composition and properties of lunar regolith. Although, for the most part, the mineral composition resembles terrestrial minerals, the characteristics of the lunar environment have led to very different weathering processes. These result in substantial differences in the particle shapes, particle size distributions, and surface chemistry. These differences lead to non-intuitive adhesion, abrasion, and possible health properties that will pose challenges to future lunar missions. An overview of lunar dust composition and properties will be given with a particular emphasis on possible health effects.

Gaier, James R.

2008-01-01

396

Analytical evaluation of the Tsytovich-Angelis dust-dust collision functions arising from the kinetic theory of dusty plasmas  

SciTech Connect

An efficient analytical calculation approach is presented for the Tsytovich-Angelis dust-dust collision functions consisting of the kinetic theory of dusty plasmas. This method is based on the use of binomial expansion theorem for the analytical representation of the dust-dust collision functions. The analytical calculation offers the advantage that leads to a mathematical expression, which allows the direct calculation of the dust-dust collision functions. The proposed algorithm is implemented numerically using a computer program, and its convergence properties are investigated.

Mamedov, B. A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat 60100 (Turkey)

2010-11-15

397

Dust Measurements in Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Dust production and accumulation impose safety and operational concerns for ITER. Diagnostics to monitor dust levels in the plasma as well as in-vessel dust inventory are currently being tested in a few tokamaks. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g. between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering resolves size of particles between 0.16-1.6 {micro}m in diameter; the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast-framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in 2D with a single camera or 3D using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is problematic. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, pre-characterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase of carbon atomic, C2 dimer, and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics.

Rudakov, D; Yu, J; Boedo, J; Hollmann, E; Krasheninnikov, S; Moyer, R; Muller, S; Yu, A; Rosenberg, M; Smirnov, R; West, W; Boivin, R; Bray, B; Brooks, N; Hyatt, A; Wong, C; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Lasnier, C; McLean, A; Stangeby, P; Ratynskaia, S; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Solomon, W M

2008-04-23

398

Assessing the human health risk for aluminium, zinc and lead in outdoor dusts collected in recreational sites used by children at an industrial area in the western part of the Bassin Minier de Provence, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western part of the “Bassin Minier de Provence”, a former coal mining area, is still occupied by old polluting industries such as a coal-fired power plant and an alumina factory. In 2011 a preliminary outdoor dust survey was carried out in the area as the first step to an exposure and health risk assessment study. Dust samples were taken at 19 sites distributed across the study area, depending on the location of recreational areas used by children to play outdoors. Pseudo-total concentrations of Al, Zn and Pb were determined by ICP-MS and bioaccessible concentrations were estimated using the Unified BARGE Method. Exposure was calculated according to a scenario evaluation approach for dust ingestion and dermal contact routes. Estimation of health risk for exposure to Al, Zn and Pb in outdoor dust was based on the summation of individual risks for the oral and dermal routes. Results show that Al occurs in very high concentrations but mainly innon-bioaccessible forms, especially near the alumina plant. Zinc and Pb occur in low-average levels but mainly in bioaccessible forms. The estimated potential risk decreases according to Pb ? Al > Zn and is lower for the ingestion route. The preliminary results presented in this study indicate that, for Al and Zn, the outdoor dusts of the BMP represent an acceptable risk to children's health. However, the estimated hazard quotients suggest that there is some health risk associated to environmental Pb.

Reis, A. P.; Patinha, C.; Noack, Y.; Robert, S.; Dias, A. C.; Ferreira da Silva, E.

2014-11-01

399

Martian Dust Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Martian Dust Simulator (MDS) was designed to investigate the contamination effects of Martian soil and rock on the performance and function of flight-like microvalves and flight-like filters located within the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite. The SAM instrument suite, which houses over fifty percent of the science payload, is located on-board the Mars exploration rover. The mission objective of the Mars Science Laboratory Rover is to determine the past, present, and future habitability of Mars. It will serve as a robot geologist, traveling the Mars surface for a period of one Martian year (equivalent to two earth years). The microvalves were designed as a conduit to control the flow of Martian gas to the science instruments. If exposed to particle sizes greater than half a micron, both the science instruments and science equipment, including forty-seven microvalves, could experience performance degradation. As a result, filters were used at various gas inlets to protect flight hardware from particulate degradation. Additionally, the filters serve as the only interface between the Martian environment and the mechanisms within SAM. The MDS operates at 7 Torr (0.135 psi) with a gas flow rate of 0 to 20 m/s. Iron (III) Oxide was the only dust particle specimen used, although several others were initially considered (i.e. JSC-Mars-1, Corundum Powder (Al2O3), Hydrated Sulfate, and Belville (Basalt)). The overarching goal of the MDS is to demonstrate that the Mars exploration program is adequately designed and prepared for the Martian mission environment.

Zuray, Monica; Houston, Karrie; Lorentson, Chris

2008-01-01

400

Richard Oscar Burgess House (The “Crayola” House)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Queen Anne style. A 2 1\\/2 - story house with a slate hip roof, paired gable dormers, corner turret, and stained - glass windows. The Armory Revival Company added a humorous turn to the house in 1984 by leaving the eastern section of this vividly painted house only partially colored and attaching large simulations of Crayons on the wall. This

Chet Smolski

1987-01-01