Sample records for house dust lead

  1. The influence of soil remediation on lead in house dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian H. von Lindern; Susan M. Spalinger; Bridget N. Bero; Varduhi Petrosyan; Margrit C. von Braun

    2003-01-01

    Lead in house dust has long been recognized as a principal source of excess lead absorption among children at the Bunker Hill Superfund Site (BHSS) in northern Idaho. House dust lead concentration from homeowner's vacuum cleaner bags has been monitored since the epidemic of childhood lead poisoning in 1974. Geometric mean house dust lead concentrations decreased from >10000 mg\\/kg in

  2. Seasonal variations of lead concentration and loading rates in residential house dust in northern Idaho.

    PubMed

    Petrosyan, Varduhi; von Braun, Margrit C; Spalinger, Susan M; von Lindern, Ian H

    2006-04-30

    Although lead hazards to humans have been known since ancient times and many regulatory actions and lead risk reductions have been achieved over the past century, lead contamination and exposure remain significant problems worldwide. The focus of this study was to investigate whether residential house dust lead concentrations and lead and dust loading rates in non-contaminated or "background" communities in northern Idaho are significantly affected by seasonal variations. House dust samples were obtained from 34 houses in five towns of northern Idaho from March to November 1999. There was evidence of significant seasonality of lead concentration in house dust in some towns, but no evidence in other towns. Because of the high variability between the towns and small sample sizes, it was difficult to make firm conclusions about seasonal patterns observed in house dust lead levels. A linear relationship between precipitation rates and dust loading rates was detected. PMID:16442226

  3. Evolution of efficient methods to sample lead sources, such as house dust and hand dust, in the homes of children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Que Hee; B. Peace; C. S. Clark; J. R. Boyle; R. L. Bornschein; P. B. Hammond

    1985-01-01

    Efficient sampling methods to recover lead-containing house dust and hand dust have been evolved so that sufficient lead is collected for analysis and to ensure that correlational analyses linking these two parameters to blood lead are not dependent on the efficiency of sampling. Precise collection of loose house dust from a 1-unit area (484 cmS) with a Tygon or stainless

  4. Seasonal variations of lead concentration and loading rates in residential house dust in northern Idaho

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varduhi Petrosyan; Margrit C. von Braun; Susan M. Spalinger; Ian H. von Lindern

    2006-01-01

    Although lead hazards to humans have been known since ancient times and many regulatory actions and lead risk reductions have been achieved over the past century, lead contamination and exposure remain significant problems worldwide. The focus of this study was to investigate whether residential house dust lead concentrations and lead and dust loading rates in non-contaminated or “background” communities in

  5. Northern Idaho House Dust and Soil Lead Levels Compared to the Bunker Hill Superfund Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. Spalinger; Margrit C. von Braun; Varduhi Petrosyan; Ian H. von Lindern

    2007-01-01

    House dust has been identified as a major exposure medium for lead (Pb) in children. High levels of Pb in soil and house dust\\u000a have been recorded at the Bunker Hill Superfund Site (BHSS) in northern Idaho, an historic mining and smelting district. Soil\\u000a and dust remediation at the site was required; however, regional background soil and dust Pb levels

  6. Evolution of efficient methods to sample lead sources, such as house dust and hand dust, in the homes of children

    SciTech Connect

    Que Hee, S.S.; Peace, B.; Clark, C.S.; Boyle, J.R.; Bornschein, R.L.; Hammond, P.B.

    1985-10-01

    Efficient sampling methods to recover lead-containing house dust and hand dust have been evolved so that sufficient lead is collected for analysis and to ensure that correlational analyses linking these two parameters to blood lead are not dependent on the efficiency of sampling. Precise collection of loose house dust from a 1-unit area (484 cmS) with a Tygon or stainless steel sampling tube connected to a portable sampling pump (1.2 to 2.5 liters/min) required repetitive sampling (three times). The Tygon tube sampling technique for loose house dust <177 m in diameter was around 72% efficient with respect to dust weight and lead collection. A representative house dust contained 81% of its total weight in this fraction. A single handwipe for applied loose hand dust was not acceptably efficient or precise, and at least three wipes were necessary to achieve recoveries of >80% of the lead applied. House dusts of different particle sizes <246 m adhered equally well to hands. Analysis of lead-containing material usually required at least three digestions/decantations using hot plate or microwave techniques to allow at least 90% of the lead to be recovered. It was recommended that other investigators validate their handwiping, house dust sampling, and digestion techniques to facilitate comparison of results across studies. The final methodology for the Cincinnati longitudinal study was three sampling passes for surface dust using a stainless steel sampling tube; three microwave digestion/decantations for analysis of dust and paint; and three wipes with handwipes with one digestion/decantation for the analysis of six handwipes together.

  7. Lead and Other Heavy Metals in Dust Fall from Single-Family Housing Demolition

    PubMed Central

    Cali, Salvatore; Welch, Alison; Catalin, Bogdan; Dixon, Sherry L.; Evens, Anne; Mucha, Amy P.; Vahl, Nicole; Erdal, Serap; Bartlett, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective We measured lead and other heavy metals in dust during older housing demolition and effectiveness of dust suppression. Methods We used American Public Housing Association Method 502 and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Methods SW3050B and SW6020 at 97 single-family housing demolition events with intermittent (or no) use of water to suppress dust at perimeter, non-perimeter, and locations without demolition, with nested mixed modeling and tobit modeling with left censoring. Results The geometric mean (GM) lead dust fall during demolition was 6.01 micrograms of lead per square foot per hour (?g Pb/ft2/hour). GM lead dust fall was 14.18 ?g Pb/ft2/hour without dust suppression, but declined to 5.48 ?g Pb/ft2/hour (p=0.057) when buildings and debris were wetted. Significant predictors included distance, wind direction, and main street location. At 400 feet, lead dust fall was not significantly different from background. GM lead concentration at demolition (2,406 parts per million [ppm]) was significantly greater than background (GM=579 ppm, p=0.05). Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, and manganese demolition dust fall was significantly higher than background (p<0.001). Demolition of approximately 400 old housing units elsewhere with more dust suppression was only 0.25 ?g Pb/ft2/hour. Conclusions Lead dust suppression is feasible and important in single-family housing demolition where distances between houses are smaller and community exposures are higher. Neighbor notification should be expanded to at least 400 feet away from single-family housing demolition, not just adjacent properties. Further research is needed on effects of distance, potential water contamination, occupational exposures, and water application. PMID:24179257

  8. The contribution of lead-contaminated house dust and residential soil to children`s blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Lanphear, B.P. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Matte, T.D. [New York Academy of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Center for Urban Epidemiologic Studies] [New York Academy of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Center for Urban Epidemiologic Studies; Rogers, J. [Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others] [Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); and others

    1998-10-01

    In 1992, the US Congress passed the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act, which requires the promulgation of health-based dust lead and soil lead standards for residential dwellings to prevent undue lead exposure in children. Unfortunately, the levels of lead in house dust and soil that are associated with elevated blood lead levels among US children remain poorly defined. This pooled analysis was done to estimate the contributions of lead-contaminated house dust and soil to children`s blood lead levels. The results of this pooled analysis, the most comprehensive existing epidemiologic analysis of childhood lead exposure, confirm that lead-contaminated house dust is the major source of lead exposure for children. These analyses further demonstrate that a strong relationship between interior dust lead loading and children`s blood lead levels persists at dust lead levels considerably below the US Department of Housing and urban Development`s current post-abatement standards and the Environmental Protection Agency`s guidance levels. Finally, these analyses demonstrate that a child`s age, race, mouthing behaviors, and study-site specific factors influence the predicted blood lead level at a given level of exposure. These data can be used to estimate the potential health impact of alternative health-based lead standards for residential sources of lead exposure.

  9. Assessment of in Vitro Lead Bioaccessibility in House Dust and Its Relationship to in Vivo Lead Relative Bioavailability

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia § Soil and Water ScienceL-1 ) show subtle neurotoxic effects.3 Following phasing out of leaded paint and gasoline, incidental Pb concentrations in house dust may result from leaded paint,8,9 tracked-in soil and street dust

  10. Factors affecting lead and cadmium levels in house dust in industrial areas of eastern Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ines Meyer; Joachim Heinrich; Ulrich Lippold

    1999-01-01

    The indoor exposure of 381 women (52–59 years old) to lead and cadmium was assessed by measuring the levels of the contaminants in sedimented house dust. The study was conducted in the areas surrounding the towns of Hettstedt, a region of mining and smelting of non-ferrous ores, of Bitterfeld, a centre of chemical production and coal mining, and of Zerbst,

  11. Lead Speciation in Indoor Dust: A Case Study to Assess Old Paint Contribution in a Canadian Urban House

    SciTech Connect

    S Beauchemin; L MacLean; P Rasmussen

    2011-12-31

    Residents in older homes may experience increased lead (Pb) exposures due to release of lead from interior paints manufactured in past decades, especially pre-1960s. The objective of the study was to determine the speciation of Pb in settled dust from an urban home built during WWII. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on samples of paint (380-2,920 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) and dust (200-1,000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) collected prior to renovation. All dust samples exhibited a Pb XANES signature similar to that of Pb found in paint. Bulk XANES and micro-XRD identified Pb species commonly found as white paint pigments (Pb oxide, Pb sulfate, and Pb carbonate) as well as rutile, a titanium-based pigment, in the <150 m house dust samples. In the dust fraction <36 {mu}m, half of the Pb was associated with the Fe-oxyhydroxides, suggesting additional contribution of outdoor sources to Pb in the finer dust. These results confirm that old paints still contribute to Pb in the settled dust for this 65-year-old home. The Pb speciation also provided a clearer understanding of the Pb bioaccessibility: Pb carbonate > Pb oxide > Pb sulfate. This study underscores the importance of taking precautions to minimize exposures to Pb in house dust, especially in homes where old paint is exposed due to renovations or deterioration of painted surfaces.

  12. Lead speciation in indoor dust: a case study to assess old paint contribution in a Canadian urban house

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, Suzanne; MacLean, Lachlan C.W.; Rasmussen, Pat E. (Health Canada); (NRC)

    2012-10-23

    Residents in older homes may experience increased lead (Pb) exposures due to release of lead from interior paints manufactured in past decades, especially pre-1960s. The objective of the study was to determine the speciation of Pb in settled dust from an urban home built during WWII. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on samples of paint (380-2,920 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) and dust (200-1,000 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) collected prior to renovation. All dust samples exhibited a Pb XANES signature similar to that of Pb found in paint. Bulk XANES and micro-XRD identified Pb species commonly found as white paint pigments (Pb oxide, Pb sulfate, and Pb carbonate) as well as rutile, a titanium-based pigment, in the <150 {micro}m house dust samples. In the dust fraction <36 {micro}m, half of the Pb was associated with the Fe-oxyhydroxides, suggesting additional contribution of outdoor sources to Pb in the finer dust. These results confirm that old paints still contribute to Pb in the settled dust for this 65-year-old home. The Pb speciation also provided a clearer understanding of the Pb bioaccessibility: Pb carbonate > Pb oxide > Pb sulfate. This study underscores the importance of taking precautions to minimize exposures to Pb in house dust, especially in homes where old paint is exposed due to renovations or deterioration of painted surfaces.

  13. Factors Affecting Lead, Cadmium, and Arsenic Levels in House Dust in a Smelter Town in Eastern Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ines Meyer; Joachim Heinrich; Ulrich Lippold

    1999-01-01

    Hettstedt, a city in eastern Germany with a long history of mining and smelting of nonferrous ores, has several industrial sources of heavy metals. The indoor exposure to metals of children (5 to 14 years old) in the Hettstedt area was assessed by measuring the levels of lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in sedimented house dust. Factors which influence the

  14. Garden soil and house dust as exposure media for lead uptake in the mining village of Stratoni, Greece.

    PubMed

    Argyraki, Ariadne

    2014-08-01

    The relationships between two exposure media, garden soil and house dust, were studied for Pb uptake in Stratoni village in northern Greece, an industrial area of mining and processing of sulphide ore. Lead data for the two media were assessed in terms of total and bioaccessible content, measurement and geochemical variability, and mineralogical composition. It was found that total Pb was enriched in house dust samples by a factor of 2 on average. Total Pb concentration in soil samples had a maximum of 2,040 mg/kg and reached a maximum of 7,000 mg/kg in house dust samples. The estimated variability due to measurement uncertainty was dominated by the sampling process, and the proportion of sampling variance was greater for soil samples, indicating a higher degree of Pb heterogeneity in soil on the given spatial scale of sampling strata. Although the same general spatial trend was observed for both sampling media with decreasing Pb concentration by increasing distance from the ore-processing plant, Pb in dust samples displayed the highest concentrations within a 300-600-m zone from the ore-processing facility. The significant differences which were observed in Pb speciation between the studied media were explained by differences in mineralogical composition of outdoor soil and indoor dust. Lead-enriched Fe and Mn oxides predominated in soil samples while fine galena grains (<10-20 ?m diameter) were the major Pb-bearing phase in dust samples. The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model was used to predict the risk of elevated blood lead levels in children of Stratoni. Model prediction indicated an average probability of 61 % for blood-Pb to exceed 10 ?g/dl. The results underline the importance of house dust in risk assessment and highlight the effect of outdoor and indoor conditions on the fate of Pb in the particular environment of Stratoni. PMID:24292695

  15. Factors affecting lead, cadmium, and arsenic levels in house dust in a smelter town in eastern Germany.

    PubMed

    Meyer, I; Heinrich, J; Lippold, U

    1999-07-01

    Hettstedt, a city in eastern Germany with a long history of mining and smelting of nonferrous ores, has several industrial sources of heavy metals. The indoor exposure to metals of children (5 to 14 years old) in the Hettstedt area was assessed by measuring the levels of lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in sedimented house dust. Factors which influence the dust loading rate and the surface loading rates of these contaminants in house dust were investigated. The geometric mean of the dust loading rate was 8.9 mg/m2 day. The geometric means of surface loading rates were 1.14, 0. 024, and 0.023 microg/m2 day for lead, cadmium, and arsenic, respectively. Factors that were significantly associated with surface loading rates included the city area of residence, automobile traffic near home, parent with occupational exposure to heavy metals, type of heating, housing characteristics, whether child's home is damp, number of persons living in the child's home, and parents' education. The most significant of these factors was the city area of residence, which reflects the distance from the metal sources; this factor accounted for about half of the variances explained by the regression models. PMID:10361024

  16. High Altitude and House-dust Mites

    PubMed Central

    Spieksma, F. Th. M.; Zuidema, P.; Leupen, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    House dust from high mountainous areas of Switzerland contains very few house-dust mites. In contrast to lower-lying regions, only very small quantities of house-dust allergen are found at high altitudes. The cause of this phenomenon seems likely to be the climatic conditions in the high mountains of Europe, where cold air leads to extremely low humidity levels indoors. The soil conditions and a type of construction providing good protection against the penetration of water also contribute to dry conditions in houses. These factors prevent the development of large populations of allergen-producing house-dust mites. The beneficial effect of a stay at high altitudes on patients with atopic asthma is probably due to the low concentrations of house-dust allergen. PMID:5539181

  17. Food Allergens in House Dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnes M. Witteman; Jolanda van Leeuwen; Jaring S. van der Zee; Rob C. Aalberse

    1995-01-01

    Selected food allergens have been measured in 11 house dust samples. The amount of ovomucoid ranged from 170 to 6,300 ng\\/g dust. The amount of ?-lactoglobulin ranged from < 16 to 71 ng\\/g dust. Ovomucoid levels in some house dust samples are probably sufficiently high to cause sensitization and\\/or symptoms via inhalation.Copyright © 1995 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN HOUSE DUST: OCCURRENCES AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead (Pb), and other metals accumulate in home soil and house dust. xposure of infants and toddlers to Pb by dust may be greater than other pathways. any pollutants found in carpet dust are protected from degradation and accum...

  19. House-dust-mite allergens: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry G. Arlian

    1991-01-01

    The house-dust mites,Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pheronyssinus andEuroglyphus maynei are cosmopolitan inhabitants of the homes of humans worldwide. These mites are the sources of multiple potent allergens that trigger allergic reactions in house-dust-mite-sensitive individuals. Many laboratories using widely varied mite materials and allergic sera, and biochemical and immunological assays, have isolated and characterized, to varying degrees, some of the allergens produced

  20. Lead-Safe Housing Policy Guidance

    E-print Network

    Lead-Safe Housing Policy Guidance #12;ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This guidance was prepared by the Alliance Gumm. The Alliance thanks the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch of the Centers for Disease..............................................................................................................................1 PART I Basic Lead-Safe Housing Standards

  1. The relationship between surface dust lead loadings on carpets and the blood lead of young children.

    PubMed

    Clark, S; Bornschein, R L; Pan, W; Menrath, W; Roda, S; Grote, J

    1996-12-01

    The final clean-up of residential lead abatement projects in federally-supported housing, as well as in other housing in a number of states, must meet surface dust lead clearance levels expressed as ?g of lead per square foot. These clearance levels were established because hand-to-mouth ingestion of lead-contaminated dust is recognised as a major pathway through which many children are exposed. A dilemma exists because many floors in housing undergoing abatement are carpeted and the established clearance levels are generally not recommended for use on carpets. These clearance levels are also used as 'action levels' to determine whether exposure reduction activities are needed. The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently in the process of issuing standards for hazardous levels of lead in interior dust and bare soil under Title X of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992, 'The Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992'. An effort to develop a potential surface dust lead clearance level for carpets was made using an existing vacuum dust collection method that has previously been shown to be a reliable indicator of childhood lead exposure. This method was designed for use on carpeted and non-carpeted surfaces. Using data from the Cincinnati Soil Lead Abatement Demonstration Project, the suggested floor-dust lead level where an estimated 95% of the population of children would be expected to have blood lead values below the national goal of 10 ?g dL(-1), was more than an order of magnitude lower than the current floor-dust lead clearance level of 1080 ?g m(-2) (100 ?g ft(-2)). Further comparisons of blood lead and carpet lead levels in other parts of the country should be performed before a risk-based lead loading clearance level is established. PMID:24194409

  2. Genotoxicity of Organic Extracts of House Dust from Shanxi, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziad Naufal; Guo-dong Zhou; Thomas McDonald; Zhiwen Li; Zhu Li; K. C. Donnelly

    2007-01-01

    Indoor combustion of solid fuel such as coal may generate respirable particles containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that may adhere to settled dust. Dust might therefore present a major source of PAH exposure in humans. This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of PAH mixtures extracted from house dust samples. Four dust samples (E1–4) were collected from

  3. Streptomycetes in house dust: associations with housing characteristics and endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Johansson, E; Vesper, S; Levin, L; LeMasters, G; Grinshpun, S; Reponen, T

    2011-08-01

    In addition to mold, indoor bioaerosols also contain bacterial components that may have implications for human health. Endotoxin is a cell wall component in Gram-negative bacteria present at varying levels indoors that has been found to have respiratory health implications. Streptomyces is a large genus of Gram-positive bacteria, and some species have been shown to produce inflammatory reactions in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of streptomycetes levels in house dust and to compare the variation in streptomycetes levels with that in endotoxin levels. Dust was collected by floor vacuuming from 178 homes in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. Streptomycetes levels were measured by quantitative PCR, and endotoxin was assayed by the Limulus amebocyte lysate method. Associations between home characteristics and bacterial contaminants, expressed as concentration and load, were investigated through multiple regression analyses. The presence of two or more dogs was a strong predictor of both streptomycetes and endotoxin levels. Season of dust collection and levels of outdoor molds were predictors of streptomycetes but not endotoxin levels. In contrast, number of inhabitants was a significant predictor of endotoxin load only. Neither streptomycetes nor endotoxin levels were associated with metrics of moisture damage. PMID:21204988

  4. Characterization and Immunobiology of House Dust Mite Allergens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne R. Thomas; Wendy-Anne Smith; Belinda J. Hales; Kristina L. Mills; Richard M. O’Brien

    2002-01-01

    The examination of house dust mite extracts has indicated that over 30 different proteins can induce IgE antibody in patients allergic to the house dust mite. There are however dominant specificities especially the group 1 and 2 allergens which can account for much of the allergenicity of extracts. Of the 19 denominated allergens, the major IgE binding has been reported

  5. House dust mite allergy: environment evaluation and disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sheng-Jie; Liao, En-Chih

    2014-01-01

    There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can be used to detect their presence, such as the use of floating methods, monoclonal antibodies, and nanostructured biosensor. SM could be identified in the storage room, mainly in contaminated food such as mushrooms and corn starch. In HDM-sensitive subjects and mice that were challenged with HDM or SM after sensitization, these mites could up-regulate IgE levels, T helper 2 associated cytokine production and airway hypersensitivity. Different age groups of subjects were sensitized by different species of mites. More subjects above 70 years were sensitized by SM and more subjects below the age of 40 years were sensitized to HDM. Different allergenic components of dust mite extracts, such as Der p 1, Der p 2, could activate innate immunity through activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and then lead to allergic inflammation. The best modality to treat HDM allergy is immunomodulation through Treg cells and IgA production. In the recent years, many studies indicated probiotics could increase IgA secretion and the number of Treg cells. However, some studies conducted in adults have contradictory effects in reducing allergic symptoms. Therefore, probiotics confer inconclusive benefits on the allergic symptoms. PMID:25379484

  6. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HOUSE DUST AND CLOTHES DRYER LINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are now considered ubiquitous and persistent pollutants. Few studies have examined the concentrations of these chemicals in the home and here we report measurements of PBDEs in house dust samples collected from the Washington...

  7. House dust in seven Danish offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølhave, L.; Schneider, T.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Larsen, L.; Norn, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m 2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000-160.000 CFU g -1 microorganisms and 71.000-90.000 CFU g -1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65-123 CFU 30 g -1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06-7.24 EU g -1 (1.45 ng g -1 to 1.01 ng g -1). Allergens (ng g -1) were from 147-159 (Mite), 395-746 (dog) and 103-330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8-9.8 mg g -1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml -1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5-5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2-1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176-319 ?g g -1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001-1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m -3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26-0.75 mg m -3 in average contained 300-170 CFU m -3. The organic fraction was from 55-70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is estimated to be relatively low. The storage of the bulk dust during the experiment had little effect on the specific biological and chemical composition.

  8. Enzymatic activity of allergenic house dust and storage mite extracts.

    PubMed

    Morales, Maria; Iraola, Víctor; Leonor, Jose R; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2013-01-01

    Proteases are involved in the pathogenicity of allergy, increasing epithelial permeability and acting as adjuvants. Enzymatic activity is therefore important for the allergenicity of an extract and also affects its stability and safety. However, the enzymatic activity of extracts is not usually evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of the most allergenic mite extracts and to investigate their allergenic properties. Extracts from nine allergenic mite species (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, Euroglyphus maynei, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Glycyphagus domesticus (DeGeer), Acarus siro L., Chortoglyphus arcuatus, and Blomia tropicalis) were characterized. Protein and allergen profiles were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western-blot, respectively. Gelatinolytic activity was evaluated with a zymogram and the activity of other enzymes (cysteine, serine proteases, and esterases) was evaluated individually or with the API-ZYM system. The main differences in protease activity were found between house dust mites and storage mites. House dust mites presented higher cysteine protease activity while storage mites presented higher serine protease activity. These differences are in line with their trophic specialization. A wide range of different activities was found in all the extracts analyzed, reflecting the fact that the extracts preserve the activity of many enzymes, this being necessary for a correct diagnosis. However, enzymes may act as adjuvants and, therefore, could lead to undesirable effects in immunotherapies, making this activity not suitable for treatment products. Modified extracts with lower enzymatic activity could be more appropriate for immunotherapy. PMID:23427664

  9. Aerial dust concentration in cage-housed, floor-housed, and aviary facilities for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Le Bouquin, S; Huneau-Salaün, A; Huonnic, D; Balaine, L; Martin, S; Michel, V

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural workers, and pig and poultry farmers in particular, are exposed to airborne contaminants including organic dusts, gases, fungi, bacteria, and endotoxins that can have adverse effects on their respiratory health. To date, data comparing the aerial dust concentrations in the different hen-housing systems used by commercial poultry farmers are scarce. An epidemiological study was conducted in commercial housing facilities for laying hens, half of which were housed in a cage system without litter and the remaining half on an on-floor system with litter. The aims were to measure and compare the ambient dust concentrations in the different housing systems and identify any factors in building design and hen management that could influence the dust burden. An average concentration of respirable ambient dusts (?4 ?m) of 0.37 mg/m(3) (95% CI [0.31-0.42]) was measured in the on-floor system, and this value was higher than average values in the cage system {0.13 mg/m(3) (95% CI [0.11-0.14]) P = 0.01}. The highest dust concentration was observed in aviaries (1.19 mg/m(3) [0.80-1.59]). The type of housing and the presence of litter therefore had a preponderant effect on air quality. Dust concentrations in caged buildings were influenced by cage design and rearing practices, whereas litter management, the age of hens, and temperature control were determining factors for dust levels in on-floor houses. This study underlines the need for information and preventive measures to reduce the exposure of poultry workers to bioaerosols, particularly in alternative systems where high levels of ambient dust were observed. PMID:24135584

  10. Mite antigen in house dust: relationship with different housing characteristics in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Van Strien, R T; Verhoeff, A P; Brunekreef, B; Van Wijnen, J H

    1994-09-01

    As part of a case-controlled study on the relationship between home dampness and respiratory symptoms of children, the concentration of the major allergen of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p I) in floor dust and mattress dust in 516 dwellings in the Netherlands was measured. A checklist, completed by the investigators, was used to obtain information on home and occupant characteristics, which may have an impact on the Der p I concentration in house dust. The geometric mean mite antigen concentrations were 2370 ng Der p I/g floor dust for the living room, 2201 ng Der p I/g floor dust for the bedroom and 5075 ng Der p I/g mattress dust. In 86% of the houses the maximum concentration was higher than 2000 ng Der p I/g dust, that is regarded as representing a risk for genetically predisposed individuals for the development of specific IgE to house dust mite allergen. In 55% of the houses the maximum concentration exceeded 10,000 ng Der p I/g dust, regarded as a risk factor for acute attacks of asthma for mite allergic patients. The Der p I concentrations in dust from carpeted floors were six to 14 times higher than in dust from floors with a smooth floor covering. Higher Der p I concentrations in floor dust were also significantly associated with increasing age of the dwelling and of the floor covering, with an increasing number of occupants, and with the absence of floor insulation. For mattress dust, the age of the mattress, the presence of an outer cavity wall and mechanical ventilation were important factors. Older mattresses had higher levels, and mattress dust from bedrooms with solid brick outer walls had higher levels than that from bedrooms with outer cavity walls. Mattresses in homes with continuous mechanical ventilation had almost twice lower levels than mattresses in homes with natural ventilation. There was a tendency towards higher Der p I concentrations in dust in homes with reported or observed signs of dampness. The Der p I concentrations in dust from carpeted bedroom floors and mattresses were positively associated with the average relative humidity in the bedroom over a period of 3-6 weeks in a subset of the homes where relative humidity was measured. Similar results were obtained using the concentrations of Der p I in ng/m2 instead of ng/g dust. The results obtained in this study are of importance for planning and evaluating allergen avoidance measures advised to mite allergic patients. PMID:7812886

  11. DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING A LEAD DUST MONITORING, OUTREACH AND EDUCATION PROGRAM IN YOUR COMMUNITY/SYRACUSE LEAD DUST PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer document (case-study) for the EMPACT Syracuse Lead Dust Project. The Lead Dust Project is designed to measure the lead dust content in homes and public buildings within the City of Syracuse, NY. The project also contains an educational comp...

  12. Species diversity of house dust mites in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin-Lu; Shen, Lian; Chen, Jun; Yu, Jin-Miao; Yin, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Even though house dust mites are one of the most important allergens, there have been few studies in China for their identification and diversity. In this study, we reported that Dermatophagoides siboney was found for the first time in Beijing, China, in a temperate zone and it was also the first reported in Asia. This survey of mite prevalence was carried out in several districts of Beijing, a city of thirty million people. House dust samples were collected from 38 homes of mite-allergic patients who visited our Allergy Department from December 2008 to January 2010. Out of 345 house dust samples collected, 64% contained mites. Dermatophagoides farinae was the predominant species in the mite population found and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was second, and Dermatophagoides siboney was the third. The positive rates of samples were higher in single-story homes and lower buildings. The seasonal density distribution of house dust mites showed the highest mite concentration in September through October, followed by May through July, December to next January; and lowest in March and November. PMID:23427649

  13. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia) [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia) [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)] [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ?15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI ?0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=?0.003, 95% CI ?0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ?15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10 µg/dL. • High precision lead isotopic ratios in blood, house dust wipes, soil, water, paint. • Associations for isotopic measures of blood and dust, blood and soil, blood and paint. • Regressions gave significance for isotopic measures of blood/dust and dust/soil.

  14. The Melbourne House Dust Mite Study: Long-term efficacy of house dust mite reduction strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Sporik; David J. Hill; Philip J. Thompson; Geoffrey A. Stewart; John B. Carlin; Terry M. Nolan; Andrew S. Kemp; Clifford S. Hosking

    1998-01-01

    Background: Asthma severity among mite-sensitized individuals appears to be related to the degree of mite allergen exposure. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effectiveness of mite avoidance measures in the homes of asthmatic children in Melbourne, Australia. Methods: The concentration of house dust mite allergen (Der p 1) was measured on the child's mattress surfaces

  15. Innate Immune Responses in House Dust Mite Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Sensitizations to house dust mites (HDM) trigger strong exacerbated allergen-induced inflammation of the skin and airways mucosa from atopic subjects resulting in atopic dermatitis as well as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Initially, the Th2-biased HDM allergic response was considered to be mediated only by allergen B- and T-cell epitopes to promote allergen-specific IgE production as well as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 to recruit inflammatory cells. But this general molecular model of HDM allergenicity must be revisited as a growing literature suggests that stimulations of innate immune activation pathways by HDM allergens offer new answers to the following question: what makes an HDM allergen an allergen? Indeed, HDM is a carrier not only for allergenic proteins but also microbial adjuvant compounds, both of which are able to stimulate innate signaling pathways leading to allergy. This paper will describe the multiple ways used by HDM allergens together with microbial compounds to control the initiation of the allergic response through engagement of innate immunity. PMID:23724247

  16. Lead in residential soil and dust in a mining and smelting district in northern Armenia: a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varduhi Petrosyan; Anna Orlova; Charles E Dunlap; Emil Babayan; Mark Farfel; Margrit von Braun

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study of sources of lead exposure in residential settings was conducted in a mining and smelting district in northern Armenia. Samples of exterior soil and dust and interior house dust were collected in and around apartment buildings in Alaverdi where the country's largest polymetallic smelter is located, and in nearby mining towns of Aghtala and Shamlugh. The NITON

  17. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Paula I.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Hauser, Russ; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octaand deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. PMID:23333513

  18. Application of synchrotron microprobe methods to solid-phase speciation of metals and metalloids in house dust.

    PubMed

    Walker, S R; Jamieson, H E; Rasmussen, P E

    2011-10-01

    Determination of the source and form of metals in house dust is important to those working to understand human and particularly childhood exposure to metals in residential environments. We report the development of a synchrotron microprobe technique for characterization of multiple metal hosts in house dust. We have applied X-ray fluorescence for chemical characterization and X-ray diffraction for crystal structure identification using microfocused synchrotron X-rays at a less than 10 ?m spot size. The technique has been evaluated by application to archived house dust samples containing elevated concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Ba in bedroom dust, and Pb and As in living room dust. The technique was also applied to a sample of soil from the corresponding garden to identify linkages between indoor and outdoor sources of metals. Paint pigments including white lead (hydrocerussite) and lithopone (wurtzite and barite) are the primary source of Pb, Zn, and Ba in bedroom dust, probably related to renovation activity in the home at the time of sampling. The much lower Pb content in the living room dust shows a relationship to the exterior soil and no specific evidence of Pb and Zn from the bedroom paint pigments. The technique was also successful at confirming the presence of chromated copper arsenate treated wood as a source of As in the living room dust. The results of the study have confirmed the utility of this approach in identifying specific metal forms within the dust. PMID:21842879

  19. Flame retardant associations between children's handwipes and house dust.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Heather M; Misenheimer, John; Hoffman, Kate; Webster, Thomas F

    2014-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), flame retardants (FRs) have been ubiquitously detected at high concentrations in indoor environments; however, with their recent phase-out, more attention is being focused on measurements of exposure to alternative FRs such as organophosphate FRs (OPFRs). In our previous research, we found that PBDE residues measured on children's handwipes were a strong predictor of serum PBDE levels. Here we build upon this research to examine longitudinal changes in PBDEs in indoor dust and children's handwipes, and explore the associations between handwipes and dust for alternative FRs. Children from our previous study were re-contacted after approximately two years and new samples of indoor dust and handwipes were collected. PBDE dust-levels were significantly correlated between two different sampling rounds separated by two years; however, PBDE levels in handwipes were not correlated, perhaps suggesting that the sources of PBDEs remained relatively constant in the home, but that behavioral differences in children are changing with age and influencing handwipe levels. OPFRs [i.e. tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP)], 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB, also known as TBB), di(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP, also known as TBPH), and 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were also ubiquitously detected in house dust samples and geometric mean levels were similar to PBDE levels, or higher in the case of the OPFRs. Significant associations between handwipes and house dust were observed for these alternative FRs, particularly for EH-TBB (rs=0.54; p<0.001). Increasing house dust levels and age were associated with higher levels of FRs in handwipes, and high hand washing frequency (>5 times d(-1)) was associated with lower FR levels in handwipes. Overall these data suggest that exposure to these alternative FRs will be similar to PBDE exposure, and the influence of hand-to-mouth behavior in children's exposure needs to be further examined to better estimate exposure potential. PMID:24485814

  20. Lead and zinc dust depositions from ore trains characterised using lead isotopic compositions.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, L J; Taylor, M P; Morrison, A L

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates an unusual source of environmental lead contamination - the emission and deposition of lead and zinc concentrates along train lines into and out of Australia's oldest silver-lead-zinc mine at Broken Hill, Australia. Transport of lead and zinc ore concentrates from the Broken Hill mines has occurred for more than 125 years, during which time the majority was moved in uncovered rail wagons. A significant amount of ore was lost to the adjoining environments, resulting in soil immediately adjacent to train lines elevated with concentrations of lead (695 mg kg(-1)) and zinc (2230 mg kg(-1)). Concentrations of lead and zinc decreased away from the train line and also with depth shown in soil profiles. Lead isotopic compositions demonstrated the soil lead contained Broken Hill ore in increasing percentages closer to the train line, with up to 97% apportioned to the mined Broken Hill ore body. SEM examination showed ceiling dusts collected from houses along the train line were composed of unweathered galena particles, characteristic of the concentrate transported in the rail wagons. The loss of ore from the uncovered wagons has significantly extended the environmental footprint of contamination from local mining operations over an area extending hundreds of kilometres along each of the three train lines. PMID:25627173

  1. Do New Wipe Materials Outperform Traditional Lead Dust Cleaning Methods?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger D. Lewis; Kee Hean Ong; Brett Emo; Jason Kennedy; Christopher A. Brown; Sridhar Condoor; Laxmi Thummalakunta

    2012-01-01

    Government guidelines have traditionally recommended the use of wet mopping, sponging, or vacuuming for removal of lead contaminated dust from hard surfaces in homes. The emergence of new technologies, such as the electrostatic dry cloth and wet disposable clothes used on mopheads, for removal of dust provides an opportunity to evaluate their ability to remove lead compared with more established

  2. Modeling dust-borne odor dynamics in swine housing based on age and size distributions of airborne dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Min Liao; Sher Singh

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we derive a mathematical model characterizing the adsorption of odor on the surface of airborne dust in swine housing based on the concept of homogeneous surface diffusion of a complete mixing airflow system. The philosophy of the paper is to incorporate the age and size distributions of airborne dust into the diffusion model for evaluating the dust-borne

  3. Cigarette Smoke Potentiates House Dust Mite Allergen-Induced Increase in the Permeability of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Csaba Rusznak; Raymond J. Sapsford; Jagdish L. Devalia; R. Justin John; Ellen L. Hewitt; Alan G. Lamont; Alan J. Wood; Samir S. Shah; Robert J. Davies; Stefan Lozewicz

    Although studies have suggested that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) may be associated with the devel- opment of atopy, the mechanisms underlying this are not clearly understood. It has been suggested that CS impairs the barrier function of the airway epithelium, leading to increased access of allergens such as those of the house dust mite (HDM) Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus ( Der

  4. Associations between bacterial communities of house dust and infant gut.

    PubMed

    Konya, T; Koster, B; Maughan, H; Escobar, M; Azad, M B; Guttman, D S; Sears, M R; Becker, A B; Brook, J R; Takaro, T K; Kozyrskyj, A L; Scott, J A

    2014-05-01

    The human gut is host to a diverse and abundant community of bacteria that influence health and disease susceptibility. This community develops in infancy, and its composition is strongly influenced by environmental factors, notably perinatal anthropogenic exposures such as delivery mode (Cesarean vs. vaginal) and feeding method (breast vs. formula); however, the built environment as a possible source of exposure has not been considered. Here we report on a preliminary investigation of the associations between bacteria in house dust and the nascent fecal microbiota from 20 subjects from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study using high-throughput sequence analysis of portions of the 16S rRNA gene. Despite significant differences between the dust and fecal microbiota revealed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysis, permutation analysis confirmed that 14 bacterial OTUs representing the classes Actinobacteria (3), Bacilli (3), Clostridia (6) and Gammaproteobacteria (2) co-occurred at a significantly higher frequency in matched dust-stool pairs than in randomly permuted pairs, indicating an association between these dust and stool communities. These associations could indicate a role for the indoor environment in shaping the nascent gut microbiota, but future studies will be needed to confirm that our findings do not solely reflect a reverse pathway. Although pet ownership was strongly associated with the presence of certain genera in the dust for dogs (Agrococcus, Carnobacterium, Exiguobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Leifsonia and Neisseria) and cats (Escherichia), no clear patterns were observed in the NMDS-resolved stool community profiles as a function of pet ownership. PMID:24637181

  5. A NEW HOUSE DUST COLLECTION SYSTEM AND ITS USE IN A STUDY OF ASTHMA IN DUST MITE SENSITIVE CHILDREN IN RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype dust collection system, the House Dust Vacuum One (HDVI), was designed for use in a study to investigate the relationship between house dust mite antigen levels and the presence of asthma in dust mite sensitive children. The HDVI was designed for the collection of dus...

  6. Control of house-dust mites (Pyroglyphidae) with home disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Schober, G; Wetter, G; Bischoff, E; Van Bronswijk, J E; Kniest, F M

    1987-08-01

    Chemical disinfectants and biocidal preparations used in households were tested in the laboratory for their ability to kill the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. Batches of ten specimens were soaked in aqueous solutions or suspensions containing 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 and 10.0% (by volume) of the test preparations. Direct effect was tested without food. Population effect was tested with food added. The results showed a high mortality with all preparations except for a regular carpet cleaner (containing detergents) and natamycin (a fungicide). Nevertheless, not all tested preparations are practical in the home environment. Best results in homes were obtained with a carpet cleaning solution which incorporates an acaricide (benzylbenzoate). This particular preparation has an outstanding acaricidal efficacy and can easily and routinely be used by the householder. The degree of cleanliness in the household is a measure of the number of house-dust mites and their allergens. PMID:3453785

  7. Testing your home for lead in paint, dust, and soil

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This publication is for anyone who is considering having a home or residence tested for lead in paint, dust, or soil by a professional. It explains the technical aspects of lead testing without overwhelming the reader. The first section tells why you would test for lead, the approaches for testing for lead, and what information you will get from each approach. The second section answers specific questions about how paint, soil, and dust sampling are conducted by the professional in your home. Finally, the last section answers other questions about testing, including questions about home test kits and testing of water and ceramics.

  8. Sequential digestion for measuring leachable and total lead in the same sample of dust or paint chips by ICP-MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Le Bot; Claire Arcelin; Emmanuel Briand; Philippe Glorennec

    2011-01-01

    House lead exposure is generally assessed using total lead, except in France, where acid-leachable lead is used for routine regulatory purposes. In order to allow an international comparison of French lead dust contamination, a sequential digestion protocol is developed to determine both leachable and total lead on the same sample with a two-step digestion stage: firstly, hydrochloric acid is added

  9. 39. BOILER HOUSE, COAL CONVEYOR LEADING FROM COAL TOWER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. BOILER HOUSE, COAL CONVEYOR LEADING FROM COAL TOWER No. 1 (WEST) (NOTE: COAL CARS No. 9 & 5 IN BACKGROUND) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  10. 35. BOILER HOUSE, TRACK FOR COAL CARS LEADING TO COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. BOILER HOUSE, TRACK FOR COAL CARS LEADING TO COAL TOWER No. 2 (NOTE: SKYLIGHT ABOVE; COAL CARS IN FAR BACKGROUND) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  11. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to lead: through deteriorating paint, household dust, bare soil, air, drinking water, food, ceramics, home remedies, hair ... can contaminate household dust as well as bare soil around the house, where children may play. In ...

  12. Evaluation of the presence of house dust mites in horse rugs.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jessica C; Vogelnest, Linda J

    2010-12-01

    A sample of fourteen horse rugs and two saddle blankets stored in south western Sydney, Australia, an area of known high dust mite prevalence in the human environment, were analysed for the presence of house dust mites. Dust samples from the rugs, blankets and 16 control sites were collected using a vacuum cleaner with a modified attachment and filter. Dust mites were extracted using an adapted floatation technique. Eight rugs and all control samples were positive for mites, which were confirmed to be house dust mites of the genus Dermatophagoides. This study confirms that exposure to house dust mites from horse rugs can occur, indicating that house dust mite allergen reactivity on intradermal and serum allergy testing in atopic horses may represent true dust mite hypersensitivity. Nevertheless, quantification studies will be necessary to ensure that there is adequate mite exposure for development of hypersensitivity, and further evaluation of immunological responses, avoidance and provocation, and specific immunotherapy are required to confirm the clinical relevance. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to document the presence of house dust mites in the equine environment. PMID:20529010

  13. Recovery of cadmium, zinc, and lead from lead smelter flue dusts. Report of investigations\\/1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. R. Miller; T. L. Hebble; D. L. Paulson

    1982-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines has developed a technique to separate and recover the three major components, Pb, Zn, and Cd, from lead smelter flue dust. The laboratory process utilizes sulfation roasting of the flue dust followed by water leaching to extract over 95 pct of the cadmium and zinc. Ninety-nine percent of the cadmium was recovered from solution by cementing

  14. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  15. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN HOUSE DUST AND YARD SOIL NEAR A SUPERFUND SITE. (R825173)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust and yard soil at 34 homes surrounding New Bedford Harbor during dredging of highly contaminated harbor sediments. PCBs can volatilize from sediments and seawater and subsequently deposit on surrounding soil, resulting i...

  16. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND OTHER SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN HOUSE DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical methods were validated to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other semivolatile organic compounds in house dust. e also examined the storage stability of three potential markers (solanesol, nicotine, and continine) for particulate-phase environmental ...

  17. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lead is still a health problem. Lead is everywhere, including dirt, dust, new toys, and old house ... and faucets. Lead can be found in drinking water in homes containing pipes that were connected with ...

  18. Contamination of houses by workers occupationally exposed in a lead-zinc-copper mine and impact on blood lead concentrations in the families.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaradia, M; Gulson, B L; MacDonald, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pathway of leaded dust from a lead-zinc-copper mine to houses of employees, and the impact on blood lead concentrations (PbB) of children. METHODS: High precision lead isotope and lead concentration data were obtained on venous blood and environmental samples (vacuum cleaner dust, interior dustfall accumulation, water, paint) for eight children of six employees (and the employees) from a lead-zinc-copper mine. These data were compared with results for 11 children from occupationally unexposed control families living in the same city. RESULTS: The median (range) concentrations of lead in vacuum cleaner dust was 470 (21-1300) ppm. In the houses of the mine employees, vacuum cleaner dust contained varying higher proportions of mine lead than did airborne particulate matter measured as dustfall accumulated over a three month period. The median (range) concentrations of lead in soil were 30 (5-407) ppm and these showed no evidence of any mine lead. Lead in blood of the mine employees varied from 7 to 25 micrograms/dl and was generally dominated by mine lead (> 60%). The mean (SD) PbB in the children of the mine employees was 5.7 (1.7) micrograms/dl compared with 4.1 (1.4) micrograms/dl for the control children (P = 0.02). The PbB of all children was always < 10 micrograms/dl, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council goal for all Australians. Some of the control children had higher PbB than the children of mine employees, probably from exposure to leaded paint as six of the eight houses of the control children were > 50 years old. In five of the eight children of mine employees > 20% of PbB was from the lead mine. However, in the other three cases of children of mine employees, their PbB was from sources other than mine lead (paint, petrol, background sources). CONCLUSIONS: Houses of employees from a lead mine can be contaminated by mine lead even if they are not situated in the same place as the mine. Delineation of the mine to house pathway indicates that lead is probably transported into the houses on the clothes, shoes, hair, skin, and in some cases, motor vehicles of the workers. In one case, dust shaken from clothes of a mine employee contained 3000 ppm lead which was 100% mine lead. The variable contamination of the houses was not expected given the precautions taken by mine employees to minimise transportation of lead into their houses. Although five out of the eight children of mine employees had > 20% mine lead in their blood, in no case did the PbB of a child exceed the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council goal of 10 micrograms/dl. In fact, some children in the control families had higher PbB than children of mine employees. In two cases, this was attributed to a pica habit for paint. The PbB in the children of mine employees and controls was independent of the source of lead. The low PbB in the children of mine employees may reflect the relatively low solubility (bioavailability) of the mine dust in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (< 40 %), behaviour--for example, limited mouthing activity--or diet. PMID:9072019

  19. Occurrence of Respiratory Symptoms Resulting from Exposure to House Dust Mites in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Zembala, Marek; Hajto, Barbara; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata; Perera, Frederica P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of house dust mite (HDM) allergens within homes of three-year-old children, to identify factors responsible for its variation and to test the hypothesis whether the content of HDM allergens exceeding 2 [mu]g/g dust may be regarded as a risk level of sensitization possibly affecting respiratory…

  20. DISTRIBUTION OF PESTICIDES AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN HOUSE DUST AS A FUNCTION OF PARTICLE SIZE

    EPA Science Inventory

    House dust is a repository for environmental pollutants that may accumulate indoors from both internal and external sources over long periods of time. Dust and tracked-in soil accumulate most efficiently in carpets, and the pollutants associated with it may present an exposure...

  1. Effectiveness of lead-hazard control interventions on dust lead loadings: findings from the evaluation of the HUD Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Grant Program.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Sherry L; Wilson, Jonathan W; Scott Clark, C; Galke, Warren A; Succop, Paul A; Chen, Mei

    2005-07-01

    From 1994 to 1999, the Evaluation of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Grant Program studied the intervention experiences of over 2800 homes in 11 states in the USA. Each interior intervention was categorized as (in order of increasing intensity) (a) cleaning/spot painting; (b) complete repainting; (c) complete repainting plus window treatments; (d) window abatement plus treatments to other components; (e) abatement of all lead-based paint hazards; or (f) abatement of all lead-based paint. Complete dust testing and environmental data were available for 1034 and 278 dwellings through 12 and 36 months postintervention, respectively. Strategies ranging from complete repainting to window abatement plus other treatments reduced geometric mean preintervention windowsill and floor dust lead loadings up to 36 months postintervention (reductions for complete repainting, from 16 to 5 microg/ft2 on floors and 182 to 88 microg/ft2 on sills; for window abatement plus other treatments, 27-8 microg/ft2 on floors and 570-124 microg/ft2 on sills). Full abatement reduced windowsill and floor loadings from baseline to 12 months postintervention [95-6 microg/ft2 on floors and 518-30 microg/ft2 on sills (data were not available for this strategy at 36 months)]. Window lead-hazard abatement was the most effective measure to reduce dust lead loadings on windows, but this treatment would need to be performed in conjunction with treatments to floors as well as exterior and soil treatments for the most effective control of dust lead on floors. PMID:15910785

  2. 12. CONCRETE STAIRWAY LEADING TO A LANDING BUILT TO HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CONCRETE STAIRWAY LEADING TO A LANDING BUILT TO HOUSE THE MACHINERY AND COUNTERWEIGHT FOR THE DRUM GATE WHICH WAS NEVER INSTALLED, INSIDE THE RIGHT (WEST) BUTTRESS. CAMERA FACING NORTH. - Salinas Dam, Salinas River near Pozo Road, Santa Margarita, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  3. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF LEAD PAINT ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN RESIDENTIAL HOUSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to demonstrate lead-based paint (LBP) removal from architectural wood components in CO2 unoccupied residential housing using four technologies: granular carbon dioxide (CO2 blasting), pelletized CO2 blasting, encapsulant paint remover, and wet abrasive bl...

  4. Application of neutral electrolyzed water spray for reducing dust levels in a layer breeding house.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weichao; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yang, Zhanyong

    2012-11-01

    Reducing airborne dust is an essential process for improving hen housing environment. Dust reduction effects of neutral electrolyzed water (pH 8.2) spray were investigated in a commercial tunnel-ventilated layer breeding house during production in northern China. A multipoint sampler was used to measure airborne dust concentration to study the dust reduction effects and distribution in the house. Compared with the control treatment (without spray), airborne dust level was reduced 34% in the 3 hr after spraying 216 mL m(-2) neutral electrolyzed water in the breeding house. The dust concentration was significantly higher during the periods of feed distribution (1.13 +/- 0.13 mg m(-3)) and artificial insemination (0.72 +/- 0.13 mg m(-3)) compared with after spray (0.47 +/- 0.09 mg m(-3)) and during lights-off period (0.29 +/- 0.08 mg m(-3)) in the three consecutive testing days (P <0.05). The experimental cage area was divided into four zones along the length of the house, with zone 1 nearest to the evaporative cooling pad and zone 4 nearest to the fans. The air temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, and dust concentration were measured at the sampling points of the four zones in 3 consecutive days and mortality of the birds for the duration of a month were investigated. The results showed that the air temperature, airflow rate, dust concentration, and number of dead birds increase from zone 1 to zone 4 in the tunnel-ventilated layer breeding house. PMID:23210224

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations in house dust are related to hormone levels in men

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Johnson, Paula I.; Camann, David; Hauser, Russ

    2009-01-01

    Despite documented widespread human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through dietary intake and contact or inhalation of indoor dust, along with growing laboratory evidence for altered endocrine function following exposure, human studies of PBDE exposure and endocrine effects remain limited. We conducted a preliminary study within an ongoing study on the impact of environmental exposures on male reproductive health. We measured serum hormone levels and PBDE concentrations (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust from 24 men recruited through a US infertility clinic. BDE 47 and 99 were detected in 100% of dust samples, and BDE 100 was detected in 67% of dust samples, at concentrations similar to those reported in previous US studies. In multivariable regression models adjusted for age and BMI, there was a statistically significant inverse relationship between dust PBDE concentrations and free androgen index. Dust PBDE concentrations were also strongly and inversely associated with luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and positively associated with inhibin B and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Finally, consistent with limited recent human studies of adults, PBDEs were positively associated with free T4. In conclusion, the present study provides compelling evidence of altered hormone levels in relation to PBDE exposures estimated as concentrations in house dust, and that house dust is an important source of human PBDE exposure, but more research is urgently needed. PMID:19211133

  6. Relationships between Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in House Dust and Serum

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Paula I.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Sjodin, Andreas; Meeker, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been measured in the home environment and in humans, but studies linking environmental levels to body burdens are limited. This study examines the relationship between PBDE concentrations in house dust and serum from adults residing in these homes. We measured PBDE concentrations in house dust from 50 homes and in serum of male-female couples from 12 of the homes. Detection rates, dust-serum and within-matrix correlations varied by PBDE congener. There was a strong correlation (r = 0.65–0.89, p < 0.05) between dust and serum concentrations of several predominant PBDE congeners (BDE 47, 99 and 100). Dust and serum levels of BDE 153 were not correlated (r < 0.01). The correlation of dust and serum levels of BDE 209 could not be evaluated due to low detection rates of BDE 209 in serum. Serum concentrations of the sum of BDE 47, 99, and 100 were also strongly correlated within couples (r = 0.85, p = 0.0005). This study provides evidence that house dust is a primary exposure pathway of PBDEs and supports the use of dust PBDE concentrations as a marker for exposure to PBDE congeners other than BDE 153. PMID:20521814

  7. A survey of spatially distributed exterior dust lead loadings in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Caravanos, Jack [Hunter College-CUNY, School of Health Sciences (United States); Weiss, Arlene L. [Environmental Medicine Inc., 263 Center Avenue, Westwood, NJ 07675 (United States); School of Medicine, New York University, NY 10016 (United States); Blaise, Marc J. [Hunter College-CUNY, School of Health Sciences (United States); Jaeger, Rudolph J. [Environmental Medicine Inc., 263 Center Avenue, Westwood, NJ 07675 (United States) and School of Medicine, New York University, NY 10016 (United States)]. E-mail: jaegerr@envmed.com

    2006-02-15

    This work documents ambient lead dust deposition values (lead loading) for the boroughs of New York City in 2003-2004. Currently, no regulatory standards exist for exterior concentrations of lead in settled dust. This is in contrast to the clearance and risk assessment standards that exist for interior residential dust. The reported potential for neurobehavioral toxicity and adverse cognitive development in children due to lead exposure prompts public health concerns about undocumented lead sources. Such sources may include settled dust of outdoor origin. Dust sampling throughout the five boroughs of NYC was done from the top horizontal portion of pedestrian traffic control signals (PTCS) at selected street intersections along main thoroughfares. The data (n=214 samples) show that lead in dust varies within each borough with Brooklyn having the highest median concentration (730{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), followed in descending order by Staten Island (452{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), the Bronx (382{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), Queens (198{mu}g/ft{sup 2}) and finally, Manhattan (175{mu}g/ft{sup 2}). When compared to the HUD/EPA indoor lead in dust standard of 40{mu}g/ft{sup 2}, our data show that this value is exceeded in 86% of the samples taken. An effort was made to determine the source of the lead in the dust atop of the PTCS. The lead in the dust and the yellow signage paint (which contains lead) were compared using isotopic ratio analysis. Results showed that the lead-based paint chip samples from intact signage did not isotopically match the dust wipe samples taken from the same surface. We know that exterior dust containing lead contributes to interior dust lead loading. Therefore, settled leaded dust in the outdoor environment poses a risk for lead exposure to children living in urban areas, namely, areas with elevated childhood blood lead levels and background lead dust levels from a variety of unidentified sources.

  8. The impact of drinking water, indoor dust and paint on blood lead levels of children aged 1-5 years in Montréal (Québec, Canada).

    PubMed

    Levallois, Patrick; St-Laurent, Julie; Gauvin, Denis; Courteau, Marilène; Prévost, Michèle; Campagna, Céline; Lemieux, France; Nour, Shokoufeh; D'Amour, Monique; Rasmussen, Pat E

    2014-01-01

    Lead is neurotoxic at very low dose and there is a need to better characterize the impact of domestic sources of lead on the biological exposure of young children. A cross-sectional survey evaluated the contribution of drinking water, house dust and paint to blood lead levels (BLLs) of young children living in old boroughs of Montréal (Canada). Three hundred and six children aged 1 to 5 years and currently drinking tap water participated in the study. For each participant, residential lead was measured in kitchen tap water, floor dust, windowsill dust and house paint and a venous blood sample was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between elevated BLL in the children (? 75th percentile) and indoor lead contamination by means of odds ratios (OR) using 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was an association between BLL ?75th percentile (1.78??g/dL) and water lead when the mean water concentration was >3.3??g/L: adjusted OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.1-10.2). Windowsill dust loading >14.1??g/ft(2) was also associated with BLL ?1.78??g/dL: adjusted OR=3.2 (95% CI: 1.3-7.8). Despite relatively low BLLs, tap water and house dust lead contribute to an increase of BLLs in exposed young children. PMID:23361441

  9. The impact of drinking water, indoor dust and paint on blood lead levels of children aged 1–5 years in Montréal (Québec, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Levallois, Patrick; St-Laurent, Julie; Gauvin, Denis; Courteau, Marilène; Prévost, Michèle; Campagna, Céline; Lemieux, France; Nour, Shokoufeh; D'Amour, Monique; Rasmussen, Pat E

    2014-01-01

    Lead is neurotoxic at very low dose and there is a need to better characterize the impact of domestic sources of lead on the biological exposure of young children. A cross-sectional survey evaluated the contribution of drinking water, house dust and paint to blood lead levels (BLLs) of young children living in old boroughs of Montréal (Canada). Three hundred and six children aged 1 to 5 years and currently drinking tap water participated in the study. For each participant, residential lead was measured in kitchen tap water, floor dust, windowsill dust and house paint and a venous blood sample was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between elevated BLL in the children (? 75th percentile) and indoor lead contamination by means of odds ratios (OR) using 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was an association between BLL ?75th percentile (1.78??g/dL) and water lead when the mean water concentration was >3.3??g/L: adjusted OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.1–10.2). Windowsill dust loading >14.1??g/ft2 was also associated with BLL ?1.78??g/dL: adjusted OR=3.2 (95% CI: 1.3–7.8). Despite relatively low BLLs, tap water and house dust lead contribute to an increase of BLLs in exposed young children. PMID:23361441

  10. APPLICATION OF AN ELECTROSTATIC SPACE CHARGE SYSTEM FOR DUST, AMMONIA AND PATHOGEN REDUCTION IN A BROILER BREEDER HOUSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airborne dust in poultry housing is known to be one of the primary means by which disease causing organisms are spread throughout a house. Reductions in airborne dust levels have been associated with even greater reductions in airborne bacteria. An electrostatic space charge system (ESCS) was used o...

  11. Organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) and plasticizers in house and car dust and the influence of electronic equipment.

    PubMed

    Brandsma, Sicco H; de Boer, Jacob; van Velzen, Martin J M; Leonards, Pim E G

    2014-12-01

    All nine PFRs studied were detected in house and car dust from the Netherlands with the exception of tris(butyl) phosphate (TNBP) and tris(isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP) in car dust. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP, median 22 ?g g(-1)) was dominant in house dust collected around and on electronics followed by tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP, median 1.3 ?g g(-1)), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP, median 1.3 ?g g(-1)) and tris(phenyl) phosphate (TPHP, median 0.8 ?g g(-1)). Levels of TPHP and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP, also known as TCP) in house dust on electronics were significantly higher than in house dust collected around electronics, suggesting that electronic equipment has limited contribution to the PFR levels in house dust, with the exception of TPHP and TMPP. Car dust was dominated by tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) with the highest levels found in dust collected from the car seats (1100 ?g g(-1)). The mean TDCIPP and TCIPP levels observed in car dust were significantly higher than the levels observed in dust collected around electronics. Significantly higher mean TMPP levels in dust taken from car seats were found compared to dust collected around the equipment (p<0.05). This is probably influenced by the use of TDCIPP, TCIPP in polyurethane foam (car seats) and the use of TMPP as plasticizer in car interiors. Worldwide four PFR patterns were observed in house dust. The PFR pattern in the Netherlands of TDCIPP, TMPP, TCEP, TCIPP and TPHP in house dust is comparable to the pattern found in six other countries, which may point to identical sources of these PFRs in the indoor environment. However, the PFR levels between the countries and within countries showed high variation. PMID:24703013

  12. 77 FR 16796 - Lead Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Activities in Target Housing and Child-Occupied Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ...FRL-9649-6] Lead Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Activities in Target Housing and Child-Occupied...work practice standards for lead-based paint activities in target housing and child-occupied...establishing the Arkansas lead-based paint program and passed a new statute...

  13. Immunologic responses following respiratory sensitization to house dust mite allergens in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M O'Brien; Marcus AY Ooi; Amanda H Clarke; Wayne R Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Allergens from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are a major cause of human respiratory diseases, including asthma. In order to help in understanding the early events in allergen sensitization, a murine model of allergic respiratory disease was developed. Mice were immunized by intranasal inoculation of Der p 1 or Der p 2 on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14,

  14. DIESEL AND CARBON PARTICLES ENHANCE HOUSE DUST MITE-INDUCED PULMONARY HYPERSENSITIVITY IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel and Carbon Particles Enhance House Dust Mite-Induced Pulmonary Hypersensitivity in Brown Norway Rats. P. Singh1, M.J. Daniels2, D. Winsett2, J. Richards2, K. Crissman2, M. Madden2 and M.I. Gilmour2. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC and 2 USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. Ep...

  15. Effect of Electric Arc Furnace Bag House Dust on Concrete Durability Researcher: Fahad Al-Mutlaq

    E-print Network

    Birmingham, University of

    of the corrosion rates of embedded steel bars in specimens of concrete exposed to chloride ingressEffect of Electric Arc Furnace Bag House Dust on Concrete Durability Researcher: Fahad Al) Introduction Corrosion of reinforcing steel is recognized to be the major cause of deterioration of concrete

  16. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators...and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1146 Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators...than 20 milligrams of freshly generated lead-oxide fume, calculated as lead...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators...and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1146 Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators...than 20 milligrams of freshly generated lead-oxide fume, calculated as lead...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators...and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1146 Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators...than 20 milligrams of freshly generated lead-oxide fume, calculated as lead...

  19. ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND HOUSE DUST FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been conjectured that jet turbine exhaust near airplane flight paths may result in significant human exposure to PAH. The fallout from the aerosol plume could be introduced into the residence directly as drafts through the interior of the house or through accumulation of ...

  20. Immunotherapy for house dust mite sensitivity: where are the knowledge gaps?

    PubMed

    Biagtan, Mark; Viswanathan, Ravi; Bush, Robert K

    2014-12-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) are found in the environments where human habitation exists. Their density is dependent on environmental relative humidity; therefore, higher populations are present in areas of the world with higher humidity levels, e.g., coastal areas and tropics. To date, 24 HDM allergens have been identified. Many of these represent digestive enzymes since HDM feces are the major source of allergen exposure. IgE- medicated sensitization to HDM allergens is an important factor in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases since it is the most common aeroallergen detected by skin testing or in vitro IgE assays. Sensitization to HDM allergens often occurs early in life and appears to play an important role in the progression from allergic rhinitis to asthma (the so-called Allergic March) in children. HDM sensitization is also associated with asthma across all age groups. Efforts to control environmental exposure to HDM allergens have often proven to be unsuccessful. While medications can improve symptoms, only immunotherapy currently provides disease-modifying effects in allergic rhinitis and asthma. Several systemic reviews and meta-analysis indicate that both subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma for HDM sensitivity. In this report, we review recent studies and the evidence for the use of HDM SCIT and SLIT. Fundamental gaps in knowledge are identified which could lead to improved approaches to HDM allergy. PMID:25354663

  1. Pyrethroids in house dust from the homes of farm worker families in the MICASA study.

    PubMed

    Trunnelle, Kelly J; Bennett, Deborah H; Tancredi, Daniel J; Gee, Shirley J; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E; Hammock, Bruce D; Schenker, Marc B

    2013-11-01

    Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly for pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families, who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields and are faced with poor housing conditions, potentially causing high pest infestation and pesticide use. We investigate levels of pyrethroids in the house dust of farm worker family homes in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA, within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pesticide use data and levels of pyrethroid pesticides in indoor dust collected in 2009 as measured by questionnaires and a GC/MS analysis of the pyrethroids cis- and trans-permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and resmethrin in single dust samples collected from 55 households. Cis- and trans-permethrin had the highest detection frequencies at 67%, with median concentrations of 244 and 172ng/g dust, respectively. Cypermethrin was detected in 52% of the homes and had a median concentration of 186ng/g dust. Esfenvalerate, resmethrin and deltamethrin were detected in less than half the samples. We compared the pyrethroid concentrations found in our study to other studies looking at both rural and urban homes and daycares. Lower detection frequencies and/or lower median concentrations of cis- and trans-permethrin and cypermethrin were observed in our study as compared to those studies. However, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and resmethrin were detected more frequently in the house dust from our study than in the other studies. Because households whose children had higher urinary pyrethroid metabolite levels were more likely to be analyzed in this study, a positive bias in our estimates of household pyrethroid levels may be expected. A positive association was observed with reported outdoor pesticide use and cypermethrin levels found in the indoor dust samples (rs=0.28, p=0.0450). There was also a positive association seen with summed pyrethroid levels in house dust and the results of a pesticide inventory conducted by field staff (rs=0.32, p=0.018), a potentially useful predictor of pesticide exposure in farm worker family homes. Further research is warranted to fully investigate the utility of such a measure. PMID:24096042

  2. Condition and type of housing as an indicator of potential environmental lead exposure and pediatric blood lead levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Clark; R. L. Bornschein; P. Succop; S. S. Que Hee; P. B. Hammond; B. Peace

    1985-01-01

    Environmental evaluations in a prospective behavior study of children with blood lead levels up to about 50 g\\/dl were performed by an intensive environmental survey and by exterior visual evaluations of housing quality. Serial blood lead values for infants in the study were compared to exterior housing type and quality, which itself was also compared with results of the intensive

  3. Impact of Sublingual Immunotherapy on Specific Antibody Levels in Asthmatic Children Allergic to House Dust Mites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nerin N. Bahceciler; Cigdem Arikan; Alison Taylor; Mubeccel Akdis; Kurt Blaser; Isil B. Barlan; Cezmi A. Akdis

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcome and changes in allergen-specific antibodies during sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in house dust mite (HDM)-allergic asthma patients and to compare levels of allergen-specific antibodies in HDM-allergic patients before and after treatment with that of healthy controls. Method: Thirty-one asthma patients allergic to HDM were studied. Patients in groups I (n = 17) and II (n

  4. Clonal Analysis of Human T-Cell Responses to Fractionated House Dust Mite Antigens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuhiro Okano; Toshiaki Nagano; Toshiro Ono; Yu Masuda; Nobuo Ohta

    1993-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the cellular basis of house dust mite-driven immune responsiveness in an atopic individual with perennial rhinitis. We established 40 human T-cell clones (CD3+, 4+, 8––) reactive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) antigen under the restriction of HLA-DR. By using the crude Dp antigen and its 14 molecular weight (MW) fractions, we analyzed the distribution of

  5. Characterization of lead, chromium, and cadmium in dust emitted from municipal solid waste incineration plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiota, K.; Imai, G.; Oshita, K.; Takaoka, M.

    2013-04-01

    The dust is emitted from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). Volatile toxic heavy metals are abundant in smaller dust particles and influence the toxicity of particulate matter such as fine particles <2.5 ?m (PM2.5). However, little is known about the properties of these metals in fine dust particles. Therefore, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy was used to investigate the chemical states of lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) in MSWI dust collected for nine particle size fractions at the inlet of the dust collector and the stacks of two MSWI plants. XAFS spectroscopy of the dust in the inlet of the dust collectors showed that finer dust contained predominantly Pb as PbCl2 with some PbSiO3, coarser dust consisted of Cr forms, including more toxic Cr(VI) species, and all dust contained CdCl2. Although the dust collector removed almost all of the Pb, trace amounts of PbCl2 remained in the stack gas after passing through the dust collector.

  6. Effect of spraying biological additives for reduction of dust and bioaerosol in a confinement swine house.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Y; Ko, Han J; Kim, Hyeon T; Kim, Chi N

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this on-site experiment is to evaluate and compare efficiencies of currently utilized biological additives to reduce emissions of dust and bioaerosol in a confinement swine house. The mean reduction rate of total dust only after spray ranged was approximately 30% for all the treatments, compared to initial level before spraying additives which was found to reduce the initial level of total dust significantly (p < 0.05). The mean reduction rate of all the treatments at 1 hr after spraying was about 24% which was 6% lower than only after spray. Since 3 hr after spraying, however, total dust level fluctuated inconstantly for all the treatments, besides application of soybean oil. The mean reduction rates of all the treatments only after spraying as compared to initial level before spraying were about 53% for total airborne bacteria (p < 0.01) and 51% for total airborne fungi (p < 0.01), respectively. At 1 hr after spraying, the reduction rate of total airborne fungi averaged to about 35% for all the treatments (p < 0.05), while insignificant reductions of total airborne bacteria were found only in the treatments with salt water, soybean oil, artificial spice, and essential oil (p > 0.05). The fluctuations of total airborne bacteria and fungi, which were similar to total dust, were observed for all the treatments 3 hr after spray. PMID:16841885

  7. Levels of phthalate esters in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children in Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Lu, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Sun, Yong-Gang; Zhu, Dong-Mei; Wang, Bing-Ling; Zhao, Ren-Zheng; Zhang, Zheng-Dong

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the levels and possible determinants of phthalate esters (PEs) in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children, dust was collected from 215 urban houses in Nanjing, China, and 145 outdoor settled dust samples were collected nearby. Six PEs were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All PEs were detected in the dust from approximately 90% of the houses, with the exception of dioctyl phthalate (DOP), which had only a 59% detection rate. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were the most abundant PEs, with geometric means of 110 and 16.4 ?g g-1, respectively, and maximal concentrations 9950 and 2150 ?g g-1. Factor analysis showed that DBP, DEHP and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) might come from the same source and were significantly influenced by the use of solid-wood floor wax. High BBP, DEHP, DOP and total PE levels were associated with indices of dampness, and high DOP was associated with humidifier use. In conclusion, six PEs are ubiquitous in urban settled house dust in Nanjing, China, and both plastic materials and cosmetic and personal care products are important sources. Flooring material, dampness and humidifier use potentially influence house dust PE levels.

  8. Detection and intake assessment of organophosphate flame retardants in house dust in Japanese dwellings.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shuji; Araki, Atsuko; Kawai, Toshio; Tsuboi, Tazuru; Ait Bamai, Yu; Yoshioka, Eiji; Kanazawa, Ayako; Cong, Shi; Kishi, Reiko

    2014-04-15

    The demand for phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) has recently increased as an alternative to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE). PFRs have been detected in house dust, but little is known about the concentrations of PFRs in private homes and the effects on human health. We measured the levels of 10 PFRs in indoor floor dust and upper surface dust from 128 Japanese dwellings of families with children in elementary school. The median (min-max) concentrations (?g/g) of PFRs were as follows: tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), 30.88 (<0.61-936.65); tris(2-chloro-iso-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), 0.74 (<0.56-392.52); and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), 0.87 (<0.80-23.35). These values exceeded 50% detection rates, and the rates are median over the LOD in floor dust. The concentrations (?g/g) of TBOEP 26.55 (<0.61-1933.24), TCIPP 2.23 (<0.56-621.23), TPHP 3.13 (<0.80-27.47), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) 1.17 (<0.65-92.22), and tributyl phosphate (TNBP) 0.74 (<0.36-60.64) exceeded 50% detection rates in the upper surface dust. A significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between the concentrations of TCIPP and TBOEP was shown in floor dust and upper surface dust (n=48). Estimated median and 95th percentile daily intake was calculated for toddlers and elementary school children and was compared with reference dose values (RfD) from the literature. For TBOEP, the estimated 95th percentile intake from floor dust was 14% of RfD for toddlers and 4% for school children. The estimated intake from upper surface dust was somewhat lower. Estimated median intake of TBOEP and median intake for the other PFRs were less than 1% of the RfD. TBOEP, TCIPP and TPHP were the main PFRs in the dust. The median levels of PFRs are well below the RfD values. PMID:24531310

  9. Laboratory Comparison of Vacuum, OSHA, and HUD Sampling Methods for Lead in Household Dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J. Reynolds; Lois Etre; Peter S. Thorne; Paul Whitten; Mustafa Selim; William J. Popendorf

    1997-01-01

    The goals of this project were to evaluate and compare the efficiency and reproducibility of three methods for sampling lead-containing dust in homes. Lead-containing dust was generated in a 1-m3 chamber and uniformly deposited onto surfaces typically found in the home (painted wood, unpainted wood, varnished wood, linoleum, and carpet). Trials with three levels of lead concentrations were performed for

  10. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can become contaminated from household dust or exterior soil. Both are known lead sources. Regularly wet-mop ... entering the house to prevent bringing lead-contaminated soil in from outside. Prevent children from playing in ...

  11. Lead contamination of UK dusts and soils and implications for childhood exposure: An overview of the work of the Environmental Geochemistry Research Group, Imperial College, London, England 1981–1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Thornton; J. M. Watt; D. J. A. Davies; A. Hunt; J. Cotter-Howells; D. L. Johnson

    1994-01-01

    Over the course of the last decade, research conducted by the Imperial College Environmental Geochemistry Research Group has focused on the nature and effects of lead in UK dusts and soils. An initial nationwide reconnaissance survey demonstrated that approximately 10% of the population is exposed to lead levels in excess of 2,000 µg g-1 in house-hold dust. Subsequent exposure studies

  12. COST ESTIMATES OF USING THREE LEAD-BASED PAINT ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGIES ON RESIDENTIAL HOUSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated blood lead levels in children of the US due to exposure to flaking lead-based paint continues to be an important health concern. Approximately 57M housing units, which represent 75% of all privately owned and occupied housing built before 1980 in the US are contaminated ...

  13. Monitoring Indoor Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants: Hand Wipes and House Dust

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Garantziotis, Stavros; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) are becoming popular replacements for the phased-out polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixtures, and they are now commonly detected in indoor environments. However, little is known about human exposure to PFRs because they cannot be easily measured in blood or serum. Objectives: To investigate relationships between the home environment and internal exposure, we assessed associations between two PFRs, tris(1,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), in paired hand wipe and dust samples and concentrations of their metabolites in urine samples (n = 53). We also assessed short-term variation in urinary metabolite concentrations (n = 11 participants; n = 49 samples). Methods: Adult volunteers in North Carolina, USA, completed questionnaires and provided urine, hand wipe, and household dust samples. PFRs and PBDEs were measured in hand wipes and dust, and bis(1,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), metabolites of TDCIPP and TPHP, were measured in urine. Results: TDCIPP and TPHP were detected frequently in hand wipes and dust (> 86.8%), with geometric mean concentrations exceeding those of PBDEs. Unlike PBDEs, dust TDCIPP and TPHP levels were not associated with hand wipes. However, hand wipe levels were associated with urinary metabolites. Participants with the highest hand wipe TPHP mass, for instance, had DPHP levels 2.42 times those of participants with the lowest levels (95% CI: 1.23, 4.77). Women had higher levels of DPHP, but not BDCIPP. BDCIPP and DPHP concentrations were moderately to strongly reliable over 5 consecutive days (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.81 and 0.51, respectively). Conclusions: PFR exposures are widespread, and hand-to-mouth contact or dermal absorption may be important pathways of exposure. Citation: Hoffman K, Garantziotis S, Birnbaum LS, Stapleton HM. 2015. Monitoring indoor exposure to organophosphate flame retardants: hand wipes and house dust. Environ Health Perspect 123:160–165;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408669 PMID:25343780

  14. Elevated house dust and serum concentrations of PBDEs in California: unintended consequences of furniture flammability standards?

    PubMed

    Zota, Ami R; Rudel, Ruthann A; Morello-Frosch, Rachel A; Brody, Julia Green

    2008-11-01

    Studies show higher house dust and body burden levels of PBDE flame retardants in North America than Europe; but little is known about exposure variation within North America, where California's furniture flammability standard affects PBDE use. We compared dust samples from 49 homes in two California communities with 120 Massachusetts homes and with other published studies. Dust concentrations [median (range) ng/g] in California homes of BDE-47, -99, and -100 were 2700 (112-107,000), 3800 (102-170,000), and 684 (dust. We then investigated whether human serum PBDE levels were also higher in California compared to other North American regions by analyzing the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the only data set available with serum from a representative sample of the U.S. population (n=2040). California residence was significantly associated with nearly 2-fold higher sigma PBDE serum levels [least square geometric mean (LSGM) ng/g lipid, 73.0 vs 38.5 (p = 0.002)]. Elevated PBDE exposures in California may result from the state's furniture flammability standards; our results suggest the need for further research in a larger representative sample. PMID:19031918

  15. House dust mite allergy in Korea: the most important inhalant allergen in current and future.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Park, Jung-Won; Hong, Chein-Soo

    2012-11-01

    The house-dust mite (HDM), commonly found in human dwellings, is an important source of inhalant and contact allergens. In this report, the importance of HDM allergy in Korea and the characteristics of allergens from dust mite are reviewed with an emphasis on investigations performed in Korea. In Korea, Dermatophagoides farinae is the dominant species of HDM, followed by D. pteronyssinus. Tyrophagus putrescentiae is also found in Korea, but its role in respiratory allergic disease in Korea is controversial. The relatively low densities of mite populations and concentrations of mite major allergens in dust samples from Korean homes, compared to westernized countries, are thought to reflect not only different climatic conditions, but also cultural differences, such as the use of 'ondol' under-floor heating systems in Korean houses. HDM are found in more than 90% of Korean houses, and the level of exposure to HDM is clinically significant. About 40%-60% of Korean patients suffering from respiratory allergies, and more than 40% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis, are sensitized to HDM. Mite allergens can be summarized according to their inherent auto-adjuvant activities and/or their binding affinities to the adjuvant-like substances: proteolytic enzymes, lipid binding proteins, chitin binding proteins, and allergens not associated with adjuvant-like activity. In general, allergens with a strong adjuvant-like activity or adjuvant-binding activity elicit potent IgE reactivity. In Korea, Der f 2 is the most potent allergen, followed by Der f 1. Immune responses are modulated by the properties of the allergen itself and by the adjuvant-like substances that are concomitantly administered with the antigens. Characterization of allergenic molecules and elucidation of mechanisms by which adjuvant-like molecules modulate allergic reactions, not only in Korea but also worldwide, will provide valuable information on allergic diseases, and are necessary for the development of diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23115727

  16. House Dust Mite Allergy in Korea: The Most Important Inhalant Allergen in Current and Future

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Park, Jung-Won

    2012-01-01

    The house-dust mite (HDM), commonly found in human dwellings, is an important source of inhalant and contact allergens. In this report, the importance of HDM allergy in Korea and the characteristics of allergens from dust mite are reviewed with an emphasis on investigations performed in Korea. In Korea, Dermatophagoides farinae is the dominant species of HDM, followed by D. pteronyssinus. Tyrophagus putrescentiae is also found in Korea, but its role in respiratory allergic disease in Korea is controversial. The relatively low densities of mite populations and concentrations of mite major allergens in dust samples from Korean homes, compared to westernized countries, are thought to reflect not only different climatic conditions, but also cultural differences, such as the use of 'ondol' under-floor heating systems in Korean houses. HDM are found in more than 90% of Korean houses, and the level of exposure to HDM is clinically significant. About 40%-60% of Korean patients suffering from respiratory allergies, and more than 40% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis, are sensitized to HDM. Mite allergens can be summarized according to their inherent auto-adjuvant activities and/or their binding affinities to the adjuvant-like substances: proteolytic enzymes, lipid binding proteins, chitin binding proteins, and allergens not associated with adjuvant-like activity. In general, allergens with a strong adjuvant-like activity or adjuvant-binding activity elicit potent IgE reactivity. In Korea, Der f 2 is the most potent allergen, followed by Der f 1. Immune responses are modulated by the properties of the allergen itself and by the adjuvant-like substances that are concomitantly administered with the antigens. Characterization of allergenic molecules and elucidation of mechanisms by which adjuvant-like molecules modulate allergic reactions, not only in Korea but also worldwide, will provide valuable information on allergic diseases, and are necessary for the development of diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23115727

  17. Comparison of Lead Species in Household Dust Wipes, Soil, and Airborne Particulate Matter in El Paso, Texas, by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J.; Amaya, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the interplay of indoor and outdoor sources of lead in an urban setting is one foundation in establishing risk for lead exposure in children in our cities. A household may be the source for lead contamination due to the deterioration of interior lead-based paint, or a sink if lead particles are tracked or blown into the home from such potential ambient sources as yard soil or urban street dust. In addressing this issue, X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) presents the opportunity to directly and quantitatively speciate lead at low concentrations in bulk samples. We performed XAS analyses on dust wipes from window sills or floors from 8 houses that exceeded Federal standards for lead in dust. We entered these data into a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) that also included El Paso environmental samples: lead-based paints, soils, and airborne particulate matter. A simple two-component mixing system accounted for more than 95% of the variance of this data set. Paint and lead oxide appear to be the principal components, with all the samples falling in a compositional range from pure paint to 75% paint, 25% lead oxide. Note that several different lead compounds are possible constituents of a given lead-based paint. The paints spread from one end out along perhaps a fifth of the range of the compositional axis, followed closely, but not overlapped, by the soil samples, which covered the remainder of the compositional range. Two of the dust wipes plotted within the paint range, and the remaining 6 dust wipes plotted randomly through the soil range. Samples of airborne particulate matter plotted in both the paint and soil ranges. These observations suggest that the lead on most of the dust wipes originated outside the house, probably from deteriorated exterior lead-based paint deposited in adjacent yards. This paint mixed with lead oxide present in the soil and entered the houses by the airborne route. The probable source of the oxide in the soil is former airborne deposition of automobile exhaust from leaded gasoline (lead halides quickly react to form oxide). The dust wipes that fall within the compositional range of the paints may have originated from deterioration of interior paint. The XAS findings are consistent with our tests of several hundred houses in El Paso: most of the wipes that exceeded Federal lead standards came from houses in the oldest neighborhoods of the city, where lead paint is still present. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy experiments were conducted at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on beam lines 7-3 and 10-2. Spectra were collected at the Pb L-III absorption edge in fluorescence mode using a 13-element or a 30-element Ge solid-state detector. This publication was made possible by grant numbers 1RO1-ES11367 and 1 S11 ES013339-01A1 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH.

  18. Exposure to house dust phthalates in relation to asthma and allergies in both children and adults.

    PubMed

    Ait Bamai, Yu; Shibata, Eiji; Saito, Ikue; Araki, Atsuko; Kanazawa, Ayako; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Nakayama, Kunio; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Takigawa, Tomoko; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Chikara, Hisao; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kishi, Reiko

    2014-07-01

    Although an association between exposure to phthalates in house dust and childhood asthma or allergies has been reported in recent years, there have been no reports of these associations focusing on both adults and children. We aimed to investigate the relationships between phthalate levels in Japanese dwellings and the prevalence of asthma and allergies in both children and adult inhabitants in a cross-sectional study. The levels of seven phthalates in floor dust and multi-surface dust in 156 single-family homes were measured. According to a self-reported questionnaire, the prevalence of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis in the 2 years preceding the study was 4.7%, 18.6%, 7.6%, and 10.3%, respectively. After evaluating the interaction effects of age and exposure categories with generalized liner mixed models, interaction effects were obtained for DiNP and bronchial asthma in adults (Pinteraction=0.028) and for DMP and allergic rhinitis in children (Pinteraction=0.015). Although not statistically significant, children had higher ORs of allergic rhinitis for DiNP, allergic conjunctivitis for DEHP, and atopic dermatitis for DiBP and BBzP than adults, and liner associations were observed (Ptrend<0.05). On the other hand, adults had a higher OR for atopic dermatitis and DEHP compared to children. No significant associations were found in phthalates levels collected from multi-surfaces. This study suggests that the levels of DMP, DEHP, DiBP, and BBzP in floor dust were associated with the prevalence of allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis in children, and children are more vulnerable to phthalate exposure via household floor dust than are adults. The results from this study were shown by cross-sectional nature of the analyses and elaborate assessments for metabolism of phthalates were not considered. Further studies are needed to advance our understanding of phthalate toxicity. PMID:24704966

  19. Respiratory allergy caused by house dust mites: What do we really know?

    PubMed

    Calderón, Moisés A; Linneberg, Allan; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; De Blay, Frédéric; Hernandez Fernandez de Rojas, Dolores; Virchow, Johann Christian; Demoly, Pascal

    2014-11-22

    The house dust mite (HDM) is a major perennial allergen source and a significant cause of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. However, awareness of the condition remains generally low. This review assesses the links between exposure to HDM, development of the allergic response, and pathologic consequences in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We investigate the epidemiology of HDM allergy to explore the interaction between mites and human subjects at the population, individual, and molecular levels. Core and recent publications were identified by using "house dust mite" as a key search term to evaluate the current knowledge of HDM epidemiology and pathophysiology. Prevalence data for HDM allergen sensitization vary from 65 to 130 million persons in the general population worldwide to as many as 50% among asthmatic patients. Heterogeneity of populations, terminology, and end points in the literature confound estimates, indicating the need for greater standardization in epidemiologic research. Exposure to allergens depends on multiple ecological strata, including climate and mite microhabitats within the domestic environment, with the latter providing opportunity for intervention measures to reduce allergen load. Inhaled mite aeroallergens are unusually virulent: they are able to activate both the adaptive and innate immune responses, potentially offering new avenues for intervention. The role of HDM allergens is crucial in the development of allergic rhinitis and asthma, but the translation of silent sensitization into symptomatic disease is still incompletely understood. Improved understanding of HDMs, their allergens, and their microhabitats will enable development of more effective outcomes for patients with HDM allergy. PMID:25457152

  20. Evaluation of new sensitizations in asthmatic children monosensitized to house dust mite by specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Harmanci, Koray; Razi, Cem H; Toyran, Muge; Kanmaz, Gozde; Cengizlier, Mehmet R

    2010-03-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is one of the treatment modalities recomended for the management of asthma and allergic rhinitis by international guidelines. A potential benefit of immunotherapy (IT) is to prevent the development of sensitisation to new allergens. There is stil no conclusion on this subject. One hundred twenty-two children 8-18 years old with intermittent asthma, with or without allergic rhinitis, all of whom were monosensitised to house dust mite (HDM) were selected. Sixty two of these children accepted to receive SIT with HDM extract for 4 years and the remaining 60 did not accept SIT and were treated with asthma medications only. This second group of children served as the control group. At the end of the 4-year study period, 36 of the 53 patients (67.9%) in the SIT group showed no new sensitizations, compared to 38 of 52 (73.0%) in the control group (p = 0.141). The most frequent new sensitizations at the end of the study were pollens, grasses and olive polen, followed by animal dander, alternaria and cockroach. In conclusion, SIT may not prevent the onset of new sensitizations in asthmatic children monosensitized to house dust mites. Further investigation is required to clarify the immunologic mechanisms and other factors by which SIT reduces or not the development of new sensitizations in monosensitized children. PMID:20527510

  1. Immunomodulatory Effects of CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides on House Dust Mite-Induced Airway Inflammation in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izumi Hirose; Hiroyuki Tanaka; Go Takahashi; Keiko Wakahara; Mayumi Tamari; Tatsuo Sakamoto; Seiji Kojima; Naoki Inagaki; Hiroichi Nagai

    2008-01-01

    Background: CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) are reported to protect against airway eosinophilia and hyperresponsiveness in animal models of asthma. However, little is known about the effects of CpG ODNs on house dust mites, one of the most common environmental allergens, causing allergic asthma. In the present study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of CpG ODNs on the development of house

  2. IN-HOUSE CORROSION RESEARCH EMPHASIZING LEAD, COPPER AND IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead and copper are directly regulated via the "Lead and Copper Rule;" however, water suppliers must balance all water treatment processes in order to simultaneously comply with all regulations. Specific research needs for copper and lead chemistry still exist, as applications o...

  3. Field Evaluation and Comparison of Five Methods of Sampling Lead Dust on Carpets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhipeng Bai; Lih-Ming Yiin; David Q. Rich; John L. Adgate; Peter J. Ashley; Paul J. Lioy; George G. Rhoads; Junfeng Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Five methods of sampling lead-contaminated dust on carpets were evaluated and compared in 33 New Jersey homes of children with elevated blood lead levels. The five sampling methods were (1) wipe, (2) adhesive label, (3) C18 sheet, (4) vacuum, and (5) hand rinse. Samples were collected side by side on the same carpets within the homes. Among the five methods

  4. Comparison of the Allergic Responses Induced by PeniciIlium chrysogenum and House Dust Mite Extracts in a Mouse Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A report by the Institute of Medicine suggested that more research is needed to better understand mold effects on allergic disease, particularly asthma development. We compared the ability of the fungal Penicillium chrysogenum (PCE) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to induce al...

  5. MONITORING METHODS FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION IN HOUSE DUST AND TRACK-IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method was developed and employed to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in house dust and soil. he method was applied to the analysis of samples collected in an eight-home pilot study that was conducted in Columbus, OH, before and after the 1992/1993 h...

  6. A new and rapid method of making permanent preparations of large numbers of house-dust mites for light microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Colloff

    1989-01-01

    A method is described for the transfer to microslides of large numbers of mites extracted from house dust, in a single operation. Mites were frozen in water in a watch glass at -20°C. The ice was then everted onto a siliconeized microslide and the meltwater evaporated off on a hotplate at 55°C. Mounting medium and coverslip were then added in

  7. House dust mite allergen induces asthma via Toll-like receptor 4 triggering of airway structural cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamida Hammad; Marcello Chieppa; Frederic Perros; Monique A Willart; Ronald N Germain; Bart N Lambrecht

    2009-01-01

    Barrier epithelial cells and airway dendritic cells (DCs) make up the first line of defense against inhaled substances such as house dust mite (HDM) allergen and endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). We hypothesized that these cells need to communicate with each other to cause allergic disease. We show in irradiated chimeric mice that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression on radioresistant lung structural

  8. Molecular Determinants for Antibody Binding on Group 1 House Dust Mite Allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Pomés, Anna; Glesner, Jill; Vailes, Lisa D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Heymann, Peter W.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Minor, Wladek; Chapman, Martin D. (INDOOR Bio.); (UV); (UVHS)

    2012-07-11

    House dust mites produce potent allergens, Der p 1 and Der f 1, that cause allergic sensitization and asthma. Der p 1 and Der f 1 are cysteine proteases that elicit IgE responses in 80% of mite-allergic subjects and have proinflammatory properties. Their antigenic structure is unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of natural Der p 1 and Der f 1 in complex with a monoclonal antibody, 4C1, which binds to a unique cross-reactive epitope on both allergens associated with IgE recognition. The 4C1 epitope is formed by almost identical amino acid sequences and contact residues. Mutations of the contact residues abrogate mAb 4C1 binding and reduce IgE antibody binding. These surface-exposed residues are molecular targets that can be exploited for development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

  9. Utilizing Pyrosequencing and Quantitative PCR to Characterize Fungal Populations among House Dust Samples

    PubMed Central

    Nonnenmann, Matthew W.; Coronado, Gloria; Thompson, Beti; Griffith, William C.; Hanson, John Delton; Vesper, Stephen; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular techniques are replacing culturing and counting methods in quantifying indoor fungal contamination. Pyrosequencing offers the possibility of identifying unexpected indoor fungi. In this study, 50 house dust samples were collected from homes in the Yakima Valley, WA. Each sample was analyzed by quantitative PCR (QPCR) for 36 common fungi and by fungal tag-encoded flexible (FLX) amplicon pyrosequencing (fTEFAP) for these and additional fungi. Only 24 of the samples yielded amplified results using fTEFAP but QPCR successfully amplified all 50 samples. Over 450 fungal species were detected by fTEFAP but most were rare. Twenty-two fungi were found by fTEFAP to occur with at least an average of ? 0.5% relative occurrence. Many of these fungi seem to be associated with plants, soil or human skin. Combining fTEFAP and QPCR can enhance studies of fungal contamination in homes. PMID:22767010

  10. Progress in the development of specific immunotherapies for house dust mite allergies.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to treat patients exposed and co-sensitized to the two common house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae. Based on seroepidemiological studies and a detailed characterization of mite allergens, an optimal immunotherapeutic product should associate extracts from the two Dermatophagoides species, and include both bodies and fecal particles. Both subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapies performed with aqueous mite extracts are safe and efficacious in children and adults with mite-induced rhinitis and/or asthma. Double-blind placebo-controlled studies are conducted to further document the efficacy of immunotherapeutic products, with promising results that were obtained already with sublingual tablets. Current developments of second-generation products relying upon recombinant allergens and peptides are reviewed. PMID:25187166

  11. AMCase is a crucial regulator of type 2 immune responses to inhaled house dust mites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lark Kyun; Morita, Rimpei; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Eisenbarth, Stephanie C; Lee, Chun Geun; Elias, Jack; Eynon, Elizabeth E; Flavell, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Chitinases are enzymes that cleave chitin, a component of the exoskeleton of many organisms including the house dust mite (HDM). Here we show that knockin mice expressing an enzymatically inactive acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase), the dominant true chitinase in mouse lung, showed enhanced type 2 immune responses to inhaled HDM. We found that uncleaved chitin promoted the release of IL-33, whereas cleaved chitin could be phagocytosed and could induce the activation of caspase-1 and subsequent activation of caspase-7; this results in the resolution of type 2 immune responses, probably by promoting the inactivation of IL-33. These data suggest that AMCase is a crucial regulator of type 2 immune responses to inhaled chitin-containing aeroallergens. PMID:26038565

  12. Effectiveness of education for control of house dust mites and cockroaches in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Lee, In-Yong; Lee, Jongweon; Ree, Han-Il; Hong, Chein-Soo

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of health education in reducing indoor arthropod allergens in Seoul. The mite control measures comprised the use of mite-proof mattress and pillow coverings, regular washing of potentially infested materials, maintenance of a low humidity, removal of carpets, and frequent vacuum cleaning. Cockroach control measures included trapping, application of insecticides, and protecting food. Of 201 homes enrolled in October 1999, 63 volunteers were included in a 2-year follow-up survey between April 2000 and January 2002. Before intervention, the density of mites/g of dust varied greatly; 27.1/g in children's bedding, 20/g in adult bedding, 7.2/g on the floors of children's bedrooms, 6.8/g in sofas, 5.9/g on the floors of adult's bedrooms, 3.9/g on living room floors, 3.7/g in carpets, and 1.9 mites/g on kitchen floors. The predominant mite species and house percentages infested were; Dermatophagoides farinae 93%, D. pteronyssinus 9%, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae 8%. Comparing 1999 and 2001 infestations, before and after 25 mo of education, mite abundance was reduced by 98%, from 23.7 to 0.57 mites/g of dust. In 1999, cockroaches were detected in 62% homes: 36% Blattella germanica and 35% Periplaneta spp., including 9% double infestations of B. germanica and P. americana. Following intervention, cockroach infestation rates decreased to 22% of houses in 2000 and 23% in 2001. We conclude that continuous and repetitive health education resulted in the effective control of domestic arthropods. PMID:16514286

  13. House Dust Concentrations of Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Relation to Hormone Levels and Semen Quality Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP), are commonly used as additive flame retardants and plasticizers in a wide range of materials. Although widespread human exposure to OP flame retardants is likely, there is a lack of human and animal data on potential health effects. Objective We explored relationships of TDCPP and TPP concentrations in house dust with hormone levels and semen quality parameters. Methods We analyzed house dust from 50 men recruited through a U.S. infertility clinic for TDCPP and TPP. Relationships with reproductive and thyroid hormone levels, as well as semen quality parameters, were assessed using crude and multivariable linear regression. Results TDCPP and TPP were detected in 96% and 98% of samples, respectively, with widely varying concentrations up to 1.8 mg/g. In models adjusted for age and body mass index, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in TDCPP was associated with a 3% [95% confidence interval (CI), ?5% to ?1%) decline in free thyroxine and a 17% (95% CI, 4–32%) increase in prolactin. There was a suggestive inverse association between TDCPP and free androgen index that became less evident in adjusted models. In the adjusted models, an IQR increase in TPP was associated with a 10% (95% CI, 2–19%) increase in prolactin and a 19% (95% CI, ?30% to ?5%) decrease in sperm concentration. Conclusion OP flame retardants may be associated with altered hormone levels and decreased semen quality in men. More research on sources and levels of human exposure to OP flame retardants and associated health outcomes are needed. PMID:20194068

  14. Multi-analyte method for the analysis of various organohalogen compounds in house dust.

    PubMed

    Lankova, Darina; Svarcova, Andrea; Kalachova, Kamila; Lacina, Ondrej; Pulkrabova, Jana; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a novel analytical approach for the simultaneous determination of 27 brominated flame retardants (BFRs), namely polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), isomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and several novel BFRs (NBFRs), together with 18 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in indoor dust was developed and validated. To achieve integrated isolation of analytes from the sample and their fractionation, a miniaturized method based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) was employed. Principally, after mixing the dust (<0.1 g) with the Florisil(®), the mixture was applied on the top of a sorbent (Florisil(®)) placed in glass column and then analytes were eluted using solvents with different polarities. For the identification/quantification of target compounds largely differing in polarity, complementary techniques represented by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS) were used. The results of validation experiments, which were performed on the SRM 2585 material (for PBDEs, HBCDs and TBBPA), were in accordance with the certified/reference values. For other analytes (NBFRs and PFASs), the analysis of an artificially contaminated blank dust sample was realized. The method recoveries for all target compounds ranged from 81 to 122% with relative standard deviations lower than 21%. The quantification limits were in the range of 1-25 ng g(-1) for BFRs and 0.25-1 ng g(-1) for PFASs. Finally, 18 samples (6 households × 3 sampling sites) were analyzed. The high variability between concentrations of PFASs and BFRs in the dust samples from various households as well as collecting sites in a respective house was observed. The total amounts of PFASs and BFRs were in the range of 1.58-236 ng g(-1) (median 10.6 ng g(-1)) and 39.2-2320 ng g(-1) (median 325 ng g(-1)), respectively. It was clearly shown that dust from the indoor environment might be a significant source of human exposure to various organohalogen pollutants. PMID:25479868

  15. Tracing geogenic and anthropogenic sources in urban dusts: Insights from lead isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rio-Salas, R.; Ruiz, J.; De la O-Villanueva, M.; Valencia-Moreno, M.; Moreno-Rodríguez, V.; Gómez-Alvarez, A.; Grijalva, T.; Mendivil, H.; Paz-Moreno, F.; Meza-Figueroa, D.

    2012-12-01

    Tracing the source of metals in the environment is critical to understanding their pollution level and fate. Geologic materials are an important source of airborne particulate matter, but the contribution of contaminated soil to concentrations of Pb in airborne dust is not yet widely documented. To examine the potential significance of this mechanism, surface soil samples were collected, as well as wind-transported dust trapped at 1 and 2 m height at seven different locations including residential, industrial, high-traffic and rural sites. Samples of dust deposited on roofs from 24 schools were also obtained and analyzed for Pb isotope ratios. Spatial distribution of Pb of airborne and sedimented dust suggests a process dominated by re-suspension/sedimentation, which was controlled by erosion, traffic and topography of the urban area. Anthropogenic lead input in the city grades outward the urban zone toward geogenic values. Our results shows that Pb-isotopic signatures of leaded gasoline are imprinted in dust sedimented on roofs. Considering that leaded-gasoline has not been in use in Mexico since two decades ago, this signature shows not only a Pb-legacy in soil, but also a re-suspension process affecting air column below 3 m in height. The combination of the 207Pb/206Pb data of the surrounding rocks and urban dust, reveal three well-defined zones with remarkable anthropogenic influence, which correspond to the oldest urban sectors. This work highlights the importance of spatial characterization of metals in particles suspended below a height of 3 m of the airborne column, a fact that should be considered to identify exposure paths to humans and the potential risks. Lead isotope signatures allowed the identification of geogenic and anthropogenic emission sources for dust, a matter that deserves consideration in the efforts to control airborne metal emissions.

  16. Potential for childhood lead poisoning in the inner cities of Australia due to exposure to lead in soil dust.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Taylor, Mark P

    2011-01-01

    This article presents evidence demonstrating that the historical use of leaded gasoline and lead (Pb) in exterior paints in Australia has contaminated urban soils in the older inner suburbs of large cities such as Sydney and Melbourne. While significant attention has been focused on Pb poisoning in mining and smelting towns in Australia, relatively little research has focused on exposure to Pb originating from inner-city soil dust and its potential for childhood Pb exposures. Due to a lack of systematic blood lead (PbB) screening and geochemical soil Pb mapping in the inner cities of Australia, the risks from environmental Pb exposure remain unconstrained within urban population centres. PMID:20880621

  17. Persistent Organic Pollutants in Dust From Older Homes: Learning From Lead

    PubMed Central

    Metayer, Catherine; Ward, Mary H.; Colt, Joanne S.; Gunier, Robert B.; Deziel, Nicole C.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Buffler, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to (1) evaluate the relation between home age and concentrations of multiple chemical contaminants in settled dust and (2) discuss the feasibility of using lead hazard controls to reduce children’s exposure to persistent organic pollutants. Methods. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, from 2001 to 2007, we used a high-volume small surface sampler and household vacuum cleaners to collect dust samples from 583 homes and analyzed the samples for 94 chemicals with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We evaluated relations between chemical concentrations in dust and home age with Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Results. Dust concentrations of lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine insecticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were correlated with home age (??>?0.2; P?Dust in older homes contains higher levels of multiple, persistent chemicals than does dust in newer homes. Further development of strategies to reduce chemical exposures for children living in older homes is warranted. PMID:24832145

  18. Field evaluation and comparison of five methods of sampling lead dust on carpets.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhipeng; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Rich, David Q; Adgate, John L; Ashley, Peter J; Lioy, Paul J; Rhoads, George G; Zhang, Junfeng

    2003-01-01

    Five methods of sampling lead-contaminated dust on carpets were evaluated and compared in 33 New Jersey homes of children with elevated blood lead levels. The five sampling methods were (1) wipe, (2) adhesive label, (3) C18 sheet, (4) vacuum, and (5) hand rinse. Samples were collected side by side on the same carpets within the homes. Among the five methods the wipe and vacuum methods showed high percentages of detectable samples, good reproducibility, and significant correlations with other methods. C18 sheets and adhesive labels collected the least quantity of lead dust, with high percentages of undetectable samples. Because of the limited ability of sampling lead on carpets and the relatively high cost for laboratory analysis, C18 sheets or adhesive labels are not considered feasible sampling techniques. The hand rinse method also was not feasible for carpet sampling, because it was difficult to conduct in the field and laboratory, and it was subject to inconsistency and cross contamination. Wipes, which collected lead dust from carpet surfaces, were believed to be the most appropriate method for measuring lead from carpets accessible to children. However, because of the low pickup from carpets, wipes may not be an appropriate measuring tool to assess the levels of total lead contamination in carpets. The authors recommend using surface wipe sampling to measure accessible lead from carpets for exposure assessment, and vacuum sampling to obtain the information on total lead accumulation. PMID:12908870

  19. ASTM sampling methods and analytical validation for lead in paint, dust, soil, and air

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, K.; Schlecht, P.C. [Dept. of Health and Human Services, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Song, R.; Feng, A. [Computer Sciences Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); DeWalt, G. [QuanTech, Rosslyn, VA (United States); McKnight, M.E. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    ASTM Subcommittee E06.23 on Abatement/Mitigation of Lead Hazards has developed a number of standards that are concerned with the sampling of leas in environmental media, namely paint, dust, soil and airborne particulate. An ASTM practice for the collection of airborne particulate lead in the workplace has been published. New ASTM standards for the collection of dry paint film samples, surface soil samples, and surface dust wipe samples for subsequent lead analysis have also been promulgated. Other draft standards pertinent to lead sampling are under development. The ASTM standards concerned with lead sample collection are accompanied by separate sample preparation standard practices and a standard analysis method. Sample preparation and analytical methods have been evaluated by interlaboratory testing; such analyses may be used to assess the efficacy of sampling protocols.

  20. Asthma, Airway Symptoms and Rhinitis in Office Workers in Malaysia: Associations with House Dust Mite (HDM) Allergy, Cat Allergy and Levels of House Dust Mite Allergens in Office Dust

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Fang Lee; Hashim, Zailina; Than, Leslie Thian Lung; Md Said, Salmiah; Hisham Hashim, Jamal; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695). The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM) and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH) were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus) and Der f 1 (from D. farinae) allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035), any airway symptoms (p= 0.032), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005), current asthma (p= 0.007), current rhinitis (p= 0.021) and rhinoconjuctivitis (p< 0.001). Cat allergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021), wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033), any airway symptoms (p= 0.034), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010), current asthma (p= 0.020) and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042). Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033) especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (p< 0.001) and inversely correlated with RH (p< 0.001). In conclusion, HDM and cat allergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness. PMID:25923543

  1. Methods of exposure assessment: lead-contaminated dust in Philadelphia schools.

    PubMed

    Shorten, C V; Hooven, M K

    2000-07-01

    This study was conducted to develop a method that would accurately assess children's exposure to lead in schools in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We examined three wipe sample protocols: one included accessible surfaces such as desktops and windowsills, the second included inaccessible surfaces such as the top of filing cabinets and light fixtures, and the third included hand wipes of the study participants. Surface wipes were collected at 10 locations from accessible and inaccessible classroom surfaces (n = 11 at each location) and from the palms of student subjects in the same locations (n = 168). We found a significant difference in lead dust concentrations determined by the three protocols (F = 4.619; 2,27 degrees of freedom; p = 0.019). Lead dust concentrations were significantly elevated at the inaccessible surfaces yet they were uniformly low on the accessible surfaces and the children's palms. These findings were consistent with observed changes in blood lead levels of study participants: after 6 months of exposure to the study locations, 156 of 168 children experienced no change in blood lead level, whereas 12 experienced only a minimal change of 1-2 microg/dL. The mere presence of lead in inaccessible dust in the school environment does not automatically constitute a health hazard because there may not be a completed exposure pathway. PMID:10903621

  2. 40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.227 Work...

  3. 40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Lead-Based Paint Activities § 745.226...

  4. CO2 sequestration using accelerated gas-solid carbonation of pre-treated EAF steel-making bag house dust.

    PubMed

    El-Naas, Muftah H; El Gamal, Maisa; Hameedi, Suhaib; Mohamed, Abdel-Mohsen O

    2015-06-01

    Mineral CO2 sequestration is a promising process for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline calcium-rich dust particles collected from bag filters of electric arc furnaces (EAF) for steel making were utilized as a viable raw material for mineral CO2 sequestration. The dust particles were pre-treated through hydration, drying and screening. The pre-treated particles were then subjected to direct gas-solid carbonation reaction in a fluidized-bed reactor. The carbonated products were characterized to determine the overall sequestration capacity and the mineralogical structures. Leaching tests were also performed to measure the extracted minerals from the carbonated dust and evaluate the carbonation process on dust stabilization. The experimental results indicated that CO2 could be sequestered using the pre-treated bag house dust. The maximum sequestration of CO2 was 0.657 kg/kg of dust, based on the total calcium content. The highest degree of carbonation achieved was 42.5% and the carbonation efficiency was 69% at room temperature. PMID:25846002

  5. Exposure assessment of organophosphorus and organobromine flame retardants via indoor dust from elementary schools and domestic houses.

    PubMed

    Mizouchi, Shigekazu; Ichiba, Masayoshi; Takigami, Hidetaka; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Miyajima, Toru; Kodama, Hiroki; Someya, Takashi; Ueno, Daisuke

    2015-03-01

    To assess the exposure of flame retardants (FRs) for school-children, organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) and organobromine flame retardants (BFRs) were determined in the indoor dust samples collected from elementary schools and domestic houses in Japan in 2009 and 2010. PFRs were detected in all the dust samples analyzed and the highest concentration of total PFRs was thousand-fold higher than that of BFRs. Among the PFRs, tris(butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBOEP) showed the highest concentration with a median (med.) of 270,000 ng g(-1) dry weight (3700-5,500,000 ng g(-1) dry weight), followed by tris(methylphenyl)phosphate (TMPPs)>triphenyl phosphate (TPHP)=tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCIPP)=tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCIPP)=tris(2chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP)>ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP). Significantly higher concentrations of TBOEP, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), TPHP, TMPPs, and total-PFRs were found in dust samples from elementary schools than from domestic houses. It might be due to that higher concentrations of TBOEP (as leveling agent) were detected from the floor polisher/wax products collected in those elementary schools. On the other hand, significantly higher concentrations of TCEP, TCIPPs, and total chloroalkyl-PFRs were found in domestic houses than in elementary schools. Exposure assessments of PFRs via indoor dust from elementary schools and domestic houses were conducted by calculating the hazard quotient (HQ). Among PFRs, HQs for TBOEP exceeded 1 (higher than reference dose: RfD) and its highest value was 1.9. To reduce the intake of TBOEP by school-children, it is recommended that the use of floor polisher/wax containing TBOEP be reduced in schools. PMID:25532762

  6. Molecular Basis of Arthropod Cross-Reactivity: IgE-Binding Cross-Reactive Epitopes of Shrimp, House Dust Mite and Cockroach Tropomyosins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalia Ayuso; Gerald Reese; Susan Leong-Kee; Matthew Plante; Samuel B. Lehrer

    2002-01-01

    Background: Shrimp may cross-react with other crustaceans and mollusks and nonedible arthropods such as insects (cockroach and chironomids), arachnids (house dust mites) and even nematodes. Since the muscle protein tropomyosin has been implicated as a possible cross-reacting allergen, this study characterized the IgE-binding epitopes in shrimp tropomyosin, Pen a 1, that cross-react with other allergenic invertebrate tropomyosins in house dust

  7. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    PubMed Central

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Results Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites. PMID:23569794

  8. Inhaled house dust mite induces pulmonary T helper 2 cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, L. G.; Causton, B.; Murdoch, J. R.; Mathie, S. A.; O’Donnell, V.; Thomas, C. P.; Priest, F. M.; Quint, D. J.; Lloyd, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Inhaled house dust mite (HDM) results in T-helper (TH) 2 type pathology in unsensitized mice, in conjunction with airway hyperreactivity and airway remodelling. However, the pulmonary cytokine and chemokine profile has not been reported. Methods We have performed a time course analysis of the characteristic molecular mediators and cellular influx in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung in order to define the pulmonary inflammatory response to inhaled HDM extract. Mice were exposed five times a week to soluble HDM extract for 3 weeks. Lung function was measured in groups of mice at intervals following the final HDM challenge. Recruitment of inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediator production was then assessed in BAL and lungs of individual mice. Results We found that Th2 cytokines were significantly increased in BAL and lung after HDM challenge from as early as 2 h post-final challenge. The levels of cytokines and chemokines correlated with the influx of eosinophils and Th2 cells to the different compartments of the lung. However, the production of key cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 preceded the increase in airways resistance. Conclusion Inhaled HDM challenge induces a classical Th2 inflammatory mediator profile in the BAL and lung. These data are important for studies determining the efficacy of novel treatment strategies for allergic airways disease. PMID:19545261

  9. Pathophysiological Features of Asthma Develop in Parallel in House Dust Mite–Exposed Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Saglani, Sejal; Mathie, Sara A.; Gregory, Lisa G.; Bell, Matthew J.; Bush, Andrew; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2012-01-01

    Asthma frequently commences in early life during airway and immune development and exposure to new environmental challenges. Endobronchial biopsies from children with asthma are abnormal, and lung function is maximally reduced by 6 years of age. As longitudinal biopsy studies are unethical in children, the relationship between development of pathology and reduced lung function is unknown. We aimed to establish a novel neonatal mouse model of allergic airways disease to investigate the developmental sequence of the pathophysiologic features of asthma. Neonatal Balb/c mice were challenged three times weekly from Day 3 of life using intranasal house dust mite (HDM) or saline for up to 12 weeks. Weekly assessments of airway inflammation and remodeling were made. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine was assessed from Week 2 onward. Total and eosinophilic inflammation was significantly increased in the lungs of HDM-exposed neonates from Week 2 onwards, and a peak was seen at 3 weeks. Goblet cells and peribronchiolar reticulin deposition were significantly increased in HDM-exposed neonates from Week 3, and peribronchiolar collagen was significantly greater from Week 4. HDM-exposed neonates had increased AHR from Week 2 onward. Although inflammation and AHR had subsided after 4 weeks without allergen challenge, the increased reticulin and collagen deposition persisted in HDM-exposed mice. Neonatal mice exposed to intranasal HDM developed eosinophilic inflammation, airway remodeling, and AHR as reported in pediatric asthma. Importantly, all abnormalities developed in parallel, not sequentially, between 2 and 3 weeks of age. PMID:19151316

  10. Effects of microwave radiation on house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae (Astigmata: Pyroglyphidae).

    PubMed

    Ernieenor, F C L; Ho, T M

    2010-11-01

    Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae mites are commonly found in house dust, and are important sources of allergens affecting humans. Various approaches to killing the mites have been examined. This study investigated the mortalities of adult mites exposed to 2,450 MHz microwave radiation produced by 3 ovens at various exposure times and power settings. The ovens all had 3 power settings. The average maximum water temperatures generated at high, medium and low power settings were 99.4 +/- 0.2, 84.1 +/- 0.4 and 44.8 +/- 0.9 degrees C, respectively. At high and medium settings, there was 100.0% mortality in both species when exposed for 300 seconds. The mean mortality rates at low power were 10.8 +/- 0.7% for D. pteronyssinus and 9.7 +/- 2.6% for D. farinae. When mites were exposed in the presence of culture media, the mortality rates decreased with increasing weight of media. The mean mortality with the largest amount of media tested at high power setting was 61.4%. PMID:21329308

  11. Residual oil fly ash exposure enhances allergic sensitization to house dust mite.

    PubMed

    Lambert, A L; Dong, W; Winsett, D W; Selgrade, M K; Gilmour, M I

    1999-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between elevated levels of particulate matter air pollution and increased morbidity and hospital visits in asthmatics. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a primary combustion particle containing sulfate and metals such as vanadium, nickel, and iron. In this study the effect of ROFA on sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) was examined in a Brown Norway rat model of pulmonary allergy. Rats were instilled via the trachea with 200 or 1000 micrograms ROFA 3 days prior to local sensitization with 10 micrograms HDM and were challenged with 10 micrograms HDM 14 days later. Immunological endpoints were examined at 2, 7, and 14 days after sensitization and at 2 and 7 days after challenge (16 and 21 days post-sensitization, respectively). Antigen-specific immunoglobulin E and associated immediate bronchoconstriction responses to antigen challenge were increased in the ROFA-treated groups compared with the HDM control group. Lymphocyte proliferation to antigen was enhanced at Days 7 and 21 in the bronchial lymphocytes of ROFA-treated groups. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) eosinophil numbers and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly increased in the 1000 micrograms ROFA group at Days 2 and 16, BALF total proteins were elevated at Days 2 and 7 in both ROFA-treated groups, and BALF interleukin (IL)-10 was elevated in the 1000 micrograms ROFA group at Day 2. These results suggest that ROFA has an adjuvant effect on sensitization to HDM. PMID:10438660

  12. TNF-alpha enhanced allergic sensitization to house dust mite in brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Lambert, A L; Selgrade, M K; Winsett, D W; Gilmour, M I

    2001-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that pulmonary exposure to residual oil fly ash (ROFA) resulted in enhanced sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) and augmented the development of allergic lung disease after allergen challenge. This effect was associated with increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a macrophage- and epithelial cell-derived cytokine that promotes granulocyte migration to the lung. The present study examined whether exogenous administration of TNF-alpha enhances sensitization to HDM. One day prior to pulmonary sensitization with 10 microg HDM (5 microg each on days 1 and 3), female Brown Norway rats were instilled via the trachea with either 2.0 microg recombinant rat TNF-alpha, 2.0 microg bovine serum albumin (BSA), or 1,000 microg ROFA, and were challenged with 10 microg HDM 14 days later. Antigen-induced immediate bronchoconstriction responses, antigen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) titers, lymphocyte proliferation, (cytokines (TNF-alpha and interleukin [IL]-13), and eosinophils were elevated in rats treated with ROFA or TNF-alpha compared with BSA-treated controls after HDM challenge. Intratracheal administration of anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody during ROFA exposure did not reduce ROFA-enhanced lymphocyte proliferation or IgE titers, but had a trend for reduced pulmonary inflammation. This study demonstrates that TNF-alpha has similar adjuvant activity as ROFA, but other factors may fulfill this function when TNF-alpha activity is blocked. PMID:11597121

  13. House Dust Mite Induced Lung Inflammation Does Not Alter Circulating Vitamin D Levels

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling; Perks, Kara L.; Stick, Stephen M.; Kicic, Anthony; Larcombe, Alexander N.; Zosky, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Low circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with chronic lung diseases such as asthma. However, it is unclear whether vitamin D is involved in disease pathogenesis or is modified by the inflammation associated with the disease process. We hypothesized that allergic inflammation decreases the level of circulating 25(OH)D and tested this using a mice model of house dust mite (HDM) induced allergic airway inflammation. Cellular influx was measured in bronchoalvelar lavage (BAL) fluid, and allergic sensitization and 25(OH)D levels were measured in serum. Exposure to HDM caused a robust inflammatory response in the lung that was enhanced by prior influenza infection. These responses were not associated with any change in circulating levels of 25(OH)D. These data suggest that alterations in circulating 25(OH)D levels induced by Th-2 driven inflammation are unlikely to explain the cross-sectional epidemiological association between vitamin D deficiency and asthma. PMID:25391140

  14. Determinants of house dust, endotoxin, and ?-(1?3)-D-glucan in homes of Danish children.

    PubMed

    Holst, G; Høst, A; Doekes, G; Meyer, H W; Madsen, A M; Sigsgaard, T

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the geographic variation and determinants of bacterial endotoxin and ? -(1,3)-d-glucan in Danish house dust. In a population of 317 children, we: (i) described loads and concentrations of floor dust, endotoxin, and ?-(1?3)-d-glucan and (ii) their correlations and (iii) assessed their determinants; (iv) Finally, we compared our findings with previous European studies. Bedroom floor dust was analyzed for endotoxin content by the kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay and for ?-(1?3)-d-glucan by the inhibition enzyme immunoassay. The parents answered questions regarding potential determinants. We found: geometric means (geometric standard deviations) 186 mg/m(2) (4.3) for dust; 5.46 × 10(3) EU/m(2) (8.0) and 31.1 × 10(3) EU/g (2.6) for endotoxin; and 142 ?g/m(2) (14.3) and 0.71 × 10(3)  ?g/g (7.3) for ?-(1?3)-d-glucan. High correlations (r > 0.75) were found between floor dust and endotoxin and ?-(1?3)-d-glucan loads, while endotoxin and ?-(1?3)-d-glucan concentrations were moderately correlated (r = 0.36-0.41) with the dust load. Having a carpet was positively associated with dust load and with endotoxin and ?-(1?3)-d-glucan concentrations. Pet keeping, dwelling type, and dwelling location were determinants of endotoxin concentrations. No other determinants were associated with ?-(1?3)-d-glucan concentrations. Compared with other European studies, we found lower ?-(1?3)-d-glucan loads and concentrations but higher endotoxin loads and concentrations suggesting a geographically determined different composition of Danish floor dust compared with other European regions. PMID:25039673

  15. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF HOUSE DUST SAMPLES FOR METAL, PESTICIDE, AND PAH ANALYSIS (F04)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for collecting house dust samples. Dust from the floor was collected using a high-volume, small surface sampler (HVS3). Half of the sample was analyzed for metal content, and half was analyzed for pesticides and PAHs. Keywo...

  16. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTION OF NEUTRAL PESTICIDES AND PAHS FROM HOUSE DUST AND SOIL (L11)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures to be used for the extraction of pesticides and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from house dust and soil. This procedure also describes the splitting of dust and soil samples for metal extractions for shipment to Emo...

  17. Concentrations and emission rates of aerial ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, dust and endotoxin in UK broiler and layer houses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Wathes; M. R. Holden; R. W. Sneath; R. P. White; V. R. Phillips

    1997-01-01

    1. A survey of the concentration and emission rates of aerial ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, dust and endotoxin was undertaken in 4 examples each of typical UK broiler, cage and perchery houses over 24 h during winter and summer.2. Overall the air quality within the poultry houses was unsatisfactory as judged by the dual criteria of farmer health

  18. Lead (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... was used often in products such as house paint, pesticides (chemicals that kill pests), and gasoline. In ... as some built in the 1970s , have lead paint in them. Peeling paint chips and dust in ...

  19. Neonatal Exposure to Pneumococcal Phosphorylcholine Modulates the Development of House Dust Mite Allergy during Adult Life.

    PubMed

    Patel, Preeyam S; Kearney, John F

    2015-06-15

    Currently, ?20% of the global population suffers from an allergic disorder. Allergies and asthma occur at higher rates in developed and industrialized countries. It is clear that many human atopic diseases are initiated neonatally and herald more severe IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic asthma, which is driven by the priming of Th2 effector T cells. The hygiene hypothesis attempts to link the increased excessively sanitary conditions early in life to a default Th2 response and increasing allergic phenomena. Despite the substantial involvement of IgE Abs in such conditions, little attention has been paid to the effects of early microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire prior to the initiation of these diseases. In this study, we use Ab-binding assays to demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae and house dust mite (HDM) bear similar phosphorylcholine (PC) epitopes. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice immunized with a PC-bearing pneumococcal vaccine expressed increased frequencies of PC-specific B cells in the lungs following sensitizing exposure to HDM as adults. Anti-PC IgM Abs in the lung decreased the interaction of HDM with pulmonary APCs and were affiliated with lowered allergy-associated cell infiltration into the lung, IgE production, development of airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th2 T cell priming. Thus, exposure of neonatal mice to PC-bearing pneumococci significantly reduced the development of HDM-induced allergic disease during adult life. Our findings demonstrate that B cells generated against conserved epitopes expressed by bacteria, encountered early in life, are also protective against the development of allergic disease during adult life. PMID:25957171

  20. Sensitivity to Five Types of House Dust Mite in a Group of Allergic Egyptian Children

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Shereen; Abdul-Rahman, Nahla

    2014-01-01

    Background: The published data on house dust mite (HDM) sensitization from Egypt are scanty. We sought to investigate the sensitization to five different types of HDM among a group of allergic children in a trial to outline the most frequent sensitizing strains in the Cairo Province. Methods: We consecutively enrolled 100 asthmatic patients, aged 1–7 years, of whom 22 had concomitant skin allergy. Skin prick testing was performed using allergen extracts of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Acarus siro. Results: Twenty-four patients (24%) were sensitized to one or more strains of HDM. Sensitization to one strain was revealed in 12% of the studied sample, while sensitization to two or three strains was detected in 8% and 4% respectively. Twelve percent of the enrolled children were sensitive to D. pteronyssinus, 11% to D. farinae, 7% to L. destructor, 6% to T. putrescentiae, and 4% to A. siro. Eight out of the 12 (66%) children sensitive to one strain had mild intermittent asthma, while five out of eight (62.5%) sensitive to two strains had moderate persistent asthma. All children sensitized to three strains of HDM had persistent rather than intermittent asthma. HDM sensitization did not correlate significantly to the history of sun exposure, bed mattresses and pillows, living in farms, or exposure to stored grains. The co-existence of atopic dermatitis tended to have a higher rate of HDM sensitization. Conclusion: D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae represent the most common sensitizing strains in the studied sample. Wider-scale population-based studies are needed to assess the prevalence of HDM allergy and its clinical correlates in our country. PMID:25276487

  1. Vitamin E Isoform ?-Tocotrienol Downregulates House Dust Mite-Induced Asthma.

    PubMed

    Peh, Hong Yong; Ho, Wanxing Eugene; Cheng, Chang; Chan, Tze Khee; Seow, Ann Ching Genevieve; Lim, Albert Y H; Fong, Chee Wai; Seng, Kok Yong; Ong, Choon Nam; Wong, W S Fred

    2015-07-15

    Inflammation and oxidative damage contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. Although corticosteroid is the first-line treatment for asthma, a subset of patients is steroid resistant, and chronic steroid use causes side effects. Because vitamin E isoform ?-tocotrienol possesses both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, we sought to determine protective effects of ?-tocotrienol in a house dust mite (HDM) experimental asthma model. BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with HDM. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was assessed for total and differential cell counts, oxidative damage biomarkers, and cytokine levels. Lungs were examined for cell infiltration and mucus hypersecretion, as well as the expression of antioxidants and proinflammatory biomarkers. Sera were assayed for IgE and ?-tocotrienol levels. Airway hyperresponsiveness in response to methacholine was measured. ?-Tocotrienol displayed better free radical-neutralizing activity in vitro and inhibition of BAL fluid total, eosinophil, and neutrophil counts in HDM mouse asthma in vivo, as compared with other vitamin E isoforms, including ?-tocopherol. Besides, ?-tocotrienol abated HDM-induced elevation of BAL fluid cytokine and chemokine levels, total reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage biomarker levels, and of serum IgE levels, but it promoted lung-endogenous antioxidant activities. Mechanistically, ?-tocotrienol was found to block nuclear NF-?B level and enhance nuclear Nrf2 levels in lung lysates to greater extents than did ?-tocopherol and prednisolone. More importantly, ?-tocotrienol markedly suppressed methacholine-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in experimental asthma. To our knowledge, we have shown for the first time the protective actions of vitamin E isoform ?-tocotrienol in allergic asthma. PMID:26041537

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates house dust mite-induced airway epithelial apoptosis and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response participates in many chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In the current study, we sought to examine the contribution of ER stress transducers in the pathogenesis of three principal facets of allergic asthma: inflammation, airway fibrosis, and airways hyperresponsiveness. Methods House Dust Mite (HDM) was used as an allergen for in vitro and in vivo challenge of primary human and murine airway epithelial cells. ER stress transducers were modulated using specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in vivo. Inflammation, airway remodeling, and hyperresponsiveness were measured by total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell counts, determination of collagen, and methacholine responsiveness in mice, respectively. Results Challenge of human bronchiolar and nasal epithelial cells with HDM extract induced the ER stress transducer, activating transcription factor 6 ? (ATF6?) as well as protein disulfide isomerase, ERp57, in association with activation of caspase-3. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of ATF6? and ERp57 during HDM administration in mice resulted in a decrease in components of HDM-induced ER stress, disulfide mediated oligomerization of Bak, and activation of caspase-3. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ATF6? and ERp57 led to decreased inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness and airway fibrosis. Conclusion Collectively, our work indicates that HDM induces ER stress in airway epithelial cells and that ATF6? and ERp57 play a significant role in the development of cardinal features of allergic airways disease. Inhibition of ER stress responses may provide a potential therapeutic avenue in chronic asthma and sub-epithelial fibrosis associated with loss of lung function. PMID:24364984

  3. Simultaneous determination of thirteen organophosphate esters in settled indoor house dust and a comparison between two sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xinghua; Kubwabo, Cariton; Rasmussen, Pat E; Wu, Fang

    2014-09-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 13 organophosphate esters (OPEs) in house dust was developed. The method is based on solvent extraction by sonication, sample cleanup by solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysis by gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/PCI-MS/MS). Method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.03 to 0.43 ?g/g and recoveries from 60% to 118%. The inter- and intra-day variations ranged from 3% to 23%. The method was applied to dust samples collected using two vacuum sampling techniques from 134 urban Canadian homes: a sample of fresh or "active" dust (FD) collected by technicians and a composite sample taken from the household vacuum cleaner (HD). Results show that the two sampling methods (i.e., FD vs HD) provided comparable results. Tributoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPhP), tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(dichloro-isopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tricresyl phosphate (TCrP), and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP) were detected in the majority of samples. The most predominant OPE was TBEP, with median concentrations of 31.9 ?g/g and 22.8 ?g/g in FD and HD samples, respectively, 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than other OPEs. The method was also applied to the analysis of OPEs in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (NIST SRM 2585, organic contaminants in house dust). The results from SRM 2585 may contribute to the certification of OPE concentration values in this SRM. PMID:24462133

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from house dust with supercritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a).

    PubMed

    Calvosa, Frank C; Lagalante, Anthony F

    2010-01-15

    The extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from SRM 2585 (Organic Contaminants in House Dust) was investigated using supercritical fluid R134a as an extraction solvent. Three methods of dust extraction were studied: (1) extraction of dry dust, (2) extraction of dry dust dispersed on Ottawa sand and (3) extraction of dust wet with dichloromethane. For each of the three sample preparation methods, extracts at three temperatures (110, 150, and 200 degrees C) above the critical temperature of R134a were performed. Eight PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, 100, -153, -154, -183, and -209) in the SFE extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography negative-ion atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/NI-APPI/MS/MS). The optimum extraction of PBDEs from house dust using supercritical R134a is obtained when the dust is pre-wet with dichloromethane prior to extraction to swell the dust. For all sample preparation methods, higher temperatures afforded higher percent recoveries of the eight PBDE congeners. Only a combination of high-temperature (200 degrees C) and pre-wetting the dust with dichloromethane produced high recovery of the environmentally important, fully brominated PBDE congener, BDE-209. PMID:20006061

  5. Lead (Pb) legacy from vehicle traffic in eight California urbanized areas: continuing influence of lead dust on children's health.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Howard W; Laidlaw, Mark A S; Gonzales, Chris

    2010-09-01

    This article describes the magnitude of U.S. lead (Pb) additives in gasoline from 1927 to 1994 and estimated quantities of Pb dispersed by vehicle traffic in eight urbanized areas (UAs) of California from 1950 to 1982. The findings are the basis for predicting the health impact of Pb on children living in UA of California. Quantitative U.S. national data for 1927-1994 were from the U.S. Senate hearing of the 1984 Airborne Lead Reduction Act. Vehicle traffic data, fuel efficiency, percentage leaded gasoline, and quantities of Pb in gasoline were obtained for 1982 from public and corporate records to estimate vehicle Pb emissions for small to very large UAs of California. California fuel consumption records and yearly quantities of Pb additives per gallon were the basis for estimating the 1950-1982 dispersion of Pb in each UA. Lead additives were calculated by multiplying annual vehicle fuel used by average Pb per gallon. The proportion of Pb additive for each UA was calculated from vehicle miles traveled (VMT) driven in 1982 divided by miles per gallon fuel consumption times the ratio of leaded to unleaded fuel times Pb additive per gallon. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency calculations of the fates of Pb were used to estimate Pb aerosol dispersal in each UA. About 108 billion miles of travel in 1982 within 8 UAs accounts for 3200metric tons of Pb additives or approximately 60% total Pb additives in California. Between the 1950-1982 peak of Pb additives, about 258,000metric tons are accounted for out of the state 412,000metric tons total during the same time period. The estimates of the quantities of Pb dust that accumulated within various UAs in California assists with predicting the continuing influences of Pb on children's exposure. Mapping the soil Pb reservoir assists with establishing the priority for enhancing environments of children. PMID:20542539

  6. In Vitro Evaluation of Allergen Potencies of Commercial House Dust Mite Sublingual Immunotherapy Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Hee; Son, Mina; Choi, Soo-Young; Park, Hey Jung; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Lee, Joo-Shil

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The clinical efficacy of allergen-immunotherapy is known to be dose dependent. However, optimal maintenance dosage has not yet been determined for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Furthermore, since companies adopt their own units for expression of allergenicity, the allergen concentrations of individual reagents cannot be compared easily. We sought to measure and compare the allergenicities of 3 commercially available house dust mite (HDM) SLIT regents and a subcutaneous immunotherapy reagent. Methods We measured the HDM allergenic potency of the maintenance dosages of three SLIT reagents: Staloral® (300 index of reactivity [IR] /mL, recommended maintenance dosage [MD]: 120 IR), SLITone® (1,000 standard therapeutic unit [STU]/mL, recommended MD: 200 STU), Wolwopharma® (100 µg/mL, recommended MD: 20 µg), and subcutaneous immunotherapy regents of Hollister-Stier (10,000 allergy unit [AU] /mL). The allergenic potency was assessed by measuring the total protein concentrations, mite group 1 and 2 allergens using 2-site ELISA, and an inhibition test against IgE specific to Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Results The protein content of the Wolwopharma® reagent was 1.5-261.4 times higher than that of the other 2 SLIT reagents. The concentration of group 1 major allergens in Staloral® (132.03 µg/mL) was 33- to 44.5-fold higher than in SLITone® (4.00 µg/mL) and Wolwopharma® (2.97 µg/mL). The concentration of group 2 major allergen was also 8.9- to 10.5-fold higher in Staloral® (15.7 µg/mL) than in SLITone® (1.8 µg/mL) or Wolwopharma® (1.5 µg/mL). An ELISA inhibition study against HDM-specific IgE showed that the allergen potency of Staloral® reagent is 8.5-fold and 21-fold higher than that of SLITone® or Wolwopharma®, respectively. The differences between the maintenance dosages are further exaggerated by the differences in the recommended volumes of SLIT reagents. Conclusions The allergen potencies of commercially available HDM SLIT reagents are markedly different. Consensus regarding the optimal allergen concentration for SLIT reagents used to treat HDM respiratory allergies is needed. PMID:25729619

  7. Sublingual allergoid immunotherapy: a new 4-day induction phase in patients allergic to house dust mites.

    PubMed

    D'Anneo, R W; Bruno, M E; Falagiani, P

    2010-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy with monomeric allergoid (allergoid SLIT), given according to the standard scheme, has proved effective and safe in many clinical trials. However, its build-up phase requires a long time ranging from 16 days to 14 weeks. This study therefore investigated whether, with a four-day up-dosing, the same benefit could be achieved in a shorter time. Thirty rhinitic and/or asthmatic patients (16 M and 14 F, mean age 36+/-8.2 years) allergic to house dust mites (HDM) with or without other sensitizations were randomized to allergoid SLIT or standard drug therapy. The build-up phase lasted four days. The first day the patients took a 300 AU tablet, the second day two 300 AU tablets, the third day three 300 AU tablets and the fourth day four 300 AU tablets. The total amount taken during the up-dosing was 3000 AU. Patients were then treated for 12 months at the dosage of 2000 AU/week (total amount of allergen: 104,000 AU/year). The symptom score and drug consumption were recorded from November to February on monthly diary cards. At baseline and after 12 months a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to rate the patients? well-being. Skin prick test reactivity was evaluated before and after the 12-month treatment in both groups using 10 mg/mL histamine as reference. VAS scores rose significantly (about 45%) in both groups in comparison to baseline (p=0.001). In addition, there was a significantly greater reduction of the global symptoms score (about 52%) - but not in drug consumption - in the SLIT group in comparison to controls (p=0.0004). The SLIT group showed a highly significant reduction (about 39%) in skin prick test reactivity (p=0.000003) while the control group remained unchanged (p=0.5226). No severe adverse events were observed. Even with this short four-day up-dosing, the allergoid SLIT proves to be safe. In addition, it is already effective in patients allergic to HDM after 12 months, and significantly reduces allergen-specific skin reactivity. PMID:20646350

  8. Chamber studies on mass-transfer of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di- n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from emission sources into house dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schripp, Tobias; Fauck, Christian; Salthammer, Tunga

    2010-08-01

    For a number of phthalates and especially for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), surprisingly high house dust concentrations are reported in the literature. Therefore, the uptake of the most prominent compounds DEHP and di- n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from plasticized indoor materials into house dust samples of different organic content has been experimentally determined. The experiments have been performed within 45 days which is sufficient for the more volatile phthalate (DnBP) to reach equilibrium conditions. DnBP reaches considerably higher concentrations in the chamber air compared to real room measurements and, thus, also elevated dust concentrations. In contrast, the mass transfer of DEHP in the dust via the gas phase was significantly lower. However, small chamber experiments showed elevated mass transfer of DEHP in case of direct contact between emission source and sink. This aspect is experimentally determined using an plasticized PVC polymer with and without direct contact to house dust. A transfer into the dust could be observed in dependence of the initial concentration in the material. However, the results do not allow the differentiation between the two uptake mechanisms via capillary forces and contact to the material's boundary layer. The results illustrate that the reasons for elevated DEHP concentrations in dust indoors can be traced back to direct contact of source and sink, abrasion from the source, and transport via airborne particles.

  9. Metals and metalloids in atmospheric dust: Use of lead isotopic analysis for source apportionment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix Villar, Omar I.

    Mining activities generate aerosol in a wide range of sizes. Smelting activities produce mainly fine particles (<1 microm). On the other hand, milling, crushing and refining processes, as well tailings management, are significant sources of coarse particles (> 1 microm). The adverse effects of aerosols on human health depend mainly on two key characteristics: size and chemical composition. One of the main objectives of this research is to analyze the size distribution of contaminants in aerosol produced by mining operations. For this purpose, a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) was utilized. Results from the MOUDI samples show higher concentrations of the toxic elements like lead and arsenic in the fine fraction (<1 microm). Fine particles are more likely to be deposited in the deeper zones of the respiratory system; therefore, they are more dangerous than coarse particles that can be filtered out in the upper respiratory system. Unfortunately, knowing the total concentration of contaminants does not give us enough information to identify the source of contamination. For this reason, lead isotopes have been introduced as fingerprints for source apportionment. Each source of lead has specific isotopic ratios; by knowing these ratios sources can be identified. During this research, lead isotopic ratios were analyzed at different sites and for different aerosol sizes. From these analyses it can be concluded that lead isotopes are a powerful tool to identify sources of lead. Mitigation strategies could be developed if the source of contamination is well defined. Environmental conditions as wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity and precipitation have an important role in the concentration of atmospheric dust. Dry environments with low relative humidity are ideal for the transport of aerosols. Results obtained from this research show the relationship between dust concentrations and meteorological parameters. Dust concentrations are highly correlated with relative humidity and wind speed. With all the data collected on site and the analysis of the meteorological parameters, models can be develop to predict the transport of particles as well as the concentration of contaminants at a specific point. These models were developed and are part of the results shown in this dissertation.

  10. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-01

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 ?g/dL in children aged 1-4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 ?g/m(2)) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 ?g/m(2)) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 ?g/m(2)) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(207)Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. PMID:25462679

  11. Diversity of House Dust Mite Species in Xishuangbanna Dai, a Tropical Rainforest Region in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing-Miao; Luo, Qing-Hua; Sun, Jin-Lu; Shi, Cun-Lian; Yin, Jia; Zhou, Yu-Ling; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Zhang; Chen, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To survey the species diversity of home dust mites (HDM) in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China. Methods. From August 2010 to January 2011, mite-allergic patients and healthy controls were invited to participate. Dust samples from the patients' homes were collected, and mites in the samples were isolated. Permanent slides were prepared for morphologically based species determination. Results. In total, 6316 mite specimens of morphologically identifiable species were found in 233 dust samples taken from 41 homes. The result shows that the mite family of Pyroglyphidae occupied the highest percentage of the total amount of mites collected, followed by Cheyletidae family. The most common adult Pyroglyphidae mites were Dermatophagoides (D.) farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and D. siboney. The most common mites found from other families were Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Four main allergenic dust mite species D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, D. siboney, and Blomia tropicalis were found to be coinhabiting in 6/41 homes. Conclusion. The HDM population in homes in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China, has its own characteristics. It has rich dust mite species and the dust mite densities do not show significant variation across seasons. PMID:26064909

  12. Organophosphorous pesticide breakdown products in house dust and children’s urine

    PubMed Central

    Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Bradman, Asa; Smith, Kimberly; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Barr, Dana Boyd; Nishioka, Marcia; Castorina, Rosemary; Hubbard, Alan E.; Nicas, Mark; Hammond, S. Katharine; McKone, Thomas E.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to preformed dialkylphosphates (DAPs) in food or the environment may affect the reliability of DAP urinary metabolites as biomarkers of organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure. We conducted a study to investigate the presence of DAPs in indoor residential environments and their association with children’s urinary DAP levels. We collected dust samples from homes in farmworker and urban communities (40 homes total, n = 79 samples) and up to two urine samples from resident children ages 3–6 years. We measured six DAPs in all samples and eight DAP-devolving OP pesticides in a subset of dust samples (n = 54). DAPs were detected in dust with diethylphosphate (DEP) being the most frequently detected (?60%); detection frequencies for other DAPs were ?50%. DEP dust concentrations did not significantly differ between communities, nor were concentrations significantly correlated with concentrations of chlorpyrifos and diazinon, the most frequently detected diethyl-OP pesticides (Spearman ? = ?0.41 to 0.38, P>0.05). Detection of DEP, chlorpyrifos, or diazinon, was not associated with DEP and/or DEP + diethylthiophosphate detection in urine (Kappa coefficients = ?0.33 to 0.16). Finally, estimated non-dietary ingestion intake from DEP in dust was found to be ?5% of the dose calculated from DEP levels in urine, suggesting that ingestion of dust is not a significant source of DAPs in urine if they are excreted unchanged. PMID:22781438

  13. Diversity of House Dust Mite Species in Xishuangbanna Dai, a Tropical Rainforest Region in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing-Miao; Luo, Qing-Hua; Sun, Jin-Lu; Shi, Cun-Lian; Yin, Jia; Zhou, Yu-Ling; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Zhang; Chen, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To survey the species diversity of home dust mites (HDM) in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China. Methods. From August 2010 to January 2011, mite-allergic patients and healthy controls were invited to participate. Dust samples from the patients' homes were collected, and mites in the samples were isolated. Permanent slides were prepared for morphologically based species determination. Results. In total, 6316 mite specimens of morphologically identifiable species were found in 233 dust samples taken from 41 homes. The result shows that the mite family of Pyroglyphidae occupied the highest percentage of the total amount of mites collected, followed by Cheyletidae family. The most common adult Pyroglyphidae mites were Dermatophagoides (D.) farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and D. siboney. The most common mites found from other families were Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Four main allergenic dust mite species D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, D. siboney, and Blomia tropicalis were found to be coinhabiting in 6/41 homes. Conclusion. The HDM population in homes in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China, has its own characteristics. It has rich dust mite species and the dust mite densities do not show significant variation across seasons.

  14. 76 FR 12106 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...EPA-R07-OW-2011-0112; FRL-9275-5] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities...statute was the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992. That Act...administered regulations concerning lead- based paint in housing since 2000. The U.S....

  15. 24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...activities under NAHASDA? Yes, lead-based paint requirements apply to housing...

  16. The use of composite dust wipe samples as a means of assessing lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Friederich, N J; Bauer, K M; Schultz, B D; Holderman, T S

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated two methods for analyzing composite dust wipes for lead. The term composite means two or more wipes collected from common components in a dwelling that are combined in the field and analyzed as a single sample. Two methods--a modified Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 3050A and a Wisconsin Occupational Health Laboratory (WOHL) method--were selected based on their anticipated ability to handle the added mass of materials and dust expected in a composite. The study used off-the-shelf wipes to prepare single-, two-, and four-wipe samples. Wipes were spiked with a standard reference material at either a low dust loading level or a high level, and three laboratories analyzed the samples using both methods and both flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry techniques (ICP). Good agreement with known spiked levels was possible using either method; the modified EPA 3050A showed particular promise. When up to four wipes were combined, all three laboratories found that modified EPA Method 3050A resulted in recoveries between 89 and 101% of the known standard. Although it was possible to achieve good agreement with spiked levels using the WOHL method, some difficulties were encountered, particularly when followed by ICP analysis and when using four wipes. The increased time required to digest the multiwipe composites was not proportional to the number of wipes in a composite: the two- and four-wipe composites did not take two to four times as long as a single-wipe sample. Laboratory analysis of a four-wipe sample cost an average of 65% less than analysis of four single-wipe samples for each method. PMID:10386353

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMEDIATE AND LATE PHASE AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE CHALLENGE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS AND CORRELATIONS AMONG PHYSIOLOGICAL MEDIATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMEDIATE AND LATE PHASE AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE CHALLENGE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS AND CORRELATIONS AMONG PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MEDIATORS (P. SinghI, D.W. Winsett2, M.J. Daniels2, J. Richards2, K. Crissman2, D.L. Doerfler2 and M.I. Gilmour2, 1NCSU, Ra...

  18. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--ANALYSIS OF HOUSE DUST FOR ARSENIC (RTI/ACS-AP-209-121)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this protocol is to provide guidelines for the analysis of wipes that were used in Lioy-Wainman-Weisel (LWW) surface samplers to collect house dust for arsenic (As). This method involves the extraction of the analyte from wipe samples using 50% ultra-pure nitric ac...

  19. Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Induce a House Dust Mite-Specific Th2 Allergic Inflammation in the Lung of Humanized SCID Mice: Involvement of CCR7

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamida Hammad; Bart N. Lambrecht; Pierre Pochard; Philippe Gosset

    In rodents, airway dendritic cells (DCs) capture inhaled Ag, undergo maturation, and migrate to the draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) to initiate the Ag-specific T cell response. However, the role of human DCs in the pathogenesis of the Th2 cell- mediated disease asthma remains to be clarified. Here, by using SCID mice engrafted with T cells from either house dust

  20. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS OF SOIL OR HOUSE DUST SAMPLES USING CHLORPYRIFOS ELISA SAMPLES (BCO-L-1.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract is included for completeness of documentation, but this SOP was not used in the study. The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for analyzing both Stage II and Stage III soil and vacuum-cleaner collected house dust samples, and Stage III air samples u...

  1. A High-Molecular-Weight Mite Antigen (HM1) Fraction Aggravates Airway Hyperresponsiveness of Allergic Mice to House Dusts and Whole Mite Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Airo Tategaki; Seiji Kawamoto; Takahide Okuda; Tsunehiro Aki; Hiroshi Yasueda; Osamu Suzuki; Kazuhisa Ono; Seiko Shigeta

    2002-01-01

    Background: The house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae is the most common aeroallergen causing human allergic asthma. Previously, we demonstrated that a high-molecular-weight allergenic fraction (HM1), which was abundant in D. farinae extracts, induced a proliferative response of T cells from healthy donors. The induction was mediated through the activation of macrophages without MHC class II restriction. In this study, we

  2. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    PubMed

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-06-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-? production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens. PMID:25549222

  3. Exposure to herbicides in house dust and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Metayer, Catherine; Colt, Joanne S; Buffler, Patricia A; Reed, Helen D; Selvin, Steve; Crouse, Vonda; Ward, Mary H

    2013-07-01

    We examine the association between exposure to herbicides and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Dust samples were collected from homes of 269 ALL cases and 333 healthy controls (<8 years of age at diagnosis/reference date and residing in same home since diagnosis/reference date) in California, using a high-volume surface sampler or household vacuum bags. Amounts of agricultural or professional herbicides (alachlor, metolachlor, bromoxynil, bromoxynil octanoate, pebulate, butylate, prometryn, simazine, ethalfluralin, and pendimethalin) and residential herbicides (cyanazine, trifluralin, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), mecoprop, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), chlorthal, and dicamba) were measured. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Models included the herbicide of interest, age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, year and season of dust sampling, neighborhood type, and residence type. The risk of childhood ALL was associated with dust levels of chlorthal; compared to homes with no detections, ORs for the first, second, and third tertiles were 1.49 (95% CI: 0.82-2.72), 1.49 (95% CI: 0.83-2.67), and 1.57 (95% CI: 0.90-2.73), respectively (P-value for linear trend=0.05). The magnitude of this association appeared to be higher in the presence of alachlor. No other herbicides were identified as risk factors of childhood ALL. The data suggest that home dust levels of chlorthal, and possibly alachlor, are associated with increased risks of childhood ALL. PMID:23321862

  4. Quantitative PCR analysis of house dust can reveal abnormal mold conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teija Meklin; Richard A. Haugland; Tiina Reponen; Manju Varma; Zana Lummus; David Bernstein; Larry J. Wymera; Stephen J. Vespera

    Indoor mold concentrations were measured in the dust of moldy homes (MH) and reference homes (RH) by quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays for 82 species or related groups of species (assay groups). About 70% of the species and groups were never or only rarely detected. The ratios (MH geometric mean : RH geometric mean) for 6 commonly detected species (Aspergillus ochraceus,

  5. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-? production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3-Ia+ B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens. PMID:25549222

  6. Treatment of patients with refractory atopic dermatitis sensitized to house dust mites by using sublingual allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Ryu, Ha-Ryeong; Yoon, Cheol-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Baek, Jin-Ok; Roh, Joo-Young; Lee, Jong-Rok

    2015-02-01

    Even though atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases, its treatment remains a challenge in clinical practice, with most approaches limited to symptomatic, unspecific anti-inflammatory, or immunosuppressive treatments. Many studies have shown AD to have multiple causes that activate complex immunological and inflammatory pathways. However, aeroallergens, and especially the house dust mite (HDM), play a relevant role in the elicitation or exacerbation of eczematous lesions in many AD patients. Accordingly, allergen-specific immunotherapy has been used in AD patients with the aim of redirecting inappropriate immune responses. Here, we report three cases of refractory AD sensitized to HDM who were treated with sublingual immunotherapy. PMID:25673938

  7. Binding affinities of allergens from pollen, mites, and house dust for specific IgG subclass antibodies.

    PubMed

    Boluda, L; de la Cuadra, B; Berrens, L

    1996-10-01

    The distribution and affinity of IgG subclasses against various aeroallergens were assessed by inhibition of specific antibody binding. Two parameters from the dose-response curves were taken as indicative of antibody affinity: the point of 50% inhibition and the value of the slopes on double-log plots. It was found that IgG4 antibody specific for aeroallergens (i.e., from pollens of several species of Gramineae, Olea europaea, and Parietaria judaica and from house dust) usually exhibits high affinity, except for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. High binding affinity was also displayed by IgG1 subclass antibodies against the allergens of O. europaea and P. judaica. Distinct IgG subclass affinity profiles were observed for the allergens of grass pollen (i.e., Holcus lanatus) and dust mites (i.e., D. pteronyssinus). These results demonstrate that IgG subclass distribution, as well as antibody affinity, depends on the nature of the sensitizing allergen. PMID:8904998

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A FIELD TEST METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF LEAD IN PAINT, AND PAINT-CONTAMINATED DUST AND SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid, simple, inexpensive, and relatively accurate field test method for the determination of lead (Pb) in paints, dusts, and soils has been developed. The method involves the ultrasonic leaching of 0.19 - 0.5g of the sample in 5 mL of 25% (v/v) nitric acid for 30 minutes foll...

  9. Quantitative PCR analysis of house dust can reveal abnormal mold conditions†

    PubMed Central

    Meklin, Teija; Haugland, Richard A.; Reponen, Tiina; Varma, Manju; Lummus, Zana; Bernstein, David; Wymer, Larry J.; Vesper, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Indoor mold concentrations were measured in the dust of moldy homes (MH) and reference homes (RH) by quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays for 82 species or related groups of species (assay groups). About 70% of the species and groups were never or only rarely detected. The ratios (MH geometric mean : RH geometric mean) for 6 commonly detected species (Aspergillus ochraceus, A. penicillioides, A. unguis, A. versicolor, Eurotium group, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum) were > 1 (Group I). Logistic regression analysis of the sum of the logs of the concentrations of Group I species resulted in a 95% probability for separating MH from RH. These results suggest that it may be possible to evaluate whether a home has an abnormal mold condition by quantifying a limited number of mold species in a dust sample. Also, four common species of Aspergillus were quantified by standard culturing procedures and their concentrations compared to QPCR results. Culturing underestimated the concentrations of these four species by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude compared to QPCR. PMID:15237292

  10. Quantitative PCR analysis of house dust can reveal abnormal mold conditions.

    PubMed

    Meklin, Teija; Haugland, Richard A; Reponen, Tiina; Varma, Manju; Lummus, Zana; Bernstein, David; Wymer, Larry J; Vesper, Stephen J

    2004-07-01

    Indoor mold concentrations were measured in the dust of moldy homes (MH) and reference homes (RH) by quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays for 82 species or related groups of species (assay groups). About 70% of the species and groups were never or only rarely detected. The ratios (MH geometric mean : RH geometric mean) for 6 commonly detected species (Aspergillus ochraceus, A. penicillioides, A. unguis, A. versicolor, Eurotium group, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum) were >1 (Group I). Logistic regression analysis of the sum of the logs of the concentrations of Group I species resulted in a 95% probability for separating MH from RH. These results suggest that it may be possible to evaluate whether a home has an abnormal mold condition by quantifying a limited number of mold species in a dust sample. Also, four common species of Aspergillus were quantified by standard culturing procedures and their concentrations compared to QPCR results. Culturing underestimated the concentrations of these four species by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude compared to QPCR. PMID:15237292

  11. House-dust mite allergy: mapping of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergens for dogs by two-dimensional immunoblotting

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Andreia Grilo; Pereira, Luísa Maria Dotti Silva; Goicoa, Ana; Semião-Santos, Saul José; Bento, Ofélia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Specific immunotherapy has shown to be very useful for allergy control in dogs, with a common success rate ranging from 65% to 70%. However, this efficacy could probably be improved and the identification of individual allergomes, with the choice of more adequate molecular allergen pools for specific immunotherapy, being the strategy. Aim To map Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) allergens for mite-sensitized atopic dogs, for better understanding how individual allergograms may influence the response to house-dust mite immunotherapy. Material and methods To identify the Der p mite allergome for dogs, 20 individuals allergic to dust-mites and sensitized to Der p, were selected. The extract from Der p was submitted to isoelectric focusing (IEF), one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Separated proteins were blotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes and immunoblottings were performed with patient sera. Allergen-bound specific IgE was detected. Results Eleven allergens were identified from isoelectric focusing (IEF), as well as from 1-D SDS PAGE. From 2-D SDS-PAGE, 24 spots were identified. Conclusions Several similarities were found between dog and human allergograms and no absolute correlation between sensitization and allergy was observed either. As in humans, different individual allergograms do not seem to implicate different clinical patterns, but may influence the response to specific immunotherapy. The molecular epidemiology approach in veterinary allergy management, by the characterization of individual patients’ allergoms and by choosing the best molecular allergen pool for each patient could also improve the efficacy of allergy immunotherapy. PMID:26015775

  12. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Inspector General Departmental Enforcement Center Office of Strategic Planning & Management Equal Employment Opportunity Policy Development and Research Fair Housing / Equal Opportunity Public ...

  13. Next-generation DNA sequencing reveals that low fungal diversity in house dust is associated with childhood asthma development

    PubMed Central

    Dannemiller, Karen C.; Mendell, Mark J.; Macher, Janet M.; Kumagai, Kazukiyo; Bradman, Asa; Holland, Nina; Harley, Kim; Eskenazi, Brenda; Peccia, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Dampness and visible mold in homes are associated with asthma development, but causal mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this research was to explore associations among measured dampness, fungal exposure, and childhood asthma development without the bias of culture-based microbial analysis. In the low-income, Latino CHAMACOS birth cohort, house dust was collected at age 12 months, and asthma status was determined at age 7 years. The current analysis included 13 asthma cases and 28 controls. Next-generation DNA sequencing methods quantified fungal taxa and diversity. Lower fungal diversity (number of fungal operational taxonomic units) was significantly associated with increased risk of asthma development: unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–22.1). Control for potential confounders strengthened this relationship. Decreased diversity within the genus Cryptococcus was significantly associated with increased asthma risk (OR 21.0, 95% CI 2.16–204). No fungal taxon (species, genus, class) was significantly positively associated with asthma development, and one was significantly negatively associated. Elevated moisture was associated with increased fungal diversity, and moisture/mold indicators were associated with four fungal taxa. Next-generation DNA sequencing provided comprehensive estimates of fungal identity and diversity, demonstrating significant associations between low fungal diversity and childhood asthma development in this community. PMID:24883433

  14. House-dust mite allergen and ozone exposure decreases histamine H3 receptors in the brainstem respiratory nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Sekizawa, Shin-ichi, E-mail: ssekizawa@ucdavis.ed [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, GBSF Rm. 3617, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Bechtold, Andrea G.; Tham, Rick C. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, GBSF Rm. 3617, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Kott, Kayleen S. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, GBSF Rm. 3617, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Hyde, Dallas M. [School of Medicine, California National Primate Research Center, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Joad, Jesse P. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States); Bonham, Ann C. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, GBSF Rm. 3617, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616-0635 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Allergic airway diseases in children are a common and a growing health problem. Changes in the central nervous system (CNS) have been implicated in contributing to some of the symptoms. We hypothesized that airway allergic diseases are associated with altered histamine H3 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus, where lung/airway and nasal sensory afferents terminate, respectively. Immunohistochemistry for histamine H3 receptors was performed on brainstem sections containing the NTS and the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus from 6- and 12-month-old rhesus monkeys who had been exposed for 5 months to house dust mite allergen (HDMA) + O{sub 3} or to filtered air (FA). While histamine H3 receptors were found exclusively in astrocytes in the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus, they were localized to both neuronal terminals and processes in the NTS. HDMA + O{sub 3} exposure significantly decreased histamine H3 receptor immunoreactivity in the NTS at 6 months and in the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus at 12 months of age. In conclusion, exposing young primates to HDMA + O{sub 3} changed histamine H3 receptor expression in CNS pathways involving lung and nasal afferent nerves in an age-related manner. Histamine H3 receptors may be a therapeutic target for allergic asthma and rhinitis in children.

  15. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Der f 2, a Potent Allergen Derived from the House Dust Mite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Takai, Toshiro; Okumura, Yasushi; Scott, David L.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Although a number of allergens have been identified and isolated, the underlying molecular basis for the potent immune response is poorly understood. House dust mites (Dermatophugoides sp.) are particularly ubiquitous contributors to atopy in developed countries. The rhinitis, dermatitis, and asthma associated with allergic reactions to these arthropods are often caused by relatively small (125-129 amino acids) mite proteins of unclear biological function. Der f 2, a major allergen from the mite Dermatophagoides farinae, has been recombinantly expressed and characterized. The Der f 2 protein has been crystallized in our laboratory and a native data set collected at a synchrotron source. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group I422 with unit cell parameters of a = 95.2 Angstroms, b = 95.2 Angstroms, and c = 103.3 Angstroms. An essentially complete (97.2%) data set has been collected to 2.4 Angstroms. Attempts to solve the crystal structure of Der f 2 by molecular replacement using the available NMR coordinates for either Der f 2 or Der p 2 (the homologous protein from D. pterovssinus) failed to reveal a creditable solution.

  16. Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite Are Compared in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Marsha D. W.; Chung, Yong Joo; Copeland, Lisa B.; Doerfler, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding allergenicity and asthma development is limited. We compared the ability of fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to induce allergic responses in BALB/c mice. The extracts were administered by intratracheal aspiration at doubling doses (2.5–80??g protein) 4X over a four-week period. Three days after the last exposure, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. The extracts' relative allergenicity was evaluated based on response robustness (lowest significant dose response compared to control (0??g)). MACA induced a more robust serum total IgE response than HDM. However, in the antigen-specific IgE assay, a similar dose of both MACA and HDM was required to achieve the same response level. Our data suggest a threshold dose of MACA for allergy induction and that M. anisopliae may be similar to HDM in allergy induction potential. PMID:21785589

  17. Der p 11 is a major allergen for house dust mite-allergic patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Srinita; Resch, Yvonne; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Blatt, Katharina; Novak, Natalija; Wickman, Magnus; van Hage, Marianne; Ferrara, Rosetta; Mari, Adriano; Purohit, Ashok; Pauli, Gabrielle; Sibanda, Elopy N; Ndlovu, Portia; Thomas, Wayne R; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Tacke, Sebastian; Malkus, Ursula; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) belong to the most potent indoor allergen sources worldwide and are associated with allergic manifestations in the respiratory tract and the skin. Here we studied the importance of the high-molecular-weight group 11 allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 11) in HDM allergy. Sequence analysis showed that Der p 11 has high homology to paramyosins from mites, ticks, and other invertebrates. A synthetic gene coding for Der p 11 was expressed in Escherichia coli and rDer p 11 purified to homogeneity as folded, alpha-helical protein as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Using antibodies raised against rDer p 11 and immunogold electron microscopy, the allergen was localized in the muscle beneath the skin of mite bodies but not in feces. IgE reactivity of rDer p 11 was tested with sera from HDM-allergic patients from Europe and Africa in radioallergosorbent test-based dot-blot assays. Interestingly, we found that Der p 11 is a major allergen for patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD), whereas it is only a minor allergen for patients suffering from respiratory forms of HDM allergy. Thus, rDer p 11 might be a useful serological marker allergen for the identification of a subgroup of HDM-allergic patients suffering from HDM-associated AD. PMID:24999597

  18. Long-term Effects of Specific Allergen Immunotherapy Against House Dust Mites in Polysensitized Patients With Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kun Hee; Kim, Sung Wan; Cho, Joong Saeng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only currently available treatment to modify the natural history of allergic rhinitis (AR). If patients are polysensitized, it is difficult to identify the allergen causing the allergic symptoms. We evaluated the effectiveness of immunotherapy against house dust mites (HDMs) in AR patients polysensitized to both HDMs and seasonal allergens. Methods Thirty AR patients polysensitized to both HDMs and seasonal allergens (group A) and 30 patients sensitized to HDMs only (group B) were enrolled in this study. All subjects who received immunotherapy against HDMs for more than 2 years were evaluated by the multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST) to determine the specific IgE level in luminescence units, total eosinophil counts in peripheral blood, serum total IgE, total nasal symptom scores, and the rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ) before and after immunotherapy. Results There were no statistical differences in levels of total and specific IgE, or total eosinophil count between the two groups. The total nasal symptom scores, RQLQ and medication scores significantly decreased after immunotherapy in both groups, however no significant differences were noted between the two groups. Conclusions We determined that the primary causative allergen of AR in Seoul, Korea is perennial allergens, such as HDMs, rather than seasonal allergens. This study provides a reference for the selection of allergens to use in immunotherapy for polysensitized AR patients living in an urban environment. PMID:25374753

  19. Group 10 allergens (tropomyosins) from house-dust mites may cause covariation of sensitization to allergens from other invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Inam, Muhammad; Ismail, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Farhana Riaz

    2012-01-01

    Group 10 allergens (tropomyosins) have been assumed to be a major cause of cross-reactivity between house-dust mites (HDMs) and other invertebrates. Despite all of the published data regarding the epidemiology, percent IgE binding and level of sensitization in the population, the role of tropomyosin as a cross-reactive allergen in patients with multiple allergy syndrome still remains to be elucidated. Homology between amino acid sequences reported in allergen databases of selected invertebrate tropomyosins was determined with Der f 10 as the reference allergen. The 66.9 and 54.4% identities were found with selected crustacean and insect species, respectively, whereas only 20.4% identity was seen with mollusks. A similar analysis was performed using reported B-cell IgE-binding epitopes from Met e1 (shrimp allergen) and Bla g7 (cockroach allergen) with other invertebrate tropomyosins. The percent identity in linear sequences was higher than 35% in mites, crustaceans, and cockroaches. The polar and hydrophobic regions in these groups were highly conserved. These findings suggest that tropomyosin may be a major cause of covariation of sensitization between HDMs, crustaceans, and some species of insects and mollusks. PMID:23342293

  20. Dust removal apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eisenbarth

    1981-01-01

    Compact pollution control and\\/or dust removal apparatus is provided for removing entrained dust particles and\\/or other dry pollutants from an air or gas flow. The apparatus provides for a single pollutant particle discharge in a first or initial removal housing with a plurality of secondary removal housings mounted in spaced fashion circumferentially around the initial removal housing. The construction is

  1. Evaluating the bioaccessibility of flame retardants in house dust using an in vitro Tenax bead-assisted sorptive physiologically based method.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingliang; Stapleton, Heather M

    2014-11-18

    Exposure to house dust is a significant source of exposure to flame retardant chemicals (FRs), particularly in the US. Given the high exposure there is a need to understand the bioaccessibility of FRs from dust. In this study, Tenax beads (TA) encapsulated within a stainless steel insert were used as an adsorption sink to estimate the dynamic absorption of a suite of FRs commonly detected in indoor dust samples (n = 17), and from a few polyurethane foam samples for comparison. Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) had the highest estimated bioaccessibility (? 80%) compared to brominated compounds (e.g., PBDEs), and values generally decreased with increasing Log K(ow), with <30% bioaccessibility measured for BDE209. These measurements were in very close agreement with reported PBDE bioavailability measures from an in vivo rat exposure study using indoor dust. The bioaccessibility of very hydrophobic FRs (Log K(ow) > 6) in foam was much less than that in house dust, and increasing bioaccessibility was observed with decreasing particle size. In addition, we examined the stability of more labile FRs containing ester groups (e.g., OPFRs and 2-ethylhexyl-tetrabromo-benzoate (EH-TBB)) in a mock-digestive fluid matrix. No significant changes in the OPFR concentrations were observed in this fluid; however, EH-TBB was found to readily hydrolyze to tetrabromobenzoic acid (TBBA) in the intestinal fluid in the presence of lipases. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the bioaccessibility and stability of FRs following ingestion varies by chemical and sample matrix and thus should be considered in exposure assessments. PMID:25330458

  2. Characteristics and management of sublingual allergen immunotherapy in children with allergic rhinitis and asthma induced by house dust mite allergens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergen immunotherapy is a recognised intervention in patients with allergies not responding to standard pharmacotherapy or in whom pharmacotherapy is contraindicated. We describe the sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) regimens used in children and adolescents with house dust mite (HDM) respiratory allergies in France and assess the efficacy and safety of this treatment. Methods This was a sub-analysis of paediatric patients included in a previous retrospective, observational, multicentre study. Inclusion criteria were: age 5–17 years; respiratory allergy and proven sensitisation to HDM; at least 2 years follow-up after SLIT initiation. The following data were recorded at SLIT initiation: clinical characteristics; sensitisation profile; concomitant symptomatic medications; details of SLIT protocol. During follow-up and at the end of treatment the following data were recorded: any changes to SLIT treatment; any changes to symptomatic medications; symptom progression; adverse events. SLIT efficacy, patient compliance and satisfaction, and safety were assessed. Results 736 paediatric patients were included in this analysis. Most patients (95.5%) had allergic rhinitis, which was moderate to severe persistent in 62.8%. Allergic asthma was present in 64.0% and was mild to moderate persistent in 52.7% of these patients. The majority of patients had rhinitis with asthma (59.5%). Three-hundred and seventy five (62.3%) patients were polysensitised. Compliance was good in 86.5% of patients and SLIT was effective in 83.8%. Symptoms of rhinitis and asthma were improved in 64.6% and 64.3% of patients, respectively. A decrease in symptomatic medication was observed following SLIT initiation in patients with rhinitis and/or asthma. SLIT was well tolerated with mainly local reactions reported. Conclusions HDM SLIT appears to be effective in children and adolescents with rhinitis and/or asthma due to HDM allergens, with no tolerability issues and similar benefits as in adults. PMID:24910771

  3. House Dust Mite Allergen Regulates Constitutive Apoptosis of Normal and Asthmatic Neutrophils via Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Hyung; Choi, Eugene; Lee, Ji-Sook; Lee, Na Rae; Baek, Seung Yeop; Gu, Ayoung; Kim, Da Hye; Kim, In Sik

    2015-01-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) induce allergic diseases such as asthma. Neutrophil apoptosis is an important process of innate immunity, and its dysregulation is associated with asthma. In this study, we examined the effects of HDM on constitutive apoptosis of normal and asthmatic neutrophils. Extract of Dermatophagoides pteronissinus (DP) inhibited neutrophil apoptosis, but Dermatophagoides farinae extract had no effect. Anti-apoptotic signaling mediated by DP involves in TLR4, Lyn, PI3K, Akt, ERK, and NF-?B in normal neutrophils. DP delayed cleavage of procaspase 9 and procaspase 3 and the decrease in Mcl-1 expression. Supernatant collected from DP-treated normal neutrophils inhibited the constitutive apoptosis of normal neutrophils, and S100A8 and S100A9 were identified as anti-apoptotic proteins in the supernatant. S100A8 and S100A9 transduced the anti-apoptotic signal via TLR4, Lyn, PI3K, Akt, ERK, and NF-?B. DP also suppressed asthmatic neutrophil apoptosis and induced secretion of S100A8 and S100A9, which delayed the constitutive apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic effects of DP, S100A8 and S100A9 in asthmatic neutrophils are associated with TLR4, Lyn, PI3K, Akt, ERK, and NF-?B. The concentrations of S100A8 and S100A9 were significantly elevated in asthmatic bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) when compared to normal BALF (p<0.01), but not in serum. S100A8 concentration in BALF was positively correlated with the number of BALF neutrophils and negatively correlated with FEV1(%). These findings improve our understanding of the role of HDM in regulation of neutrophil apoptosis in normal individuals and asthmatics and will enable elucidation of asthma pathogenesis. PMID:25973752

  4. House dust mite sensitization in toddlers predict persistent wheeze in children between eight to fourteen years old

    PubMed Central

    Llanora, Genevieve V.; Ming, Low Jia; Wei, Lee Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Identifying toddlers at increased risk of developing persistent wheeze provides an opportunity for risk-reducing interventions. House dust mite (HDM) allergen sensitization might identify this group of high-risk children. Objective We examined whether a positive skin prick test (SPT) to at least 1 of the 3 HDMs in wheezing toddlers, would serve as a predictor for persistent wheeze at age 8 to 14 years old. Methods A cohort of 78 children, who had wheezing episodes, and underwent SPT to 3 HDMs between the ages of 2 to 5 years old, were enrolled. SPT results were obtained from the National University Hospital database. Four to 9 years later, the children, currently between 8 to 14 years old, were re-assessed for persistence of asthma symptoms and other atopic disorders via a telephone interview. A validated questionnaire on current wheezing and asthma, developed by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, was used. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate the association between persistence of asthma and a positive SPT. Results Of the 78 children who participated in the study, 42 (53.8%) had a positive SPT and 36 (46.2%) had a negative SPT. Of these, 18 (42.9%) of SPT positive and 7 (19.4%) of SPT negative children had persistence of asthma symptoms. There is a significant association between a positive SPT during the preschool years, and persistence of asthma (p = 0.0314 [<0.05]). Conclusion HDM sensitization at ages 2 to 5 years old in wheezing children predicts persistence of asthma after 4 to 9 years. This in turn may have benefits for management of asthma in this high-risk group. PMID:22872820

  5. House Dust Mite Allergen Regulates Constitutive Apoptosis of Normal and Asthmatic Neutrophils via Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Hyung; Choi, Eugene; Lee, Ji-Sook; Lee, Na Rae; Baek, Seung Yeop; Gu, Ayoung; Kim, Da Hye; Kim, In Sik

    2015-01-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) induce allergic diseases such as asthma. Neutrophil apoptosis is an important process of innate immunity, and its dysregulation is associated with asthma. In this study, we examined the effects of HDM on constitutive apoptosis of normal and asthmatic neutrophils. Extract of Dermatophagoides pteronissinus (DP) inhibited neutrophil apoptosis, but Dermatophagoides farinae extract had no effect. Anti-apoptotic signaling mediated by DP involves in TLR4, Lyn, PI3K, Akt, ERK, and NF-?B in normal neutrophils. DP delayed cleavage of procaspase 9 and procaspase 3 and the decrease in Mcl-1 expression. Supernatant collected from DP-treated normal neutrophils inhibited the constitutive apoptosis of normal neutrophils, and S100A8 and S100A9 were identified as anti-apoptotic proteins in the supernatant. S100A8 and S100A9 transduced the anti-apoptotic signal via TLR4, Lyn, PI3K, Akt, ERK, and NF-?B. DP also suppressed asthmatic neutrophil apoptosis and induced secretion of S100A8 and S100A9, which delayed the constitutive apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic effects of DP, S100A8 and S100A9 in asthmatic neutrophils are associated with TLR4, Lyn, PI3K, Akt, ERK, and NF-?B. The concentrations of S100A8 and S100A9 were significantly elevated in asthmatic bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) when compared to normal BALF (p<0.01), but not in serum. S100A8 concentration in BALF was positively correlated with the number of BALF neutrophils and negatively correlated with FEV1(%). These findings improve our understanding of the role of HDM in regulation of neutrophil apoptosis in normal individuals and asthmatics and will enable elucidation of asthma pathogenesis. PMID:25973752

  6. Dectin-2 Regulates the Effector Phase of House Dust Mite-Elicited Pulmonary Inflammation Independently from its Role in Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Matthew W.; Li, Li; Wallace, Aaron M.; Lee, Min Jung; Katz, Howard R.; Fernandez, James M.; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Austen, K. Frank; Kanaoka, Yoshihide; Barrett, Nora A.

    2014-01-01

    The myeloid C-type lectin receptor Dectin-2 directs the generation of Th2 and Th17 immune responses to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) through the generation of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, respectively, but a role for Dectin-2 in effector phase responses has not been described. Here, we demonstrate that administration of the Dectin-2 mAb solely at the time of Df challenge abrogated eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and Th1, Th2, and Th17 inflammation in the lung of previously sensitized mice. Furthermore, Dectin-2 null mice (Clec4n?/?) sensitized with the adoptive transfer of Df-pulsed wild-type (WT) bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) also had less Df-elicited pulmonary inflammation, supporting an effector function for Dectin-2. The protection from pulmonary inflammation seen with the Dectin-2 mAb or in Clec4n?/? mice was associated with little or no reduction in lung-draining lymph node cells or their cytokine production, and with no reduction in serum IgE. WT and Clec4n?/? mice recipients, sensitized with Df-pulsed WT BMDCs, had comparable levels of Df-elicited IL-6, IL-23, TNF-?, and cys-LTs in the lung. By contrast, Df-elicited CCL4 and CCL8 production from pulmonary CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C+ and CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C?CD64+ monocyte-derived DCs was reduced in Clec4n?/? recipients. Addition of CCL8 at the time of Df challenge abrogated the protection from eosinophilic, neutrophilic, and Th2 pulmonary inflammation seen in Clec4n?/? recipients. Taken together, these results reveal that Dectin-2 regulates monocyte-derived DC function in the pulmonary microenvironment at Df challenge to promote the local inflammatory response. PMID:24453247

  7. Neonatal Exposure to Pneumococcal Phosphorylcholine Modulates the Development of House Dust Mite Allergy During Adult Life1

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Preeyam S.; Kearney, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, approximately 20% of the global population suffers from an allergic disorder. Allergies and asthma occur at higher rates in developed and industrialized countries. It is clear that many human atopic diseases are initiated neonatally, and herald more severe IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic asthma, which is driven by the priming of TH2 effector T cells. The “hygiene hypothesis” attempts to link the increased excessively sanitary conditions early in life, to a default TH2 response and increasing allergic phenomena. Despite the substantial involvement of IgE antibodies in such conditions, little attention has been paid to the effects of early microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire prior to the initiation of these diseases. Here, we use antibody-binding assays to demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae and house dust mite (HDM) bear similar phosphorylcholine (PC) epitopes. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice immunized with a PC-bearing pneumococcal vaccine expressed increased frequencies of PC-specific B cells in the lungs following sensitizing exposure to HDM as adults. Anti-PC IgM antibodies in the lung decreased the interaction of HDM with pulmonary APCs and were affiliated with lowered allergy-associated cell infiltration into the lung, IgE production, development of airway hyperresponsiveness, and TH2 T cell priming. Thus, exposure of neonatal mice to PC-bearing pneumococci significantly reduced the development of HDM-induced allergic disease during adult life. Our findings demonstrate that B cells generated against conserved epitopes expressed by bacteria, encountered early in life, are also protective against the development of allergic disease during adult life. PMID:25957171

  8. Lung-Homing of Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Airway Vascularization Is Only Partially Dependant on Eosinophils in a House Dust Mite-Exposed Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sivapalan, Nirooya; Wattie, Jennifer; Inman, Mark D.; Sehmi, Roma

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthmatic responses involve a systemic component where activation of the bone marrow leads to mobilization and lung-homing of progenitor cells. This traffic may be driven by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1), a potent progenitor chemoattractant. We have previously shown that airway angiogenesis, an early remodeling event, can be inhibited by preventing the migration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) to the lungs. Given intranasally, AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist that inhibits SDF-1 mediated effects, attenuated allergen-induced lung-homing of EPC, vascularization of pulmonary tissue, airway eosinophilia and development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Since SDF-1 is also an eosinophil chemoattractant, we investigated, using a transgenic eosinophil deficient mouse strain (PHIL) whether EPC lung accumulation and lung vascularization in allergic airway responses is dependent on eosinophilic inflammation. Methods Wild-type (WT) BALB/c and eosinophil deficient (PHIL) mice were sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) using a chronic exposure protocol and treated with AMD3100 to modulate SDF-1 stimulated progenitor traffic. Following HDM challenge, lung-extracted EPCs were enumerated along with airway inflammation, microvessel density (MVD) and airway methacholine responsiveness (AHR). Results Following Ag sensitization, both WT and PHIL mice exhibited HDM-induced increase in airway inflammation, EPC lung-accumulation, lung angiogenesis and AHR. Treatment with AMD3100 significantly attenuated outcome measures in both groups of mice. Significantly lower levels of EPC and a trend for lower vascularization were detected in PHIL versus WT mice. Conclusions This study shows that while allergen-induced lung-homing of endothelial progenitor cells, increased tissue vascularization and development lung dysfunction can occur in the absence of eosinophils, the presence of these cells worsens the pathology of the allergic response. PMID:25279605

  9. Class specific inhibition of house dust mite proteinases which cleave cell adhesion, induce cell death and which increase the permeability of lung epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Winton, Helen L; Wan, Hong; Cannell, Mark B; Thompson, Philip J; Garrod, David R; Stewart, Geoffrey A; Robinson, Clive

    1998-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergens with cysteine and serine proteinase activity are risk factors for allergic sensitization and asthma. A simple method to fractionate proteinase activity from HDM faecal pellets into cysteine and serine class activity is described. Both proteinase fractions increased the permeability of epithelial cell monolayers. The effects of the serine proteinase fraction were inhibited by 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulphonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) and soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI). The effects of the cysteine proteinase fraction could be inhibited by E-64. No reciprocity of action was found. Treatment of epithelial monolayers with either proteinase fraction caused breakdown of tight junctions (TJs). AEBSF inhibited TJ breakdown caused by the serine proteinase fraction, whereas E-64 inhibited the cysteine proteinase fraction. Agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that the proteinases induced DNA cleavage which was inhibited by the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-250. Compound E-64 inhibited DNA fragmentation caused by the cysteine proteinase fraction, but was without effect on the serine proteinase fraction. Staining of proteinase-treated cells with annexin V (AV) and propidium iodide (PI) revealed a diversity of cellular responses. Some cells stained only with AV indicating early apoptosis, whilst others were dead and stained with both AV and PI. HDM proteinases exert profound effects on epithelial cells which will promote allergic sensitization; namely disruption of intercellular adhesion, increased paracellular permeability and initiation of cell death. Attenuation of these actions by proteinase inhibitors leads to the conclusion that compounds designed to be selective for the HDM enzymes may represent a novel therapy for asthma. PMID:9720772

  10. Road Dust Lead (Pb) in Two Neighborhoods of Urban Atlanta, (GA, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Deocampo, Daniel M.; Reed, Jack; Kalenuik, Alexander P.

    2012-01-01

    Road dust continues to be a major potential reservoir of Pb in the urban environment, and an important potential component of child Pb exposure. This study presents ICP-AES analyses of metals in 72 samples of road dust (<250 µm) collected in the urban core of Atlanta, Georgia. In the Downtown area, median Pb concentrations are ~63 mg/kg Pb, with high values of 278 mg/kg. For comparison, median Pb values in a nearby residential neighborhood (also in the urban core) were ~93 mg/kg, with a high of 972 mg/kg. Geospatial variability is high, with significant variation observed over tens to hundreds of meters. Spearman Rank Correlation tests suggest that Pb and other metals (Cu, Ni, V, Zn) are associated with iron and manganese oxide phases in the residential area, as reported in other cities. However, Pb in the Downtown area is not correlated with the others, suggesting a difference in source or transport history. Given these complexities and the expected differences between road dust and soil Pb, future efforts to assess exposure risk should therefore be based on spatially distributed sampling at very high spatial resolution. PMID:22829787

  11. Ultrasonic extraction and portable anodic stripping voltammetric measurement of lead in paint, dust wipes, soil, and air: an interlaboratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ashley, K; Song, R; Esche, C A; Schlecht, P C; Baron, P A; Wise, T J

    1999-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of ultrasonic extraction (UE), followed by portable anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV), for the on-site determination of lead in environmental and industrial hygiene samples. The aim of this work was to conduct an interlaboratory evaluation of the UE-ASV procedure, with a goal of establishing estimates of method performance based on results from collaborative interlaboratory analysis. In this investigation, performance evaluation materials (PEMs) with characterized lead concentrations were used for interlaboratory testing of the UE-ASV procedure. The UE-ASV protocol examined has been promulgated in the form of two separate national voluntary consensus standards (one for UE and another for electroanalysis, which includes ASV). The PEMs consisted of characterized and homogenized paints, soils, and dusts (the last of which were spiked onto wipes meeting national voluntary consensus standard specifications), and air filter samples (mixed cellulose ester membrane) generated using characterized paints within an aerosol chamber. The lead concentrations within the PEMs were chosen so as to bracket pertinent action levels for lead in the various sample matrices. The interlaboratory evaluation was conducted so as to comply with an applicable national voluntary consensus standard that can be used to estimate the interlaboratory precision of a given analytical test method. Based on the analytical results reported by the participating laboratories, relative standard deviations (RSDs) for repeatability and reproducibility were computed for three different lead contents of the four PEMs. RSDs for repeatability were 0.019-0.100 for paints; 0.030-0.151 for soils; 0.085-0.134 for dust wipes; and 0.095-0.137 for air filters. RSDs for reproducibility were 0.127-0.213 for paints; 0.062-0.162 for soils; 0.085-0.134 for dust wipes; and 0.114-0.220 for air filters. With the exception of one of the air filter samples and one of the paint samples, the precision estimates were within the +/- 20% precision requirement specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency National Lead Laboratory Accreditation Program (NLLAP). The results of this investigation illustrate that the UE-ASV procedure is an effective method for the quantitative measurement of lead in the matrices evaluated in this study. PMID:11529164

  12. Open-label parallel dose tolerability study of three subcutaneous immunotherapy regimens in house dust mite allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current maintenance dose (10,000 AUeq/monthly) of a subcutaneous allergoid for house dust mite (HDM) immunotherapy has previously shown significant clinical efficacy in patients with HDM induced allergic rhinitis or rhinoconjunctivitis. In order to comply with the 2009 EMA guidelines on immunotherapy products, a study was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability and short-term treatment effects of up-dosing regimens with high doses (up to 40,000 AUeq) of allergoid HDM immunotherapy. Methods In total 48 patients with HDM-allergic rhinitis or rhinoconjunctivitis (29 M/19 F; 18–53 years) were included and enrolled into one of three up-dosing regimens (1:4:4): 1) a regular regimen with up-dosing to 40,000 AUeq followed by two maintenance doses (total duration 17 weeks), 2) an intermediate regimen (14 weeks) or 3) a fast regimen (11 weeks). Safety and tolerability were evaluated by monitoring of early and late local reactions and systemic reactions. In addition, short-term effects were assessed by conjunctival provocation test (CPT) and levels of serum allergen-specific IgE, IgG and IgG4. Results Thirty-nine patients completed the study according to protocol. No early local reactions occurred. Late local reactions (LLR) were observed in 12% of the injections. In total, 31 systemic reactions, all grade 1, were reported of which two needed oral antihistamine treatment. No grade 2 or higher systemic reactions were observed. Six patients (15%) did not reach the highest dose due to LLR and/or systemic reactions needing antihistamines (20% in the regular regimen, 16% in the intermediate regimen and 13% in the fast regimen). At the end of the study, an improvement in the CPT was observed in 82.1% of patients, indirectly indicating an early treatment effect at the current dose and higher doses. In addition, IgG4 immunoglobulin levels were significantly increased in all groups following treatment. Conclusions In this open-label study, allergoid HDM immunotherapy in doses up to 40,000 AUeq was generally well tolerated and no clinically relevant safety issues were identified. In the safety aspects of the three up-dosing regimens no clinically relevant differences were encountered. Therefore, these dose ranges and up-dosing regimens can be safely included in future dose-finding efficacy studies. PMID:23657148

  13. Dectin-2 regulates the effector phase of house dust mite-elicited pulmonary inflammation independently from its role in sensitization.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Matthew W; Li, Li; Wallace, Aaron M; Lee, Min Jung; Katz, Howard R; Fernandez, James M; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Austen, K Frank; Kanaoka, Yoshihide; Barrett, Nora A

    2014-02-15

    The myeloid C-type lectin receptor Dectin-2 directs the generation of Th2 and Th17 immune responses to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae through the generation of cysteinyl leukotrienes and proinflammatory cytokines, respectively, but a role for Dectin-2 in effector phase responses has not been described. In this study, we demonstrate that administration of the Dectin-2 mAb solely at the time of D. farinae challenge abrogated eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and Th1, Th2, and Th17 inflammation in the lung of previously sensitized mice. Furthermore, Dectin-2 null mice (Clec4n(-/-)) sensitized with the adoptive transfer of D. farinae-pulsed wild-type (WT) bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) also had less D. farinae-elicited pulmonary inflammation, supporting an effector function for Dectin-2. The protection from pulmonary inflammation seen with the Dectin-2 mAb or in Clec4n(-/-) mice was associated with little or no reduction in lung-draining lymph node cells or their cytokine production and with no reduction in serum IgE. WT and Clec4n(-/-) mice recipients, sensitized with D. farinae-pulsed WT bone marrow-derived DCs, had comparable levels of D. farinae-elicited IL-6, IL-23, TNF-?, and cysteinyl leukotrienes in the lung. By contrast, D. farinae-elicited CCL4 and CCL8 production from pulmonary CD11c(+)CD11b(+)Ly6C(+) and CD11c(+)CD11b(+)Ly6C(-)CD64(+) monocyte-derived DCs was reduced in Clec4n(-/-) recipients. Addition of CCL8 at the time of D. farinae challenge abrogated the protection from eosinophilic, neutrophilic, and Th2 pulmonary inflammation seen in Clec4n(-/-) recipients. Taken together, these results reveal that Dectin-2 regulates monocyte-derived DC function in the pulmonary microenvironment at D. farinae challenge to promote the local inflammatory response. PMID:24453247

  14. Blood lead levels among rural Thai children exposed to lead-acid batteries from solar energy conversion systems.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Sanreun, Cherd

    2013-11-01

    We evaluate blood lead levels among Thai children to determine if exposure to lead-acid batteries is associated with elevated blood lead levels (EBLL). We screened 254 children aged 1-14 years old from 2 rural Thai villages for blood lead levels. We also screened 18 of 92 houses in these 2 villages for the presence of environmental lead. The overall prevalence of EBLL (> or = 10 microg/dl) was 43.3% and the mean lead level among study subjects was 9.8 +/- 5.1 microg/dl. The blood lead levels significantly decreased with increasing age. Fifty point eight percent of children who lived in a house with vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL while 23.3% of children who lived in a house without vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between the presence of vented lead-acid batteries and EBLL, after adjusting for other variables. Forty-two point nine percent of house floor dust samples collected near the batteries had elevated lead levels, 7.1% of house floor dust samples collected from other areas in the house had elevated lead levels and 0% of the house floor dust samples collected in houses without vented lead-acid batteries had elevated lead levels. In the sampled houses with vented lead-acid batteries, lead contamination was found in the drinking-water kept in household containers, but not in the tap water or other village sources of water. Improper care and placement of vented lead-acid batteries can result in lead contamination in the home environment causing EBLL in exposed children. PMID:24450246

  15. DAMP molecules S100A9 and S100A8 activated by IL-17A and house-dust mites are increased in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shan; Park, Chang Ook; Shin, Jung U; Noh, Ji Yeon; Lee, Yun Sun; Lee, Na Ra; Kim, Hye Ran; Noh, Seongmin; Lee, Young; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Lee, Kwang Hoon

    2014-12-01

    S100A9 and S100A8 are called damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules because of their pro-inflammatory properties. Few studies have evaluated S100A9 and S100A8 function as DAMP molecules in atopic dermatitis (AD). We investigated how house-dust mites affect S100A9 and S100A8 expression in Th2 cytokine- and Th17 cytokine-treated keratinocytes, and how secretion of these molecules affects keratinocyte-derived cytokines. Finally, we evaluated expression of these DAMP molecules in AD patients. S100A9 expression and S100A8 expression were strongly induced in IL-17A- and Dermatophagoides (D.) farinae-treated keratinocytes, respectively. Furthermore, co-treatment with D. farinae and IL-17A strongly increased expression of S100A9 and S100A8 compared with D. farinae-Th2 cytokine co-treatment. The IL-33 mRNA level increased in a dose-dependent manner in S100A9-treated keratinocytes, but TSLP expression did not change. S100A8/A9 levels were also higher in the lesional skin and serum of AD patients, and correlated with disease severity. Taken together, S100A9 and S100A8 may be involved in inducing DAMP-mediated inflammation in AD triggered by IL-17A and house-dust mites. PMID:25308296

  16. Methods of Exposure Assessment: Lead-Contaminated Dust in Philadelphia Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles V. Shorten; Marijane K. Hooven

    This study was conducted to develop a method that would accurately assess children's exposure to lead in schools in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We examined three wipe sample protocols: one included accessible surfaces such as desktops and windowsills, the second included inaccessible surfaces such as the top of filing cabinets and light fixtures, and the third included hand wipes of the study

  17. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in association with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in house dust during wintertime: from a population enquiry to cell culture.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Nicky; Koppen, Gudrun; Smeets, Karen; Napierska, Dorota; Plusquin, Michelle; De Prins, Sofie; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Nelen, Vera; Cox, Bianca; Cuypers, Ann; Hoet, Peter; Schoeters, Greet; Nawrot, Tim S

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants that are formed in combustion processes. At the cellular level, exposure to PAHs causes oxidative stress and/or some of it congeners bind to DNA, which may interact with mitochondrial function. However, the influence of these pollutants on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content remains largely unknown. We determined whether indoor exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage as represented by blood mtDNA content. Blood mtDNA content (ratio mitochondrial/nuclear DNA copy number) was determined by real-time qPCR in 46 persons, both in winter and summer. Indoor PAH exposure was estimated by measuring PAHs in sedimented house dust, including 6 volatile PAHs and 8 non-volatile PAHs. Biomarkers of oxidative stress at the level of DNA and lipid peroxidation were measured. In addition to the epidemiologic enquiry, we exposed human TK6 cells during 24 h at various concentrations (range: 0 to 500 µM) of benzo(a)pyrene and determined mtDNA content. Mean blood mtDNA content averaged (± SD) 0.95 ± 0.185. The median PAH content amounted 554.1 ng/g dust (25(th)-75(th) percentile: 390.7-767.3) and 1385 ng/g dust (25(th)-75(th) percentile: 1000-1980) in winter for volatile and non-volatile PAHs respectively. Independent for gender, age, BMI and the consumption of grilled meat or fish, blood mtDNA content decreased by 9.85% (95% CI: -15.16 to -4.2; p = 0.002) for each doubling of non-volatile PAH content in the house dust in winter. The corresponding estimate for volatile PAHs was -7.3% (95% CI: -13.71 to -0.42; p = 0.04). Measurements of oxidative stress were not correlated with PAH exposure. During summer months no association was found between mtDNA content and PAH concentration. The ability of benzo(a)pyrene (range 0 µM to 500 µM) to lower mtDNA content was confirmed in vitro in human TK6 cells. Based on these findings, mtDNA content can be a target of PAH toxicity in humans. PMID:23658810

  18. Retrofit wall system for insulation and lead encasement in older multi-family housing.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, R. L.

    1998-08-11

    This paper presents an approach to modernization or rehabilitation of buildings with uninsulated masonry walls that have lead-based paint hazards or deteriorated plaster walls. The approach provides a solution to lead contamination on the walls, increased energy efficiency and comfort improvements associated with better insulated building envelopes. The system sheaths or replaces damaged or contaminated walls with a tight, well-insulated, durable interior surface. The costs of this system are estimated to be less than those of other insulated wall systems. Modeling of the impact of this system shows significant improvement in energy performance. The energy savings over the life of this durable system contribute to significantly offset the often-times sizeable cost of lead hazard remediation.

  19. A novel in situ method for sampling urban soil dust: particle size distribution, trace metal concentrations, and stable lead isotopes.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiangyang; Liang, Siyuan; Li, Xiangdong

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a novel in situ sampling method was utilized to investigate the concentrations of trace metals and Pb isotope compositions among different particle size fractions in soil dust, bulk surface soil, and corresponding road dust samples collected within an urban environment. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility of using soil dust samples to determine trace metal contamination and potential risks in urban areas in comparison with related bulk surface soil and road dust. The results of total metal loadings and Pb isotope ratios revealed that soil dust is more sensitive than bulk surface soil to anthropogenic contamination in urban areas. The new in situ method is effective at collecting different particle size fractions of soil dust from the surface of urban soils, and that soil dust is a critical indicator of anthropogenic contamination and potential human exposure in urban settings. PMID:23466731

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MONITORING METHODS FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN HOUSE DUST AND TRACK-IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The analytical methods were developed for the determination of PAH and PCBs in the dust and soil based on sonication with hexane and 10% ether/hexane, respectively, and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). uantitative recoveries of spiked perdeuterated PAH an...

  1. The discovery of potent, selective, and reversible inhibitors of the house dust mite peptidase allergen Der p 1: an innovative approach to the treatment of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Newton, Gary K; Perrior, Trevor R; Jenkins, Kerry; Major, Meriel R; Key, Rebekah E; Stewart, Mark R; Firth-Clark, Stuart; Lloyd, Steven M; Zhang, Jihui; Francis-Newton, Nicola J; Richardson, Jonathan P; Chen, Jie; Lai, Pei; Garrod, David R; Robinson, Clive

    2014-11-26

    Blocking the bioactivity of allergens is conceptually attractive as a small-molecule therapy for allergic diseases but has not been attempted previously. Group 1 allergens of house dust mites (HDM) are meaningful targets in this quest because they are globally prevalent and clinically important triggers of allergic asthma. Group 1 HDM allergens are cysteine peptidases whose proteolytic activity triggers essential steps in the allergy cascade. Using the HDM allergen Der p 1 as an archetype for structure-based drug discovery, we have identified a series of novel, reversible inhibitors. Potency and selectivity were manipulated by optimizing drug interactions with enzyme binding pockets, while variation of terminal groups conferred the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic attributes required for inhaled delivery. Studies in animals challenged with the gamut of HDM allergens showed an attenuation of allergic responses by targeting just a single component, namely, Der p 1. Our findings suggest that these inhibitors may be used as novel therapies for allergic asthma. PMID:25365789

  2. The Discovery of Potent, Selective, and Reversible Inhibitors of the House Dust Mite Peptidase Allergen Der p 1: An Innovative Approach to the Treatment of Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Blocking the bioactivity of allergens is conceptually attractive as a small-molecule therapy for allergic diseases but has not been attempted previously. Group 1 allergens of house dust mites (HDM) are meaningful targets in this quest because they are globally prevalent and clinically important triggers of allergic asthma. Group 1 HDM allergens are cysteine peptidases whose proteolytic activity triggers essential steps in the allergy cascade. Using the HDM allergen Der p 1 as an archetype for structure-based drug discovery, we have identified a series of novel, reversible inhibitors. Potency and selectivity were manipulated by optimizing drug interactions with enzyme binding pockets, while variation of terminal groups conferred the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic attributes required for inhaled delivery. Studies in animals challenged with the gamut of HDM allergens showed an attenuation of allergic responses by targeting just a single component, namely, Der p 1. Our findings suggest that these inhibitors may be used as novel therapies for allergic asthma. PMID:25365789

  3. Life in cellulose houses: Symbiotic bacterial biosynthesis of ascidian drugs and drug leads

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Eric W.; Donia, Mohamed S.

    2010-01-01

    Ascidians (tunicates; sea squirts) are sources of diverse, bioactive natural products, one of which is an approved drug and many of which are potent drug leads. It has been shown that symbiotic bacteria living with ascidians produce some of the bioactive compounds isolated from whole animals, and indirect evidence strongly implicates symbiotic bacteria in the synthesis of many others. However, for the majority the producing organism has not been identified. In cases where a symbiotic origin has been definitively assigned, the resulting data lead to improved paths to drug discovery and development from marine animals. This review traces evidence for symbiotic production where such evidence exists and describes the strengths and limitations of that evidence. PMID:21050742

  4. The lead isotopic composition of dust in the vicinity of a uranium mine in northern Australia and its use for radiation dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Honeybun, Russell; Rosman, Kevin; Martin, Paul

    2006-08-01

    Airborne lead isotope ratios were measured via Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry in samples from the vicinity of Ranger uranium mine in northern Australia. Dust deposited on leaves of Acacia spp. was washed off and analysed to gain a geographical snapshot of lead isotope ratios in the region. Aerosols were also collected on Teflon filters that were changed monthly over one seasonal cycle using a low volume diaphragm pump. Lead isotope ratios in dust deposited on leaves overestimate the relative amount of mine origin airborne lead, most likely due to a difference of the size distribution of particles collected on leaves and true aerosol size distribution. Seasonal measurements show that the annual average mine contribution to airborne lead concentrations in Jabiru East, approximately 2.5 km northwest of the mine, amounted to 13%, with distinct differences between the wet and dry season. The relative contribution of mine origin lead deposited on leaves in the dry season drops to less than 1% at a distance of 12.5 km from the mine along the major wind direction. An approach is outlined, in which lead isotope ratios are used to estimate the effective radiation dose received from the inhalation of mine origin radioactivity trapped in or on dust. Using the data from our study, this dose has been calculated to be approximately 2 microSv year(-1) for people living and working in the area. PMID:16388836

  5. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR THE FIELD ANALYSIS OF LEAD IN PAINT, BULK DUST, AND SOIL BY ULTRASONIC, ACID DIGESTION AND COLORIMETRIC MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A quantitative field method was developed for the analysis of lead (Pb) in paint, bulk dust, and soil. 5% (v/v) HNO3 ultrasonic digestion was followed by colorimetric measurement of the digest using a commercially available water Pb test kit. or paints, the range of the method is...

  6. Lead

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Children can be exposed from eating lead-based paint chips or playing in contaminated soil. Lead can ... X-rays. Because of health concerns, lead from paints and ceramic products, caulking, and pipe solder has ...

  7. Lead

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your home was built before 1978, old lead paint on your walls, doors, windows, and sills may ... Abatement Program for permanent elimination of lead-based paint hazards Less Lead in Drinking Water = Better Health ...

  8. Lead Sampling Technician Training Course. Trainer Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ICF, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This document presents a model curriculum for use by trainers presenting training course in assessing and reporting dust and debris from deteriorated lead-based paint. The course, which was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is intended for use with housing quality standard inspectors, rehabilitation specialists, home…

  9. Quantification of ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in settled house dust by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: comparison with fungal culture and determination of endotoxin by a Limulus amebocyte lysate assay.

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, A; Larsson, L; Burge, H; Milton, D

    1997-01-01

    Ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids, chemical markers for fungal biomass and the endotoxin of gram-negative bacteria, respectively, may be useful in studies of health effects of organic dusts, including domestic house dust. This paper reports a method for the combined determination of ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in a single dust sample and a comparison of these chemical biomarkers determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with results from fungal culture and Limulus assay. Analyses of replicate house dust samples resulted in correlations of 0.91 (ergosterol in six replicates; P < 0.01) and 0.94 (3-hydroxy fatty acids in nine replicates; P < 0.001). The amounts of ergosterol (range, 2 to 16.5 ng/mg of dust) correlated with those of total culturable fungi (range, 6 to 1,400 CFU/mg of dust) in 17 samples, (r = 0.65; P < 0.005). The amounts of endotoxin (range, 11 to 243 endotoxin units/mg of dust) measured with a modified chromogenic Limulus assay correlated with those of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) determined from 3-hydroxy fatty acid analysis of 15 samples. The correlation coefficient depended on the chain lengths of 3-hydroxy acids used to compute the LPS content. The correlation was high (r = 0.88 +/- 0.01; P < 0.001) when fatty acid chains of 10 to 14 carbon atoms were included; the correlation was much lower when hydroxy acids of 16- or 18-carbon chains were included. In conclusion, the results of the described extraction and analysis procedure for ergosterol and 3-hydroxy fatty acids are reproducible, and the results can be correlated with fungal culture and endotoxin activity of organic dust samples. PMID:9212406

  10. Identification of particles containing chromium and lead in road dust and soakaway sediment by electron probe microanalyser.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Nakajima, Fumiyuki; Furumai, Hiroaki; Tomiyasu, Bunbunoshin; Owari, Masanori

    2007-05-01

    Individual particles containing Cr and/or Pb and other major components were identified in road dust from a heavily used road (hereinafter 'heavy traffic road dust'), road dust from a residential area and soakaway sediment by electron probe microanalyser to locate their sources and carrier particles. Individual particles containing high levels of Cr and/or Pb (>or=0.2%) were identified using wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS) map analysis. Chromium, Pb and other major elements were then determined by means of a combination of WDS and energy-dispersive spectrometry in all identified particles, 50 particles containing neither Cr nor Pb from each type of road dust and soakaway sediment, and yellow road line markings. WDS map analysis revealed that many particles containing both Cr and Pb were present among the identified particles in heavy traffic road dust, whereas they were minor components in road dust from the residential area and soakaway sediment. The plots of X-ray intensities of Cr vs. Pb were linear for the identified particles containing both Cr and Pb in heavy traffic road dust, and the line closely fitted the plots for the three yellow road line marking samples. Individual particles were then classified using cluster analysis of element components. The results revealed that the adsorption of source materials or released metals onto soil minerals occurred in road dust and soakaway sediment, that the yellow road line markings were sources of Cr and Pb in heavy traffic road dust, and that materials containing Fe as a major component, such as stainless steel, were additional sources of Cr in both road dust and soakaway sediment. PMID:17275880

  11. The Association between Asthma and Allergic Symptoms in Children and Phthalates in House Dust: A Nested Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Weschler, Charles J.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Lundgren, Björn; Hasselgren, Mikael; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Global phthalate ester production has increased from very low levels at the end of World War II to approximately 3.5 million metric tons/year. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential associations between persistent allergic symptoms in children, which have increased markedly in developed countries over the past three decades, and the concentration of phthalates in dust collected from their homes. This investigation is a case–control study nested within a cohort of 10,852 children. From the cohort, we selected 198 cases with persistent allergic symptoms and 202 controls without allergic symptoms. A clinical and a technical team investigated each child and her or his environment. We found higher median concentrations of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) in dust among cases than among controls (0.15 vs. 0.12 mg/g dust). Analyzing the case group by symptoms showed that BBzP was associated with rhinitis (p = 0.001) and eczema (p = 0.001), whereas di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was associated with asthma (p = 0.022). Furthermore, dose–response relationships for these associations are supported by trend analyses. This study shows that phthalates, within the range of what is normally found in indoor environments, are associated with allergic symptoms in children. We believe that the different associations of symptoms for the three major phthalates—BBzP, DEHP, and di-n-butyl phthalate—can be explained by a combination of chemical physical properties and toxicologic potential. Given the phthalate exposures of children worldwide, the results from this study of Swedish children have global implications. PMID:15471731

  12. Identification of lead sources in residential environments: Sydney Australia.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, M A S; Zahran, S; Pingitore, N; Clague, J; Devlin, G; Taylor, M P

    2014-01-01

    Interior and exterior dust, soil and paint were analysed at five brick urban Sydney homes over 15 months to evaluate temporal variations and discriminate sources of lead (Pb) exposure. Exterior dust gauge Pb loading rates (?g/m(2)/28 days), interior vacuum dust Pb concentrations (mg/kg) and interior petri-dish Pb loading rates (?g/m(2)/28 days), were correlated positively with soil Pb concentrations. Exterior dust gauge Pb loading rates and interior vacuum dust Pb concentrations peaked in the summer. Lead isotope and Pb speciation (XAS) were analysed in soil and vacuum dust samples from three of the five houses that had elevated Pb concentrations. Results show that the source of interior dust lead was primarily from soil in two of the three houses and from soil and Pb paint in the third home. IEUBK child blood Pb modelling predicts that children's blood Pb levels could exceed 5 ?g/dL in two of the five houses. PMID:24071634

  13. High Dose Allergen Stimulation of T Cells from House Dust Mite-Allergic Subjects Induces Expansion of IFN-?+ T Cells, Apoptosis of CD4+IL4+ T Cells and T Cell Anergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leanne M. Gardner; Robyn E. O’Hehir; Jennifer M. Rolland

    2004-01-01

    Background: During clinically effective allergen-specific immunotherapy a shift in cytokine dominance from IL-4, IL-5 predominant to IFN-? predominant has been observed. As antigen concentration influences Th cell priming, this study aimed to determine the effect of different allergen concentrations on human house dust mite (HDM)-specific T cell production of IL-4 and IFN-?, proliferation and apoptosis. Methods: HDM-allergic donor PBMC were

  14. House dust mite allergen Der p 1 elevates the release of inflammatory cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules in co-culture of human eosinophils and bronchial epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun K. Wong; Mandy L. Y. Li; Cheng B. Wang; Wai K. Ip; Ya P. Tian; Christopher W. K. Lam

    2006-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) is a common allergen of allergic asthma. Eosinophils are principal effector cells of allergic inflammation and their adhesion onto human bronchial epithelial cells is mediated by a CD18-intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-dependent interaction. We studied the effects of HDM Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 1 on the activation of eosinophils and bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Cytokines and adhesion

  15. Efficacy analysis of three-year subcutaneous SQ-standardized specific immunotherapy in house dust mite-allergic children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    HUI, YU; LI, LING; QIAN, JUN; GUO, YUN; ZHANG, XILIAN; ZHANG, XIAOJUAN

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of three-year subcutaneous SQ-standardized specific immunotherapy (SCIT) in house dust mite (HDM)-allergic children with asthma. Ninety children with allergic asthma to HDMs, with or without allergic rhinitis, were randomly divided into two groups, the treatment group and the control group. The treatment group received SCIT combined with standardized glucocorticoid management and the control group received standardized glucocorticoid management alone for a period of three years. The mean daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), a four-week diary recording the symptom scores of asthma, peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements, skin prick test results and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were assessed prior to treatment and following one, two and three years of treatment. The median dose of ICS was reduced in the treatment group after two and three years of treatment compared with that of the control group. After three years of treatment, the discontinuation percentage of ICS in the treatment group was higher than that in the control group. The treatment group demonstrated significantly reduced daytime and night-time asthmatic symptom scores, increased PEF values and reduced serum IgE levels after two and three years of treatment compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, three-year SCIT treatment combined with ICS is an effective immunotherapy for children with allergic asthma and resulted in a reduction of the required ICS dose. PMID:24520258

  16. Pruni cortex ameliorates skin inflammation possibly through HMGB1-NF?B pathway in house dust mite induced atopic dermatitis NC/Nga transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Sreedhar, Remya; Afrin, Rejina; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Nakamura, Takashi; Nomoto, Mayumi; Miyashita, Shizuka; Fukumoto, Kyoko; Ueno, Kazuyuki

    2015-05-01

    Pruni cortex, the bark of Prunus jamasakura Siebold ex Koidzumi, has been used in the Japanese systems of medicine for many years for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitussive properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of pruni cortex on atopic dermatitis NC/Nga mouse model. Atopic dermatitis-like lesion was induced by the application of house dust mite extract to the dorsal skin. After induction of atopic dermatitis, pruni cortex aqueous extract (1 g/kg, p.o.) was administered daily for 2 weeks. We evaluated dermatitis severity, histopathological changes and cellular protein expression by Western blotting for nuclear and cytoplasmic high mobility group box 1, receptor for advanced glycation end products, nuclear factor ?B, apoptosis and inflammatory markers in the skin of atopic dermatitis mice. The clinical observation confirmed that the dermatitis score was significantly lower when treated with pruni cortex than in the atopic dermatitis group. Similarly pruni cortex inhibited hypertrophy and infiltration of inflammatory cells as identified by histopathology. In addition, pruni cortex significantly inhibited the protein expression of cytoplasmic high mobility group box 1, receptor for advanced glycation end products, nuclear p-nuclear factor kappa B, apoptosis and inflammatory markers. These results indicate that pruni cortex may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of atopic dermatitis by attenuating high mobility group box 1 and inflammation possibly through the nuclear factor ?B pathway. PMID:26060348

  17. Pruni cortex ameliorates skin inflammation possibly through HMGB1-NF?B pathway in house dust mite induced atopic dermatitis NC/Nga transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A.; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Sreedhar, Remya; Afrin, Rejina; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Nakamura, Takashi; Nomoto, Mayumi; Miyashita, Shizuka; Fukumoto, Kyoko; Ueno, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Pruni cortex, the bark of Prunus jamasakura Siebold ex Koidzumi, has been used in the Japanese systems of medicine for many years for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitussive properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of pruni cortex on atopic dermatitis NC/Nga mouse model. Atopic dermatitis-like lesion was induced by the application of house dust mite extract to the dorsal skin. After induction of atopic dermatitis, pruni cortex aqueous extract (1 g/kg, p.o.) was administered daily for 2 weeks. We evaluated dermatitis severity, histopathological changes and cellular protein expression by Western blotting for nuclear and cytoplasmic high mobility group box 1, receptor for advanced glycation end products, nuclear factor ?B, apoptosis and inflammatory markers in the skin of atopic dermatitis mice. The clinical observation confirmed that the dermatitis score was significantly lower when treated with pruni cortex than in the atopic dermatitis group. Similarly pruni cortex inhibited hypertrophy and infiltration of inflammatory cells as identified by histopathology. In addition, pruni cortex significantly inhibited the protein expression of cytoplasmic high mobility group box 1, receptor for advanced glycation end products, nuclear p-nuclear factor kappa B, apoptosis and inflammatory markers. These results indicate that pruni cortex may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of atopic dermatitis by attenuating high mobility group box 1 and inflammation possibly through the nuclear factor ?B pathway.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Der f 2, a potent allergen derived from the house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Takai, Toshiro; Okumura, Yasushi; Scott, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Although a number of allergens have been identified and isolated, the underlying molecular basis for the potent immune response is poorly understood. House dust mites (Dermatophagoides sp.) are ubiquitous contributors to atopy in developed countries. The rhinitis, dermatitis and asthma associated with allergic reactions to these arthropods are frequently caused by relatively small (125-129 amino acids) mite proteins of unknown biological function. Der f 2, a major allergen from the mite D. farinae, has been recombinantly expressed, characterized and crystallized. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group I4(1)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.2, c = 103.3 A. An essentially complete (97.2%) data set has been collected to 2.4 A at a synchrotron source. Attempts to solve the crystal structure of Der f 2 by molecular replacement using the NMR coordinates for either Der f 2 or Der p 2 (the homologous protein from D. pteronyssinus) failed, but preliminary searches using the crystalline Der p 2 atomic coordinates appear to be promising.

  19. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... inhaling or ingesting dust from deteriorating lead-based paint. Symptoms of lead poisoning include headaches, stomach cramps, ... Control US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Lead in Paint, Dust, and Soil More in Lab Tests Page ...

  20. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used on the inside and outside of ... surface. In 1977, federal regulations banned lead from paint for general use. But homes built before 1977 ...

  1. Improved tRNA prediction in the American house dust mite reveals widespread occurrence of extremely short minimal tRNAs in acariform mites

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Atypical tRNAs are functional minimal tRNAs, lacking either the D- or T-arm. They are significantly shorter than typical cloverleaf tRNAs. Widespread occurrence of atypical tRNAs was first demonstrated for secernentean nematodes and later in various arachnids. Evidence started to accumulate that tRNAs of certain acariform mites are even shorter than the minimal tRNAs of nematodes, raising the possibility that tRNAs lacking both D- and T-arms might exist in these organisms. The presence of cloverleaf tRNAs in acariform mites, particularly in the house dust mite genus Dermatophagoides, is still disputed. Results Mitochondrial tRNAs of Dermatophagoides farinae are minimal, atypical tRNAs lacking either the T- or D-arm. The size (49-62, 54.4 ± 2.86 nt) is significantly (p = 0.019) smaller than in Caenorhabditis elegans (53-63, 56.3 ± 2.30 nt), a model minimal tRNA taxon. The shortest tRNA (49 nt) in Dermatophagoides is approaching the length of the shortest known tRNAs (45-49 nt) described in other acariform mites. The D-arm is absent in these tRNAs, and the inferred T-stem is small (2-3 bp) and thermodynamically unstable, suggesting that it may not exist in reality. The discriminator nucleotide is probably not encoded and is added postranscriptionally in many Dermatophagoides tRNAs. Conclusions Mitochondrial tRNAs of acariform mites are largely atypical, non-cloverleaf tRNAs. Among them, the shortest known tRNAs with no D-arm and a short and unstable T-arm can be inferred. While our study confirmed seven tRNAs in Dermatophagoides by limited EST data, further experimental evidence is needed to demonstrate extremely small and unusual tRNAs in acariform mites. PMID:20003349

  2. The effects of inhaled corticosteroids on intrinsic responsiveness and histology of airways from infant monkeys exposed to house dust mite allergen and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Joad, Jesse P. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)], E-mail: jesse.joad@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu; Kott, Kayleen S.; Bric, John M. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Schelegle, Edward S. [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gershwin, Laurel J. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Plopper, Charles G. [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Peake, Janice L.; Pinkerton, Kent E. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are recommended to treat infants with asthma, some with intermittent asthma. We previously showed that exposing infant monkeys to allergen/ozone resulted in asthma-like characteristics of their airways. We evaluated the effects of ICS on histology and intrinsic responsiveness of allergen/ozone-exposed and normal infant primate airways. Infant monkeys were exposed by inhalation to (1) filtered air and saline, (2) house dust mite allergen (HDMA) + ozone and saline, (3) filtered air and ICS (budesonide) or (4) HDMA + ozone and ICS. Allergen/ozone exposures started at 1 month and ICS at 3 months of age. At 6 months of age, methacholine-induced changes in luminal area of airways in proximal and distal lung slices were determined using videomicrometry, followed by histology of the same slices. Proximal airway responsiveness was increased by allergen/ozone and by ICS. Eosinophil profiles were increased by allergen/ozone in both proximal and distal airways, an effect that was decreased by ICS in distal airways. In both allergen/ozone- and air-exposed monkeys, ICS increased the number of alveolar attachments in distal airways, decreased mucin in proximal airways and decreased epithelial volume in both airways. ICS increased smooth muscle in air-exposed animals while decreasing it in allergen/ozone-exposed animals in both airways. In proximal airways, there was a small but significant positive correlation between smooth muscle and airway responsiveness, as well as between alveolar attachments and responsiveness. ICS change morphology and function in normal airways as well as allergen/ozone-exposed airways, suggesting that they should be reserved for infants with active symptoms.

  3. PARAOCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES TO LEAD AND TIN CARRIED BY ELECTRIC-CABLE SPLICERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Rinehart; Yukio Yanagisawa

    1993-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that electric-cable splicers contaminate their homes with lead and tin, nine splicers were matched with nine of their neighbors. House dust samples were collected in two areas within each home: a laundry room\\/dirty clothes area, and a composite sample from other areas in the house. Samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence for lead and

  4. Window replacement and residential lead paint hazard control 12 years later.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Sherry L; Jacobs, David E; Wilson, Jonathan W; Akoto, Judith Y; Nevin, Rick; Scott Clark, C

    2012-02-01

    Window replacement is a key method of reducing childhood lead exposure, but the long-term effectiveness has not been previously evaluated. Windows have the highest levels of interior lead paint and dust compared to other building components. Our objective was to conduct a follow-up study of residential window replacement and lead hazard control 12 years after homes were enrolled in an evaluation of the HUD Lead Hazard Control Grant Program, sampling settled lead dust in housing in four cities (n=189 homes). Previous work evaluated lead hazard controls up to 6 years after intervention using dust lead measurements and two years after intervention using both dust and blood lead data. But the earlier work could not examine the effect of window replacement over the longer time period examined here: 12 years. The individual homes were assigned to one of three categories, based on how many windows had been replaced: all replacement, some replacement, or non-replacement. Windows that were not replaced were repaired. We controlled for covariates such as site, housing condition, presence of lead paint, and season using longitudinal regression modeling. Adjusted floor and sill dust lead geometric mean dust lead loadings declined at least 85% from pre-intervention to 12 years after the intervention for homes with all replacement windows, some windows replaced and no windows replaced. Twelve years after intervention, homes with all replacement windows had 41% lower interior floor dust lead, compared to non-replacement homes (1.4 versus 2.4 ?g/ft2, p<0.001), and window sill dust lead was 51% lower (25 versus 52 ?g/ft2, p=0.006) while controlling for covariates. Homes with some windows replaced had interior floor and window sill dust lead loadings that were 28% (1.7 versus 2.4 ?g/ft2, p=0.19) and 37% (33 versus 52 ?g/ft2, p=0.07) lower, respectively, compared to non-replacement homes. The net economic benefit of window replacement compared to window repair (non-replacement) is $1700-$2000 per housing unit. Homes in which all windows were replaced had significantly lower lead dust. New windows are also likely to reduce energy use and improve home value. Lead-safe window replacement is an important element of lead hazard control, weatherization, renovation and housing investment strategies and should be implemented broadly to protect children. PMID:22325333

  5. Development and field trial of a household surface lead loading rate sampling device in a lead-contaminated community of southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Untimanon, Orrapan; Geater, Alan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Thoumsang, Somkiat; Verkasalo, Pia K; Saetia, Wiyada

    2010-05-01

    A new dust-collecting device was developed to assess surface lead loading rates in houses in communities contaminated with lead oxide dust used for caulking in nearby boat-repair yards. The device consists of two small glass sheets with total area of 1,200 cm(2) placed in two plastic trays suspended from the ceiling in the house for 3 months before wiping and sending the dust specimen for determination of lead content using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. After a pilot trial in four households, further data were collected from 43 matched pairs of boat-caulkers' and neighboring control households. All devices were retained in the house for 3 months without any complaint. Static measurements of lead dust levels were also assessed in all households. The values significantly discriminated high from low lead exposure households (p = 0.015) and provided good correlations with floor lead loading (Spearman rank correlation coefficient, r = 0.39 to 0.62) and dust lead content (r = 0.53 to 0.64). This sampling method is an alternative to others which consume more household space or require a longer collection period. PMID:19415518

  6. 77 FR 70179 - Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Federally Owned Residential Properties and Housing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ...FR-5603-N-87] Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Federally Owned Residential...Requirements for notification of leadbased paint hazard in federally-owned residential...Proposed: Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Federally Owned...

  7. Group 1 Allergen Genes in Two Species of House Dust Mites, Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae): Direct Sequencing, Characterization and Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Shafique, Rubaba Hamid; Klimov, Pavel B.; Inam, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Farhana Riaz; OConnor, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Group 1 allergens of Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1) and D. pteronyssinus (Der p 1) dominate overall allergic responses in house dust mite allergy patients. The need for accurate identification and characterization of representative variants of group 1 allergens in any given geographic locality has been emphasized for development of appropriate allergen extracts. Regional amino acid sequence polymorphism has been described but the extent of this polymorphism is not well understood. Such data are completely absent for the USA and many other countries. Most previous studies used cDNA libraries generated by reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR) and/or primers amplifying shorter fragments of this gene. Using novel species-specific primers and direct PCR, we document group 1 allergen gene sequence polymorphism in populations of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus from the USA and Pakistan. We report two novel introns (nt pos 87 and 291) in both species, and the absence of intron 3 in Der p 1. Thirteen silent and one novel non-synonymous mutation (Tryptophan W197 to Arginine R197) were detected in D. farinae. The potential medical significance of the latter mutation is discussed. Two haplotypes of the Der f 1 gene were identified, haplotype 1 (63%) was more frequent than haplotype 2 (18%). Polymorphism in Der f 1 displayed geographical localization, since both haplotypes were present in mite populations from Pakistan whereas haplotype 1 was observed only in the USA. In Der p 1, a silent mutation at nt (aa) position 1011(149) and four non-synonymous mutations at positions 589(50), 935(124), 971(136), 1268(215) were observed. These mutations were reported from many other geographic regions, suggesting that polymorphism in the Der p 1 gene is panmictic. The extent of polymorphism in both genes is substantially lower than that reported previously (0.10–0.16% vs 0.31–0.49%), indicating the need for careful evaluation of potential polymerase errors in studies utilizing RT-PCR. PMID:25494056

  8. 40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities...227 Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities...pursuant to the work practice standards contained... (1) Lead-based paint is present...which there is evidence of teeth...

  9. 40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities...227 Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities...pursuant to the work practice standards contained... (1) Lead-based paint is present...which there is evidence of teeth...

  10. 40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities...227 Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities...pursuant to the work practice standards contained... (1) Lead-based paint is present...which there is evidence of teeth...

  11. 40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...appropriate work practice standards for lead-based paint activities...constitutes evidence of a failure...engaged in lead-based paint activities...with the work practice standards established...local lead-based paint statutes...constitutes evidence of a...

  12. 40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities...227 Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities...pursuant to the work practice standards contained... (1) Lead-based paint is present...which there is evidence of teeth...

  13. 40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...appropriate work practice standards for lead-based paint activities...constitutes evidence of a failure...engaged in lead-based paint activities...with the work practice standards established...local lead-based paint statutes...constitutes evidence of a...

  14. 40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...appropriate work practice standards for lead-based paint activities...constitutes evidence of a failure...engaged in lead-based paint activities...with the work practice standards established...local lead-based paint statutes...constitutes evidence of a...

  15. 40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...appropriate work practice standards for lead-based paint activities...constitutes evidence of a failure...engaged in lead-based paint activities...with the work practice standards established...local lead-based paint statutes...constitutes evidence of a...

  16. 75 FR 51808 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...FRL-10-032; FRL-9191-9] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities...statute was the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992. That Act...EPA-authorized programs for lead-based paint activities training and certification...

  17. 75 FR 13127 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ...EPA-R07-OPPT-2010-0155; FRL-9128-4] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities...statute was the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992. That Act...EPA-authorized programs for lead-based paint activities training and certification...

  18. Identification of sources of lead in children in a primary zinc-lead smelter environment.

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, Brian L; Mizon, Karen J; Davis, Jeff D; Palmer, Jacqueline M; Vimpani, Graham

    2004-01-01

    We compared high-precision lead isotopic ratios in deciduous teeth and environmental samples to evaluate sources of lead in 10 children from six houses in a primary zinc-lead smelter community at North Lake Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia. Teeth were sectioned to allow identification of lead exposure in utero and in early childhood. Blood lead levels in the children ranged from 10 to 42 micro g/dL and remained elevated for a number of years. For most children, only a small contribution to tooth lead can be attributed to gasoline and paint sources. In one child with a blood lead concentration of 19.7 microg/dL, paint could account for about 45% of lead in her blood. Comparison of isotopic ratios of tooth lead levels with those from vacuum cleaner dust, dust-fall accumulation, surface wipes, ceiling (attic) dust, and an estimation of the smelter emissions indicates that from approximately 55 to 100% of lead could be derived from the smelter. For a blood sample from another child, > 90% of lead could be derived from the smelter. We found varying amounts of in utero-derived lead in the teeth. Despite the contaminated environment and high blood lead concentrations in the children, the levels of lead in the teeth are surprisingly low compared with those measured in children from other lead mining and smelting communities. PMID:14698931

  19. House dust levels of selected insecticides and a herbicide measured by the EL and LWW samplers and comparisons to hand rinses and urine metabolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P J LIOY; R D EDWARDS; N FREEMAN; S GURUNATHAN; E PELLIZZARI; J L ADGATE; J QUACKENBOSS; K SEXTON

    2000-01-01

    During the Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES), comparisons were made between the insecticide\\/herbicide loadings obtained with two household dust\\/insecticide or herbicide samplers: the Edwards and Lioy (EL) press sampler (used for dust collection from carpets or other surfaces) and the Lioy, Wainman and Weisel (LWW) surface wipe sampler. The results were compared with hand rinse levels, and urine metabolite

  20. Effect of inhaled dust mite allergen on regional particle deposition and mucociliary clearance in allergic asthmatics**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Acute exacerbations in allergic asthmatics may lead to impaired ability to clear mucus from the airways, a key factor in asthma morbidity. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhaled house dust mite challenge on the regional deposition of...

  1. Peeling lead paint turns into poisonous dust. Guess where it ends up? A media campaign to prevent childhood lead poisoning in new york city.

    PubMed

    Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah

    2015-06-01

    Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to increase parents' awareness of childhood lead poisoning, ways to protect their children, and property owners' legal responsibility to fix peeling lead paint safely, and increase awareness of regulatory changes and encourage enforcement of New York City's Local Law 1 of 2004. Campaign materials were focus group tested and the campaign was refined annually. The campaign ran city-wide and in targeted high-risk neighborhoods. Neighborhoods and media venue (bus, train, kiosk, and store) changed annually, based on population risk factors and venue availability. Exposure to the campaign, campaign-related knowledge, and behavior were assessed using pre- and postcampaign street intercept surveys. Results showed that campaign reached the targeted population, and had an impact on knowledge of lead poisoning prevention measures as evidenced by increased knowledge of lead paint exposures sources in one year and increased knowledge of preventive behaviors in another year; these improvements were observed for both genders and most ethnic, primary language, educational attainment, and age groups in each year. Lessons learned indicate that well-targeted media campaigns, designed with audience participation, can reach parents through various venues, and improve key knowledge areas. Evaluation challenges faced include high levels of knowledge at baseline, competing media messages, and balancing between program needs and evaluation design. PMID:25558876

  2. Experimentally increased in ovo testosterone leads to increased plasma bactericidal activity and decreased cutaneous immune response in nestling house wrens.

    PubMed

    Clairardin, Sandrine G; Barnett, Craig A; Sakaluk, Scott K; Thompson, Charles F

    2011-08-15

    Maternally derived testosterone in the eggs of birds may benefit nestlings by increasing various aspects of their growth, condition and behavioral development, but these benefits may come at a cost, including suppression of immune responsiveness. Experiments on a variety of species in which in ovo levels of testosterone have been experimentally increased have produced mixed results; some have found increased growth and suppressed immune function of nestlings whereas others have found the opposite. In an attempt to clarify the relationship between in ovo testosterone and nestling size, mass, health state and immune responsiveness, we experimentally increased levels of testosterone in the eggs of house wrens (Troglodytes aedon). We simultaneously determined the size, mass, hematocrit (a measure of health state), cutaneous immune response to phytohaemagglutinin and plasma bactericidal activity of nestlings near the time of fledging. We predicted that nestlings hatching from testosterone-injected eggs would exhibit lower immune responsiveness, but achieve greater mass, size and condition, than nestlings hatching from vehicle-injected control eggs. Instead, we found that nestlings hatching from testosterone-injected eggs had a weaker cutaneous immune response but greater bactericidal activity than those hatching from control eggs. They did not, however, differ significantly in mass, size or hematocrit from controls. These results suggest that experimentally increased in ovo testosterone induced a trade-off between bactericidal activity and the cutaneous immune response. The opposite responses by two different measures of immune function to experimentally increased in ovo testosterone underscore the importance of including multiple immune assays when investigating the potential for trade-offs with the immune system and other physiological functions. PMID:21795576

  3. Measurement of nicotine in household dust

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sungroul [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Institute for Global Tobacco Control, 627 N. Washington Street, 2nd Floor Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)], E-mail: srkim@jhsph.edu; Aung, Ther; Berkeley, Emily [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Diette, Gregory B. [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Breysse, Patrick N. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    An analytical method of measuring nicotine in house dust was optimized and associations among three secondhand smoking exposure markers were evaluated, i.e., nicotine concentrations of both house dust and indoor air, and the self-reported number of cigarettes smoked daily in a household. We obtained seven house dust samples from self-reported nonsmoking homes and 30 samples from smoking homes along with the information on indoor air nicotine concentrations and the number of cigarettes smoked daily from an asthma cohort study conducted by the Johns Hopkins Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment. House dust nicotine was analyzed by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Using our optimized method, the median concentration of nicotine in the dust of self-reported nonsmoking homes was 11.7 ng/mg while that of smoking homes was 43.4 ng/mg. We found a substantially positive association (r=0.67, P<0.0001) between house dust nicotine concentrations and the numbers of cigarettes smoked daily. Optimized analytical methods showed a feasibility to detect nicotine in house dust. Our results indicated that the measurement of nicotine in house dust can be used potentially as a marker of longer term SHS exposure.

  4. A pilot study on the effect of one room mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) units on house dust mite populations and Der p 1 levels in laboratory simulated bedrooms and on ambient conditions in an occupied bedroom in Cambridge, UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tin Htut; Ian F. Burgess; John W. Maunder; Elizabeth Basham

    1996-01-01

    A one room mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) unit was tested on experimental bedding for survival of house dust mites and Der p 1 allergen levels in simulated bedroom conditions (February?April 1995). Its effectiveness was also tested in a real bedroom in daily use, during the mild and damp British winter from December 1994?February 1995. Experimental beds were artificially

  5. House dust mite and cockroach exposure are strong risk factors for positive allergy skin test responses in the Childhood Asthma Management Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Huss; N. Franklin Adkinson; Peyton A. Eggleston; Christopher Dawson; Mark L. Van Natta; Robert G. Hamilton

    2001-01-01

    Background: Children with asthma have a high prevalence of environmental allergies, especially to indoor allergens. The relationships of exposure to indoor allergens (dust mites, cat, dog, cockroach, and molds) and other host factors to allergy sensitization have not been evaluated simultaneously in a large cohort. Objectives: We studied 1041 children aged 5 to 12 years with mild-to-moderate asthma to determine

  6. THE DISTRIBUTION OF CHLORPYRIFOSIN AIR, CARPETING, AND DUST AND ITS REEMISSION FROM CARPETING FOLLOWING THE USE OF TOTAL RELEASE AEROSOLS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY TEST HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of experiments to explore the relationships between the insecticide chlorpyrifos and its distribution into carpet., carpet dust, and reemission into air. Two total release aerosols containing 0.5% chlorpyrifos were applied in the living room and den of EP...

  7. Origin of lead in the United States diet.

    PubMed

    Manton, William I; Angle, Carol R; Krogstrand, Kaye L Stanek

    2005-11-15

    We report 208Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/207Pb ratios for 1001 duplicate diets collected from mothers and children, 1304 samples of house dust and hand wipes, and 64 samples of aerosols that were taken in Omaha, Nebraska, during the period from 1990 to 1997. A plot of 208Pb/207Pb versus 206Pb/ 207Pb for the dust and hand wipes indicates that they contain lead from ores mined in Idaho, Missouri, and Mexico. The absence of lead from Utah suggests that this mixture is not representative of the whole country. The lead in the aerosols has a narrower range of isotope ratios and resembles aerosols collected elsewhere in the United States. Most dietary collections contain a large component of house dust. Some, especially those from infants, are dominated by uranogenic lead with high 206Pb/207Pb ratios. Its source is taken to be calcium-supplemented food where the calcium is derived from limestone. Another source of lead is thorogenic and is ascribed to lead in tin coatings. Agricultural lead, whether from soil (estimated from recently published analyses of sedimentary materials), fertilizer, or agricultural lime, could not be unambiguously identified in the diets. Lead derived from aerosols, if present at all, is insignificant. PMID:16329199

  8. Lead and Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of products found in and around homes, including paint and gasoline. Where is lead found now? Lead can still be found in lead-based paint used in older homes, contaminated soil, household dust, ...

  9. Evaluation of Electrostatic Particle Ionization and BioCurtain Technologies to Reduce Dust, Odor and other Pollutants from Broiler Houses Final Report 

    E-print Network

    Jerez, S.; Muhktar, S.; Faulkner, W.; Casey, K.; Borhan, S.; Hoff, A.; VanDelist, B.

    2011-01-01

    is automated for self-adjustment of corona lines for optimal ion flow through the system as seen in Figure 1) and the BioCurtain TM system (two systems, one per battery of mechanical ventilation fans as seen in Figure 2. Each BioCurtain TM includes a mini... included in the cost estimates. Figure 1. Corona lines running from power source. 10 Figure 2. BioCurtain installations on poultry house For the EPI system, there are four power supply units that use a maximum of 103 watts of power per unit...

  10. Lead exposure assessment from study near a lead-acid battery factory in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; Liu, Ming; Huang, Yumei; Fan, Ruifang; Su, Yanhua; Hu, Guocheng; Peng, Xiaowu; Peng, Xiaochun

    2012-07-01

    The production of lead-acid battery in China covered about one-third of the world total output and there are more than 2000 lead-acid battery factories. They may cause the major environment lead pollution. Blood lead levels of several hundreds of residents were over 100 ?g/L due to the waste discharges from a lead-acid battery factory in Heyuan, Guangdong province. This study aimed to find out the environmental lead sources, the human lead exposure pathways, and the amplitudes from a lead-acid battery factory. The study results showed that lead levels in soil, dust, tree leaves and human blood declined with the distances increased from the production site. Twenty nine of 32 participants had blood lead levels of over 100 ?g/L with an exceptional high value of 639 ?g/L for one child. This result suggested that the lead-acid battery production from this factory has caused the elevated lead levels in its neighboring environment and residents. Dust intake was the dominant exposure pathway for humans (over 90%). The lead levels found in adult and toddler (6.19 and 50.1 ?g/kg/d, respectively) in the polluted area were far higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 25 ?g/kg body weight (translated into 3.5 ?g/kg/d), which was established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee. Blood lead levels within the family members were strongly correlated with the house dust lead levels. Our results in this study suggested that further studies in this area should be performed to assess human exposure and relevant human health risks from living close to lead-acid battery factories. PMID:22578522

  11. Migration of contaminated soil and airborne particulates to indoor dust.

    PubMed

    Layton, David W; Beamer, Paloma I

    2009-11-01

    We have developed a modeling and measurement framework for assessing transport of contaminated soils and airborne particulates into a residence, their subsequent distribution indoors via resuspension and deposition processes, and removal by cleaning and building exhalation of suspended particles. The model explicitly accounts for the formation of house dust as a mixture of organic matter (OM) such as shed skin cells and organic fibers, soil tracked-in on footwear, and particulate matter (PM) derived from the infiltration of outdoor air. We derived formulas for use with measurements of inorganic contaminants, crustal tracers, OM, and PM to quantify selected transport parameters. Application of the model to residences in the U.S. Midwest indicates that As in ambient air can account for nearly 60% of the As input to floor dust, with soil track-in representing the remainder. Historic data on Pb contamination in Sacramento, CA, were used to reconstruct sources of Pb in indoor dust, showing that airborne Pb was likely the dominant source in the early 1980s. However, as airborne Pb levels declined due to the phase-out of leaded gasoline, soil resuspension and track-in eventually became the primary sources of Pb in house dust. PMID:19924944

  12. Migration of Contaminated Soil and Airborne Particulates to Indoor Dust

    PubMed Central

    Layton, David W.; Beamer, Paloma I.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a modeling and measurement framework for assessing transport of contaminated soils and airborne particulates into a residence, their subsequent distribution indoors via resuspension and deposition processes, and removal by cleaning and building exhalation of suspended particles. The model explicitly accounts for the formation of house dust as a mixture of organic matter (OM) such as shed skin cells and organic fibers, soil tracked-in on footwear, and particulate matter (PM) derived from the infiltration of outdoor air. We derived formulas for use with measurements of inorganic contaminants, crustal tracers, OM, and PM to quantify selected transport parameters. Application of the model to residences in the U.S. Midwest indicates that As in ambient air can account for nearly 60% of the As input to floor dust, with soil track-in representing the remainder. Historic data on Pb contamination in Sacramento, CA, was used to reconstruct sources of Pb in indoor dust, showing that airborne Pb was likely the dominant source in the early 1980s. However, as airborne Pb levels declined due to the phase out of leaded gasoline, soil resuspension and track-in eventually became the primary sources of Pb in house dust. PMID:19924944

  13. Galaxy formation by dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Boqi; Field, Goerge B.

    1989-01-01

    It has been known since the early 1940's that radiation can cause an instability in the interstellar medium. Absorbing dust particles in an isotropic radiation field shadow each other by a solid angle which is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two particles, leading to an inverse-square attractive force - mock gravity. The effect is largest in an optically thin medium. Recently Hogan and White (HW, hereafter) proposed that if the pre-galactic universe contained suitable sources of radiation and dust, instability in the dust distribution caused by mock gravity may have led to the formation of galaxies and galaxy clusters. In their picture of a well-coupled dust-gas medium, HW show that mock gravity begins to dominate gravitational instability when the perturbation becomes optically thin, provided that the radiation field at the time is strong enough. The recent rocket observation of the microwave background at submillimeter wavelengths by Matsumoto et al. might be from pre-galactic stars, the consequence of the absorption of ultraviolet radiation by dust, and infrared reemission which is subsequently redshifted. HW's analysis omits radiative drag, incomplete collisional coupling of gas and dust, finite dust albedo, and finite matter pressure. These effects could be important. In a preliminary calculation including them, the authors have confirmed that mock gravitational instability is effective if there is a strong ultraviolet radiation at the time, but any galaxies that form would be substantially enriched in heavy elements because the contraction of the dust is more rapid than that of the gas. Moreover, since the dust moves with supersonic velocity through the gas soon after the perturbation becomes optically thin, the sputtering of dust particles by gas is significant, so the dust could disappear before the instability develops significantly. They conclude that the mock gravity by dust is not important in galaxy formations.

  14. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR SIEVING AND DIVISION OF DUST AND SOIL SAMPLES (L05)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedure for sieving samples of house dust and soil. The procedure is applicable to house dust samples taken using the HVS3 dust sampler, and to soil samples. Keywords: dust; soil. The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHE...

  15. Dust control for draglines

    SciTech Connect

    Grad, P.

    2009-09-15

    Monitoring dust levels inside draglines reveals room for improvement in how filtration systems are used and maintained. The Australian firm BMT conducted a field test program to measure airflow parameters, dust fallout rates and dust concentrations, inside and outside the machine house, on four draglines and one shovel. The study involved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The article describes how the tests were made and gives results. It was not possible to say which of the two main filtration systems currently used on Australian draglines - Dynavane or Floseps - performs better. It would appear that more frequent maintenance and cleaning would increase the overall filtration performance and systems could be susceptible to repeat clogging in a short time. 2 figs., 1 photos.

  16. Atmospheric Dust

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    Atmospheric dust storms are common in many of the world's semi-arid and arid regions and can impact local, regional, and even global weather, agriculture, public health, transportation, industry, and ocean health. This module takes a multifaceted approach to studying atmospheric dust storms. The first chapter examines the impacts of dust storms, the physical processes involved in their life cycle, their source regions, and their climatology. The second chapter explores satellite products (notably dust RGBs) and dust models used for dust detection and monitoring, and presents a process for forecasting dust storms. The third and final chapter of the module examines the major types of dust storms: those that are synoptically forced, such as pre- and post-frontal dust storms and those induced by large-scale trade winds; and those caused by mesoscale systems such as downslope winds, gap flow, convection, and inversion downburst storms.

  17. The Lead-Safe Certified Guide to Renovate Right

    MedlinePLUS

    ... get lead in their bodies from lead in soil or paint chips. Lead dust is often invisible. • ... from deteriorating lead-based paint and lead-contaminated soil that gets tracked into your home. This dust ...

  18. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--ANALYSIS OF DUST AND SOIL FOR LEAD, CADMIUM, AND CHROMIUM (RTI/ACS-AP-209-120)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This protocol describes methodology and quality control measures used in the analysis of dust wipes, wet wipes, soil, and the rug/mat for metals. The samples were extracted with a 10% or greater concentration of ultra-pure nitric acid and diluted to a final concentration of 2% or...

  19. Dust Storm

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Massive Dust Storm over Australia     View Larger Image ... and dry conditions caused a massive blanket of dust from Australia's Outback to spread eastward across Queensland and New South Wales. ...

  20. Dust World

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-02-23

    The increasing importance of understanding dust and its role in the Earth system is driving new research and an analysis of past data. This website offers research on the impact of dust forcings on the Earth system from dust storms. Analysis of dust from a whole Earth perspective incorporates connections and interconnections of dust in the atmospheres as well as how to mitigate the increase and severity of dust storms. This resource is sponsored by the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), a NASA, NSF and NOAA-supported program implemented by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) to improve the quality of geoscience instruction for pre-service and in-service K-12 teachers.

  1. Protoplanetary Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apai, D.´niel; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2014-02-01

    Preface; 1. Planet formation and protoplanetary dust Daniel Apai and Dante Lauretta; 2. The origins of protoplanetary dust and the formation of accretion disks Hans-Peter Gail and Peter Hope; 3. Evolution of protoplanetary disk structures Fred Ciesla and Cornelius P. Dullemond; 4. Chemical and isotopic evolution of the solar nebula and protoplanetary disks Dmitry Semenov, Subrata Chakraborty and Mark Thiemens; 5. Laboratory studies of simple dust analogs in astrophysical environments John R. Brucato and Joseph A. Nuth III; 6. Dust composition in protoplanetaty dust Michiel Min and George Flynn; 7. Dust particle size evolution Klaus M. Pontoppidan and Adrian J. Brearly; 8. Thermal processing in protoplanetary nebulae Daniel Apai, Harold C. Connolly Jr. and Dante S. Lauretta; 9. The clearing of protoplanetary disks and of the protosolar nebula Ilaira Pascucci and Shogo Tachibana; 10. Accretion of planetesimals and the formation of rocky planets John E. Chambers, David O'Brien and Andrew M. Davis; Appendixes; Glossary; Index.

  2. Protoplanetary Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apai, Dániel; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2010-01-01

    Preface; 1. Planet formation and protoplanetary dust Daniel Apai and Dante Lauretta; 2. The origins of protoplanetary dust and the formation of accretion disks Hans-Peter Gail and Peter Hope; 3. Evolution of protoplanetary disk structures Fred Ciesla and Cornelius P. Dullemond; 4. Chemical and isotopic evolution of the solar nebula and protoplanetary disks Dmitry Semenov, Subrata Chakraborty and Mark Thiemens; 5. Laboratory studies of simple dust analogs in astrophysical environments John R. Brucato and Joseph A. Nuth III; 6. Dust composition in protoplanetaty dust Michiel Min and George Flynn; 7. Dust particle size evolution Klaus M. Pontoppidan and Adrian J. Brearly; 8. Thermal processing in protoplanetary nebulae Daniel Apai, Harold C. Connolly Jr. and Dante S. Lauretta; 9. The clearing of protoplanetary disks and of the protosolar nebula Ilaira Pascucci and Shogo Tachibana; 10. Accretion of planetesimals and the formation of rocky planets John E. Chambers, David O'Brien and Andrew M. Davis; Appendixes; Glossary; Index.

  3. Atmospheric dust

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

    2003-01-01

    What is the purpose of dust in the atmosphere? On this activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, students read about the need for dust in the atmosphere as an agent for condensation. The addition of dust particles to the atmosphere by airplanes introduces students to the concept of cloud seeding and influencing the chance of rain in an area. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  4. Ireland House Scotland House

    E-print Network

    Wesley House Catholic Campus Ministry Lot 1 Lot 8 Lot 5 Lot 9Lot 6 Lot 33 Lot 11 Lot 16 Lot 28 Lot 56 Lot 37 Lot 18 Lot 47 Lot V1 Lot V2 Lot V3 Constant Center South Garage (C) Lot 19 Lot 29 Lot 58 Lot L Lot G Lot 38 Lot 10 Lot 44 Lot 49 Lot 32 Lot 43 Lot 41 Lot 35 Lot 34 43rd Street evAnatahwoP Lot 57 49th

  5. Housing and child health.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Michael; Baten, Ahmareen; Rosenthal, David G; Hoshino, Risa; Tohn, Ellen; Jacobs, David E

    2013-09-01

    The connection between housing and health is well established. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the child's home, such as cleanliness, moisture, pests, noise, accessibility, injury risks, and other forms of housing environmental quality, all have the potential to influence multiple aspects of the health and development of children. Basic sanitation, reduced household crowding, other improvements in housing and expanded, and improved housing regulations have led to advances in children's health. For example, lead poisoning prevention policies have profoundly reduced childhood lead exposure in the United States. This and many other successes highlight the health benefits for families, particularly children, by targeting interventions that reduce or eliminate harmful exposures in the home. Additionally, parental mental health problems, food insecurity, domestic violence, and the presence of guns in children's homes all are largely experienced by children in their homes, which are not as yet considered part of the Healthy Homes agenda. There is a large movement and now a regulatory structure being put in place for healthy housing, which is becoming closely wedded with environmental health, public health, and the practice of pediatrics. The importance of homes in children's lives, history of healthy homes, asthma, and exposures to lead, carbon monoxide, secondhand/thirdhand smoke, radon, allergy triggers is discussed, as well as how changes in ambient temperature, increased humidity, poor ventilation, water quality, infectious diseases, housing structure, guns, electronic media, family structure, and domestic violence all affect children's health. PMID:23953987

  6. Ceiling (attic) dust: a "museum" of contamination and potential hazard.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jeffrey J; Gulson, Brian L

    2005-10-01

    Ceiling or attic dusts provide an indirect measure of air pollution integrated over varying time periods. We undertook an investigation into the particle-size distributions and sources and exposure pathways of metals in ceiling dusts from 38 houses in the city of Sydney, Australia. The houses ranged in age from 4 to 106 years and were grouped into three settings: industrial, semi-industrial, and non-industrial. The main roof types were terracotta tile (n=23), cement tile (n=8), and corrugated iron (n=4), with two slate and one asbestos. Soils and rocks from the Sydney area were also analyzed to provide "background" values and allow the estimation of enrichment factors. The bulk of the dusts contained particles derived from soil of crustal origin and organic plant material, with an anthropogenic component estimated at up to 25%. Particle sizes from selected dust samples showed a bimodal distribution, and the volumes of fine dusts were 50% <63 microm, 30%<38 microm, and 7%<10 microm; the highest metal concentrations were in the finest fractions. The geometric mean concentrations of important anthropogenic-derived metals from the industrial setting were 17294 microg/g Zn, 1660 microg/g Pb, 111 microg/g Cr, 261 microg/g Cu, and 26 microg/g As. The metals Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn were consistently higher in the industrial settings than in the other settings. Median regression analyses showed that there were significant differences in the urban setting for the metals Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Enrichment factors for metals in the dust from the industrial site houses compared with background soils and rocks from the Sydney area were As, x 5; Cr, x2; Co, x3; Cu, x 12; Pb, x10; Sb, x 26; and Zn, 596. For the three roof types of terracotta tile, cement, and iron, median regression analyses showed that there were no significant effects with respect to age. Median regression analyses for terracotta tile, cement tile, and corrugated iron roofs showed a "roof" effect for Cu and V. Significant correlations (P0.03) were observed between most of the metals As-Cd-Cu-Pb-Sb-Zn, especially from the industrial settings. Pathways of dust exposure in this study are classified as being passive or active based upon the probable route of dust infiltration. Ceiling dusts pose a probable health hazard if the dust is disturbed and allowed to plume within the living areas of a dwelling, thereby exposing the occupants, especially children, to elevated levels of metals and fine particulates. Modeling shows that exposure to the elevated levels of Pb in dust could give rise to blood lead concentrations exceeding current guidelines for the industrial and semi-industrial areas. PMID:16194668

  7. Atmospheric Dust

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Millions of tons of dust are lifted from deserts annually, suspended in the atmosphere, and released to fall on the oceans, but scientists are a long way from understanding the impact of atmospheric dust on the climate and weather systems of Earth or on marine organisms. This radio broadcast explains how the nitrogen, phosphorus and iron released from dust boosts the growth of phytoplankton, which also soak up carbon dioxide and release more gases into the atmosphere. Better monitoring and more sophisticated sensors are giving us a more accurate picture of the dust in the atmosphere; the broadcast reports on investigations of dust from ice cores and on computer simulations of the connections between dust and climate. But the unpredictable nature of dust events makes it extremely difficult to determine their impact on the natural systems of Earth. There are discussions with geographers, oceanographers, environmentalists and climate modelers about atmospheric dust, one of the least understood and most contradictory components of the atmosphere. The broadcast is 28 minutes in length.

  8. Andromeda's dust

    SciTech Connect

    Draine, B. T.; Aniano, G. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Krause, Oliver; Groves, Brent; Sandstrom, Karin; Klaas, Ulrich; Linz, Hendrik; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Schmiedeke, Anika; Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Braun, Robert [CSIRO—Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NWS 1710 (Australia); Leroy, Adam, E-mail: draine@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: ganiano@ias.u-psud.fr [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory imaging of M31 is used, with a physical dust model, to construct maps of dust surface density, dust-to-gas ratio, starlight heating intensity, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance, out to R ? 25 kpc. The global dust mass is M {sub d} = 5.4 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ?}, the global dust/H mass ratio is M {sub d}/M {sub H} = 0.0081, and the global PAH abundance is (q {sub PAH}) = 0.039. The dust surface density has an inner ring at R = 5.6 kpc, a maximum at R = 11.2 kpc, and an outer ring at R ? 15.1 kpc. The dust/gas ratio varies from M {sub d}/M {sub H} ? 0.026 at the center to ?0.0027 at R ? 25 kpc. From the dust/gas ratio, we estimate the interstellar medium metallicity to vary by a factor ?10, from Z/Z {sub ?} ? 3 at R = 0 to ?0.3 at R = 25 kpc. The dust heating rate parameter (U) peaks at the center, with (U) ? 35, declining to (U) ? 0.25 at R = 20 kpc. Within the central kiloparsec, the starlight heating intensity inferred from the dust modeling is close to what is estimated from the stars in the bulge. The PAH abundance reaches a peak q {sub PAH} ? 0.045 at R ? 11.2 kpc. When allowance is made for the different spectrum of the bulge stars, q {sub PAH} for the dust in the central kiloparsec is similar to the overall value of q {sub PAH} in the disk. The silicate-graphite-PAH dust model used here is generally able to reproduce the observed dust spectral energy distribution across M31, but overpredicts 500 ?m emission at R ? 2-6 kpc, suggesting that at R = 2-6 kpc, the dust opacity varies more steeply with frequency (with ? ? 2.3 between 200 and 600 ?m) than in the model.

  9. Streptomycetes in house dust: associations with housing characteristics and endotoxin

    EPA Science Inventory

    In addition to mold, indoor bioaerosols also contain bacterial components that may have implications for human health. Endotoxin is a cell wall component in Gram-negative bacteria present at varying levels indoors that has been found to have respiratory health implications. Stre...

  10. A comparison of concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds detected in dust samples from various regions of the world

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Naspinski; Rebecca Lingenfelter; Leslie Cizmas; Ziad Naufal; Ling Yu He; Arif Islamzadeh; Zhiwen Li; Zhu Li; Thomas McDonald; K. C. Donnelly

    2008-01-01

    Settled house dust can be a source of human exposure to toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through non-dietary ingestion and dermal contact. Information regarding the concentrations of various contaminants in house dust would be useful in estimating the risk associated with exposure to these compounds. This study reports on the surface loading, variability and distribution of PAHs in settled house

  11. Working Towards Accreditation by the International Standards Organization 15189 Standard: How to Validate an In-house Developed Method an Example of Lead Determination in Whole Blood by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Jose Manuel; Vest, Philippe; Chianea, Denis; Renard, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Laboratories working towards accreditation by the International Standards Organization (ISO) 15189 standard are required to demonstrate the validity of their analytical methods. The different guidelines set by various accreditation organizations make it difficult to provide objective evidence that an in-house method is fit for the intended purpose. Besides, the required performance characteristics tests and acceptance criteria are not always detailed. The laboratory must choose the most suitable validation protocol and set the acceptance criteria. Therefore, we propose a validation protocol to evaluate the performance of an in-house method. As an example, we validated the process for the detection and quantification of lead in whole blood by electrothermal absorption spectrometry. The fundamental parameters tested were, selectivity, calibration model, precision, accuracy (and uncertainty of measurement), contamination, stability of the sample, reference interval, and analytical interference. We have developed a protocol that has been applied successfully to quantify lead in whole blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). In particular, our method is selective, linear, accurate, and precise, making it suitable for use in routine diagnostics. PMID:25187889

  12. Sahara Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... a large amount of Saharan dust aloft and transported the material westward over the Atlantic Ocean. These observations from the ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  13. California Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... when forced through narrow canyons and mountain passes. Due to Southern California's uneven terrain, the strength of the winds varies ... MISR category:  gallery date:  Feb 9, 2002 Images:  California Dust ...

  14. Dust Catchers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy P. Moreno

    2007-01-01

    In this activity related to indoor air pollution, learners build take-home dust catchers with wax paper and petroleum jelly. After a set monitoring period, learners conduct representative particle counts using a comparison grid. Learners will also graph the results. This activity can be enhanced by sharing the "Health Hazards of Lunar Dust" Podcast with learners (see related resource link). This resource includes background information, variation ideas and a handout for learners in both English and Spanish.

  15. Charged Dust Structures in Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, N. F.; Vladimirov, S. V.

    Recent advances in the study of collective effects and particle motions in plasma-dust crystals, ordered structures that form in the cathode sheath region of low temperature gaseous discharges, are presented. Plasma collective processes influence the arrangements and vibrations of dust particles in these Coulomb-lattice structures. One important effect is the wake potential formation due to ion flow, leading to the vertical alignment of dust grains in experiments. The oscillations of dust particles in the lattices are strongly affected by collective processes in the ambient plasma, in particular by the wake. Modes associated with vertical vibrations of dust grains are identified, and their dispersion characteristics are discussed. The modes can provide a useful tool for diagnostics in the sheath region of the discharge.

  16. Impact of a More Stringent Blood Lead Level Recommendation for Children (Ages 1-5): Vulnerabilities Related to Housing, Food Security, Vitamins, and Environmental Toxicants

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adverse health effects of lead (Pb) exposure in young children are well known. Non-Hispanic black children historically have higher blood Pb levels (BLL) compared to Mexican-Americans and non- Hispanic white children (CDC-MMWR). In the past, BLL tests below 10 µg/dL m...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH VOLUME SURFACE SAMPLER FOR PESTICIDES IN FLOOR DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high volume surface sampler (HVS2) for the collection of house dust and the semivolatile organics (including pesticides) in house dust has been designed and tested. The sampler consists of an intake nozzle, cyclone, and filter. The position of the nozzle is regulated by the sta...

  18. FIELD EVALUATION OF A HIGH VOLUME SURFACE SAMPLER FOR PESTICIDES IN FLOOR DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    House dust and the poullutants carried with it are potentially important contributors to total exposure through the pathways of ingestion, inhalation, and skin penetration, especially for small children. esticides may be one of the more important contaminants of house dust. his r...

  19. [Biological effect of wood dust].

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Doma?ska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mo?ocznik, A

    1993-01-01

    The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis. PMID:8231799

  20. Contrasting Immunological Effects of Two Disparate Dusts – Preliminary Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harri Alenius; Jaakko Pakarinen; Ossian Saris; Maria A. Andersson; Marina Leino; Kristiina Sirola; Marja-Leena Majuri; Jari Niemelä; Sampsa Matikainen; Henrik Wolff; Leena von Hertzen; Mika Mäkelä; Tari Haahtela; Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Modern lifestyle and urbanization have been associated with a raised risk for atopic diseases whereas early and long-term exposure to a farm environment confers protection against atopic sensitization. Immunomodulatory potential and microbiological characteristics of settled airborne dust from an urban house and a barn were examined. Methods: Pulmonary inflammation was induced in mice by repeated intranasal administration of dusts.

  1. Contributions of Paint and Soil to Pb in Household Dust Wipes: An XAS Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J. W.; Amaya, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Speciation of Pb by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicated that Pb compounds associated with lead-based paint accounted for perhaps half of the Pb in 24 household dust wipes collected in El Paso, Texas. Soil-derived, sorbed Pb, likely Pb-humate, was also a major Pb species in many of the dust wipes. Household dust wipes are a standard technique for evaluating health risks of Pb to children, particularly toddlers, in public and private housing. The level of Pb in the wipes does not, however, indicate whether the source of the Pb is the house itself (peeling or powdering interior or exterior paint) or external, from contaminated soil or airborne particulate matter brought into the house by wind or foot traction. Understanding the origin of Pb in household dust is important in remediation: cover the old paint or remove the yard soil. XAS speciation can assist in understanding the source of Pb in household dust. The presence of significant Pb-humate requires a soil source, and suggests the need for soil remediation. Such species of Pb as hydrocerussite, lead sulfate, lead silicate, and lead chromate can be presumed to be components of lead-based paint. These may represent interior and/or exterior paint and thus do not uniquely identify the locus of the Pb source(s). Pb L-III edge XAFS data were collected on beam lines 7-3, 10-2, and 11-2 at SSRL at typical conditions of 3 GeV field and 80-200 mA current, using Si(220) water- or liquid-nitrogen-cooled monochromator crystals. Data were collected at ambient temperature in fluorescence mode using a 13- or 30-element Ge detector with a Se 3 or 6 filter and Soller slits to reduce scattered radiation. This publication was made possible by grant numbers 1RO1-ES11367 and 1 S11 ES013339-01A1 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH. Portions of this research were carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, a national user facility operated by Stanford University on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  2. Pesticide loadings of select organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in urban public housing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhona Julien; Gary Adamkiewicz; Jonathan I. Levy; Deborah Bennett; Marcia Nishioka; John D. Spengler

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the magnitude and distribution of pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticide loadings within public housing dwellings in Boston, Massachusetts and compared the results using various sampling methods. We collected dust matrices from living room and kitchen in 42 apartments and analyzed for eleven pyrethoids (e.g., permethrin and cyfluthrin) and two organophosphates (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) in house dust using GC\\/MS. Agreement

  3. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--DUST SAMPLING WORKPLAN (RTI/ACS-AP-209-020)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This procedure describes the work plan for collecting house dust samples. Wipe samples were collected to determine the concentrations (ug/g) and loadings (ug/cm2) of trace metals in house dust. The selection of the surfaces from which dust was collected was based upon the availab...

  4. Comet Gas and Dust Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Allmen, Paul A.; Lee, Seungwon

    2010-01-01

    This software models the gas and dust dynamics of comet coma (the head region of a comet) in order to support the Microwave Instrument for Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO) project. MIRO will study the evolution of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's coma system. The instrument will measure surface temperature, gas-production rates and relative abundances, and velocity and excitation temperatures of each species along with their spatial temporal variability. This software will use these measurements to improve the understanding of coma dynamics. The modeling tool solves the equation of motion of a dust particle, the energy balance equation of the dust particle, the continuity equation for the dust and gas flow, and the dust and gas mixture energy equation. By solving these equations numerically, the software calculates the temperature and velocity of gas and dust as a function of time for a given initial gas and dust production rate, and a dust characteristic parameter that measures the ability of a dust particle to adjust its velocity to the local gas velocity. The software is written in a modular manner, thereby allowing the addition of more dynamics equations as needed. All of the numerical algorithms are added in-house and no third-party libraries are used.

  5. Lead contamination in French children's homes and environment.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Jean-Paul; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe; Etchevers, Anne; Bretin, Philippe; Douay, Francis; Sébille, Véronique; Bellanger, Lise; Mandin, Corinne

    2012-07-01

    Lead in homes is a well-known source of childhood lead exposure, which is still of concern due to the health effects of low lead doses. This study aims to describe lead contamination in the homes of children aged 6 months to 6 years in France (without overseas). Between October 2008 and August 2009, 484 housing units were investigated. Lead in tap water and total and leachable lead levels from floor dust, outdoor soils and paint chips were measured. X-ray fluorescence measurements were carried out on non-metallic and metallic substrates. Nationwide results are provided. The indoor floor dust lead (PbD) geometric mean (GM) was 8.8 ?g/m² (0.8 ?g/ft²) and 6.8 ?g/m² (0.6 ?g/ft²) for total and leachable lead respectively; 0.21% of homes had an indoor PbD loading above 430.5 ?g/m² (40 ?g/ft²). The outdoor play area concentration GM was 33.5 mg/kg and 21.7 mg/kg in total and leachable lead respectively; 1.4% of concentrations were higher than or equal to 400 mg/kg. Outdoor floor PbD GM was 44.4 ?g/m² (4.1 ?g/ft²) that was approximately 3.2 times higher than the GM of indoor PbD. Lead-based paint (LBP) was present in 25% of dwellings, LBP on only non-metallic substrates was present in 19% of homes and on metallic substrates in 10% of dwellings. The GM of lead concentrations in tap water was below 1 ?g/L; 58% of concentrations were lower than 1 ?g/L and 2.9% were higher than or equal to 10 ?g/L. The age cut-off for homes with lead would be 1974 for paint and 1993 for indoor floor dust. This study provides, for the first time, a look at the state of lead contamination to which children are exposed in French housing. Moreover, it provides policy makers an estimate of the number of French dwellings sheltering children where abatement should be conducted. PMID:22551852

  6. 40 CFR 745.225 - Accreditation of training programs: target housing and child occupied facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...sampling or testing. (v) Paint, dust, and soil sampling methodologies...environmental lead contamination such as paint, surface dust and soil, water, air, packaging, and food...potential sources of lead-based paint hazards. (v) Lead...

  7. 40 CFR 745.225 - Accreditation of training programs: target housing and child occupied facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...sampling or testing. (v) Paint, dust, and soil sampling methodologies...environmental lead contamination such as paint, surface dust and soil, water, air, packaging, and food...potential sources of lead-based paint hazards. (v) Lead...

  8. 40 CFR 745.225 - Accreditation of training programs: target housing and child occupied facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...sampling or testing. (v) Paint, dust, and soil sampling methodologies...environmental lead contamination such as paint, surface dust and soil, water, air, packaging, and food...potential sources of lead-based paint hazards. (v) Lead...

  9. Dust cyclone technology for gins – A literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dust cyclone research leading to more efficient designs has helped the cotton ginning industry to comply with increasingly stringent air quality regulations governing fine particulate emissions. Future changes in regulations may require additional improvements in dust cyclone efficacy. This inter-...

  10. Environmental chemicals mediated the effect of old housing on adult health problems: US NHANES, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy; Bramley, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Housing conditions affect occupants continuously, and health interventions have shown a positive association between housing investment or improvement and occupant's health. However, the sources of the housing problems were less understood. Since it was observed that lead dust and chloroanisoles released from housing (materials) as indoor pollutants affected child's health, we now aimed to examine the relationships among built year, environmental chemicals and individual health in adults in a national and population-based setting. Data were retrieved from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2010, including demographics, housing characteristics, self-reported health status, biomarkers and blood and urinary chemical concentrations. Adults aged 20 and above were included for statistical analysis (n?=?5,793). Analysis involved chi-square test, t test, and survey-weighted general linear regression and logistic regression modelling. People who resided in older housing built before 1990 tended to report chronic bronchitis, liver problems, stroke, heart failure, diabetes, asthma and emphysema. Higher values in HDL cholesterol, blood lead and blood cadmium and having positive responses of hepatitis A, B, C and E antibodies among occupants were also observed. Furthermore, higher environmental chemical concentrations related to old housing including urinary cadmium, cobalt, platinum, mercury, 2,5-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol concentrations and mono-cyclohexyl phthalate and mono-isobutyl phthalate metabolites were shown in occupants as well. Older housing (?30 years) seemed to contribute to the amount of environmental chemicals that affected human health. Regular monitoring, upgrading and renovation of housing to remove environmental chemicals and policy to support people in deprived situations against environmental injustice would be needed. PMID:25138559

  11. Heavy metal contamination in dusts and stream sediments in the Taejon area, Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-W. Kim; J.-H. Myung; J. S. Ahn; H.-T. Chon

    1998-01-01

    Associated with the rapid pace of urbanization and industrialization is the increase of automobile emissions, factory emissions, and industrial wastewater. Heavy metal contamination from these point sources has received much attention in the Taejon area, Korea. In order to investigate the degree of heavy metal contamination, 81 road dusts, 79 house dusts, 40 indoor dusts of subway stations and 21

  12. House Warming

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television

    2013-01-01

    In this physical sciences activity, learners explore how passive solar design increases energy efficiency. Learners test paperboard models of different building designs to discover how the design affects the amount of heat that enters the house.

  13. Solving the lead dilemma

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S. (Conservation Law Foundation, Boston, MA (US))

    1989-10-01

    This paper discusses the widespread problem of lead poisoning among children. The perils of deleading are addressed and several methods of deleading currently in use are detailed and analyzed. These include the traditional method of burning or sanding off leaded paint, the Baltimore Model involving extensive refabrication of infected dwellings, and encapsulation by which leaded surfaces in the home are covered to prevent the escape of lead dust.

  14. The retrieval of optical properties from terrestrial dust devil vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Jonathon P.; Patel, Manish R.; Lewis, Stephen R.

    2014-03-01

    The retrieval of the optical properties of desert aerosols in suspension within terrestrial dust devils is presented with possible future application for martian dust devils. The transmission of light through dust devil vortices was measured in situ to obtain the wavelength-dependent attenuation by the aerosols. A Monte Carlo model was applied to each dust devil with the retrieved optical properties corresponding to the set of parameters which lead to the best model representation of the observed transmission spectra. The retrieved optical properties agree well with single scattering theory and are consistent with previous studies of dust aerosols. The enhanced absorption observed for dust devils with a higher tangential wind speed, and in comparison to atmospheric aerosol studies, suggests that larger dust particles are lofted and suspended around dust devil vortices. This analysis has shown that the imaginary refractive indices (and thus the optical properties of the suspended dust) are generally overestimated when these larger dust grains entrained by dust devils are neglected. This will lead to an overestimation of the amount of solar radiation absorbed by the small particles that remain in suspension after the dust devil terminates. It is also demonstrated that a 10% uncertainty in the particle size distribution of the dust entrained in the dust devils can result in a 50% increase in the predicted amount of incident solar radiation absorbed by the dust particles once the dust devil has terminated. The method used here provides the capability to retrieve the optical properties of the dust entrained in martian dust devils by taking advantage of transits over surface spacecraft which are capable of making optical measurements at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. Our results suggest that we would observed higher absorption at all wavelengths for dust particles entrained in dust devil vortices compared to the ubiquitous dust haze.

  15. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTION OF SOIL/HOUSE DUST FOR GC/MS ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDES (BCO-L-14.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe procedures for extracting and preparing dust or soil samples for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of pesticides. This procedure was followed to ensure consistent data retrieval during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "...

  16. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTION OF SOIL AND HOUSE DUST SAMPLES FOR GC/MS ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDE AND PAH (BCO-L-28.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe procedures for extracting and preparing a dust or soil sample for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This procedure was followed to ensure consistent data retrieval durin...

  17. Interactive Soil Dust Aerosol Model in the GISS GCM. Part 1; Sensitivity of the Soil Dust Cycle to Radiative Properties of Soil Dust Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlwitz, Jan; Tegen, Ina; Miller, Ron L.

    2000-01-01

    The sensitivity of the soil dust aerosol cycle to the radiative forcing by soil dust aerosols is studied. Four experiments with the NASA/GISS atmospheric general circulation model, which includes a soil dust aerosol model, are compared, all using a prescribed climatological sea surface temperature as lower boundary condition. In one experiment, dust is included as dynamic tracer only (without interacting with radiation), whereas dust interacts with radiation in the other simulations. Although the single scattering albedo of dust particles is prescribed to be globally uniform in the experiments with radiatively active dust, a different single scattering albedo is used in those experiments to estimate whether regional variations in dust optical properties, corresponding to variations in mineralogical composition among different source regions, are important for the soil dust cycle and the climate state. On a global scale, the radiative forcing by dust generally causes a reduction in the atmospheric dust load corresponding to a decreased dust source flux. That is, there is a negative feedback in the climate system due to the radiative effect of dust. The dust source flux and its changes were analyzed in more detail for the main dust source regions. This analysis shows that the reduction varies both with the season and with the single scattering albedo of the dust particles. By examining the correlation with the surface wind, it was found that the dust emission from the Saharan/Sahelian source region and from the Arabian peninsula, along with the sensitivity of the emission to the single scattering albedo of dust particles, are related to large scale circulation patterns, in particular to the trade winds during Northern Hemisphere winter and to the Indian monsoon circulation during summer. In the other regions, such relations to the large scale circulation were not found. There, the dependence of dust deflation to radiative forcing by dust particles is probably dominated by physical processes with short time scales. The experiments show that dust radiative forcing can lead to significant changes both in the soil dust cycle and in the climate state. To estimate dust concentration and radiative forcing by dust more accurately, dust size distributions and dust single scattering albedo in the model should be a function of the source region, because dust concentration and climate response to dust radiative forcing are sensitive to dust radiative parameters.

  18. Determination of numbers of lead-exposed American children as a function of lead source: integrated summary of a report to the U.S. Congress on childhood lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mushak, P; Crocetti, A F

    1989-12-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Congress [Section 118(f), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)] directed the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to provide to it a quantitative assessment of the contributions of various sources of lead to childhood exposure. We provided both a quantitative response to the mandate and a critique of low-level lead sources for U.S. population segments. We also present here an integrated assessment of major and low-level lead sources. Significant sources of lead in childhood exposure include lead in paint, dust, soil, and drinking water. Approximately 6 million U.S. children less than 7 years old reside in the oldest housing, with highest exposure risk due to leaded paint. About 2 million in deteriorated units are at particularly high risk for exposure with ca. 1.2 million children in oldest, deteriorated housing estimated to have blood lead (PbB) levels above 15 micrograms/dl. Soil and dust lead are potential sources of exposure for 6-12 million children. Residential tap water lead is a measurable source for ca. 3.8 million children, of whom the U.S. EPA estimates ca. 240,000 have water-specific exposures at toxic levels. Leaded gasoline combustion mainly in past years has produced, and will continue to produce into the 1990s, significant numbers of exposed children with toxicologically elevated PbBs. For 1990, 1.25 million children will have their PbBs fall below 15 micrograms/dl. Food lead can cause significant exposure in certain cases. PMID:2684625

  19. Status and Future of Dust Storm Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been given to the large amounts of airborne dust derived from the deserts and desertified areas of the world and transported over scales ranging from local to global. This dust can have positive and negative impacts on human activities and the environment, including modifying cloud formation, fertilizing the ocean, degrading air quality, reducing visibility, transporting pathogens, and inducing respiratory problems. The atmospheric radiative forcing by the dust has implications for global climate change and presently is one of the largest unknowns in climate models. These uncertainties have lead to much of the funding for research into the sources, properties, and fate of atmospheric dust. As a result of advances in numerical weather prediction over the past decades and the recent climate research, we are now in a position to produce operational dust storm forecasts. International organizations and national agencies are developing programs for dust forecasting. The approaches and applications of dust detection and forecasting are as varied as the nations that are developing the models. The basic components of a dust forecasting system include atmospheric forcing, dust production, and dust microphysics. The forecasting applications include air and auto traffic safety, shipping, health, national security, climate and weather. This presentation will summarize the methods of dust storm forecasting and illustrate the various applications. The major remaining uncertainties (e.g. sources and initialization) will be discussed as well as approaches for solving those problems.

  20. Star dust.

    PubMed

    Ney, E P

    1977-02-11

    Infrared astronomy has shown that certain classes of stars are abundant producers of refractory grains, which condense in their atmospheres and are blown into interstellar space by the radiation pressure of these stars. Metallic silicates of the kind that produce terrestrial planets are injected by the oxygen-rich stars and carbon and its refractories by carbon stars. Much of the interstellar dust may be produced by this mechanism. A number of "infrared stars" are completely surrounded by their own dust, and a few of these exhibit a unique morphology that suggests the formation of a planetary system or a stage in the evolution of a planetary nebula. Certain novae also condense grains, which are blown out in their shells. In our own solar system, comets are found to contain the same silicates that are present elsewhere in the galaxy, suggesting that these constituents were present in the primeval solar nebula. PMID:17732279

  1. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zhao; A. J. A. Aarnink; Jong de M. C. M; N. W. M. Ogink; P. W. G. Groot Koerkamp

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in reducing emissions of airborne dust, total bacteria, ammonia, and CO2 from pig houses in winter.

  2. Metal Dusting of Heat-Resistant Alloys

    E-print Network

    Al-Meshari, Abdulaziz I

    Metal dusting leads to disintegration of such alloys as iron and nickel-based into a “dust” of particulate metal, metal carbide, carbon, and/or oxide. It occurs in strongly carburising environments at 400-900°C. Literature survey has shown...

  3. PORTABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEASURING LEADING IN DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  4. Motion of cometary dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Fulle

    2004-01-01

    On timescales of days to months, the motion of cometary dust is mainly affected by solar radiation pressure, which determines dust dynamics according to the particle-scattering crosssection. Within this scenario, the motion of the dust creates structures referred to as dust tails. Tail photometry, depending on the dust cross-section, allows us to infer from model runs the best available outputs

  5. Affordable housing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book is designed to assist in implementing a housing affordability program by supporting the use of energy efficient mortgages. The information contained in this book can be applied to many aspects of real estate programs which utility companies have developed. Included are: planning material and worksheets; support material that includes presentation scripts, overheads, slides; and fact sheets.

  6. Housing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Georgann

    1985-01-01

    Building specifications for birdhouses (nesting boxes) are given for 11 species (chickadee, titmouse, nuthatch, Carolina wren, house wren, downy woodpecker, hairy woodpecker, flicker, bluebird, screech owl, and wood duck) including length, width, depth, entrance diameter, and height above the ground. Pointers for construction, materials, and…

  7. There is No Housing Bubble

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James F. Smith

    2005-01-01

    There is no evidence of a housing “bubble” in the United States and housing demand should stay strong for years to come. Three major factors lead to this conclusion. First, the 77 million baby boomers are approaching the peak home ownership ages of 65-75 (over 83.0 percent versus a national average in 2004 of 69.0 percent). Second, immigrants, a growing

  8. Galaxy formation by mock gravity with dust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Boqi; Field, George B.

    1989-01-01

    Absorbing dust immersed in an isotropic radiation field experiences an attractive force, 'mock gravity', due to mutual shadowing, and the resulting mock gravitational instability can lead to clumping of dust and gas. The effects of mock gravity in the pre-Galactic universe are studied here, including imcomplete coupling of dust and gas, finite gas pressure, radiative drag both by the radiation that causes the instability and by the cosmic microwave background radiation, and finite albedo of dust, all of which have been neglected in the previous calculations. It is concluded that the radiation field implied by the submillimeter background is not strong enough to cause clumping of gas on scales of interest.

  9. Lagrangian-Eulerian Micromotion and Wave Heating in Nonlinear Self-Excited Dust-Acoustic Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-T. Liao; L.-W. Teng; C.-Y. Tsai; C.-W. Io; I Lin

    2008-01-01

    We investigate particle-wave microdynamics in the large amplitude self-excited dust acoustic wave at the discrete level through direct visualization. The wave field induces dust oscillations which in turn sustain wave propagation. In the regular wave with increasing wave amplitude, dust-wave interaction with uncertain temporary crest trapping and dust-dust interaction lead to the transition from cyclic to disordered dust motion associated

  10. Chemical Speciation of Heavy Metals in Stainless Steel Plant Dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guojun Ma; Wei Fan; Hui Tang; Wei Wang; Weihou Su

    2010-01-01

    The leaching tests and the sequential extraction procedure of heavy metals in the stainless steel plant dusts were studied. The results show that the total Cr and Cr (VI) content in argon oxygen decarburization converter dust (AODD), and the concentrations of Cd and Zn in electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) exceed the national standards. Lead is the most extractable element

  11. China Dust and Sand

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust and Sand Sweep Over Northeast China     View Larger Image ... these views of the dust and sand that swept over northeast China on March 10, 2004. Information on the height of the dust and an ...

  12. Inhaled dust and disease

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    Asbestos is not the only dust with known pathogenic effects: metal, china clay, talc, and cotton are some of the many other sources of hazardous dust. This work provides research on the hazards of inhale dust, describing the progress of knowledge in the field and areas in which future studies are needed. Discussions cover the properties of hazardous dust materials, dust-related diseases and experimental research, related occupational and environmental hazards, epidemiological evidence quantifying the hazards of dust sources, and more.

  13. Lunar Dust 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Largely due to rock and soil samples returned during the Apollo program, much has been learned about the composition and properties of lunar regolith. Although, for the most part, the mineral composition resembles terrestrial minerals, the characteristics of the lunar environment have led to very different weathering processes. These result in substantial differences in the particle shapes, particle size distributions, and surface chemistry. These differences lead to non-intuitive adhesion, abrasion, and possible health properties that will pose challenges to future lunar missions. An overview of lunar dust composition and properties will be given with a particular emphasis on possible health effects.

  14. Analytical evaluation of the Tsytovich-Angelis dust-dust collision functions arising from the kinetic theory of dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mamedov, B. A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat 60100 (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    An efficient analytical calculation approach is presented for the Tsytovich-Angelis dust-dust collision functions consisting of the kinetic theory of dusty plasmas. This method is based on the use of binomial expansion theorem for the analytical representation of the dust-dust collision functions. The analytical calculation offers the advantage that leads to a mathematical expression, which allows the direct calculation of the dust-dust collision functions. The proposed algorithm is implemented numerically using a computer program, and its convergence properties are investigated.

  15. Dust agglomeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    John Marshall, an investigator at Ames Research Center and a principal investigator in the microgravity fluid physics program, is studying the adhesion and cohesion of particles in order to shed light on how granular systems behave. These systems include everything from giant dust clouds that form planets to tiny compressed pellets, such as the ones you swallow as tablets. This knowledge should help us control the grains, dust, and powders that we encounter or use on a daily basis. Marshall investigated electrostatic charge in microgravity on the first and second U.S. Microgravity Laboratory shuttle missions to see how grains aggregate, or stick together. With gravity's effects eliminated on orbit, Marshall found that the grains of sand that behaved ever so freely on Earth now behaved like flour. They would just glom together in clumps and were quite difficult to disperse. That led to an understanding of the prevalence of the electrostatic forces. The granules wanted to aggregate as little chains, like little hairs, and stack end to end. Some of the chains had 20 or 30 grains. This phenomenon indicated that another force, what Marshall believes to be an electrostatic dipole, was at work.(The diagram on the right emphasizes the aggregating particles in the photo on the left, taken during the USML-2 mission in 1995.)

  16. Canyon Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03682 Canyon Dust

    These dust slides are located on the wall of Thithonium Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -4.1N, Longitude 275.7E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Interstellar Dust: Contributed Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. (editor); Allamandola, Louis J. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    A coherent picture of the dust composition and its physical characteristics in the various phases of the interstellar medium was the central theme. Topics addressed included: dust in diffuse interstellar medium; overidentified infrared emission features; dust in dense clouds; dust in galaxies; optical properties of dust grains; interstellar dust models; interstellar dust and the solar system; dust formation and destruction; UV, visible, and IR observations of interstellar extinction; and quantum-statistical calculations of IR emission from highly vibrationally excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules.

  18. Conformal House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryttov, Thomas A.; Sannino, Francesco

    We investigate the gauge dynamics of nonsupersymmetric SU(N) gauge theories featuring the simultaneous presence of fermionic matter transforming according to two distinct representations of the underlying gauge group. We bound the regions of flavors and colors which can yield a physical infrared fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms.

  19. Smart Houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

  20. Freedom House

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 1941, Freedom House was organized by prominent Americans who were concerned with mounting threats to peace and democracy. Today, as in previous decades, their mission includes promoting "the growth of freedom by encouraging U.S. policymakers, international institutions, and the governments of established democracies to adopt policies that advance human rights and democracy around the world." First-time visitors may wish to begin by looking to the right-hand side of the homepage to the "Around the World" section. Here visitors can learn about the work that the Freedom House organization is doing in other parts of the world, and more importantly, they can read their in-house reports on democratic movements in different countries. Moving along, the left-hand side of the page includes links to their other publications, which include the "Nations In Transit" series. This particular series takes a long view on political reform in the former Communist states of Europe and Eurasia. To really get a full appreciation of the site's contents and scope requires several visits, but it should have no problem holding the attention of public policy types and scholars.

  1. Concentrations of lead and mercury in multimedia samples from homes near the former Clark Air Base, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Riederer, Anne M; Shine, James P; Danan, Lieza M; Ford, Timothy E

    2005-04-01

    We measured lead and mercury in samples collected from 31 homes in communities near the former Clark Air Base, Philippines during May and October 2002. Sample media included water used for drinking and cooking, house dust and entryway soil. Composite samples of 15 food items purchased at local markets were also collected. Samples were analyzed for total lead (Pb) and total mercury (Hg) to evaluate the relative importance of each media to residential exposure concentrations in the community adjacent to Clark (Community A) versus a control community 5 km away (Community B). In general, we measured low (e.g. background) to undetectable levels of the target analytes in all media sampled with two important exceptions. First, the Hg concentrations we measured in canned mackerel composites, which were within the range reported for mackerel from other locations worldwide, may pose a risk to pregnant women who are frequent consumers (e.g. one or more cans per day). Second, we measured Pb above the USEPA residential screening concentration (400 mug/g) in dust and soil from two homes, illustrating the need for periodic residential lead monitoring in these and other communities in the Philippines. We found no significant difference between Communities A and B with respect to Pb and Hg concentrations in water or food, although we were not able to detect very low levels of Pb in most of the foods we sampled because of trace Pb contamination added during sample homogenization. Although the Pb levels we measured in dust and soil from Community A homes were higher on average than Community B homes, the levels in both communities were low (e.g. background) thus we did not investigate the difference further. To our knowledge, these are the first reported measurements of Pb in house dust in the Philippines. The concentrations of Pb we measured in house dust were significantly higher than those in entryway soil from both communities, adding empirical support to the assertion that yard soil should not be considered a proxy for house dust in exposure studies in the Philippines or elsewhere. PMID:15833241

  2. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE AND HILLMAN FAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE AND HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHWEST The building on the left, the New Fan House, houses a Corliss steam engine which powered a Buffalo Forge Company single inlet Duplex Conoidal centrifugal exhausted fan through a metal updraft chimney. Part of the brick airway leading to the Baltimore shaft is visible to its right rear. The Hillman Fan House, on the right, houses the 1883 double inlet Guibal fan. The south entry, the curve of the fan housing, and brick updraft chimney are visible in this view. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  3. Assessing the human health risk for aluminium, zinc and lead in outdoor dusts collected in recreational sites used by children at an industrial area in the western part of the Bassin Minier de Provence, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, A. P.; Patinha, C.; Noack, Y.; Robert, S.; Dias, A. C.; Ferreira da Silva, E.

    2014-11-01

    The Western part of the “Bassin Minier de Provence”, a former coal mining area, is still occupied by old polluting industries such as a coal-fired power plant and an alumina factory. In 2011 a preliminary outdoor dust survey was carried out in the area as the first step to an exposure and health risk assessment study. Dust samples were taken at 19 sites distributed across the study area, depending on the location of recreational areas used by children to play outdoors. Pseudo-total concentrations of Al, Zn and Pb were determined by ICP-MS and bioaccessible concentrations were estimated using the Unified BARGE Method. Exposure was calculated according to a scenario evaluation approach for dust ingestion and dermal contact routes. Estimation of health risk for exposure to Al, Zn and Pb in outdoor dust was based on the summation of individual risks for the oral and dermal routes. Results show that Al occurs in very high concentrations but mainly innon-bioaccessible forms, especially near the alumina plant. Zinc and Pb occur in low-average levels but mainly in bioaccessible forms. The estimated potential risk decreases according to Pb ? Al > Zn and is lower for the ingestion route. The preliminary results presented in this study indicate that, for Al and Zn, the outdoor dusts of the BMP represent an acceptable risk to children's health. However, the estimated hazard quotients suggest that there is some health risk associated to environmental Pb.

  4. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p < 0.05) when compared to other methods. The two physical methods, steam vapor and vacuuming, have no statistically significant efficacy in inactivating dust mite allergens (p = 0.084), but have higher efficacy when compared to the chemical method on dust mite allergens (p = 0.002). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy for reducing mold in carpet (p > 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment. PMID:24467247

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS OF LEAD BURDENS IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead burdens in children were studied in relation to exposure to lead from soil and from automobile traffic in Charleston, SC. Preschool aged black children exposed to a variety of soil leads and traffic volumes were recruited in a house-to-house survey. Data regarding soil, traf...

  6. Metal concentrations and distribution in the household, stairs and entryway dust of some Egyptian homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Salwa Kamal Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Household, stairs and entryway dust samples were collected from 16 houses distributed across Greater Cairo by using vacuum cleaner and sweeping methods during summer season of 2009. Lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) were measured in different dust particle sizes: <38 ?m, >38-45 ?m and >45-63 ?m. The highest average concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Cu, and Cr in different particle sizes were found in entryway followed by household and stairs. Al, Fe and Zn concentrations followed the pattern of entryway > stairs > household. Pb, Ni, Cd, Zn, Co and Cr were found in significantly (p < 0.01) higher concentrations in dust of the small particle size (<38 ?m), whereas Al, Fe and Cu were detected in significantly (p < 0.01) higher concentrations in dust of the large particle size (>45-63 ?m). The average concentrations of the individual metals in dust of the small particle size (<38 ?m) were 268, 196.4 and 254.49 ?g gm-1 for Pb, 49.6, 43.5 and 46.66 ?g gm-1 for Ni, 2.86, 2.15 and 2.71 ?g gm-1 for Cd, 4340, 3796 and 2602 ?g gm-1 for Al, 2860, 2200 and 2004 ?g gm-1 for Fe, 209.25, 152.3 and 103.26 ?g gm-1 for Zn, 4.1, 2.88 and 1.96 ?g gm-1 for Co, 85.99, 74.06 and 83.17 ?g gm-1 for Cr and 168.2, 156.5 and 122.02 ?g gm-1 for Cu in entryway, stairs and household, respectively. The mean concentrations of Cu and Pb in the entryway, stairs and household dust exceeded the maximum permissible limit 100 ?g gm-1 for Cu and Pb in soil. The highest concentrations of Pb, Cd, Co and Ni were found in urban areas, Al and Fe in the residential areas, and Cu, Zn and Cr in the residential near to industrial area. Significant positive correlation (p < 0.001) were found between the metal concentrations in household and entryway dust, indicating that the metals in household dust may be derived from outdoor sources in addition to dust generated within the house itself. The contribution of anthropogenic sources, especially traffic emission, to metal levels in household, entryway and stairs dust was reflected by the high values of enrichment factors for Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu and Ni and Cr in fine dust particle compared to the average crustal composition. Insignificant positive correlation coefficients were found between the concentrations of Pb and other metals in household dust. However, the correlation coefficients between the concentrations of Cd, Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe were statistically significant.

  7. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M. (Benton City, WA)

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  8. Renovate Right: Important Lead Hazard Information for Families, Child Care Providers and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Lead can affect children's brains and developing nervous systems, causing reduced IQ, learning disabilities, and behavioral problems. Lead is also harmful to adults. Lead in dust is the most common way people are exposed to lead. People can also get lead in their bodies from lead in soil or paint chips. Lead dust is often invisible. Lead-based…

  9. Faculty Housing Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira

    1982-01-01

    Some of the creative financing programs currently used to provide faculty housing assistance in California and elsewhere in the United States are described. Generally, the programs fall into one of four categories: rental housing, owner housing, mortgage assistance, and housing stipends. Institutions with a comprehensive housing program often have…

  10. Happy Birthday White House!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Doris; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An integrated elementary teaching package offers interesting facts about presidents and the White House. Cross-curricular activities focus on architecture, presidential birthplaces, portraits, communications, science, technology, touring the White House, children in the White House, a day in the life of the White House, and a White House birthday…

  11. Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Crater wall dust avalanches in southern Arabia Terra.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 10.3, Longitude 24.5 East (335.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  12. Evolution of Dust Structures from Room to Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, S. N.; Asinovskii, E. I.; Kirillin, A. V.; Markovets, V. V.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya Str. 13/19, build 2, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Maiorov, S. A. [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Str. 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-07

    In this work dusty plasma of dc glow discharge at the temperatures in the range of 4.2-300 K was experimentally and numerically investigated. As it was shown in the experiments, the deep cooling of discharge tube walls leads to dramatic change of dusty plasma properties. In particular, sufficient increase of dust particle kinetic temperature (by about an order) and dust density (by several orders) was observed at low (cryogenic) temperatures. At 4.2 K, this can lead to the forming of a super dense dust structures with novel properties. Numerical simulations of charging process, dust charge fluctuation and screening of dust particle charge in plasma were made in dependence with the neutral gas temperature and dust density. The main attention was given to proper ion-atom collision analysis that allows us to investigate mechanisms of dust structure transformation observed in the cryogenic experiments.

  13. In-situ dust detection as a tool to study dust-plasma interactions in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srama, R.; Hsu, H. W.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Postberg, F.; Kempf, S.

    2014-12-01

    The unique results of the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer onboard Cassini revealed the potential of in-situ dust detection for the study of dust-plasma interactions. In-situ techniques are charge induction, impact ionization, momentum transfer, foil depolarization, light scattering or mass spectrometry. Modern instruments like dust telescopes or the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard Cassini combine different methods in one sensor. This paper gives an overview about in-situ dust measurements in space using direct detection methods. A focus is given to charge induction and impact ionization and their measurement thresholds are described. Major CDA discoveries are summarized and new results of nano-dust stream measurements in the outer Saturnian system are presented. These data show periodicities related to Saturn and its moons, leading to a deeper understanding of nano-dust origins and dynamics in Saturn's magnetosphere.

  14. Pesticide loadings of select organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in urban public housing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the magnitude and distribution of pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticide loadings within public housing dwellings in Boston, Massachusetts and compared the results using various sampling methods. We collected dust matrices from living room and kitchen in 42 apar...

  15. Influence of dust on the emissivity of radiant barriers

    E-print Network

    Noboa, Homero Luis

    1991-01-01

    . Therefore, a radiant barrier will be less beneficial in winter than in summer. Levins and Karnitz (1988) reported only 3. 5 % reduction of heating loads with a radiant barrier in combination with R-30 attic insulation and a 9. 3 % of heating load... about the impact of dust on the radiant bamer performance. Levins, Karnitz and Knight (1986) made cooling energy measurements of houses with attics containing radiant barriers. Three houses were tested to compare their performance when radiant...

  16. Effect of strong coupling on the dust acoustic instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M.; Kalman, G. J.; Hartmann, P.; Goree, J.

    2014-01-01

    In a plasma containing charged dust grains, the dust acoustic instability (DAI) can be driven by ions streaming through the dust with speed less than the ion thermal speed. When the dust is strongly coupled in the liquid phase, the dispersion relation of the dust acoustic modes changes in a way that leads to an enhancement of the growth rate of the DAI. In this paper, we show how strong coupling enhances the DAI growth rate and consider application to microgravity experiments where subthermal ion flows are in general possible.

  17. Experiments on Injection of Dust Jets into Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, Alexander E.; Lvov, Igor L.; Sadovoi, Sergey A.; Selemir, Victor D.; Vyalykh, Dmitry V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - VNIIEF, 607188, Sarov, pr. Mira, 37 (Russian Federation)

    2005-10-31

    Experimental technique for studying the injection of dust jets into plasma of a glow discharge in air based on a needle injector is developed. The velocity and flight time of a dust jet is measured under different initial conditions by laser method. Imprints of dust jets on adhesive films are obtained. It is shown that the propagation of 20-{mu}m dust grains in plasma is accompanied by self-contraction instability along and across the discharge, which leads to the dust agglomeration.

  18. Runaway growth of fractal dust grains

    E-print Network

    Mattsson, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Fractal grains have large surface area, which leads to more efficient condensation. The special limit case where the volume-area ratio is constant (corresponding to, e.g., a very rough grain surface or non-compacts aggregates) is particularly interesting, as well as convenient, from a mathematical point of view. If dust grains from AGB stars have `rough surfaces', it may have important implications for our understanding of dust and wind formation in AGB stars.

  19. Dust Plume off Mauritania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A thick plume of dust blew off the coast of Mauritania in western Africa on October 2, 2007. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite observed the dust plume as it headed toward the southwest over the Atlantic Ocean. In this image, the dust varies in color from nearly white to medium tan. The dust plume is easier to see over the dark background of the ocean, but the plume stretches across the land surface to the east, as well. The dust plume's structure is clearest along the coastline, where relatively clear air pockets separate distinct puffs of dust. West of that, individual pillows of dust push together to form a more homogeneous plume. Near its southwest tip, the plume takes on yet another shape, with stripes of pale dust fanning out toward the northwest. Occasional tiny white clouds dot the sky overhead, but skies are otherwise clear.

  20. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    MedlinePLUS

    ... much dust. Dust particles collect in fabrics and carpets. If you can, get rid of fabric or ... are covered in cloth. Replace wall-to-wall carpet with wood or other hard flooring. Since mattresses, ...

  1. Iron deficiency associated with higher blood lead in children living in contaminated environments.

    PubMed Central

    Bradman, A; Eskenazi, B; Sutton, P; Athanasoulis, M; Goldman, L R

    2001-01-01

    The evidence that iron deficiency increases lead child exposure is based primarily on animal data and limited human studies, and some of this evidence is contradictory. No studies of iron status and blood lead levels in children have accounted for environmental lead contamination and, therefore, the source of their exposure. Thus, no studies have directly determined whether iron deficiency modifies the relationship of environmental lead and blood lead. In this study, we compared blood lead levels of iron-deficient and iron-replete children living in low, medium, or highly contaminated environments. Measurements of lead in paint, soil, dust, and blood, age of housing, and iron status were collected from 319 children ages 1-5. We developed two lead exposure factors to summarize the correlated exposure variables: Factor 1 summarized all environmental measures, and Factor 2 was weighted for lead loading of house dust. The geometric mean blood lead level was 4.9 microg/dL; 14% exceeded 10 microg/dL. Many of the children were iron deficient (24% with ferritin < 12 ng/dL). Seventeen percent of soil leads exceeded 500 microg/g, and 23% and 63% of interior and exterior paint samples exceeded 5,000 microg/g. The unadjusted geometric mean blood lead level for iron-deficient children was higher by 1 microg/dL; this difference was greater (1.8 microg/dL) after excluding Asians. Blood lead levels were higher for iron-deficient children for each tertile of exposure as estimated by Factors 1 and 2 for non-Asian children. Elevated blood lead among iron-deficient children persisted after adjusting for potential confounders by multivariate regression; the largest difference in blood lead levels between iron-deficient and -replete children, approximately 3 microg/dL, was among those living in the most contaminated environments. Asian children had a paradoxical association of sufficient iron status and higher blood lead level, which warrants further investigation. Improving iron status, along with reducing exposures, may help reduce blood lead levels among most children, especially those living in the most contaminated environments. PMID:11675273

  2. Living on the Lunar Surface: Determining the Health Effects of Exposure to Respirable Lunar Dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan-Mayberry, N. N.

    2008-07-01

    NASA formed the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG) to determine the toxicological effects of lunar dust. This interdisciplinary group is comprised of leading experts in space toxicology, lunar geology, space medicine and biomedical research.

  3. Dust driven winds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erwin Sedlmayr; Carsten Dominik

    1995-01-01

    The status of dust driven winds, constituting an important subclass of essentially radiation generated winds, is surveyed. Dust driven winds are conceived as a long lasting phenomenon of heavy mass loss concerning those luminous cool giants and supergiants, where dust condensation in the expanding flow determines both thestellar mass loss rate and thesubsonic-supersonic transition of the velocity field. Our contribution

  4. Dust devils on Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Thomas; P. J. Gierasch

    1985-01-01

    Viking Orbiter photographic imagery has confirmed the occurrence of dust devils on Mars. The images were of small bright clouds with long, tapered shadows viewed from a nearly-nadir angle. Spectra of the features were consistent with dust and not condensates. A maximum height of 6.8 km and width of 1 km were measured. The dust devils appeared on smooth planes,

  5. Dust adhesion on Viking lander camera window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of dust impingement on a duplicate Viking Lander camera window indicated the possibility of window obscuration after several days of exposure even at low dust concentration levels. As a result the following corrective measures were recommended: (1) The clearance between the housing surface and the camera post should be eliminated by using an appropriately designed plastic skirt: (2) The three horizontal ledges below the window inside the cavity act as bases for pile-up of dust that slides down the window surface; they should be replaced by a single inclined plane down which the dust will slide and fall out on the ground: (3) Adhered dust on the window surface can be removed by high pressure CO2 jets directed down against the window; the amount of CO2 gas needed for the entire mission can be carried in a 3 1/2-inch diameter sphere equipped with a remotely programable valve. These measures were incorporated in the design of the lander camera system. The continued high quality of photographs transmitted from the Viking spacecraft several months after landing attests to their effectiveness.

  6. Student Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    Traditional dormitories are out of step with the concepts of higher education that make the 4 years of college a cultural and social experience as well as a period for gathering information on academic topics. These experiences are not served well in twin-bed rooms lined along both sides of corridors that lead only to stairwells or gang bathrooms.…

  7. Dynamic monitoring of the dust pickup efficiency of vacuum cleaners.

    PubMed

    Reponen, Tiina; Trakumas, Saulius; Willeke, Klaus; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Choe, Kyoo T; Friedman, Warren

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated a new method that uses an optical aerosol photometer for dynamically monitoring dust pickup efficiency during vacuuming. In the first stage of this study the new method was compared with built-in dirt sensors installed by vacuum cleaner manufacturers. Through parallel testing it has been shown that the widely available built-in dirt sensors are not sensitive enough to register small (< 53 microm) dust particles. Therefore, only the optical photometer was used in the rest of the experiments of this study to monitor the dust pickup efficiency while the vacuum cleaner was operated with different nozzles on clean and soiled carpet and vinyl sheet flooring. This method also was used to monitor dust pickup efficiency when vacuuming carpets originating from lead-contaminated homes. The dust pickup efficiencies obtained with the optical aerosol photometer have been compared with the surface lead concentrations found during different stages of cleaning. Results indicate that the dust mass concentration registered with the optical aerosol photometer at the nozzle outlet correlates well with the dust mass collected in the vacuum cleaner filter bag and with the surface lead level. Therefore, dynamic dust pickup monitoring can provide valuable information about the efficiency of cleaning when a vacuum cleaner is used. This suggests that a small aerosol photometer similar to a light-scattering smoke detector would be beneficial in vacuum cleaners used for cleaning surfaces contaminated with leaded dust and biological particles (including allergens). PMID:12570075

  8. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ...FR-5376-N-01] Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-...

  9. Risk analysis of dust explosion scenarios using Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhi; Khakzad, Nima; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a methodology has been proposed for risk analysis of dust explosion scenarios based on Bayesian network. Our methodology also benefits from a bow-tie diagram to better represent the logical relationships existing among contributing factors and consequences of dust explosions. In this study, the risks of dust explosion scenarios are evaluated, taking into account common cause failures and dependencies among root events and possible consequences. Using a diagnostic analysis, dust particle properties, oxygen concentration, and safety training of staff are identified as the most critical root events leading to dust explosions. The probability adaptation concept is also used for sequential updating and thus learning from past dust explosion accidents, which is of great importance in dynamic risk assessment and management. We also apply the proposed methodology to a case study to model dust explosion scenarios, to estimate the envisaged risks, and to identify the vulnerable parts of the system that need additional safety measures. PMID:25264172

  10. Improving In-House Air Quality in Broiler Production Facilities Using an Electrostatic Space Charge System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Ritz; B. W. Mitchell; B. D. Fairchild; M. Czarick; J. W. Worley

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Reduction of airborne dust in enclosed animal housing has been shown to result in corresponding reductions in airborne bacteria, ammonia, and odor. The search for strategies to reduce particulate matter and ammonia emissions from animal housing has led to considerable interest in the poultry industry for practical systems to reduce these air emissions. Technologies that have been shown to

  11. Preventing Asthma through Housing Interventions: How Supportive is the US Policy Environment?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Miles

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the policy environment in the United States is supportive of addressing the asthma epidemic through housing plans and policies. Asthma is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide and is linked to allergens in the housing environment such as ground-level ozone, excessive moisture and dust, rodents and pests, and environmental tobacco smoke. The study finds basic laws

  12. Ventilation and house air tightness: Effect on indoor temperature and humidity in Southampton, UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Stephen; D. A. McIntyre; A. Lane; G. J. Raw; C. R. Wiech; J. Frederick

    1997-01-01

    Continuous mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) has been advocated as a means of controlling house dust mite. 40 houses in the Southampton area, UK, were chosen for study. 20 were fitted with MVHR systems and the remainder acting as controls. Temperatures and humidities were measured in asthmatic patients' bedrooms for a period of over one year. Measurements were also

  13. Speaking Volumes about Dust

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-06

    This is a lesson about density. Learners will relate the concept of density to the density of dust in space. They will use mission data from the Student Dust Counter (SDC) interface to determine the density of dust grains in a volume of space in the Solar System in order to answer questions concerning the distribution of dust in the solar system. They will discover that space is much more sparsely populated with dust than they may have thought. Students discuss their findings with the class.

  14. Dust and Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Muddassir

    ABSTRACT Space is not empty it has comic radiations (CMBR), dust etc. Cosmic dust is that type of dust which is composed of particles in space which vary from few molecules to 0.1micro metres in size. This type of dust is made up of heavier atoms born in the heart of stars and supernova. Mainly it contains dust grains and when these dust grains starts compacting then it turns to dense clouds, planetary ring dust and circumstellar dust. Dust grains are mainly silicate particles. Dust plays a major role in our solar system, for example in zodiacal light, Saturn's B ring spokes, planetary rings at Jovian planets and comets. Observations and measurements of cosmic dust in different regions of universe provide an important insight into the Universe's recycling processes. Astronomers consider dust in its most recycled state. Cosmic dust have radiative properties by which they can be detected. Cosmic dusts are classified as intergalactic dusts, interstellar dusts and planetary rings. A planetary ring is a ring of cosmic dust and other small particles orbiting around a planet in flat disc shape. All of the Jovian planets in our solar system have rings. But the most notable one is the Saturn's ring which is the brightest one. In March 2008 a report suggested that the Saturn's moon Rhea may have its own tenuous ring system. The ring swirling around Saturn consists of chunks of ice and dust. Most rings were thought to be unstable and to dissipate over course of tens or hundreds of millions of years but it now appears that Saturn's rings might be older than that. The dust particles in the ring collide with each other and are subjected to forces other than gravity of its own planet. Such collisions and extra forces tend to spread out the rings. Pluto is not known to have any ring system but some Astronomers believe that New Horizons probe might find a ring system when it visits in 2015.It is also predicted that Phobos, a moon of Mars will break up and form into a planetary ring. Many theories are present regarding the formation of rings for example when moons collide, when moon breaks up and due to dust formation in supernova. But the most important question is, that how they maintain their orbit and why they are present there.

  15. LEAD EXPOSURES IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans consume lead by inhaling air, drinking beverages, eating food and ingesting dust. The natural source of this lead is primarily soil. Anthropogenic sources are lead in gasoline, fossil fuels and industrial products and processes. Lead is ubiquitous in the human environment,...

  16. Light Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 October 2004 Many Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images exhibit wild patterns of dark streaks thought to have formed by the passage of many dust devils. The dust devils disrupt the dust coating the martian surface, leaving behind a streak. However, not all dust devils make streaks, and not all dust devil streaks are dark. Some are light---it simply depends upon which is darker, the substrate or the dust that the spinning vortex disrupts. The example of light-toned dust devil streaks shown here is located in southern Schiaparelli Basin near 5.3oS, 343.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/upper left.

  17. Interstellar Dust - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2012-01-01

    The study of the formation and the destruction processes of cosmic dust is essential to understand and to quantify the budget of extraterrestrial organic materials. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar physics and chemistry and in the formation of organic materials, little is known on the formation and destruction processes of carbonaceous dust. Laboratory experiments that are performed under conditions that simulate interstellar and circumstellar environments to provide information on the nature, the size and the structure of interstellar dust particles, the growth and the destruction processes of interstellar dust and the resulting budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. A review of the properties of dust and of the laboratory experiments that are conducted to study the formation processes of dust grains from molecular precursors will be given.

  18. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with

  19. Where Will LEAD Lead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    After setting forth eight assumptions concerning the education of educational administrators, findings about the Leadership in Educational Administration Development (LEAD) program are discussed. The analysis is based on the first-year applications, telephone conversations with staff at a majority of the project sites, and additional material…

  20. Systems for eliminating pathogens from exhaust air of animal houses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. A. Aarnink; W. J. M. Landman; R. W. Melse; Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy

    2005-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly infectious viral diseases like swine fever and avian influenza in The Netherlands have shown that despite extensive bio-security measures aiming at minimizing physical contacts between farms, disease spread could not be halted. Dust in exhaust air from swine and chicken houses may provide a favorable environment in which these viruses and other pathogenic microorganisms can survive

  1. Investigation of Childhood Lead Poisoning from Parental Take-Home Exposure from an Electronic Scrap Recycling Facility - Ohio, 2012.

    PubMed

    Newman, Nick; Jones, Camille; Page, Elena; Ceballos, Diana; Oza, Aalok

    2015-07-17

    Lead affects the developing nervous system of children, and no safe blood lead level (BLL) in children has been identified. Elevated BLLs in childhood are associated with hyperactivity, attention problems, conduct problems, and impairment in cognition. Young children are at higher risk for environmental lead exposure from putting their hands or contaminated objects in their mouth. Although deteriorating lead paint in pre-1979 housing is the most common source of lead exposure in children, data indicate that ?30% of children with elevated BLLs were exposed through a source other than paint. Take-home contamination occurs when lead dust is transferred from the workplace on employees' skin, clothing, shoes, and other personal items to their car and home. Recycling of used electronics (e-scrap) is a relatively recent source of exposure to developmental neurotoxicants, including lead. In 2010, the Cincinnati Health Department and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (PEHSU) investigated two cases of childhood lead poisoning in a single family. In 2012, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) learned about the lead poisonings during an evaluation of the e-scrap recycling facility where the father of the two children with lead poisoning worked. This report summarizes the case investigation. Pediatricians should ask about parents' occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating elevated BLLs in children, in routine lead screening questionnaires, and in evaluating children with signs or symptoms of lead exposure. PMID:26182192

  2. Can dust coagulation trigger streaming instability?

    E-print Network

    Drazkowska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Streaming instability can be a very efficient way of overcoming growth and drift barriers to planetesimal formation. However, it was shown that strong clumping, which leads to planetesimal formation, requires a considerable number of large grains. State-of-the-art streaming instability models do not take into account realistic size distributions resulting from the collisional evolution of dust. We investigate whether a sufficient quantity of large aggregates can be produced by sticking and what the interplay of dust coagulation and planetesimal formation is. We develop a semi-analytical prescription of planetesimal formation by streaming instability and implement it in our dust coagulation code based on the Monte Carlo algorithm with the representative particles approach. We find that planetesimal formation by streaming instability may preferentially work outside the snow line, where sticky icy aggregates are present. The efficiency of the process depends strongly on local dust abundance and radial pressure g...

  3. 2D Models for Dust-driven AGB Star Winds

    E-print Network

    Peter Woitke

    2006-02-16

    New axisymmetric (2D) models for dust-driven winds of C-stars are presented which include hydrodynamics with radiation pressure on dust, equilibrium chemistry and time-dependent dust formation with coupled grey Monte Carlo radiative transfer. Considering the most simple case without stellar pulsation (hydrostatic inner boundary condition) these models reveal a more complex picture of the dust formation and wind acceleration as compared to earlier published spherically symmetric (1D) models. The so-called exterior $\\kappa$-mechanism causes radial oscillations with short phases of active dust formation between longer phases without appreciable dust formation, just like in the 1D models. However, in 2D geometry, the oscillations can be out-of-phase at different places above the stellar atmosphere which result in the formation of dust arcs or smaller caps that only occupy a certain fraction of the total solid angle. These dust structures are accelerated outward by radiation pressure, expanding radially and tangentially like mushroom clouds, while dust-poor matter is falling back towards the star at other places. A highly dynamical and turbulent dust formation zone is created in this way, which again leads to inhomogeneous dust production. Further away from the star, flow instabilities (e.g. Rayleigh-Taylor) have time to fragment the outward moving arcs and shells to produce numerous small-scale cloud-like sub-structures.

  4. Lead Exposure Reduction Act of 1992. Report together with Additional and Dissenting Views To Accompany 5730 (Including Cost Estimate of the Congressional Budget Office.) Part 1 [and] Part 2. House of Representatives, 102d Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This two-part report deals with the Lead Exposure Reduction Act of 1992 (H.R. 5730), an amendment to the Toxic Substances Control Act and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The amendment is intended to lead to the reduction of levels of lead in the environment and to lower the degree of childhood exposure to lead. The bill provides for a…

  5. Lead Poisoning and Children. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session (December 2, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    These hearings examine the problem of lead poisoning in children and explore the consequences of the transfer of funds for lead-screening efforts to the maternal child health block grant. Lead toxicity is described as probably the most significant and pervasive environmental illness in the United States. Testimony asserts that the effect of the…

  6. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  7. Dust in Starburst Galaxies

    E-print Network

    K. D. Gordon; D. Calzetti; A. N. Witt

    1997-05-07

    To investigate the nature of starbursts' dust, we constructed a model of the stars and dust in starburst galaxies and applied it to 30 observed starburst spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The starburst model was constructed by combining two stellar evolutionary synthesis models with a model describing the radiative transfer of stellar photons through dust. The stellar evolutionary synthesis models were used to compute the dust-free SEDs for stellar populations with ages between 1x10^6 and 15x10^9 years. Using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model, the effects of dust were computed for average Milky Way (MW) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) dust, two different star/dust geometries, and locally homogeneous or clumpy dust. Using color-color plots, the starburst model was used to interpret the behavior of 30 starbursts with aperture-matched UV and optical SEDs (and IR for 19 of the 30) from previous studies. From the color-color plots, it was evident that the dust in starbursts has an extinction curve lacking a 2175 A bump, like the SMC curve, and a steep far-UV rise, intermediate between the MW and SMC curves. The star/dust geometry which is able to explain the distribution of the 30 starbursts in various color-color plots has an inner dust-free sphere of stars surrounded by an outer star-free shell of clumpy dust. When combined with other work from the literature on the Orion region and the 30 Dor region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, this work implies a trend in dust properties with star formation intensity.

  8. Interstellar Dust: Physical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1993-01-01

    Dust is formed in stellar environments, and destroyed by sputtering, shattering and vaporization in shock waves due to cloud-cloud collisions and supernova blast waves. Dust is also destroyed during star formation. We review the dust formation and destruction balance. The calculated destruction time-scale is less than or equal to one billion years and the star dust injection time-scale is approx. 2.5 billion years. Hence, the fractions of elemental carbon and silicon locked up in stardust are less than 0.3 and less than 0.15, respectively. An efficient ISM dust formation route is therefore implied. In particular, in dense clouds dust grows; through the processes of coagulation and the accretion of gas phase molecules e.g. H20, CO, CH4. These icy materials may then be photoprocessed to refractory materials in more diffuse regions. The resulting carbonaceous grain mantle may actually be the glue that holds the coagulated grains together.

  9. Bright Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    9 June 2004 Martian dust devils sometimes disrupt thin coatings of surface dust to create dark streak patterns on the surface. However, not all dust devils make streaks, and not all dust devil streaks are dark. In Syria Planum, the streaks are lighter than the surrounding plains. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example from Syria near 8.8oS, 103.6oW. The thin coating of surface dust in this region is darker than the substrate beneath it. This is fairly unusual for Mars, because most dust is bright. This image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/lower left.

  10. Summertime Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-464, 26 August 2003

    Dust devils are spinning, columnar vortices of air that move across a landscape, picking up dust as they go. They are common occurrences during summer on Mars. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired during northern summer, shows a dust devil in the Phlegra region of Mars near 32.0oN, 182.1oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left; the dust devil is casting a columnar shadow toward the upper right. Some dust devils on Mars make streaks as they disrupt the fine coating of dust on the surface--but others do not make streaks. This one did not make a streak. The view shown here is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  11. 100% petroleum house

    E-print Network

    Costanza, David (David Nicholas)

    2013-01-01

    I am designing a Case Study House to be sponsored by Royal Dutch Shell which utilizes the by-product of oil extraction, petroleum gas, to produce a zero waste, 100% petroleum based house. The motivation of the Case Study ...

  12. Houses undergoing psychoanalysis :

    E-print Network

    Palmon, Ruth, 1970-

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the relationship between the self and the house. In approaching the subject, my assumptions were that the basic condition of the house-self relationship is of tension and animosity ...

  13. Dust storm in Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A dust storm is carrying dust from Sudan, Africa, out over the Red Sea (right) in this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Image from June 30, 2002. In the lower left quadrant of the image, the sinuous path of the Nile can be seen. Dust storms such as this reduce the amount of solar radiation that reaches the surface, and have a cooling effect on the area. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  14. The dissolution of natural and artificial dusts in glutamic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Zhang; Faqin, Dong; Xiaochun, He

    2014-08-01

    This article describes the characteristics of natural dusts, industrial dusts, and artificial dusts, such as mineral phases, chemical components, morphological observation and size. Quartz and calcite are the main phases of natural dusts and industrial dusts with high SiO2 and CaO and low K2O and Na2O in the chemical composition. The dissolution and electrochemical action of dusts in glutamic acid liquor at the simulated human body temperature (37 °C) in 32 h was investigated. The potential harm that the dust could lead to in body glutamic acid acidic environment, namely biological activity, is of great importance for revealing the human toxicological mechanism. The changes of pH values and electric conductivity of suspension of those dusts were similar, increased slowly in the first 8 h, and then the pH values increased rapidly. The total amount of dissolved ions of K, Ca, Na, and Mg was 35.4 to 429 mg/kg, particularly Ca was maximal of 20 to 334 mg/kg. The total amount of dissolved ions of Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Ba was 0.18 to 5.59 mg/kg and in Al and Si was 3.0 to 21.7 mg/kg. The relative solubility order of dusts in glutamic acid is wollastonite > serpentine > sepiolite, the cement plant industrial dusts > natural dusts > power plant industrial dusts. The wollastonite and cement plant industrial dusts have the highest solubility, which also have high content of CaO; this shows that there are a poorer corrosion-resisting ability and lower bio-resistibility. Sepiolite and power plant industrial dusts have lowest solubility, which also have high content of SiO2; this shows that there are a higher corrosion-resisting ability and stronger bio-resistibility.

  15. The dissolution of natural and artificial dusts in glutamic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Zhang; Faqin, Dong; Xiaochun, He

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the characteristics of natural dusts, industrial dusts, and artificial dusts, such as mineral phases, chemical components, morphological observation and size. Quartz and calcite are the main phases of natural dusts and industrial dusts with high SiO2 and CaO and low K2O and Na2O in the chemical composition. The dissolution and electrochemical action of dusts in glutamic acid liquor at the simulated human body temperature (37 °C) in 32 h was investigated. The potential harm that the dust could lead to in body glutamic acid acidic environment, namely biological activity, is of great importance for revealing the human toxicological mechanism. The changes of pH values and electric conductivity of suspension of those dusts were similar, increased slowly in the first 8 h, and then the pH values increased rapidly. The total amount of dissolved ions of K, Ca, Na, and Mg was 35.4 to 429 mg/kg, particularly Ca was maximal of 20 to 334 mg/kg. The total amount of dissolved ions of Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Ba was 0.18 to 5.59 mg/kg and in Al and Si was 3.0 to 21.7 mg/kg. The relative solubility order of dusts in glutamic acid is wollastonite > serpentine > sepiolite, the cement plant industrial dusts > natural dusts > power plant industrial dusts. The wollastonite and cement plant industrial dusts have the highest solubility, which also have high content of CaO; this shows that there are a poorer corrosion-resisting ability and lower bio-resistibility. Sepiolite and power plant industrial dusts have lowest solubility, which also have high content of SiO2; this shows that there are a higher corrosion-resisting ability and stronger bio-resistibility.

  16. Insulator for laser housing

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member.

  17. Traditional Housing Demand Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry J. F. M. Boumeester

    \\u000a This chapter starts with a description of general research into housing preferences. Next, the procedure for the move from\\u000a measuring housing preferences to housing demand research is explained. Furthermore, a state of the art of studies that have\\u000a applied the transverse, or cross-sectional, approach in the analysis of housing demand is provided. In the final section,\\u000a an example of a

  18. Dust Devil Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This graphic illustrates the wind pattern in a dust devil, and presents the characteristic pressure and wind speed signatures expected if a dust devil were to pass directly over the lander. A dust devil is driven by warm air rising from the surface which is heated by the sun. If one passes over the lander, strong winds are expected first from one direction and then from the opposite direction. Surface pressure should also fall to a minimum at the center of the dust devil.

  19. Dust Devil Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couedel, L.; Escarguel, A.; Horton, W.; Benkadda, S.; Arnas, C.; PIIM, Aix-Marseille University Collaboration; Institute for Fusion Studies Team

    2013-10-01

    A self-consistent hydrodynamic model for the onset of a dust devil vortex is derived and analyzed. The toroidal flows and vertical velocity fields are driven by an instability that arises from the inversion of the mass density stratification from solar heating of the sandy surface soil. The nonlinear dynamics in the vertical/horizontal flows drives the toroidal flow through a parametric decay process. Methods developed for triboelectric charging of dust are used to estimate the charging of the sand particles. Elementary comparisons are made with the data from in dust devil observations and research. The parameters for a proposed Dust Devil laboratory experiment are given.

  20. Chapter 6: Research Priorities Childhood Lead Poisoning

    E-print Network

    Chapter 6: Research Priorities 6 Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Research Priorities If we are to improve lead poisoning prevention strategies, we need additional research in the following areas: 1 to control lead hazards in housing. · The effectiveness of family education about lead poisoning prevention

  1. HOUSING GUARANTEE Apply Online

    E-print Network

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    . Housing Costs Costs for on-campus housing depend on the community, room/apartment type, contract length ­ Freshmen 201415 Total Cost Mesa Court / Middle Earth Special interest theme halls. Single, double campus. Dining commons are located in the Mesa Court and Middle Earth housing communities, and meal plans

  2. The Hispanic Housing Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolbeare, Cushing N.; Canales, Judith A.

    This report examines the housing characteristics and needs of Hispanic households in the United States, drawing on information from the 1980 Census and the 1983 Annual Housing Survey. Among the conclusions are the following: (1) housing quality is a major problem for more than one in six Hispanic families; (2) among Hispanic subgroups, Puerto…

  3. Housing And Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Rochlitz

    The way a cat is housed will have a significant impact on its welfare. The range of housing conditions in which cats may be kept include boarding, breeding and quarantine catteries, shelters, research facilities, veterinary practices and the home. Drawing on ethological principles, the evolutionary history of the cat and studies of cats kept in different conditions, the housing requirements

  4. Falmer Sports Falmer House

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Slope 5 Kent House 8 Kulukundis House 9 Lancaster House 7 Lewes Court 2 Business, Management History and Philosophy F Fulton 30 Genome Centre 48 Hastings 34 Health Centre 6 Institute of Development Institute 22 Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC) 40 Trafford Centre 38 Visitors' car park VP

  5. Hartford Ave. Public Housing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chet Smolski

    1985-01-01

    The working class housing of the Hartford neighborhood was destroyed when the Route 6 connector was built to alleviate traffic in Olneyville Square. Low-income housing (Hartoford Park Public Housing Project seen here) was built on Corbusian principles of the Radiant City (1935). The mills behind the Atlantic Furniture Mills were demolished and the land is currently Woonasquatucket River Greenway which

  6. 24 CFR 35.130 - Lead hazard information pamphlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead hazard information pamphlet. 35.130...Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and...

  7. 24 CFR 35.130 - Lead hazard information pamphlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead hazard information pamphlet. 35.130...Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and...

  8. 24 CFR 35.130 - Lead hazard information pamphlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead hazard information pamphlet. 35.130...Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and...

  9. Dust charge fluctuation effects on dust ion-acoustic waves in dusty electron-positron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidi, M.; Rouhani, M. R.; Hakimi Pajouh, H.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, using the kinetic theory the longitudinal dielectric permittivity in a plasma consisting of electrons, positrons, ions and negatively charged dust grains is obtained, taking into account dust charge fluctuations. It is shown that the dust charge fluctuations can lead to either the damping or growing of dust ion-acoustic waves. We find a critical wave number above which these waves grow. Also, we numerically investigate the critical wave number and the growth rate of these waves for different plasma parameters.

  10. Oxidant Enhancement in Martian Dust Devils and Storms: Storm Electric Fields and Electron Dissociative Attachment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory T. Delory; William M. Farrell; Sushil K. Atreya; Nilton O. Renno; Ah-San Wong; Steven A. Cummer; Davis D. Sentman; John R. Marshall; Scot C. R. Rafkin; David C. Catling

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Laboratory studies, numerical simulations, and desert field tests indicate that aeolian dust transport can generate atmospheric electricity via contact electrification or “triboelectricity.” Inconvective structures such as dust devils and dust storms, grain stratification leads to macro- scopic charge separations and gives rise to an overall electric dipole moment in the aeolian feature, similar in nature to the dipolar electric

  11. Kinetic theory of magnetized dusty plasmas with dust particles charged by collisional processes and by photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Galvao, R. A.; Ziebell, L. F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    In this work, we detail the derivation of a plasma kinetic theory leading to the components of the dielectric tensor for a magnetized dusty plasma with variable charge on the dust particles, considering that the dust component of the plasma contains spherical dust particles with different sizes, which are charged both by inelastic collisions of electrons and ions and by photoionization.

  12. Dust-plasma sheath: A new dissipative self-organized structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsytovich, V. N.; Vladimirov, S. V.; Benkadda, S.

    1999-08-01

    It is shown that the presence of dust near the wall of a low-temperature plasma leads to formation of a dissipative structure confining dust and plasma particles and creating the specific dust-plasma layer. This equilibrium structure is formed self-consistently with the fields of dust particles. It is demonstrated that all properties of the dust-plasma sheath depend only on one parameter—the March number of the ion flow, which have allowed zones and can be less than unity, in contrast to the features of the plasma sheath without influence of dust.

  13. Supernovae. Old supernova dust factory revealed at the Galactic center.

    PubMed

    Lau, R M; Herter, T L; Morris, M R; Li, Z; Adams, J D

    2015-04-24

    Dust formation in supernova ejecta is currently the leading candidate to explain the large quantities of dust observed in the distant, early universe. However, it is unclear whether the ejecta-formed dust can survive the hot interior of the supernova remnant (SNR). We present infrared observations of ~0.02 solar masses of warm (~100 kelvin) dust seen near the center of the ~10,000-year-old Sagittarius A East SNR at the Galactic center. Our findings indicate the detection of dust within an older SNR that is expanding into a relatively dense surrounding medium (electron density ~10(3) centimeters(-3)) and has survived the passage of the reverse shock. The results suggest that supernovae may be the dominant dust-production mechanism in the dense environment of galaxies of the early universe. PMID:25791082

  14. Old supernova dust factory revealed at the Galactic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, R. M.; Herter, T. L.; Morris, M. R.; Li, Z.; Adams, J. D.

    2015-04-01

    Dust formation in supernova ejecta is currently the leading candidate to explain the large quantities of dust observed in the distant, early universe. However, it is unclear whether the ejecta-formed dust can survive the hot interior of the supernova remnant (SNR). We present infrared observations of ~0.02 solar masses of warm (~100 kelvin) dust seen near the center of the ~10,000-year-old Sagittarius A East SNR at the Galactic center. Our findings indicate the detection of dust within an older SNR that is expanding into a relatively dense surrounding medium (electron density ~103 centimeters–3) and has survived the passage of the reverse shock. The results suggest that supernovae may be the dominant dust-production mechanism in the dense environment of galaxies of the early universe.

  15. Old supernova dust factory revealed at the Galactic center

    E-print Network

    Lau, Ryan M; Morris, Mark R; Li, Zhiyuan; Adams, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Dust formation in supernova ejecta is currently the leading candidate to explain the large quantities of dust observed in the distant, early Universe. However, it is unclear whether the ejecta-formed dust can survive the hot interior of the supernova remnant (SNR). We present infrared observations of ~0.02 $M_\\odot$ of warm (~100 K) dust seen near the center of the ~10,000 yr-old Sgr A East SNR at the Galactic center. Our findings signify the detection of dust within an older SNR that is expanding into a relatively dense surrounding medium ($n_e$ ~ 100 $\\mathrm{cm}^{-3}$) and has survived the passage of the reverse shock. The results suggest that supernovae may indeed be the dominant dust production mechanism in the dense environment of early Universe galaxies.

  16. 24 CFR 35.1320 - Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens...Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL...

  17. Hazards of Lead in Schools and Day Care Facilities. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    The hearing reported in this document examined issues dealing with environmental lead hazards in schools and day care centers and the threat that lead poses to children's health, with a special focus on problems in New York City (NYC) public schools. Following an account of the opening remarks by Representatives on the committee and subcommittee,…

  18. Dust Coagulation in Protoplanetary Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, W.; Henning, Th.; Mucha, R.

    1996-01-01

    The time evolution of dust particles in circumstellar disk-like structures around protostars and young stellar objects is discussed. In particular, we consider the coagulation of grains due to collisional aggregation. The coagulation of the particles is calculated by solving numerically the non-linear Smoluchowski equation. The different physical processes leading to relative velocities between the grains are investigated. The relative velocities may be induced by Brownian motion, turbulence and drift motion. Starting from different regimes which can be identified during the grain growth we also discuss the evolution of dust opacities. These opacities are important for both the derivation of the circumstellar dust mass from submillimeter/millimeter continuum observations and the dynamical behavior of the disks. We present results of our numerical studies of the coagulation of dust grains in a turbulent protoplanetary accretion disk described by a time-dependent one-dimensional (radial) alpha-model. For several periods and disk radii, mass distributions of coagulated grains have been calculated. From these mass spectra, we determined the corresponding Rosseland mean dust opacities. The influence of grain opacity changes due to dust coagulation on the dynamical evolution of a protostellar disk is considered. Significant changes in the thermal structure of the protoplanetary nebula are observed. A 'gap' in the accretion disk forms at the very frontier of the coagulation, i.e., behind the sublimation boundary in the region between 1 and 5 AU.

  19. Dust acoustic instability in a strongly coupled dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M.; Kalman, G. J.; Hartmann, P.; Goree, J.

    2013-10-01

    Dusty plasmas are plasmas containing charged micron to sub-micron size dust grains (solid particulates). Because the grains can be multiply charged and are much more massive than the ions, the presence of dust can lead to novel waves such as the dust acoustic wave, which is a compressional wave that can be excited by a flow of ions that is driven by an electric field. Moreover, the large dust charge can result in strong Coulomb coupling between the dust grains, where the electrostatic energy between neighboring grains is larger than their thermal (kinetic) energy. When the coupling between dust grains is strong, but not large enough for crystallization, the dust is in the strongly coupled liquid phase. This poster theoretically investigates the dust acoustic instability, which is driven by sub-thermal ion flow, in a three-dimensional dusty plasma in the strongly coupled liquid phase. It is found that strong coupling enhances the instability. The application is to microgravity experiments with dusty plasma planned for the PK-4 and PlasmaLab instruments, which are in development for the International Space Station. Microgravity conditions enable the preparation of dust clouds under these sub-thermal ion flow conditions by avoiding the need for strong electric fields to levitate the dust grains.

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor dust and human hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yuan; Wang, Hong Sheng; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, settled workplace dust ( n = 55) from commercial offices, secondary schools, shopping malls, hospitals, electronic factories and manufacturing plants in Hong Kong and settled home dust ( n = 23) from Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou, around the Pearl River Delta were collected. Chemical analyses showed that the total PBDEs in workplace dust ranged from 397 to 40,236 ng g -1, with the dust samples from electronic factories having the highest levels (2122-40,236 ng g -1), and dust from homes ranging from 685 to 18,385 ng g -1. The most abundant BDE congeners found were BDE-209 in both workplace dust and home dust, followed by BDE-99 and BDE-47. No significant correlations were observed between total PBDE concentrations in home dust and the age or the house ( p > 0.05), concentrations of BDE-99 + BDE-47 and the number of furniture containing foam ( p > 0.05), and concentrations of BDE-209 and the number of electronic appliances ( p > 0.05). BDE-47, -99, -100 and -183 were found in most of the hair samples collected from occupants of these homes with BDE-47 being the dominant congener (0.86-5.24 ng g -1). The BDE-183 concentration in home dust was significantly correlated with that in human hair ( r = 0.55, p < 0.05, n = 18). Risk assessment indicated that daily intake of PBDEs for children via non-dietary ingestion of dust (101-404 ng day -1) was higher than that via food consumption (77-190 ng day -1).

  1. 24 CFR 92.355 - Lead-based paint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 92.355 Section 92.355 Housing...Requirements § 92.355 Lead-based paint. Housing assisted with HOME funds is subject to the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42...

  2. Dust That's Worth Keeping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hazi

    2006-01-01

    Images taken of interstellar space often display a colorful canvas of portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Dispersed throughout the images are interstellar clouds of dust and gas--remnants ejected from stars and supernovae over billions and billions of years. For more than 40 years, astronomers have observed that interstellar dust exhibits a consistent effect at a spectral wavelength of 2,175 angstroms,

  3. Middle East Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... across countries bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Information on the horizontal and vertical extent of the dust are provided ... area are situated between about 2 and 5.5 kilometers above sea level, and the dust is located below most of the cloud, at heights of about ...

  4. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnarsson, Dag; Carpenter, James; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L.; Loftus, David J.; Prisk, G. Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M.; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-12-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust properties will be required to provide ground truth for ground-based studies quantifying the toxicity of dust exposure and the associated health risks during future manned lunar missions.

  5. Supernova Dust Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Haley; Consortium, MESS; LCOGT

    2013-01-01

    The origin of interstellar dust in galaxies is poorly understood, particularly the relative contribution from supernovae. We present infrared and submillimeter photometry and spectroscopy from the Herschel Space Observatory of the Galactic remnants Tycho, Kepler and the Crab Nebula, taken as part of the Mass Loss from Evolved StarS program (MESS). Although we detect small amounts of dust surrounding Tycho and Kepler (the remnants of Type Ia supernovae), we show this is due to swept-up interstellar and circumstellar material respectively. The lack of dust grains in the ejecta suggests that Type Ia remnants do not produce substantial quantities of iron-rich dust grains and has important consequences for the ‘missing’ iron mass observed in ejecta. After carefully subtracting the synchrotron and line emission from the Crab, the remaining far-infrared continuum originates from 0.1-0.2 solar masses of dust. These observations suggest that the Crab Nebula has condensed most of the relevant refractory elements into dust and that these grains appear well set to survive their journey into the interstellar medium. In summary, our Herschel observations show that significantly less dust forms in the ejecta of Type Ia supernovae than in the remnants of core-collapse explosions, placing stringent constraints on the environments in which dust and molecules can form.

  6. Temperatures of Zodiacal dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Staubach; Neil Divine; Eberhard Grün

    1993-01-01

    Temperatures of interplanetary dust particles have been determined by calculating the termal emission from dust concentrations according to the ``Five Populations of Interplanetary Meteroids'' model by Divine (J. geophys. Res., in press, 1993) and matching it with the observed zodiacal thermal emission. Properties of the meteoroid populations are describned by comparing them with the meteoroid mas distribution measured at 1

  7. Rotation of `Dust Devils'

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Durward

    1931-01-01

    THE direction of rotation of `dust devils' has been noted in Lower Egypt and Iraq during the past four years, and the reports received in this office indicate that in about 50 per cent of cases the direction of rotation is clockwise, and in the other 50 per cent anticlockwise. This seems a surprising result, because if a `dust devils'

  8. Pathfinder Spies Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This set of images from NASA's 1997 Pathfinder mission highlight the dust devils that gust across the surface of Mars. The right image shows the dusty martian sky as our eye would see it. The left image has been enhanced to expose the dust devils that lurk in the hazy sky.

  9. Interstellar Dust Scattering Properties

    E-print Network

    Karl D. Gordon

    2003-09-25

    Studies of dust scattering properties in astrophysical objects with Milky Way interstellar dust are reviewed. Such objects are reflection nebulae, dark clouds, and the Diffuse Galactic Light (DGL). To ensure their basic quality, studies had to satisfy four basic criteria to be included in this review. These four criteria significantly reduced the scatter in dust properties measurements, especially in the case of the DGL. Determinations of dust scattering properties were found to be internally consistent for each object type as well as consistent between object types. The 2175 A bump is seen as an absorption feature. Comparisons with dust grain models find general agreement with significant disagreements at particular wavelengths (especially in the far-ultraviolet). Finally, unanswered questions and future directions are enumerated.

  10. Isidis Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 March 2004 This arrow in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image points to an active dust devil observed in Isidis Planitia near 18.3oN, 268.9oW. The columnar shadow of the dust devil is visible, as is a pencil-thin (at least, pencil-thin at the scale of the image) line created by the vortex as it disrupted the dust that coats the surface. The streak indicates that the dust devil had already traveled more than 3 kilometers (1.9 miles), over craters, large ripples, and ridges, before the MOC took this picture. The dust devil was moving from the northeast (upper right) toward the southwest (lower left). Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left; the image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  11. Loire Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an active dust devil making its way across the rugged terrain of the Loire Vallis system. The dust devil, seen as a fuzzy, nearly-circular bright feature near the center of the picture, is casting a shadow toward the right/upper right (east/northeast). Unlike some martian dust devils, this one did not make a dark streak on the ground. Many more dust devils occur on Mars than there are dust devil streaks observed on the planet's surface.

    Location near: 18.2oS, 16.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  12. Dust devil - Sol 25

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows the signature of a dust devil that passed over the Pathfinder Lander on Sol 25. Since then we have seen several similar features. The black line shows surface pressure plotted over a period of approximately two minutes. The sharp minimum approximately 0.5% below the background pressure is very clear. The dashed curves show raw data from two hot wire wind sensor elements (Blue = Wind Sensor 4 = East Wind, Red = Wind Sensor 1 = West Wind). When the wind blows directly on an element it cools. It is clear from the figure that the East wind increases suddenly as the dust devil approaches the lander and the pressure begins to fall. As the dust devil passes over the lander, pressure begins to rise, the East wind dies away and the West wind increases suddenly. Finally as the dust devil moves away, pressure returns to normal and the West wind dies away. This is a textbook dust-devil signature.

  13. Nonlinear dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal modes in charge-varying dusty plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Zerguini, Taha Houssine; Houili, Hocine

    2002-12-01

    Nonlinear dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) modes are investigated in a charge-varying dusty plasma. It is found that highly localized structures, solely due to the dust charge variation, can exist. The dust BGK soliton suffers the well-known anomalous damping, the importance of which is roughly proportional to the dust grain velocity. This dissipation causes the soliton amplitude to decay algebraically and the conservation of "soliton mass" leads to the development of a noise tail.

  14. The Matador field project on convective plumes and dust devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, N. O.; Smith, P. H.; Hartogensis, O. K.; de Bruin, H.; Carswell, A. I.; Delory, G.; Burose, D.; Watts, C.; Bluestein, H. B.

    2003-04-01

    Recent research suggests that mineral dust play an important role in the earth's climate, not only by altering the atmospheric radiation budget, but also by affecting cloud microphysics and optical properties. Moreover, dust can act as a catalyst for reactive gas species in the atmosphere and can influence photochemical processes. Many studies have shown that, on a micrometeorological scale, dust sourcing is sensitive to a large number of factors such as soil composition, soil moisture, vegetation cover, topography, and weather. Dusty convective plumes and dust devils are frequently observed over terrestrial deserts and are ubiquitous features of the Martian landscape. We show evidence that these convective systems play an important role in the vertical transport of mineral dust and heat, both on earth and on Mars. We also show that charge separation within terrestrial dust devils produce electric fields in excess of 50 kV/m. Electric fields produced by Martian dust devils probably ionize its thin atmosphere and might alter its chemistry. Thus, Martian dust devils are not only important sources of atmospheric dust, but are also potentially harmful to spacecraft Landers. Our group has been leading a field program to understand the electrification of dust devils and the contribution of convective plumes and dust devils to the vertical transport of heat and dust. Our results show that dust devils produce heat fluxes that are about two orders of magnitude larger than the background ambient flux. Indeed, they suggest that coherent convective plumes do a large fraction of the vertical heat transport in regions of intense convection. We discuss our theoretical framework, measurement techniques, and summarize our most important results.

  15. Sensitivity of the dust cycle in a Chemistry-GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gläser, G.; Kerkweg, A.; Wernli, H.

    2010-09-01

    Mineral dust is an important part of the atmospheric aerosol. The export of Saharan dust across the Atlantic Ocean to the South American continent is known to be an important source of nutrition to the rain forest and the sea. Dust mobilisation in deserts and long-range transport occurs in episodic events and is strongly influenced by synoptic-scale flow patterns. The scientific understanding of these processes, the resulting global dust distribution and the climate impact is still low. In this study, the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy (EMAC) is used to simulate the mineral dust cycle. We performed free-running 5-year time slice simulations and nudged experiments for selected dust emission episodes. Two different dust emission schemes and four different horizontal resolutions have been used for investigating their influence on the entire dust cycle. The horizontal resolutions T42 (~312 km), T63 (~208 km), T85 (~155 km) and T106 (~125 km) are explored. Independent of the horizontal resolution the "Balkanski" dust emission scheme simulates global maxima of the dust emissions and the dust column mass in the north-western part of India. Various observations indicate that in reality the maximum lies over the Sahara Desert. The "Tegen" dust emission scheme shows a much more realistic distribution. For all horizontal resolutions both schemes simulate dust emissions, total dust load and a dust life time within the range of the 15 GCMs participating in the AEROCOM-project (Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models). However, in T42 and T63 the northward transport of dust is too strong leading to unrealistic high column masses in high northern latitudes. The transport and subsequently the global dust distribution in T85 and T106 is much more sensible. The dust emission (total load) is 28 % (16 %) higher in T106 as in T85 which is traced back to higher wind velocities in T106. In addition to these climatological investigations, the event-specific experiments will be evaluated in detail using various observational data sets.

  16. Impact of Radiatively Interactive Dust Aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 Climate Model: Sensitivity to Dust Particle Shape and Refractive Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter R.; Nowottnick, Edward Paul; Randles, Cynthia A.; Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Smith, Jamison A.; Bardeen, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the radiative effects of dust aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model. GEOS-5 is improved with the inclusion of a sectional aerosol and cloud microphysics module, the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA). Into CARMA we introduce treatment of the dust and sea salt aerosol lifecycle, including sources, transport evolution, and sinks. The aerosols are radiatively coupled to GEOS-5, and we perform a series of multi-decade AMIP-style simulations in which dust optical properties (spectral refractive index and particle shape distribution) are varied. Optical properties assuming spherical dust particles are from Mie theory, while those for non-spherical shape distributions are drawn from a recently available database for tri-axial ellipsoids. The climatologies of the various simulations generally compare well to data from the MODIS, MISR, and CALIOP space-based sensors, the ground-based AERONET, and surface measurements of dust deposition and concentration. Focusing on the summertime Saharan dust cycle we show significant variability in our simulations resulting from different choices of dust optical properties. Atmospheric heating due to dust enhances surface winds over important Saharan dust sources, and we find a positive feedback where increased dust absorption leads to increased dust emissions. We further find that increased dust absorption leads to a strengthening of the summertime Hadley cell circulation, increasing dust lofting to higher altitudes and strengthening the African Easterly Jet. This leads to a longer atmospheric residence time, higher altitude, and generally more northward transport of dust in simulations with the most absorbing dust optical properties. We find that particle shape, although important for radiance simulations, is a minor effect compared to choices of refractive index, although total atmospheric forcing is enhanced by greater than 10 percent for simulations incorporating a spheroidal shape distribution versus ellipsoidal or spherical shapes.

  17. Dust Devil Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, W.; Miura, H.

    2008-11-01

    A dust devil is a rotating updraft, with coherent structures ranging from small (H/D ˜ 5m/1m) to large (H/D ˜ 1000 m/10 m). Common in west Texas and Arizona, dust devils are formed unstable stratification of the air by solar heating over a sandy floor. Unstable gravity waves grow exponentially in the low density, hot air, rising into the upper layer of stably stratified atmosphere creating the large, 3D vortex. Dust devils are common on Mars. On Earth radio noise and electrical fields greater than 100kV/m are inferred [Kok J. F., N. O. Renno (2006), Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19S10]. Dust devils pick up small dirt and dust particles. The whirling charged dust particles (30 -50 microns) create a magnetic field that fluctuates between 3 and 30 times each second. The electric fields created assist the vortices in lifting materials off the ground and into the atmosphere. We use the theory and simulation tools of fusion plasma physics to describe dust devils. The Grad-Shafranov equation governs the vorticity dynamics and gives a solution for steady axisymmetric flows. The high core velocity is limited by the vortex model with viscous dissipation. The Reynolds number is not large, so these structures are well represented with super computers, in contrast to collisionless plasmas. 1mm Research supported by NIFS, Japan and the NSF through ATM-0638480 at UT Austin.

  18. Vibration measurements on a car transmission housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Wolfram; Plieske, Marco; Brauchle, Gerhard

    1994-09-01

    In view of stricter future statutory requirements concerning noise emissions by motor vehicles, the acoustic optimization of noise emitting components will become increasingly important. Customers complain about transmission noise when for example gears excite individual resonances (eigenfrequencies) of the transmission housing. Normally the eigenfrequencies and also the excitation frequencies are not moveable out of narrow limits. Therefore, in addition to optimizing gear geometry, the transmission housing must be designed so that dynamic forces acting through the gears onto the shaft bearing points lead to minimum level of radiated sound power from the transmission housing. For this reason, the resonance vibration shapes induced on a car transmission under operating conditions were measured using the laser-transmission test rig. Additionally, a comparison was made between the inspection of an empty transmission housing (using finite element calculation and experimental modal analysis).

  19. Secondary dust density waves excited by nonlinear dust acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, J. R.; Kim, S.-H.; Meyer, J. K.; Merlino, R. L.; Rosenberg, M.

    2012-08-01

    Secondary dust density waves were observed in conjunction with high amplitude (nd/nd0>2) dust acoustic waves (DAW) that were spontaneously excited in a dc glow discharge dusty plasma in the moderately coupled, ? ˜1, state. The high amplitude dust acoustic waves produced large dust particle oscillations, displacements, and trapping. Secondary dust density waves were excited in the wave troughs of the high amplitude DAWs. The waveforms, amplitudes, wavelengths, and wave speeds of the primary DAWs and the secondary waves were measured. A dust-dust streaming instability is discussed as a possible mechanism for the production of the secondary waves.

  20. Secondary dust density waves excited by nonlinear dust acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrich, J. R.; Kim, S.-H.; Meyer, J. K.; Merlino, R. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Rosenberg, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Secondary dust density waves were observed in conjunction with high amplitude (n{sub d}/n{sub d0}>2) dust acoustic waves (DAW) that were spontaneously excited in a dc glow discharge dusty plasma in the moderately coupled, {Gamma}{approx}1, state. The high amplitude dust acoustic waves produced large dust particle oscillations, displacements, and trapping. Secondary dust density waves were excited in the wave troughs of the high amplitude DAWs. The waveforms, amplitudes, wavelengths, and wave speeds of the primary DAWs and the secondary waves were measured. A dust-dust streaming instability is discussed as a possible mechanism for the production of the secondary waves.

  1. Improved poultry house

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of energy and poultry production was explored in three areas: methane production from litter, broiler house insulation, and broiler house HVAC systems. The findings show that while a methane plant would not be popular with individual American poultry producers; the pay back in fuel and fertilizer, if the plant was located in close proximinity to the processing plant, would be favorable. Broiler house insulation has been dramatically improved since the outset of this study. Presently, all new installations in the survey area are the Environmental houses which are fully insulated. HVAC systems have had to keep pace with the introduction of better insulation. The new Environmental houses HVAC systems are fully automated and operating on a positive atmosphere principal. Ammonia and other problems have been kept in check while reducing air changes per house from a high of 7 per hour to as little as 3 per hour.

  2. Dust control for Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Kevin; Karl, Chad; Litherland, Mark; Ritchie, David; Sun, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The dust control group designed a system to restrict dust that is disturbed by the Enabler during its operation from interfering with astronaut or camera visibility. This design also considers the many different wheel positions made possible through the use of artinuation joints that provide the steering and wheel pitching for the Enabler. The system uses a combination of brushes and fenders to restrict the dust when the vehicle is moving in either direction and in a turn. This design also allows for each of maintenance as well as accessibility of the remainder of the vehicle.

  3. Dust control for Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Kevin; Karl, Chad; Litherland, Mark; Ritchie, David; Sun, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The dust control group designed a system to restrict dust that is disturbed by the Enabler during its operation from interfering with astronaut or camera visibility. This design also considers the many different wheel positions made possible through the use of artinuation joints that provide the steering and wheel pitching for the Enabler. The system uses a combination of brushes and fenders to restrict the dust when the vehicle is moving in either direction and in a turn. This design also allows for ease of maintenance as well as accessibility of the remainder of the vehicle.

  4. The lunar dust environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, Eberhard; Horanyi, Mihaly; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2011-11-01

    Each year the Moon is bombarded by about 10 6 kg of interplanetary micrometeoroids of cometary and asteroidal origin. Most of these projectiles range from 10 nm to about 1 mm in size and impact the Moon at 10-72 km/s speed. They excavate lunar soil about 1000 times their own mass. These impacts leave a crater record on the surface from which the micrometeoroid size distribution has been deciphered. Much of the excavated mass returns to the lunar surface and blankets the lunar crust with a highly pulverized and "impact gardened" regolith of about 10 m thickness. Micron and sub-micron sized secondary particles that are ejected at speeds up to the escape speed of 2300 m/s form a perpetual dust cloud around the Moon and, upon re-impact, leave a record in the microcrater distribution. Such tenuous clouds have been observed by the Galileo spacecraft around all lunar-sized Galilean satellites at Jupiter. The highly sensitive Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the LADEE mission will shed new light on the lunar dust environment. LADEE is expected to be launched in early 2013. Another dust related phenomenon is the possible electrostatic mobilization of lunar dust. Images taken by the television cameras on Surveyors 5, 6, and 7 showed a distinct glow just above the lunar horizon referred to as horizon glow (HG). This light was interpreted to be forward-scattered sunlight from a cloud of dust particles above the surface near the terminator. A photometer onboard the Lunokhod-2 rover also reported excess brightness, most likely due to HG. From the lunar orbit during sunrise the Apollo astronauts reported bright streamers high above the lunar surface, which were interpreted as dust phenomena. The Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) Experiment was deployed on the lunar surface by the Apollo 17 astronauts in order to characterize the lunar dust environment. Instead of the expected low impact rate from interplanetary and interstellar dust, LEAM registered hundreds of signals associated with the passage of the terminator, which swamped any signature of primary impactors of interplanetary origin. It was suggested that the LEAM events are consistent with the sunrise/sunset-triggered levitation and transport of charged lunar dust particles. Currently no theoretical model explains the formation of a dust cloud above the lunar surface but recent laboratory experiments indicate that the interaction of dust on the lunar surface with solar UV and plasma is more complex than previously thought.

  5. Dust storms: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Andrew S

    2009-01-01

    Dust storms have a number of impacts upon the environment including radiative forcing, and biogeochemical cycling. They transport material over many thousands of kilometres. They also have a range of impacts on humans, not least on human health. In recent years the identification of source areas for dust storms has been an important area or research, with the Sahara (especially Bodélé) and western China being recognised as the strongest sources globally. Another major development has been the recognition of the degree to which dust storm activity has varied at a range of time scales, millennial, century, decadal, annual and seasonal. PMID:18783869

  6. Spirit Feels Dust Gust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On sol 1149 (March 28, 2007) of its mission, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit caught a wind gust with its navigation camera. A series of navigation camera images were strung together to create this movie. The front of the gust is observable because it was strong enough to lift up dust. From assessing the trajectory of this gust, the atmospheric science team concludes that it is possible that it passed over the rover. There was, however, no noticeable increase in power associated with this gust. In the past, dust devils and gusts have wiped the solar panels of dust, making it easier for the solar panels to absorb sunlight.

  7. Dust in the Mediterranean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 24, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), acquired this true-color image of a large cloud of dust blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea. The dust storm has persisted in the region for at least a week. In this image, the brownish dust plume appears to originate about 260 miles (400 km) east of Algiers, Algeria, and is blowing toward the northwest coast of Sardinia, Italy. SeaWiFS flies aboard the OrbView-2 Satellite. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE

  8. Electrostatic dust detector

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    2006-05-02

    An apparatus for detecting dust in a variety of environments which can include radioactive and other hostile environments both in a vacuum and in a pressurized system. The apparatus consists of a grid coupled to a selected bias voltage. The signal generated when dust impacts and shorts out the grid is electrically filtered, and then analyzed by a signal analyzer which is then sent to a counter. For fine grids a correlation can be developed to relate the number of counts observed to the amount of dust which impacts the grid.

  9. 2The Martian Dust Devils A dust devil spins across

    E-print Network

    2The Martian Dust Devils A dust devil spins across the surface of Gusev Crater just before noon:49:40 (B=bottom) based upon local Mars time. The dust devil was about 1.0 kilometer from the rover of the dust devil, the scale of the image is 7.4 meters/millimeter. How far did the dust devil travel between

  10. NASA Tech House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Technology Utilization House, called Tech House, was designed and constructed at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, to demonstrate new technology that is available or will be available in the next several years and how the application of aerospace technology could help advance the homebuilding industry. Solar energy use, energy and water conservation, safety, security, and cost were major considerations in adapting the aerospace technology to the construction of Tech House.

  11. US Housing Market Conditions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development has made available the full text of this periodical publication. US Housing Market Conditions is a quarterly publication that contains national and regional housing information, as well as historical data tables. Issues from the 1st two quarters of 1997 are available in HTML format, while previous issues are available in text and .pdf formats. Older tables are available in .pdf format only.

  12. Cotton Gin Dust Explosibility Determinations 

    E-print Network

    Vanderlick, Francis Jerome

    2014-01-06

    personnel listed dust found in cotton gins, or gin dust, fueled two explosions in the past. OSHA is required by law to regulate facilities handling explosible dusts to provide a safe working environment for employees. The dust handling facilities must test...

  13. Dust from carpeted and smooth floors. II. Antigenic and allergenic content of dust vacuumed from carpeted and smooth floors in schools under routine cleaning schedules.

    PubMed

    Dybendal, T; Vik, H; Elsayed, S

    1989-08-01

    Dust samples were collected twice from smooth and carpeted floors in 10 Norwegian schools. The content of antigens and allergens of alder (Alnus incana), birch (Betula verrucosa), timothy (Phleum pratense), cat and dog dander, house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae), mould (Cladosporium herbarum), hen egg white and codfish (DIII) were investigated by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), crossed radio immunoelectrophoresis (CRIE), radio allergosorbent test (RAST) inhibition and quantitative precipitation inhibition analysis by laser nephelometry. Antigens and allergens of cat and dog dander and hen egg white were most prevalent in the dust samples investigated. With the exception of hen egg white and codfish allergens, no statistically significant differences in mean allergen content were shown in identical quantities of freeze-dried dust extracts from carpeted and smooth floors. RAST-inhibition analyses of identical amounts of dust from either floors showed higher content of allergens of cat, dog, hen egg white, codfish, mould and timothy pollen in classrooms with carpets. PMID:2478043

  14. Lead contamination in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Mañay, N; Pereira, L; Cousillas, Z

    1999-01-01

    Uruguay is a developing country of South America with about 3 million people, half of whom live in its principal city, Montevideo. This city has several lead pollution sources as emitting industries, most of them surrounded by residential neighborhoods, some still using lead pipes in drinking water systems of old buildings, and has areas of heavy traffic with cars that are still fueled with leaded gasoline. The toxic effects of this heavy metal are well known. Children are a very sensitive population and their early symptoms of intoxication are not always taken into account. Blood lead is a good indicator of recent exposure to lead influenced by inhalation and ingestion. The systematic data assessment of lead pollution and people exposure in Uruguay was not well known when the Department of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene of the Faculty of Chemistry began to analyze lead in biological samples, first from exposed workers and next from children and the general population, including sensitive animal species like dogs. Several described studies were carried out analyzing for blood lead to assess lead uptake and to obtain reference values for Uruguayan populations. Since 1986, that Department is the only laboratory where blood lead analyses are done, and the analytical method has been controlled by an interlaboratory quality control program of the Ministry of Labour of Spain and confirmed by experts from the Laboratory of Occupational and Environmental Medicine of Lund, Sweden. Financial and technical support was obtained from Sweden (SAREC) and also from the University of the Republic of Uruguay. Uruguayan lead workers have always been the principally studied population because their lead exposure assessment as well as their health protection education is not always done properly. Uruguay has adopted ACGIH reference values (150 micrograms/m3 in total lead dust, 50 micrograms/m3 respirable lead dust, 300 micrograms/L blood), and the high blood lead levels indicate significant adverse health risks effects and show a lack adequate controls for working conditions. A surveillance of children living in the surroundings of lead processing factories and in different neighborhoods was conducted because no data were available for blood lead in children before 1992. Also, general populations living in those areas or in areas of heavy traffic were assessed. Blood lead levels were always compared with those of control populations sampled at the same time answering a questionnaire. Workplace influence as well as atmospheric, soil, and water pollution were always considered to explain the obtained results. Some studies were carried out in dogs as a sensitive population, showing their higher exposure. The described studies included internal and external quality controls for the analytical methods and data processing. All blood lead analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after adding complexing agent and extraction. Samples taken together with Swedish researchers were analyzed in Lund (Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine University Hospital), at 283.3 nm after electrothermal atomization (ETA). There was good correlation (r = 0.96) among 28 samples shared between Montevideo and Lund laboratories. The authors recommend more systematic clinical examination of workers, children, and the general population to determine the potential health risks for Uruguayan populations so as to improve their health conditions and to officially recognize lead pollution as an environmental problem. PMID:9921138

  15. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-04-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  16. Dust Storm Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stop on the traveled portion of the roadway. LIGHTS OUT! In the past, motorists driving in dust storms have pulled off the roadway, leaving lights on. Vehicles approaching from the rear and using ...

  17. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  18. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lunar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however, the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  19. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lnnar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however. the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  20. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otis R. Walton

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and\\/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to

  1. Dust devil generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishchenko, O. G.; Horton, W.; Pokhotelov, O. A.; Stenflo, L.

    2014-07-01

    The equations describing axi-symmetric nonlinear internal gravity waves in an unstable atmosphere are derived. A hydrodynamic model of a dust devil generation mechanism in such an atmosphere is investigated. It is shown that in an unstably stratified atmosphere the convective plumes with poloidal motion can grow exponentially. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that these convective plumes in an atmosphere with weak large scale toroidal motion are unstable with respect to three-dimensional dust devil generation.

  2. Graphite from metallurgical dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Karklit; A. N. Aboskalov

    1998-01-01

    A study of samples of metallurgical dust with a carbon content of about 15% from the mold shop of the West Siberian Iron and\\u000a Steel Integrated Works has shown that concentration of the dust by comparatively simple methods can give products with 55%\\u000a C (magnetic separation) and 80% C (magnetic and air separation). Such materials can be used in the

  3. 1. HOUSE, VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HOUSE, VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE ARE IN THE BACKGROUND - Kiel Farmstead, House, East side State Route 4, one half mile south of U.S. Route 64, Mascoutah, St. Clair County, IL

  4. Dust Driven Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlmayr, Erwin; Dominik, Carsten

    1995-08-01

    The status of dust driven winds, constituting an important subclass of essentially radiation generated winds, is surveyed. Dust driven winds are conceived as a long lasting phenomenon of heavy mass loss concerning those luminous cool giants and supergiants, where dust condensation in the expanding flow determines both thestellar mass loss rate and thesubsonic-supersonic transition of the velocity field. Our contribution aims at a self-consistent description of the dynamical shell structure with particular emphasis to the theoretical aspects of this important phenomenon. Thus, not only the complex coupling of the various ingredients (hydrodynamics, chemistry, radiative transfer, dust nucleation, and growth) is outlined in detail, but also general arguments regarding the overall structure of such winds and the expected position of their central objects in the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram are conducted. A selected typical self-consistent model for a stationary C-star shell demonstrates the characteristic wind structure and gives insight into the close nonlinear interplay between dust formation and wind generation. During the late evolutionary stages of a star along the AGB dust driven mass loss provides a natural self-accelerating mechanism which easily can produce very high mass loss rates, an effect which possibly might play an important role for the Tip-AGB objects and the AGB-PN-transition.

  5. Hebes Chasma Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located in Hebes Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -1.4, Longitude 286.6 East (73.4 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Ares Vallis Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 May 2004 When it was operating in the Ares/Tiu Valles region of Chryse Planitia, Mars, in 1997, Mars Pathfinder detected dust devils that passed over and near the lander. From orbit, no images of dust devils at the Mars Pathfinder site have yet been acquired, but this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime dust devil near the rim of a 610-meter (670 yards)-diameter impact crater in the same general region as the Mars Pathfinder site. This scene is near 19.6oN, 32.9oW, in part of the Ares Vallis system. The dust devil in this case is not making a streak, as dust devils tend to do in some regions of Mars. The dark feature to the right (east) of the dust devil is its shadow. This picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left.

  7. Dust in Cometary Comae: Present Understanding of the Structure and Composition of Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Zolensky, M.; Lasue, J.

    2007-01-01

    In situ probing of a very few cometary comae has shown that dust particles present a low albedo and a low density, and that they consist of both rocky material and refractory organics. Remote observations of solar light scattered by cometary dust provide information on the properties of dust particles in the coma of a larger set of comets. The observations of the linear polarization in the coma indicate that the dust particles are irregular, with a size greater (on the average) than about one micron. Besides, they suggest, through numerical and experimental simulations, that both compact grains and fluffy aggregates (with a power law of the size distribution in the -2.6 to -3 range), and both rather transparent silicates and absorbing organics are present in the coma. Recent analysis of the cometary dust samples collected by the Stardust mission provide a unique ground truth and confirm, for comet 81P/Wild 2, the results from remote sensing observations. Future space missions to comets should, in the next decade, lead to a more precise characterization of the structure and composition of cometary dust particles.

  8. Caribbean House Nicole Meadows

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    1 Caribbean House Nicole Meadows OVERVIEW The Caribbean House is a program that will educate UVM students and the community around them on the different cultures within the Caribbean. Throughout that embodies the Caribbean. This program welcomes all individuals of different backgrounds, cultures

  9. Multiple pump housing

    SciTech Connect

    Donoho, II, Michael R. (Edelstein, IL); Elliott, Christopher M. (Metamora, IL)

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  10. A Functional Housing Market

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    High school teacher Susan Boone asks students to complete mathematical problems on housing prices using the Internet at the Functional Housing Market lesson site. Detailed instructions are provided, and a collection of real estate links from Houston, TX and beyond gives students a sense of real estate information on the Web.

  11. Dust-acoustic wave instabilities in collisional plasmas

    PubMed

    Ostrikov; Vladimirov; Yu; Morfill

    2000-04-01

    Current-driven dust-acoustic wave instabilities in a collisional plasma with variable-charge dusts are studied. The effects of electron and ion capture by the dust grains, the ion drag force, as well as dissipative mechanisms leading to changes in the particle numbers and momenta, are taken into account. Conditions for the instability are obtained and discussed for both weak and strong ion drag. It is shown that the threshold external electric field driving the current is relatively large in dusty plasmas because of the large dissipation rates induced by the dusts. The current-driven instability may be associated with dust cloud filamentation at the initial stages of void formation in dusty RF discharge experiments. PMID:11088228

  12. The ecology of dust: local- to global-scale perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Field, Jason P [UA; Belnap, Jayne [NON LANL; Breshears, David D [UA; Neff, Jason [CU; Okin, Gregory S [UCLA; Painter, Thomas H [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Ravi, Sujith [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Reheis, Marith C [UCLA; Reynolds, Richard L [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    Emission and redistribution of dust due to wind erosion in drylands drives major biogeochemical dynamics and provides important aeolian environmental connectivity at scales from individual plants up to the global scale. Yet, perhaps because most relevant research on aeolian processes has been presented in a geosciences rather than ecological context, most ecological studies do not explicitly consider dust-driven processes. To bridge this disciplinary gap, we provide a general overview of the ecological importance of dust, examine complex interactions between wind erosion and ecosystem dynamics from the plant-interspace scale to regional and global scales, and highlight specific examples of how disturbance affects these interactions and their consequences. Changes in climate and intensification of land use will both likely lead to increased dust production. To address these challenges, environmental scientists, land managers and policy makers need to more explicitly consider dust in resource management decisions.

  13. House Damaged by Matanuska River Bank Erosion

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A dangling staircase leads to where an addition to this Sutton, Alaska house was ripped away when the Matanuska River eroded its banks in 2010. A new USGS report maps the location and characteristics of the banks to help identify erosion hazard areas. ...

  14. The influence of absorbed solar radiation by Saharan dust on hurricane genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretl, Sebastian; Reutter, Philipp; Raible, Christoph C.; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Poberaj, Christina Schnadt; Revell, Laura E.; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2015-03-01

    To date, the radiative impact of dust and the Saharan air layer (SAL) on North Atlantic hurricane activity is not yet known. According to previous studies, dust stabilizes the atmosphere due to absorption of solar radiation but thus shifts convection to regions more conducive for hurricane genesis. Here we analyze differences in hurricane genesis and frequency from ensemble sensitivity simulations with radiatively active and inactive dust in the aerosol-climate model ECHAM6-HAM. We investigate dust burden and other hurricane-related variables and determine their influence on disturbances which develop into hurricanes (developing disturbances, DDs) and those which do not (nondeveloping disturbances, NDDs). Dust and the SAL are found to potentially have both inhibiting and supporting influences on background conditions for hurricane genesis. A slight southward shift of DDs is determined when dust is active as well as a significant warming of the SAL, which leads to a strengthening of the vertical circulation associated with the SAL. The dust burden of DDs is smaller in active dust simulations compared to DDs in simulations with inactive dust, while NDDs contain more dust in active dust simulations. However, no significant influence of radiatively active dust on other variables in DDs and NDDs is found. Furthermore, no substantial change in the DD and NDD frequency due to the radiative effects of dust can be detected.

  15. 75 FR 6030 - EPA Science Advisory Board Staff Office Request for Nominations of Experts for the SAB Lead (Pb...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ...support the development of lead-based paint dust hazard standards and lead-safe work...established standards for lead-based paint hazards, which include lead in residential...revision of existing residential lead-based paint dust hazard standards, (b) the...

  16. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:8354166

  17. Cosmic Dust: The Ulysses perspective

    E-print Network

    Eberhard Gruen; Harald Krueger; Markus Landgraf

    2000-12-11

    The Ulysses spacecraft, launched in October 1990, orbits the Sun on a polar trajectory. The spacecraft is equipped with a highly sensitive impact- ionization dust detector which can in situ measure cosmic dust grains in the mass range 10^-9 to 10^-19 kg. With the Ulysses dust detector dust streams originating from Jupiter's volcanically active moon Io have been discovered as well as interstellar dust particles sweeping through the solar system. The distribution of interplanetary dust grains has been measured at high ecliptic latitudes with Ulysses for the first time. The Ulysses measurements of interplanetary dust, dust grains interacting electromagnetically with the magnetosphere of Jupiter and measurements of interstellar dust in the solar system are reviewed.

  18. Cosmic Dust The Ulysses perspective

    E-print Network

    Grün, E; Landgraf, M; Gruen, Eberhard; Krueger, Harald; Landgraf, Markus

    2000-01-01

    The Ulysses spacecraft, launched in October 1990, orbits the Sun on a polar trajectory. The spacecraft is equipped with a highly sensitive impact- ionization dust detector which can in situ measure cosmic dust grains in the mass range 10^-9 to 10^-19 kg. With the Ulysses dust detector dust streams originating from Jupiter's volcanically active moon Io have been discovered as well as interstellar dust particles sweeping through the solar system. The distribution of interplanetary dust grains has been measured at high ecliptic latitudes with Ulysses for the first time. The Ulysses measurements of interplanetary dust, dust grains interacting electromagnetically with the magnetosphere of Jupiter and measurements of interstellar dust in the solar system are reviewed.

  19. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F. [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Peng, R. D. [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Y. H. [Institute of Complexity Science, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Z. Y. [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Ye, M. F.; Wang, L. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  20. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... purposes for centuries. • Lead was widely used in paint and gasoline in the U.S. until the 1970’s. • ... were built before 1978 are likely to have paint that contains lead. If this paint is disturbed, ...

  1. Atmospheric profiles during Dust days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Pinhas; Stupp, Amnon; Osetinsky, Isabella; Ganor, Eli

    2013-04-01

    The vertical profiles of temperature, wind components, and humidity, for days with Saharan dust intrusions to Israel and with no dust were compared and analyzed. Three datasets, all for the 49-yr period of 1958-2006, were used: the daily dust observations at Tel Aviv, Israel, including about 1000 dust-days; the Eastern Mediterranean daily surface synoptic classification; the vertical data over the Eastern Mediterranean grid-point closest to Tel-Aviv at 32.5N 35E based on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The meteorological parameters were averaged over the 49 year period by season, pressure level, synoptic-type, and dust and no-dust days. Prominent differences between dust and no-dust days were found for relative humidity and wind components during fall, winter and spring at 700, 600, and 500 hPa levels. Relative humidity was found to be higher during dust episodes. In Israel high RH at these levels is associated with precipitation. Absolute vertical velocity (Omega) values were higher on dust days than on days with no dust. Southerly and westerly components of wind were found to have higher values during dust days. It was found that for most synoptic systems, temperature below the 700-hPa level was equal or higher during dust days. Thus, during dust days the lower troposphere is unstable.

  2. 24 CFR 576.105 - Housing relocation and stabilization services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Components and Eligible Activities § 576.105 Housing...placement. Services or activities necessary to assist...habitability, lead-based paint, and rent reasonableness...Component services and activities consist of: (A...related to household budgeting, managing...

  3. 24 CFR 576.105 - Housing relocation and stabilization services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Components and Eligible Activities § 576.105 Housing...placement. Services or activities necessary to assist...habitability, lead-based paint, and rent reasonableness...Component services and activities consist of: (A...related to household budgeting, managing...

  4. 24 CFR 576.105 - Housing relocation and stabilization services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Components and Eligible Activities § 576.105 Housing...placement. Services or activities necessary to assist...habitability, lead-based paint, and rent reasonableness...Component services and activities consist of: (A...related to household budgeting, managing...

  5. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid running a multiphase low frequency AC signal. Electrostatically charged particles, such as those encountered on the moon, Mars, or an asteroid, are carried along by the traveling field due to the action of Coulomb and dielectrophoretic forces."2 The technical details have been described in a separate article. This document details the design and construction process of a small demonstration unit. Once finished, this device will go to the Office of the ChiefTechnologist at NASA headquarters, where it will be used to familiarize the public with the technology. 1 NASA KSC FO Intern, Prototype Development Laboratory, Kennedy Space Center, University of Central Florida Kennedy Space

  6. Manufactured Homes as Affordable Housing in Rural Areas. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Robert, Comp.

    This bibliography includes citations of approximately 60 books and articles pertaining to manufactured housing or "mobile homes," an important segment of the national housing industry. The availability of manufactured homes for low and moderate income groups is significant in light of skyrocketing new-housing costs. The South leads the nation with…

  7. 75 FR 69617 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety and...Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors. The proposed rule was...also require the use of the Continuous Personal Dust Monitor (CPDM) for exposure...

  8. Dust Growth by RF Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Churton, B.; Samarian, A. A. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Coueedel, L. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); GREMI, CNRS/Universite d'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, BP6744, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L. [GREMI, CNRS/Universite d'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, BP6744, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2008-09-07

    The effect of the dust particle growth by RF sputtering on glow discharge has been investigated. It has been found that the growth of dust particles modifies the electrical characteristics of the discharge. In particularly, the absolute value of the self-bias voltage decreases during the particle growth due to the electron losses on the dust particles. To find the correlation between the dust growth and the self bias evolution, dust particles have been collected at different times. The dust particle growth rate is found to be linear.

  9. Forecasting Dust Storms - Version 2

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    Forecasting Dust Storms Version 2 provides background and operational information about dust storms. The first part of the module describes dust source regions, the life cycle of a dust storm, and the major types of dust storms, particularly those found in the Middle East. The second part presents a process for forecasting dust storms and applies it to a case in the Middle East. Although the process refers to U.S. Department of Defense models and tools, it can easily be adapted to other forecast requirements and data sources. Note that this module is an updated version of the original one published in 2003.

  10. Dust evolution in the transition towards the denser ISM: impact on dust temperature, opacity, and spectral index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, M.; Ysard, N.; Jones, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Variations in the observed dust emission and extinction indicate a systematic evolution of grain properties in the transition from the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) to denser molecular clouds. Aims: The differences in the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) observed from the diffuse ISM to denser regions, namely an increase in the spectral index at long wavelengths, an increase in the FIR opacity, and a decrease in temperature, are usually assumed to be the result of changes in dust properties. We investigate if evolutionary processes, such as coagulation and accretion, are able to change the dust properties of grains in a way that is consistent with observations. Methods: We use a core-mantle grain model to describe diffuse ISM-type grains, and using a discrete-dipole approximation, we calculate how the accretion of mantles and coagulation into aggregates vary the grain optical properties. We calculate the dust SED and extinction using DustEM and the radiative transfer code CRT. Results: We show that the accretion of an aliphatic carbon mantle on diffuse ISM-type dust leads to an increase in the FIR opacity by a factor of about 2 and in the FIR/submm spectral index from 1.5 to 1.8, and to a decrease in the temperature by about 2 K. We also show that the coagulation of these grains into aggregates further decreases the temperature by 3 K and increases the spectral index up to a value of ~2. The FIR opacity is increased by a factor of 3 (7) for these aggregates (with an additional ice-mantle) compared to the diffuse ISM-dust. Conclusions: Dust evolution in the ISM resulting from coagulation and accretion, leads to significant changes in the optical properties of the grains that can explain the observed variations in the dust SED in the transition from the diffuse ISM to denser regions.

  11. Oblique dust density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piel, Alexander; Arp, Oliver; Menzel, Kristoffer; Klindworth, Markus

    2007-11-01

    We report on experimental observations of dust density waves in a complex (dusty) plasma under microgravity. The plasma is produced in a radio-frequency parallel-plate discharge (argon, p=15Pa, U=65Vpp). Different sizes of dust particles were used (3.4 ?m and 6.4?m diameter). The low-frequency (f 11Hz) dust density waves are naturally unstable modes, which are driven by the ion flow in the plasma. Surprisingly, the wave propagation direction is aligned with the ion flow direction in the bulk plasma but becomes oblique at the boundary of the dust cloud with an inclination of 60^o with respect to the plasma boundary. The experimental results are compared with a kinetic model in the electrostatic approximation [1] and a fluid model [2]. Moreover, the role of dust surface waves is discussed. [1] M. Rosenberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996) [2] A. Piel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 205009 (2006)

  12. Hypervelocity Dust Impacts in Space and the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, Mihaly; Colorado CenterLunar Dust; Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) Team

    2013-10-01

    Interplanetary dust particles continually bombard all objects in the solar system, leading to the excavation of material from the target surfaces, the production of secondary ejecta particles, plasma, neutral gas, and electromagnetic radiation. These processes are of interest to basic plasma science, planetary and space physics, and engineering to protect humans and instruments against impact damages. The Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) has recently completed a 3 MV dust accelerator, and this talk will summarize our initial science results. The 3 MV Pelletron contains a dust source, feeding positively charged micron and sub-micron sized particles into the accelerator. We will present the technical details of the facility and its capabilities, as well as the results of our initial experiments for damage assessment of optical devices, and penetration studies of thin films. We will also report on the completion of our dust impact detector, the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), is expected to be flying onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission by the time of this presentation. LDEX was tested, and calibrated at our dust accelerator. We will close by offering the opportunity to use this facility by the planetary, space and plasma physics communities.

  13. Turbine housing of turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, T.

    1987-09-15

    A turbine housing of a turbocharger is described of the type in which an interior of a turbine housing main body is partitioned into paths, comprising: a turbine housing main body divided into sections in axial direction of the turbine and mated engaging grooves formed in an inner circumferential direction at opposing surfaces of the divided sections of the turbine housing. A partition wall is fitted into the engaging grooves, leaving a clearance in radial direction of the turbine. The partition wall has side surfaces. A partition wall is a supporting member which integrally joins opposing surfaces of the divided sections of the turbine housing main body and which is disposed in the turbine housing main body such that the partition wall supporting member is in coplanar relationship with a flange surface of the turbine housing main body at a gas inlet. It contacts at least one side surface of the partition wall, so as to ensure gas-tightness at the gas inlet in gas flow direction, leaving a predetermined clearance in circumferential direction of the partition wall.

  14. Understanding the Potential Toxic Properties of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust causes a variety of problems for spacecraft. It can obscure vision, clog equipment, cause seal failures and abrade surfaces. Additionally, lunar dust is potentially toxic and therefore hazardous to astronauts. Lunar dust can be activated by meteorites, UV radiation and elements of solar wind and, if inhaled, could produce reactive species in the lungs (freshly fractured quartz). Methods of lunar dust deactivation must be determined before new lunar missions. This requires knowledge of how to reactivate lunar dust on Earth - thus far crushing/grinding, UV activation and heating have been tested as activation methods. Grinding of lunar dust leads to the production of hydroxyl radicals in solution and increased dissolution of lunar simulant in buffers of different pH. Decreases in pH lead to increased lunar simulant leaching. Additionally, both ground and unground lunar simulant and unground quartz have been shown to promote the production of IL-6 and IL-8, pro-inflammatory cytokines, by alveolar epithelial cells. The results suggest the need for further studies on lunar dust and simulants prior to returning to the lunar surface.

  15. Effects of lunar and mars dust simulants on HaCaT keratinocytes and CHO-K1 fibroblasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maren Rehders; Bianka B. Grosshäuser; Anita Smarandache; Annapurna Sadhukhan; Ursula Mirastschijski; Jürgen Kempf; Matthias Dünne; Klaus Slenzka; Klaudia Brix

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to lunar dust during Apollo missions resulted in occasional reports of ocular, respiratory and dermal irritations which showed that lunar dust has a risk potential for human health. This is caused by its high reactivity as well as its small size, leading to a wide distribution also inside habitats. Hence, detailed information regarding effects of extraterrestrial lunar dusts on

  16. Effects of lunar and mars dust on HaCaT keratinocytes and CHO-K1 fibroblasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaudia Brix; Klaus Slenzka; Maren Rehders; Annapurna Sadhukhan; Rima Mistry; Matthias Duenne; Juergen Kempf

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to lunar dust during Apollo missions resulted in occasional reports of ocular, respira-tory and dermal irritations which showed that lunar dust has a risk potential for human health. This is caused by its high reactivity as well as its small size, leading to a wide distribution also inside habitats. Hence, detailed information regarding effects of lunar dust on human

  17. Muramic acid, endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids, and ergosterol content explain monocyte and epithelial cell inflammatory responses to agricultural dusts.

    PubMed

    Poole, Jill A; Dooley, Gregory P; Saito, Rena; Burrell, Angela M; Bailey, Kristina L; Romberger, Debra J; Mehaffy, John; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    In agricultural and other environments, inhalation of airborne microorganisms is linked to respiratory disease development. Bacterial endotoxins, peptidoglycans, and fungi are potential causative agents, but relative microbial characterization and inflammatory comparisons amongst agricultural dusts are not well described. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of microbial endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFA), muramic acid, and ergosterol and evaluate inflammatory responses in human monocytes and bronchial epithelial cells with various dust samples. Settled surface dust was obtained from five environments: swine facility, dairy barn, grain elevator, domestic home (no pets), and domestic home with dog. Endotoxin concentration was determined by recombinant factor C (rFC). 3-OHFA, muramic acid, and ergosterol were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dust-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in human monocytes and bronchial epithelial cells was evaluated. Endotoxin-independent dust-induced inflammatory responses were evaluated. Endotoxin and 3-OHFA levels were highest in agricultural dusts. Muramic acid, endotoxin, 3-OHFA, and ergosterol were detected in dusts samples. Muramic acid was highest in animal farming dusts. Ergosterol was most significant in grain elevator dust. Agricultural dusts induced monocyte tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and epithelial cell IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. Monocyte and epithelial IL-6 and IL-8 secretion was not dependent on endotoxin. House dust(s) induced monocyte TNFalpha, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion. Swine facility dust generally produced elevated responses compared to other dusts. Agricultural dusts are complex with significant microbial component contribution. Large animal farming dust(s)-induced inflammation is not entirely dependent on endotoxin. Addition of muramic acid to endotoxin in large animal farming environment monitoring is warranted. PMID:20391112

  18. Collisional dust avalanches in debris discs

    E-print Network

    Anna Grigorieva; Pawel Artymowicz; Philippe Thébault

    2006-09-26

    We quantitatively investigate how collisional avalanches may developin debris discs as the result of the initial break-up of a planetesimal or comet-like object, triggering a collisional chain reaction due to outward escaping small dust grains. We use a specifically developed numerical code that follows both the spatial distribution of the dust grains and the evolution of their size-frequency distribution due to collisions. We investigate how strongly avalanche propagation depends on different parameters (e.g., amount of dust released in the initial break-up, collisional properties of dust grains and their distribution in the disc). Our simulations show that avalanches evolve on timescales of ~1000 years, propagating outwards following a spiral-like pattern, and that their amplitude exponentially depends on the number density of dust grains in the system. We estimate a probability for witnessing an avalanche event as a function of disc densities, for a gas-free case around an A-type star, and find that features created by avalanche propagation can lead to observable asymmetries for dusty systems with a beta Pictoris-like dust content or higher. Characteristic observable features include: (i) a brightness asymmetry of the two sides for a disc viewed edge-on, and (ii) a one-armed open spiral or a lumpy structure in the case of face-on orientation. A possible system in which avalanche-induced structures might have been observed is the edge-on seen debris disc around HD32297, which displays a strong luminosity difference between its two sides.

  19. Sensitivity of cloud state to airborne dust in semiarid Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klüser, Lars; Holzer-Popp, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Satellite observations of the years 2004-2008 are used to assess the influence of mineral dust on statistical parameters of cloud properties in semiarid Africa. Both in the West African Sahel domain and in Semiarid Southern Africa (SSA domain) the dust influence is observed by changes in cloud property histograms and changes in mean values with respect to seasonality and air mass. Although dust levels are much higher in the Sahel domain than in Southern Africa, airborne mineral dust is a common feature also of the SSA domain. From the statistical analysis alone similar sensitivities of cloud parameters to airborne dust could be estimated, although the signs of the effects sometimes differ. In Southern Africa for example an increase of cloud cover is observed under dust entrainment, while dusty conditions mainly lead to a cloud cover reduction in the Sahel. Also the effect of the dust on cloud top temperature is mainly decreasing in Southern Africa while decreasing and increasing effects of much lower magnitude are observed in the Sahel. Thus the cloud state in both regions responds different to the influence of airborne mineral dust. In order to estimate the different sensitivities of the both regions, multi-parametric stochastical modelling is used for generating climatological timeseries representing the cloud parameter statistics response to an artificial forcing of increasing dust levels. Also the effectiveness of a self-enhancing feedback between dust level and cloudiness and precipitation is tested by the stochastical model by including a feedback loop as often suggested in the literature. From the stochastical modelling the differences in sensitivity of cloud property statistics to mineral dust forcing are clearly evident for the both regions in semiarid Africa. While in the Sahel domain cloud cover and ice phase fraction are the main cloud observables being affected by the dust, the influence in Southern Africa is generally lower and mainly on cloud top temperature and effective radius. Moreover, cloud cover is significantly reduced in the Sahel in both seasons whereas ice phase fraction is only decreased during dry season. Statistical analysis also uncovers that in the Sahelian dry season cloud effective radius is increased rather than decreased by the mineral dust. In Southern Africa a decrease of CTT with increased dust load is the most visible effect of the mineral dust whereas effects on cloud cover are not observed.

  20. 1. General view, twoandahalf story house at left. (The house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view, two-and-a-half story house at left. (The house next door is George McCraig House, HABS No. PA-1593). Photocopied from December 1957 photograph on file at Philadelphia Historical Commission - Henry Elwell House, 812 South Front Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 7. Keeper's house, fog signal house and light tower, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Keeper's house, fog signal house and light tower, view north northeast, west and south sides of keeper's house and tower, southwest and southeast sides of fog signal house - West Quoddy Head Light Station, At eastern tip of West Quaddy Head, Lubec, Washington County, ME

  2. 12. Fuel house and fog signal house, view northeast, southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Fuel house and fog signal house, view northeast, southwest side of fuel house, west and south sides of fog signal house - Cape Elizabeth Light Station, Near Two Lights State Park at end of Two Lights Road, off State Highway 77, Cape Elizabeth, Cumberland County, ME

  3. Polar Dust Devil Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image of dunes in the martian north polar region is important because it shows one of the highest northern latitude views of streaks thought to be made by passing dust devils. The dark, thin, filamentary streaks on the dunes and on the adjacent plains were probably formed by dust devils. The dunes occur near 76.6oN, 62.7oW. Dust devil streaks are observed on Mars at very high latitudes, such as this, all the way down to the equator. They are also seen at all elevations, from the deepest parts of the Hellas Basin to the summit of Olympus Mons. This picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  4. Big Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    28 January 2004 Northern Amazonis Planitia is famous for its frequent, large (> 1 km high) dust devils. They occur throughout the spring and summer seasons, and can be detected from orbit, even at the 240 meters (278 yards) per pixel resolution of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle instruments. This red wide angle image shows a plethora of large dust devils. The arrow points to an example. Shadows cast by the towering columns of swirling dust point away from the direction of sunlight illumination (sun is coming from the left/lower left). This December 2004 scene covers an area more than 125 km (> 78 mi) across and is located near 37oN, 154oW.

  5. Dust Devil Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-541, 11 November 2003

    In some regions of Mars, dust devils create streaks by disrupting or removing thin coatings of fine, bright dust from the surface. This summertime view of terrain in southern Noachis Terra, acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), provides an example. Streak patterns such as these are commonly created during the spring and summer in the southern hemisphere; in autumn and winter they are often erased--perhaps by deposition of a new coating of dust--and then a completely different pattern is formed the following spring and summer. This image is located near 59.6oS, 328.8oW. The picture is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  6. Complex role of secondary electron emissions in dust grain charging in space environments: measurements on Apollo 11 & 17 dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Mian; Tankosic, Dragana; Spann, James; Leclair, Andre C.

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, by electron/ion collisions, and sec-ondary electron emissions. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstel-lar medium (ISM), and heliospheric, interplanetary, planetary, and lunar environments. The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynam-ical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron/submicron size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials and theoretical models. In this paper we present experimental results on charging of individual dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 dust samples by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-400 eV energy range. The charging rates of positively and negatively charged particles of 0.2 to 13 µm diam-eters are discussed in terms of the secondary electron emission (SEE) process, which is found to be a complex charging process at electron energies as low as 10-25 eV, with strong parti-cle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between dust charging properties of individual small size dust grains and of bulk materials.

  7. Crater Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located in a small canyon within a crater rim northeast of Naktong Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 7.1, Longitude 34.7 East (325.3 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Crater Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    This region of dust avalanches is located in and around a crater to the west of yesterday's image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 14.7, Longitude 32.7 East (327.3 West). 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Tikhonravov Crater Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located within a small crater inside Tikhonravov Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.6, Longitude 37.1 East (322.9 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Lycus Sulci Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches occur on the slopes of Lycus Sulci near Olympus Mons.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 28.1, Longitude 220.4 East (139.6 West). 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Influence of dust-particle concentration on gas-discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhinin, G. I. [Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Lavrentyev Avenue 1, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova Str. 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Fedoseev, A. V. [Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Lavrentyev Avenue 1, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15

    A self-consistent kinetic model of a low-pressure dc glow discharge with dust particles based on Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function is presented. The ions and electrons production in ionizing processes as well as their recombination on the dust-particle surface and on the discharge tube wall were taken into account. The influence of dust-particle concentration N{sub d} on gas discharge and dust particles parameters was investigated. It is shown that the increase of N{sub d} leads to the increase of an averaged electric field and ion density, and to the decrease of a dust-particle charge and electron density in the dusty cloud. The results were obtained in a wide region of different discharge and dusty plasma parameters: dust particles density 10{sup 2}-10{sup 8} cm{sup -3}, discharge current density 10{sup -1}-10{sup 1} mA/cm{sup 2}, and dust particles radius 1, 2, and 5 mum. The scaling laws for dust-particle surface potential and electric filed dependencies on dust-particle density, particle radius and discharge currents were revealed. It is shown that the absorption of electrons and ions on the dust particles surface does not lead to the electron energy distribution function depletion due to a self-consistent adjustment of dust particles and discharge parameters.

  12. Experiments on dust transport in plasma to investigate the origin of the lunar horizon glow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Horányi, M.; Robertson, S.

    2009-05-01

    Dust grains on the lunar surface are exposed to UV radiation and solar wind plasma and can collect electrical charges, leading to their possible lift-off and transport in the presence of near-surface electric fields. Motivated by the long-standing open questions about the physics of electrostatic lunar dust transport, we investigated the dynamics of dust grains on a conducting surface in a laboratory plasma. The dust used in these experiments was a nonconducting JSC-Mars-1 sample with particle size of less than 25 microns. We found that dust grains placed on a conducting surface, which is biased more negatively than its floating potential, charge positively, and an initial pile spreads to form a dust ring. Dust particles were observed to land on insulating blocks, indicating the height of their hopping motion. The measured electrostatic potential distribution above the dust pile shows that an outward pointing electric field near the edge of the pile is responsible for spreading the positively charged grains. A nonmonotonic potential dip was measured in the sheath above an insulating patch, indicating a localized upward electric field causing the dust lift-off from the surface. Faraday cup measurements showed that the grains near the boundary of the dust pile collect more charge than those closer to the center of the dust pile and can be more readily lifted and moved in the radial direction, leading to the formation of a spreading ring.

  13. Influence of dust-particle concentration on gas-discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Sukhinin, G I; Fedoseev, A V

    2010-01-01

    A self-consistent kinetic model of a low-pressure dc glow discharge with dust particles based on Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function is presented. The ions and electrons production in ionizing processes as well as their recombination on the dust-particle surface and on the discharge tube wall were taken into account. The influence of dust-particle concentration N(d) on gas discharge and dust particles parameters was investigated. It is shown that the increase of N(d) leads to the increase of an averaged electric field and ion density, and to the decrease of a dust-particle charge and electron density in the dusty cloud. The results were obtained in a wide region of different discharge and dusty plasma parameters: dust particles density 10(2)-10(8) cm(-3), discharge current density 10(-1)-10(1) mA/cm(2), and dust particles radius 1, 2, and 5 microm. The scaling laws for dust-particle surface potential and electric filed dependencies on dust-particle density, particle radius and discharge currents were revealed. It is shown that the absorption of electrons and ions on the dust particles surface does not lead to the electron energy distribution function depletion due to a self-consistent adjustment of dust particles and discharge parameters. PMID:20365480

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.550 - What does “self-help housing or housing assistance” mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false What does âself-help housing or housing assistanceâ mean...Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.550 What does “self-help housing or housing assistance”...

  15. 41 CFR 102-75.550 - What does “self-help housing or housing assistance” mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false What does âself-help housing or housing assistanceâ mean...Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.550 What does “self-help housing or housing assistance”...

  16. 41 CFR 102-75.550 - What does “self-help housing or housing assistance” mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false What does âself-help housing or housing assistanceâ mean...Disposal Property for Providing Self-Help Housing Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.550 What does “self-help housing or housing assistance”...

  17. Determining Source Strength of Semivolatile Organic Compounds using Measured Concentrations in Indoor Dust

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E.; Nishioka, Marcia G.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Croen, Lisa A.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Bennett, Deborah H.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer products and building materials emit a number of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the indoor environment. Because indoor SVOCs accumulate in dust, we explore the use of dust to determine source strength and report here on analysis of dust samples collected in 30 U.S. homes for six phthalates, four personal care product ingredients, and five flame retardants. We then use a fugacity-based indoor mass-balance model to estimate the whole house emission rates of SVOCs that would account for the measured dust concentrations. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) were the most abundant compounds in these dust samples. On the other hand, the estimated emission rate of diethyl phthalate (DEP) is the largest among phthalates, although its dust concentration is over two orders of magnitude smaller than DEHP and DiNP. The magnitude of the estimated emission rate that corresponds to the measured dust concentration is found to be inversely correlated with the vapor pressure of the compound, indicating that dust concentrations alone cannot be used to determine which compounds have the greatest emission rates. The combined dust-assay modeling approach shows promise for estimating indoor emission rates for SVOCs. PMID:24118221

  18. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kim Y; Michailides, Themis J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house fly baits for management of this pest species. PMID:25970333

  19. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Kim Y.; Michailides, Themis J.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C.

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house fly baits for management of this pest species. PMID:25970333

  20. Understanding Housing Delays and Relocations Within the Housing First Model.

    PubMed

    Zerger, Suzanne; Pridham, Katherine Francombe; Jeyaratnam, Jeyagobi; Hwang, Stephen W; O'Campo, Patricia; Kohli, Jaipreet; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2014-05-01

    This study explores factors contributing to delays and relocations during the implementation of the Housing First model in Toronto, Ontario. While interruptions in housing tenure are expected en route to recovery and housing stability, consumer and service provider views on finding and keeping housing remain largely unknown. In-person interviews and focus groups were conducted with 48 study participants, including 23 case managers or housing workers and 25 consumers. The following three factors contributed to housing delays and transfers: (1) the effectiveness of communication and collaboration among consumers and service providers, (2) consumer-driven preferences and ambivalence, and (3) provider prioritization of consumer choice over immediate housing access. Two strategies-targeted communications and consumer engagement in housing searches-supported the housing process. Several factors affect the timing and stability of housing. Communication between and among providers and consumers, and a shared understanding of consumer choice, can further support choice and recovery. PMID:24807648